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Sample records for actinomycete nonomuraea sp

  1. Nonomuraea aegyptia sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a sand dune.

    PubMed

    Hozzein, Wael N; Goodfellow, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The taxonomic position of an unknown actinomycete isolated from a sand dune soil sample collected at Borg El-Arab in Egypt was established using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic data. Isolate S136(T) had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Nonomuraea and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nonomuraea 16S rRNA gene tree. It was most closely related to the type strains of Nonomuraea helvata, Nonomuraea kuesteri and Nonomuraea turkmeniaca, sharing 16S rRNA gene similarities with these species of 97.1, 97.2 and 97.3%, respectively. The organism was distinguished from representatives of validly described Nonomuraea species using a range of phenotypic properties. It is apparent that the isolate belongs to a novel Nonomuraea species. The name proposed for this taxon is Nonomuraea aegyptia sp. nov., the type strain is S136(T) (=CGMCC 4.2054(T) = DSM 45082(T)). PMID:17318331

  2. Relationship between Glycopeptide Production and Resistance in the Actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Elisa; Carrano, Lucia; Bibb, Mervyn; Marinelli, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Glycopeptides and β-lactams inhibit bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria; resistance to these antibiotics is studied intensively in enterococci and staphylococci because of their relevance to infectious disease. Much less is known about antibiotic resistance in glycopeptide-producing actinomycetes that are likely to represent the evolutionary source of resistance determinants found in bacterial pathogens. Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, the producer of A40926 (the precursor for the semisynthetic dalbavancin), does not harbor the canonical vanHAX genes. Consequently, we investigated the role of the β-lactam-sensitive d,d-peptidase/d,d-carboxypeptidase encoded by vanYn, the only van-like gene found in the A40926 biosynthetic gene cluster, in conferring immunity to the antibiotic in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Taking advantage of the tools developed recently to genetically manipulate this uncommon actinomycete, we varied vanYn gene dosage and expressed vanHatAatXat from the teicoplanin producer Actinoplanes teichomyceticus in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Knocking out vanYn, complementing a vanYn mutant, or duplicating vanYn had no effect on growth but influenced antibiotic resistance and, in the cases of complementation and duplication, antibiotic production. Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 was found to be resistant to penicillins, but its glycopeptide resistance was diminished in the presence of penicillin G, which inhibits VanYn activity. The heterologous expression of vanHatAatXat increased A40926 resistance in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 but did not increase antibiotic production, indicating that the level of antibiotic production is not directly determined by the level of resistance. The vanYn-based self-resistance in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 resembles the glycopeptide resistance mechanism described recently in mutants of Enterococcus faecium selected in vitro for high-level resistance to glycopeptides and penicillins. PMID:24957828

  3. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)). PMID:25783226

  4. Classification of Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, an actinomycete that produces the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926, as Nonomuraea gerenzanensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Dalmastri, Claudia; Gastaldo, Luciano; Marcone, Giorgia Letizia; Binda, Elisa; Congiu, Terenzio; Marinelli, Flavia

    2016-02-01

    Strain ATCC 39727, which produces the antibiotic A40926 (the natural precursor of the antibiotic dalbavancin), was isolated from a soil sample collected in India, and it was originally classified as a member of the genus Actinomadura on the base of morphology and cell-wall composition. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicates that the strain forms a distinct clade within the genus Nonomuraea, and it is most closely related to Nonomuraea angiospora DSM 43173T (98.72 % similarity) and Nonomuraea jabiensis A4036T (98.69 %). The strain forms an extensively branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae that form spiral chains of spores with ridged surfaces. The cell wall contains meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars are glucose, ribose, galactose, mannose and madurose (madurose as the diagnostic sugar). The N-acyl type of muramic acid is acetyl. The predominant menaquinone is MK-9(H4), with minor amounts of MK-9(H2), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H0). The polar-lipid profile includes diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and a series of uncharacterized phospholipids, glycolipids and phosphoglycolipids. The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C16 : 0 and 10-methyl C17 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content is 71.2 mol%. Significant differences in the morphological, chemotaxonomic and biochemical data, together with DNA-DNA relatedness between strain ATCC 39727 and closely related type strains, clearly demonstrated that strain ATCC 39727 represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea gerenzanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ATCC 39727T ( = DSM 100948T). PMID:26944798

  5. Nonomuraea syzygii sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the roots of a jambolan plum tree (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels).

    PubMed

    Rachniyom, Hathairat; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Indananda, Chantra; Duangmal, Kannika; Takahashi, Yoko; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip

    2015-04-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain GKU 164(T), was isolated from the roots of a jambolan plum tree (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels), collected at Khao Khitchakut National Park, Chantaburi province, Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain formed a distinct clade within the genus Nonomuraea , and was most closely related to Nonomuraea monospora PT708(T) (98.77% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Nonomuraea thailandensis KC-061(T) (98.73%). Strain GKU 164(T) formed a branched substrate and aerial hyphae that generated single spores with rough surfaces. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were madurose, galactose, mannose, ribose, rhamnose and glucose. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) with minor amounts of MK-9(H6), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H0). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophosphoglycolipid and four unknown phospholipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0) and 10-methyl C(17 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 70.4 mol%. Significant differences in the morphological, chemotaxonomical, and biochemical data together with DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain GKU 164(T) and type strains of closely related species, clearly demonstrated that strain GKU 164(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea , for which the name Nonomuraea syzygii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GKU 164(T) ( = BCC 70457(T) = NBRC 110400(T)). PMID:25634947

  6. New cyclic tetrapeptides from Nonomuraea sp. TA-0426 that inhibit glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1).

    PubMed

    Terui, Yuichi; Chu, Yi-wen; Li, Jun-ying; Ando, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Takuya; Aoki, Takeshi; Toda, Yoshihisa

    2008-12-15

    In the course of our search for natural antipsychotic agents, we isolated five new cyclic tetrapeptides from the fermentation broth of Nonomuraea sp. TA-0426. These compounds turned out to be analogues of WSS2220, which had been produced by the same actinomycete and showed strong inhibitory activity against GlyT1. Four of the present peptides exhibit more potent GlyT1 inhibitory activities than WSS2220. PMID:19013063

  7. Improvement of the productivity of ecumicin, a novel anti-tuberculosis agent, from new Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying-Yu; Kim, Jin-Yong; Yang, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hanki; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-05-01

    Ecumicin is a novel anti-tuberculosis agent produced by Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123 as a new strain of actinomycetes. First, in order to increase the cell mass of Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123, we optimized the culture conditions with regard to carbon and nitrogen sources. The cell mass of Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123 increased by approximately twofold when glucose and soybean flour were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. For maximum production of ecumicin, we optimized the culture conditions by adding amino acids as building blocks for ecumicin, by adding vegetable oils and by controlling the temperature and pH. Ecumicin production was two times higher with the addition of valine as the building blocks for ecumicin compared with the production in the absence of valine. Interestingly, with the addition of 1% corn oil, the production of ecumicin increased by 4.6-fold compared with the production in the absence of corn oil. Finally, by controlling the pH and temperature, we established an optimized culture condition in which Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123 produced 576 mg ecumicin per litre of medium, which is about 50 times higher than in the control medium at 30 °C and pH 7.0. PMID:26648116

  8. Nonomuraea zeae sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Jia, Feiyu; Liu, Chongxi; Li, Jiansong; Guo, Siyu; Zhou, Shuyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-06-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-ND5T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of corn (Zea mays L.) collected in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-ND5T was a member of the genus Nonomuraea, with highest sequence similarities to Nonomuraea jabiensis A4036T (98.29 %), Nonomuraea rosea GW12687T (98.25 %), Nonomuraea candida HMC10T (98.22 %), Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092T (98.04 %) and Nonomuraea kuesteri NRRL B-24325T (98.04 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Nonomuraea were lower than 98 %. Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-ND5T were also consistent with the description of the genus Nonomuraea. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars were glucose, ribose and madurose. The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16:0 and 10-methyl C17:0. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-ND5T was clearly distinguished from its closely related Nonomuraea species. Consequently, it is concluded that strain NEAU-ND5T represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea zeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ND5T (=CGMCC 4.7280T=DSM 100528T). PMID:26971302

  9. Two Master Switch Regulators Trigger A40926 Biosynthesis in Nonomuraea sp. Strain ATCC 39727

    PubMed Central

    Lo Grasso, Letizia; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Bibb, Mervyn; Puglia, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727 produces the glycopeptide A40926, the precursor of dalbavancin. Biosynthesis of A40926 is encoded by the dbv gene cluster, which contains 37 protein-coding sequences that participate in antibiotic biosynthesis, regulation, immunity, and export. In addition to the positive regulatory protein Dbv4, the A40926-biosynthetic gene cluster encodes two additional putative regulators, Dbv3 and Dbv6. Independent mutations in these genes, combined with bioassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses, demonstrated that Dbv3 and Dbv4 are both required for antibiotic production, while inactivation of dbv6 had no effect. In addition, overexpression of dbv3 led to higher levels of A40926 production. Transcriptional and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses showed that Dbv4 is essential for the transcription of two operons, dbv14-dbv8 and dbv30-dbv35, while Dbv3 positively controls the expression of four monocistronic transcription units (dbv4, dbv29, dbv36, and dbv37) and of six operons (dbv2-dbv1, dbv14-dbv8, dbv17-dbv15, dbv21-dbv20, dbv24-dbv28, and dbv30-dbv35). We propose a complex and coordinated model of regulation in which Dbv3 directly or indirectly activates transcription of dbv4 and controls biosynthesis of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine and the heptapeptide backbone, A40926 export, and some tailoring reactions (mannosylation and hexose oxidation), while Dbv4 directly regulates biosynthesis of 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine and other tailoring reactions, including the four cross-links, halogenation, glycosylation, and acylation. IMPORTANCE This report expands knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms used to control the biosynthesis of the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926 in the actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727. A40926 is the precursor of dalbavancin, approved for treatment of skin infections by Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, understanding the regulation of its biosynthesis

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of antimicrobial compounds from a new strain Nonomuraea sp. NM94.

    PubMed

    Badji, Boubekeur; Mostefaoui, Abdellah; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Seguin, Elisabeth; Tillequin, François

    2007-06-01

    An actinomycete strain NM94 was isolated from a Saharan soil sample by a dilution agar plating method using chitin-vitamins B medium supplemented with penicillin. The strain presented the morphological and chemical characteristics of the genus Nonomuraea. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis and physiological tests, this isolate was found to be quite different from the known species of Nonomuraea and might be new. The strain NM94 secreted several antibiotics on yeast extract malt extract glucose medium that were active against some Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The antibiotics were extracted with dichloromethane and detected by bioautography on silica gel plates using Mucor ramannianus and Bacillus subtilis as the test organisms. Among these antibiotics, a complex called 94A showed interesting antifungal activity. It was selected and purified by reverse-phase HPLC. This complex was composed of five compounds. Spectroscopic studies by infrared, mass, and (1)H NMR of the compounds were carried out. Initial results showed that these molecules differed from the known antibiotics produced by other Nonomuraea species. PMID:17318487

  11. Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 inulin fructotransferase (DFA III-forming): gene cloning, characterization and conservation among other Nonomuraea species.

    PubMed

    Pudjiraharti, Sri; Ohtani, Midori; Takano, Nanami; Abe, Ayumi; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Asano, Kozo

    2014-02-01

    The inulin fructotransferase (DFA III-forming)(EC 4.2.2.18) gene in Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 was amplified from genomic DNA, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The 1326-bp gene, designated as Nsp-ift, encodes a protein composed of a putative 37-amino-acid signal peptide and 404-amino-acid mature protein. A putative ribosomal binding sequence was identified 12 bases upstream from the start codon. However, a typical bacterial promoter could not be found by in silico analysis. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the enzyme was most similar to that of inulin fructotransferase (DFA I-forming) in Frankia sp. EAN1pec. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences indicated that Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 and Frankia sp. EAN1pec inulin fructotransferases formed a distinct clade from those from Arthrobacter sp. H65-7, A. globiformis and Bacillus sp. snu-7 that showed 57, 56 and 56% identity to that of Nsp-ift, respectively. The Nsp-ift without a putative signal peptide was successfully expressed in E. coli and partially purified using His-tag affinity chromatography. The recombinant enzyme displayed optimum temperature between 65 and 70 °C, optimum pH between 5.5 and 6.0 and remained stable up to 70 °C. The properties were identical to those of the original enzyme. Of 10 Nonomuraea species tested by Southern hybridization, enzyme activity measurements and PCR, only Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 has the Nsp-ift gene, suggesting that Nsp-ift is not highly conserved in this genus. PMID:24129686

  12. Streptomyces aidingensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhan-Feng; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Li

    2013-09-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 46012(T), was isolated from sediment of Aiding Lake in Tulufan Basin (42° 64' N 89° 26' E), north-west China. The strain was aerobic and Gram-staining-positive with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 0-5% (w/v). The isolate had sparse aerial mycelium and produced bud-shaped spores at the end of the aerial mycelium on ISP medium 4. The isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and ribose as the major whole-cell sugar. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, one unidentified phospholipid and three unidentified glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H₆), MK-9(H₈) and MK-9(H₄). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and anteiso-C(15:0). The G+C content of the DNA was 74.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain TRM 46012(T) had 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.7% with the most closely related species with a validly published name, Streptomyces cheonanensis, and it could be distinguished from all species in the genus Streptomyces by using the data from this polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of these data, strain TRM 46012(T) should be designated as a representative of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces aidingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 46012(T) ( =CGMCC 4.5739(T) =NBRC 108211(T)). PMID:23456804

  13. Streptomyces lopnurensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bei; Han, Xiao-Xue; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain TRM 49590(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Lop Nur in Xinjiang Province, China. Strain TRM 49590(T) was aerobic, Gram-staining-positive, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 1.5 % (w/v) and an optimum temperature for growth of 28-37 °C. The aerial mycelium was sparse, cylindrical and smooth-surfaced with irregular branches on ISP medium 4. The whole-cell sugars of strain TRM 49590(T) were ribose and glucose. The diagnostic diamino acid contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), with MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H6) present in smaller amounts. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 62.2 mol%. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TRM 49590(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with a sequence similarity of 97.16 % with the most closely related species Streptomyces sodiiphilus. Based on these observations, strain TRM 49590(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces lopnurensis sp. nov. is suggested. The type strain is TRM 49590(T) ( = CCTCC AA 2013018(T) = NRRL B59109(T)). PMID:25253072

  14. Phycicoccus badiiscoriae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from scoria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2013-03-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated Sco-B23(T), was isolated from a brown-coloured layer of scoria collected near Darangshi Oreum (a small mountain) in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Cells of the organism were Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile cocci and grew at 20-35 °C, at pH 5.1-11.1 and with 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. Colonies were circular, translucent and moderate yellow in colour with entire margins. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate belonged to the genus Phycicoccus and formed a monophyletic line between a Phycicoccus bigeumensis-Phycicoccus dokdonensis cluster and a Phycicoccus aerophilus-Phycicoccus ginsenosidimutans cluster. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Sco-B23(T) and the type strains of Phycicoccus species were: P. bigeumensis (98.8 %), P. dokdonensis (98.7 %), P. aerophilus (97.7 %), P. ginsenosidimutans (97.7 %), P. cremeus (96.9 %) and P. jejuensis (96.5 %). Chemotaxonomic analyses showed that the isolate possessed meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid of the peptidoglycan, MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone, a polar lipid profile including diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids, predominant fatty acids represented by iso-C15 : 0, C17 : 1cis9, iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0, and DNA G+C content of 69.7 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain Sco-B23(T) and the close relatives within the genus Phycicoccus was below 18.1 %. On the basis of phenotypic features and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain Sco-B23(T) represents a novel species of the genus Phycicoccus, for which the name Phycicoccus badiiscoriae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Sco-B23(T) ( = KCTC 19807(T)  = KACC 15111(T)  = NBRC 107918(T)). PMID:22685104

  15. Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T) = CCTCC AA 2013003(T) = NRRL B-59998(T) = KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T) = CCTCC AA 2013004(T) = NRRL B-24927(T) = KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

  16. [Secondary metabolites from a deep-sea-derived actinomycete Micrococcus sp. R21].

    PubMed

    Peng, Kun; Su, Rui-qiang; Zhang, Gai-yun; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Yang, Quan; Liu, Yong-hong; Yang, Xian-wen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate cytotoxic secondary metabolites of Micrococcus sp. R21, an actinomycete isolated from a deep-sea sediment (-6 310 m; 142 degrees 19. 9' E, 10 degrees 54. 6' N) of the Western Pacific Ocean, column chromatography was introduced over silica gel, ODS, and Sephadex LH-20. As a result, eight compounds were obtained. By mainly detailed analysis of the NMR data, their structures were elucidated as cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-leu) (1), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Gly) (2), cyclo( L-Pro-L-Ala) (3), cyclo( D-Pro-L-Leu) (4), N-β-acetyltryptamine (5), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (6), and phenylacetic acid (7). Compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against RAW264. 7 cells with IC50 value of 9.1 μmol x L(-1). PMID:26591527

  17. Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a contaminated agar plate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Yamei; Huang, Ying; Maldonado, Luis A; Liu, Zhiheng; Goodfellow, Michael

    2004-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of an actinomycete strain isolated from a contaminated agar plate. The strain, designated 7031T, had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of the genus Nocardia. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for the strain was aligned with available sequences for nocardiae, and phylogenetic trees were inferred using three tree-generating algorithms. Strain 7031T clustered with the type strains of Nocardia carnea and Nocardia flavorosea, showing low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to these species (97.2 and 97.5 %, respectively). The strain was also distinguished from the closest species by a range of phenotypic properties. It is proposed that the strain be recognized as a novel species of Nocardia, Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., the type strain of which is 7031T (= AS 4.1808T = JCM 11884T). PMID:15388728

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Pseudonocardia sp. JB05, a Rare Salty Soil Actinomycete against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Nesa; Behroozi, Reza; Farajzadeh, Davoud; Farsi, Mohammad; Akbari-Noghabi, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes many harmful and life-threatening diseases. Some strains of this bacterium are resistant to available antibiotics. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of indigenous actinomycetes to produce antibacterial compounds against S. aureus and characterize the structure of the resultant antibacterial compounds. Therefore, a slightly modified agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of actinomycete isolates against the test microorganisms. The bacterial extracts with antibacterial activity were fractionated by silica gel and G-25 sephadex column chromatography. Also, the active fractions were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Finally, the partial structure of the resultant antibacterial compound was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. One of the isolates, which had a broad spectrum and high antibacterial activity, was designated as Pseudonocardia sp. JB05, based on the results of biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration for this bacterium was 40 AU mL−1 against S. aureus. The antibacterial activity of this bacterium was stable after autoclaving, 10% SDS, boiling, and proteinase K. Thin layer chromatography, using anthrone reagent, showed the presence of carbohydrates in the purified antibacterial compound. Finally, FT-IR spectrum of the active compound illustrated hydroxyl groups, hydrocarbon skeleton, and double bond of polygenic compounds in its structure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the efficient antibacterial activity by a local strain of Pseudonocardia. The results presented in this work, although at the initial stage in bioactive product characterization, will possibly contribute toward the Pseudonocardia scale-up for the production and identification of the antibacterial compounds. PMID:25202705

  19. Terrabacter terrae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Montero-Barrientos, Marta; Rivas, Raúl; Velázquez, Encarna; Monte, Enrique; Roig, Manuel G

    2005-11-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, long-rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain PPLB(T)) was isolated from soil mixed with Iberian pig hair. This actinomycete showed keratinase activity in vitro when chicken feathers were added to the culture medium. Strain PPLB(T) was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive and produced lipase and esterase lipase. This actinomycete grew at 40 degrees C on nutrient agar and in the same medium containing 5 % (w/v) NaCl. Growth was observed with many different carbohydrates as the sole carbon source. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain PPLB(T) was shown to belong to the genus Terrabacter of the family Intrasporangiaceae. Strain PPLB(T) showed 98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Terrabacter tumescens. Chemotaxonomic data, such as the main ubiquinone (MK-8), the main polar lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol) and the main fatty acids (i-C(15 : 0), ai-C(15 : 0), i-C(16 : 0) and ai-C(17 : 0)) supported the affiliation of strain PPLB(T) to the genus Terrabacter. The G+C content of the DNA was 71 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization (36.6 % relatedness between Terrabacter tumescens and strain PPLB(T)) and physiological and biochemical tests suggested that strain PPLB(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Terrabacter, for which the name Terrabacter terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PPLB(T) (=CECT 3379T=LMG 22921T). PMID:16280515

  20. Microbisporicin gene cluster reveals unusual features of lantibiotic biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Foulston, Lucy C.; Bibb, Mervyn J.

    2010-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide antibiotics. The biosynthetic gene cluster for microbisporicin, a potent lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Microbispora corallina containing chlorinated tryptophan and dihydroxyproline residues, was identified by genome scanning and isolated from an M. corallina cosmid library. Heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 confirmed that all of the genes required for microbisporicin biosynthesis were present in the cluster. Deletion, in M. corallina, of the gene (mibA) predicted to encode the prepropeptide abolished microbisporicin production. Further deletion analysis revealed insights into the biosynthesis of this unusual and potentially clinically useful lantibiotic, shedding light on mechanisms of regulation and self-resistance. In particular, we report an example of the involvement of a tryptophan halogenase in the modification of a ribosomally synthesized peptide and the pathway-specific regulation of an antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster by an extracytoplasmic function σ factor–anti-σ factor complex. PMID:20628010

  1. Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Yousef; Grkovic, Tanja; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Hentschel, Ute; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 1–10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamide (11), 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12) and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a). When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes. PMID:24857962

  2. Streptomyces synnematoformans sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a sand dune soil in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hozzein, Wael N; Goodfellow, Michael

    2007-09-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was undertaken to establish the status of a novel actinomycete, strain S155(T), isolated from a sand dune soil in Egypt. The organism formed characteristic synnemata-like structures and exhibited chemical and morphological features consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate was compared with corresponding sequences of representative streptomycetes. The 16S rRNA gene sequence data supported the assignment of the strain to the genus Streptomyces and showed that it formed a distinct phyletic line; the organism was most similar to the type strains of Streptomyces ruber (97.0 %), Streptomyces rubiginosus (97.0 %), Streptomyces roseiscleroticus (96.9 %) and Streptomyces thermoalcalitolerans (97.1 %). It was readily distinguished from the type strains of these species using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, strain S155(T) (=CGMCC 4.2055(T) =DSM 41902(T)) is proposed as the type strain of the novel species Streptomyces synnematoformans sp. nov. PMID:17766864

  3. Nocardiopsis arabia sp. nov., a halotolerant actinomycete isolated from a sand-dune soil.

    PubMed

    Hozzein, Wael N; Goodfellow, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The taxonomic status of an unknown actinomycete isolated from a sand-dune soil was established using a polyphasic approach. Isolate S186(T) had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardiopsis, grew on agar plates at NaCl concentrations of up to 15 % (w/v) and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nocardiopsis 16S rRNA gene sequence tree. Its closest phylogenetic neighbours were Nocardiopsis chromatogenes, Nocardiopsis composta, Nocardiopsis gilva and Nocardiopsis trehalosi, with sequence similarity to the various type strains of 96.9 %, but it was readily distinguished from the type strains of these and related species using a range of phenotypic properties. It is apparent from the genotypic and phenotypic data that strain S186(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Nocardiopsis, for which the name Nocardiopsis arabia sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S186(T) (=CGMCC 4.2057(T) =DSM 45083(T)). PMID:18984686

  4. Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Jiao; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Xiong, Zhi; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated YIM 690008T, was isolated from Daucus carota collected from South Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew well on most media tested and no diffusible pigment was produced. The aerial mycelium formed wrinkled single spores and short spore chains, some of which were branched. The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose, ribose, galactose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, some unknown phospholipids, glycolipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids were i-C16 : 0, ai-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate belongs to the family Nocardiopsaceae. However, based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, it was concluded that strain YIM 690008T represents a novel genus and novel species of the family Nocardiopsaceae, for which the name Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YIM 690008T = DSM 46770T = JCM 30099T = KCTC 29480T) is proposed. PMID:25948617

  5. Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete associated with Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Qin, Yu-Li; Miao, Cui-Ping; Wei, Da-Qiao; Zhang, Si; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-09-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, endophytic actinomycete, designated strain YIM 63235(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of Artemisia annua L., and characterized to determine its taxonomic position. The strain YIM 63235(T) formed well-differentiated aerial and substrate mycelia on media tested. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the new isolate formed a distinct lineage within the genus Pseudonocardia, and the strain YIM 63235(T) was closely related to Pseudonocardia parietis 04-St-002(T) (99.1%). However, DNA-DNA relatedness demonstrated that strain YIM 63235(T) was distinct from the closest phylogenetic neighbor. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain YIM 63235(T) were consistent with those of the genus Pseudonocardia: the diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-8(H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(16:1) H. The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 63235(T) was 71.0 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the novel isolate was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov. (type strain YIM 63235(T) =CCTCC AA 208080(T)=DSM 45303(T)) is proposed. PMID:22805759

  6. Millisia brevis gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from activated sludge foam.

    PubMed

    Soddell, Jacques A; Stainsby, Fiona M; Eales, Kathryn L; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Seviour, Robert J; Goodfellow, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The taxonomic position of two mycolic-acid-producing actinomycetes, isolates J81T and J82, which were recovered from activated sludge foam, was clarified. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies indicated that the organisms formed a distinct lineage within the Corynebacterineae 16S rRNA gene tree. The taxonomic integrity of this group was underpinned by a wealth of phenotypic data, notably characteristic rudimentary right-angled branching. In addition, isolate J81T contained the following: meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose; N-glycolated muramic acid residues; a dihydrogenated menaquinone with eight isoprene units as the predominant isoprenologue; a fatty acid profile rich in oleic and palmitoleic acids and with relatively small proportions of myristic, stearic and tuberculostearic acids; mycolic acids with 44-52 carbons; and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides as major polar lipids. Strain J81T was found to have a chemotaxonomic profile that serves to distinguish it from representatives of all of the other taxa classified as belonging to the suborder Corynebacterineae. In the light of these data, it is proposed that the two isolates be classified in a novel monospecific genus. The name proposed for this taxon is Millisia brevis gen. nov., sp. nov.; strain J81T (=DSM 44463T = NRRL B-24424T) is the type strain of Millisia brevis. PMID:16585686

  7. Biogenic gold nanotriangles from Saccharomonospora sp., an endophytic actinomycetes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vijay C.; Anand, Swechha; Ulrichs, Christian; Singh, Santosh K.

    2013-04-01

    Microbial biofabrication is emerging as eco-friendly, simpler, and reproducible alternative to chemical synthesis of metals and semiconductor nanoparticles, allowing generation of rare geometrical forms such as nanotriangles and nanoprisms. Highly confined nanostructures like triangles/prisms are interesting class of nanoparticles due to their unique optical properties exploitable in biomedical diagnostics and biosensors. Here, we report for the first time a single-step biological protocol for the synthesis of gold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic actinomycetes Saccharomonospora sp., isolated from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., when incubated with an aqueous solution of chloroaurate ions (AuCl- 4/1 mM). Thin, flat occasionally prismatic gold nanotriangles were produced when aqueous chloroaurate ions reacted with the cell-free extract as well as with the biomass of endophytic Saccharomonospora. It was evidenced from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis that proteins of 42 and 50 kD were involved in biosynthesis as well as in stabilization of the nanoparticles. The particle growth process was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, and the morphological characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy together with X-ray powder diffractions. Although the exact mechanism for this shape-oriented synthesis is not clear so far, the possibility of achieving nanoparticle shape control in a microbial system is exciting.

  8. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    PubMed

    Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)). PMID:27010208

  9. Characterization of dusts collected from swine confinement buildings. [Verticillium sp. ; Actinomycetes

    SciTech Connect

    Donham, K.J.; Scallon, L.J.; Popendorf, W.; Treauhaft, M.W.; Roberts, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    The air in 21 different swine confinement buildings was sampled with 37 mm cassette filters with and without cyclone preselectors and with cascade impactors. Filter results yielded a mean total aerosol of 6.3 mg/m/sup 3/, a mean respirable aerosol of 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/; the geometric mean diameter was 2.9 microns. Cascade impactor measurements revealed a mean total aerosol of 7.6 mg/m/sup 3/, a respirable aerosol of 2.5 mg/m/sup 3/ and a mass median diameter of 9.6 microns. The two major constituents in these aerosols were grain particles and dried fecal matter. The grain particles were larger than fecal particles and proportionately more abundant in finishing buildings where 50 kg-100 kg animals are housed. Therefore the respirable fraction was less in finishing buildings than in farrowing and nursery buildings. Culturing of settled dusts yielded six different mold species, with the highest counts for Verticillium sp. (5 x 10/sup 2/ cfu/mg dry dust) grown at 37/sup 0/C. Thermophilic Actinomycetes and both gram negative and gram positive bacteria were isolated.

  10. Glycomyces tarimensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a saline-alkali habitat.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Zhang, Li-Li

    2015-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 45387(T), was isolated from a saline-alkali soil in Xinjiang Province (40° 22' N 79° 08' E), north-west China. The isolate was characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain TRM 45387(T) belonged to the genus Glycomyces and was closely related to Glycomyces arizonensis DSM 44726(T) (96.59% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The G+C content of the DNA was 71.26 mol%. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and xylose, glucose, galactose, arabinose and ribose as the major whole-cell sugars. The diagnostic phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositolmannosides. The predominant menaquinone was MK-10(H6). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, a novel species, Glycomyces tarimensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Glycomyces tarimensis is TRM 45387(T) ( =CCTCC AA 2014007(T) =JCM 30184(T)). PMID:25713037

  11. Saccharopolyspora halotolerans sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from a hypersaline lake.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 45123(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province (40° 20' N 90° 49' E), north-west China. The isolate was characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain TRM 45123(T) belonged to the genus Saccharopolyspora and was closely related to Saccharopolyspora gloriosae (96.7% similarity). The G+C content of the DNA was 69.07 mol%. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and arabinose and ribose as the major whole-cell sugars. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, a novel species, Saccharopolyspora halotolerans sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Saccharopolyspora halotolerans is TRM 45123(T) ( = CCTCC AA 2013006(T) = DSM 45990(T)). PMID:25061064

  12. Amycolatopsis salitolerans sp. nov., a filamentous actinomycete isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Nan; Chen, Zheng-Jun; Huang, Ying; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM F103(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat of the Tarim basin in Xinjiang province, north-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Amycolatopsis and was most closely related to Amycolatopsis halophila YIM 93223(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). However, DNA-DNA relatedness between these two strains, based on triplicate experiments, was only 31.6%. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and ribose, glucose and galactose as the major whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H(4)). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and C(16:0). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and glucosamine-containing phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.4 mol%. The phenotypic data clearly distinguished the isolate from its closest relatives. The combined phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data indicate that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis. The proposed name is Amycolatopsis salitolerans sp. nov., with TRM F103(T) (=JCM 15899(T)=CCTCC AB 208326(T)) as the type strain. PMID:21317279

  13. Micromonospora polyrhachis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from edible Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger).

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wensheng; Yu, Chao; Liu, Chongxi; Zhao, Junwei; Yang, Lingyu; Xie, Binjiao; Li, Lei; Hong, Kui; Wang, Xiangjing

    2014-02-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ycm2(T), was isolated from edible Chinese black ants (Polyrhachis vicina Roger) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Micromonospora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-ycm2(T) showed highest similarity to those of Micromonospora sonneratiae 274745(T) (99.12%), Micromonospora pattaloongensis TJ2-2(T) (98.85%), Micromonospora pisi GUI 15(T) (98.76%), Polymorphospora rubra TT 97-42(T) (98.42%) and Micromonospora eburnea LK2-10(T) (98.21%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene demonstrated that strain NEAU-ycm2(T) is a member of the genus Micromonospora and supported the close phylogenetic relationship to M. sonneratiae 274745(T), M. pattaloongensis JCM 12833(T) and M. pisi GUI 15(T). Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that the novel strain could be readily distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, it is proposed that NEAU-ycm2(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora polyrhachis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ycm2(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7100(T) = DSM 45886(T)). PMID:24108323

  14. Gordonia didemni sp. nov. an actinomycete isolated from the marine ascidium Didemnum sp.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Parma, Márcia; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana

    2016-02-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated isolate B204(T), was isolated from a marine ascidian Didemnum sp., collected from São Paulo, Brazil, and its taxonomic position established using data from a polyphasic study. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Gordonia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Gordonia 16S rRNA gene tree. It was closely related to Gordonia terrae DSM 43249(T) (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Gordonia lacunae DSM 45085(T) (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) but was distinguished from these strains by a moderate level of DNA-DNA relatedness (63.0 and 54.7 %) and discriminatory phenotypic properties. Based on the data obtained, the isolate B204(T) (=CBMAI 1069(T) = DSM 46679(T)) should therefore be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Gordonia, for which the name Gordonia didemni sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26678782

  15. [Storage of Actinobacteria of the Genera Streptomyces and Nonomuraea by Low Temperature Preservation].

    PubMed

    Sineva, O N; Kulikova, N G; Filippova, S N; Terekhova, L P

    2014-01-01

    The influence of storage of actinobacteria Streptomyces hygroscopicus RIA 1433T, Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. carminata INA 4281 and Nonomuraea sp. INA 34-06 at extremely low temperatures (-70 degrees C) for 1.5 years was studied with respect to their viability and antibiotic activity. The spores of the actinobacteria preserved their high viability when freezed at a concentration of 10(5)-10(7) CFU/ml. As for the antibiotic activity against the test culture Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, the strains differed: the S. hygroscopicus RIA 1433T colonies preserved their antibiotic activity against the test culture, the antibiotic activity of Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. carminata lowered by 5% and that of N. sp. INA 34-06 lowered by 44%. Differences in the resistance of the strains to the storage at the extremely low temperatures were observed when the suspensions contained low concentrations of the spores (10(2) CFU/ml): S. hygroscopicus RIA 1433T preserved its viability and antibiotic activity during 1.5 years, while N. roseoviolacea subsp. carminata INA 4281 and N. sp. INA 34-06 lost the viability by the 8th month of the storage. The study showed that 10% glycerol solution used as a cryoprotector during the storage had no effect on viability and antibiotic activity of the actinobacteria. PMID:26448987

  16. Streptomonospora algeriensis sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from soil in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Bouras, Noureddine; Riba, Amar; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Rohde, Manfred; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sabaou, Nasserdine

    2014-08-01

    A halophilic actinomycete strain, designated H27(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a hypersaline habitat in Djelfa Province (North-Central Algeria), and then investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain was observed to produce poor aerial mycelium, which formed short chains of oval to cylindrical-shaped spores at maturity, and non fragmented substrate mycelium. The optimum NaCl concentration for growth was found to be 10-15 % (w/v) and the optimum growth temperature and pH were found to be 28-37 °C and 6-7, respectively. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones of strain H27(T) were identified as MK-11 (H4) and MK-10 (H6). The major fatty acids were found to be iso-C16:0, anteiso-C17:0, 10 methyl C17:0 and 10 methyl C16:0. The diagnostic phospholipids detected were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain H27(T) are consistent with those shared by members of the genus Streptomonospora. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain H27(T) is most closely related to Streptomonospora alba DSM 44588(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomonospora flavalba DSM 45155(T) (98.7 %) whereas the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain H27(T) and the two type strains were 17.1 and 57.9 %, respectively. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that strain H27(T) should be classified as representative of a novel species, for which the name Streptomonospora algeriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H27(T) (=DSM 45604(T) =CCUG 63369(T) =MTCC 11563(T)). PMID:24858572

  17. Phytohabitans kaempferiae sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the leaf of Kaempferia larsenii.

    PubMed

    Niemhom, Nantawan; Chutrakul, Chanikul; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Thawai, Chitti

    2016-08-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain KK1-3T, which formed single spores and long chains of spores (more than 10 spores) was isolated from surface-sterilized Kaempferia larsenii leaf collected from Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. The isolate contained l-lysine, meso-diaminopimelic acid and hydroxyl diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars included glucose, mannose, rhamnose, ribose, galactose and xylose. The characteristic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphoglycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H8), MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KK1-3T should be classified as representing a member of the genus Phytohabitans. The similarity values of sequences between this strain and those of the closely related species, Phytohabitans houttuyneae K11-0057T (99.0 %), Phytohabitans suffuscus K07-0523T (98.9 %), Phytohabitans flavus K09-0627T (98.6 %) and Phytohabitans rumicisK11-0047T (98.1 %) were observed. The DNA-DNA hybridization result and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that KK1-3T could be readily distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Phytohabitans kaempferiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain KK1-3T (=BCC 66360T =NBRC 110005T). PMID:27126122

  18. Diketopiperazine Derivatives from the Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Xi, Lijun; Liu, Peipei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Ying; Zhu, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Five new diketopiperazine derivatives, (3Z,6E)-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidene)piperazine-2,5-dione (1), (3Z,6E)-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2R-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidene)piperazine-2,5-dione (2), (3Z,6Z)-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (3), (3Z,6Z)-3-((1H-imidazol-5-yl)-methylene)-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (4), and (3Z,6S)-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-but-2-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (5), were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328. The structures of 1–5 were determined by spectroscopic analysis, CD exciton chirality, the modified Mosher’s, Marfey’s and the C3 Marfey’s methods. Compound 3 showed modest antivirus activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus with an IC50 value of 41.5 ± 4.5 μM. In addition, compound 6 and 7 displayed potent anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 value of 28.9 ± 2.2 and 6.8 ± 1.5 μM, respectively. Due to the lack of corresponding data in the literature, the 13C NMR data of (3Z,6S)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2,5-dione (6) were also reported here for the first time. PMID:23538868

  19. Actinopolyspora righensis sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from Saharan soil in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Bouras, Noureddine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sabaou, Nasserdine

    2013-09-01

    A novel halophilic actinomycete strain, H23(T), was isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected in Djamâa (Oued Righ region), El-Oued province, South Algeria. Strain H23(T) was identified as a member of the genus Actinopolyspora by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain H23(T) had 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ranging from 97.8 % (Actinopolyspora xinjiangensis TRM 40136(T)) to 94.8 % (Actinopolyspora mortivallis DSM 44261(T)). The strain grew optimally at pH 6.0-7.0, 28-32 °C and in the presence of 15-25 % (w/v) NaCl. The substrate mycelium was well developed and fragmented with age. The aerial mycelium produced long, straight or flexuous spore chains with non-motile, smooth-surfaced and rod-shaped spores. Strain H23(T) had MK-10 (H4) and MK-9 (H4) as the predominant menaquinones. The whole micro-organism hydrolysates mainly consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid, galactose and arabinose. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C17:0 (37.4 %), iso-C17:0 (14.8 %), iso-C15:0 (14.2 %), and iso-C16:0 (13.9 %). The genotypic and phenotypic data show that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Actinopolyspora, for which the name Actinopolyspora righensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain H23(T) (=DSM 45501(T) = CCUG 63368(T) = MTCC 11562(T)). PMID:23754661

  20. Streptomyces tyrosinilyticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from river sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; Liu, Chongxi; Bai, Lu; Han, Chuanyu; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2015-09-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T), was isolated from river sediment collected from South river in Jilin Province, north China and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicated that strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T) should be assigned to the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch with its closest neighbour Streptomyces vitaminophilus DSM 41686(T)(97.09%). Moreover, key morphological and chemotaxonomic properties also confirmed the affiliation of strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T) to the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall contained ll-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell hydrolysates were glucose and ribose. The phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 72.2 mol%. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T) could be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relative. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces tyrosinilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Jh3-20(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7201(T)= DSM 42170(T)). PMID:26297662

  1. Streptomyces bohaiensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from Scomberomorus niphonius in the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Yu, Su-Ya; Khieu, Thi-Nhan; Son, Chu Ky; Jiang, Zhao; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-04-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated 11A07(T), was isolated from young Scomberomorus niphonius in the Bohai Sea. Basic local alignment search tool analyses showed that this isolate had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.41% with Streptomyces rimosus subsp. paromomycinus DSM 41429(T). Phylogenetic tree revealed that strain 11A07(T) formed a distinct lineage clustered with Streptomyces panacagri Gsoil 519(T), Streptomyces sodiiphilus YIM 80305(T) and Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-2365(T) having similarities of 97.30%, 97.10% and 96.83%, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis further demonstrated that the new isolate was different from the selected representatives of Streptomyces as a separate phylogenetic line. Strain 11A07(T) produced straight or rectiflexibile spore chains with smooth surface, white aerial mycelia and brown diffusible pigments on international streptomyces project 2 medium. Maximum tolerated NaCl concentration for growth was 11.0%. Whole-cell sugars were mannose, ribose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H4) and MK-9 (H6). The fatty-acid profile contained iso-C16:0, C18:0 10-methyl (tuberculostearic acid) and anteiso-C17:0 as the major compositions. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.4 mol%. These morphological, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties showed that strain 11A07(T) could be readily distinguished from the most closely related members of the genus Streptomyces. Thus, based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, strain 11A07(T) (=JCM 19630(T)=CCTCC AA 2013020(T)=KCTC 29263(T)) represents a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces bohaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25269462

  2. Actinoallomurus bryophytorum sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Pinjiao; Zheng, Weijia; Chu, Liyang; Liu, Chongxi; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2015-08-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, strain NEAU-TX1-15(T), was isolated from moss, collected from Wuchang, Heilongjiang province, north China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of strain NEAU-TX1-15(T). Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) are consistent with the description of the genus Actinoallomurus. Strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) was observed to form short spiral or looped spore chains on aerial hyphae. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain lysine and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The only phospholipid identified was phosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acid was identified as iso-C16:0. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence supports the assignment of the novel strain to the genus Actinoallomurus, as it exhibits 99.2 % gene sequence similarity to that of Actinoallomurus yoronensis NBRC 103686(T). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness allowed the strain to be differentiated from its close relative. Moreover, strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) could also be differentiated from A. yoronensis NBRC 103686(T) and other Actinoallomurus species showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>98.0 %) by cultural and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the combination of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, and the DNA-DNA hybridization value, indicated that strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinoallomurus for which the name Actinoallomurus bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-TX1-15(T) (=CGMCC 4.7200(T) = JCM 30340(T)). PMID:26033369

  3. Streptomyces gilvifuscus sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces antibacterial compounds isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, uan Manh; Kim, Jaisoo

    2015-10-01

    This study describes a novel actinomycete, designated T113T, which was isolated from forest soil in Pyeongchang-gun, Republic of Korea, and is an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive actinobacterium that forms flexibilis chains of smooth, elliptical or short rod-shaped spores. The results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that strain T113T exhibited high levels of similarity to previously characterized species of the genus Streptomyces (98.19–98.89 %, respectively). However, the results of phylogenetic and DNA–DNA hybridization analyses confirmed that the organism represented a novel member of the genus Streptomyces. Furthermore, using chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses it was demonstrated that the strain exhibited characteristics similar to those of other members of the genus Streptomyces. The primary cellular fatty acids expressed by this strain included anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. While diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant lipids expressed by strain T113T, moderate amounts of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside were also detected. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained glucose and ribose, and the predominant menaquinone detected was MK-9 (H6); however, moderate amounts of MK-9 (H8) and trace amounts of MK-10 (H2) and MK-10 (H4) were also detected. We therefore propose that strain T113T be considered as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces and propose the name Streptomyces gilvifuscus sp. nov. for this species, with strain T113T ( = KEMB 9005-213T = KACC 18248T = NBRC 110904T) being the type strain. PMID:26297131

  4. Streptomyces bryophytorum sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Jin, Pinjiao; Liu, Chongxi; Ma, Zhaoxu; Zhao, Junwei; Li, Jiansong; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-HZ10(T) was isolated from moss and characterised using a polyphasic approach. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Streptomyces. Strain NEAU-HZ10(T) formed grayish aerial mycelia, which differentiated into straight to flexuous chains of cylindrical spores. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid. Predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile was found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and two unidentified phospholipids. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces and exhibits high sequence similarity to Streptomyces cocklensis DSM 42063(T) (98.9 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) clustered with S. cocklensis DSM 42063(T), Streptomyces yeochonensis CGMCC 4.1882(T) (98.7 %), Streptomyces paucisporeus CGMCC 4.2025(T) (98.4 %) and Streptomyces yanglinensis CGMCC 4.2023(T) (98.1 %). However, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridisation results and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) can be distinguished from its phylogenetically closely related strains. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-HZ10(T) (= CGMCC 4.7151(T) = DSM 42138(T)). PMID:27263023

  5. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)). PMID:26608172

  6. Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov., a halotolerant actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Moshtaghi Nikou, Mahdi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Rasooli, Mehrnoosh; Harirchi, Sharareh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhasan; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    A novel halotolerant actinomycete, strain Chem15(T), was isolated from soil around Inche-Broun hypersaline wetland; its taxonomic position was determined based on a polyphasic approach. Strain Chem15(T) was strictly aerobic and tolerated NaCl up to 12.5%. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Chem15(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diamino acid and galactose, arabinose and ribose as whole-cell sugars. The major phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The cellular fatty acids profile consisted of C16 : 0, iso-C18 : 0, C18 : 0 10-methyl and C18 : 1ω9c, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4cycl). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.0 mol%. The novel strain constituted a distinct phyletic line within the genus Nocardia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and was closely associated with Nocardia sungurluensis DSM 45714(T) and Nocardia alba DSM 44684(T) (98.2 and 98.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). However DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data demonstrated that strain Chem15(T) was clearly different from closely related species of the genus Nocardia. It is concluded that the organism should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Chem15(T) ( = IBRC-M 10490(T) = LMG 28544(T)). PMID:26297293

  7. Actinocorallia lasiicapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongxi; Li, Yao; Ye, Lan; Zhao, Junwei; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 3H-GS17T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 3H-GS17T belongs to the genus Actinocorallia with high sequence similarity to Actinocorallia glomerata JCM 9376T (98.13 %) and Actinocorallia longicatena JCM 9377T (97.64 %). The chemotaxonomic properties of strain 3H-GS17T were also consistent with those of members of the genus Actinocorallia. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and whole-cell sugars were ribose, mannose, glucose, galactose and madurose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7с. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 3H-GS17T and its closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that 3H-GS17T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, strain 3H-GS17T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Actinocorallia, for which the name Actinocorallia lasiicapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3H-GS17T (=DSM 100595T=CGMCC 4.7282T). PMID:26944933

  8. Plantactinosporasoyae sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from soybean root [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaowei; Guan, Xuejiao; Liu, Chongxi; Jia, Feiyu; Li, Jiansong; Li, Jinmeng; Jin, Pinjiao; Li, Wenchao; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-gxj3T, was isolated from soybean root [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] collected from Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-gxj3T showed highest similarity to those of Micromonospora equina Y22T (98.2 %) and Plantactinospora endophytica YIM 68255T (98.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene demonstrated that the isolate clustered with the members of the genus Plantactinospora. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-gxj3Twere also consistent with those of members of the genus Plantactinospora. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and whole-cell sugars were xylose, glucose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6), MK-9(H8), MK-10(H2) and MK-10(H4). The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 0. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization result and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-gxj3Tcould be differentiated clearly from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Plantactinospora, for which the name Plantactinospora soyae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-gxj3T (=CGMCC 4.7221T=DSM 46832T). PMID:27089547

  9. Phytoactinopolyspora alkaliphila sp. nov., an alkaliphilic actinomycete isolated from a saline-alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Guang; Lu, Xin-Hua; Ding, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Li, Li; Guo, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hong-Fei; Duan, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    An alkaliphilic, filamentous actinomycete, designated EGI 80629T, was isolated from a soil sample of Xinjiang, north-west China. Strain EGI 80629T grew at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 9.0-10.0) and in the presence of 0-13.0 % NaCl (optimum 3.0-5.0 %). The isolate formed fragmented substrate mycelia, and aerial hyphae with short spore chains with rod-like spores. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and mannose and rhamnose as diagnostic sugars. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4), while the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two phosphatidylinositol mannosides, five unknown phospholipids, three unknown phosphoglycolipids, one unknown glycolipid, four unknown polar lipids and one unknown aminophospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EGI 80629T clustered with the genus Phytoactinopolyspora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain EGI 80629T and Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica EGI 60009T was 96.8 %. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain EGI 80629T represents a novel species of the genus Phytoactinopolyspora, for which the name Phytoactinopolyspora alkaliphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 80629T ( = CGMCC 4.7225T = KCTC 39701T). PMID:26920762

  10. Streptomyces canalis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from an alkali-removing canal.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu-Xuan; Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhang, Li-Li

    2016-08-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 46794-61T, was isolated from an alkali-removing canal in 14th Farms of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, north-west China. The isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The whole-cell sugar patterns of the isolate contained ribose, mannose and glucose. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and two unidentified phospholipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA was 70.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain TRM 46794-61T had a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.6 % with the most closely related species with a validly published name, Streptomyces aidingensis TRM 46012T, and it could be distinguished from all species in the genus Streptomyces based on data from this polyphasic taxonomic study. However, DNA-DNA hybridization studies between strain TRM 46794-61T and S.aidingensis TRM 46012T showed only 45.4 % relatedness. On the basis of these data, strain TRM 46794-61T should be designated as a representative of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces canalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 46794-61T (=CCTCC AA 2015006T=KCTC 39568T). PMID:27217157

  11. Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Wu, Nan; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Li

    2011-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 40133(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat of Tarim basin in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain showed that it formed a well-seperated sub-branch within the radiation of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found between the strain TRM 40133(T) and Saccharopolyspora qijiaojingensis YIM 91168(T) (96.5%). The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolate are typical for the genus Saccharopolyspora. It contained meso-DAP as the diagnostic diamino acid. Whole cell hydrolysate contained arabinose, xylose, ribose and glucose. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(4)). No mycolic acid was detected. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. In addition, the strain TRM 40133(T) had a phenotypic profile that readily distinguished it from the recognized representatives of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The strain TRM 40133(T) therefore represents a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 40133(T) (=KCTC 19987(T) =CCTCC AA 2010012(T)). PMID:21461999

  12. Saccharopolyspora ghardaiensis sp. nov., an extremely halophilic actinomycete isolated from Algerian Saharan soil.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Bouras, Noureddine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-04-01

    A novel halophilic actinomycete, strain designated H53(T), was isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected from Chaâbet Ntissa, Béni-isguen, Ghardaïa (South of Algeria) and was characterized taxonomically by means of polyphasic approach. Optimal growth was found to occur at 30-35 °C, pH 6-7 and in the presence of 15-25% (w/v) NaCl. The strain was observed to produce abundant aerial mycelium, which formed long chains of rod-shaped spores at maturity, and well developed and fragmented substrate mycelium. The cell wall was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid; the diagnostic whole-cell sugars were arabinose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were found to be MK-9(H₄) and MK-9(H₆). The predominant cellular fatty acids were determined to be iso- and anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, and cis9 iso-C17:1. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine. The morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain were consistent with those of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence showed that this strain formed a distinct phyletic line within the radiation of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The 16S rRNA sequence similarities between strain H53(T) and other members of the genus Saccharopolyspora ranged from 92.1 to 94.3%. The DNA G+C content of strain H53(T) was 72.6%. The genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the strain H53(T) represents a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora ghardaiensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain H53(T) (=DSM 45606(T)=CCUG 63370(T)=CECT 8304(T)). PMID:24346634

  13. Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Li, Li; Jiang, Zhao; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated 10A08AT and 10A08BT, were isolated from marine sediment samples of the South China Sea and their taxonomic positions were determined by a polyphasic approach. The two Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strains produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced in the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and all mycelium fragmented with age. Whole-cell hydrolysates of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. Their predominant menaquinones (>10 %) were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08AT and MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-10(H4) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08BT. The polar lipids detected from the two strains were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unknown phosphoglycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 10A08AT and 10A08BT were 70.9 and 71.6 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the two strains were shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Nocardiopsis. DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness values of < 70 % between these two isolates and their closest neighbour, Nocardiopsis terrae YIM 90022T, and between the two strains supported the conclusion that they represent two novel species. Based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the two isolates belong to the genus Nocardiopsis, and the names Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. (type strain 10A08AT = DSM 45931T = BCRC 16951T) and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov. (type strain 10A08BT = CGMCC 47227T = BCRC 16952T) are proposed. PMID:26297579

  14. Streptomyces iconiensis sp. nov. and Streptomyces smyrnaeus sp. nov., two halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from a salt lake and saltern.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sahin, Nevzat

    2014-09-01

    The taxonomic positions of two novel actinomycetes, designated strains BNT558(T) and SM3501(T), were established by using a polyphasic approach. The organisms had chemical and morphological features that were consistent with their classification in the genus Streptomyces. The whole-cell hydrolysates of the two strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8) for strain BNT558(T) and MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6) for strain SM3501(T). Major fatty acids of the strains were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain BNT558(T) contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified aminophospholipid, while that of strain SM3501(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified atypical aminolipids, one unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified glycolipids. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA were 70.2 and 69.6 mol% for strains BNT558(T) and SM3501(T), respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence data supported the classification of the isolates in the genus Streptomyces and showed that they formed two distinct branches within the genus. Based on almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain BNT558(T) was related most closely to Streptomyces albiaxialis NRRL B-24327(T) and strain SM3501(T) was related most closely to Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi NBRC 12748(T). DNA-DNA relatedness between each of the isolates and its closest phylogenetic neighbours showed that they belonged to distinct species. The two isolates were readily distinguished from one another and from the type strains of the other species classified in the genus Streptomyces based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic properties. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic evidence, strains BNT558(T) and SM3501(T) belong to two

  15. Thermoactinomyces guangxiensis sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from mushroom compost.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2015-09-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain CD-1(T), was isolated from mushroom compost in Nanning, Guangxi province, China. The strain grew at 37-55 °C (optimum 45-50 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 7.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0% NaCl (optimum 0-1.0%), formed well-developed white aerial mycelium and pale-yellow vegetative mycelium, and single endospores (0.8-1.0 μm diameter) were borne on long sporophores (2-3 μm length). The endospores were spherical-polyhedron in shape with smooth surface. Based on its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain CD-1(T) is affiliated to the genus Thermoactinomyces. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid; the whole-cell sugars were ribose and glucose. Major fatty acids were iso-C15 :  0, C16 : 0, anteiso-C15  : 0 and iso-C17  : 0. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. The polar phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine containing hydroxylated fatty acids, ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipid, an unknown phospholipid and glycolipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 48.8%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the organism was closely related to Lihuaxuella thermophila YIM 77831(T) (95.69% sequence similarity), Thermoactinomyces daqus H-18(T) (95.49%), Laceyella putida KCTC 3666(T) (95.05%), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris KCTC 9076(T) (95.01%) and Thermoactinomyces intermedius JCM 3312(T) (94.55%). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CD-1T and Lihuaxuella thermophila JCM 18059(T), Thermoactinomyces daqus DSM 45914(T), Laceyella putida JCM 8091(T), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris JCM 3162(T) and Thermoactinomyces intermedius JCM 3312(T) were low (22.8, 33.3, 24.7, 29.4 and 30.0%, respectively). A battery of phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain CD-1T represented a novel species of the genus Thermoactinomyces, for which the name Thermoactinomyces guangxiensis sp. nov

  16. Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Forest-Derived Soil Actinomycete, Nocardia sp. PB-52

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kalita, Mohan C.; Thakur, Debajit

    2016-01-01

    A mesophilic actinomycete strain designated as PB-52 was isolated from soil samples of Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary of Assam, India. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, the strain was identified as Nocardia sp. which shares 99.7% sequence similarity with Nocardia niigatensis IFM 0330 (NR_112195). The strain is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium with rugose spore surface which exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Optimization for the growth and antimicrobial activity of the strain PB-52 was carried out in batch culture under shaking condition. The optimum growth and antimicrobial potential of the strain were recorded in GLM medium at 28°C, initial pH 7.4 of the medium and incubation period of 8 days. Based on polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) gene-targeted PCR amplification, the occurrence of both of these biosynthetic pathways was detected which might be involved in the production of antimicrobial compounds in PB-52. Extract of the fermented broth culture of PB-52 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method using ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract of PB-52 (EA-PB-52) showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus MTCC 96 (0.975 μg/mL) whereas highest was recorded against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 (62.5 μg/mL). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that treatment of the test microorganisms with EA-PB-52 destroyed the targeted cells with prominent loss of cell shape and integrity. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its antimicrobial activity, EA-PB-52 was subjected to chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis showed the presence of twelve different chemical constituents in the extract, some of which are reported to possess diverse biological activity. These

  17. Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from soil of a sugar cane field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2016-05-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain T3T, was isolated from a soil sample of a sugar cane field. The strain grew at 25-60 °C (optimum 37-50 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum 7.0-9.0) and with 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-7 %). The aerial mycelium was white and the vegetative mycelium was colourless to pale yellow. The substrate mycelium fragmented into rod-shaped elements after 4-5 days at 50 °C. The aerial mycelium formed flexuous chains of 5-20 spores per chain; the oval-shaped spores had spiny surfaces and were non-motile. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose, galactose and ribose. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted mainly of anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The quinone system was composed predominantly of MK-9(H4). The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain T3T was 71.3 mol%. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. In the 16S rRNA gene tree of Saccharopolyspora it formed a distinct phyletic line and was related most closely to Saccharopolyspora thermophila 216T. However, the phenotypic characteristics of strain T3T were significantly different from those of S. thermophila 216T and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low level of relatedness (28.6-32.3 %) between them. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain T3T represents a novel species in the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = DSM 46801T = CGMCC 4.7206T). PMID:26882893

  18. Actinopolyspora saharensis sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from a Saharan soil of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Bouras, Noureddine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sabaou, Nasserdine

    2013-04-01

    A novel halophilic actinomycete, strain H32(T), was isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected in El-Oued province, south Algeria. The isolate was characterized by means of polyphasic taxonomy. Optimal growth was determined to occur at 28-32 °C, pH 6.0-7.0 and in the presence of 15-25 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain was observed to produce abundant aerial mycelium, which formed long chains of rod-shaped spores at maturity, and fragmented substrate mycelium. The cell wall was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the characteristic whole-cell sugars were arabinose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were found to be MK-10(H4) and MK-9(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were determined to be anteiso C17:0, iso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that this strain formed a distinct phyletic line within the radiation of the genus Actinopolyspora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain H32(T) was most closely related to 'Actinopolyspora algeriensis' DSM 45476(T) (98.8 %) and Actinopolyspora halophila DSM 43834(T) (98.5 %). Furthermore, the result of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain H32(T) and the type strains 'A. algeriensis' DSM 45476(T), A. halophila DSM 43834(T) and Actinopolyspora mortivallis DSM 44261(T) demonstrated that this isolate represents a different genomic species in the genus Actinopolyspora. Moreover, the physiological and biochemical data allowed the differentiation of strain H32(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, it is proposed that strain H32(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinopolyspora, for which the name Actinopolyspora saharensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H32(T) (=DSM 45459(T)=CCUG 62966(T)). PMID:23196893

  19. A new curvularin glycoside and its cytotoxic and antibacterial analogues from marine actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. HS7.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuewei; Anjum, Komal; Song, Tengfei; Wang, Wenling; Yu, Siran; Huang, Haocai; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2016-05-01

    Five curvularin macrolides (1-5) were isolated from the cultured broth of marine actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. HS7 that was obtained from the cloacal aperture of sea cucumber Holothuria moebii. The structures of these isolates were characterized as (11S,15R)-11-hydroxycurvularin (1), (11R,15R)-11-hydroxycurvularin (2), curvularin-7-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), trans-dehydrocurvularin (4) and curvularin (5) based on their NMR and HRESIMS data as well as chemical degradation. Compound 3 is a new macrolide with a rare α-D-glucopyranose substituent. Compounds 1-4, 5a and 5c (the acyl products of 5), suppressed the proliferation of all six tested cancer cell lines and 4 is the most active compound with IC50 values ranging from 0.59 to 3.39 μM. The 11-hydroxycurvularins 1 and 2 also showed antibacterial activity inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli. PMID:26119337

  20. Juniperolide A: a new polyketide isolated from a terrestrial actinomycete, Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Raju, Ritesh; Gromyko, Oleksandr; Fedorenko, Viktor; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Plaza, Alberto; Müller, Rolf

    2012-12-01

    A new linear polyketide, juniperolide A (1), was produced by the terrestrial actinomycete (Lv1-48) isolated from the rhizosphere of the plant Juniperus excelsa. The juniperolide A (1) structure contains a THP unit and a 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxyhexose as the glycosidic moiety. Mosher's analysis was used for absolute stereochemistry determinations at C-2, C-8, C-20, and C-4', while the relative stereochemistry assignments of the remaining stereocenters were based on ROESY correlations and J-based coupling. PMID:23170775

  1. Streptomyces polyrhachii sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from an edible Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger).

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Yang, Lingyu; Gao, Ruixia; Zhang, Yuejing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2013-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ycm1(T), was isolated from an edible Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger) and characterized with a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of streptomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence show that the novel isolate belongs to the genus Streptomyces and forms a separate subclade. The closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as the type strains of Streptomyces intermedius NBRC 13049(T) (97.74 %), Streptomyces aureoverticillatus NRRL B-3326(T) (97.69 %), Streptomyces rutgersensis NBRC 12819(T) (97.68 %), Streptomyces gougerotii NBRC 3198(T) (97.68 %) and Streptomyces diastaticus subsp. diastaticus NBRC 3714(T) (97.68 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 97.55 %. A comparison between strain NEAU-ycm1(T) and the closest related Streptomyces type strains revealed that it is different from them in morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, it is proposed that NEAU-ycm1(T) (=CGMCC 4.7094(T) = DSM 42102(T)) represents a novel species of the genus of Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces polyrhachii sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24002610

  2. Effectiveness and toxicity of a novel isolated actinomycete strain Streptomyces sp. JS01 on a harmful alga Phaeocystis globosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Su; Peng, Yun; Li, Yi; Cai, Guanjing; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-06-01

    An aquatic actinomycete capable of eliminating the brown tide causing marine alga Phaeocystis globosa was isolated from the surface sea water and the isolate named JS01 was characterized as Streptomyces on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The supernatant of JS01 could lyse algal cells, implying that JS01 produced a latent alga-lytic compound. Considering this algicidal activity and the response of the algal cells, Chlorophyll a fluorescence decreased significantly in P. globosa in response to the JS01 supernatant when analyzed with flow cytometry. The algal cells experienced cell shrinkage and plasmolysis before disintegration after 72 h of treatment. The released algicide(s) were heat-tolerant, except above 121 °C, and fluctuation in pH variations; even so, algicidal activity was also over 60 %. The maximum toxicity of JS01 was on the seventh day of culture, and the relative luminosity was 0.49 at that time when detected by luminous bacteria Vibrio fischeri. These results indicated that the Streptomyces sp. JS01 could function as a potential controller of Phaeocystis globosa blooms. PMID:25638354

  3. Comparative analysis of chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethylacetate extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum and its endophytic actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. A0916.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Peng; Long, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Shuai; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the chemical composition of ethylacetate extracts from an endophytic actinomycete Streptomyces sp. A0916 and its host Polygonum cuspidatum. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the extracts was also conducted. 32 compounds of P. cuspidatum and 23 compounds of Streptomyces sp. A0916 were isolated and identified by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated using eight microbial strains (3 Gram-positive bacteria, 3 Gram-negative bacteria, and 2 fungi). The Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts showed a wide range of antimicrobial activities and presented greater antimicrobial effectiveness than the P. cuspidatum extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts against the ampicillin-resistant strain Enterococcus faecium SIIA843 was 32 μg·mL(-1). Furthermore, the extracts had greater antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts was equal to that of the P. cuspidatum extracts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the endophytic actinomycetes of the medicinal plants are an important source of bioactive substances. PMID:26968677

  4. Genome Sequence of Amycolatopsis sp Strain ATCC 39116, a Plant Biomass-Degrading Actinomycete

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jennifer R.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Shunsheng; Han, James; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Mikhailova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L; Sello, Jason K.

    2012-01-01

    We announce the availability of a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of Amycolatopsis sp. strain 39116, one of few bacterial species that are known to consume the lignin component of plant biomass. This genome sequence will further ongoing efforts to use microorganisms for the conversion of plant biomass into fuels and high-value chemicals.

  5. Genome sequence of Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116, a plant biomass-degrading actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer R; Goodwin, Lynne A; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Shunsheng; Han, James; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Mikhailova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L; Sello, Jason K

    2012-05-01

    We announce the availability of a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of Amycolatopsis sp. strain 39116, one of few bacterial species that are known to consume the lignin component of plant biomass. This genome sequence will further ongoing efforts to use microorganisms for the conversion of plant biomass into fuels and high-value chemicals. PMID:22493203

  6. Actinomycetes from Eucalyptus and their biological activities for controlling Eucalyptus leaf and shoot blight.

    PubMed

    Himaman, Winanda; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, Eucalyptus plantations rapidly expand across the country. Leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans is a serious disease in Eucalyptus plantations. In this study, a total of 477 actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from roots and rhizosphere soil of Eucalyptus. Four hundred and thirty nine isolates were classified as streptomycetes and 38 isolates were non-streptomycetes. Among these isolates, 272 (57.0%), 118 (24.7%) and 241 (50.5%) isolates were antagonistic to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans, respectively. All isolates were tested for their abilities to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA) and solubilise phosphate. Most isolates (464, 97.3%) produced siderophores. The majority of isolates (345, 72.3%) solubilised phosphate. In addition, almost half of these isolates (237, 49.7%) produced indole acetic acid. Strain EUSKR2S82 which showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with plant growth promoting ability was selected to test with Eucalyptus. This strain could colonize plant roots and increase Eucalyptus roots length. In a detached leaves bioassay, the disease severity of EUSKR2S82-inoculated Eucalyptus leaves was only 30% compared to 95% in the control treatment. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain EUSKR2S82 was related to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL-B 2714(T) (99.44% similarity). Identification of non-streptomycete isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequences classified them into 9 genera: Actinoallomurus, Actinomadura, Amycolatopsis, Cryptosporangium, Microbispora, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea and Pseudonocardia. It is evident that Eucalyptus tree harbored several genera of actinomycetes. The selected isolate, EUSKR2S82 showed potential as a candidate for biocontrol agent of leaf and shoot blight of Eucalyptus and to promote growth. PMID:27296961

  7. Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Nicholas V; Wilson, Neil L; Barry, Kerrie; Bruce, David; Copeland, A; Dalin, Eileen; Detter, J. Chris; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hammon, Nancy; Han, Shunsheng; Hauser, Loren John; Israni, Sanjay; Kim, Edwin; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Larimer, Frank W; Lucas, Susan; Pitluck, Sam; Richardson, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Tapia, Roxanne; Thompson, Sue; Tice, Hope; Spain, Jim C; Gossett, James G; Mattes, Timothy E

    2011-01-01

    Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

  8. Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; He, Hairong; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2014-10-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-P5(T), was isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.). Strain NEAU-P5(T) showed closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Micromonospora chokoriensis 2-19/6(T) (99.5%), and phylogenetically clustered with Micromonospora violae NEAU-zh8(T) (99.3%), M. saelicesensis Lupac 09(T) (99.0%), M. lupini Lupac 14N(T) (98.8%), M. zeae NEAU-gq9(T) (98.4%), M. jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T) (98.3%) and M. zamorensis CR38(T) (97.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence also indicated that the isolate clustered with the above type strains except M. violae NEAU-zh8(T). The cell-wall peptidoglycan consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H2). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(17:0). Furthermore, some physiological and biochemical properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from members of closely related species. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-P5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-P5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7098(T) = DSM 45885(T)). PMID:25082023

  9. Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a halotolerant filamentous actinomycete isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis F.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ma, Jin-Biao; Abdalla Mohamad, Osama; Li, Shan-Hui; Osman, Ghenijan; Li, Yan-Qiong; Guo, Jian-Wei; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain EGI 60009T, was isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis F. collected from Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The isolate was able to grow in the presence of 0-9% (w/v) NaCl. Strain EGI 60009T had particular morphological properties: the substrate mycelia fragmented into rod-like elements and aerial mycelia differentiated into short spore chains. ll-2, 6-Diaminopimelic acid was the cell-wall diamino acid and rhamnose, galactose and glucose were the cell-wall sugars. MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone. The major fatty acids of strain EGI 60009T were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 1 and I/anteiso-C17 : 0 B. Mycolic acids were absent. The DNA G+C content of strain EGI 60009T was 70.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain EGI 60009T belongs to the family Jiangellaceae and formed a distinct clade in the phylogenetic tree. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain EGI 60009T and other members of the genera Jiangella and Haloactinopolyspora were 96.1-96.4 and 95.7-96.0%, respectively. Based on these results and supported by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data and numerous phenotypic differences, a novel species of a new genus, Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica is EGI 60009T ( = KCTC 29657T = CPCC204078T). PMID:25964514

  10. Bioactive 2(1H)-Pyrazinones and Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from a Tunicate-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A; Badr, Jihan M; Harakeh, Steve M

    2016-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing effort to allocate marine microbial bioactive leads, a tunicate-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. Did-27, was investigated. Three new 2(1H)-pyrazinones derivatives, (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (1), (S)-3-(sec-butyl)-6-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (2) and (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isobutylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (3), together with the known (1H)-pyrazinones analogues deoxymutaaspergillic acid (4), 3,6-diisobutyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone (5) and 3,6-di-sec-butyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone (6), and the diketopiperazine alkaloids cyclo(6-OH-d-Pro-l-Phe) (7), bacillusamide B (8), cyclo(l-Pro-l-Leu) and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Ile) (10) were isolated from this strain. The structures of the compounds were determined by study of their one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra as well as high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Compound 4 was reported previously as a synthetic product, while compound 6 was reported as 2-hydroxy-3,6-di-sec-butylpyrazine. Herein, we report the complete NMR data for compounds 4 and 6. The compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three cell lines. Compound 5 showed potent and selective activity against HCT-116 cell line with IC50 of 1.5 μg/mL, while 1-10 showed variable cytotoxic activities against these cancer cell lines. These results provide further understanding about the chemistry and bioactivities of the alkylated 2(1H)-pyrazinone derivatives. PMID:27563872

  11. Protoplast preparation and reversion to the normal filamentous growth in antibiotic-producing uncommon actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Marcone, Giorgia Letizia; Carrano, Lucia; Marinelli, Flavia; Beltrametti, Fabrizio

    2010-02-01

    Protoplast preparation, regeneration and fusion represent essential tools for those poorly studied biotechnologically valuable microorganisms inapplicable with the current molecular biology protocols. The protoplast production and regeneration method developed for Planobispora rosea and using the combination of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) and Streptomyces globisporus mutanolysin was applied to a set of antibiotic-producing filamentous actinomycetes belonging to the Streptosporangiaceae, Micromonosporaceae and Streptomycetaceae. 10(7)-10(9) protoplasts were obtained from 100 ml of culture, after incubation times in the digestion solution ranging from a few hours to 1 or 2 days depending on the strain. The efficiency of protoplast reversion to the normal filamentous growth varied from 0.1 to nearly 50%. Analysis of cell wall peptidoglycan in three representative strains (Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, Actinoplanes teichomyceticus ATCC 31121 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)) has evidenced structural variations in the glycan strand and in the peptide chain, which may account for the different response to cell digestion and protoplast regeneration treatments. PMID:20057514

  12. Amycolatopsis rhabdoformis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a tropical forest soil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wallace Rafael; Silva, Rafael Eduardo; Goodfellow, Michael; Busarakam, Kanungnid; Figueiro, Fernanda Sales; Ferreira, Douglas; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2015-06-01

    Strain SB026T was isolated from Brazilian rainforest soil and its taxonomic position established using data from a polyphasic study. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological features consistent with its classification in the genus Amycolatopsis and formed a branch in the Amycolatopsis 16S rRNA gene tree together with Amycolatopsis bullii NRRL B-24847T, Amycolatopsis plumensis NRRL B-24324T, Amycolatopsis tolypomycina DSM 44544T and Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina NRRL B-24208T. It was related most closely to A. bullii NRRL B-24847T (99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), but was distinguished from this strain by a low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (~46 %) and discriminatory phenotypic properties. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that the isolate should be classified in the genus Amycolatopsis as representing a novel species, Amycolatopsis rhabdoformis sp. nov. The type strain is SB026T ( = CBMAI 1694T = CMAA 1285T = NCIMB 14900T). PMID:25744584

  13. Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, filamentous actinomycete of the family Glycomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-06-01

    A novel halophilic actinobacterium, designated YIM 92370(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The strain was aerobic, Gram-positive-staining and halophilic, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 8-12 % (w/v). The whole-cell sugar pattern consisted of ribose, xylose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) and the major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The phospholipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, two unknown phosphoglycolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 92370(T) can be distinguished from representatives of Glycomyces and Stackebrandtia, the two existing genera in the family Glycomycetaceae, by low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (<93.7 %). Strain YIM 92370(T) therefore represents a novel genus and species of the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Haloglycomyces albus is YIM 92370(T) (=DSM 45210(T) =KCTC 19481(T)). PMID:19502305

  14. Streptomonospora tuzyakensis sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Inan, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Belduz, Ali Osman; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain BN506(T), was isolated from soil collected from Tuz (Salt) Lake, Konya, Turkey, and was characterised to determine its taxonomic position. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic properties associated with members of the genus Streptomonospora. The isolate was found to grow optimally at 37 °C and in the presence of 10 % (w/v) NaCl but not in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that isolate is closely related to members of the genus Streptomonospora and forms a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomonospora phylogenetic tree. Strain BN506(T) is closely related to Streptomonospora halophila YIM 91355(T) (98.1 % sequence similarity). Sequence similarities with other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. The cell wall of the novel strain was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. Whole cell hydrolysates were found to contain galactose, glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-10(H8) (57.0 %). The polar lipids detected were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The major fatty acids were found to be anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and 10 methyl C18:0. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strain BN506(T) was identified as a member of a novel species of the genus Streptomonospora, for which the name Streptomonospora tuzyakensis sp. nov. (type strain BN506(T) = DSM 45930(T) = KCTC 29210(T)) is proposed. PMID:26459342

  15. Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Lop Nur region.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cong; Li, Yu-Qian; Asem, Mipeshwaree Devi; Lu, Chun-Yan; Shi, Xiao-Han; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Di An, Deng-; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated LPA192(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Lop Nur, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China. A polyphasic approach was used to investigate the taxonomic position of strain LPA192(T). The isolate showed morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H4). Polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. Major cellular fatty acids consist of C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C18:1 ω9c. The sugar in whole-cell hydrolysates was mannose. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain LPA192(T) is closely related to Streptomyces tanashiensis LMG 20274(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces gulbargensis DAS131(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces nashvillensis NBRC 13064(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces roseolus NBRC 12816(T) (99.2 %) and Streptomyces filamentosus NBRC 12767(T) (99.1 %) while showing below 98.5 % sequencing similarities with other validly published Streptomyces species. However, DNA-DNA relatedness values between LPA192(T) and the closely related type strains were below 40 %, which are much lower than 70 % threshold value for species delineation. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain LPA192(T) was 69.3 mol %. Based on the differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics from the closely related strains, strain LPA192(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPA192(T) (=KCTC 39601(T) = CGMCC 4.7288(T)). PMID:27209413

  16. Geodermatophilus telluris sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Saharan desert sand.

    PubMed

    Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Göker, Markus; Pötter, Gabriele; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-06-01

    A novel Gram-positive, multiloculated thalli-forming, aerobic, actinobacterial strain, CF9/1/1(T), was isolated in 2007 during environmental screening for xerophilic fungi in arid desert soil from the Sahara desert, Chad. The isolate grew best at a temperature range of 20-35 °C and at pH 6.0-8.5 and with 0-4% (w/v) NaCl, forming black-coloured and irregular colonies on GYM agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 75.4 mol%. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as a diagnostic diamino acid. The main phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, a not yet structurally identified aminophospholipid and a small amount of phosphatidylglycerol; MK-9(H4) was identified as the dominant menaquinone and galactose was a diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids: iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed 94.6-97.0% sequence similarities with those of five members of the genus: Geodermatophilus ruber DSM 45317(T) (94.6%), Geodermatophilus obscurus DSM 43160(T) (94.8%), Geodermatophilus siccatus DSM 45419(T) (96.2%), Geodermatophilus nigrescens DSM 45408(T) (96.7%) and Geodermatophilus arenarius DSM 45418(T) (97.0%). Based on the evidence from this polyphasic taxonomic study, a novel species, Geodermatophilus telluris sp. nov., is proposed; the type strain is CF9/1/1(T) (=DSM 45421(T)=CCUG 62764(T)). PMID:23159748

  17. Cephamycins, a new family of beta-lactam antibiotics. I. Production by actinomycetes, including Streptomyces lactamdurans sp. n.

    PubMed

    Stapley, E O; Jackson, M; Hernandez, S; Zimmerman, S B; Currie, S A; Mochales, S; Mata, J M; Woodruff, H B; Hendlin, D

    1972-09-01

    A number of actinomycetes isolated from soil were found to produce one or more members of a new family of antibiotics, the cephamycins, which are structurally related to cephalosporin C. The cephamycins were produced in submerged fermentation in a wide variety of media by one or more of eight different species of Streptomyces, including a newly described species, S. lactamdurans. These antibiotics exhibit antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria which includes many that are resistant to the cephalosporins and penicillins. PMID:4790552

  18. Description of Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil of the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; González, Ignacio; Estévez, Mar; Benito, Patricia; Trujillo, Martha E; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain F-240,109(T) from the MEDINA collection was isolated from a soil sample collected in the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic. The strain was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Kibdelosporangium, being closely related to Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. aridum (98.6 % sequence similarity), Kibledosporangium phytohabitans (98.3 %), Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. largum (97.7 %), Kibdelosporangium philippinense (97.6 %) and Kibledosporangium lantanae (96.9 %). In order to resolve its precise taxonomic status, the strain was characterised through a polyphasic approach. The strain is a Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile and catalase-positive actinomycete characterised by formation of extensively branched substrate mycelia and sparse brownish grey aerial mycelia with sporangium-like globular structures. The chemotaxonomic characterisation of strain F-240,109(T) corroborated its affiliation into the genus Kibdelosporangium. The peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; the major menaquinone is MK-9(H4); the phospholipid profile contains high amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid; and the predominant cellular fatty acid methyl esters are iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 and 2OH iso-C16:0. However, some key phenotypic differences regarding to its close relatives and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicate that strain F-240,109(T) represents a novel Kibdelosporangium species, for which the name Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain F-240,109(T) (=DSM 46670(T), =LMG 28181(T)). PMID:26936255

  19. Microbispora sp. LGMB259 endophytic actinomycete isolated from Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil) producing β-carbolines and indoles with biological activity.

    PubMed

    Savi, Daiani C; Shaaban, Khaled A; Vargas, Nathalia; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Possiede, Yvelise M; Thorson, Jon S; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. Vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the "Pantanal" region (Brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. During a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the V. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. The strain was characterized as Microbispora sp. LGMB259 by spore morphology and molecular analyze using nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain LGMB259 was cultivated in R5A medium producing metabolites with significant antibacterial activity. The strain produced 4 chemically related β-carbolines, and 3 Indoles. Compound 1-vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid displayed potent activity against the Gram-positive bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-2618 and Kocuria rosea B-1106, and was highly active against two human cancer cell lines, namely the prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, with IC50 values of 9.45 and 24.67 µM, respectively. 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid also showed moderate activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC204508, as well as the phytopathogenic fungi Phyllosticta citricarpa LGMB06 and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides FDC83. PMID:25385358

  20. Microbispora sp. LGMB259 Endophytic Actinomycete Isolated from Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil) Producing β-Carbolines and Indoles with Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Savi, Daiani C.; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Vargas, Nathalia; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Possiede, Yvelise M.; Thorson, Jon S.; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. Vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the “Pantanal” region (Brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. During a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the V. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. The strain was characterized as Microbispora sp. LGMB259 by spore morphology and molecular analyze using nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain LGMB259 was cultivated in R5A medium producing metabolites with significant antibacterial activity. The strain produced 4 chemically related β-carbolines, and 3 Indoles. Compound 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid displayed potent activity against the Gram-positive bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-2618 and Kocuria rosea B-1106, and was highly active against two human cancer cell lines, namely the prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, with IC50 values of 9.45 and 24.67 µM, respectively. 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid also showed moderate activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC204508, as well as the phytopathogenic fungiPhyllosticta citricarpa LGMB06 and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides FDC83. PMID:25385358

  1. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, a natural rubber degrading actinomycete isolated from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nanthini, Jayaram; Chia, Kim-Hou; Thottathil, Gincy P; Taylor, Todd D; Kondo, Shinji; Najimudin, Nazalan; Baybayan, Primo; Singh, Siddharth; Sudesh, Kumar

    2015-11-20

    Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, which naturally degrades rubber, was isolated from a rubber plantation. Whole genome sequencing and assembly resulted in 2 contigs with total genome size of 8.248 Mb. Two latex clearing protein (lcp) genes which are responsible for rubber degrading activities were identified. PMID:26376470

  2. Construction of expression vectors for metabolic engineering of the vanillin-producing actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    PubMed

    Fleige, Christian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is able to synthesize the important flavoring agent vanillin from cheap natural substrates. The bacterium is therefore of great interest for the industry and used for the fermentative production of vanillin. In order to improve the production of natural vanillin with Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116, the strain has been genetically engineered to optimize the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Extensive metabolic engineering was hitherto hampered, due to the lack of genetic tools like functional promoters and expression vectors. In this study, we report the establishment of a plasmid-based gene expression system for Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 that allows a further manipulation of the genotype. Four new Escherichia coli-Amycolatopsis shuttle vectors harboring different promoter elements were constructed, and the functionality of these regulatory elements was proven by the expression of the reporter gene gusA, encoding a β-glucuronidase. Glucuronidase activity was detected in all plasmid-harboring strains, and remarkable differences in the expression strength of the reporter gene depending on the used promoter were observed. The new expression vectors will promote the further genetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to get insight into the metabolic network and to improve the strain for a more efficient industrial use. PMID:24743982

  3. Induced production of cytochalasans in co-culture of marine fungus Aspergillus flavipes and actinomycete Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyan; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2016-08-01

    Abstarct Secondary metabolites profiles of co-culture of Aspergillus flavipes and Streptomyces sp. that isolated from the same habitat showed an induced production of a series of cytochalasans (five aspochalasins and rosellichalasin, determined by MS and NMR analysis). These cytochalasans were found to be produced by A. flavipes in LC-MS comparison analysis, and biological activity assays revealed that they were able to cause cytotoxic effects against Streptomyces sp. within a wide range of concentrations without causing any effect to the producer A. flavipes, which favoured the producer in competition. Further induction mechanism study applying membrane-separated culture and morphology study with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that the successful induction of active secondary metabolites required microbial physical contact. PMID:26783945

  4. Structure and Stereochemical Determination of Hypogeamicins from a Cave-Derived Actinomycete

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Culture extracts from the cave-derived actinomycete Nonomuraea specus were investigated, resulting in the discovery of a new S-bridged pyronaphthoquinone dimer and its monomeric progenitors designated hypogeamicins A–D (1–4). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy, and the relative stereochemistries of the pyrans were inferred using NOE and comparison to previously reported compounds. Absolute stereochemistry was determined using quantum chemical calculations of specific rotation and vibrational and electronic circular dichroism spectra, after an extensive conformational search and including solute–solvent polarization effects, and comparing with the corresponding experimental data for the monomeric congeners. Interestingly, the dimeric hypogeamicin A (1) was found to be cytotoxic to the colon cancer derived cell line TCT-1 at low micromolar ranges, but not bacteria, whereas the monomeric precursors possessed antibiotic activity but no significant TCT-1 cytotoxicity. PMID:25046128

  5. Herbicidal agents from actinomycetes against selected crop plants and weeds.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Panneerselvam, Annamalai

    2010-04-01

    About 64 total actinomycetes were isolated from various coastal soils. Sixteen actinomycete isolates were screened for herbicidal principles. Out of these, five potent isolates were selected for characterisation and identification. Based on their morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics, the actinomycete isolates were identified as Glyomyces, Saccharomonospra and Streptomyces sp. The Streptomycetes isolates were tested for herbicidal principles by germination inhibition assay. About 10 crop seeds were tested for herbicidal activity with Streptomycetes isolates. The crop seeds did not show growth inhibition. Four weed seeds were tested for herbicidal activity with Streptomyces isolates. Streptomyces inhibits the growth of Echinochilora crusgalli, but it could not inhibit the growth of Echinochilora colonum, Parthenium sp., or Ageratum conizoites. The present study concludes that Streptomyces isolates will be a bioherbicide against E. crusgalli. Further study is required to confirm the activity of Streptomyces isolates against E. crusgalli under field conditions. PMID:20182949

  6. Targeted genome editing in the rare actinomycete Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 by using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Timo; Gren, Tetiana; Thieme, Eric; Wibberg, Daniel; Zemke, Till; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2016-08-10

    The application of genome editing technologies, like CRISPR/Cas9 for industrially relevant microorganisms, is becoming increasingly important. Compared to other methods of genetic engineering the decisive factor is that CRISPR/Cas9 is relatively easy to apply and thus time and effort can be significantly reduced in organisms, which are otherwise genetically difficult to access. Because of its many advantages and opportunities, we adopted the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110, the producer of the diabetes type II drug acarbose. The functionality of genome editing was successfully shown by the scarless and antibiotic marker-free deletion of the gene encoding the tyrosinase MelC, which catalyzes the formation of the dark pigment eumelanin in the wild type strain. The generated ΔmelC2 mutant of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 no longer produces this pigment and therefore the supernatant does not darken. Furthermore, it was shown that the plasmid containing the gene for the Cas9 protein was removed by increasing the temperature due to its temperature-sensitive replication. The precision of the intended mutation was proven and possible off-target effects caused by the genome editing system were ruled out by genome sequencing of several mutants. PMID:27262504

  7. Antibiotics production by an actinomycete isolated from the termite gut.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toru; Tanaka, Junichi; Namihira, Tomoyuki; Shinzato, Naoya

    2012-12-01

    As well as the search for new antibiotics, a new resource or strains for the known antibiotics is also important. Microbial symbionts in the gut of termites could be regarded as one of the feasible resource for such purpose. In this study, antibiotic-producing actinomycetes were screened from symbionts of the termite gut. 16SrRNA sequence analysis for the 10 isolates revealed that they belong to actinomycetes such as Streptomyces sp., Kitasatospora sp., and Mycobacterium sp. A culture broth from one of the isolate, namely strain CA1, belonging to the genera Streptomyces exhibited antagonistic activity against actinomycetes (Micrococcus spp.), gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.), and yeast (Candida spp.). The structures of 2 compounds isolated from the culture broth of the strain CA1 were identified as those of actinomycin X2 and its analog, D. This study is the first to report that some symbionts of the termite gut are antibiotic-producing actinomycetes, and suggest that the termite gut is a feasible resource for bioprospecting. PMID:22359219

  8. Salininema proteolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic rare actinomycete isolated from wetland soil, and emended description of the family Glycomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Nikou, Mahdi Moshtaghi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Rasouli, Mehrnoush; Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Schumann, Peter; de la Haba, Rafael R; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-stain-positive actinobacterial strain, Miq-4T, was isolated from soil around Meighan wetland in the centre of Iran. Strain Miq-4T was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The isolate grew in the presence of 3–15 % (w/v) NaCl, at 20–40 °C and pH 6.0–11.0. The optimum NaCl, temperature and pH for growth were 7.0 %, 30 °C and 7.0–8.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Miq-4T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid and glucose and ribose as the whole-cell sugars. The polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Strain Miq-4T synthesized cellular fatty acids of anteiso- and iso-branched types, including anteiso-C17 : 0, anteiso- C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-9(H4). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and characteristic patterns of 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides revealed that strain Miq-4T belongs to the family Glycomycetaceae and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity with Haloglycomyces albus YIM 92370T (94.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain Miq-4T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Salininema proteoliyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is Miq-4T ( = IBRC-M 10908T = LMG 28391T). An emended description of the family Glycomycetaceae is also proposed in order to include features of the new genus. PMID:26219545

  9. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

  10. Genetic Insights Into Pyralomicin Biosynthesis in Nonomuraea spiralis IMC A-0156

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, Patricia M.; Wu, Xiumei; Perry, Steven; Mahmud, Taifo

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster for the pyralomicin antibiotics has been cloned and sequenced from Nonomuraea spiralis IMC A-0156. The 41-kb gene cluster contains 27 ORFs predicted to encode all of the functions for pyralomicin biosynthesis. This includes non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) required for the formation of the benzopyranopyrrole core unit, as well as a suite of tailoring enzymes (e.g., four halogenases, an O-methyltransferase, and an N-glycosyltransferase) necessary for further modifications of the core structure. The N-glycosyltransferase is predicted to transfer either glucose or a pseudosugar (cyclitol) to the aglycone. A gene cassette encoding C7-cyclitol biosynthetic enzymes was identified upstream of the benzopyranopyrrole-specific ORFs. Targeted disruption of the gene encoding the N-glycosyltransferase, prlH, abolished pyralomicin production and recombinant expression of PrlA confirms the activity of this enzyme as a sugar phosphate cyclase (SPC) involved in the formation of the C7-cyclitol moiety. PMID:23607523

  11. Enhanced polyaromatic hydrocarbon degradation by adapted cultures of actinomycete strains.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Natalia; Isaac, Paula; Alvarez, Héctor; Amoroso, María J; Ferrero, Marcela A

    2014-12-01

    Fifteen actinomycete strains were evaluated for their potential use in removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their capability to degrade of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene was tested in minimal medium (MM) and MM with glucose as another substrate. Degradation of naphthalene in MM was observed in all isolates at different rates, reaching maximum values near to 76% in some strains of Streptomyces, Rhodococcus sp. 016 and Amycolatopsis tucumanensis DSM 45259. Maximum values of degradation of phenanthrene in MM occurred in cultures of A. tucumanensis DSM 45259 (36.2%) and Streptomyces sp. A12 (20%), while the degradation of pyrene in MM was poor and only significant with Streptomyces sp. A12 (4.3%). Because of the poor performance when growing on phenanthrene and pyrene alone, Rhodococcus sp. 20, Rhodococcus sp. 016, A. tucumanensis DSM 45259, Streptomyces sp. A2, and Streptomyces sp. A12 were challenged to an adaptation schedule of successive cultures on a fresh solid medium supplemented with PAHs, decreasing concentration of glucose in each step. As a result, an enhanced degradation of PAHs by adapted strains was observed in the presence of glucose as co-substrate, without degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in MM while an increase to up to 50% of degradation was seen with these strains in glucose amended media. An internal fragment of the catA gene, which codes for catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, was amplified from both Rhodococcus strains, showing the potential for degradation of aromatic compounds via salycilate. These results allow us to propose the usefulness of these actinomycete strains for PAH bioremediation in the environment. PMID:25205070

  12. [Distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomycetes on northern slope of Taibai Mountain, Qinling].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Jie; Xue, Quan-Hong; Cao, Yan-Ru; Xue, Lei; Shen, Guang-Hui; Lai, Hang-Xian

    2011-11-01

    Twelve representative soil samples were collected from different altitudes on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain to study the distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomyces by using agar block method. There existed a great deal of soil antagonistic actinomyces in the study area. Among the 141 actinomycete strains isolated, 116 strains (82.3%) showed antagonism toward 12 target bacteria or fungi. The antagonistic strains at altitudes 800-1845, 3488, 3655, and 3670 m occupied 73.7% -86.8%, 81.3%, 78.9% and 82.3% of the total, respectively. 42.1% of the strains at altitudes 1200-2300 m and > 3400 m showed strong and broad spectrum antagonistic activity, suggesting that there was a great potential for the isolation of actinomycete strains with strong anti-biotic capability at these altitudes. 24.1% of the antagonistic actinomycetes showed antagonism against Staphyloccocus aureu, and 2.4%, 6.9% and 11.2% of them showed activity toward Verticillium dahliae in cotton, Phytophthora sp. in strawberry and Neonectria radiciccla in ginseng, respectively. This study showed that the soil actinomycete antagonistic potentiality (SAAP) could be used as a quantitative indicator to evaluate the potential of antagonistic actinomycete resources in soil. PMID:22303680

  13. Biosurfactant produced from Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17: Characterization and its biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Ghosh, Mandakini; Chakraborti, Srijita; Jana, Sougata; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Kokare, Chandrakant; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    This investigation aims to isolate an Actinomycetes strain producing a biosurfactant from the unexplored region of industrial and coal mine areas. Actinomycetes are selected for this study as their novel chemistry was not exhausted and they have tremendous potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. The biosurfactant was characterized and further needed to be utilized for pharmaceutical dosage form. Isolation, purification, screening, and characterization of the Actinomycetes A17 were done followed by its fermentation in optimized conditions. The cell-free supernatant was used for the extraction of the biosurfactant and precipitated by cold acetone. The dried precipitate was purified by TLC and the emulsification index, surface tension and CMC were determined. The isolated strain with preferred results was identified as Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17 with high foam-forming properties. It gives lipase, amylase, gelatinase, and protease activity. The emulsification index was found to be 93±0.8 with surface tension 66.67 dyne/cm at the lowest concentration and cmc 0.6 μg/ml. These biosurfactants were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Therefore, it can be concluded that the biosurfactant produced by Actinomycetes nocardiopsis sp. strain A17 was found to have satisfactory results with high surface activity and emulsion-forming ability. PMID:25989147

  14. Biodiversity of Actinomycetes associated with Caribbean sponges and their potential for natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Jan; Stewart, Allison; Song, Bongkeun; Hill, Russell T; Wright, Jeffrey L

    2013-08-01

    Marine actinomycetes provide a rich source of structurally unique and bioactive secondary metabolites. Numerous genera of marine actinomycetes have been isolated from marine sediments as well as several sponge species. In this study, 16 different species of Caribbean sponges were collected from four different locations in the coastal waters off Puerto Rico in order to examine diversity and bioactive metabolite production of marine actinomycetes in Caribbean sponges. Sediments were also collected from each location, in order to compare actinomycete communities between these two types of samples. A total of 180 actinomycetes were isolated and identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of at least 14 new phylotypes belonging to the genera Micromonospora, Verruscosispora, Streptomyces, Salinospora, Solwaraspora, Microbacterium and Cellulosimicrobium. Seventy-eight of the isolates (19 from sediments and 59 from sponges) shared 100 % sequence identity with Micromonospora sp. R1. Despite having identical 16S rRNA sequences, the bioactivity of extracts and subsequent fractions generated from the fermentation of both sponge- and sediment-derived isolates identical to Micromonospora sp. R1 varied greatly, with a marked increase in antibiotic metabolite production in those isolates derived from sponges. These results indicate that the chemical profiles of isolates with high 16S rRNA sequence homology to known strains can be diverse and dependent on the source of isolation. In addition, seven previously reported dihydroquinones produced by five different Streptomyces strains have been purified and characterized from one Streptomyces sp. strain isolated in this study from the Caribbean sponge Agelas sceptrum. PMID:23344968

  15. Molecular, chemical and biological screening of soil actinomycete isolates in seeking bioactive peptide metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Imanparast, Somaye; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Due to the evolution of multidrug-resistant strains, screening of natural resources, especially actinomycetes, for new therapeutic agents discovery has become the interests of researchers. In this study, molecular, chemical and biological screening of soil actinomycetes was carried out in order to search for peptide-producing actinomycetes. Materials and Methods: 60 actinomycetes were isolated from soils of Iran. The isolates were subjected to molecular screening for detection NRPS (non-ribosomal peptide synthetases) gene. Phylogenic identification of NRPS containing isolates was performed. Chemical screening of the crude extracts was performed using chlorine o-dianisidine as peptide detector reagent and bioactivity of peptide producing strains was determined by antimicrobial bioassay. High pressure liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) with UV-visible spectroscopy was performed for detection of the metabolite diversity in selected strain. Results: Amplified NRPS adenylation gene (700 bp) was detected among 30 strains. Phylogenic identification of these isolates showed presence of rare actinomycetes genera among the isolates and 10 out of 30 strains were subjected to chemical screening. Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 showed antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal test pathogens. HPLC-MS and UV-visible spectroscopy results from the crude extract showed that this strain has probably the ability to produce new metabolites. Conclusion: By application of a combined approach, including molecular, chemical and bioactivity analysis, a promising strain of Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 was obtained. This strain had significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Strain Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 produce five unknown and most probably new metabolites with molecular weights of 274.2, 390.3, 415.3, 598.4 and 772.5. This strain had showed 99% similarity to Nocardia ignorata DSM 44496 T. PMID:26644870

  16. Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds. PMID:19597582

  17. Isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes from marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, M.; Esparis, A.; Fabregas, J.

    1983-07-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity. 13 references.

  18. ISOLATION AND DIVERSITY OF ACTINOMYCETES IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chesapeake Bay was investigated as a source of actinomycetes to creen for production of novel bioactive compounds. he presence of relatively large populations of actinoplanetes, chemotype IID actinomycetes in Chesapeake Bay sediment samples indicates that is an eminently suitable...

  19. Halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes from a marine saltern of Goa, India producing anti-bacterial metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ballav, Shuvankar; Kerkar, Savita; Thomas, Sabu; Augustine, Nimmy

    2015-03-01

    Marine salterns are estuarine ecosystems in Goa, receiving inputs from riverine and marine waters. The Salinity fluctuates between 0 and 300 psu which makes it a conducive niche for salt tolerant and salt loving Actinomycetales. Halotolerant and halophilic Actinomycetales producing anti-bacterial metabolites were studied from crystallizer pond sediments of Ribandar saltern, Goa. Three media viz. Starch casein, R2A and Inorganic salt starch agar at four different salinities (35, 50, 75 and 100 psu) were used for isolation. R2A agar at 35 psu was the most preferred by hypersaline actinomycetes. The dominant group was halotolerant Streptomyces spp. others being rare actinomycetes viz. Nocardiopsis, Micromonospora and Kocuria spp. More than 50% of the isolates showed anti-bacterial activity against one or more of the fifteen human pathogens tested. Eight strains from 4 genera showed consistent anti-bacterial activity and studied in detail. Most halotolerant isolates grew from 0 to 75 psu, with optimum antibiotic production at 35 psu whereas halophiles grew at 20 to 100 psu with optimum antibiotic production at 35 psu. Four Streptomyces strains showed multiple inhibition against test organisms while four rare actinomycetes were specific in their inhibitory activity. This is the first report of a halophilic Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and halotolerant Micromonospora sp. producing anti-bacterial compound(s) against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus citreus, and Vibrio cholerae, respectively. Sequential extraction with varying polarity of organic solvents showed that the extracts inhibited different test pathogens. These results suggest that halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes from marine salterns are a potential source of anti-bacterial compounds. PMID:25449757

  20. Modification of the protein expression pattern induced in the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. strain ACN14a-tsr by root exudates of its symbiotic host Alnus glutinosa and cloning of the sodF gene.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Y; Maréchal, J; Cournoyer, B; Normand, P; Domenach, A M

    2001-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to detect proteins induced in Frankia sp. strain ACN14a-tsr by root exudates of its symbiotic host, Alnus glutinosa. The 5 most prominent proteins were purified from 2-D gels and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. All of these proteins had a high percentage of similarity with known stress proteins. One protein match was the Fe superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD), another was a tellurite resistance protein (Ter), the third was a bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp); and two matches, differing only by their isoelectric point, were the same small heat shock protein (Hsp), a major immune reactive protein found in mycobacteria. This suggests that the symbiotic microorganism Frankia, first responds with a normal stress response to toxic root products of its symbiotic host plant. To confirm its identity, the gene corresponding to the Fe-SOD protein, sodF was isolated from a genomic library by a PCR-approach and sequenced. It is the first stress response gene characterized in Frankia. PMID:11467730

  1. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  2. Actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of semidesert soils of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norovsuren, Zh.; Zenova, G. M.; Mosina, L. V.

    2007-04-01

    The population density of actinomycetes in the desert-steppe soil, rhizosphere, and the above-ground parts of plants varies from tens to hundreds of thousands of colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of substrate. The actinomycetal complexes of the brown desert-steppe soil without plant roots are more diverse in their taxonomic composition than the actinomycetal complexes in the rhizosphere and the aboveground parts of plants. Additionally to representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, actinomycetes from the Nocardia, Saccharopolyspora, Thermomonospora, and Actinomadura genera were identified in the soil. The population density of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere and in the soil reached hundreds of thousand CFU/g; it considerably exceeded the population density of actinomycetes in the aboveground parts of plants. The maximum population density of actinomycetes was determined in the rhizosphere of Asparagus gobicus, Salsola pestifera, and Cleistogenes songorica.

  3. Actinomycete infections in humans--a review.

    PubMed

    Schaal, K P; Lee, H J

    1992-06-15

    Diseases caused by pathogenic aerobic and facultatively anaerobic actinomycetes differ considerably with respect to their etiology, pathogenesis, clinical appearance and epidemiology. Facultatively anaerobic (fermentative) actinomycetes may not only be involved etiologically in the three classical forms of cervicofacial, thoracic and abdominal actinomycoses, but also in infections of the female genital organs, the eye, the tissue adjacent to dental implantation elements and tooth extraction wounds. The species distribution of the fermentative actinomycetes isolated from these conditions varied to a certain, but characteristic, extent, as did the concomitant actinomycotic flora. The sex ratio reported for human Actinomyces infections (male:female = 3:1) appeared to be restricted to actinomycotic abscesses and empyemas. The prevailing pathogenic, obligately aerobic actinomycete species in Germany was found to be Nocardia farcinica followed by Nocardia asteroides. The comparatively high incidence of N. farcinica infections was chiefly due to the occurrence of nosocomial postoperative wound infections by this pathogen observed in two German hospitals. Besides surgical treatment, immunosuppressive treatment appeared to be the most common factor predisposing for nocardiosis. Recent observations strongly suggested that the spectrum of human nocardial infections in Germany has been changing, as regards the overall incidence, the prevalence of N. farcinica, the sex ratio, the mean age of patients, as well as the role of N. farcinica as a possibly important nosocomial pathogen. PMID:1612438

  4. Distribution of β-Lactamases in Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Ogawara, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Nao; Kudo, Takuji; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of β-lactamase activities in a collection of actinomycete strains was surveyed. Six of 127 strains were found to produce β-lactamase. This low frequency was in contrast to the case with Streptomyces species. The producing strains were not related phylogenetically. MICs of benzylpenicillin did not correlate with β-lactamase production. PMID:10582901

  5. Actinomycetes: A Source of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Anuja; Yadav, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulose is the most abundant biomass on earth. Agricultural, forest, and agroindustrial activities generate tons of lignocellulosic wastes annually, which present readily procurable, economically affordable, and renewable feedstock for various lignocelluloses based applications. Lignocelluloses are the focus of present decade researchers globally, in an attempt to develop technologies based on natural biomass for reducing dependence on expensive and exhaustible substrates. Lignocellulolytic enzymes, that is, cellulases, hemicellulases, and lignolytic enzymes, play very important role in the processing of lignocelluloses which is prerequisite for their utilization in various processes. These enzymes are obtained from microorganisms distributed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are an attractive microbial group for production of lignocellulose degrading enzymes. Various studies have evaluated the lignocellulose degrading ability of actinomycetes, which can be potentially implemented in the production of different value added products. This paper is an overview of the diversity of cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic actinomycetes along with brief discussion of their hydrolytic enzyme systems involved in biomass modification. PMID:26793393

  6. Antimicrobial Metabolites from a Marine-Derived Actinomycete in Vietnam's East Sea.

    PubMed

    Thi, Quyen Vu; Tran, Van Hieu; Maia, Huong Doan Thi; Le, Cong Vinh; Hong, Minh Le Thi; Murphy, Brian T; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Two new compounds, a quinoline alkaloid (1) and a 1,4-dioxane derivative (2), were isolated from culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete Micromonospora sp. (strain G019) by bioassay-guided fractionation. This actinomycete strain was isolated from sediment, collected at Cát Bà Peninsula, Vietnam. The taxonomic identification was achieved by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. On the basis of morphological and phylogenetic evidence, strain G019 was assigned to the genus Micromonospora. The structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic data analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR, and MS. Compound 1 was found to have antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MIC: 48 µg/mL), Salmonella enterica (MIC: 96 µg/mL) and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC: 128 µg/mL), while compound 2 showed inhibitory activity against Enterococcusfaecalis (MIC: 32 µg/mL) and Candida albicans (MIC: 64 µg/mL). PMID:26996018

  7. Inhibition of norsolorinic acid accumulation to Aspergillus parasiticus by marine actinomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peisheng; Shi, Cuijuan; Shen, Jihong; Wang, Kai; Gao, Xiujun; Li, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from the Yellow Sea and evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the production of norsolorinic acid using dual culture plate assay and agar diffusion methods. Among them, three strains showed strong antifungal activity and were subsequently identified as Streptomyces sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The supernatant from the fermentation of the MA01 strain was extracted sequentially with chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the activities of the extracts were determined by tip culture assay. The assay results show that both extracts inhibited mycelium growth and toxin production, and the inhibitory activities of the extracts increased as their concentrations increased. The results of this study suggest that marine actinomycetes are biologically important for the control of mycotoxins, and that these bacteria could be used as novel biopesticides against mycotoxins.

  8. Aerobic and microaerophilic actinomycetes of typical agropeat and peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    A high number (from tens of thousands to millions of CFU/g of soil) of actinomycetes and a high diversity of genera were found in typical peat and agropeat soils. Agricultural use increases the number and diversity of the actinomycete complexes of the peat soils. In the peat soils, the actinomycete complex is represented by eight genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharomonospora, and Microtetraspora. A considerable share of sporangial forms in the actinomycete complex of the peat soils not characteristic of the zonal soils was revealed. The number of actinomycetes that develop under aerobic conditions is smaller by 10-100 times than that of aerobic forms in the peat soils. Among the soil actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, and Microtetraspora, the microaerophilic forms were found; among the Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora, no microaerophilic representatives were revealed.

  9. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Chang-Jin; Lee, Jae-Chan; Ju, Yoon Jung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2012-12-01

    Members of the actinomycetes family are a rich source of bioactive compounds including diverse antibiotics. This study sought to identify novel and non-toxic biofilm inhibitors from the actinomycetes library for reducing the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. After the screening of 4104 actinomycetes strains, we found that the culture spent medium (1 %, v/v) of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by 90 % without affecting the growth of planktonic P. aeruginosa cells, while the spent media enhanced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 induced expression of phenazine, pyoverdine, pyochelin synthesis genes, and iron uptake genes in P. aeruginosa. The addition of exogenous iron restored the biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa in the presence of the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230, which suggests that the Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 strain interfered iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. Experiments on solvent extraction, heat treatment, and proteinase K treatment suggested that hydrophilic compound(s), possibly extracellular peptides or proteins from Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 cause the biofilm reduction of P. aeruginosa. Together, this study indicates that actinomycetes strains have an ability to control the biofilm of P. aeruginosa. PMID:22722911

  10. Nocarimidazoles A and B from a Marine-Derived Actinomycete of the Genus Nocardiopsis.

    PubMed

    Leutou, Alain S; Yang, Inho; Kang, Heonjoong; Seo, Eun Kyung; Nam, Sang-Jip; Fenical, William

    2015-11-25

    Chemical investigation of a marine-derived actinomycete isolated from marine sediments collected off the coast of southern California and identified as a Nocardiopsis sp. (strain CNQ115) led to the isolation of two new 4-aminoimidazole alkaloids, nocarimidazoles A (1) and B (2). The chemical structures of nocarimidazoles A and B were assigned by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data and through methylation to yield monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives. Nocarimidazoles A and B possess a 4-aminoimidazole ring combined with a conjugated carbonyl side chain, which is rarely found in microbial secondary metabolites. PMID:26474119

  11. Sequence-Based Identification of Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jean Baldus; Wallace, Richard J.; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Taylor, Tony; Imperatrice, Carol; Leonard, Deborah G. B.; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Mann, Linda; Jost, Kenneth C.; Nachamkin, Irving

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the utility of 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying clinically significant species of aerobic actinomycetes. A total of 28 reference strains and 71 clinical isolates that included members of the genera Streptomyces, Gordonia, and Tsukamurella and 10 taxa of Nocardia were studied. Methods of nonsequencing analyses included growth and biochemical analysis, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the 439-bp Telenti fragment of the 65 hsp gene, susceptibility testing, and, for selected isolates, high-performance liquid chromatography. Many of the isolates were included in prior taxonomic studies. Sequencing of Nocardia species revealed that members of the group were generally most closely related to the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains. However, the sequences of Nocardia transvalensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, and N. nova isolates were highly variable; and it is likely that each of these species contains multiple species. We propose that these three species be designated complexes until they are more taxonomically defined. The sequences of several taxa did not match any recognized species. Among other aerobic actinomycetes, each group most closely resembled the associated reference strain, but with some divergence. The study demonstrates the ability of partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify members of the aerobic actinomycetes, but the study also shows that a high degree of sequence divergence exists within many species and that many taxa within the Nocardia spp. are unnamed at present. A major unresolved issue is the type strain of N. asteroides, as the present one (ATCC 19247), chosen before the availability of molecular analysis, does not represent any of the common taxa associated with clinical nocardiosis. PMID:15184431

  12. Secondary Metabolites from an Actinomycete from Vietnam's East Sea.

    PubMed

    Thi, Quyen Vu; Tran, Van Hieu; Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Le, Cong Vinh; Hong, Min Le Thi; Murphy, Brian T; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of an antimicrobial extract prepared from culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete Nocardiopsis sp. (strain G057) led to the isolation of twelve compounds, 1-12. Compound 1 (2-[(2R-hydroxypropanoyl)amino]benzamide) was found to be a new enantiomeric isomer while compounds 2 (3-acetyl-4-hydroxycinnoline) and 3 (3,3'-bis-indole) were isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of 1-12 were determined by analyses of MS and 2D NMR data. All compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a panel of clinically significant microorganisms. Compound 1 selectively inhibited Escherichia coli (MIC: 16 µg/mL). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited antimicrobial activity against several strains of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans. Cytotoxic evaluation of compounds 1-3 against four cancer cell lines (KB, LU-1, HepG-2 and MCF-7) indicated that compound 3 produced a weak inhibition against KB and LU cell lines. Two remaining compounds, 1 and 2 were not cytotoxic, even at the concentration of 128 µg/mL. PMID:27169191

  13. Isolation of Mutants of the Nitrogen-Fixing Actinomycete Frankia

    PubMed Central

    Kakoi, Kentaro; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kamiharai, Toshihito; Tamari, Daiki; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frankia is a nitrogen (N)-fixing multicellular actinomycete which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with actinorhizal plants. Several aspects of Frankia N fixation and symbiosis are distinct, but genes involved in the specific features are largely unknown because of the lack of an efficient mutant screening method. In this study, we isolated mutants of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 using hyphae fragments mutagenized by chemical mutagens. Firstly, we isolated uracil auxotrophs as gain-of-function mutants resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). We obtained seven 5-FOA resistant mutants, all of which required uracil for growth. Five strains carried a frame shift mutation in orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase gene and two carried an amino acid substitution in the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Secondly, we isolated mutants showing loss-of-function phenotypes. Mutagenized hyphae were fragmented by ultrasound and allowed to multiply at their tips. Hyphae were fragmented again and short fragments were enriched by filtration through 5 μm pores filters. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed that colonies formed from the short hyphae fragments consisted of cells with an identical genotype. From the mutagenized colony population, we isolated three pigmentation mutants and a mutant with reduced N-fixation activity. These results indicate that our procedure is useful for the isolation of loss-of-function mutants using hyphae of Frankia. PMID:24389412

  14. Isolation of mutants of the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia.

    PubMed

    Kakoi, Kentaro; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kamiharai, Toshihito; Tamari, Daiki; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frankia is a nitrogen (N)-fixing multicellular actinomycete which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with actinorhizal plants. Several aspects of Frankia N fixation and symbiosis are distinct, but genes involved in the specific features are largely unknown because of the lack of an efficient mutant screening method. In this study, we isolated mutants of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 using hyphae fragments mutagenized by chemical mutagens. Firstly, we isolated uracil auxotrophs as gain-of-function mutants resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). We obtained seven 5-FOA resistant mutants, all of which required uracil for growth. Five strains carried a frame shift mutation in orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene and two carried an amino acid substitution in the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Secondly, we isolated mutants showing loss-of-function phenotypes. Mutagenized hyphae were fragmented by ultrasound and allowed to multiply at their tips. Hyphae were fragmented again and short fragments were enriched by filtration through 5 μm pores filters. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed that colonies formed from the short hyphae fragments consisted of cells with an identical genotype. From the mutagenized colony population, we isolated three pigmentation mutants and a mutant with reduced N-fixation activity. These results indicate that our procedure is useful for the isolation of loss-of-function mutants using hyphae of Frankia. PMID:24389412

  15. Screening and characterization of protease producing actinomycetes from marine saltern.

    PubMed

    Suthindhiran, Krish; Jayasri, Mangalam Achuthananda; Dipali, Dipa; Prasar, Apurva

    2014-10-01

    In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive actinomycetes, an alkaline protease producing halophilic strain Actinopolyspora sp. VITSDK2 was isolated from marine saltern, Southern India. The strain was identified as Actinopolyspora based on its phenotypic and phylogenetic characters. The protease was partially purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequently by DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The enzyme was further purified using HPLC and the molecular weight was found to be 22 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. The purified protease exhibited pH stability in a wide range of 4-12 with optimum at 10.0. The enzyme was found to be stable between 25 and 80 °C and displayed a maximum activity at 60 °C. The enzyme activity was increased marginally in presence of Mn(2+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) and decreased in presence of Cu(2+) . PMSF and DFP completely inhibited the activity suggesting it belongs to serine protease. Further, the proteolytic activity was abolished in presence of N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone suggesting this might be chymotrypsin-like serine protease. The protease was 96% active when kept for 10 days at room temperature. The results indicate that the enzyme belong to chymotrypsin-like serine protease exhibiting both pH and thermostability, which can be used for various applications in industries. PMID:24136565

  16. Screening Actinomycetes for Extracellular Peroxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, D. K.; Iqbal, M.; Miller, P.; McCarthy, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    A diverse collection of actinomycete strains were screened for production of extracellular peroxidase activity by adapting a chemiluminescence analysis system developed for horseradish peroxidase-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Extracellular peroxidase activity was found to be common but quantitatively variable, and this rapid and sensitive screening system permitted identification of a small group of high-producing strains. A range of spectrophotometric assays were compared for the measurement of peroxidase activity in concentrated culture supernatants of two selected thermophilic streptomycetes. Of these, the peroxide-dependent oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol was identified as the most robust and reproducible assay for quantitative studies. PMID:16535344

  17. Actinomycetes in garden soils of the city of Kirov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2013-05-01

    The population density, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetic complexes were studied in garden soils of the city of Kirov. The relationships between the structure of the complexes and the acidity, the concentrations of the mobile forms of heavy metals, and the soil humus content were analyzed. The specific features of the actinomycetic population in the garden soils of the city in comparison with the transport ecotopes and suburban territories were revealed. It was demonstrated that the actinomycetic complexes in the garden soils preserve their structural similarity with the actinomycetic complexes of the suburban forest parks despite certain changes in the composition of the dominant species and the relative abundance of the separate taxa. The obtained data indicate that the garden plots in the city contribute to the preservation of ecologically balanced ecosystems.

  18. Extremophilic and extremotolerant actinomycetes in different soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Manucharova, N. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2011-04-01

    Problems on the resistance of soil actinomycetes to various environmental factors (pH, salinity, temperature, and moisture) are discussed. Actinomycetes as a special group of prokaryotes were revealed to have a greater range of tolerance to these factors than was thought earlier. The regularities of the distribution of extremophilic and extremotolerant actinomycetes developing in unusual for mycelial bacteria conditions, their structural-functional characteristics, and their taxonomic composition were determined. The predominance of acidophilic representatives of the Micromonospora genus in acid soils (typical peat, soddy-podzolic, and taiga podzol) and the haloalkaliphilic Streptomyces pluricilirescens and S. prunicolor species in desert saline soils are shown. The specific features of the actinomycete complexes on thermal fields of the weakly developed stratified volcanic soils are described. In these complexes, the thermophilic forms were represented only by species of the Micromonospora genus; and the mesophilic forms, by Microbispora species. In the periodically heated desert soils, among the thermophilic actinomycetes, representatives of rare Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora and Streptosporangium genera along with Streptomyces species were indicated. The mechanisms of the resistance of the actinomycetes to the extreme environmental conditions are discussed.

  19. Identification and determination of extracellular phytate-degrading activity in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani-Nasrabadi, Reza; Greiner, Ralf; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Hamedi, Javad

    2012-07-01

    In this study 97 soil samples from different soil ecosystems were collected. The initial screening was performed on modified glycerol arginine agar (MGAA) to isolate common actinomycetes and on modified MGA-SE (MMGA-SE) to isolate rare actinomycetes. Sixty-seven isolates potentially producing extracellular phytate-degrading activity were identified. The potential to dephosphorylate phytate was confirmed in liquid culture for 46.3 % of the isolates. 12 strains were selected for a direct determination of their phytate-degrading capacity. The results highlighted that the selected isolates produced extracellular phytate-degrading activity; however their capacity in InsP(6) degradation was different. In addition the fermentation medium had an effect on the extent of phytate degradation. Some enzymatic properties of the phytases from isolate No. 43 and isolate No. 63 were determined after obtaining phytase-enriched samples. The enzymes had maximum phytate-degrading capability at 55 °C and pH 5 (isolate No. 43) and 37 °C and pH 7 (isolates No. 63), respectively. Due to their properties, the phytase of isolate No. 43 behaves like a histidine acid phytase, whereas the phytase of No. 63 showed similar enzymatic properties to the phytase of lily. To our knowledge, the results from this study demonstrated for the first time that actinomycetes produce extracellular phytate-degrading activity. By 16SrRNA sequencing, the more closely studied phytase producers were identified as Streptomyces sp. Isolate No. 43 showed 98 % identity to Streptomyces alboniger and S. venezuelae, while isolate No. 63 exhibited 98 % sequence identity to S. ambofaciens and S. lienomycini. PMID:22806166

  20. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential.

    PubMed

    Passari, Ajit K; Mishra, Vineet K; Saikia, Ratul; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Bhim P

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n = 22, 52.3%) of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n = 9, 21.4%), leaves (n = 6, 14.2%), flowers (n = 3, 7.1%), and petioles (n = 2, 4.7%). The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6%) in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India). From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  1. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Passari, Ajit K.; Mishra, Vineet K.; Saikia, Ratul; Gupta, Vijai K.; Singh, Bhim P.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n = 22, 52.3%) of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n = 9, 21.4%), leaves (n = 6, 14.2%), flowers (n = 3, 7.1%), and petioles (n = 2, 4.7%). The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6%) in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India). From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Enzymatic and Antifungal Activities of Soil-Actinomycetes Isolates and Their Molecular Identification by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Keikha, Nasser; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Nakhaei, Ali Reza; Yadegari, Mohammad Hossein; Shahidi Bonjar, Gholam Hossein; Amiri, Somayyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human cutaneous infection caused by a homogeneous group of keratinophilic fungi called dermatophytes. These fungi are the most common infectious agents in humans that are free of any population and geographic area. Microsporum canis is a cause of dermatophytosis (Tinea) in recent years in Iran and atypical strain has been isolated in Iran. Its cases occur sporadically due to M. canis transmission from puppies and cats to humans. Since this pathogenic dermatophyte is eukaryotes, chemical treatment with antifungal drugs may also affect host tissue cells. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to find a new antifungal agent of soil-Actinomycetes from Kerman province against M. canis and Actinomycete isolates were identified by PCR. Materials and Methods: A number of hundred Actinomycete isolated strains were evaluated from soil of Kerman province, for their antagonistic activity against the M. canis. M. canis of the Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) was obtained from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST). Electron microscope studies of these isolates were performed based on the physiological properties of these antagonists including lipase, amylase, protease and chitinase activities according to the relevant protocols and were identified using gene 16SrDNA. Results: In this study the most antagonist of Actinomycete isolates with antifungal activity against M. canis isolates of L1, D5, Ks1m, Km2, Kn1, Ks8 and Ks1 were shown in vitro. Electron microscopic studies showed that some fungal strains form spores, mycelia and spore chain. Nucleotide analysis showed that Ks8 had maximum homology (98%) to Streptomyces zaomyceticus strain xsd08149 and L1 displayed 100% homology to Streptomyces sp. HVG6 using 16SrDNA studies. Conclusions: Our findings showed that Streptomyces has antifungal effects against M. canis. PMID:26060560

  3. Antimicrobial potential of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Valli, S; Suvathi, Sugasini S; Aysha, OS; Nirmala, P; Vinoth, Kumar P; Reena, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment. Methods Twenty one strains of Actinomycetes were isolated from samples of Royapuram, Muttukadu, Mahabalipuram sea shores and Adyar estuary. Preliminary screening was done using cross-streak method against two gram-positive and eight gram-negative bacteria. The most potent strains C11 and C12 were selected from which antibacterial substances were extracted. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Molecular identification of those isolates was done. Results All those twenty one isolates were active against at least one of the test organisms. Morphological characters were recorded. C11 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (13.0±0.5 mm), Vibrio harveyi (11.0±0.2 mm), Pseudomonas species (12.0±0.3 mm). C12 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (16.0±0.4 mm), Bacillus subtilis (11.0±0.2 mm), Vibrio harveyi (9.0±0.1 mm), Pseudomonas species (10.0±0.2 mm). 16S rRNA pattern strongly suggested that C11 and C12 strains were Streptomyces species. Conclusions The results of the present investigation reveal that the marine Actinomycetes from coastal environment are the potent source of novel antibiotics. Isolation, characterization and study of Actinomycetes can be useful in discovery of novel species of Actinomycetes. PMID:23569952

  4. Moderately haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes in salt-affected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2009-12-01

    It was found that the population density of actinomycetes in solonchaks and saline desert soils varied from hundreds to tens of thousands of colony-forming units (CFUs) per 1 g of soil depending on soil type and was by 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the number of mycelial bacteria in main soil types. Actinomycetes grow actively in saline soils, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m per 1 g of soil. Domination of moderately halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes, which grow well under 5% NaCl and pH 8-9, is a specific feature of actinomycetal complexes in saline soils. Representatives of Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera were found among the haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes. Micromonospores demonstrated lower (than streptomycetes) adaptability to high salt concentrations. Investigation of the phylogenetic position of isolated dominant haloalkaliphilic strains of streptomycetes performed on the basis of sequencing of the gene 16S rRNA enabled identifying these strains as Streptomyces pluricolorescens and S. prunicolor.

  5. Characterization of a Truncated Lipoarabinomannan from the Actinomycete Turicella otitidis

    PubMed Central

    Gilleron, Martine; Garton, Natalie J.; Nigou, Jérôme; Brando, Thérèse; Puzo, Germain; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

    2005-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lipoglycans have been characterized from a range of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes and from the amycolate actinomycete Amycolatopsis sulphurea. To further understand the structural diversity of this family, we have characterized the lipoglycan of the otic commensal Turicella otitidis. T. otitidis LAM (TotLAM) has been determined to consist of a mannosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor unit carrying an (α 1→6)-linked mannan core and substituted with terminal-arabinosyl branches. Thus, TotLAM has a novel truncated LAM structure. Using the human monocytic THP-1 cell line, it was found that TotLAM exhibited only minimal ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha. These findings contribute further to our understanding of actinomycete LAM diversity and allow further speculation as to the correlation between LAM structure and the immunomodulatory activities of these lipoglycans. PMID:15659663

  6. [Ecophysiological Characteristics of actinomycetes of desert soils of Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zenova, G M; Kozhevin, P A; Manucharova, N A; Lubsanova, D A; Dubrova, M S

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the actinomycete complex in steppe-desert light brown salty soil of desert steppes of Mongolia is represented by the genera Streptomyces and Micromonospora. The species diversity of the genus Streptomyces, which dominates the complex, decreases with increasing osmolarity of the medium. The influence of environmental factors--temperature and osmolarity of medium--on the development of metabolically active members of the phylum Actinobacteria in the domain Bacteria of the prokaryotic microbial soil community was established. The proportion of metabolically active bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria increases with increasing osmolarity and incubation temperature of soil. The dominance of the filamentous metabolically active members of the phylum Actinobacteria over the unicellular organisms was shown. The halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from the steppe-desert soils were alkalotolerant, xerophilic, and thermotolerant and exhibited antimicrobial activity with respect to Gram-positive bacteria and actinomycetes. PMID:25731035

  7. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. Results A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi

  8. A novel taxonomic marker that discriminates between morphologically complex actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Geneviève; Traag, Bjørn A.; Sangal, Vartul; Mascini, Nadine; Hoskisson, Paul A.; Goodfellow, Michael; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2013-01-01

    In the era when large whole genome bacterial datasets are generated routinely, rapid and accurate molecular systematics is becoming increasingly important. However, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing does not always offer sufficient resolution to discriminate between closely related genera. The SsgA-like proteins are developmental regulatory proteins in sporulating actinomycetes, whereby SsgB actively recruits FtsZ during sporulation-specific cell division. Here, we present a novel method to classify actinomycetes, based on the extraordinary way the SsgA and SsgB proteins are conserved. The almost complete conservation of the SsgB amino acid (aa) sequence between members of the same genus and its high divergence between even closely related genera provides high-quality data for the classification of morphologically complex actinomycetes. Our analysis validates Kitasatospora as a sister genus to Streptomyces in the family Streptomycetaceae and suggests that Micromonospora, Salinispora and Verrucosispora may represent different clades of the same genus. It is also apparent that the aa sequence of SsgA is an accurate determinant for the ability of streptomycetes to produce submerged spores, dividing the phylogenetic tree of streptomycetes into liquid-culture sporulation and no liquid-culture sporulation branches. A new phylogenetic tree of industrially relevant actinomycetes is presented and compared with that based on 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:24153003

  9. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  10. Effects of marine actinomycete on the removal of a toxicity alga Phaeocystis globose in eutrophication waters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Su; Peng, Yun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Xu, Hong; Yu, Zhiming; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Phaeocystis globosa blooms in eutrophication waters can cause severely damage in marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. This study investigated the effect and role of an algicidal actinomycete (Streptomyces sp. JS01) on the elimination process of P. globosa. JS01 supernatant could alter algal cell membrane permeability in 4 h when analyzed with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were 7.2 times higher than that at 0 h following exposure to JS01 supernatant for 8 h, which indicated that algal cells suffered from oxidative damage. The Fv/Fm value which could reflect photosystem II (PS II) electron flow status also decreased. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of the photosynthesis related genes psbA and rbcS were suppressed by JS01 supernatant, which might induce damage to PS II. Our results demonstrated that JS01 supernatant can change algal membrane permeability in a short time and then affect photosynthesis process, which might block the PS II electron transport chain to produce excessive ROS. This experiment demonstrated that Streptomyces sp. JS01 could eliminate harmful algae in marine waters efficiently and may be function as a harmful algal bloom controller material. PMID:26042109

  11. Effects of marine actinomycete on the removal of a toxicity alga Phaeocystis globose in eutrophication waters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Su; Peng, Yun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Xu, Hong; Yu, Zhiming; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Phaeocystis globosa blooms in eutrophication waters can cause severely damage in marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. This study investigated the effect and role of an algicidal actinomycete (Streptomyces sp. JS01) on the elimination process of P. globosa. JS01 supernatant could alter algal cell membrane permeability in 4 h when analyzed with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were 7.2 times higher than that at 0 h following exposure to JS01 supernatant for 8 h, which indicated that algal cells suffered from oxidative damage. The Fv/Fm value which could reflect photosystem II (PS II) electron flow status also decreased. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of the photosynthesis related genes psbA and rbcS were suppressed by JS01 supernatant, which might induce damage to PS II. Our results demonstrated that JS01 supernatant can change algal membrane permeability in a short time and then affect photosynthesis process, which might block the PS II electron transport chain to produce excessive ROS. This experiment demonstrated that Streptomyces sp. JS01 could eliminate harmful algae in marine waters efficiently and may be function as a harmful algal bloom controller material. PMID:26042109

  12. Biology of Frankia strains, actinomycete symbionts of actinorhizal plants.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, D R; Silvester, W B

    1993-01-01

    Frankia strains are N2-fixing actinomycetes whose isolation and cultivation were first reported in 1978. They induce N2-fixing root nodules on diverse nonleguminous (actinorhizal) plants that are important in ecological successions and in land reclamation and remediation. The genus Frankia encompasses a diverse group of soil actinomycetes that have in common the formation of multilocular sporangia, filamentous growth, and nitrogenase-containing vesicles enveloped in multilaminated lipid envelopes. The relatively constant morphology of vesicles in culture is modified by plant interactions in symbiosis to give a diverse array of vesicles shapes. Recent studies of the genetics and molecular genetics of these organisms have begun to provide new insights into higher-plant-bacterium interactions that lead to productive N2-fixing symbioses. Sufficient information about the relationship of Frankia strains to other bacteria, and to each other, is now available to warrant the creation of some species based on phenotypic and genetic criteria. Images PMID:8336669

  13. The structural-functional organization of thermotolerant complexes of actinomycetes in desert and volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Kurapova, A. I.; Lysenko, A. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2009-05-01

    It has been found that the number of thermotolerant actinomycetes in strongly heated soils of deserts and volcanic regions is comparable to or exceeds the number of mesophilic actinomycetes. Among the latter group, streptomyces usually predominate; among thermotolerant actinomycetes, representatives of the Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Microtetraspora, and Microbispora genera are identified. Thermotolerant actinomycetes display the full cycle of their development in these soils. The method of fluorescent in situ hybridization has made it possible to determine that mycelial forms predominate among the metabolically active representatives of Actinobacteria; their portion increases with the rise in the temperature of soil incubation.

  14. Actinomycetes in Karstic caves of northern Spain (Altamira and Tito Bustillo).

    PubMed

    Groth, I; Vettermann, R; Schuetze, B; Schumann, P; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    A variety of isolation procedures were carried out to study the involvement of bacteria in the colonisation and biodeterioration of Spanish caves with paleolithic rock art (Altamira and Tito Bustillo). The applied techniques mainly aimed to isolate heterotrophic bacteria such as streptomycetes, nocardioform and coryneform actinomycetes, and other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes were the most abundant gram-positive bacteria in the caves. Actinomycetes revealed a great taxonomic diversity with the predominant isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Members of the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Amycolatopsis, Saccharothrix, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and coccoid actinomycetes (family Micrococcaceae) were also found. PMID:10353805

  15. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin; Weber, Tilmann; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-18

    Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of pharmacologically active and industrially relevant secondary metabolites. Unfortunately, many of them are still recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, which is a bottleneck for systematic metabolic engineering. To facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087) and actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9 were repaired through the error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, resulting in a library of deletions with variable sizes around the targeted sequence. If templates for HDR were provided at the same time, precise deletions of the targeted gene were observed with near 100% frequency. Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes. PMID:25806970

  16. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10–32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these

  19. [Secondary Metabolites from Marine Microorganisms. I. Secondary Metabolites from Marine Actinomycetes].

    PubMed

    Orlova, T I; Bulgakova, V G; Polin, A N

    2015-01-01

    Review represents data on new active metabolites isolated from marine actinomycetes published in 2007 to 2014. Marine actinomycetes are an unlimited source of novel secondary metabolites with various biological activities. Among them there are antibiotics, anticancer compounds, inhibitors of biochemical processes. PMID:26863742

  20. Molecular insights on the biosynthesis of antitumour compounds by actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Natural products are traditionally the main source of drug leads. In particular, many antitumour compounds are either natural products or derived from them. However, the search for novel antitumour drugs active against untreatable tumours, with fewer side‐effects or with enhanced therapeutic efficiency, is a priority goal in cancer chemotherapy. Microorganisms, particularly actinomycetes, are prolific producers of bioactive compounds, including antitumour drugs, produced as secondary metabolites. Structural genes involved in the biosynthesis of such compounds are normally clustered together with resistance and regulatory genes, which facilitates the isolation of the gene cluster. The characterization of these clusters has represented, during the last 25 years, a great source of genes for the generation of novel derivatives by using combinatorial biosynthesis approaches: gene inactivation, gene expression, heterologous expression of the clusters or mutasynthesis. In addition, these techniques have been also applied to improve the production yields of natural and novel antitumour compounds. In this review we focus on some representative antitumour compounds produced by actinomycetes covering the genetic approaches used to isolate and validate their biosynthesis gene clusters, which finally led to generating novel derivatives and to improving the production yields. PMID:21342461

  1. Studies on carboxymethyl cellulase produced by an alkalothermophilic actinomycete.

    PubMed

    George, S P; Ahmad, A; Rao, M B

    2001-04-01

    A novel alkalothermophilic actinomycete having optimum growth at pH 9 and 50 degrees C was isolated from self-heating compost from the Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh, India. Based on its morphology, susceptibility of spores to heat and novobiocin, guaninecytosine content of chromosomal DNA and cell wall composition, the organism was classified under Thermomonospora. The alkalothermophilic actinomycete produced 23 IU/ml carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase). The CMCase was purified by fractional ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by cellulose affinity chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. The CMCase had a molecular weight of 38 KD and pI of 4.1. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 5 and temperature 50 degrees C. The CMCase showed pH stability in the range 7-10. The enzyme retained 100% activity at 50 degrees C for 72 h and had half-lives of 7 and 3 h at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C, respectively. The CMCase was stable in the presence of commercial detergents such as Ariel, Henko and Surf Excel, indicating its potential as an additive to laundry detergents. PMID:11272024

  2. Diversity of Aquatic Actinomycetes in Lakes of the Middle Plateau, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, C.; Xu, L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 749 sediment and water samples were collected from 12 lakes of the Middle Plateau of Yunnan from 1983 to 1993. The diversity and biological characteristics of the aquatic actinomycetes in these lakes were studied. Sixteen genera of actinomycetes were isolated from these samples. Micromonospores assumed a notable dominance (from 39 to 89%) in the actinomycete populations of these lake sediments. Streptomycetes were the second most abundant organisms. The diversity and counts of actinomycetes varied with the season. Thermophilic actinomycetes have a wide distribution in these lakes, but their counts were smaller. The cell wall compositions of certain Micromonospora and Streptomyces strains from an alkaline lake revealed an unusual combination of glycine and isomers of diaminopimelic acid. It seems that aquatic actinomycetes play a significant role in the decomposition of organic substances, including some toxic compounds such as phenol, in these lakes. It also appears that aquatic actinomycetes are one of the important resources for screening useful enzymes and metabolites. PMID:16535213

  3. New Dimensions of Research on Actinomycetes: Quest for Next Generation Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Jose, Polpass Arul; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the discovery of streptomycin, the promise of natural products research on actinomycetes has been captivating researchers and offered an array of life-saving antibiotics. However, most of the actinomycetes have received a little attention of researchers beyond isolation and activity screening. Noticeable gaps in genomic information and associated biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes are mainly the reasons for this situation, which has led to a decline in the discovery rate of novel antibiotics. Recent insights gained from genome mining have revealed a massive existence of previously unrecognized biosynthetic potential in actinomycetes. Successive developments in next-generation sequencing, genome editing, analytical separation and high-resolution spectroscopic methods have reinvigorated interest on such actinomycetes and opened new avenues for the discovery of natural and natural-inspired antibiotics. This article describes the new dimensions that have driven the ongoing resurgence of research on actinomycetes with historical background since the commencement in 1940, for the attention of worldwide researchers. Coupled with increasing advancement in molecular and analytical tools and techniques, the discovery of next-generation antibiotics could be possible by revisiting the untapped potential of actinomycetes from different natural sources. PMID:27594853

  4. New Dimensions of Research on Actinomycetes: Quest for Next Generation Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Polpass Arul; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the discovery of streptomycin, the promise of natural products research on actinomycetes has been captivating researchers and offered an array of life-saving antibiotics. However, most of the actinomycetes have received a little attention of researchers beyond isolation and activity screening. Noticeable gaps in genomic information and associated biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes are mainly the reasons for this situation, which has led to a decline in the discovery rate of novel antibiotics. Recent insights gained from genome mining have revealed a massive existence of previously unrecognized biosynthetic potential in actinomycetes. Successive developments in next-generation sequencing, genome editing, analytical separation and high-resolution spectroscopic methods have reinvigorated interest on such actinomycetes and opened new avenues for the discovery of natural and natural-inspired antibiotics. This article describes the new dimensions that have driven the ongoing resurgence of research on actinomycetes with historical background since the commencement in 1940, for the attention of worldwide researchers. Coupled with increasing advancement in molecular and analytical tools and techniques, the discovery of next-generation antibiotics could be possible by revisiting the untapped potential of actinomycetes from different natural sources. PMID:27594853

  5. Studies on Actinomycetal Resources under Extreme Environments in the West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.

    2005-12-01

    s: Actinomycetes play a quite important role in natural ecological system and they are also profile producers of antibiotics, antitumor agents, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and immunomodifiers. which have been widely applied in industry, agriculture, forestry and pharmaceutical industry. In the past, the research work on actinomycetes was mainly concentrated on that of common habitats. Actinomycetes resources under extreme environments (including extreme high and low temperature, extreme high or low pH, high salt concentration etc.) have received comparatively little attention from microbiologists. Actinomycetes are regarded as one kind of sideline microorganisms and those under extreme environments are better materials for biological evolution and phylogenetic development in research. There are much more unknown species and much more worth researching for actinomycetes under extreme environments. There are many extreme environmental resources in the west of China. For example, wide range snow-mountains, basified soil and lakes, widely distributed acid and alkaline hot-springs in Yunnan provinces; more than 73.3 million hektares basified soil and salt lakes in Xinjiang Province and many unusual environments in Qinghai Province and other western Provinces. They were mostly precious natural resources and were destroyed, relatively fewer can provided us with unique conditions for study on actinomycetal resources under extreme environments. In recent years, our main work was focusing on study of extremophilic actinomycetal resources in the west of China by using conventional cultivation-methods and culture-independent methods (PCR-clone and DGGE/TGGE, etc), Results showed that large amount of unknown microbial resources (including actinomycetal resources) existed in natural extreme environments. Additionally, lots of new taxa were isolated and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Further, we got some new compounds with different bioactivities from these

  6. Purification and characterization of phosphonoglycans from Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphonates, compounds with direct C-P bonds, consist of a group of chemically diverse natural products, which play important roles in the global environment. We identified phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters from two actinomycete strains, Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauen...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain BMG5.12, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from Tunisian Soils.

    PubMed

    Nouioui, Imen; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Cantor, Michael N; Chen, Amy; Detter, J Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Hua, Susan Xinyu; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nordberg, Henrik P; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Sen, Arnab; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Wei, Chia-Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain BMG5.12, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from Tunisian soils with the ability to infect Elaeagnus angustifolia and Myrica gale. PMID:23846272

  8. Purification and characterization of phosphonoglycans from glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphonates, compounds with direct C-P bonds, consist of a group of chemically diverse natural products, which play important roles in the global environment. We identified phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters from two actinomycete strains, Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauen...

  9. Purification and characterization of phosphonoglycans from Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters from two actinomycete strains, Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338, were identified by screening for the PEP mutase gene, which is required for the biosynthesis of most phosphonates. Subsequent examination of the two strains...

  10. New Benzoxazine Secondary Metabolites from an Arctic Actinomycete

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyuho; Ahn, Chan-Hong; Shin, Yoonho; Won, Tae Hyung; Ko, Keebeom; Lee, Sang Kook; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Nam, Seung-Il; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Two new secondary metabolites, arcticoside (1) and C-1027 chromophore-V (2), were isolated along with C-1027 chromophore-III and fijiolides A and B (3–5) from a culture of an Arctic marine actinomycete Streptomyces strain. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated through NMR, mass, UV, and IR spectroscopy. The hexose moieties in 1 were determined to be d-glucose from a combination of acid hydrolysis, derivatization, and gas chromatographic analyses. Arcticoside (1) and C-1027 chromophore-V (2), which have a benzoxazine ring, inhibited Candida albicans isocitrate lyase. Chromophore-V (2) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against breast carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells and colorectal carcinoma cells (line HCT-116), with IC50 values of 0.9 and 2.7 μM, respectively. PMID:24796308

  11. Production of Bioactive Compounds by Actinomycetes and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Arthala Praveen; Viswanath, Buddolla; Saigopal, D. V. R.; Narasimha, Golla

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycete was isolated from mangrove soil collected from Nellore region of Andhra Pradesh, India, and screened for its ability to produce bioactive compounds. The cultural, morphological, and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequencing suggest that the isolated strain is Nocardiopsis alba. The bioactive compounds produced by this strain were purified by column chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of the isolated compounds (fractions) was estimated and fraction F2 showed very near values to the standard ascorbic acid. The potential fraction obtained by column chromatography was subjected to HPLC for further purification, then this purified fraction F2 was examined by FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy to elucidate its chemical structure. By spectral data, the structure of the isolated compound was predicted as “(Z)-1-((1-hydroxypenta-2,4-dien-1-yl)oxy)anthracene-9,10-dione.” PMID:24790761

  12. Specificity of actinomycetal complexes in urbanozems of the city of Kirov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.; Shirokikh, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    The number and composition of the actinomycetal population was studied in urbanozems in the city of Kirov. It was shown that the total population of actinomycetes was an order of magnitude lower than that in the background territories, and the generic structure of the actinomycetal complex and the species composition of the streptomycetes were transformed under the influence of the urbanization factors. The obtained data were compared with the concentrations of the mobile forms of Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn in different ecotopes (industrial, traffic, and recreation zones). The increase of the relative portion of micromonosporic actinomycetes in comparison with the background (reference) soils was observed in the complexes of the industrial and transport ecotopes mostly contaminated with heavy metals. It was found that the antibiotic potential of the streptomycetes in the contaminated soils was lower than in the soils of the background territories.

  13. [Study of natural mutiple drug resistance in actinomycetes of the genus Streptomyes].

    PubMed

    Puzynina, G G; Danilenko, V N; Lomovskaia, N D; Trenina, G A

    1977-10-01

    Natural strains of actinomycetes belonging to 3 systematic groups of the Streptomyces genera, i.e. blue, gray and globisporine were characterized for their resistance to antibiotics and sulfamids. The majority of the strains were shown to have stable inherited multiple resistence to a wide variety of antibiotics. Linkage analysis for resistance determinants in pairs showed random distribution of most of the determinants among the members of the blue and grey groups of the actinomycetes. Non-random distribution of the resistance determinants to Tc, Cm and Rm in TcCm, TcRm conbinations for the blue group actinomycetes and to Om, Rm, Fa, Lm, Em, Rm and Tc in OmRm, FaLm, EmPm, TcOm combinations among the members of the grey group of actinomycetes was found. PMID:921232

  14. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soil with potential as biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Gonzalo; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Abad, Manuel; Fornes, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The search for new biocontrol strategies to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms has become widely widespread due to environmental concerns. Among actinomycetes, Streptomyces species have been extensively studied since they have been recognized as important sources of antibiotics. Actinomycete strains were isolated from a calcareous soil, 2 two-phase olive mill waste ('alperujo') composts, and the compost-amended soil by using selective media, and they were then co-cultured with 5 phytopathogenic fungi and 1 bacterium to perform an in vitro antagonism assay. Forty-nine actinomycete strains were isolated, 12 of them showing a great antagonistic activity towards the phytopathogenic microorganisms tested. Isolated strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic procedures. Eleven isolates concerned the genus Streptomyces and 1 actinomycete with chitinolytic activity belonged to the genus Lechevalieria. PMID:21190787

  15. Marine actinomycetes as an emerging resource for the drug development pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zotchev, Sergey B

    2012-04-30

    Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinomycetes from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, yielding many important anti-infective and anti-cancer drugs. However, frequent re-discovery of the same compounds in terrestrial actinomycetes have made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinomycetes isolated from the marine environment currently receive considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. This review highlights achievements and challenges in the isolation of marine actinomycetes, some examples of bioactive metabolites identified by conventional screening, and presents new developments in the field of genome mining and heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters leading to the discovery of novel compounds. PMID:21683100

  16. Actinomycetes inhibit filamentous fungi from the cuticle of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants.

    PubMed

    Dângelo, Rômulo Augusto Cotta; de Souza, Danival José; Mendes, Thais Demarchi; Couceiro, Joel da Cruz; Lucia, Terezinha Maria Castro Della

    2016-03-01

    Actinomycetes bacteria associated with leafcutter ants produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties against Escovopsis, a fungus specialized in attacking the gardens of fungus-growing ants, which denies the ants their food source. Because previous studies have used fungi isolated from fungus gardens but not from ant integument, the aims of the present study were to isolate actinomycetes associated with the cuticle of the Acromyrmex spp. and to quantify their inhibition abilities against the filamentous fungal species carried by these ants. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes had varied strain-dependent effects on several filamentous fungal species in addition to antagonistic activity against Escovopsis. The strain isolated from Acromyrmex balzani was identified as a Streptomyces species, whereas the remaining isolates were identified as different strains belonging to the genus Pseudonocardia. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that actinomycetes do not act specifically against Escovopsis mycoparasites and may have the ability to inhibit other species of pathogenic fungi. PMID:26805489

  17. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes of plants and organic horizons in tundra and taiga soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrova, M. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Yakushev, A. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Makarova, E. P.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    It has been revealed that in organic horizons and plants of the tundra and taiga ecosystems under low temperatures, actinomycetal complexes form. The population density of psychrotolerant actinomycetes in organic horizons and plants reaches tens and hundreds of thousands CFU/g of substrate or soil, and decreases in the sequence litters > plants > soils > undecomposed plant remains > moss growths. The mycelium length of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches 220 m/g of substrate. Application of the FISH method has demonstrated that metabolically active psychrotolerant bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria constitute 30% of all metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the Bacterià domain of the prokaryotic microbial community of soils and plants. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes in tundra and taiga ecosystems possess antimicrobial properties.

  18. Diversity of actinomycetes isolated from subseafloor sediments after prolonged low-temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Ulanova, Dana; Goo, Kian-Sim

    2015-05-01

    Subseafloor sediments present an untapped source of novel bacterial species with industrially important bioactivities. Subseafloor core samples collected during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 315, 316, and 331 and stored in Kochi Core Center at -80 °C for 1 to 4 years were used for cultivation-based study of viable actinomycetes. In total, more than 100 actinomycete-like colonies were isolated from two deep-frozen subseafloor sediment samples. Isolated actinomycetes showed close similarity to known Actinotalea, Dietzia, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Microbacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella species and were halotolerant. Bioactivity assays revealed that two of the isolates were producing potent antibacterial compound(s) and one isolate was having antifungal activity. Our study demonstrated that deep-frozen subseafloor core samples could be a potential source of viable actinomycetes, which may be used in drug discovery. PMID:25381631

  19. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  20. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Sreevidya, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Kudapa, H.; Varshney, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20 °C to 40 °C, pH range of 7–11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  1. Isolation and characterization of actinomycete antagonists of a fungal root pathogen.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D L; Lynch, J M; Whipps, J M; Ousley, M A

    1993-11-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected isolates were screened for in vitro antagonism towards Pythium ultimum by use of a Difco cornmeal agar assay procedure. Five isolates were very strong antagonists of the fungus, four were strong antagonists, and ten others were weakly antagonistic. The remaining isolates showed no antagonism by this assay. Additional studies showed that several of the P. ultimum antagonists also strongly inhibited growth of other root-pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates showing antifungal activity in the in vitro assay were also tested for their effects on the germination and short-term growth of lettuce plants in glasshouse pot studies in the absence of pathogens. None of the actinomycetes prevented seed germination, although half of the isolates retarded seed germination and outgrowth of the plants by 1 to 3 days. During 18-day growth experiments, biomass yields of some actinomycete-inoculated plants were reduced in comparison with untreated control plants, although all plants appeared healthy and well rooted. None of the actinomycetes significantly enhanced plant growth over these short-term experiments. For some, but not all, actinomycetes, some correlations between delayed seed germination and reduced 18-day plant biomass yields were seen. For others, plant biomass yields were not reduced despite an actinomycete-associated delay in seed germination and plant outgrowth. Preliminary glasshouse experiments indicated that some of the actinomycetes protect germinating lettuce seeds against

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Actinomycete Antagonists of a Fungal Root Pathogen †

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Don L.; Lynch, James M.; Whipps, John M.; Ousley, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected isolates were screened for in vitro antagonism towards Pythium ultimum by use of a Difco cornmeal agar assay procedure. Five isolates were very strong antagonists of the fungus, four were strong antagonists, and ten others were weakly antagonistic. The remaining isolates showed no antagonism by this assay. Additional studies showed that several of the P. ultimum antagonists also strongly inhibited growth of other root-pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates showing antifungal activity in the in vitro assay were also tested for their effects on the germination and short-term growth of lettuce plants in glasshouse pot studies in the absence of pathogens. None of the actinomycetes prevented seed germination, although half of the isolates retarded seed germination and outgrowth of the plants by 1 to 3 days. During 18-day growth experiments, biomass yields of some actinomycete-inoculated plants were reduced in comparison with untreated control plants, although all plants appeared healthy and well rooted. None of the actinomycetes significantly enhanced plant growth over these short-term experiments. For some, but not all, actinomycetes, some correlations between delayed seed germination and reduced 18-day plant biomass yields were seen. For others, plant biomass yields were not reduced despite an actinomycete-associated delay in seed germination and plant outgrowth. Preliminary glasshouse experiments indicated that some of the actinomycetes protect germinating lettuce seeds against

  3. Stimulation of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production by actinomycetes after cyclic chlorination in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Yi, Min; Alum, Absar

    2015-01-01

    The impact of fluctuation in chlorine residual on actinomycetes and the production of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were studied in cast-iron and PVC model distribution systems. Actinomycetes were spiked in each system and continued operation for a 12-day non-chlorine experiment, resulting in no changes in actinomycetes and MIB concentrations. Three cyclic chlorination events were performed and chlorine residuals were maintained as follows: 1.0 mg L(-1) for 24 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0.5 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h and 2 mg L(-1) for 24 h. After each chlorination event, 2 -3 log decrease in actinomycetes was noted in both systems. However, within 48 h at 0 mg L(-1) chlorine, the actinomycetes recovered to the pre-chlorination levels. On the contrary, MIB concentration in both systems remained un-impacted after the first cycle and increased by fourfold (< 5 to > 20 mg L(-1)) after the second cycle, which lasted through the third cycle despite the fact that actinomycetes numbers fluctuated 2-3 logs during this time period. For obtaining biofilm samples from field, water meters were collected from municipality drinking water distribution systems located in central Arizona. The actinomycetes concentration in asbestos cement pipe and cast iron pipe averaged 3.1 × 10(3) and 1.9 × 10(4) CFU cm(-2), respectively. The study shows that production of MIB is associated with changes in chlorine residual in the systems. This is the first report of cyclic chlorine shock as a stimulus for MIB production by actinomycetes in drinking water distribution system's ecology. PMID:25723062

  4. Psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong

    2014-01-01

    Psoas abscesses are classified into primary or secondary according to infectious etiology. However, the psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection is very rare. Here we report a case of psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection in a young woman. The disease was treated successfully. A literature review of psoas abscess in relation to its etiology, identification, and difficulties in the treatment is also presented. PMID:25356161

  5. Bioactive Potential of Actinomycetes from Less Explored Ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Nonmycobacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Gopikrishnan; Subramaniam, Balaji; Ramasamy, Balagurunathan

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive potential of actinomycetes isolated from certain less explored Indian ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other nonmycobacterial pathogens was investigated. Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples collected from desert, coffee plantation, rubber forest, and hill area and their cultural and micromorphological characteristics were studied. Crude extracts were prepared by agar surface fermentation and tested against M. tuberculosis isolates by luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay at 100 µg/mL. Activity against nonmycobacterial pathogens was studied by agar plug method. Totally 54 purified cultures of actinomycetes including 43 Streptomyces and 11 non-Streptomyces were isolated. While screening for antitubercular activity, extracts of 39 actinomycetes showed activity against one or more M. tuberculosis isolates whereas 27 isolates exhibited antagonistic activity against nonmycobacterial pathogens. In particular crude extracts from sixteen actinomycete isolates inhibited all the three M. tuberculosis isolates tested. Findings of the present study concluded that less explored ecosystems investigated in this study are the potential resource for bioactive actinomycetes. Further purification and characterization of active molecule from the potential extracts will pave the way for determination of MIC, toxicity, and specificity studies.

  6. Continuing hunt for endophytic actinomycetes as a source of novel biologically active metabolites.

    PubMed

    Masand, Meeta; Jose, Polpass Arul; Menghani, Ekta; Jebakumar, Solomon Robinson David

    2015-12-01

    Drug-resistant pathogens and persistent agrochemicals mount the detrimental threats against human health and welfare. Exploitation of beneficial microorganisms and their metabolic inventions is most promising way to tackle these two problems. Since the successive discoveries of penicillin and streptomycin in 1940s, numerous biologically active metabolites have been discovered from different microorganisms, especially actinomycetes. In recent years, actinomycetes that inhabit unexplored environments have received significant attention due to their broad diversity and distinctive metabolic potential with medical, agricultural and industrial importance. In this scenario, endophytic actinomycetes that inhabit living tissues of plants are emerging as a potential source of novel bioactive compounds for the discovery of drug leads. Also, endophytic actinomycetes are considered as bio-inoculants to improve crop performance through organic farming practices. Further efforts on exploring the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the plants warrant the likelihood of discovering new taxa and their metabolites with novel chemical structures and biotechnological importance. This mini-review highlights the recent achievements in isolation of endophytic actinomycetes and an assortment of bioactive compounds. PMID:26410426

  7. Diversity, bioactivities, and metabolic potentials of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from traditional medicinal plants in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng; Feng, Zhi-Xiang; Tian, Jie-Wei; Lei, Zu-Chao; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chu, Yi-Wen; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic activity of the actinomycetes community, including 13 traditional medicinal plants collected in Sichuan province, China, using multiple approaches such as morphological and molecular identification methods, bioactivity assays, and PCR screening for genes involved in antibiotics biosynthesis. 119 endophytic actinomycetes were recovered; 80 representative strains were chosen for 16S rRNA gene partial sequence analyses, with 66 of them being affiliated to genus Streptomyces and the remaining 14 strains being rare actinomycetes. Antimicrobial tests showed that 12 (15%) of the 80 endophytic actinomycetes displayed inhibitory effects against at least one indicator pathogens, which were all assigned to the genus Streptomyces. In addition, 87.5% and 58.8% of the isolates showed anticancer and anti-diabetic activities, respectively. Meanwhile, the anticancer activities of the isolates negatively correlated with their anti-diabetic activities. Based on the results of PCR screening, five genes, PKS-I, PKS-II, NRPS, ANSA, and oxyB, were detected in 55.0%, 58.8%, 90.0%, 18.8% and 8.8% of the 80 actinomycetes, respectively. In conclusion, the PCR screening method employed in the present study was conducive for screening and selection of potential actinomycetes and predicting potential secondary metabolites, which could overcome the limitations of traditional activity screening models. PMID:26721714

  8. Bioactive Potential of Actinomycetes from Less Explored Ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Nonmycobacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Radhakrishnan; Venugopal, Gopikrishnan; Subramaniam, Balaji; Ramasamy, Balagurunathan; Kumar, Vanaja

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive potential of actinomycetes isolated from certain less explored Indian ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other nonmycobacterial pathogens was investigated. Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples collected from desert, coffee plantation, rubber forest, and hill area and their cultural and micromorphological characteristics were studied. Crude extracts were prepared by agar surface fermentation and tested against M. tuberculosis isolates by luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay at 100 µg/mL. Activity against nonmycobacterial pathogens was studied by agar plug method. Totally 54 purified cultures of actinomycetes including 43 Streptomyces and 11 non-Streptomyces were isolated. While screening for antitubercular activity, extracts of 39 actinomycetes showed activity against one or more M. tuberculosis isolates whereas 27 isolates exhibited antagonistic activity against nonmycobacterial pathogens. In particular crude extracts from sixteen actinomycete isolates inhibited all the three M. tuberculosis isolates tested. Findings of the present study concluded that less explored ecosystems investigated in this study are the potential resource for bioactive actinomycetes. Further purification and characterization of active molecule from the potential extracts will pave the way for determination of MIC, toxicity, and specificity studies. PMID:27437460

  9. Influence of moisture on the vital activity of actinomycetes in a cultivated low-moor peat soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Doroshenko, E. A.; Likhacheva, A. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.; Pochatkova, T. N.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2007-05-01

    It was found that the actinomycetal complex of a cultivated low-moor peat soil is characterized by a high population density and diversity of actinomycetes; representatives of eleven genera were isolated from this soil: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Microbispora, Microtetraspora, Streptosporangium, Nocardioides, Saccharomonospora, Kibdelosporangium, and Thermomonospora. Some genera were isolated from the soil under all the studied levels of soil moisture. The so-called rare (rarely occurring) genera (Saccharomonospora, Kibdelosporangium, and Thermomonospora) were isolated upon the low level of soil moisture, which ensured an absence of competition from the more abundant actinomycetes. Spores of all the studied actinomycetes could germinate under the low moisture level (a w = 0.67). The level of moisture a w = 0.98 was found to be optimal for the development of the actinomycetes. The complete cycle of the development of all the actinomycetes up to spore formation occurring was only observed under the high moisture level (a w = 0.98).

  10. Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi sp. nov.: A Multitolerant Actinomycete Isolated from Dolomitic Marble

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Hofner, Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Hezbri, Karima; Gtari, Maher; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    A novel Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic actinobacterium, tolerant to mitomycin C, heavy metals, metalloids, hydrogen peroxide, desiccation, and ionizing- and UV-radiation, designated G18T, was isolated from dolomitic marble collected from outcrops in Samara (Namibia). The growth range was 15–35°C, at pH 5.5–9.5 and in presence of 1% NaCl, forming greenish-black coloured colonies on GYM Streptomyces agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for other representatives of the genus Geodermatophilus. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and small amount of diphosphatidylglycerol. MK-9(H4) was the dominant menaquinone and galactose was detected as diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0 and the unsaturated C17:1ω8c and C16:1ω7c. The 16S rRNA gene showed 97.4–99.1% sequence identity with the other representatives of genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G18T is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi. Type strain is G18T (= DSM 44209T = CCUG 63018T). The INSDC accession number is HF970583. The novel R software package lethal was used to compute the lethal doses with confidence intervals resulting from tolerance experiments. PMID:25114928

  11. Study on the flocculability of the Arthrobacter sp., an actinomycete resuscitated from the VBNC state.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Xiuying; Ding, Linxian; Yokota, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A bioflocculant with high flocculating activity, LC13-SF, produced by strain LC13(T) which was in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, and which was woken up by Rpf (resuscitation promoting factor), was systematically investigated with regard to its fermentation conditions and flocculating activity. The key parameters influencing the bioflocculant LC13-SF were investigated through measuring the optical density at 660 (OD(660)) of the fermentation liquid and the optical density at 550 (OD(550)) of the centrifugal supernatant. The flocculating efficiency and the Zeta potentials were chosen as the response variables for the study of the flocculating activity. The results showed that the optimal conditions for bioflocculant LC13-SF production were a fermentation time of 72 h, an initial pH of 7.0, a fermentation temperature of 30°C and a shaking speed of 150 r/min. The optimized flocculating process was as follows: a final volume percentage of bioflocculant LC13-SF and 0.5% (w/w) CaCl(2) were 1.5 and 5%, respectively in a 4 g/L Kaolin suspension, and the system pH was adjusted to 8.0. Under these conditions, the flocculating efficiency and the absolute value of the Zeta potential reached 94.83% and 4.37, respectively. PMID:22806783

  12. Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi sp. nov.: a multitolerant actinomycete isolated from dolomitic marble.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Hofner, Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Hezbri, Karima; Gtari, Maher; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    A novel Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic actinobacterium, tolerant to mitomycin C, heavy metals, metalloids, hydrogen peroxide, desiccation, and ionizing- and UV-radiation, designated G18T, was isolated from dolomitic marble collected from outcrops in Samara (Namibia). The growth range was 15-35°C, at pH 5.5-9.5 and in presence of 1% NaCl, forming greenish-black coloured colonies on GYM Streptomyces agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for other representatives of the genus Geodermatophilus. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and small amount of diphosphatidylglycerol. MK-9(H4) was the dominant menaquinone and galactose was detected as diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0 and the unsaturated C17:1 ω8c and C16:1 ω7c. The 16S rRNA gene showed 97.4-99.1% sequence identity with the other representatives of genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G18T is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi. Type strain is G18T (=DSM 44209T=CCUG 63018T). The INSDC accession number is HF970583. The novel R software package lethal was used to compute the lethal doses with confidence intervals resulting from tolerance experiments. PMID:25114928

  13. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. Strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W.; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, J. Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Gtari, Maher; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavromatis, K; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S.

    2013-01-01

    Members of actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. stain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.

  14. Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodbhane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina L; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida. PMID:23516220

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain CcI6, a Salt-Tolerant Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodule of Casuarina cunninghamiana.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Samira R; Oshone, Rediet; Hurst, Sheldon G; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a 5.57-Mbp draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain CcI6, a salt-tolerant nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casurina cunninghamiana grown in Egyptian soils. PMID:24435877

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain CcI6, a Salt-Tolerant Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodule of Casuarina cunninghamiana

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Samira R.; Oshone, Rediet; Hurst, Sheldon G.; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a 5.57-Mbp draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain CcI6, a salt-tolerant nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casurina cunninghamiana grown in Egyptian soils. PMID:24435877

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Soil Actinomycete Kocuria rhizophila▿

    PubMed Central

    Takarada, Hiromi; Sekine, Mitsuo; Kosugi, Hiroki; Matsuo, Yasunori; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Omata, Seiha; Kishi, Emi; Shimizu, Ai; Tsukatani, Naofumi; Tanikawa, Satoshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2008-01-01

    The soil actinomycete Kocuria rhizophila belongs to the suborder Micrococcineae, a divergent bacterial group for which only a limited amount of genomic information is currently available. K. rhizophila is also important in industrial applications; e.g., it is commonly used as a standard quality control strain for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Sequencing and annotation of the genome of K. rhizophila DC2201 (NBRC 103217) revealed a single circular chromosome (2,697,540 bp; G+C content of 71.16%) containing 2,357 predicted protein-coding genes. Most of the predicted proteins (87.7%) were orthologous to actinobacterial proteins, and the genome showed fairly good conservation of synteny with taxonomically related actinobacterial genomes. On the other hand, the genome seems to encode much smaller numbers of proteins necessary for secondary metabolism (one each of nonribosomal peptide synthetase and type III polyketide synthase), transcriptional regulation, and lateral gene transfer, reflecting the small genome size. The presence of probable metabolic pathways for the transformation of phenolic compounds generated from the decomposition of plant materials, and the presence of a large number of genes associated with membrane transport, particularly amino acid transporters and drug efflux pumps, may contribute to the organism's utilization of root exudates, as well as the tolerance to various organic compounds. PMID:18408034

  18. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-09-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene encoding a putative membrane-anchored GH18 chitinase (Tfu0868) from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was produced as SUMO fusion protein and, upon removal of the SUMO domain, soluble pure TfChi18A was obtained with yields typically amounting to 150mg per litre of culture. The enzyme was found to be relatively thermostable (apparent Tm=57.5°C) but not particularly thermoactive, the optimum temperature being 40-45°C. TfChi18A bound to α- and β-chitin and degraded both these substrates. Interestingly, activity towards colloidal chitin was minimal and in this case, substrate inhibition was observed. TfChi18A also cleaved soluble chito-oligosaccharides and showed a clear preference for substrates having five sugars or more. While these results show that TfChi18A is a catalytically competent GH18 chitinase, the observed catalytic rates were low compared to those of well-studied GH18 chitinases. This suggests that TfChi18A is not a true chitinase and not likely to endow T. fusca with the ability to grow on chitin. PMID:27108953

  19. Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov., Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov., isolated from plant roots, and emended description of the genus Phytohabitans.

    PubMed

    Inahashi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Omura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoko

    2012-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated K09-0627(T), was isolated from the roots of an orchid collected in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Two actinomycete strains K11-0047(T) and K11-0057(T) were isolated from the roots of Rumex acetosa and Houttuynia cordata collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Phytohabitans, and that they were closely related to each other and to Phytohabitans suffuscus K07-0523(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the three isolates and Phytohabitans suffuscus were below 70%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values and phenotypic characteristics, the strains should be classified as novel species in the genus Phytohabitans, for which the names Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov. (type strain, K09-0627(T)=JCM 17387(T)=NBRC 107702(T)=DSM 45551(T)), Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0047(T)=JCM 17829(T)=NBRC 108638(T)=BCC 48146(T)) and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0057(T)=JCM 17830(T)=NBRC 108639(T)=BCC 48147(T)) are proposed. PMID:22228668

  20. Actinomycetes for Marine Drug Discovery Isolated from Mangrove Soils and Plants in China

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kui; Gao, An-Hui; Xie, Qing-Yi; Gao, Hao; Zhuang, Ling; Lin, Hai-Peng; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Jia; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Goodfellow, Michael; Ruan, Ji-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a largely unexplored source for actinomycetes with the potential to produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Consequently, we set out to isolate, characterize and screen actinomycetes from soil and plant material collected from eight mangrove sites in China. Over 2,000 actinomycetes were isolated and of these approximately 20%, 5%, and 10% inhibited the growth of Human Colon Tumor 116 cells, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, while 3% inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a protein related to diabetes. In addition, nine isolates inhibited aurora kinase A, an anti-cancer related protein, and three inhibited caspase 3, a protein related to neurodegenerative diseases. Representative bioactive isolates were characterized using genotypic and phenotypic procedures and classified to thirteen genera, notably to the genera Micromonospora and Streptomyces. Actinomycetes showing cytotoxic activity were assigned to seven genera whereas only Micromonospora and Streptomyces strains showed anti-PTP1B activity. We conclude that actinomycetes isolated from mangrove habitats are a potentially rich source for the discovery of anti-infection and anti-tumor compounds, and of agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. PMID:19370169

  1. Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges: Sources for Chemical and Phylogenetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Yang, Chen; Horn, Hannes; Hajjar, Dina; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery. PMID:24824024

  2. Actinomycetes from the South China Sea sponges: isolation, diversity, and potential for aromatic polyketides discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges often harbor dense and diverse microbial communities including actinobacteria. To date no comprehensive investigation has been performed on the culturable diversity of the actinomycetes associated with South China Sea sponges. Structurally novel aromatic polyketides were recently discovered from marine sponge-derived Streptomyces and Saccharopolyspora strains, suggesting that sponge-associated actinomycetes can serve as a new source of aromatic polyketides. In this study, a total of 77 actinomycete strains were isolated from 15 South China Sea sponge species. Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 12 families and 20 genera, among which three rare genera (Marihabitans, Polymorphospora, and Streptomonospora) were isolated from marine sponges for the first time. Subsequently, β-ketoacyl synthase (KSα) gene was used as marker for evaluating the potential of the actinomycete strains to produce aromatic polyketides. As a result, KSα gene was detected in 35 isolates related to seven genera (Kocuria, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, and Streptomyces). Finally, 10 strains were selected for small-scale fermentation, and one angucycline compound was detected from the culture extract of Streptomyces anulatus strain S71. This study advanced our knowledge of the sponge-associated actinomycetes regarding their diversity and potential in producing aromatic polyketides. PMID:26483773

  3. Phylogenetic characterization of culturable actinomycetes associated with the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from Gulf of Mannar.

    PubMed

    Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Manju, Sivalingam; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is a virtually untapped source of novel actinomycete diversity and its metabolites. Investigating the diversity of actinomycetes in other marine macroorganisms, like seaweeds and sponges, have resulted in isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. Actinomycetes diversity associated with corals and their produced metabolites have not yet been explored. Hence, in this study we attempted to characterize the culturable actinomycetes population associated with the coral Acropora digitifera. Actinomycetes were isolated from the mucus of the coral wherein the actinomycetes count was much higher when compared with the surrounding seawater and sediment. Actinobacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene primers were used for identifying the isolates at the molecular level in addition to biochemical tests. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes revealed several polymorphic groups within the isolates. Sequencing and blast analysis of the isolates revealed that some isolates had only 96.7% similarity with its nearest match in GenBank indicating that they may be novel isolates at the species level. The isolated actinomycetes exhibited good antibacterial activity against various human pathogens. This study offers for the first time a prelude about the unexplored culturable actinomycetes diversity associated with a scleractinian coral and their bioactive capabilities. PMID:21105906

  4. Ecological and Taxonomic Features of Actinomycetal Complexes in Soils of the Lake Elton Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Dubrova, M. S.; Kuznetsova, A. I.; Gracheva, T. A.; Manucharova, N. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2016-02-01

    In the sor (playa) solonchaks of chloride and sulfate-chloride salinity (the content of readily soluble salts is 0.9-1.0%) in the delta of the Khara River discharging into Lake Elton, the number of mycelial actinobacteria (actinomycetes) is low ((2-3) × 103 CFU/g of soil). At a distance from the water's edge, these soils are substituted for the light chestnut ones, for which an elevated number of actinomycetes (an order of magnitude higher than in the sor solonchaks) and a wider generic spectrum are characteristic. The actinomycetal complex is included the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, whereas in the sor solonchaks around the lake, representatives of Micromonospora were not found.

  5. Actinomycetal complexes in drained peat soils of the taiga zone upon pyrogenic succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Glushkova, N. A.; Bannikov, M. V.; Shvarov, A. P.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-04-01

    The number and diversity of actinomycetes in peat soils vary in dependence on the stage of pyrogenic succession. In the cultivated peat soil, the number of actinomycetes after fires decreases by three-four times, mainly at the expense of acidophilic and neutrophilic groups. An increase in the number of mycelial prokaryotes (at the expense of alkaliphilic forms) is seen on the fifth year of functioning of the pyrogenic peat soil. The species diversity of streptomycetes in peat soils also decreases after fires. An increase in the range of streptomycetal species at the expense of neutrophilic and alkaliphilic forms takes place on the fifth year of the pyrogenic succession. Parameters of the actinomycetal complex—the population density, species composition, and ecological features—are the criteria whose changes allow us to judge the state of peat soils in the course of their pyrogenic succession.

  6. Isolation and identification of biocontrol agent Streptomyces rimosus M527 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dandan; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Xianhao; Yu, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens and as plant growth promoters. In this study, a total of 320 actinomycetes were isolated from various habitats in China. Among which, 77 strains have been identified as antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum which usually caused fusarium wilt of cucumber. Of these, isolate actinomycete M527 not only displayed broad-spectrum antifungal activity but also showed the strongest antagonistic activity against the spore germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. In pot experiments, the results indicated that isolate M527 could promote the shoot growth and prevent the development of the disease on cucumber caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. The control efficacy against seedling fusarium wilt of cucumber after M527 fermentation broth root-irrigation was up to 72.1% as compared to control. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate M527 was identified as Streptomyces rimosus. PMID:27192632

  7. Analysis of coenzyme A activated compounds in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Cabruja, Matías; Lyonnet, Bernardo Bazet; Millán, Gustavo; Gramajo, Hugo; Gago, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Acyl-CoAs are crucial compounds involved in essential metabolic pathways such as the Krebs cycle and lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolisms, and they are also key signal molecules involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid biosynthesis in many organisms. In this study, we took advantage of the high selectivity of mass spectrometry and developed an ion-pairing reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (IP-RP-HPLC/ESI-HRMS) method to carry on a comprehensive analytical determination of the wide range of fatty acyl-CoAs present in actinomycetes. The advantage of using a QTOF spectrometer resides in the excellent mass accuracy over a wide dynamic range and measurements of the true isotope pattern that can be used for molecular formula elucidation of unknown analytes. As a proof of concept, we used this assay to determine the composition of the fatty acyl-CoA pools in Mycobacterium, Streptomyces, and Corynebacterium species, revealing an extraordinary difference in fatty acyl-CoA amounts and species distribution between the three genera and between the two species of mycobacteria analyzed, including the presence of different chain-length carboxy-acyl-CoAs, key substrates of mycolic acid biosynthesis. The method was also used to analyze the impact of two fatty acid synthase inhibitors on the acyl-CoA profile of Mycobacterium smegmatis, which showed some unexpected low levels of C24 acyl-CoAs in the isoniazid-treated cells. This robust, sensitive, and reliable method should be broadly applicable in the studies of the wide range of bacteria metabolisms in which acyl-CoA molecules participate. PMID:27270600

  8. Effect of cadmium on soil bacteria and actinomycetes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.E.; Wollum, A.G. II

    1981-04-01

    Soil procaryotic populations were evaluated from a soybean field (Glycine max L.) that had been amended 3 years previously with Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/ 2 1/2H/sub 2/O) at rates corresponding to 0, 6, 22, and 40 kg Cd/ha. Replicate aliquots of soil suspensions from the treated plots were plated on media containing increasing concentrations of Cd. This was done to determine if soil bacteria and actinomycetes (procaryotes) that were tolerant of Cd had developed in Cd-treated soils. It was found that the level of DTPA-TEA extractable soil Cd had no influence on the development of Cd-tolerant soil populations on media amended with Cd. Rather, it was found that low levels of media Cd retarded procaryote growth, whereas high levels did not. This also occurred regardless of the level of soil extractable Cd. Soil moisture at the time of sampling was found to be inversely related to procaryote numbers on media containing 0 ppM Cd and directly related on media containing 10, 20, and 40 ppM Cd. On media containing 5 ppM Cd, numbers of soil organisms were low with respect to the control and other Cd media levels and had no relationship to soil moisture. Growth rate constants of 58 pure cultured bacteria were determined at Cd concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppM in liquid media. The organisms exhibited tolerant, intolerant, and stimulated responses of Cd; however, 50% were intolerant to 5 ppM Cd but tolerant at concentrations > 5 ppM.

  9. Crystallochemical transformation of phyllosilicates under the impact of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Omarova, E. O.; Lobakova, E. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Manucharov, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of the crystallochemical structure of phyllosilicates (vermiculite and biotite) under the impact of growing cyanobacterial and actinomycetal associations, as well as monocultures of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes, has been studied. The character of the mineral transformation depends on their crystallochemical structure and the type of biota. The most significant changes take place in the contact zone between minerals and microbial associations; the effect of microbial monocultures is smaller. The transformation of biotite proceeds via the stage of ordered mica-vermiculite (smectite) neoformation (rectorite); the destruction of vermiculite has been identified.

  10. Discovery of pentangular polyphenols hexaricins A-C from marine Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 by genome mining.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Chen, Haiyan; Guo, Zhengyan; Liu, Ning; Li, Jine; Huang, Ying; Xiang, Wensheng; Chen, Yihua

    2016-05-01

    Many novel microbial nature products were discovered from Actinobacteria by genome mining methods. However, only a few number of genome mining works were carried out in rare actinomycetes. An important reason precluding the genome mining efforts in rare actinomycetes is that most of them are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. Herein, we chose the rare marine actinomycete Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 to explore its secondary metabolite diversity by genome mining. The genetic manipulation method has never been established for Streptosporangium strains. At first, we set up the genetic system of Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 unprecedentedly. The draft genome sequencing of Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 revealed that it contains more than 20 cryptic secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. A type II polyketide synthases-containing cluster (the hex cluster) was predicted to encode compounds with a pentangular polyphenol scaffold by in silico analysis. The products of the hex cluster were uncovered by comparing the metabolic profile of Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 with that of the hex30 inactivated mutant, in which a key ketoreductase gene was disrupted. Finally, three pentangular polyphenols were isolated and named as hexaricins A (1), B (2), and C (3). The inconsistency of the stereochemistry of C-15 in hexaricins A, B, and C indicates a branch point in their biosynthesis. Finally, the biosynthetic pathway of the hexaricins was proposed based on bioinformatics analysis. PMID:26754814

  11. Alkaloids from the Mangrove-Derived Actinomycete Jishengella endophytica 161111

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Kong, Fandong; Wei, Jingjing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Hong, Kui; Zhu, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    A new alkaloid, 2-(furan-2-yl)-6-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (1), along with 12 known compounds, 2-(furan-2-yl)-5-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (2), (S)-4-isobutyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (3), (S)-4-isopropyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (4), (4S)-4-(2-methylbutyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (5), (S)-4-benzyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (6), flazin (7), perlolyrine (8), 1-hydroxy-β-carboline (9), lumichrome (10), 1H-indole-3-carboxaldehyde (11), 2-hydroxy-1-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone (12), and 5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (13), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of an endophytic actinomycetes, Jishengella endophytica 161111. The new structure 1 and the absolute configurations of 2–6 were determined by spectroscopic methods, J-based configuration analysis (JBCA) method, lactone sector rule, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 8–11 were active against the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 with IC50 and selectivity index (SI) values of 38.3(±1.2)/25.0(±3.6)/39.7(±5.6)/45.9(±2.1) μg/mL and 3.0/16.1/3.1/11.4, respectively. The IC50 and SI values of positive control, ribavirin, were 23.1(±1.7) μg/mL and 32.2, respectively. The results showed that compound 9 could be a promising new hit for anti-H1N1 drugs. The absolute configurations of 2–5, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and the specific rotations of 3–6 were also reported here for the first time. PMID:24451190

  12. Alkaloids from the mangrove-derived actinomycete Jishengella endophytica 161111.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Kong, Fandong; Wei, Jingjing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Hong, Kui; Zhu, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    A new alkaloid, 2-(furan-2-yl)-6-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (1), along with 12 known compounds, 2-(furan-2-yl)-5-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (2), (S)-4-isobutyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (3), (S)-4-isopropyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (4), (4S)-4-(2-methylbutyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (5), (S)-4-benzyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (6), flazin (7), perlolyrine (8), 1-hydroxy-β-carboline (9), lumichrome (10), 1H-indole-3-carboxaldehyde (11), 2-hydroxy-1-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone (12), and 5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (13), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of an endophytic actinomycetes, Jishengella endophytica 161111. The new structure 1 and the absolute configurations of 2-6 were determined by spectroscopic methods, J-based configuration analysis (JBCA) method, lactone sector rule, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 8-11 were active against the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 with IC50 and selectivity index (SI) values of 38.3(±1.2)/25.0(±3.6)/39.7(±5.6)/45.9(±2.1) μg/mL and 3.0/16.1/3.1/11.4, respectively. The IC50 and SI values of positive control, ribavirin, were 23.1(±1.7) μg/mL and 32.2, respectively. The results showed that compound 9 could be a promising new hit for anti-H1N1 drugs. The absolute configurations of 2-5, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and the specific rotations of 3-6 were also reported here for the first time. PMID:24451190

  13. Red Soils Harbor Diverse Culturable Actinomycetes That Are Promising Sources of Novel Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Ning; Li, Xiaomin; Ding, Yun; Shang, Fei; Gao, Yongsheng; Ruan, Jisheng

    2015-01-01

    Red soils, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of southern China, are characterized by low organic carbon, high content of iron oxides, and acidity and, hence, are likely to be ideal habitats for acidophilic actinomycetes. However, the diversity and biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes in such habitats are underexplored. Here, a total of 600 actinomycete strains were isolated from red soils collected in Jiangxi Province in southeast China. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a high diversity of the isolates, which were distributed into 26 genera, 10 families, and 7 orders within the class Actinobacteria; these taxa contained at least 49 phylotypes that are likely to represent new species within 15 genera. The isolates showed good physiological potentials for biosynthesis and biocontrol. Chemical screening of 107 semirandomly selected isolates spanning 20 genera revealed the presence of at least 193 secondary metabolites from 52 isolates, of which 125 compounds from 39 isolates of 12 genera were putatively novel. Macrolides, polyethers, diketopiperazines, and siderophores accounted for most of the known compounds. The structures of six novel compounds were elucidated, two of which had a unique skeleton and represented characteristic secondary metabolites of a putative novel Streptomyces phylotype. These results demonstrate that red soils are rich reservoirs for diverse culturable actinomycetes, notably members of the families Streptomycetaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, and Streptosporangiaceae, with the capacity to synthesize novel bioactive compounds. PMID:25724963

  14. Biodiversity, Anti-Trypanosomal Activity Screening, and Metabolomic Profiling of Actinomycetes Isolated from Mediterranean Sponges.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; MacIntyre, Lynsey; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Horn, Hannes; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponge-associated actinomycetes are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In the present study, a total of 64 actinomycetes were isolated from 12 different marine sponge species that had been collected offshore the islands of Milos and Crete, Greece, eastern Mediterranean. The isolates were affiliated to 23 genera representing 8 different suborders based on nearly full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Four putatively novel species belonging to genera Geodermatophilus, Microlunatus, Rhodococcus and Actinomycetospora were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of < 98.5% to currently described strains. Eight actinomycete isolates showed bioactivities against Trypanosma brucei brucei TC221 with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <20 μg/mL. Thirty four isolates from the Milos collection and 12 isolates from the Crete collection were subjected to metabolomic analysis using high resolution LC-MS and NMR for dereplication purposes. Two isolates belonging to the genera Streptomyces (SBT348) and Micromonospora (SBT687) were prioritized based on their distinct chemistry profiles as well as their anti-trypanosomal activities. These findings demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of utilizing metabolomics tools to prioritize chemically unique strains from microorganism collections and further highlight sponges as rich source for novel and bioactive actinomycetes. PMID:26407167

  15. Antimicrobial biosynthetic potential and genetic diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gohain, Anwesha; Gogoi, Animesh; Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Singh, Bhim P; Gupta, Vijai K; Sharma, Rajeev; Saikia, Ratul

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes are one of the primary groups that share symbiotic relationships with medicinal plants and are key reservoir of biologically active compounds. In this study, six selective medicinal plants were targeted for the first time for endophytic actinomycetes isolation from Gibbon Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam, India, during winter and summer and 76 isolates were obtained. The isolates were found to be prevalent in roots followed by stem and leaves. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 16 genera, including rare genera, Verrucosispora, Isoptericola and Kytococcus, which have never been previously reported as endophytic. The genus Streptomyces (66%) was dominant in both seasons. Shannon's diversity index showed that Azadirachta indica (1.49), Rauwolfia serpentina (1.43) and Emblica officinalis (1.24) were relatively good habitat for endophytic actinomycetes. Antimicrobial strains showed prevalence of polyketide synthase (PKS) type-II (85%) followed by PKS type-I (14%) encoded in the genomes. Expression studies showed 12-fold upregulation of PKSII gene in seventh day of incubation for Streptomyces antibioticus (EAAG90). Our results emphasize that the actinomycetes assemblages within plant tissue exhibited biosynthetic systems encoding for important biologically active compounds. PMID:26347302

  16. Artificial Chromosomes to Explore and to Exploit Biosynthetic Capabilities of Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Alduina, Rosa; Gallo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important source of biologically active compounds, like antibiotics, antitumor agents, and immunosuppressors. Genome sequencing is revealing that this class of microorganisms has larger genomes relative to other bacteria and uses a considerable fraction of its coding capacity (5–10%) for the production of mostly cryptic secondary metabolites. To access actinomycetes biosynthetic capabilities or to improve the pharmacokinetic properties and production yields of these chemically complex compounds, genetic manipulation of the producer strains can be performed. Heterologous expression in amenable hosts can be useful to exploit and to explore the genetic potential of actinomycetes and not cultivable but interesting bacteria. Artificial chromosomes that can be stably integrated into the Streptomyces genome were constructed and demonstrated to be effective for transferring entire biosynthetic gene clusters from intractable actinomycetes into more suitable hosts. In this paper, the construction of several shuttle Escherichia coli-Streptomyces artificial chromosomes is discussed together with old and new strategies applied to improve heterologous production of secondary metabolites. PMID:22919271

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Planomonospora sphaerica JCM9374, a Rare Actinomycete

    PubMed Central

    Dohra, Hideo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Inoue, Yuto

    2016-01-01

    Planomonospora sphaerica is a rare actinomycete that is a potential antibiotic producer. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. sphaerica strain JCM9374. This is the first genome report of a bacterium belonging to the genus Planomonospora. The genome information of P. sphaerica will contribute to studies on the structure and function of antibiotics. PMID:27492001

  18. Anthracimycin, a potent anthrax antibiotic from a marine-derived actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Nam, Sang-Jip; Locke, Jeffrey B; Kauffman, Christopher A; Beatty, Deanna S; Paul, Lauren A; Fenical, William

    2013-07-22

    Licensed to kill: A new antibiotic, anthracimycin (see scheme), produced by a marine-derived actinomycete in saline culture, shows significant activity toward Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax infections. Chlorination of anthracimycin gives a dichloro derivative that retains activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as anthrax, but also shows activity against selected Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23776159

  19. Biodiversity, Anti-Trypanosomal Activity Screening, and Metabolomic Profiling of Actinomycetes Isolated from Mediterranean Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; MacIntyre, Lynsey; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Horn, Hannes; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponge–associated actinomycetes are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In the present study, a total of 64 actinomycetes were isolated from 12 different marine sponge species that had been collected offshore the islands of Milos and Crete, Greece, eastern Mediterranean. The isolates were affiliated to 23 genera representing 8 different suborders based on nearly full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Four putatively novel species belonging to genera Geodermatophilus, Microlunatus, Rhodococcus and Actinomycetospora were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of < 98.5% to currently described strains. Eight actinomycete isolates showed bioactivities against Trypanosma brucei brucei TC221 with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <20 μg/mL. Thirty four isolates from the Milos collection and 12 isolates from the Crete collection were subjected to metabolomic analysis using high resolution LC-MS and NMR for dereplication purposes. Two isolates belonging to the genera Streptomyces (SBT348) and Micromonospora (SBT687) were prioritized based on their distinct chemistry profiles as well as their anti-trypanosomal activities. These findings demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of utilizing metabolomics tools to prioritize chemically unique strains from microorganism collections and further highlight sponges as rich source for novel and bioactive actinomycetes. PMID:26407167

  20. Population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated to the rhizosphere of Theobroma cacao

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Tâmara R.; da Silva, Augusto C.M.; Soares, Ana Cristina F.; de Souza, Jorge T.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of growth-promoting bacteria, only a reduced number of studies were conducted with these microorganisms on Theobroma cacao. The objectives of this work were to study the population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated with the rhizosphere of cacao as a first step in their application in plant growth promotion and biological control. The populations densities of actinomycetes in soil and cacao roots were similar, with mean values of 1,0 x 106 CFU/g and 9,6 x 105 CFU/g, respectively. All isolates selected and used in this study were identified through sequencing analyses of a fragment of the rpoB gene that encodes the β-subunit of the RNA polymerase as species of the genus Streptomyces. In vitro cellulolytic, xilanolytic and chitinolytic activity, indolacetic acid production and phosphate solubilization activities were observed in most of the isolates tested. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that actinomycetes account for a higher percentage of the total population of culturable bacteria in soil than on cacao roots. Additionally, actinomycetes from the cacao rhizosphere are genetically diverse and have potential applications as agents of growth promotion. PMID:24031247

  1. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jennifer R.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Teshima, Hazuki; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Huntemann, Marcel; Wei, Chia-Lin; Han, James; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, K; Szeto, Ernest; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Sello, Jason K.

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Planomonospora sphaerica JCM9374, a Rare Actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Dohra, Hideo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Inoue, Yuto; Kodani, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Planomonospora sphaerica is a rare actinomycete that is a potential antibiotic producer. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. sphaerica strain JCM9374. This is the first genome report of a bacterium belonging to the genus Planomonospora The genome information of P. sphaerica will contribute to studies on the structure and function of antibiotics. PMID:27492001

  3. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

  4. A mixed community of actinomycetes produce multiple antibiotics for the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Attine ants live in an intensely studied tripartite mutualism with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, which provides food to the ants, and with antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria. One hypothesis suggests that bacteria from the genus Pseudonocardia are the sole, co-evolved mutualists of attine ants and are transmitted vertically by the queens. A recent study identified a Pseudonocardia-produced antifungal, named dentigerumycin, associated with the lower attine Apterostigma dentigerum consistent with the idea that co-evolved Pseudonocardia make novel antibiotics. An alternative possibility is that attine ants sample actinomycete bacteria from the soil, selecting and maintaining those species that make useful antibiotics. Consistent with this idea, a Streptomyces species associated with the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus was recently shown to produce the well-known antifungal candicidin. Candicidin production is widespread in environmental isolates of Streptomyces, so this could either be an environmental contaminant or evidence of recruitment of useful actinomycetes from the environment. It should be noted that the two possibilities for actinomycete acquisition are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Results In order to test these possibilities we isolated bacteria from a geographically distinct population of A. octospinosus and identified a candicidin-producing Streptomyces species, which suggests that they are common mutualists of attine ants, most probably recruited from the environment. We also identified a Pseudonocardia species in the same ant colony that produces an unusual polyene antifungal, providing evidence for co-evolution of Pseudonocardia with A. octospinosus. Conclusions Our results show that a combination of co-evolution and environmental sampling results in the diversity of actinomycete symbionts and antibiotics associated with attine ants. PMID:20796277

  5. Sensitivity of Various Bacteria, Including Actinomycetes, and Fungi to Cadmium and the Influence of pH on Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

    1977-01-01

    A variety of microorganisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive eubacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, were tested for their sensitivity to cadmium (Cd). In general, the actinomycetes were more tolerant to Cd than were the eubacteria; gram-negative eubacteria were more tolerant to Cd than were gram-positive eubacteria. The period of exponential growth of the eubacteria and actinomycetes was extended in the presence of Cd. Wide extremes in sensitivity to Cd were noted among the fungi; there was no correlation between the class of fungus and tolerance to Cd. Fungal sporulation was more sensitive to Cd than was mycelial growth, as spore formation was inhibited at Cd concentrations that were noninhibitory to mycelial proliferation. The toxicity of Cd to the eubacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi appeared to be pH dependent, as toxicity was generally potentiated at pH 8 or 9. PMID:16345227

  6. Presence, molecular characteristics and geosmin producing ability of actinomycetes isolated from South Korean terrestrial and aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Kim, Yun S; Kim, Min-Jeong; Oh, Sung-Ae; Choi, Ilhwan; Choi, Jaewon; Park, Jong-Geun; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Yeon; Lee, Kyeunghee; Lee, Chan Hee

    2011-01-01

    The unpleasant odor of drinking water is one of the major problems in many water utilities in the world. Actinomycetes have long been associated with odorous compounds. Considering the paucity of research on Actinomycetes producing odorous compounds in South Korea, presence of Actinomycetes, their molecular characteristics and ability to produce odorous compounds were investigated in this study. Findings confirmed the presence of Actinomycetes in surface soil, sediment, and water samples from four sites: two artificial lakes [Paldang and Cheongpyeong (CP)], and two streams [Gyeongan (GA) and Yangpyeong]. Surface soil and sediment from CP area had the greatest concentration of Actinomycetes (8.2 x 10(7) and 6.8 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFUs)/gram, dry weight, respectively). When water samples are considered, samples from GA had the highest concentration (1.9 x 10(2) CFU/mL). 16S rRNA sequencing and molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that Streptomyces was the dominant genus (64.1%). In addition, the isolated Actinomycetes synthesized 5.4 ng/L geosmin as demonstrated by thermal desorption unit-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:22049774

  7. Biodegradation of cis-1,4-Polyisoprene Rubbers by Distinct Actinomycetes: Microbial Strategies and Detailed Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Linos, Alexandros; Berekaa, Mahmoud M.; Reichelt, Rudolf; Keller, Ulrike; Schmitt, Jürgen; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Several actinomycetes isolated from nature were able to use both natural rubber (NR) and synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber (IR) as a sole source of carbon. According to their degradation behavior, they were divided into two groups. Representatives of the first group grew only in direct contact to the rubber substrate and led to considerable disintegration of the material during cultivation. The second group consisted of weaker rubber decomposers that did not grow adhesively, as indicated by the formation of clear zones (translucent halos) around bacterial colonies after cultivation on NR dispersed in mineral agar. Taxonomic analysis of four selected strains based on 16S rRNA similarity examinations revealed two Gordonia sp. strains, VH2 and Kb2, and one Mycobacterium fortuitum strain, NF4, belonging to the first group as well as one Micromonospora aurantiaca strain, W2b, belonging to the second group. Schiff's reagent staining tests performed for each of the strains indicated colonization of the rubber surface, formation of a bacterial biofilm, and occurrence of compounds containing aldehyde groups during cultivation with NR latex gloves. Detailed analysis by means of scanning electron microscopy yielded further evidence for the two different microbial strategies and clarified the colonization efficiency. Thereby, strains VH2, Kb2, and NF4 directly adhered to and merged into the rubber material, while strain W2b produced mycelial corridors, especially on the surface of IR. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy comprising the attenuated total reflectance technique was applied on NR latex gloves overgrown by cells of the Gordonia strains, which were the strongest rubber decomposers. Spectra demonstrated the decrease in number of cis-1,4 double bonds, the formation of carbonyl groups, and the change of the overall chemical environment, indicating that an oxidative attack at the double bond is the first metabolic step of the biodegradation process. PMID:10742254

  8. Volatile terpenes from actinomycetes: a biosynthetic study correlating chemical analyses to genome data.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Patrick; Citron, Christian A; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2013-11-25

    The volatile terpenes of 24 actinomycetes whose genomes have been sequenced (or are currently being sequenced) were collected by use of a closed-loop stripping apparatus and identified by GC/MS. The analytical data were compared against a phylogenetic analysis of all 192 currently available sequences of bacterial terpene cyclases (excluding geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol synthases). In addition to the several groups of terpenes with known biosynthetic origin, selinadienes were identified as a large group of biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes that are produced by several streptomycetes. The detection of a large number of previously unrecognised side products of known terpene cyclases proved to be particularly important for an in depth understanding of biosynthetic pathways to known terpenes in actinomycetes. Interpretation of the chemical analytical data in the context of the phylogenetic tree of bacterial terpene cyclases pointed to the function of three new enzymes: (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase, selina-3,7(11)-diene synthase and aristolochene synthase. PMID:24243698

  9. Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by an actinomycete in pure culture.

    PubMed Central

    Parales, R E; Adamus, J E; White, N; May, H D

    1994-01-01

    An actinomycete capable of sustained aerobic growth on 1,4-dioxane was isolated from a dioxane-contaminated sludge samples. The actinomycete, CB1190, grows on 1,4-dioxane as the sole carbon and energy source with a generation time of approximately 30 h. CB1190 degrades 1,4-dioxane at a rate of 0.33 mg of dioxane min-1 mg of protein-1 and mineralizes 59.5% of the dioxane to CO2. CB1190 also grows with other cyclic and linear ethers as the sole carbon and energy sources, including 1,3-dioxane, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydropyran, diethyl ether, and butyl methyl ether. CB1190 is capable of aerobic autotrophic growth on H2 and CO2. PMID:7811088

  10. Inhibition of Vibrio biofilm formation by a marine actinomycete strain A66.

    PubMed

    You, JianLan; Xue, XiaoLi; Cao, LiXiang; Lu, Xin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, LiXin; Zhou, ShiNing

    2007-10-01

    China remains by far the largest aquaculture producer in the world. However, biofilms formed by pathogenic Vibrio strains pose serious problems to marine aquaculture. To provide a strategy for biofilm prevention, control, and eradication, extracts from 88 marine actinomycetes were screened. Thirty-five inhibited the biofilm formation of Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio anguillarum at a concentration of 2.5% (v/v). Thirty-three of the actinomycete extracts dispersed the mature biofilm. Six extracts inhibited the quorum-sensing system of V. harveyi by attenuating the signal molecules N-acylated homoserine lactones' activity. Strain A66, which was identified as Streptomyces albus, both attenuated the biofilms and inhibited their quorum-sensing system. It is suggested that strain A66 is a promising candidate to be used in future marine aquaculture. PMID:17624525

  11. Isolation and characterization of novel marine-derived actinomycete taxa rich in bioactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Magarvey, Nathan A; Keller, Jessica M; Bernan, Valerie; Dworkin, Martin; Sherman, David H

    2004-12-01

    A unique selective enrichment procedure has resulted in the isolation and identification of two new genera of marine-derived actinobacteria. Approximately 90% of the microorganisms cultured by using the presented method were from the prospective new genera, a result indicative of its high selectivity. In this study, 102 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments collected from the Bismarck Sea and the Solomon Sea off the coast of Papua New Guinea. A combination of physiological parameters, chemotaxonomic characteristics, distinguishing 16S rRNA gene sequences, and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes provided strong evidence for the two new genera (represented by strains of the PNG1 clade and strain UMM518) within the family Micromonosporaceae. Biological activity testing of fermentation products from the new marine-derived actinomycetes revealed that several had activities against multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens, malignant cells, and vaccinia virus replication. PMID:15574955

  12. Diversity of actinomycetes isolated from Challenger Deep sediment (10,898 m) from the Mariana Trench.

    PubMed

    Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Stach, James E M; Ward, Alan C; Horikoshi, Koki; Bull, Alan T; Goodfellow, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Thirty-eight actinomycetes were isolated from sediment collected from the Mariana Trench (10,898 m) using marine agar and media selective for actinomycetes, notably raffinose-histidine agar. The isolates were assigned to the class Actinobacteria using primers specific for members of this taxon. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to the genera Dermacoccus, Kocuria, Micromonospora, Streptomyces, Tsukamurella and Williamsia. All of the isolates were screened for genes encoding nonribosomal peptide and polyketide synthetases. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase sequences were detected in more than half of the isolates and polyketide synthases type I (PKS-I) were identified in five out of 38 strains. The Streptomyces isolates produced several unusual secondary metabolites, including a PKS-I associated product. In initial testing for piezotolerance, the Dermacoccus strain MT1.1 grew at elevated hydrostatic pressures. PMID:16538400

  13. Isolation, Taxonomy, and Antagonistic Properties of Halophilic Actinomycetes in Saharan Soils of Algeria ▿

    PubMed Central

    Meklat, Atika; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of a population of 52 halophilic actinomycetes was evaluated by a polyphasic approach, which showed the presence of members of the Actinopolyspora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Streptomonospora, and Saccharopolyspora genera. One strain was considered to be a new member of the last genus, and several other strains seemed to be new species. Furthermore, 50% of strains were active against a broad range of indicators and contained genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:21764956

  14. Genetic Screening Strategy for Rapid Access to Polyether Ionophore Producers and Products in Actinomycetes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Ning; Xi, Lijun; Rong, Xiaoying; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Polyether ionophores are a unique class of polyketides with broad-spectrum activity and outstanding potency for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites, and they are produced exclusively by actinomycetes. A special epoxidase gene encoding a critical tailoring enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds has been found in all five of the complete gene clusters of polyether ionophores published so far. To detect potential producer strains of these antibiotics, a pair of degenerate primers was designed according to the conserved regions of the five known polyether epoxidases. A total of 44 putative polyether epoxidase gene-positive strains were obtained by the PCR-based screening of 1,068 actinomycetes isolated from eight different habitats and 236 reference strains encompassing eight major families of Actinomycetales. The isolates spanned a wide taxonomic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, and actinomycetes isolated from acidic soils seemed to be a promising source of polyether ionophores. Four genera were detected to contain putative polyether epoxidases, including Micromonospora, which has not previously been reported to produce polyether ionophores. The designed primers also detected putative epoxidase genes from diverse known producer strains that produce polyether ionophores unrelated to the five published gene clusters. Moreover, phylogenetic and chemical analyses showed a strong correlation between the sequence of polyether epoxidases and the structure of encoded polyethers. Thirteen positive isolates were proven to be polyether ionophore producers as expected, and two new analogues were found. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this epoxidase gene screening strategy to aid the rapid identification of known products and the discovery of unknown polyethers in actinomycetes. PMID:21421776

  15. Resistance to thiostrepton, siomycin, and sporangiomycin in actinomycetes that produce them.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J; Cundliffe, E

    1980-01-01

    The antibiotics thiostrepton, siomycin, and sporangiomycin are closely related both in structure and in mode of action. Actinomycetes which produce this group of compounds possess ribonucleic acid-pentose methylases, which act upon 23S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and render ribosomes resistant to the action of these antibiotics. This is achieved via the formation of a single residue of 2'-O-methyladenosine per ribosome. PMID:6155371

  16. Isolation, taxonomy, and antagonistic properties of halophilic actinomycetes in Saharan soils of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of a population of 52 halophilic actinomycetes was evaluated by a polyphasic approach, which showed the presence of members of the Actinopolyspora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Streptomonospora, and Saccharopolyspora genera. One strain was considered to be a new member of the last genus, and several other strains seemed to be new species. Furthermore, 50% of strains were active against a broad range of indicators and contained genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:21764956

  17. Eco-taxonomic insights into actinomycete symbionts of termites for discovery of novel bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Kurtböke, D Ipek; French, John R J; Hayes, R Andrew; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Termites play a major role in foraging and degradation of plant biomass as well as cultivating bioactive microorganisms for their defense. Current advances in "omics" sciences are revealing insights into function-related presence of these symbionts, and their related biosynthetic activities and genes identified in gut symbiotic bacteria might offer a significant potential for biotechnology and biodiscovery. Actinomycetes have been the major producers of bioactive compounds with an extraordinary range of biological activities. These metabolites have been in use as anticancer agents, immune suppressants, and most notably, as antibiotics. Insect-associated actinomycetes have also been reported to produce a range of antibiotics such as dentigerumycin and mycangimycin. Advances in genomics targeting a single species of the unculturable microbial members are currently aiding an improved understanding of the symbiotic interrelationships among the gut microorganisms as well as revealing the taxonomical identity and functions of the complex multilayered symbiotic actinofloral layers. If combined with target-directed approaches, these molecular advances can provide guidance towards the design of highly selective culturing methods to generate further information related to the physiology and growth requirements of these bioactive actinomycetes associated with the termite guts. This chapter provides an overview on the termite gut symbiotic actinoflora in the light of current advances in the "omics" science, with examples of their detection and selective isolation from the guts of the Sunshine Coast regional termite Coptotermes lacteus in Queensland, Australia. PMID:24817085

  18. Changes in the structure of the rhizosphere complex of actinomycetes in the ontogenesis of winter rye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Merzaeva, O. V.; Zenova, G. M.

    2006-06-01

    Changes in the taxonomic structure of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of winter rye ( Secale cereale L.) growing on acid soddy-podzolic soil were studied. During the first stages of ontogenesis of winter rye, the rhizosphere complex of mycelial prokaryotes was characterized by a relatively level generic structure (with respect to the indices of abundance and frequency of particular genera), low values of the species diversity, and low domination frequency of the species from the Streptomyces genus. The numbers and species diversity of the streptomycetes increased during the further growth of the winter rye, so that streptomycetes became a dominant group in the complex of the rhizosphere actinomycetes. According to the two-way ANOVA, the population density of the Micromonospora and the Streptosporangium genera in the rhizosphere was mainly dictated by the winter rye variety, whereas the population density of the streptomycetes depended on the particular stage of the winter rye development. The differences between the actinomycetal complexes characteristic of different varieties of winter rye at the early stages of its development was leveled by the end of the winter rye growth.

  19. Chromium(VI) resistance and removal by actinomycete strains isolated from sediments.

    PubMed

    Polti, Marta A; Amoroso, María J; Abate, Carlos M

    2007-03-01

    Forty-one isolated actinomycetes were used to study qualitative and semi-quantitative screening of chromium(VI) resistance. Chromate-removing activity was estimated using the Cr(VI) specific colorimetric reagent 1,5-diphenylcarbazide. Twenty percent of the isolates from El Cadillal (EC) and 14% of isolates from a copper filter plant (CFP) were able to grow at 13 mM of Cr(VI). All isolates from sugar cane (SCP) could grow up to Cr(VI) concentration of 17 mM. EC, CFP and SCP strains were able to remove 24%, 30% and more than 40% of Cr(VI), respectively. The highest and lowest Cr(VI) specific removal values were 75.5 mg g(-1) cell by M3 (CFP), and 1.5 mg g(-1) cell by C35 (EC) strains. Eleven Cr(VI) resistant strains were characterized and identified as species of the genera Streptomyces (10) and Amycolatopsis (1). Differences on actinomycete community composition between contaminated and non-contaminated soil were found. This study showed the potential capacity of actinomycetes as tools for Cr(VI) bioremediation. PMID:17182076

  20. Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E

    2007-08-01

    The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones. PMID:17578635

  1. Old Meets New: Using Interspecies Interactions to Detect Secondary Metabolite Production in Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes, a group of filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria, have long been a remarkable source of useful therapeutics. Recent genome sequencing and transcriptomic studies have shown that these bacteria, responsible for half of the clinically used antibiotics, also harbor a large reservoir of gene clusters, which have the potential to produce novel secreted small molecules. Yet, many of these clusters are not expressed under common culture conditions. One reason why these clusters have not been linked to a secreted small molecule lies in the way that actinomycetes have typically been studied: as pure cultures in nutrient-rich media that do not mimic the complex environments in which these bacteria evolved. New methods based on multispecies culture conditions provide an alternative approach to investigating the products of these gene clusters. We have recently implemented binary interspecies interaction assays to mine for new secondary metabolites and to study the underlying biology in inter-actinomycete interactions. Here we describe the detailed biological and chemical methods comprising these studies. PMID:23084935

  2. Biosynthetic Potential of Phylogenetically Unique Endophytic Actinomycetes from Tropical Plants▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Janso, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Guy T.

    2010-01-01

    The culturable diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with tropical, native plants is essentially unexplored. In this study, 123 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from tropical plants collected from several locations in Papua New Guinea and Mborokua Island, Solomon Islands. Isolates were found to be prevalent in roots but uncommon in leaves. Initially, isolates were dereplicated to the strain level by ribotyping. Subsequent characterization of 105 unique strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 17 different genera were represented, and rare genera, such as Sphaerisporangium and Planotetraspora, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were quite prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from known genera within Thermomonosporaceae and Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be unique genera. Bioactivity testing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling of crude fermentation extracts were performed on 91 strains. About 60% of the extracts exhibited bioactivity or displayed LC-MS profiles with spectra indicative of secondary metabolites. The biosynthetic potential of 29 nonproductive strains was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Despite their lack of detectable secondary metabolite production in fermentation, most were positive for type I (66%) and type II (79%) PKS genes, and all were positive for NRPS genes. These results suggest that tropical plants from New Guinea and the adjacent archipelago are hosts to unique endophytic actinomycetes that possess significant biosynthetic potential. PMID:20472734

  3. Isolation and in vitro selection of actinomycetes strains as potential probiotics for aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Milagro García; Campa-Córdova, Ángel Isidro; Saucedo, Pedro Enrique; González, Marlen Casanova; Marrero, Ricardo Medina; Mazón-Suástegui, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to describe a series of in vitro tests that may aid the discovery of probiotic strains from actinomycetes. Materials and Methods: Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediments using four different isolation media, followed by antimicrobial activity and toxicity assessment by the agar diffusion method and the hemolysis of human blood cells, respectively. Extracellular enzymatic production was monitored by the hydrolysis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Tolerance to different pH values and salt concentrations was also determined, followed by hydrophobicity analysis and genetic identification of the most promising strains. Results: Five out of 31 isolated strains showed antimicrobial activity against three Vibrio species. Three non-hemolytic strains (N7, RL8 and V4) among these active isolates yielded positive results in hydrophobicity tests and exhibited good growth at salt concentrations ranging from 0% to 10%, except strain RL8, which required a salt concentration >0.6%. Although these strains did not grow at pH<3, they showed different enzymatic activities. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains N7 and V4 have more than 99% identity with several Streptomyces species, whereas the closest matches to strain RL8 are Streptomyces panacagri and Streptomyces flocculus, with 98% and 98.2% similarity, respectively. Conclusion: Three actinomycetes strains showing probiotic-like properties were discovered using several in vitro tests that can be easily implemented in different institutions around the world. PMID:27047067

  4. Actinomycete complexes in soils of industrial and residential zones in the city of Kirov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2014-02-01

    The number, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetal complexes in the soils of the industrial and residential zones of the city of Kirov are considered. The total content of mobile cadmium, zinc, lead, iron, and nickel in the soils of the industrial biotopes was 1.8 and 6.0 times higher than their concentration in the soils of the residential and background zones, respectively. In the heavy metal (HM)-polluted soils, the share of actinomycetes in the total number of prokaryotes and the relative abundance of the micromono-spores in the actinomycetal complex were much higher and the species diversity of the streptomycetes was lower than these characteristics in the soils of the residential zone. The differences in the composition of the mycelial prokaryote complexes appear to be related to the selective resistance of some of their representatives to heavy metals. The possibility to select the strains resistant to HMs and suitable for use in the bioremediation of polluted soils is considered.

  5. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination. PMID:23835992

  6. Actinomycetes: A Repertory of Green Catalysts with a Potential Revenue Resource

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Divya; Nawani, Neelu; Prakash, Mansi; Bodas, Manish; Mandal, Abul; Khetmalas, Madhukar; Kapadnis, Balasaheb

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis, one of the oldest technologies, is becoming a favorable alternative to chemical processes and a vital part of green technology. It is an important revenue generating industry due to a global market projected at $7 billion in 2013 with a growth of 6.7% for enzymes alone. Some microbes are important sources of enzymes and are preferred over sources of plant and animal origin. As a result, more than 50% of the industrial enzymes are obtained from bacteria. The constant search for novel enzymes with robust characteristics has led to improvisations in the industrial processes, which is the key for profit growth. Actinomycetes constitute a significant component of the microbial population in most soils and can produce extracellular enzymes which can decompose various materials. Their enzymes are more attractive than enzymes from other sources because of their high stability and unusual substrate specificity. Actinomycetes found in extreme habitats produce novel enzymes with huge commercial potential. This review attempts to highlight the global importance of enzymes and extends to signify actinomycetes as promising harbingers of green technology. PMID:23691495

  7. Diversity of Fungi, Bacteria, and Actinomycetes on Leaves Decomposing in a Stream▿

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mitali; Royer, Todd V.; Leff, Laura G.

    2007-01-01

    Although fungi, bacteria, and specific bacterial taxa, such as the actinomycetes, have been studied extensively in various habitats, few studies have examined them simultaneously, especially on decomposing leaves in streams. In this study, sugar maple and white oak leaves were incubated in a stream in northeastern Ohio for 181 days during which samples were collected at regular intervals. Following DNA extraction, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed using fungus-, bacterium-, and actinomycete-specific primers. In addition, fungal and bacterial biomass was estimated. Fungal biomass differed on different days but not between leaves of the two species and was always greater than bacterial biomass. There were significant differences in bacterial biomass through time and between leaf types on some days. Generally, on the basis of DGGE, few differences in community structure were found for different leaf types. However, the ribotype richness of fungi was significantly greater than those of the bacteria and actinomycetes, which were similar to each other. Ribotype richness decreased toward the end of the study for each group except bacteria. Lack of differences between the two leaf types suggests that the microorganisms colonizing the leaf biofilm were primarily generalists that could exploit the resources of the leaves of either species equally well. Thus, we conclude that factors, such as the ecological role of the taxa (generalists versus specialists), stage of decay, and time of exposure, appeared to be more important determinants of microbial community structure than leaf quality. PMID:17142366

  8. Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

  9. Conservation of thiol-oxidative stress responses regulated by SigR orthologues in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Sik; Dufour, Yann S.; Yoo, Ji Sun; Cho, Yoo-Bok; Park, Joo-Hong; Nam, Gi-Baeg; Kim, Hae Min; Lee, Kang-Lok; Donohue, Timothy J.; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Summary Numerous thiol-reactive compounds cause oxidative stress where cells counteract by activation of survival strategies regulated by thiol-based sensors. In Streptomyces coelicolor, a model actinomycete, a sigma/antisigma pair SigR/RsrA controls the response to thiol-oxidative stress. To unravel its full physiological functions, chromatin immuno-precipitation combined with sequence and transcript analyses were employed to identify 108 SigR target genes in S. coelicolor and to predict orthologous regulons across actinomycetes. In addition to reported genes for thiol homeostasis, protein degradation and ribosome modulation, 64 additional operons were identified suggesting new functions of this global regulator. We demonstrate that SigR maintains the level and activity of the housekeeping sigma factor HrdB during thiol-oxidative stress, a novel strategy for stress responses. We also found that SigR defends cells against UV and thiol-reactive damages, in which repair UvrA takes a part. Using a refined SigR-binding sequence model, SigR orthologues and their targets were predicted in 42 actinomycetes. This revealed a conserved core set of SigR targets to function for thiol homeostasis, protein quality control, possible modulation of transcription and translation, flavin-mediated redox reactions, and Fe-S delivery. The composition of the SigR regulon reveals a robust conserved physiological mechanism to deal with thiol-oxidative stress from bacteria to human. PMID:22651816

  10. Anticancer property of sediment actinomycetes against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, S; Fredimoses, M; Gnanadesigan, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anticancer property of marine sediment actinomycetes against two different breast cancer cell lines. Methods In vitro anticancer activity was carried out against breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. Partial sequences of the 16s rRNA gene, phylogenetic tree construction, multiple sequence analysis and secondary structure analysis were also carried out with the actinomycetes isolates. Results Of the selected five actinomycete isolates, ACT01 and ACT02 showed the IC50 value with (10.13±0.92) and (22.34±5.82) µg/mL concentrations, respectively for MCF-7 cell line at 48 h, but ACT01 showed the minimum (18.54±2.49 µg/mL) level of IC50 value with MDA-MB-231 cell line. Further, the 16s rRNA partial sequences of ACT01, ACT02, ACT03, ACT04 and ACT05 isolates were also deposited in NCBI data bank with the accession numbers of GQ478246, GQ478247, GQ478248, GQ478249 and GQ478250, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that, the isolates of ACT02 and ACT03 were represented in group I and III, respectively, but ACT01 and ACT02 were represented in group II. The multiple sequence alignment of the actinomycete isolates showed that, the maximum identical conserved regions were identified with the nucleotide regions of 125 to 221st base pairs, 65 to 119th base pairs and 55, 48 and 31st base pairs. Secondary structure prediction of the 16s rRNA showed that, the maximum free energy was consumed with ACT03 isolate (-45.4 kkal/mol) and the minimum free energy was consumed with ACT04 isolate (-57.6 kkal/mol). Conclusions The actinomycete isolates of ACT01 and ACT02 (GQ478246 and GQ478247) which are isolated from sediment sample can be further used as anticancer agents against breast cancer cell lines. PMID:23569875

  11. Antiviral Indolosesquiterpenoid Xiamycins C-E from a Halophilic Actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hwan; Ha, Thi-Kim-Quy; Oh, Won Keun; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2016-01-22

    New metabolites, xiamycins C-E (1-3), were isolated from a Streptomyces. sp (#HK18) culture inhabiting the topsoil in a Korean solar saltern. The planar structures of the xiamycins C-E were elucidated as carbazole-bearing indolosesquiterpenoids using a combined analysis of NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of these new compounds were determined by analyses of NOESY and ECD data. When the xiamycins were tested for inhibitory activity on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), xiamycin D (2) showed the strongest inhibitory effect on PEDV replication (EC50 = 0.93 μM) with low cytotoxicity (CC50 = 56.03 μM), thus displaying a high selective index (60.31). Quantitative real-time PCR data revealed the inhibitory effect of 2 on genes encoding essential structural proteins (GP6 nucleocapsid, GP2 spike, and GP5 membrane) for PEDV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The antiviral activity of xiamycin D (2) was also supported by both Western blotting of the GP2 spike and GP6 nucleocapsid protein synthesis of PEDV. Therefore, xiamycin D shows the potential of indolosesquiterpenoids as new and promising chemical skeletons against PEDV-related viruses. PMID:26698879

  12. Analysis of a ribosomal RNA operon in the actinomycete Frankia.

    PubMed

    Normand, P; Cournoyer, B; Simonet, P; Nazaret, S

    1992-02-01

    The organisation of ribosomal RNA-encoding (rrn) genes has been studied in Frankia sp. strain ORS020606. The two rrn clusters present in Frankia strain ORS020606 were isolated from genomic banks in phage lambda EMBL3 by hybridization with oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes. The 5'-3' gene order is the usual one for bacteria: 16S-23S-5S. The two clusters are not distinguishable by restriction enzyme mapping inside the coding section, but vary considerably outside it. Sequencing showed that the 16S-rRNA-encoding gene of ORS020606 is very closely related to that of another Alnus-infective Frankia strain (Ag45/Mut15) and highly homologous to corresponding genes of Streptomyces spp. Two possible promoter sequences were detected upstream from the 16S gene, while no tRNA-encoding gene was detected in the whole operon. Regions with a high proportion of divergence for the study of phylogenetic relationships within the genus were looked for and found in the first intergenic spacer, in the 23S and in the 16S gene. PMID:1372279

  13. The biodegradation of layered silicates under the influence of cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    The weathering of sheet silicates is well known to be related to local and global geochemical cycles. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. Microorganisms have a diverse range of mechanisms of minerals' structure transformation (acid- and alkali formation, biosorption, complexing, etc). One of the methods is an ability of exopolysaccharide-formation, in particular the formation of mucus, common to many bacteria, including cyanobacteria. Mucous covers cyanobacteria are the specific econiches for other bacteria, including actinomycetes. The objective was to analyze the structural changes of clay minerals under the influence of the cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associative growth. The objects of the study were: 1) the experimental symbiotic association, consisting of free-living heterocyst-formative cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Kutz. ATCC 294132 and actinomycete Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus FR837630, 2) rock samples obtained from the Museum of the Soil Science Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University: kaolinite, consisting of kaolin (96%) Al4 (OH) 8 [Si4O10]; mixed with hydromica, chlorite and quartz; vermiculite, consisting of vermiculite (Ca, Mg, ...)*(Mg, Fe)3(OH)2[(Si, Al)4O10]*4H2O and trioctahedral mica (biotite). The mineralogical compositions of the rocks were determined by the universal X-ray Diffractometer Carl Zeiss Yena. The operationg regime was kept constant (30 kv, 40 mA). The cultivation of the association of actinomycete S. cyanoefuscatus and cyanobacterium A. variabilis caused a reduction in the intensity of kaolinite and hydromica reflexes. However, since both (mica and kaolinite) components have a rigid structure, the significant structural transformation of the minerals was not revealed. Another pattern was observed in the experiment, where the rock sample of vermiculite was used as the mineral

  14. Study of the effects of urban organic residues on the distribution of culturable actinomycetes in a Tunisian agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Mokni-Tlili, Sonia; Jaoua, Leila; Murano, Fumio; Jedidi, Naceur; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to identify a collection of actinomycetes isolates and to study the influence of amendment [municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and farmyard manure (FM)] on their distribution in agricultural soil. For this purpose, a phenotypic and molecular characterization of 226 isolates collected from soil (with and without amendment) and 55 isolates from MSWC and FM was developed. The phenotypic study showed that the majority of strains isolated belong to the genus Streptomyces. By using the 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (restriction digest using six enzymes AluI, HhaI, MspI, TaqI, RsaI and HaeIII), two clusters were found: Streptomyces, dominant genus and Amycolatopsis, followed by Nocardioides. This result agreed with phylogeny revealed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The number of these actinomycetes in soil increased with FM or MSWC application. The studied soil is a potential source for isolation of actinomycetes, especially Streptomyces, and the application of organic amendment to the soil appeared to have an impact on the diversity of actinomycetes. Amendment of the soil with MSWC and FM significantly increased the number of actinomycetes due to the contribution of bacteria originally contained in biowastes and/or by stimulation of the endogenous soil micro-organisms. PMID:19423577

  15. Production and characterization of a thermostable glucoamylase from Streptosporangium sp. endophyte of maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Stamford, T L M; Stamford, N P; Coelho, L C B B; Araújo, J M

    2002-06-01

    Thermostable amylolytic enzymes are currently investigated to improve industrial processes of starch degradation. Streptosporangium sp. an endophytic actinomycete isolated from leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) showed glucoamylase production, using starch-Czapek medium, and the highest rate was obtained in the initial growth phase, after incubation for 24 h at pH 8.0. Maximum glucoamylase activity (158 U mg(-1) protein) was obtained at pH 4.5 and 70 degrees C. The isolated enzyme exhibited thermostable properties as indicated by retention of 100% of residual activity at 70 degrees C for 30 min with total inhibition at 100 degrees C. Extracellular enzyme from Streptosporangium sp. was purified by fractionated precipitation with ammonium sulphate. After 60% saturation produced 421 U mg(-1) protein, and yield was 74% with purification 2.7 fold. The enzyme produced by Streptosporangium sp. has potential for industrial applications. PMID:12056484

  16. Production and characterization of a thermostable alpha-amylase from Nocardiopsis sp. endophyte of yam bean.

    PubMed

    Stamford, T L; Stamford, N P; Coelho, L C; Araújo, J M

    2001-01-01

    Thermostable amylolytic enzymes have been currently investigated to improve industrial processes of starch degradation. Studies on production of alpha-amylase by Nocardiopsis sp., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban), showed that higher enzyme levels were obtained at the end of the logarithmic growth phase after incubation for 72 h at pH 8.6. Maximum activity of alpha-amylase was obtained at pH 5.0 and 70 degrees C. The isolated enzyme exhibited thermostable properties as indicated by retention of 100% of residual activity at 70 degrees C, and 50% of residual activity at 90 degrees C for 10 min. Extracellular enzyme from Nocardiopsis sp. was purified by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate. After 60% saturation produced 1130 U mg-1 protein and yield was 28% with purification 2.7-fold. The enzyme produced by Nocardiopsis sp. has potential for industrial applications. PMID:11131797

  17. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819

  18. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819

  19. Lignin-solubilizing ability of actinomycetes isolated from termite (Termitidae) gut. [Streptomyces viridosporus

    SciTech Connect

    Pasti, M.B.; Crawford, D.L. ); Pometto, A.L., III ); Nuti, M.P. )

    1990-07-01

    The lignocellulose-degrading abilities of 11 novel actinomycete strains isolated from termite gut were determined and compared with that of the well-characterized actinomycete, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. Lignocellulose bioconversion was followed by (i) monitoring the degradation of ({sup 14}C)lignin- and ({sup 14}C)cellulose-labeled phloem of Abies concolor to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}C-labeled water-soluble products, (ii) determining lignocellulose, lignin, and carbohydrate losses resulting from growth on a lignocellulose substrate prepared from corn stalks (Zea mays), and (iii) quantifying production of a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate (acid-precipitable polymeric lignin). Of the assays used, total lignocellulose weight loss was most useful in determining overall bioconversion ability but not in identifying the best lignin-solubilizing strains. A screening procedure based on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from ({sup 14}C-lignin)lignocellulose combined with measurement of acid-precipitable polymeric lignin yield was the most effective in identifying lignin-solubilizing strains. For the termite gut strains, the pH of the medium showed no increase after 3 weeks of growth on lignocellulose. This is markedly different from the pattern observed with S. viridosporus T7A, which raises the medium pH considerably. Production of extracellular peroxidases by the 11 strains and S. viridosporus T7A was followed for 5 days in liquid cultures. On the basis of an increase of specific peroxidase activity in the presence of lignocellulose in the medium, the actinomycetes could be placed into the same three groups.

  20. Isolation and characterization of potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyohannes, Gebreselema; Moges, Feleke; Sahile, Samuel; Raja, Nagappan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate, evaluate and characterize potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 31 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by primary screening. In the primary screening, 11 promising isolates were identified and subjected to solid state and submerged state fermentation methods to produce crude extracts. The fermented biomass was extracted by organic solvent extraction method and tested against bacterial strains by disc and agar well diffusion methods. The isolates were characterized by using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods. Results The result obtained from agar well diffusion method was better than disc diffusion method. The crude extract showed higher inhibition zone against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. One-way analysis of variance confirmed most of the crude extracts were statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of crude extracts were 1.65 mg/mL and 3.30 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 1.84 mg/mL and 3.80 mg/mL against Escherichia coli respectively. The growth of aerial and substrate mycelium varied in different culture media used. Most of the isolates were able to hydrolysis starch and urea; able to survive at 5% concentration of sodium chloride; optimum temperature for their growth was 30 °C. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed that freshwater actinomycetes of Lake Tana appear to have immense potential as a source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:23730554

  1. Characterization of an effective actinorhizal microsymbiont, Frankia sp. AvcI1 (Actinomycetales).

    PubMed

    Baker, D; Torrey, J G

    1980-09-01

    The actinomycete, Frankia sp. AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa was grown in axenic culture and used to inoculate host seedlings. This bacterium has been shown to be an infective and effective nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont which can be distinguished from other frankiae, in vitro, on the basis of size, distinctive morphology, and growth characteristics. Cross-inoculation studies indicated that the host range of this symbiont encompasses all of the members of the genera Alnus, Myrica, and Comptonia tested. In all cases, the symbioses developed were effective in fixing atmospheric dinitrogen. PMID:7459721

  2. The Marine Actinomycete Genus Salinispora: A Model Organism for Secondary Metabolite Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Paul R.; Moore, Bradley S.; Fenical, William

    2015-01-01

    This review covers the initial discovery of the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora through its development as a model for natural product research. A focus is placed on the novel chemical structures reported with reference to their biological activities and the synthetic and biosynthetic studies they have inspired. The time line of discoveries progresses from more traditional bioassay-guided approaches through the application of genome mining and genetic engineering techniques that target the products of specific biosynthetic gene clusters. This overview exemplifies the extraordinary biosynthetic diversity that can emanate from a narrowly defined genus and supports future efforts to explore marine taxa in the search for novel natural products. PMID:25730728

  3. Glucanolytic Actinomycetes Antagonistic to Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi, the Causal Agent of Raspberry Root Rot

    PubMed Central

    Valois, D.; Fayad, K.; Barasubiye, T.; Garon, M.; Dery, C.; Brzezinski, R.; Beaulieu, C.

    1996-01-01

    A collection of about 200 actinomycete strains was screened for the ability to grow on fragmented Phytophthora mycelium and to produce metabolites that inhibit Phytophthora growth. Thirteen strains were selected, and all produced (beta)-1,3-, (beta)-1,4-, and (beta)-1,6-glucanases. These enzymes could hydrolyze glucans from Phytophthora cell walls and cause lysis of Phytophthora cells. These enzymes also degraded other glucan substrates, such as cellulose, laminarin, pustulan, and yeast cell walls. Eleven strains significantly reduced the root rot index when inoculated on raspberry plantlets. PMID:16535313

  4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory dimeric indole derivatives from the marine actinomycetes Rubrobacter radiotolerans.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Lin; Huang, Lei; Liu, Juan; Song, Yan; Gao, Jie; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong; Chen, Guangtong

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of the bioactive secondary metabolites of the marine actinomycetes Rubrobacter radiotolerans led to the isolation and characterization of two naturally rare dimeric indole derivatives (1 and 2). The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, and the absolute configurations were assigned by CD calculations. The acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity of compounds 1 and 2 was evaluated, both of which showed moderate activity with IC50 values of 11.8 and 13.5μM, respectively. PMID:25655350

  5. Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2014-05-01

    Four strains of actinomycete, designated strains JR-19T, JR-12, JR-29 and JR-41T were isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil. Phylogenetic, morphological, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the four strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Microscopic observation revealed that the four strains produced spirales spore chains with spiny surfaces. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the four strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that these strains and the members of the genus Streptomyces exhibited moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3-99.3%, with the most closely related strains being Streptomyces shenzhenensis 172115T and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. [to accommodate strains JR-19T (type strain; =KACC 16472T=NBRC 108883T), JR-12 (=KACC 16471) and JR-29 (=KACC 16473)] and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov. [for strain JR-41T (=KACC 16580T=NBRC 108885T)] are proposed. PMID:24478213

  6. Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Rong, Xiaoying; Zucchi, Tiago D; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, BK125(T) and BK199(T), isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125(T) ( = KACC 20902(T) = CGMCC 4.5798(T)) and BK199(T) ( = KACC 21003(T) = CGMCC 4.6824(T)) as the respective type strains. PMID:22922536

  7. Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov., isolated from medicinal plants in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sheng; Chen, Hua-Hong; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T), were isolated from the roots of Scoparia dulcis and Maytenus austroyunnanensis, two Chinese medicinal plants, and their taxonomic status was established based on a polyphasic investigation. The organisms were found to have chemical and morphological markers typical of members of the genus Glycomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that they were closely related to each other and to Glycomyces sambucus E71(T). A battery of physiological characteristics and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that strains YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from the related known Glycomyces species. On the basis of the data presented, it is evident that each of these strains represents a novel species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 56256(T) =KCTC 19158(T) =DSM 44968(T)) and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov. (type strain YIM 61331(T) =KCTC 19527(T) =CCTCC AA 208004(T)) are proposed. PMID:19406786

  8. Endophytic Actinomycetes: A Novel Source of Potential Acyl Homoserine Lactone Degrading Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chankhamhaengdecha, Surang; Hongvijit, Suphatra; Srichaisupakit, Akkaraphol; Charnchai, Pattra; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2013-01-01

    Several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria employ N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL) quorum sensing (QS) system to control their virulence traits. Degradation of acyl-HSL signal molecules by quorum quenching enzyme (QQE) results in a loss of pathogenicity in QS-dependent organisms. The QQE activity of actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil and inside plant tissue was explored in order to obtain novel strains with high HSL-degrading activity. Among 344 rhizospheric and 132 endophytic isolates, 127 (36.9%) and 68 (51.5%) of them, respectively, possessed the QQE activity. The highest HSL-degrading activity was at 151.30 ± 3.1 nmole/h/mL from an endophytic actinomycetes isolate, LPC029. The isolate was identified as Streptomyces based on 16S  rRNA gene sequence similarity. The QQE from LPC029 revealed HSL-acylase activity that was able to cleave an amide bond of acyl-side chain in HSL substrate as determined by HPLC. LPC029 HSL-acylase showed broad substrate specificity from C6- to C12-HSL in which C10HSL is the most favorable substrate for this enzyme. In an in vitro pathogenicity assay, the partially purified HSL-acylase efficiently suppressed soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum as demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSL-acylase activity derived from an endophytic Streptomyces. PMID:23484156

  9. Genome sequencing reveals complex secondary metabolome in the marine actinomycete Salinispora tropica

    PubMed Central

    Udwary, Daniel W.; Zeigler, Lisa; Asolkar, Ratnakar N.; Singan, Vasanth; Lapidus, Alla; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent fermentation studies have identified actinomycetes of the marine-dwelling genus Salinispora as prolific natural product producers. To further evaluate their biosynthetic potential, we sequenced the 5,183,331-bp S. tropica CNB-440 circular genome and analyzed all identifiable secondary natural product gene clusters. Our analysis shows that S. tropica dedicates a large percentage of its genome (≈9.9%) to natural product assembly, which is greater than previous Streptomyces genome sequences as well as other natural product-producing actinomycetes. The S. tropica genome features polyketide synthase systems of every known formally classified family, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, and several hybrid clusters. Although a few clusters appear to encode molecules previously identified in Streptomyces species, the majority of the 17 biosynthetic loci are novel. Specific chemical information about putative and observed natural product molecules is presented and discussed. In addition, our bioinformatic analysis not only was critical for the structure elucidation of the polyene macrolactam salinilactam A, but its structural analysis aided the genome assembly of the highly repetitive slm loci. This study firmly establishes the genus Salinispora as a rich source of drug-like molecules and importantly reveals the powerful interplay between genomic analysis and traditional natural product isolation studies. PMID:17563368

  10. Antimicrobial potential of Halophilic actinomycetes against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Sana; Sajid, Imran

    2016-03-01

    A collection of forty halophilic actinomycetes isolated from water and mud samples of the saline lake at Kalar Kahar, salt range, Pakistan, was screened to investigate their antimicrobial potential against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens. The isolates exhibited significant tolerance to alkaline conditions and grew well at pH 9-11. The taxonomic status of the isolated strains was determined by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that majority of the isolates (90%) belong to the genus Streptomyces. Most of the isolates exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity up to 20mm zone of inhibition against MDR ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally the isolates showed moderate to high cytotoxicity in the range of 40 to 80% larval mortality against Artemia salina in a micro well cytotoxicity assay. The chemical screening or the so called metabolic fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of each isolate, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using various staining reagents and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), indicated an impressive diversity of the compounds produced by these strains. The study reveals that these halophilic actinomycetes are a promising source of bioactive compounds. The preparative scale fermentation, isolation, purification and structure elucidation of the compounds produced by them may yield novel antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27087086