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Sample records for actinomycete nonomuraea sp

  1. Nonomuraea aegyptia sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a sand dune.

    PubMed

    Hozzein, Wael N; Goodfellow, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The taxonomic position of an unknown actinomycete isolated from a sand dune soil sample collected at Borg El-Arab in Egypt was established using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic data. Isolate S136(T) had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Nonomuraea and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nonomuraea 16S rRNA gene tree. It was most closely related to the type strains of Nonomuraea helvata, Nonomuraea kuesteri and Nonomuraea turkmeniaca, sharing 16S rRNA gene similarities with these species of 97.1, 97.2 and 97.3%, respectively. The organism was distinguished from representatives of validly described Nonomuraea species using a range of phenotypic properties. It is apparent that the isolate belongs to a novel Nonomuraea species. The name proposed for this taxon is Nonomuraea aegyptia sp. nov., the type strain is S136(T) (=CGMCC 4.2054(T) = DSM 45082(T)). PMID:17318331

  2. Relationship between Glycopeptide Production and Resistance in the Actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Elisa; Carrano, Lucia; Bibb, Mervyn; Marinelli, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Glycopeptides and β-lactams inhibit bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria; resistance to these antibiotics is studied intensively in enterococci and staphylococci because of their relevance to infectious disease. Much less is known about antibiotic resistance in glycopeptide-producing actinomycetes that are likely to represent the evolutionary source of resistance determinants found in bacterial pathogens. Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, the producer of A40926 (the precursor for the semisynthetic dalbavancin), does not harbor the canonical vanHAX genes. Consequently, we investigated the role of the β-lactam-sensitive d,d-peptidase/d,d-carboxypeptidase encoded by vanYn, the only van-like gene found in the A40926 biosynthetic gene cluster, in conferring immunity to the antibiotic in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Taking advantage of the tools developed recently to genetically manipulate this uncommon actinomycete, we varied vanYn gene dosage and expressed vanHatAatXat from the teicoplanin producer Actinoplanes teichomyceticus in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Knocking out vanYn, complementing a vanYn mutant, or duplicating vanYn had no effect on growth but influenced antibiotic resistance and, in the cases of complementation and duplication, antibiotic production. Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 was found to be resistant to penicillins, but its glycopeptide resistance was diminished in the presence of penicillin G, which inhibits VanYn activity. The heterologous expression of vanHatAatXat increased A40926 resistance in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 but did not increase antibiotic production, indicating that the level of antibiotic production is not directly determined by the level of resistance. The vanYn-based self-resistance in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 resembles the glycopeptide resistance mechanism described recently in mutants of Enterococcus faecium selected in vitro for high-level resistance to glycopeptides and penicillins. PMID:24957828

  3. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)). PMID:25783226

  4. Classification of Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, an actinomycete that produces the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926, as Nonomuraea gerenzanensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Dalmastri, Claudia; Gastaldo, Luciano; Marcone, Giorgia Letizia; Binda, Elisa; Congiu, Terenzio; Marinelli, Flavia

    2016-02-01

    Strain ATCC 39727, which produces the antibiotic A40926 (the natural precursor of the antibiotic dalbavancin), was isolated from a soil sample collected in India, and it was originally classified as a member of the genus Actinomadura on the base of morphology and cell-wall composition. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicates that the strain forms a distinct clade within the genus Nonomuraea, and it is most closely related to Nonomuraea angiospora DSM 43173T (98.72 % similarity) and Nonomuraea jabiensis A4036T (98.69 %). The strain forms an extensively branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae that form spiral chains of spores with ridged surfaces. The cell wall contains meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars are glucose, ribose, galactose, mannose and madurose (madurose as the diagnostic sugar). The N-acyl type of muramic acid is acetyl. The predominant menaquinone is MK-9(H4), with minor amounts of MK-9(H2), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H0). The polar-lipid profile includes diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and a series of uncharacterized phospholipids, glycolipids and phosphoglycolipids. The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C16 : 0 and 10-methyl C17 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content is 71.2 mol%. Significant differences in the morphological, chemotaxonomic and biochemical data, together with DNA-DNA relatedness between strain ATCC 39727 and closely related type strains, clearly demonstrated that strain ATCC 39727 represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea gerenzanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ATCC 39727T ( = DSM 100948T). PMID:26944798

  5. Nonomuraea syzygii sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the roots of a jambolan plum tree (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels).

    PubMed

    Rachniyom, Hathairat; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Indananda, Chantra; Duangmal, Kannika; Takahashi, Yoko; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip

    2015-04-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain GKU 164(T), was isolated from the roots of a jambolan plum tree (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels), collected at Khao Khitchakut National Park, Chantaburi province, Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain formed a distinct clade within the genus Nonomuraea , and was most closely related to Nonomuraea monospora PT708(T) (98.77% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Nonomuraea thailandensis KC-061(T) (98.73%). Strain GKU 164(T) formed a branched substrate and aerial hyphae that generated single spores with rough surfaces. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were madurose, galactose, mannose, ribose, rhamnose and glucose. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) with minor amounts of MK-9(H6), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H0). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophosphoglycolipid and four unknown phospholipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0) and 10-methyl C(17 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 70.4 mol%. Significant differences in the morphological, chemotaxonomical, and biochemical data together with DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain GKU 164(T) and type strains of closely related species, clearly demonstrated that strain GKU 164(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea , for which the name Nonomuraea syzygii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GKU 164(T) ( = BCC 70457(T) = NBRC 110400(T)). PMID:25634947

  6. New cyclic tetrapeptides from Nonomuraea sp. TA-0426 that inhibit glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1).

    PubMed

    Terui, Yuichi; Chu, Yi-wen; Li, Jun-ying; Ando, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Takuya; Aoki, Takeshi; Toda, Yoshihisa

    2008-12-15

    In the course of our search for natural antipsychotic agents, we isolated five new cyclic tetrapeptides from the fermentation broth of Nonomuraea sp. TA-0426. These compounds turned out to be analogues of WSS2220, which had been produced by the same actinomycete and showed strong inhibitory activity against GlyT1. Four of the present peptides exhibit more potent GlyT1 inhibitory activities than WSS2220. PMID:19013063

  7. Improvement of the productivity of ecumicin, a novel anti-tuberculosis agent, from new Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying-Yu; Kim, Jin-Yong; Yang, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hanki; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-05-01

    Ecumicin is a novel anti-tuberculosis agent produced by Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123 as a new strain of actinomycetes. First, in order to increase the cell mass of Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123, we optimized the culture conditions with regard to carbon and nitrogen sources. The cell mass of Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123 increased by approximately twofold when glucose and soybean flour were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. For maximum production of ecumicin, we optimized the culture conditions by adding amino acids as building blocks for ecumicin, by adding vegetable oils and by controlling the temperature and pH. Ecumicin production was two times higher with the addition of valine as the building blocks for ecumicin compared with the production in the absence of valine. Interestingly, with the addition of 1% corn oil, the production of ecumicin increased by 4.6-fold compared with the production in the absence of corn oil. Finally, by controlling the pH and temperature, we established an optimized culture condition in which Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123 produced 576 mg ecumicin per litre of medium, which is about 50 times higher than in the control medium at 30 °C and pH 7.0. PMID:26648116

  8. Nonomuraea zeae sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Jia, Feiyu; Liu, Chongxi; Li, Jiansong; Guo, Siyu; Zhou, Shuyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-06-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-ND5T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of corn (Zea mays L.) collected in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-ND5T was a member of the genus Nonomuraea, with highest sequence similarities to Nonomuraea jabiensis A4036T (98.29 %), Nonomuraea rosea GW12687T (98.25 %), Nonomuraea candida HMC10T (98.22 %), Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092T (98.04 %) and Nonomuraea kuesteri NRRL B-24325T (98.04 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Nonomuraea were lower than 98 %. Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-ND5T were also consistent with the description of the genus Nonomuraea. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars were glucose, ribose and madurose. The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16:0 and 10-methyl C17:0. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-ND5T was clearly distinguished from its closely related Nonomuraea species. Consequently, it is concluded that strain NEAU-ND5T represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea zeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ND5T (=CGMCC 4.7280T=DSM 100528T). PMID:26971302

  9. Two Master Switch Regulators Trigger A40926 Biosynthesis in Nonomuraea sp. Strain ATCC 39727

    PubMed Central

    Lo Grasso, Letizia; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Bibb, Mervyn; Puglia, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727 produces the glycopeptide A40926, the precursor of dalbavancin. Biosynthesis of A40926 is encoded by the dbv gene cluster, which contains 37 protein-coding sequences that participate in antibiotic biosynthesis, regulation, immunity, and export. In addition to the positive regulatory protein Dbv4, the A40926-biosynthetic gene cluster encodes two additional putative regulators, Dbv3 and Dbv6. Independent mutations in these genes, combined with bioassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses, demonstrated that Dbv3 and Dbv4 are both required for antibiotic production, while inactivation of dbv6 had no effect. In addition, overexpression of dbv3 led to higher levels of A40926 production. Transcriptional and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses showed that Dbv4 is essential for the transcription of two operons, dbv14-dbv8 and dbv30-dbv35, while Dbv3 positively controls the expression of four monocistronic transcription units (dbv4, dbv29, dbv36, and dbv37) and of six operons (dbv2-dbv1, dbv14-dbv8, dbv17-dbv15, dbv21-dbv20, dbv24-dbv28, and dbv30-dbv35). We propose a complex and coordinated model of regulation in which Dbv3 directly or indirectly activates transcription of dbv4 and controls biosynthesis of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine and the heptapeptide backbone, A40926 export, and some tailoring reactions (mannosylation and hexose oxidation), while Dbv4 directly regulates biosynthesis of 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine and other tailoring reactions, including the four cross-links, halogenation, glycosylation, and acylation. IMPORTANCE This report expands knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms used to control the biosynthesis of the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926 in the actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727. A40926 is the precursor of dalbavancin, approved for treatment of skin infections by Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, understanding the regulation of its biosynthesis

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of antimicrobial compounds from a new strain Nonomuraea sp. NM94.

    PubMed

    Badji, Boubekeur; Mostefaoui, Abdellah; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Seguin, Elisabeth; Tillequin, François

    2007-06-01

    An actinomycete strain NM94 was isolated from a Saharan soil sample by a dilution agar plating method using chitin-vitamins B medium supplemented with penicillin. The strain presented the morphological and chemical characteristics of the genus Nonomuraea. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis and physiological tests, this isolate was found to be quite different from the known species of Nonomuraea and might be new. The strain NM94 secreted several antibiotics on yeast extract malt extract glucose medium that were active against some Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The antibiotics were extracted with dichloromethane and detected by bioautography on silica gel plates using Mucor ramannianus and Bacillus subtilis as the test organisms. Among these antibiotics, a complex called 94A showed interesting antifungal activity. It was selected and purified by reverse-phase HPLC. This complex was composed of five compounds. Spectroscopic studies by infrared, mass, and (1)H NMR of the compounds were carried out. Initial results showed that these molecules differed from the known antibiotics produced by other Nonomuraea species. PMID:17318487

  11. Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 inulin fructotransferase (DFA III-forming): gene cloning, characterization and conservation among other Nonomuraea species.

    PubMed

    Pudjiraharti, Sri; Ohtani, Midori; Takano, Nanami; Abe, Ayumi; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Asano, Kozo

    2014-02-01

    The inulin fructotransferase (DFA III-forming)(EC 4.2.2.18) gene in Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 was amplified from genomic DNA, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The 1326-bp gene, designated as Nsp-ift, encodes a protein composed of a putative 37-amino-acid signal peptide and 404-amino-acid mature protein. A putative ribosomal binding sequence was identified 12 bases upstream from the start codon. However, a typical bacterial promoter could not be found by in silico analysis. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the enzyme was most similar to that of inulin fructotransferase (DFA I-forming) in Frankia sp. EAN1pec. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences indicated that Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 and Frankia sp. EAN1pec inulin fructotransferases formed a distinct clade from those from Arthrobacter sp. H65-7, A. globiformis and Bacillus sp. snu-7 that showed 57, 56 and 56% identity to that of Nsp-ift, respectively. The Nsp-ift without a putative signal peptide was successfully expressed in E. coli and partially purified using His-tag affinity chromatography. The recombinant enzyme displayed optimum temperature between 65 and 70 °C, optimum pH between 5.5 and 6.0 and remained stable up to 70 °C. The properties were identical to those of the original enzyme. Of 10 Nonomuraea species tested by Southern hybridization, enzyme activity measurements and PCR, only Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 has the Nsp-ift gene, suggesting that Nsp-ift is not highly conserved in this genus. PMID:24129686

  12. Streptomyces aidingensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhan-Feng; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Li

    2013-09-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 46012(T), was isolated from sediment of Aiding Lake in Tulufan Basin (42° 64' N 89° 26' E), north-west China. The strain was aerobic and Gram-staining-positive with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 0-5% (w/v). The isolate had sparse aerial mycelium and produced bud-shaped spores at the end of the aerial mycelium on ISP medium 4. The isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and ribose as the major whole-cell sugar. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, one unidentified phospholipid and three unidentified glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H₆), MK-9(H₈) and MK-9(H₄). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and anteiso-C(15:0). The G+C content of the DNA was 74.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain TRM 46012(T) had 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.7% with the most closely related species with a validly published name, Streptomyces cheonanensis, and it could be distinguished from all species in the genus Streptomyces by using the data from this polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of these data, strain TRM 46012(T) should be designated as a representative of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces aidingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 46012(T) ( =CGMCC 4.5739(T) =NBRC 108211(T)). PMID:23456804

  13. Streptomyces lopnurensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bei; Han, Xiao-Xue; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain TRM 49590(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Lop Nur in Xinjiang Province, China. Strain TRM 49590(T) was aerobic, Gram-staining-positive, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 1.5 % (w/v) and an optimum temperature for growth of 28-37 °C. The aerial mycelium was sparse, cylindrical and smooth-surfaced with irregular branches on ISP medium 4. The whole-cell sugars of strain TRM 49590(T) were ribose and glucose. The diagnostic diamino acid contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), with MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H6) present in smaller amounts. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 62.2 mol%. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TRM 49590(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with a sequence similarity of 97.16 % with the most closely related species Streptomyces sodiiphilus. Based on these observations, strain TRM 49590(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces lopnurensis sp. nov. is suggested. The type strain is TRM 49590(T) ( = CCTCC AA 2013018(T) = NRRL B59109(T)). PMID:25253072

  14. Phycicoccus badiiscoriae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from scoria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2013-03-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated Sco-B23(T), was isolated from a brown-coloured layer of scoria collected near Darangshi Oreum (a small mountain) in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Cells of the organism were Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile cocci and grew at 20-35 °C, at pH 5.1-11.1 and with 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. Colonies were circular, translucent and moderate yellow in colour with entire margins. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate belonged to the genus Phycicoccus and formed a monophyletic line between a Phycicoccus bigeumensis-Phycicoccus dokdonensis cluster and a Phycicoccus aerophilus-Phycicoccus ginsenosidimutans cluster. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Sco-B23(T) and the type strains of Phycicoccus species were: P. bigeumensis (98.8 %), P. dokdonensis (98.7 %), P. aerophilus (97.7 %), P. ginsenosidimutans (97.7 %), P. cremeus (96.9 %) and P. jejuensis (96.5 %). Chemotaxonomic analyses showed that the isolate possessed meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid of the peptidoglycan, MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone, a polar lipid profile including diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids, predominant fatty acids represented by iso-C15 : 0, C17 : 1cis9, iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0, and DNA G+C content of 69.7 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain Sco-B23(T) and the close relatives within the genus Phycicoccus was below 18.1 %. On the basis of phenotypic features and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain Sco-B23(T) represents a novel species of the genus Phycicoccus, for which the name Phycicoccus badiiscoriae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Sco-B23(T) ( = KCTC 19807(T)  = KACC 15111(T)  = NBRC 107918(T)). PMID:22685104

  15. Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T) = CCTCC AA 2013003(T) = NRRL B-59998(T) = KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T) = CCTCC AA 2013004(T) = NRRL B-24927(T) = KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

  16. Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a contaminated agar plate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Yamei; Huang, Ying; Maldonado, Luis A; Liu, Zhiheng; Goodfellow, Michael

    2004-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of an actinomycete strain isolated from a contaminated agar plate. The strain, designated 7031T, had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of the genus Nocardia. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for the strain was aligned with available sequences for nocardiae, and phylogenetic trees were inferred using three tree-generating algorithms. Strain 7031T clustered with the type strains of Nocardia carnea and Nocardia flavorosea, showing low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to these species (97.2 and 97.5 %, respectively). The strain was also distinguished from the closest species by a range of phenotypic properties. It is proposed that the strain be recognized as a novel species of Nocardia, Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., the type strain of which is 7031T (= AS 4.1808T = JCM 11884T). PMID:15388728

  17. [Secondary metabolites from a deep-sea-derived actinomycete Micrococcus sp. R21].

    PubMed

    Peng, Kun; Su, Rui-qiang; Zhang, Gai-yun; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Yang, Quan; Liu, Yong-hong; Yang, Xian-wen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate cytotoxic secondary metabolites of Micrococcus sp. R21, an actinomycete isolated from a deep-sea sediment (-6 310 m; 142 degrees 19. 9' E, 10 degrees 54. 6' N) of the Western Pacific Ocean, column chromatography was introduced over silica gel, ODS, and Sephadex LH-20. As a result, eight compounds were obtained. By mainly detailed analysis of the NMR data, their structures were elucidated as cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-leu) (1), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Gly) (2), cyclo( L-Pro-L-Ala) (3), cyclo( D-Pro-L-Leu) (4), N-β-acetyltryptamine (5), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (6), and phenylacetic acid (7). Compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against RAW264. 7 cells with IC50 value of 9.1 μmol x L(-1). PMID:26591527

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Pseudonocardia sp. JB05, a Rare Salty Soil Actinomycete against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Nesa; Behroozi, Reza; Farajzadeh, Davoud; Farsi, Mohammad; Akbari-Noghabi, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes many harmful and life-threatening diseases. Some strains of this bacterium are resistant to available antibiotics. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of indigenous actinomycetes to produce antibacterial compounds against S. aureus and characterize the structure of the resultant antibacterial compounds. Therefore, a slightly modified agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of actinomycete isolates against the test microorganisms. The bacterial extracts with antibacterial activity were fractionated by silica gel and G-25 sephadex column chromatography. Also, the active fractions were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Finally, the partial structure of the resultant antibacterial compound was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. One of the isolates, which had a broad spectrum and high antibacterial activity, was designated as Pseudonocardia sp. JB05, based on the results of biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration for this bacterium was 40 AU mL−1 against S. aureus. The antibacterial activity of this bacterium was stable after autoclaving, 10% SDS, boiling, and proteinase K. Thin layer chromatography, using anthrone reagent, showed the presence of carbohydrates in the purified antibacterial compound. Finally, FT-IR spectrum of the active compound illustrated hydroxyl groups, hydrocarbon skeleton, and double bond of polygenic compounds in its structure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the efficient antibacterial activity by a local strain of Pseudonocardia. The results presented in this work, although at the initial stage in bioactive product characterization, will possibly contribute toward the Pseudonocardia scale-up for the production and identification of the antibacterial compounds. PMID:25202705

  19. Terrabacter terrae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Montero-Barrientos, Marta; Rivas, Raúl; Velázquez, Encarna; Monte, Enrique; Roig, Manuel G

    2005-11-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, long-rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain PPLB(T)) was isolated from soil mixed with Iberian pig hair. This actinomycete showed keratinase activity in vitro when chicken feathers were added to the culture medium. Strain PPLB(T) was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive and produced lipase and esterase lipase. This actinomycete grew at 40 degrees C on nutrient agar and in the same medium containing 5 % (w/v) NaCl. Growth was observed with many different carbohydrates as the sole carbon source. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain PPLB(T) was shown to belong to the genus Terrabacter of the family Intrasporangiaceae. Strain PPLB(T) showed 98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Terrabacter tumescens. Chemotaxonomic data, such as the main ubiquinone (MK-8), the main polar lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol) and the main fatty acids (i-C(15 : 0), ai-C(15 : 0), i-C(16 : 0) and ai-C(17 : 0)) supported the affiliation of strain PPLB(T) to the genus Terrabacter. The G+C content of the DNA was 71 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization (36.6 % relatedness between Terrabacter tumescens and strain PPLB(T)) and physiological and biochemical tests suggested that strain PPLB(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Terrabacter, for which the name Terrabacter terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PPLB(T) (=CECT 3379T=LMG 22921T). PMID:16280515

  20. Microbisporicin gene cluster reveals unusual features of lantibiotic biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Foulston, Lucy C.; Bibb, Mervyn J.

    2010-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide antibiotics. The biosynthetic gene cluster for microbisporicin, a potent lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Microbispora corallina containing chlorinated tryptophan and dihydroxyproline residues, was identified by genome scanning and isolated from an M. corallina cosmid library. Heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 confirmed that all of the genes required for microbisporicin biosynthesis were present in the cluster. Deletion, in M. corallina, of the gene (mibA) predicted to encode the prepropeptide abolished microbisporicin production. Further deletion analysis revealed insights into the biosynthesis of this unusual and potentially clinically useful lantibiotic, shedding light on mechanisms of regulation and self-resistance. In particular, we report an example of the involvement of a tryptophan halogenase in the modification of a ribosomally synthesized peptide and the pathway-specific regulation of an antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster by an extracytoplasmic function σ factor–anti-σ factor complex. PMID:20628010

  1. Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Yousef; Grkovic, Tanja; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Hentschel, Ute; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 1–10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamide (11), 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12) and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a). When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes. PMID:24857962

  2. Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Jiao; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Xiong, Zhi; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated YIM 690008T, was isolated from Daucus carota collected from South Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew well on most media tested and no diffusible pigment was produced. The aerial mycelium formed wrinkled single spores and short spore chains, some of which were branched. The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose, ribose, galactose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, some unknown phospholipids, glycolipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids were i-C16 : 0, ai-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate belongs to the family Nocardiopsaceae. However, based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, it was concluded that strain YIM 690008T represents a novel genus and novel species of the family Nocardiopsaceae, for which the name Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YIM 690008T = DSM 46770T = JCM 30099T = KCTC 29480T) is proposed. PMID:25948617

  3. Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete associated with Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Qin, Yu-Li; Miao, Cui-Ping; Wei, Da-Qiao; Zhang, Si; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-09-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, endophytic actinomycete, designated strain YIM 63235(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of Artemisia annua L., and characterized to determine its taxonomic position. The strain YIM 63235(T) formed well-differentiated aerial and substrate mycelia on media tested. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the new isolate formed a distinct lineage within the genus Pseudonocardia, and the strain YIM 63235(T) was closely related to Pseudonocardia parietis 04-St-002(T) (99.1%). However, DNA-DNA relatedness demonstrated that strain YIM 63235(T) was distinct from the closest phylogenetic neighbor. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain YIM 63235(T) were consistent with those of the genus Pseudonocardia: the diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-8(H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(16:1) H. The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 63235(T) was 71.0 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the novel isolate was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov. (type strain YIM 63235(T) =CCTCC AA 208080(T)=DSM 45303(T)) is proposed. PMID:22805759

  4. Millisia brevis gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from activated sludge foam.

    PubMed

    Soddell, Jacques A; Stainsby, Fiona M; Eales, Kathryn L; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Seviour, Robert J; Goodfellow, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The taxonomic position of two mycolic-acid-producing actinomycetes, isolates J81T and J82, which were recovered from activated sludge foam, was clarified. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies indicated that the organisms formed a distinct lineage within the Corynebacterineae 16S rRNA gene tree. The taxonomic integrity of this group was underpinned by a wealth of phenotypic data, notably characteristic rudimentary right-angled branching. In addition, isolate J81T contained the following: meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose; N-glycolated muramic acid residues; a dihydrogenated menaquinone with eight isoprene units as the predominant isoprenologue; a fatty acid profile rich in oleic and palmitoleic acids and with relatively small proportions of myristic, stearic and tuberculostearic acids; mycolic acids with 44-52 carbons; and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides as major polar lipids. Strain J81T was found to have a chemotaxonomic profile that serves to distinguish it from representatives of all of the other taxa classified as belonging to the suborder Corynebacterineae. In the light of these data, it is proposed that the two isolates be classified in a novel monospecific genus. The name proposed for this taxon is Millisia brevis gen. nov., sp. nov.; strain J81T (=DSM 44463T = NRRL B-24424T) is the type strain of Millisia brevis. PMID:16585686

  5. Streptomyces synnematoformans sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a sand dune soil in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hozzein, Wael N; Goodfellow, Michael

    2007-09-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was undertaken to establish the status of a novel actinomycete, strain S155(T), isolated from a sand dune soil in Egypt. The organism formed characteristic synnemata-like structures and exhibited chemical and morphological features consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate was compared with corresponding sequences of representative streptomycetes. The 16S rRNA gene sequence data supported the assignment of the strain to the genus Streptomyces and showed that it formed a distinct phyletic line; the organism was most similar to the type strains of Streptomyces ruber (97.0 %), Streptomyces rubiginosus (97.0 %), Streptomyces roseiscleroticus (96.9 %) and Streptomyces thermoalcalitolerans (97.1 %). It was readily distinguished from the type strains of these species using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, strain S155(T) (=CGMCC 4.2055(T) =DSM 41902(T)) is proposed as the type strain of the novel species Streptomyces synnematoformans sp. nov. PMID:17766864

  6. Nocardiopsis arabia sp. nov., a halotolerant actinomycete isolated from a sand-dune soil.

    PubMed

    Hozzein, Wael N; Goodfellow, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The taxonomic status of an unknown actinomycete isolated from a sand-dune soil was established using a polyphasic approach. Isolate S186(T) had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardiopsis, grew on agar plates at NaCl concentrations of up to 15 % (w/v) and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nocardiopsis 16S rRNA gene sequence tree. Its closest phylogenetic neighbours were Nocardiopsis chromatogenes, Nocardiopsis composta, Nocardiopsis gilva and Nocardiopsis trehalosi, with sequence similarity to the various type strains of 96.9 %, but it was readily distinguished from the type strains of these and related species using a range of phenotypic properties. It is apparent from the genotypic and phenotypic data that strain S186(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Nocardiopsis, for which the name Nocardiopsis arabia sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S186(T) (=CGMCC 4.2057(T) =DSM 45083(T)). PMID:18984686

  7. Micromonospora polyrhachis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from edible Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger).

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wensheng; Yu, Chao; Liu, Chongxi; Zhao, Junwei; Yang, Lingyu; Xie, Binjiao; Li, Lei; Hong, Kui; Wang, Xiangjing

    2014-02-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ycm2(T), was isolated from edible Chinese black ants (Polyrhachis vicina Roger) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Micromonospora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-ycm2(T) showed highest similarity to those of Micromonospora sonneratiae 274745(T) (99.12%), Micromonospora pattaloongensis TJ2-2(T) (98.85%), Micromonospora pisi GUI 15(T) (98.76%), Polymorphospora rubra TT 97-42(T) (98.42%) and Micromonospora eburnea LK2-10(T) (98.21%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene demonstrated that strain NEAU-ycm2(T) is a member of the genus Micromonospora and supported the close phylogenetic relationship to M. sonneratiae 274745(T), M. pattaloongensis JCM 12833(T) and M. pisi GUI 15(T). Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that the novel strain could be readily distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, it is proposed that NEAU-ycm2(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora polyrhachis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ycm2(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7100(T) = DSM 45886(T)). PMID:24108323

  8. Glycomyces tarimensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a saline-alkali habitat.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Zhang, Li-Li

    2015-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 45387(T), was isolated from a saline-alkali soil in Xinjiang Province (40° 22' N 79° 08' E), north-west China. The isolate was characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain TRM 45387(T) belonged to the genus Glycomyces and was closely related to Glycomyces arizonensis DSM 44726(T) (96.59% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The G+C content of the DNA was 71.26 mol%. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and xylose, glucose, galactose, arabinose and ribose as the major whole-cell sugars. The diagnostic phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositolmannosides. The predominant menaquinone was MK-10(H6). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, a novel species, Glycomyces tarimensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Glycomyces tarimensis is TRM 45387(T) ( =CCTCC AA 2014007(T) =JCM 30184(T)). PMID:25713037

  9. Saccharopolyspora halotolerans sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from a hypersaline lake.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 45123(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province (40° 20' N 90° 49' E), north-west China. The isolate was characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain TRM 45123(T) belonged to the genus Saccharopolyspora and was closely related to Saccharopolyspora gloriosae (96.7% similarity). The G+C content of the DNA was 69.07 mol%. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and arabinose and ribose as the major whole-cell sugars. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, a novel species, Saccharopolyspora halotolerans sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Saccharopolyspora halotolerans is TRM 45123(T) ( = CCTCC AA 2013006(T) = DSM 45990(T)). PMID:25061064

  10. Amycolatopsis salitolerans sp. nov., a filamentous actinomycete isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Nan; Chen, Zheng-Jun; Huang, Ying; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM F103(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat of the Tarim basin in Xinjiang province, north-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Amycolatopsis and was most closely related to Amycolatopsis halophila YIM 93223(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). However, DNA-DNA relatedness between these two strains, based on triplicate experiments, was only 31.6%. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and ribose, glucose and galactose as the major whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H(4)). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and C(16:0). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and glucosamine-containing phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.4 mol%. The phenotypic data clearly distinguished the isolate from its closest relatives. The combined phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data indicate that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis. The proposed name is Amycolatopsis salitolerans sp. nov., with TRM F103(T) (=JCM 15899(T)=CCTCC AB 208326(T)) as the type strain. PMID:21317279

  11. Biogenic gold nanotriangles from Saccharomonospora sp., an endophytic actinomycetes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vijay C.; Anand, Swechha; Ulrichs, Christian; Singh, Santosh K.

    2013-04-01

    Microbial biofabrication is emerging as eco-friendly, simpler, and reproducible alternative to chemical synthesis of metals and semiconductor nanoparticles, allowing generation of rare geometrical forms such as nanotriangles and nanoprisms. Highly confined nanostructures like triangles/prisms are interesting class of nanoparticles due to their unique optical properties exploitable in biomedical diagnostics and biosensors. Here, we report for the first time a single-step biological protocol for the synthesis of gold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic actinomycetes Saccharomonospora sp., isolated from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., when incubated with an aqueous solution of chloroaurate ions (AuCl- 4/1 mM). Thin, flat occasionally prismatic gold nanotriangles were produced when aqueous chloroaurate ions reacted with the cell-free extract as well as with the biomass of endophytic Saccharomonospora. It was evidenced from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis that proteins of 42 and 50 kD were involved in biosynthesis as well as in stabilization of the nanoparticles. The particle growth process was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, and the morphological characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy together with X-ray powder diffractions. Although the exact mechanism for this shape-oriented synthesis is not clear so far, the possibility of achieving nanoparticle shape control in a microbial system is exciting.

  12. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    PubMed

    Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)). PMID:27010208

  13. Characterization of dusts collected from swine confinement buildings. [Verticillium sp. ; Actinomycetes

    SciTech Connect

    Donham, K.J.; Scallon, L.J.; Popendorf, W.; Treauhaft, M.W.; Roberts, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    The air in 21 different swine confinement buildings was sampled with 37 mm cassette filters with and without cyclone preselectors and with cascade impactors. Filter results yielded a mean total aerosol of 6.3 mg/m/sup 3/, a mean respirable aerosol of 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/; the geometric mean diameter was 2.9 microns. Cascade impactor measurements revealed a mean total aerosol of 7.6 mg/m/sup 3/, a respirable aerosol of 2.5 mg/m/sup 3/ and a mass median diameter of 9.6 microns. The two major constituents in these aerosols were grain particles and dried fecal matter. The grain particles were larger than fecal particles and proportionately more abundant in finishing buildings where 50 kg-100 kg animals are housed. Therefore the respirable fraction was less in finishing buildings than in farrowing and nursery buildings. Culturing of settled dusts yielded six different mold species, with the highest counts for Verticillium sp. (5 x 10/sup 2/ cfu/mg dry dust) grown at 37/sup 0/C. Thermophilic Actinomycetes and both gram negative and gram positive bacteria were isolated.

  14. Gordonia didemni sp. nov. an actinomycete isolated from the marine ascidium Didemnum sp.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Parma, Márcia; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana

    2016-02-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated isolate B204(T), was isolated from a marine ascidian Didemnum sp., collected from São Paulo, Brazil, and its taxonomic position established using data from a polyphasic study. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Gordonia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Gordonia 16S rRNA gene tree. It was closely related to Gordonia terrae DSM 43249(T) (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Gordonia lacunae DSM 45085(T) (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) but was distinguished from these strains by a moderate level of DNA-DNA relatedness (63.0 and 54.7 %) and discriminatory phenotypic properties. Based on the data obtained, the isolate B204(T) (=CBMAI 1069(T) = DSM 46679(T)) should therefore be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Gordonia, for which the name Gordonia didemni sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26678782

  15. [Storage of Actinobacteria of the Genera Streptomyces and Nonomuraea by Low Temperature Preservation].

    PubMed

    Sineva, O N; Kulikova, N G; Filippova, S N; Terekhova, L P

    2014-01-01

    The influence of storage of actinobacteria Streptomyces hygroscopicus RIA 1433T, Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. carminata INA 4281 and Nonomuraea sp. INA 34-06 at extremely low temperatures (-70 degrees C) for 1.5 years was studied with respect to their viability and antibiotic activity. The spores of the actinobacteria preserved their high viability when freezed at a concentration of 10(5)-10(7) CFU/ml. As for the antibiotic activity against the test culture Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, the strains differed: the S. hygroscopicus RIA 1433T colonies preserved their antibiotic activity against the test culture, the antibiotic activity of Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. carminata lowered by 5% and that of N. sp. INA 34-06 lowered by 44%. Differences in the resistance of the strains to the storage at the extremely low temperatures were observed when the suspensions contained low concentrations of the spores (10(2) CFU/ml): S. hygroscopicus RIA 1433T preserved its viability and antibiotic activity during 1.5 years, while N. roseoviolacea subsp. carminata INA 4281 and N. sp. INA 34-06 lost the viability by the 8th month of the storage. The study showed that 10% glycerol solution used as a cryoprotector during the storage had no effect on viability and antibiotic activity of the actinobacteria. PMID:26448987

  16. Streptomyces tyrosinilyticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from river sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; Liu, Chongxi; Bai, Lu; Han, Chuanyu; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2015-09-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T), was isolated from river sediment collected from South river in Jilin Province, north China and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicated that strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T) should be assigned to the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch with its closest neighbour Streptomyces vitaminophilus DSM 41686(T)(97.09%). Moreover, key morphological and chemotaxonomic properties also confirmed the affiliation of strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T) to the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall contained ll-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell hydrolysates were glucose and ribose. The phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 72.2 mol%. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T) could be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relative. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-Jh3-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces tyrosinilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Jh3-20(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7201(T)= DSM 42170(T)). PMID:26297662

  17. Streptomyces bohaiensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from Scomberomorus niphonius in the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Yu, Su-Ya; Khieu, Thi-Nhan; Son, Chu Ky; Jiang, Zhao; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-04-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated 11A07(T), was isolated from young Scomberomorus niphonius in the Bohai Sea. Basic local alignment search tool analyses showed that this isolate had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.41% with Streptomyces rimosus subsp. paromomycinus DSM 41429(T). Phylogenetic tree revealed that strain 11A07(T) formed a distinct lineage clustered with Streptomyces panacagri Gsoil 519(T), Streptomyces sodiiphilus YIM 80305(T) and Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-2365(T) having similarities of 97.30%, 97.10% and 96.83%, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis further demonstrated that the new isolate was different from the selected representatives of Streptomyces as a separate phylogenetic line. Strain 11A07(T) produced straight or rectiflexibile spore chains with smooth surface, white aerial mycelia and brown diffusible pigments on international streptomyces project 2 medium. Maximum tolerated NaCl concentration for growth was 11.0%. Whole-cell sugars were mannose, ribose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H4) and MK-9 (H6). The fatty-acid profile contained iso-C16:0, C18:0 10-methyl (tuberculostearic acid) and anteiso-C17:0 as the major compositions. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.4 mol%. These morphological, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties showed that strain 11A07(T) could be readily distinguished from the most closely related members of the genus Streptomyces. Thus, based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, strain 11A07(T) (=JCM 19630(T)=CCTCC AA 2013020(T)=KCTC 29263(T)) represents a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces bohaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25269462

  18. Actinoallomurus bryophytorum sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Pinjiao; Zheng, Weijia; Chu, Liyang; Liu, Chongxi; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2015-08-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, strain NEAU-TX1-15(T), was isolated from moss, collected from Wuchang, Heilongjiang province, north China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of strain NEAU-TX1-15(T). Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) are consistent with the description of the genus Actinoallomurus. Strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) was observed to form short spiral or looped spore chains on aerial hyphae. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain lysine and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The only phospholipid identified was phosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acid was identified as iso-C16:0. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence supports the assignment of the novel strain to the genus Actinoallomurus, as it exhibits 99.2 % gene sequence similarity to that of Actinoallomurus yoronensis NBRC 103686(T). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness allowed the strain to be differentiated from its close relative. Moreover, strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) could also be differentiated from A. yoronensis NBRC 103686(T) and other Actinoallomurus species showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>98.0 %) by cultural and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the combination of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, and the DNA-DNA hybridization value, indicated that strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinoallomurus for which the name Actinoallomurus bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-TX1-15(T) (=CGMCC 4.7200(T) = JCM 30340(T)). PMID:26033369

  19. Phytohabitans kaempferiae sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the leaf of Kaempferia larsenii.

    PubMed

    Niemhom, Nantawan; Chutrakul, Chanikul; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Thawai, Chitti

    2016-08-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain KK1-3T, which formed single spores and long chains of spores (more than 10 spores) was isolated from surface-sterilized Kaempferia larsenii leaf collected from Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. The isolate contained l-lysine, meso-diaminopimelic acid and hydroxyl diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars included glucose, mannose, rhamnose, ribose, galactose and xylose. The characteristic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphoglycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H8), MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KK1-3T should be classified as representing a member of the genus Phytohabitans. The similarity values of sequences between this strain and those of the closely related species, Phytohabitans houttuyneae K11-0057T (99.0 %), Phytohabitans suffuscus K07-0523T (98.9 %), Phytohabitans flavus K09-0627T (98.6 %) and Phytohabitans rumicisK11-0047T (98.1 %) were observed. The DNA-DNA hybridization result and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that KK1-3T could be readily distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Phytohabitans kaempferiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain KK1-3T (=BCC 66360T =NBRC 110005T). PMID:27126122

  20. Diketopiperazine Derivatives from the Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Xi, Lijun; Liu, Peipei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Ying; Zhu, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Five new diketopiperazine derivatives, (3Z,6E)-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidene)piperazine-2,5-dione (1), (3Z,6E)-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2R-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidene)piperazine-2,5-dione (2), (3Z,6Z)-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (3), (3Z,6Z)-3-((1H-imidazol-5-yl)-methylene)-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (4), and (3Z,6S)-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-but-2-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (5), were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328. The structures of 1–5 were determined by spectroscopic analysis, CD exciton chirality, the modified Mosher’s, Marfey’s and the C3 Marfey’s methods. Compound 3 showed modest antivirus activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus with an IC50 value of 41.5 ± 4.5 μM. In addition, compound 6 and 7 displayed potent anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 value of 28.9 ± 2.2 and 6.8 ± 1.5 μM, respectively. Due to the lack of corresponding data in the literature, the 13C NMR data of (3Z,6S)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2,5-dione (6) were also reported here for the first time. PMID:23538868

  1. Actinopolyspora righensis sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from Saharan soil in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Bouras, Noureddine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sabaou, Nasserdine

    2013-09-01

    A novel halophilic actinomycete strain, H23(T), was isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected in Djamâa (Oued Righ region), El-Oued province, South Algeria. Strain H23(T) was identified as a member of the genus Actinopolyspora by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain H23(T) had 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ranging from 97.8 % (Actinopolyspora xinjiangensis TRM 40136(T)) to 94.8 % (Actinopolyspora mortivallis DSM 44261(T)). The strain grew optimally at pH 6.0-7.0, 28-32 °C and in the presence of 15-25 % (w/v) NaCl. The substrate mycelium was well developed and fragmented with age. The aerial mycelium produced long, straight or flexuous spore chains with non-motile, smooth-surfaced and rod-shaped spores. Strain H23(T) had MK-10 (H4) and MK-9 (H4) as the predominant menaquinones. The whole micro-organism hydrolysates mainly consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid, galactose and arabinose. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C17:0 (37.4 %), iso-C17:0 (14.8 %), iso-C15:0 (14.2 %), and iso-C16:0 (13.9 %). The genotypic and phenotypic data show that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Actinopolyspora, for which the name Actinopolyspora righensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain H23(T) (=DSM 45501(T) = CCUG 63368(T) = MTCC 11562(T)). PMID:23754661

  2. Saccharopolyspora ghardaiensis sp. nov., an extremely halophilic actinomycete isolated from Algerian Saharan soil.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Bouras, Noureddine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-04-01

    A novel halophilic actinomycete, strain designated H53(T), was isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected from Chaâbet Ntissa, Béni-isguen, Ghardaïa (South of Algeria) and was characterized taxonomically by means of polyphasic approach. Optimal growth was found to occur at 30-35 °C, pH 6-7 and in the presence of 15-25% (w/v) NaCl. The strain was observed to produce abundant aerial mycelium, which formed long chains of rod-shaped spores at maturity, and well developed and fragmented substrate mycelium. The cell wall was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid; the diagnostic whole-cell sugars were arabinose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were found to be MK-9(H₄) and MK-9(H₆). The predominant cellular fatty acids were determined to be iso- and anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, and cis9 iso-C17:1. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine. The morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain were consistent with those of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence showed that this strain formed a distinct phyletic line within the radiation of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The 16S rRNA sequence similarities between strain H53(T) and other members of the genus Saccharopolyspora ranged from 92.1 to 94.3%. The DNA G+C content of strain H53(T) was 72.6%. The genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the strain H53(T) represents a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora ghardaiensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain H53(T) (=DSM 45606(T)=CCUG 63370(T)=CECT 8304(T)). PMID:24346634

  3. Streptomyces canalis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from an alkali-removing canal.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu-Xuan; Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhang, Li-Li

    2016-08-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 46794-61T, was isolated from an alkali-removing canal in 14th Farms of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, north-west China. The isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The whole-cell sugar patterns of the isolate contained ribose, mannose and glucose. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and two unidentified phospholipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA was 70.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain TRM 46794-61T had a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.6 % with the most closely related species with a validly published name, Streptomyces aidingensis TRM 46012T, and it could be distinguished from all species in the genus Streptomyces based on data from this polyphasic taxonomic study. However, DNA-DNA hybridization studies between strain TRM 46794-61T and S.aidingensis TRM 46012T showed only 45.4 % relatedness. On the basis of these data, strain TRM 46794-61T should be designated as a representative of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces canalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 46794-61T (=CCTCC AA 2015006T=KCTC 39568T). PMID:27217157

  4. Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Wu, Nan; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Li

    2011-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 40133(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat of Tarim basin in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain showed that it formed a well-seperated sub-branch within the radiation of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found between the strain TRM 40133(T) and Saccharopolyspora qijiaojingensis YIM 91168(T) (96.5%). The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolate are typical for the genus Saccharopolyspora. It contained meso-DAP as the diagnostic diamino acid. Whole cell hydrolysate contained arabinose, xylose, ribose and glucose. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(4)). No mycolic acid was detected. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. In addition, the strain TRM 40133(T) had a phenotypic profile that readily distinguished it from the recognized representatives of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The strain TRM 40133(T) therefore represents a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 40133(T) (=KCTC 19987(T) =CCTCC AA 2010012(T)). PMID:21461999

  5. Streptomyces bryophytorum sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Jin, Pinjiao; Liu, Chongxi; Ma, Zhaoxu; Zhao, Junwei; Li, Jiansong; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-HZ10(T) was isolated from moss and characterised using a polyphasic approach. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Streptomyces. Strain NEAU-HZ10(T) formed grayish aerial mycelia, which differentiated into straight to flexuous chains of cylindrical spores. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid. Predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile was found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and two unidentified phospholipids. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces and exhibits high sequence similarity to Streptomyces cocklensis DSM 42063(T) (98.9 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) clustered with S. cocklensis DSM 42063(T), Streptomyces yeochonensis CGMCC 4.1882(T) (98.7 %), Streptomyces paucisporeus CGMCC 4.2025(T) (98.4 %) and Streptomyces yanglinensis CGMCC 4.2023(T) (98.1 %). However, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridisation results and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) can be distinguished from its phylogenetically closely related strains. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-HZ10(T) (= CGMCC 4.7151(T) = DSM 42138(T)). PMID:27263023

  6. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)). PMID:26608172

  7. Phytoactinopolyspora alkaliphila sp. nov., an alkaliphilic actinomycete isolated from a saline-alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Guang; Lu, Xin-Hua; Ding, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Li, Li; Guo, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hong-Fei; Duan, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    An alkaliphilic, filamentous actinomycete, designated EGI 80629T, was isolated from a soil sample of Xinjiang, north-west China. Strain EGI 80629T grew at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 9.0-10.0) and in the presence of 0-13.0 % NaCl (optimum 3.0-5.0 %). The isolate formed fragmented substrate mycelia, and aerial hyphae with short spore chains with rod-like spores. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and mannose and rhamnose as diagnostic sugars. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4), while the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two phosphatidylinositol mannosides, five unknown phospholipids, three unknown phosphoglycolipids, one unknown glycolipid, four unknown polar lipids and one unknown aminophospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EGI 80629T clustered with the genus Phytoactinopolyspora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain EGI 80629T and Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica EGI 60009T was 96.8 %. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain EGI 80629T represents a novel species of the genus Phytoactinopolyspora, for which the name Phytoactinopolyspora alkaliphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 80629T ( = CGMCC 4.7225T = KCTC 39701T). PMID:26920762

  8. Streptomyces gilvifuscus sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces antibacterial compounds isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, uan Manh; Kim, Jaisoo

    2015-10-01

    This study describes a novel actinomycete, designated T113T, which was isolated from forest soil in Pyeongchang-gun, Republic of Korea, and is an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive actinobacterium that forms flexibilis chains of smooth, elliptical or short rod-shaped spores. The results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that strain T113T exhibited high levels of similarity to previously characterized species of the genus Streptomyces (98.19–98.89 %, respectively). However, the results of phylogenetic and DNA–DNA hybridization analyses confirmed that the organism represented a novel member of the genus Streptomyces. Furthermore, using chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses it was demonstrated that the strain exhibited characteristics similar to those of other members of the genus Streptomyces. The primary cellular fatty acids expressed by this strain included anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. While diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant lipids expressed by strain T113T, moderate amounts of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside were also detected. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained glucose and ribose, and the predominant menaquinone detected was MK-9 (H6); however, moderate amounts of MK-9 (H8) and trace amounts of MK-10 (H2) and MK-10 (H4) were also detected. We therefore propose that strain T113T be considered as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces and propose the name Streptomyces gilvifuscus sp. nov. for this species, with strain T113T ( = KEMB 9005-213T = KACC 18248T = NBRC 110904T) being the type strain. PMID:26297131

  9. Streptomonospora algeriensis sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from soil in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Bouras, Noureddine; Riba, Amar; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Rohde, Manfred; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sabaou, Nasserdine

    2014-08-01

    A halophilic actinomycete strain, designated H27(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a hypersaline habitat in Djelfa Province (North-Central Algeria), and then investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain was observed to produce poor aerial mycelium, which formed short chains of oval to cylindrical-shaped spores at maturity, and non fragmented substrate mycelium. The optimum NaCl concentration for growth was found to be 10-15 % (w/v) and the optimum growth temperature and pH were found to be 28-37 °C and 6-7, respectively. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones of strain H27(T) were identified as MK-11 (H4) and MK-10 (H6). The major fatty acids were found to be iso-C16:0, anteiso-C17:0, 10 methyl C17:0 and 10 methyl C16:0. The diagnostic phospholipids detected were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain H27(T) are consistent with those shared by members of the genus Streptomonospora. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain H27(T) is most closely related to Streptomonospora alba DSM 44588(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomonospora flavalba DSM 45155(T) (98.7 %) whereas the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain H27(T) and the two type strains were 17.1 and 57.9 %, respectively. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that strain H27(T) should be classified as representative of a novel species, for which the name Streptomonospora algeriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H27(T) (=DSM 45604(T) =CCUG 63369(T) =MTCC 11563(T)). PMID:24858572

  10. Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov., a halotolerant actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Moshtaghi Nikou, Mahdi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Rasooli, Mehrnoosh; Harirchi, Sharareh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhasan; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    A novel halotolerant actinomycete, strain Chem15(T), was isolated from soil around Inche-Broun hypersaline wetland; its taxonomic position was determined based on a polyphasic approach. Strain Chem15(T) was strictly aerobic and tolerated NaCl up to 12.5%. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Chem15(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diamino acid and galactose, arabinose and ribose as whole-cell sugars. The major phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The cellular fatty acids profile consisted of C16 : 0, iso-C18 : 0, C18 : 0 10-methyl and C18 : 1ω9c, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4cycl). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.0 mol%. The novel strain constituted a distinct phyletic line within the genus Nocardia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and was closely associated with Nocardia sungurluensis DSM 45714(T) and Nocardia alba DSM 44684(T) (98.2 and 98.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). However DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data demonstrated that strain Chem15(T) was clearly different from closely related species of the genus Nocardia. It is concluded that the organism should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Chem15(T) ( = IBRC-M 10490(T) = LMG 28544(T)). PMID:26297293

  11. Actinocorallia lasiicapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongxi; Li, Yao; Ye, Lan; Zhao, Junwei; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 3H-GS17T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 3H-GS17T belongs to the genus Actinocorallia with high sequence similarity to Actinocorallia glomerata JCM 9376T (98.13 %) and Actinocorallia longicatena JCM 9377T (97.64 %). The chemotaxonomic properties of strain 3H-GS17T were also consistent with those of members of the genus Actinocorallia. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and whole-cell sugars were ribose, mannose, glucose, galactose and madurose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7с. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 3H-GS17T and its closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that 3H-GS17T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, strain 3H-GS17T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Actinocorallia, for which the name Actinocorallia lasiicapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3H-GS17T (=DSM 100595T=CGMCC 4.7282T). PMID:26944933

  12. Plantactinosporasoyae sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from soybean root [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaowei; Guan, Xuejiao; Liu, Chongxi; Jia, Feiyu; Li, Jiansong; Li, Jinmeng; Jin, Pinjiao; Li, Wenchao; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-gxj3T, was isolated from soybean root [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] collected from Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-gxj3T showed highest similarity to those of Micromonospora equina Y22T (98.2 %) and Plantactinospora endophytica YIM 68255T (98.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene demonstrated that the isolate clustered with the members of the genus Plantactinospora. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-gxj3Twere also consistent with those of members of the genus Plantactinospora. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and whole-cell sugars were xylose, glucose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6), MK-9(H8), MK-10(H2) and MK-10(H4). The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 0. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization result and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-gxj3Tcould be differentiated clearly from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Plantactinospora, for which the name Plantactinospora soyae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-gxj3T (=CGMCC 4.7221T=DSM 46832T). PMID:27089547

  13. Streptomyces iconiensis sp. nov. and Streptomyces smyrnaeus sp. nov., two halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from a salt lake and saltern.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sahin, Nevzat

    2014-09-01

    The taxonomic positions of two novel actinomycetes, designated strains BNT558(T) and SM3501(T), were established by using a polyphasic approach. The organisms had chemical and morphological features that were consistent with their classification in the genus Streptomyces. The whole-cell hydrolysates of the two strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8) for strain BNT558(T) and MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6) for strain SM3501(T). Major fatty acids of the strains were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain BNT558(T) contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified aminophospholipid, while that of strain SM3501(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified atypical aminolipids, one unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified glycolipids. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA were 70.2 and 69.6 mol% for strains BNT558(T) and SM3501(T), respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence data supported the classification of the isolates in the genus Streptomyces and showed that they formed two distinct branches within the genus. Based on almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain BNT558(T) was related most closely to Streptomyces albiaxialis NRRL B-24327(T) and strain SM3501(T) was related most closely to Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi NBRC 12748(T). DNA-DNA relatedness between each of the isolates and its closest phylogenetic neighbours showed that they belonged to distinct species. The two isolates were readily distinguished from one another and from the type strains of the other species classified in the genus Streptomyces based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic properties. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic evidence, strains BNT558(T) and SM3501(T) belong to two

  14. Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Li, Li; Jiang, Zhao; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated 10A08AT and 10A08BT, were isolated from marine sediment samples of the South China Sea and their taxonomic positions were determined by a polyphasic approach. The two Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strains produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced in the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and all mycelium fragmented with age. Whole-cell hydrolysates of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. Their predominant menaquinones (>10 %) were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08AT and MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-10(H4) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08BT. The polar lipids detected from the two strains were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unknown phosphoglycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 10A08AT and 10A08BT were 70.9 and 71.6 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the two strains were shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Nocardiopsis. DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness values of < 70 % between these two isolates and their closest neighbour, Nocardiopsis terrae YIM 90022T, and between the two strains supported the conclusion that they represent two novel species. Based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the two isolates belong to the genus Nocardiopsis, and the names Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. (type strain 10A08AT = DSM 45931T = BCRC 16951T) and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov. (type strain 10A08BT = CGMCC 47227T = BCRC 16952T) are proposed. PMID:26297579

  15. Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Forest-Derived Soil Actinomycete, Nocardia sp. PB-52

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kalita, Mohan C.; Thakur, Debajit

    2016-01-01

    A mesophilic actinomycete strain designated as PB-52 was isolated from soil samples of Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary of Assam, India. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, the strain was identified as Nocardia sp. which shares 99.7% sequence similarity with Nocardia niigatensis IFM 0330 (NR_112195). The strain is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium with rugose spore surface which exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Optimization for the growth and antimicrobial activity of the strain PB-52 was carried out in batch culture under shaking condition. The optimum growth and antimicrobial potential of the strain were recorded in GLM medium at 28°C, initial pH 7.4 of the medium and incubation period of 8 days. Based on polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) gene-targeted PCR amplification, the occurrence of both of these biosynthetic pathways was detected which might be involved in the production of antimicrobial compounds in PB-52. Extract of the fermented broth culture of PB-52 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method using ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract of PB-52 (EA-PB-52) showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus MTCC 96 (0.975 μg/mL) whereas highest was recorded against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 (62.5 μg/mL). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that treatment of the test microorganisms with EA-PB-52 destroyed the targeted cells with prominent loss of cell shape and integrity. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its antimicrobial activity, EA-PB-52 was subjected to chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis showed the presence of twelve different chemical constituents in the extract, some of which are reported to possess diverse biological activity. These

  16. Actinopolyspora saharensis sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from a Saharan soil of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Bouras, Noureddine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sabaou, Nasserdine

    2013-04-01

    A novel halophilic actinomycete, strain H32(T), was isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected in El-Oued province, south Algeria. The isolate was characterized by means of polyphasic taxonomy. Optimal growth was determined to occur at 28-32 °C, pH 6.0-7.0 and in the presence of 15-25 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain was observed to produce abundant aerial mycelium, which formed long chains of rod-shaped spores at maturity, and fragmented substrate mycelium. The cell wall was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the characteristic whole-cell sugars were arabinose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were found to be MK-10(H4) and MK-9(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were determined to be anteiso C17:0, iso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that this strain formed a distinct phyletic line within the radiation of the genus Actinopolyspora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain H32(T) was most closely related to 'Actinopolyspora algeriensis' DSM 45476(T) (98.8 %) and Actinopolyspora halophila DSM 43834(T) (98.5 %). Furthermore, the result of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain H32(T) and the type strains 'A. algeriensis' DSM 45476(T), A. halophila DSM 43834(T) and Actinopolyspora mortivallis DSM 44261(T) demonstrated that this isolate represents a different genomic species in the genus Actinopolyspora. Moreover, the physiological and biochemical data allowed the differentiation of strain H32(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, it is proposed that strain H32(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinopolyspora, for which the name Actinopolyspora saharensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H32(T) (=DSM 45459(T)=CCUG 62966(T)). PMID:23196893

  17. Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from soil of a sugar cane field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2016-05-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain T3T, was isolated from a soil sample of a sugar cane field. The strain grew at 25-60 °C (optimum 37-50 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum 7.0-9.0) and with 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-7 %). The aerial mycelium was white and the vegetative mycelium was colourless to pale yellow. The substrate mycelium fragmented into rod-shaped elements after 4-5 days at 50 °C. The aerial mycelium formed flexuous chains of 5-20 spores per chain; the oval-shaped spores had spiny surfaces and were non-motile. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose, galactose and ribose. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted mainly of anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The quinone system was composed predominantly of MK-9(H4). The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain T3T was 71.3 mol%. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. In the 16S rRNA gene tree of Saccharopolyspora it formed a distinct phyletic line and was related most closely to Saccharopolyspora thermophila 216T. However, the phenotypic characteristics of strain T3T were significantly different from those of S. thermophila 216T and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low level of relatedness (28.6-32.3 %) between them. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain T3T represents a novel species in the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = DSM 46801T = CGMCC 4.7206T). PMID:26882893

  18. Thermoactinomyces guangxiensis sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from mushroom compost.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2015-09-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain CD-1(T), was isolated from mushroom compost in Nanning, Guangxi province, China. The strain grew at 37-55 °C (optimum 45-50 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 7.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0% NaCl (optimum 0-1.0%), formed well-developed white aerial mycelium and pale-yellow vegetative mycelium, and single endospores (0.8-1.0 μm diameter) were borne on long sporophores (2-3 μm length). The endospores were spherical-polyhedron in shape with smooth surface. Based on its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain CD-1(T) is affiliated to the genus Thermoactinomyces. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid; the whole-cell sugars were ribose and glucose. Major fatty acids were iso-C15 :  0, C16 : 0, anteiso-C15  : 0 and iso-C17  : 0. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. The polar phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine containing hydroxylated fatty acids, ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipid, an unknown phospholipid and glycolipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 48.8%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the organism was closely related to Lihuaxuella thermophila YIM 77831(T) (95.69% sequence similarity), Thermoactinomyces daqus H-18(T) (95.49%), Laceyella putida KCTC 3666(T) (95.05%), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris KCTC 9076(T) (95.01%) and Thermoactinomyces intermedius JCM 3312(T) (94.55%). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CD-1T and Lihuaxuella thermophila JCM 18059(T), Thermoactinomyces daqus DSM 45914(T), Laceyella putida JCM 8091(T), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris JCM 3162(T) and Thermoactinomyces intermedius JCM 3312(T) were low (22.8, 33.3, 24.7, 29.4 and 30.0%, respectively). A battery of phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain CD-1T represented a novel species of the genus Thermoactinomyces, for which the name Thermoactinomyces guangxiensis sp. nov

  19. A new curvularin glycoside and its cytotoxic and antibacterial analogues from marine actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. HS7.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuewei; Anjum, Komal; Song, Tengfei; Wang, Wenling; Yu, Siran; Huang, Haocai; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2016-05-01

    Five curvularin macrolides (1-5) were isolated from the cultured broth of marine actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. HS7 that was obtained from the cloacal aperture of sea cucumber Holothuria moebii. The structures of these isolates were characterized as (11S,15R)-11-hydroxycurvularin (1), (11R,15R)-11-hydroxycurvularin (2), curvularin-7-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), trans-dehydrocurvularin (4) and curvularin (5) based on their NMR and HRESIMS data as well as chemical degradation. Compound 3 is a new macrolide with a rare α-D-glucopyranose substituent. Compounds 1-4, 5a and 5c (the acyl products of 5), suppressed the proliferation of all six tested cancer cell lines and 4 is the most active compound with IC50 values ranging from 0.59 to 3.39 μM. The 11-hydroxycurvularins 1 and 2 also showed antibacterial activity inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli. PMID:26119337

  20. Juniperolide A: a new polyketide isolated from a terrestrial actinomycete, Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Raju, Ritesh; Gromyko, Oleksandr; Fedorenko, Viktor; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Plaza, Alberto; Müller, Rolf

    2012-12-01

    A new linear polyketide, juniperolide A (1), was produced by the terrestrial actinomycete (Lv1-48) isolated from the rhizosphere of the plant Juniperus excelsa. The juniperolide A (1) structure contains a THP unit and a 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxyhexose as the glycosidic moiety. Mosher's analysis was used for absolute stereochemistry determinations at C-2, C-8, C-20, and C-4', while the relative stereochemistry assignments of the remaining stereocenters were based on ROESY correlations and J-based coupling. PMID:23170775

  1. Streptomyces polyrhachii sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from an edible Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger).

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Yang, Lingyu; Gao, Ruixia; Zhang, Yuejing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2013-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ycm1(T), was isolated from an edible Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger) and characterized with a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of streptomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence show that the novel isolate belongs to the genus Streptomyces and forms a separate subclade. The closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as the type strains of Streptomyces intermedius NBRC 13049(T) (97.74 %), Streptomyces aureoverticillatus NRRL B-3326(T) (97.69 %), Streptomyces rutgersensis NBRC 12819(T) (97.68 %), Streptomyces gougerotii NBRC 3198(T) (97.68 %) and Streptomyces diastaticus subsp. diastaticus NBRC 3714(T) (97.68 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 97.55 %. A comparison between strain NEAU-ycm1(T) and the closest related Streptomyces type strains revealed that it is different from them in morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, it is proposed that NEAU-ycm1(T) (=CGMCC 4.7094(T) = DSM 42102(T)) represents a novel species of the genus of Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces polyrhachii sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24002610

  2. Effectiveness and toxicity of a novel isolated actinomycete strain Streptomyces sp. JS01 on a harmful alga Phaeocystis globosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Su; Peng, Yun; Li, Yi; Cai, Guanjing; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-06-01

    An aquatic actinomycete capable of eliminating the brown tide causing marine alga Phaeocystis globosa was isolated from the surface sea water and the isolate named JS01 was characterized as Streptomyces on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The supernatant of JS01 could lyse algal cells, implying that JS01 produced a latent alga-lytic compound. Considering this algicidal activity and the response of the algal cells, Chlorophyll a fluorescence decreased significantly in P. globosa in response to the JS01 supernatant when analyzed with flow cytometry. The algal cells experienced cell shrinkage and plasmolysis before disintegration after 72 h of treatment. The released algicide(s) were heat-tolerant, except above 121 °C, and fluctuation in pH variations; even so, algicidal activity was also over 60 %. The maximum toxicity of JS01 was on the seventh day of culture, and the relative luminosity was 0.49 at that time when detected by luminous bacteria Vibrio fischeri. These results indicated that the Streptomyces sp. JS01 could function as a potential controller of Phaeocystis globosa blooms. PMID:25638354

  3. Comparative analysis of chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethylacetate extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum and its endophytic actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. A0916.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Peng; Long, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Shuai; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the chemical composition of ethylacetate extracts from an endophytic actinomycete Streptomyces sp. A0916 and its host Polygonum cuspidatum. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the extracts was also conducted. 32 compounds of P. cuspidatum and 23 compounds of Streptomyces sp. A0916 were isolated and identified by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated using eight microbial strains (3 Gram-positive bacteria, 3 Gram-negative bacteria, and 2 fungi). The Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts showed a wide range of antimicrobial activities and presented greater antimicrobial effectiveness than the P. cuspidatum extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts against the ampicillin-resistant strain Enterococcus faecium SIIA843 was 32 μg·mL(-1). Furthermore, the extracts had greater antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the Streptomyces sp. A0916 extracts was equal to that of the P. cuspidatum extracts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the endophytic actinomycetes of the medicinal plants are an important source of bioactive substances. PMID:26968677

  4. Genome Sequence of Amycolatopsis sp Strain ATCC 39116, a Plant Biomass-Degrading Actinomycete

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jennifer R.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Shunsheng; Han, James; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Mikhailova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L; Sello, Jason K.

    2012-01-01

    We announce the availability of a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of Amycolatopsis sp. strain 39116, one of few bacterial species that are known to consume the lignin component of plant biomass. This genome sequence will further ongoing efforts to use microorganisms for the conversion of plant biomass into fuels and high-value chemicals.

  5. Genome sequence of Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116, a plant biomass-degrading actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer R; Goodwin, Lynne A; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Shunsheng; Han, James; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Mikhailova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L; Sello, Jason K

    2012-05-01

    We announce the availability of a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of Amycolatopsis sp. strain 39116, one of few bacterial species that are known to consume the lignin component of plant biomass. This genome sequence will further ongoing efforts to use microorganisms for the conversion of plant biomass into fuels and high-value chemicals. PMID:22493203

  6. Actinomycetes from Eucalyptus and their biological activities for controlling Eucalyptus leaf and shoot blight.

    PubMed

    Himaman, Winanda; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, Eucalyptus plantations rapidly expand across the country. Leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans is a serious disease in Eucalyptus plantations. In this study, a total of 477 actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from roots and rhizosphere soil of Eucalyptus. Four hundred and thirty nine isolates were classified as streptomycetes and 38 isolates were non-streptomycetes. Among these isolates, 272 (57.0%), 118 (24.7%) and 241 (50.5%) isolates were antagonistic to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans, respectively. All isolates were tested for their abilities to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA) and solubilise phosphate. Most isolates (464, 97.3%) produced siderophores. The majority of isolates (345, 72.3%) solubilised phosphate. In addition, almost half of these isolates (237, 49.7%) produced indole acetic acid. Strain EUSKR2S82 which showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with plant growth promoting ability was selected to test with Eucalyptus. This strain could colonize plant roots and increase Eucalyptus roots length. In a detached leaves bioassay, the disease severity of EUSKR2S82-inoculated Eucalyptus leaves was only 30% compared to 95% in the control treatment. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain EUSKR2S82 was related to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL-B 2714(T) (99.44% similarity). Identification of non-streptomycete isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequences classified them into 9 genera: Actinoallomurus, Actinomadura, Amycolatopsis, Cryptosporangium, Microbispora, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea and Pseudonocardia. It is evident that Eucalyptus tree harbored several genera of actinomycetes. The selected isolate, EUSKR2S82 showed potential as a candidate for biocontrol agent of leaf and shoot blight of Eucalyptus and to promote growth. PMID:27296961

  7. Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Nicholas V; Wilson, Neil L; Barry, Kerrie; Bruce, David; Copeland, A; Dalin, Eileen; Detter, J. Chris; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hammon, Nancy; Han, Shunsheng; Hauser, Loren John; Israni, Sanjay; Kim, Edwin; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Larimer, Frank W; Lucas, Susan; Pitluck, Sam; Richardson, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Tapia, Roxanne; Thompson, Sue; Tice, Hope; Spain, Jim C; Gossett, James G; Mattes, Timothy E

    2011-01-01

    Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

  8. Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; He, Hairong; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2014-10-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-P5(T), was isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.). Strain NEAU-P5(T) showed closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Micromonospora chokoriensis 2-19/6(T) (99.5%), and phylogenetically clustered with Micromonospora violae NEAU-zh8(T) (99.3%), M. saelicesensis Lupac 09(T) (99.0%), M. lupini Lupac 14N(T) (98.8%), M. zeae NEAU-gq9(T) (98.4%), M. jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T) (98.3%) and M. zamorensis CR38(T) (97.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence also indicated that the isolate clustered with the above type strains except M. violae NEAU-zh8(T). The cell-wall peptidoglycan consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H2). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(17:0). Furthermore, some physiological and biochemical properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from members of closely related species. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-P5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-P5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7098(T) = DSM 45885(T)). PMID:25082023

  9. Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a halotolerant filamentous actinomycete isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis F.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ma, Jin-Biao; Abdalla Mohamad, Osama; Li, Shan-Hui; Osman, Ghenijan; Li, Yan-Qiong; Guo, Jian-Wei; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain EGI 60009T, was isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis F. collected from Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The isolate was able to grow in the presence of 0-9% (w/v) NaCl. Strain EGI 60009T had particular morphological properties: the substrate mycelia fragmented into rod-like elements and aerial mycelia differentiated into short spore chains. ll-2, 6-Diaminopimelic acid was the cell-wall diamino acid and rhamnose, galactose and glucose were the cell-wall sugars. MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone. The major fatty acids of strain EGI 60009T were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 1 and I/anteiso-C17 : 0 B. Mycolic acids were absent. The DNA G+C content of strain EGI 60009T was 70.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain EGI 60009T belongs to the family Jiangellaceae and formed a distinct clade in the phylogenetic tree. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain EGI 60009T and other members of the genera Jiangella and Haloactinopolyspora were 96.1-96.4 and 95.7-96.0%, respectively. Based on these results and supported by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data and numerous phenotypic differences, a novel species of a new genus, Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica is EGI 60009T ( = KCTC 29657T = CPCC204078T). PMID:25964514

  10. Bioactive 2(1H)-Pyrazinones and Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from a Tunicate-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A; Badr, Jihan M; Harakeh, Steve M

    2016-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing effort to allocate marine microbial bioactive leads, a tunicate-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. Did-27, was investigated. Three new 2(1H)-pyrazinones derivatives, (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (1), (S)-3-(sec-butyl)-6-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (2) and (S)-6-(sec-butyl)-3-isobutylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (3), together with the known (1H)-pyrazinones analogues deoxymutaaspergillic acid (4), 3,6-diisobutyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone (5) and 3,6-di-sec-butyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone (6), and the diketopiperazine alkaloids cyclo(6-OH-d-Pro-l-Phe) (7), bacillusamide B (8), cyclo(l-Pro-l-Leu) and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Ile) (10) were isolated from this strain. The structures of the compounds were determined by study of their one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra as well as high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Compound 4 was reported previously as a synthetic product, while compound 6 was reported as 2-hydroxy-3,6-di-sec-butylpyrazine. Herein, we report the complete NMR data for compounds 4 and 6. The compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three cell lines. Compound 5 showed potent and selective activity against HCT-116 cell line with IC50 of 1.5 μg/mL, while 1-10 showed variable cytotoxic activities against these cancer cell lines. These results provide further understanding about the chemistry and bioactivities of the alkylated 2(1H)-pyrazinone derivatives. PMID:27563872

  11. Protoplast preparation and reversion to the normal filamentous growth in antibiotic-producing uncommon actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Marcone, Giorgia Letizia; Carrano, Lucia; Marinelli, Flavia; Beltrametti, Fabrizio

    2010-02-01

    Protoplast preparation, regeneration and fusion represent essential tools for those poorly studied biotechnologically valuable microorganisms inapplicable with the current molecular biology protocols. The protoplast production and regeneration method developed for Planobispora rosea and using the combination of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) and Streptomyces globisporus mutanolysin was applied to a set of antibiotic-producing filamentous actinomycetes belonging to the Streptosporangiaceae, Micromonosporaceae and Streptomycetaceae. 10(7)-10(9) protoplasts were obtained from 100 ml of culture, after incubation times in the digestion solution ranging from a few hours to 1 or 2 days depending on the strain. The efficiency of protoplast reversion to the normal filamentous growth varied from 0.1 to nearly 50%. Analysis of cell wall peptidoglycan in three representative strains (Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, Actinoplanes teichomyceticus ATCC 31121 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)) has evidenced structural variations in the glycan strand and in the peptide chain, which may account for the different response to cell digestion and protoplast regeneration treatments. PMID:20057514

  12. Amycolatopsis rhabdoformis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a tropical forest soil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wallace Rafael; Silva, Rafael Eduardo; Goodfellow, Michael; Busarakam, Kanungnid; Figueiro, Fernanda Sales; Ferreira, Douglas; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2015-06-01

    Strain SB026T was isolated from Brazilian rainforest soil and its taxonomic position established using data from a polyphasic study. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological features consistent with its classification in the genus Amycolatopsis and formed a branch in the Amycolatopsis 16S rRNA gene tree together with Amycolatopsis bullii NRRL B-24847T, Amycolatopsis plumensis NRRL B-24324T, Amycolatopsis tolypomycina DSM 44544T and Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina NRRL B-24208T. It was related most closely to A. bullii NRRL B-24847T (99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), but was distinguished from this strain by a low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (~46 %) and discriminatory phenotypic properties. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that the isolate should be classified in the genus Amycolatopsis as representing a novel species, Amycolatopsis rhabdoformis sp. nov. The type strain is SB026T ( = CBMAI 1694T = CMAA 1285T = NCIMB 14900T). PMID:25744584

  13. Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, filamentous actinomycete of the family Glycomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-06-01

    A novel halophilic actinobacterium, designated YIM 92370(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The strain was aerobic, Gram-positive-staining and halophilic, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 8-12 % (w/v). The whole-cell sugar pattern consisted of ribose, xylose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) and the major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The phospholipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, two unknown phosphoglycolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 92370(T) can be distinguished from representatives of Glycomyces and Stackebrandtia, the two existing genera in the family Glycomycetaceae, by low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (<93.7 %). Strain YIM 92370(T) therefore represents a novel genus and species of the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Haloglycomyces albus is YIM 92370(T) (=DSM 45210(T) =KCTC 19481(T)). PMID:19502305

  14. Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Lop Nur region.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cong; Li, Yu-Qian; Asem, Mipeshwaree Devi; Lu, Chun-Yan; Shi, Xiao-Han; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Di An, Deng-; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated LPA192(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Lop Nur, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China. A polyphasic approach was used to investigate the taxonomic position of strain LPA192(T). The isolate showed morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H4). Polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. Major cellular fatty acids consist of C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C18:1 ω9c. The sugar in whole-cell hydrolysates was mannose. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain LPA192(T) is closely related to Streptomyces tanashiensis LMG 20274(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces gulbargensis DAS131(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces nashvillensis NBRC 13064(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces roseolus NBRC 12816(T) (99.2 %) and Streptomyces filamentosus NBRC 12767(T) (99.1 %) while showing below 98.5 % sequencing similarities with other validly published Streptomyces species. However, DNA-DNA relatedness values between LPA192(T) and the closely related type strains were below 40 %, which are much lower than 70 % threshold value for species delineation. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain LPA192(T) was 69.3 mol %. Based on the differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics from the closely related strains, strain LPA192(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPA192(T) (=KCTC 39601(T) = CGMCC 4.7288(T)). PMID:27209413

  15. Geodermatophilus telluris sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Saharan desert sand.

    PubMed

    Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Göker, Markus; Pötter, Gabriele; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-06-01

    A novel Gram-positive, multiloculated thalli-forming, aerobic, actinobacterial strain, CF9/1/1(T), was isolated in 2007 during environmental screening for xerophilic fungi in arid desert soil from the Sahara desert, Chad. The isolate grew best at a temperature range of 20-35 °C and at pH 6.0-8.5 and with 0-4% (w/v) NaCl, forming black-coloured and irregular colonies on GYM agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 75.4 mol%. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as a diagnostic diamino acid. The main phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, a not yet structurally identified aminophospholipid and a small amount of phosphatidylglycerol; MK-9(H4) was identified as the dominant menaquinone and galactose was a diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids: iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed 94.6-97.0% sequence similarities with those of five members of the genus: Geodermatophilus ruber DSM 45317(T) (94.6%), Geodermatophilus obscurus DSM 43160(T) (94.8%), Geodermatophilus siccatus DSM 45419(T) (96.2%), Geodermatophilus nigrescens DSM 45408(T) (96.7%) and Geodermatophilus arenarius DSM 45418(T) (97.0%). Based on the evidence from this polyphasic taxonomic study, a novel species, Geodermatophilus telluris sp. nov., is proposed; the type strain is CF9/1/1(T) (=DSM 45421(T)=CCUG 62764(T)). PMID:23159748

  16. Streptomonospora tuzyakensis sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Inan, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Belduz, Ali Osman; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain BN506(T), was isolated from soil collected from Tuz (Salt) Lake, Konya, Turkey, and was characterised to determine its taxonomic position. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic properties associated with members of the genus Streptomonospora. The isolate was found to grow optimally at 37 °C and in the presence of 10 % (w/v) NaCl but not in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that isolate is closely related to members of the genus Streptomonospora and forms a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomonospora phylogenetic tree. Strain BN506(T) is closely related to Streptomonospora halophila YIM 91355(T) (98.1 % sequence similarity). Sequence similarities with other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. The cell wall of the novel strain was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. Whole cell hydrolysates were found to contain galactose, glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-10(H8) (57.0 %). The polar lipids detected were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The major fatty acids were found to be anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and 10 methyl C18:0. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strain BN506(T) was identified as a member of a novel species of the genus Streptomonospora, for which the name Streptomonospora tuzyakensis sp. nov. (type strain BN506(T) = DSM 45930(T) = KCTC 29210(T)) is proposed. PMID:26459342

  17. Cephamycins, a new family of beta-lactam antibiotics. I. Production by actinomycetes, including Streptomyces lactamdurans sp. n.

    PubMed

    Stapley, E O; Jackson, M; Hernandez, S; Zimmerman, S B; Currie, S A; Mochales, S; Mata, J M; Woodruff, H B; Hendlin, D

    1972-09-01

    A number of actinomycetes isolated from soil were found to produce one or more members of a new family of antibiotics, the cephamycins, which are structurally related to cephalosporin C. The cephamycins were produced in submerged fermentation in a wide variety of media by one or more of eight different species of Streptomyces, including a newly described species, S. lactamdurans. These antibiotics exhibit antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria which includes many that are resistant to the cephalosporins and penicillins. PMID:4790552

  18. Description of Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil of the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; González, Ignacio; Estévez, Mar; Benito, Patricia; Trujillo, Martha E; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain F-240,109(T) from the MEDINA collection was isolated from a soil sample collected in the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic. The strain was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Kibdelosporangium, being closely related to Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. aridum (98.6 % sequence similarity), Kibledosporangium phytohabitans (98.3 %), Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. largum (97.7 %), Kibdelosporangium philippinense (97.6 %) and Kibledosporangium lantanae (96.9 %). In order to resolve its precise taxonomic status, the strain was characterised through a polyphasic approach. The strain is a Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile and catalase-positive actinomycete characterised by formation of extensively branched substrate mycelia and sparse brownish grey aerial mycelia with sporangium-like globular structures. The chemotaxonomic characterisation of strain F-240,109(T) corroborated its affiliation into the genus Kibdelosporangium. The peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; the major menaquinone is MK-9(H4); the phospholipid profile contains high amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid; and the predominant cellular fatty acid methyl esters are iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 and 2OH iso-C16:0. However, some key phenotypic differences regarding to its close relatives and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicate that strain F-240,109(T) represents a novel Kibdelosporangium species, for which the name Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain F-240,109(T) (=DSM 46670(T), =LMG 28181(T)). PMID:26936255

  19. Microbispora sp. LGMB259 endophytic actinomycete isolated from Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil) producing β-carbolines and indoles with biological activity.

    PubMed

    Savi, Daiani C; Shaaban, Khaled A; Vargas, Nathalia; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Possiede, Yvelise M; Thorson, Jon S; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. Vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the "Pantanal" region (Brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. During a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the V. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. The strain was characterized as Microbispora sp. LGMB259 by spore morphology and molecular analyze using nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain LGMB259 was cultivated in R5A medium producing metabolites with significant antibacterial activity. The strain produced 4 chemically related β-carbolines, and 3 Indoles. Compound 1-vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid displayed potent activity against the Gram-positive bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-2618 and Kocuria rosea B-1106, and was highly active against two human cancer cell lines, namely the prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, with IC50 values of 9.45 and 24.67 µM, respectively. 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid also showed moderate activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC204508, as well as the phytopathogenic fungi Phyllosticta citricarpa LGMB06 and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides FDC83. PMID:25385358

  20. Microbispora sp. LGMB259 Endophytic Actinomycete Isolated from Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil) Producing β-Carbolines and Indoles with Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Savi, Daiani C.; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Vargas, Nathalia; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Possiede, Yvelise M.; Thorson, Jon S.; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. Vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the “Pantanal” region (Brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. During a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the V. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. The strain was characterized as Microbispora sp. LGMB259 by spore morphology and molecular analyze using nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain LGMB259 was cultivated in R5A medium producing metabolites with significant antibacterial activity. The strain produced 4 chemically related β-carbolines, and 3 Indoles. Compound 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid displayed potent activity against the Gram-positive bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-2618 and Kocuria rosea B-1106, and was highly active against two human cancer cell lines, namely the prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, with IC50 values of 9.45 and 24.67 µM, respectively. 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid also showed moderate activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC204508, as well as the phytopathogenic fungiPhyllosticta citricarpa LGMB06 and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides FDC83. PMID:25385358

  1. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, a natural rubber degrading actinomycete isolated from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nanthini, Jayaram; Chia, Kim-Hou; Thottathil, Gincy P; Taylor, Todd D; Kondo, Shinji; Najimudin, Nazalan; Baybayan, Primo; Singh, Siddharth; Sudesh, Kumar

    2015-11-20

    Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, which naturally degrades rubber, was isolated from a rubber plantation. Whole genome sequencing and assembly resulted in 2 contigs with total genome size of 8.248 Mb. Two latex clearing protein (lcp) genes which are responsible for rubber degrading activities were identified. PMID:26376470

  2. Construction of expression vectors for metabolic engineering of the vanillin-producing actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    PubMed

    Fleige, Christian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is able to synthesize the important flavoring agent vanillin from cheap natural substrates. The bacterium is therefore of great interest for the industry and used for the fermentative production of vanillin. In order to improve the production of natural vanillin with Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116, the strain has been genetically engineered to optimize the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Extensive metabolic engineering was hitherto hampered, due to the lack of genetic tools like functional promoters and expression vectors. In this study, we report the establishment of a plasmid-based gene expression system for Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 that allows a further manipulation of the genotype. Four new Escherichia coli-Amycolatopsis shuttle vectors harboring different promoter elements were constructed, and the functionality of these regulatory elements was proven by the expression of the reporter gene gusA, encoding a β-glucuronidase. Glucuronidase activity was detected in all plasmid-harboring strains, and remarkable differences in the expression strength of the reporter gene depending on the used promoter were observed. The new expression vectors will promote the further genetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to get insight into the metabolic network and to improve the strain for a more efficient industrial use. PMID:24743982

  3. Induced production of cytochalasans in co-culture of marine fungus Aspergillus flavipes and actinomycete Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyan; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2016-08-01

    Abstarct Secondary metabolites profiles of co-culture of Aspergillus flavipes and Streptomyces sp. that isolated from the same habitat showed an induced production of a series of cytochalasans (five aspochalasins and rosellichalasin, determined by MS and NMR analysis). These cytochalasans were found to be produced by A. flavipes in LC-MS comparison analysis, and biological activity assays revealed that they were able to cause cytotoxic effects against Streptomyces sp. within a wide range of concentrations without causing any effect to the producer A. flavipes, which favoured the producer in competition. Further induction mechanism study applying membrane-separated culture and morphology study with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that the successful induction of active secondary metabolites required microbial physical contact. PMID:26783945

  4. Structure and Stereochemical Determination of Hypogeamicins from a Cave-Derived Actinomycete

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Culture extracts from the cave-derived actinomycete Nonomuraea specus were investigated, resulting in the discovery of a new S-bridged pyronaphthoquinone dimer and its monomeric progenitors designated hypogeamicins A–D (1–4). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy, and the relative stereochemistries of the pyrans were inferred using NOE and comparison to previously reported compounds. Absolute stereochemistry was determined using quantum chemical calculations of specific rotation and vibrational and electronic circular dichroism spectra, after an extensive conformational search and including solute–solvent polarization effects, and comparing with the corresponding experimental data for the monomeric congeners. Interestingly, the dimeric hypogeamicin A (1) was found to be cytotoxic to the colon cancer derived cell line TCT-1 at low micromolar ranges, but not bacteria, whereas the monomeric precursors possessed antibiotic activity but no significant TCT-1 cytotoxicity. PMID:25046128

  5. Herbicidal agents from actinomycetes against selected crop plants and weeds.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Panneerselvam, Annamalai

    2010-04-01

    About 64 total actinomycetes were isolated from various coastal soils. Sixteen actinomycete isolates were screened for herbicidal principles. Out of these, five potent isolates were selected for characterisation and identification. Based on their morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics, the actinomycete isolates were identified as Glyomyces, Saccharomonospra and Streptomyces sp. The Streptomycetes isolates were tested for herbicidal principles by germination inhibition assay. About 10 crop seeds were tested for herbicidal activity with Streptomycetes isolates. The crop seeds did not show growth inhibition. Four weed seeds were tested for herbicidal activity with Streptomyces isolates. Streptomyces inhibits the growth of Echinochilora crusgalli, but it could not inhibit the growth of Echinochilora colonum, Parthenium sp., or Ageratum conizoites. The present study concludes that Streptomyces isolates will be a bioherbicide against E. crusgalli. Further study is required to confirm the activity of Streptomyces isolates against E. crusgalli under field conditions. PMID:20182949

  6. Targeted genome editing in the rare actinomycete Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 by using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Timo; Gren, Tetiana; Thieme, Eric; Wibberg, Daniel; Zemke, Till; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2016-08-10

    The application of genome editing technologies, like CRISPR/Cas9 for industrially relevant microorganisms, is becoming increasingly important. Compared to other methods of genetic engineering the decisive factor is that CRISPR/Cas9 is relatively easy to apply and thus time and effort can be significantly reduced in organisms, which are otherwise genetically difficult to access. Because of its many advantages and opportunities, we adopted the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110, the producer of the diabetes type II drug acarbose. The functionality of genome editing was successfully shown by the scarless and antibiotic marker-free deletion of the gene encoding the tyrosinase MelC, which catalyzes the formation of the dark pigment eumelanin in the wild type strain. The generated ΔmelC2 mutant of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 no longer produces this pigment and therefore the supernatant does not darken. Furthermore, it was shown that the plasmid containing the gene for the Cas9 protein was removed by increasing the temperature due to its temperature-sensitive replication. The precision of the intended mutation was proven and possible off-target effects caused by the genome editing system were ruled out by genome sequencing of several mutants. PMID:27262504

  7. Antibiotics production by an actinomycete isolated from the termite gut.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toru; Tanaka, Junichi; Namihira, Tomoyuki; Shinzato, Naoya

    2012-12-01

    As well as the search for new antibiotics, a new resource or strains for the known antibiotics is also important. Microbial symbionts in the gut of termites could be regarded as one of the feasible resource for such purpose. In this study, antibiotic-producing actinomycetes were screened from symbionts of the termite gut. 16SrRNA sequence analysis for the 10 isolates revealed that they belong to actinomycetes such as Streptomyces sp., Kitasatospora sp., and Mycobacterium sp. A culture broth from one of the isolate, namely strain CA1, belonging to the genera Streptomyces exhibited antagonistic activity against actinomycetes (Micrococcus spp.), gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.), and yeast (Candida spp.). The structures of 2 compounds isolated from the culture broth of the strain CA1 were identified as those of actinomycin X2 and its analog, D. This study is the first to report that some symbionts of the termite gut are antibiotic-producing actinomycetes, and suggest that the termite gut is a feasible resource for bioprospecting. PMID:22359219

  8. Salininema proteolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic rare actinomycete isolated from wetland soil, and emended description of the family Glycomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Nikou, Mahdi Moshtaghi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Rasouli, Mehrnoush; Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Schumann, Peter; de la Haba, Rafael R; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-stain-positive actinobacterial strain, Miq-4T, was isolated from soil around Meighan wetland in the centre of Iran. Strain Miq-4T was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The isolate grew in the presence of 3–15 % (w/v) NaCl, at 20–40 °C and pH 6.0–11.0. The optimum NaCl, temperature and pH for growth were 7.0 %, 30 °C and 7.0–8.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Miq-4T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid and glucose and ribose as the whole-cell sugars. The polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Strain Miq-4T synthesized cellular fatty acids of anteiso- and iso-branched types, including anteiso-C17 : 0, anteiso- C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-9(H4). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and characteristic patterns of 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides revealed that strain Miq-4T belongs to the family Glycomycetaceae and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity with Haloglycomyces albus YIM 92370T (94.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain Miq-4T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Salininema proteoliyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is Miq-4T ( = IBRC-M 10908T = LMG 28391T). An emended description of the family Glycomycetaceae is also proposed in order to include features of the new genus. PMID:26219545

  9. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

  10. Genetic Insights Into Pyralomicin Biosynthesis in Nonomuraea spiralis IMC A-0156

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, Patricia M.; Wu, Xiumei; Perry, Steven; Mahmud, Taifo

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster for the pyralomicin antibiotics has been cloned and sequenced from Nonomuraea spiralis IMC A-0156. The 41-kb gene cluster contains 27 ORFs predicted to encode all of the functions for pyralomicin biosynthesis. This includes non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) required for the formation of the benzopyranopyrrole core unit, as well as a suite of tailoring enzymes (e.g., four halogenases, an O-methyltransferase, and an N-glycosyltransferase) necessary for further modifications of the core structure. The N-glycosyltransferase is predicted to transfer either glucose or a pseudosugar (cyclitol) to the aglycone. A gene cassette encoding C7-cyclitol biosynthetic enzymes was identified upstream of the benzopyranopyrrole-specific ORFs. Targeted disruption of the gene encoding the N-glycosyltransferase, prlH, abolished pyralomicin production and recombinant expression of PrlA confirms the activity of this enzyme as a sugar phosphate cyclase (SPC) involved in the formation of the C7-cyclitol moiety. PMID:23607523

  11. Enhanced polyaromatic hydrocarbon degradation by adapted cultures of actinomycete strains.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Natalia; Isaac, Paula; Alvarez, Héctor; Amoroso, María J; Ferrero, Marcela A

    2014-12-01

    Fifteen actinomycete strains were evaluated for their potential use in removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their capability to degrade of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene was tested in minimal medium (MM) and MM with glucose as another substrate. Degradation of naphthalene in MM was observed in all isolates at different rates, reaching maximum values near to 76% in some strains of Streptomyces, Rhodococcus sp. 016 and Amycolatopsis tucumanensis DSM 45259. Maximum values of degradation of phenanthrene in MM occurred in cultures of A. tucumanensis DSM 45259 (36.2%) and Streptomyces sp. A12 (20%), while the degradation of pyrene in MM was poor and only significant with Streptomyces sp. A12 (4.3%). Because of the poor performance when growing on phenanthrene and pyrene alone, Rhodococcus sp. 20, Rhodococcus sp. 016, A. tucumanensis DSM 45259, Streptomyces sp. A2, and Streptomyces sp. A12 were challenged to an adaptation schedule of successive cultures on a fresh solid medium supplemented with PAHs, decreasing concentration of glucose in each step. As a result, an enhanced degradation of PAHs by adapted strains was observed in the presence of glucose as co-substrate, without degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in MM while an increase to up to 50% of degradation was seen with these strains in glucose amended media. An internal fragment of the catA gene, which codes for catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, was amplified from both Rhodococcus strains, showing the potential for degradation of aromatic compounds via salycilate. These results allow us to propose the usefulness of these actinomycete strains for PAH bioremediation in the environment. PMID:25205070

  12. [Distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomycetes on northern slope of Taibai Mountain, Qinling].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Jie; Xue, Quan-Hong; Cao, Yan-Ru; Xue, Lei; Shen, Guang-Hui; Lai, Hang-Xian

    2011-11-01

    Twelve representative soil samples were collected from different altitudes on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain to study the distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomyces by using agar block method. There existed a great deal of soil antagonistic actinomyces in the study area. Among the 141 actinomycete strains isolated, 116 strains (82.3%) showed antagonism toward 12 target bacteria or fungi. The antagonistic strains at altitudes 800-1845, 3488, 3655, and 3670 m occupied 73.7% -86.8%, 81.3%, 78.9% and 82.3% of the total, respectively. 42.1% of the strains at altitudes 1200-2300 m and > 3400 m showed strong and broad spectrum antagonistic activity, suggesting that there was a great potential for the isolation of actinomycete strains with strong anti-biotic capability at these altitudes. 24.1% of the antagonistic actinomycetes showed antagonism against Staphyloccocus aureu, and 2.4%, 6.9% and 11.2% of them showed activity toward Verticillium dahliae in cotton, Phytophthora sp. in strawberry and Neonectria radiciccla in ginseng, respectively. This study showed that the soil actinomycete antagonistic potentiality (SAAP) could be used as a quantitative indicator to evaluate the potential of antagonistic actinomycete resources in soil. PMID:22303680

  13. Biosurfactant produced from Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17: Characterization and its biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Ghosh, Mandakini; Chakraborti, Srijita; Jana, Sougata; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Kokare, Chandrakant; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    This investigation aims to isolate an Actinomycetes strain producing a biosurfactant from the unexplored region of industrial and coal mine areas. Actinomycetes are selected for this study as their novel chemistry was not exhausted and they have tremendous potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. The biosurfactant was characterized and further needed to be utilized for pharmaceutical dosage form. Isolation, purification, screening, and characterization of the Actinomycetes A17 were done followed by its fermentation in optimized conditions. The cell-free supernatant was used for the extraction of the biosurfactant and precipitated by cold acetone. The dried precipitate was purified by TLC and the emulsification index, surface tension and CMC were determined. The isolated strain with preferred results was identified as Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17 with high foam-forming properties. It gives lipase, amylase, gelatinase, and protease activity. The emulsification index was found to be 93±0.8 with surface tension 66.67 dyne/cm at the lowest concentration and cmc 0.6 μg/ml. These biosurfactants were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Therefore, it can be concluded that the biosurfactant produced by Actinomycetes nocardiopsis sp. strain A17 was found to have satisfactory results with high surface activity and emulsion-forming ability. PMID:25989147

  14. Biodiversity of Actinomycetes associated with Caribbean sponges and their potential for natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Jan; Stewart, Allison; Song, Bongkeun; Hill, Russell T; Wright, Jeffrey L

    2013-08-01

    Marine actinomycetes provide a rich source of structurally unique and bioactive secondary metabolites. Numerous genera of marine actinomycetes have been isolated from marine sediments as well as several sponge species. In this study, 16 different species of Caribbean sponges were collected from four different locations in the coastal waters off Puerto Rico in order to examine diversity and bioactive metabolite production of marine actinomycetes in Caribbean sponges. Sediments were also collected from each location, in order to compare actinomycete communities between these two types of samples. A total of 180 actinomycetes were isolated and identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of at least 14 new phylotypes belonging to the genera Micromonospora, Verruscosispora, Streptomyces, Salinospora, Solwaraspora, Microbacterium and Cellulosimicrobium. Seventy-eight of the isolates (19 from sediments and 59 from sponges) shared 100 % sequence identity with Micromonospora sp. R1. Despite having identical 16S rRNA sequences, the bioactivity of extracts and subsequent fractions generated from the fermentation of both sponge- and sediment-derived isolates identical to Micromonospora sp. R1 varied greatly, with a marked increase in antibiotic metabolite production in those isolates derived from sponges. These results indicate that the chemical profiles of isolates with high 16S rRNA sequence homology to known strains can be diverse and dependent on the source of isolation. In addition, seven previously reported dihydroquinones produced by five different Streptomyces strains have been purified and characterized from one Streptomyces sp. strain isolated in this study from the Caribbean sponge Agelas sceptrum. PMID:23344968

  15. Molecular, chemical and biological screening of soil actinomycete isolates in seeking bioactive peptide metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Imanparast, Somaye; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Due to the evolution of multidrug-resistant strains, screening of natural resources, especially actinomycetes, for new therapeutic agents discovery has become the interests of researchers. In this study, molecular, chemical and biological screening of soil actinomycetes was carried out in order to search for peptide-producing actinomycetes. Materials and Methods: 60 actinomycetes were isolated from soils of Iran. The isolates were subjected to molecular screening for detection NRPS (non-ribosomal peptide synthetases) gene. Phylogenic identification of NRPS containing isolates was performed. Chemical screening of the crude extracts was performed using chlorine o-dianisidine as peptide detector reagent and bioactivity of peptide producing strains was determined by antimicrobial bioassay. High pressure liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) with UV-visible spectroscopy was performed for detection of the metabolite diversity in selected strain. Results: Amplified NRPS adenylation gene (700 bp) was detected among 30 strains. Phylogenic identification of these isolates showed presence of rare actinomycetes genera among the isolates and 10 out of 30 strains were subjected to chemical screening. Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 showed antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal test pathogens. HPLC-MS and UV-visible spectroscopy results from the crude extract showed that this strain has probably the ability to produce new metabolites. Conclusion: By application of a combined approach, including molecular, chemical and bioactivity analysis, a promising strain of Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 was obtained. This strain had significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Strain Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 produce five unknown and most probably new metabolites with molecular weights of 274.2, 390.3, 415.3, 598.4 and 772.5. This strain had showed 99% similarity to Nocardia ignorata DSM 44496 T. PMID:26644870

  16. Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds. PMID:19597582

  17. Isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes from marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, M.; Esparis, A.; Fabregas, J.

    1983-07-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity. 13 references.

  18. ISOLATION AND DIVERSITY OF ACTINOMYCETES IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chesapeake Bay was investigated as a source of actinomycetes to creen for production of novel bioactive compounds. he presence of relatively large populations of actinoplanetes, chemotype IID actinomycetes in Chesapeake Bay sediment samples indicates that is an eminently suitable...

  19. Halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes from a marine saltern of Goa, India producing anti-bacterial metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ballav, Shuvankar; Kerkar, Savita; Thomas, Sabu; Augustine, Nimmy

    2015-03-01

    Marine salterns are estuarine ecosystems in Goa, receiving inputs from riverine and marine waters. The Salinity fluctuates between 0 and 300 psu which makes it a conducive niche for salt tolerant and salt loving Actinomycetales. Halotolerant and halophilic Actinomycetales producing anti-bacterial metabolites were studied from crystallizer pond sediments of Ribandar saltern, Goa. Three media viz. Starch casein, R2A and Inorganic salt starch agar at four different salinities (35, 50, 75 and 100 psu) were used for isolation. R2A agar at 35 psu was the most preferred by hypersaline actinomycetes. The dominant group was halotolerant Streptomyces spp. others being rare actinomycetes viz. Nocardiopsis, Micromonospora and Kocuria spp. More than 50% of the isolates showed anti-bacterial activity against one or more of the fifteen human pathogens tested. Eight strains from 4 genera showed consistent anti-bacterial activity and studied in detail. Most halotolerant isolates grew from 0 to 75 psu, with optimum antibiotic production at 35 psu whereas halophiles grew at 20 to 100 psu with optimum antibiotic production at 35 psu. Four Streptomyces strains showed multiple inhibition against test organisms while four rare actinomycetes were specific in their inhibitory activity. This is the first report of a halophilic Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and halotolerant Micromonospora sp. producing anti-bacterial compound(s) against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus citreus, and Vibrio cholerae, respectively. Sequential extraction with varying polarity of organic solvents showed that the extracts inhibited different test pathogens. These results suggest that halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes from marine salterns are a potential source of anti-bacterial compounds. PMID:25449757

  20. Modification of the protein expression pattern induced in the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. strain ACN14a-tsr by root exudates of its symbiotic host Alnus glutinosa and cloning of the sodF gene.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Y; Maréchal, J; Cournoyer, B; Normand, P; Domenach, A M

    2001-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to detect proteins induced in Frankia sp. strain ACN14a-tsr by root exudates of its symbiotic host, Alnus glutinosa. The 5 most prominent proteins were purified from 2-D gels and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. All of these proteins had a high percentage of similarity with known stress proteins. One protein match was the Fe superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD), another was a tellurite resistance protein (Ter), the third was a bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp); and two matches, differing only by their isoelectric point, were the same small heat shock protein (Hsp), a major immune reactive protein found in mycobacteria. This suggests that the symbiotic microorganism Frankia, first responds with a normal stress response to toxic root products of its symbiotic host plant. To confirm its identity, the gene corresponding to the Fe-SOD protein, sodF was isolated from a genomic library by a PCR-approach and sequenced. It is the first stress response gene characterized in Frankia. PMID:11467730

  1. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  2. Actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of semidesert soils of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norovsuren, Zh.; Zenova, G. M.; Mosina, L. V.

    2007-04-01

    The population density of actinomycetes in the desert-steppe soil, rhizosphere, and the above-ground parts of plants varies from tens to hundreds of thousands of colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of substrate. The actinomycetal complexes of the brown desert-steppe soil without plant roots are more diverse in their taxonomic composition than the actinomycetal complexes in the rhizosphere and the aboveground parts of plants. Additionally to representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, actinomycetes from the Nocardia, Saccharopolyspora, Thermomonospora, and Actinomadura genera were identified in the soil. The population density of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere and in the soil reached hundreds of thousand CFU/g; it considerably exceeded the population density of actinomycetes in the aboveground parts of plants. The maximum population density of actinomycetes was determined in the rhizosphere of Asparagus gobicus, Salsola pestifera, and Cleistogenes songorica.

  3. Distribution of β-Lactamases in Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Ogawara, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Nao; Kudo, Takuji; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of β-lactamase activities in a collection of actinomycete strains was surveyed. Six of 127 strains were found to produce β-lactamase. This low frequency was in contrast to the case with Streptomyces species. The producing strains were not related phylogenetically. MICs of benzylpenicillin did not correlate with β-lactamase production. PMID:10582901

  4. Actinomycetes: A Source of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Anuja; Yadav, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulose is the most abundant biomass on earth. Agricultural, forest, and agroindustrial activities generate tons of lignocellulosic wastes annually, which present readily procurable, economically affordable, and renewable feedstock for various lignocelluloses based applications. Lignocelluloses are the focus of present decade researchers globally, in an attempt to develop technologies based on natural biomass for reducing dependence on expensive and exhaustible substrates. Lignocellulolytic enzymes, that is, cellulases, hemicellulases, and lignolytic enzymes, play very important role in the processing of lignocelluloses which is prerequisite for their utilization in various processes. These enzymes are obtained from microorganisms distributed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are an attractive microbial group for production of lignocellulose degrading enzymes. Various studies have evaluated the lignocellulose degrading ability of actinomycetes, which can be potentially implemented in the production of different value added products. This paper is an overview of the diversity of cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic actinomycetes along with brief discussion of their hydrolytic enzyme systems involved in biomass modification. PMID:26793393

  5. Actinomycete infections in humans--a review.

    PubMed

    Schaal, K P; Lee, H J

    1992-06-15

    Diseases caused by pathogenic aerobic and facultatively anaerobic actinomycetes differ considerably with respect to their etiology, pathogenesis, clinical appearance and epidemiology. Facultatively anaerobic (fermentative) actinomycetes may not only be involved etiologically in the three classical forms of cervicofacial, thoracic and abdominal actinomycoses, but also in infections of the female genital organs, the eye, the tissue adjacent to dental implantation elements and tooth extraction wounds. The species distribution of the fermentative actinomycetes isolated from these conditions varied to a certain, but characteristic, extent, as did the concomitant actinomycotic flora. The sex ratio reported for human Actinomyces infections (male:female = 3:1) appeared to be restricted to actinomycotic abscesses and empyemas. The prevailing pathogenic, obligately aerobic actinomycete species in Germany was found to be Nocardia farcinica followed by Nocardia asteroides. The comparatively high incidence of N. farcinica infections was chiefly due to the occurrence of nosocomial postoperative wound infections by this pathogen observed in two German hospitals. Besides surgical treatment, immunosuppressive treatment appeared to be the most common factor predisposing for nocardiosis. Recent observations strongly suggested that the spectrum of human nocardial infections in Germany has been changing, as regards the overall incidence, the prevalence of N. farcinica, the sex ratio, the mean age of patients, as well as the role of N. farcinica as a possibly important nosocomial pathogen. PMID:1612438

  6. Antimicrobial Metabolites from a Marine-Derived Actinomycete in Vietnam's East Sea.

    PubMed

    Thi, Quyen Vu; Tran, Van Hieu; Maia, Huong Doan Thi; Le, Cong Vinh; Hong, Minh Le Thi; Murphy, Brian T; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Two new compounds, a quinoline alkaloid (1) and a 1,4-dioxane derivative (2), were isolated from culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete Micromonospora sp. (strain G019) by bioassay-guided fractionation. This actinomycete strain was isolated from sediment, collected at Cát Bà Peninsula, Vietnam. The taxonomic identification was achieved by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. On the basis of morphological and phylogenetic evidence, strain G019 was assigned to the genus Micromonospora. The structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic data analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR, and MS. Compound 1 was found to have antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MIC: 48 µg/mL), Salmonella enterica (MIC: 96 µg/mL) and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC: 128 µg/mL), while compound 2 showed inhibitory activity against Enterococcusfaecalis (MIC: 32 µg/mL) and Candida albicans (MIC: 64 µg/mL). PMID:26996018

  7. Inhibition of norsolorinic acid accumulation to Aspergillus parasiticus by marine actinomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peisheng; Shi, Cuijuan; Shen, Jihong; Wang, Kai; Gao, Xiujun; Li, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from the Yellow Sea and evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the production of norsolorinic acid using dual culture plate assay and agar diffusion methods. Among them, three strains showed strong antifungal activity and were subsequently identified as Streptomyces sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The supernatant from the fermentation of the MA01 strain was extracted sequentially with chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the activities of the extracts were determined by tip culture assay. The assay results show that both extracts inhibited mycelium growth and toxin production, and the inhibitory activities of the extracts increased as their concentrations increased. The results of this study suggest that marine actinomycetes are biologically important for the control of mycotoxins, and that these bacteria could be used as novel biopesticides against mycotoxins.

  8. Aerobic and microaerophilic actinomycetes of typical agropeat and peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    A high number (from tens of thousands to millions of CFU/g of soil) of actinomycetes and a high diversity of genera were found in typical peat and agropeat soils. Agricultural use increases the number and diversity of the actinomycete complexes of the peat soils. In the peat soils, the actinomycete complex is represented by eight genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharomonospora, and Microtetraspora. A considerable share of sporangial forms in the actinomycete complex of the peat soils not characteristic of the zonal soils was revealed. The number of actinomycetes that develop under aerobic conditions is smaller by 10-100 times than that of aerobic forms in the peat soils. Among the soil actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, and Microtetraspora, the microaerophilic forms were found; among the Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora, no microaerophilic representatives were revealed.

  9. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Chang-Jin; Lee, Jae-Chan; Ju, Yoon Jung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2012-12-01

    Members of the actinomycetes family are a rich source of bioactive compounds including diverse antibiotics. This study sought to identify novel and non-toxic biofilm inhibitors from the actinomycetes library for reducing the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. After the screening of 4104 actinomycetes strains, we found that the culture spent medium (1 %, v/v) of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by 90 % without affecting the growth of planktonic P. aeruginosa cells, while the spent media enhanced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 induced expression of phenazine, pyoverdine, pyochelin synthesis genes, and iron uptake genes in P. aeruginosa. The addition of exogenous iron restored the biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa in the presence of the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230, which suggests that the Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 strain interfered iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. Experiments on solvent extraction, heat treatment, and proteinase K treatment suggested that hydrophilic compound(s), possibly extracellular peptides or proteins from Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 cause the biofilm reduction of P. aeruginosa. Together, this study indicates that actinomycetes strains have an ability to control the biofilm of P. aeruginosa. PMID:22722911

  10. Nocarimidazoles A and B from a Marine-Derived Actinomycete of the Genus Nocardiopsis.

    PubMed

    Leutou, Alain S; Yang, Inho; Kang, Heonjoong; Seo, Eun Kyung; Nam, Sang-Jip; Fenical, William

    2015-11-25

    Chemical investigation of a marine-derived actinomycete isolated from marine sediments collected off the coast of southern California and identified as a Nocardiopsis sp. (strain CNQ115) led to the isolation of two new 4-aminoimidazole alkaloids, nocarimidazoles A (1) and B (2). The chemical structures of nocarimidazoles A and B were assigned by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data and through methylation to yield monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives. Nocarimidazoles A and B possess a 4-aminoimidazole ring combined with a conjugated carbonyl side chain, which is rarely found in microbial secondary metabolites. PMID:26474119

  11. Sequence-Based Identification of Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jean Baldus; Wallace, Richard J.; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Taylor, Tony; Imperatrice, Carol; Leonard, Deborah G. B.; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Mann, Linda; Jost, Kenneth C.; Nachamkin, Irving

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the utility of 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying clinically significant species of aerobic actinomycetes. A total of 28 reference strains and 71 clinical isolates that included members of the genera Streptomyces, Gordonia, and Tsukamurella and 10 taxa of Nocardia were studied. Methods of nonsequencing analyses included growth and biochemical analysis, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the 439-bp Telenti fragment of the 65 hsp gene, susceptibility testing, and, for selected isolates, high-performance liquid chromatography. Many of the isolates were included in prior taxonomic studies. Sequencing of Nocardia species revealed that members of the group were generally most closely related to the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains. However, the sequences of Nocardia transvalensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, and N. nova isolates were highly variable; and it is likely that each of these species contains multiple species. We propose that these three species be designated complexes until they are more taxonomically defined. The sequences of several taxa did not match any recognized species. Among other aerobic actinomycetes, each group most closely resembled the associated reference strain, but with some divergence. The study demonstrates the ability of partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify members of the aerobic actinomycetes, but the study also shows that a high degree of sequence divergence exists within many species and that many taxa within the Nocardia spp. are unnamed at present. A major unresolved issue is the type strain of N. asteroides, as the present one (ATCC 19247), chosen before the availability of molecular analysis, does not represent any of the common taxa associated with clinical nocardiosis. PMID:15184431

  12. Secondary Metabolites from an Actinomycete from Vietnam's East Sea.

    PubMed

    Thi, Quyen Vu; Tran, Van Hieu; Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Le, Cong Vinh; Hong, Min Le Thi; Murphy, Brian T; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of an antimicrobial extract prepared from culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete Nocardiopsis sp. (strain G057) led to the isolation of twelve compounds, 1-12. Compound 1 (2-[(2R-hydroxypropanoyl)amino]benzamide) was found to be a new enantiomeric isomer while compounds 2 (3-acetyl-4-hydroxycinnoline) and 3 (3,3'-bis-indole) were isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of 1-12 were determined by analyses of MS and 2D NMR data. All compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a panel of clinically significant microorganisms. Compound 1 selectively inhibited Escherichia coli (MIC: 16 µg/mL). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited antimicrobial activity against several strains of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans. Cytotoxic evaluation of compounds 1-3 against four cancer cell lines (KB, LU-1, HepG-2 and MCF-7) indicated that compound 3 produced a weak inhibition against KB and LU cell lines. Two remaining compounds, 1 and 2 were not cytotoxic, even at the concentration of 128 µg/mL. PMID:27169191

  13. Isolation of Mutants of the Nitrogen-Fixing Actinomycete Frankia

    PubMed Central

    Kakoi, Kentaro; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kamiharai, Toshihito; Tamari, Daiki; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frankia is a nitrogen (N)-fixing multicellular actinomycete which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with actinorhizal plants. Several aspects of Frankia N fixation and symbiosis are distinct, but genes involved in the specific features are largely unknown because of the lack of an efficient mutant screening method. In this study, we isolated mutants of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 using hyphae fragments mutagenized by chemical mutagens. Firstly, we isolated uracil auxotrophs as gain-of-function mutants resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). We obtained seven 5-FOA resistant mutants, all of which required uracil for growth. Five strains carried a frame shift mutation in orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase gene and two carried an amino acid substitution in the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Secondly, we isolated mutants showing loss-of-function phenotypes. Mutagenized hyphae were fragmented by ultrasound and allowed to multiply at their tips. Hyphae were fragmented again and short fragments were enriched by filtration through 5 μm pores filters. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed that colonies formed from the short hyphae fragments consisted of cells with an identical genotype. From the mutagenized colony population, we isolated three pigmentation mutants and a mutant with reduced N-fixation activity. These results indicate that our procedure is useful for the isolation of loss-of-function mutants using hyphae of Frankia. PMID:24389412

  14. Screening and characterization of protease producing actinomycetes from marine saltern.

    PubMed

    Suthindhiran, Krish; Jayasri, Mangalam Achuthananda; Dipali, Dipa; Prasar, Apurva

    2014-10-01

    In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive actinomycetes, an alkaline protease producing halophilic strain Actinopolyspora sp. VITSDK2 was isolated from marine saltern, Southern India. The strain was identified as Actinopolyspora based on its phenotypic and phylogenetic characters. The protease was partially purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequently by DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The enzyme was further purified using HPLC and the molecular weight was found to be 22 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. The purified protease exhibited pH stability in a wide range of 4-12 with optimum at 10.0. The enzyme was found to be stable between 25 and 80 °C and displayed a maximum activity at 60 °C. The enzyme activity was increased marginally in presence of Mn(2+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) and decreased in presence of Cu(2+) . PMSF and DFP completely inhibited the activity suggesting it belongs to serine protease. Further, the proteolytic activity was abolished in presence of N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone suggesting this might be chymotrypsin-like serine protease. The protease was 96% active when kept for 10 days at room temperature. The results indicate that the enzyme belong to chymotrypsin-like serine protease exhibiting both pH and thermostability, which can be used for various applications in industries. PMID:24136565

  15. Isolation of mutants of the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia.

    PubMed

    Kakoi, Kentaro; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kamiharai, Toshihito; Tamari, Daiki; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frankia is a nitrogen (N)-fixing multicellular actinomycete which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with actinorhizal plants. Several aspects of Frankia N fixation and symbiosis are distinct, but genes involved in the specific features are largely unknown because of the lack of an efficient mutant screening method. In this study, we isolated mutants of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 using hyphae fragments mutagenized by chemical mutagens. Firstly, we isolated uracil auxotrophs as gain-of-function mutants resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). We obtained seven 5-FOA resistant mutants, all of which required uracil for growth. Five strains carried a frame shift mutation in orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene and two carried an amino acid substitution in the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Secondly, we isolated mutants showing loss-of-function phenotypes. Mutagenized hyphae were fragmented by ultrasound and allowed to multiply at their tips. Hyphae were fragmented again and short fragments were enriched by filtration through 5 μm pores filters. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed that colonies formed from the short hyphae fragments consisted of cells with an identical genotype. From the mutagenized colony population, we isolated three pigmentation mutants and a mutant with reduced N-fixation activity. These results indicate that our procedure is useful for the isolation of loss-of-function mutants using hyphae of Frankia. PMID:24389412

  16. Screening Actinomycetes for Extracellular Peroxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, D. K.; Iqbal, M.; Miller, P.; McCarthy, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    A diverse collection of actinomycete strains were screened for production of extracellular peroxidase activity by adapting a chemiluminescence analysis system developed for horseradish peroxidase-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Extracellular peroxidase activity was found to be common but quantitatively variable, and this rapid and sensitive screening system permitted identification of a small group of high-producing strains. A range of spectrophotometric assays were compared for the measurement of peroxidase activity in concentrated culture supernatants of two selected thermophilic streptomycetes. Of these, the peroxide-dependent oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol was identified as the most robust and reproducible assay for quantitative studies. PMID:16535344

  17. Actinomycetes in garden soils of the city of Kirov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2013-05-01

    The population density, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetic complexes were studied in garden soils of the city of Kirov. The relationships between the structure of the complexes and the acidity, the concentrations of the mobile forms of heavy metals, and the soil humus content were analyzed. The specific features of the actinomycetic population in the garden soils of the city in comparison with the transport ecotopes and suburban territories were revealed. It was demonstrated that the actinomycetic complexes in the garden soils preserve their structural similarity with the actinomycetic complexes of the suburban forest parks despite certain changes in the composition of the dominant species and the relative abundance of the separate taxa. The obtained data indicate that the garden plots in the city contribute to the preservation of ecologically balanced ecosystems.

  18. Extremophilic and extremotolerant actinomycetes in different soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Manucharova, N. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2011-04-01

    Problems on the resistance of soil actinomycetes to various environmental factors (pH, salinity, temperature, and moisture) are discussed. Actinomycetes as a special group of prokaryotes were revealed to have a greater range of tolerance to these factors than was thought earlier. The regularities of the distribution of extremophilic and extremotolerant actinomycetes developing in unusual for mycelial bacteria conditions, their structural-functional characteristics, and their taxonomic composition were determined. The predominance of acidophilic representatives of the Micromonospora genus in acid soils (typical peat, soddy-podzolic, and taiga podzol) and the haloalkaliphilic Streptomyces pluricilirescens and S. prunicolor species in desert saline soils are shown. The specific features of the actinomycete complexes on thermal fields of the weakly developed stratified volcanic soils are described. In these complexes, the thermophilic forms were represented only by species of the Micromonospora genus; and the mesophilic forms, by Microbispora species. In the periodically heated desert soils, among the thermophilic actinomycetes, representatives of rare Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora and Streptosporangium genera along with Streptomyces species were indicated. The mechanisms of the resistance of the actinomycetes to the extreme environmental conditions are discussed.

  19. Identification and determination of extracellular phytate-degrading activity in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani-Nasrabadi, Reza; Greiner, Ralf; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Hamedi, Javad

    2012-07-01

    In this study 97 soil samples from different soil ecosystems were collected. The initial screening was performed on modified glycerol arginine agar (MGAA) to isolate common actinomycetes and on modified MGA-SE (MMGA-SE) to isolate rare actinomycetes. Sixty-seven isolates potentially producing extracellular phytate-degrading activity were identified. The potential to dephosphorylate phytate was confirmed in liquid culture for 46.3 % of the isolates. 12 strains were selected for a direct determination of their phytate-degrading capacity. The results highlighted that the selected isolates produced extracellular phytate-degrading activity; however their capacity in InsP(6) degradation was different. In addition the fermentation medium had an effect on the extent of phytate degradation. Some enzymatic properties of the phytases from isolate No. 43 and isolate No. 63 were determined after obtaining phytase-enriched samples. The enzymes had maximum phytate-degrading capability at 55 °C and pH 5 (isolate No. 43) and 37 °C and pH 7 (isolates No. 63), respectively. Due to their properties, the phytase of isolate No. 43 behaves like a histidine acid phytase, whereas the phytase of No. 63 showed similar enzymatic properties to the phytase of lily. To our knowledge, the results from this study demonstrated for the first time that actinomycetes produce extracellular phytate-degrading activity. By 16SrRNA sequencing, the more closely studied phytase producers were identified as Streptomyces sp. Isolate No. 43 showed 98 % identity to Streptomyces alboniger and S. venezuelae, while isolate No. 63 exhibited 98 % sequence identity to S. ambofaciens and S. lienomycini. PMID:22806166

  20. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Passari, Ajit K.; Mishra, Vineet K.; Saikia, Ratul; Gupta, Vijai K.; Singh, Bhim P.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n = 22, 52.3%) of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n = 9, 21.4%), leaves (n = 6, 14.2%), flowers (n = 3, 7.1%), and petioles (n = 2, 4.7%). The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6%) in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India). From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  1. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential.

    PubMed

    Passari, Ajit K; Mishra, Vineet K; Saikia, Ratul; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Bhim P

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n = 22, 52.3%) of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n = 9, 21.4%), leaves (n = 6, 14.2%), flowers (n = 3, 7.1%), and petioles (n = 2, 4.7%). The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6%) in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India). From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Enzymatic and Antifungal Activities of Soil-Actinomycetes Isolates and Their Molecular Identification by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Keikha, Nasser; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Nakhaei, Ali Reza; Yadegari, Mohammad Hossein; Shahidi Bonjar, Gholam Hossein; Amiri, Somayyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human cutaneous infection caused by a homogeneous group of keratinophilic fungi called dermatophytes. These fungi are the most common infectious agents in humans that are free of any population and geographic area. Microsporum canis is a cause of dermatophytosis (Tinea) in recent years in Iran and atypical strain has been isolated in Iran. Its cases occur sporadically due to M. canis transmission from puppies and cats to humans. Since this pathogenic dermatophyte is eukaryotes, chemical treatment with antifungal drugs may also affect host tissue cells. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to find a new antifungal agent of soil-Actinomycetes from Kerman province against M. canis and Actinomycete isolates were identified by PCR. Materials and Methods: A number of hundred Actinomycete isolated strains were evaluated from soil of Kerman province, for their antagonistic activity against the M. canis. M. canis of the Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) was obtained from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST). Electron microscope studies of these isolates were performed based on the physiological properties of these antagonists including lipase, amylase, protease and chitinase activities according to the relevant protocols and were identified using gene 16SrDNA. Results: In this study the most antagonist of Actinomycete isolates with antifungal activity against M. canis isolates of L1, D5, Ks1m, Km2, Kn1, Ks8 and Ks1 were shown in vitro. Electron microscopic studies showed that some fungal strains form spores, mycelia and spore chain. Nucleotide analysis showed that Ks8 had maximum homology (98%) to Streptomyces zaomyceticus strain xsd08149 and L1 displayed 100% homology to Streptomyces sp. HVG6 using 16SrDNA studies. Conclusions: Our findings showed that Streptomyces has antifungal effects against M. canis. PMID:26060560

  3. Antimicrobial potential of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Valli, S; Suvathi, Sugasini S; Aysha, OS; Nirmala, P; Vinoth, Kumar P; Reena, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment. Methods Twenty one strains of Actinomycetes were isolated from samples of Royapuram, Muttukadu, Mahabalipuram sea shores and Adyar estuary. Preliminary screening was done using cross-streak method against two gram-positive and eight gram-negative bacteria. The most potent strains C11 and C12 were selected from which antibacterial substances were extracted. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Molecular identification of those isolates was done. Results All those twenty one isolates were active against at least one of the test organisms. Morphological characters were recorded. C11 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (13.0±0.5 mm), Vibrio harveyi (11.0±0.2 mm), Pseudomonas species (12.0±0.3 mm). C12 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (16.0±0.4 mm), Bacillus subtilis (11.0±0.2 mm), Vibrio harveyi (9.0±0.1 mm), Pseudomonas species (10.0±0.2 mm). 16S rRNA pattern strongly suggested that C11 and C12 strains were Streptomyces species. Conclusions The results of the present investigation reveal that the marine Actinomycetes from coastal environment are the potent source of novel antibiotics. Isolation, characterization and study of Actinomycetes can be useful in discovery of novel species of Actinomycetes. PMID:23569952

  4. Moderately haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes in salt-affected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2009-12-01

    It was found that the population density of actinomycetes in solonchaks and saline desert soils varied from hundreds to tens of thousands of colony-forming units (CFUs) per 1 g of soil depending on soil type and was by 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the number of mycelial bacteria in main soil types. Actinomycetes grow actively in saline soils, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m per 1 g of soil. Domination of moderately halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes, which grow well under 5% NaCl and pH 8-9, is a specific feature of actinomycetal complexes in saline soils. Representatives of Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera were found among the haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes. Micromonospores demonstrated lower (than streptomycetes) adaptability to high salt concentrations. Investigation of the phylogenetic position of isolated dominant haloalkaliphilic strains of streptomycetes performed on the basis of sequencing of the gene 16S rRNA enabled identifying these strains as Streptomyces pluricolorescens and S. prunicolor.

  5. [Ecophysiological Characteristics of actinomycetes of desert soils of Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zenova, G M; Kozhevin, P A; Manucharova, N A; Lubsanova, D A; Dubrova, M S

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the actinomycete complex in steppe-desert light brown salty soil of desert steppes of Mongolia is represented by the genera Streptomyces and Micromonospora. The species diversity of the genus Streptomyces, which dominates the complex, decreases with increasing osmolarity of the medium. The influence of environmental factors--temperature and osmolarity of medium--on the development of metabolically active members of the phylum Actinobacteria in the domain Bacteria of the prokaryotic microbial soil community was established. The proportion of metabolically active bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria increases with increasing osmolarity and incubation temperature of soil. The dominance of the filamentous metabolically active members of the phylum Actinobacteria over the unicellular organisms was shown. The halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from the steppe-desert soils were alkalotolerant, xerophilic, and thermotolerant and exhibited antimicrobial activity with respect to Gram-positive bacteria and actinomycetes. PMID:25731035

  6. Characterization of a Truncated Lipoarabinomannan from the Actinomycete Turicella otitidis

    PubMed Central

    Gilleron, Martine; Garton, Natalie J.; Nigou, Jérôme; Brando, Thérèse; Puzo, Germain; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

    2005-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lipoglycans have been characterized from a range of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes and from the amycolate actinomycete Amycolatopsis sulphurea. To further understand the structural diversity of this family, we have characterized the lipoglycan of the otic commensal Turicella otitidis. T. otitidis LAM (TotLAM) has been determined to consist of a mannosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor unit carrying an (α 1→6)-linked mannan core and substituted with terminal-arabinosyl branches. Thus, TotLAM has a novel truncated LAM structure. Using the human monocytic THP-1 cell line, it was found that TotLAM exhibited only minimal ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha. These findings contribute further to our understanding of actinomycete LAM diversity and allow further speculation as to the correlation between LAM structure and the immunomodulatory activities of these lipoglycans. PMID:15659663

  7. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. Results A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi

  8. A novel taxonomic marker that discriminates between morphologically complex actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Geneviève; Traag, Bjørn A.; Sangal, Vartul; Mascini, Nadine; Hoskisson, Paul A.; Goodfellow, Michael; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2013-01-01

    In the era when large whole genome bacterial datasets are generated routinely, rapid and accurate molecular systematics is becoming increasingly important. However, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing does not always offer sufficient resolution to discriminate between closely related genera. The SsgA-like proteins are developmental regulatory proteins in sporulating actinomycetes, whereby SsgB actively recruits FtsZ during sporulation-specific cell division. Here, we present a novel method to classify actinomycetes, based on the extraordinary way the SsgA and SsgB proteins are conserved. The almost complete conservation of the SsgB amino acid (aa) sequence between members of the same genus and its high divergence between even closely related genera provides high-quality data for the classification of morphologically complex actinomycetes. Our analysis validates Kitasatospora as a sister genus to Streptomyces in the family Streptomycetaceae and suggests that Micromonospora, Salinispora and Verrucosispora may represent different clades of the same genus. It is also apparent that the aa sequence of SsgA is an accurate determinant for the ability of streptomycetes to produce submerged spores, dividing the phylogenetic tree of streptomycetes into liquid-culture sporulation and no liquid-culture sporulation branches. A new phylogenetic tree of industrially relevant actinomycetes is presented and compared with that based on 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:24153003

  9. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  10. Effects of marine actinomycete on the removal of a toxicity alga Phaeocystis globose in eutrophication waters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Su; Peng, Yun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Xu, Hong; Yu, Zhiming; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Phaeocystis globosa blooms in eutrophication waters can cause severely damage in marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. This study investigated the effect and role of an algicidal actinomycete (Streptomyces sp. JS01) on the elimination process of P. globosa. JS01 supernatant could alter algal cell membrane permeability in 4 h when analyzed with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were 7.2 times higher than that at 0 h following exposure to JS01 supernatant for 8 h, which indicated that algal cells suffered from oxidative damage. The Fv/Fm value which could reflect photosystem II (PS II) electron flow status also decreased. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of the photosynthesis related genes psbA and rbcS were suppressed by JS01 supernatant, which might induce damage to PS II. Our results demonstrated that JS01 supernatant can change algal membrane permeability in a short time and then affect photosynthesis process, which might block the PS II electron transport chain to produce excessive ROS. This experiment demonstrated that Streptomyces sp. JS01 could eliminate harmful algae in marine waters efficiently and may be function as a harmful algal bloom controller material. PMID:26042109

  11. Effects of marine actinomycete on the removal of a toxicity alga Phaeocystis globose in eutrophication waters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Su; Peng, Yun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Xu, Hong; Yu, Zhiming; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Phaeocystis globosa blooms in eutrophication waters can cause severely damage in marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. This study investigated the effect and role of an algicidal actinomycete (Streptomyces sp. JS01) on the elimination process of P. globosa. JS01 supernatant could alter algal cell membrane permeability in 4 h when analyzed with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were 7.2 times higher than that at 0 h following exposure to JS01 supernatant for 8 h, which indicated that algal cells suffered from oxidative damage. The Fv/Fm value which could reflect photosystem II (PS II) electron flow status also decreased. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of the photosynthesis related genes psbA and rbcS were suppressed by JS01 supernatant, which might induce damage to PS II. Our results demonstrated that JS01 supernatant can change algal membrane permeability in a short time and then affect photosynthesis process, which might block the PS II electron transport chain to produce excessive ROS. This experiment demonstrated that Streptomyces sp. JS01 could eliminate harmful algae in marine waters efficiently and may be function as a harmful algal bloom controller material. PMID:26042109

  12. Biology of Frankia strains, actinomycete symbionts of actinorhizal plants.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, D R; Silvester, W B

    1993-01-01

    Frankia strains are N2-fixing actinomycetes whose isolation and cultivation were first reported in 1978. They induce N2-fixing root nodules on diverse nonleguminous (actinorhizal) plants that are important in ecological successions and in land reclamation and remediation. The genus Frankia encompasses a diverse group of soil actinomycetes that have in common the formation of multilocular sporangia, filamentous growth, and nitrogenase-containing vesicles enveloped in multilaminated lipid envelopes. The relatively constant morphology of vesicles in culture is modified by plant interactions in symbiosis to give a diverse array of vesicles shapes. Recent studies of the genetics and molecular genetics of these organisms have begun to provide new insights into higher-plant-bacterium interactions that lead to productive N2-fixing symbioses. Sufficient information about the relationship of Frankia strains to other bacteria, and to each other, is now available to warrant the creation of some species based on phenotypic and genetic criteria. Images PMID:8336669

  13. Actinomycetes in Karstic caves of northern Spain (Altamira and Tito Bustillo).

    PubMed

    Groth, I; Vettermann, R; Schuetze, B; Schumann, P; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    A variety of isolation procedures were carried out to study the involvement of bacteria in the colonisation and biodeterioration of Spanish caves with paleolithic rock art (Altamira and Tito Bustillo). The applied techniques mainly aimed to isolate heterotrophic bacteria such as streptomycetes, nocardioform and coryneform actinomycetes, and other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes were the most abundant gram-positive bacteria in the caves. Actinomycetes revealed a great taxonomic diversity with the predominant isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Members of the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Amycolatopsis, Saccharothrix, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and coccoid actinomycetes (family Micrococcaceae) were also found. PMID:10353805

  14. The structural-functional organization of thermotolerant complexes of actinomycetes in desert and volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Kurapova, A. I.; Lysenko, A. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2009-05-01

    It has been found that the number of thermotolerant actinomycetes in strongly heated soils of deserts and volcanic regions is comparable to or exceeds the number of mesophilic actinomycetes. Among the latter group, streptomyces usually predominate; among thermotolerant actinomycetes, representatives of the Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Microtetraspora, and Microbispora genera are identified. Thermotolerant actinomycetes display the full cycle of their development in these soils. The method of fluorescent in situ hybridization has made it possible to determine that mycelial forms predominate among the metabolically active representatives of Actinobacteria; their portion increases with the rise in the temperature of soil incubation.

  15. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  16. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin; Weber, Tilmann; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-18

    Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of pharmacologically active and industrially relevant secondary metabolites. Unfortunately, many of them are still recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, which is a bottleneck for systematic metabolic engineering. To facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087) and actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9 were repaired through the error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, resulting in a library of deletions with variable sizes around the targeted sequence. If templates for HDR were provided at the same time, precise deletions of the targeted gene were observed with near 100% frequency. Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes. PMID:25806970

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10–32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these

  19. [Secondary Metabolites from Marine Microorganisms. I. Secondary Metabolites from Marine Actinomycetes].

    PubMed

    Orlova, T I; Bulgakova, V G; Polin, A N

    2015-01-01

    Review represents data on new active metabolites isolated from marine actinomycetes published in 2007 to 2014. Marine actinomycetes are an unlimited source of novel secondary metabolites with various biological activities. Among them there are antibiotics, anticancer compounds, inhibitors of biochemical processes. PMID:26863742

  20. Studies on carboxymethyl cellulase produced by an alkalothermophilic actinomycete.

    PubMed

    George, S P; Ahmad, A; Rao, M B

    2001-04-01

    A novel alkalothermophilic actinomycete having optimum growth at pH 9 and 50 degrees C was isolated from self-heating compost from the Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh, India. Based on its morphology, susceptibility of spores to heat and novobiocin, guaninecytosine content of chromosomal DNA and cell wall composition, the organism was classified under Thermomonospora. The alkalothermophilic actinomycete produced 23 IU/ml carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase). The CMCase was purified by fractional ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by cellulose affinity chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. The CMCase had a molecular weight of 38 KD and pI of 4.1. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 5 and temperature 50 degrees C. The CMCase showed pH stability in the range 7-10. The enzyme retained 100% activity at 50 degrees C for 72 h and had half-lives of 7 and 3 h at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C, respectively. The CMCase was stable in the presence of commercial detergents such as Ariel, Henko and Surf Excel, indicating its potential as an additive to laundry detergents. PMID:11272024

  1. Molecular insights on the biosynthesis of antitumour compounds by actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Natural products are traditionally the main source of drug leads. In particular, many antitumour compounds are either natural products or derived from them. However, the search for novel antitumour drugs active against untreatable tumours, with fewer side‐effects or with enhanced therapeutic efficiency, is a priority goal in cancer chemotherapy. Microorganisms, particularly actinomycetes, are prolific producers of bioactive compounds, including antitumour drugs, produced as secondary metabolites. Structural genes involved in the biosynthesis of such compounds are normally clustered together with resistance and regulatory genes, which facilitates the isolation of the gene cluster. The characterization of these clusters has represented, during the last 25 years, a great source of genes for the generation of novel derivatives by using combinatorial biosynthesis approaches: gene inactivation, gene expression, heterologous expression of the clusters or mutasynthesis. In addition, these techniques have been also applied to improve the production yields of natural and novel antitumour compounds. In this review we focus on some representative antitumour compounds produced by actinomycetes covering the genetic approaches used to isolate and validate their biosynthesis gene clusters, which finally led to generating novel derivatives and to improving the production yields. PMID:21342461

  2. Diversity of Aquatic Actinomycetes in Lakes of the Middle Plateau, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, C.; Xu, L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 749 sediment and water samples were collected from 12 lakes of the Middle Plateau of Yunnan from 1983 to 1993. The diversity and biological characteristics of the aquatic actinomycetes in these lakes were studied. Sixteen genera of actinomycetes were isolated from these samples. Micromonospores assumed a notable dominance (from 39 to 89%) in the actinomycete populations of these lake sediments. Streptomycetes were the second most abundant organisms. The diversity and counts of actinomycetes varied with the season. Thermophilic actinomycetes have a wide distribution in these lakes, but their counts were smaller. The cell wall compositions of certain Micromonospora and Streptomyces strains from an alkaline lake revealed an unusual combination of glycine and isomers of diaminopimelic acid. It seems that aquatic actinomycetes play a significant role in the decomposition of organic substances, including some toxic compounds such as phenol, in these lakes. It also appears that aquatic actinomycetes are one of the important resources for screening useful enzymes and metabolites. PMID:16535213

  3. New Dimensions of Research on Actinomycetes: Quest for Next Generation Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Jose, Polpass Arul; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the discovery of streptomycin, the promise of natural products research on actinomycetes has been captivating researchers and offered an array of life-saving antibiotics. However, most of the actinomycetes have received a little attention of researchers beyond isolation and activity screening. Noticeable gaps in genomic information and associated biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes are mainly the reasons for this situation, which has led to a decline in the discovery rate of novel antibiotics. Recent insights gained from genome mining have revealed a massive existence of previously unrecognized biosynthetic potential in actinomycetes. Successive developments in next-generation sequencing, genome editing, analytical separation and high-resolution spectroscopic methods have reinvigorated interest on such actinomycetes and opened new avenues for the discovery of natural and natural-inspired antibiotics. This article describes the new dimensions that have driven the ongoing resurgence of research on actinomycetes with historical background since the commencement in 1940, for the attention of worldwide researchers. Coupled with increasing advancement in molecular and analytical tools and techniques, the discovery of next-generation antibiotics could be possible by revisiting the untapped potential of actinomycetes from different natural sources. PMID:27594853

  4. New Dimensions of Research on Actinomycetes: Quest for Next Generation Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Polpass Arul; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the discovery of streptomycin, the promise of natural products research on actinomycetes has been captivating researchers and offered an array of life-saving antibiotics. However, most of the actinomycetes have received a little attention of researchers beyond isolation and activity screening. Noticeable gaps in genomic information and associated biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes are mainly the reasons for this situation, which has led to a decline in the discovery rate of novel antibiotics. Recent insights gained from genome mining have revealed a massive existence of previously unrecognized biosynthetic potential in actinomycetes. Successive developments in next-generation sequencing, genome editing, analytical separation and high-resolution spectroscopic methods have reinvigorated interest on such actinomycetes and opened new avenues for the discovery of natural and natural-inspired antibiotics. This article describes the new dimensions that have driven the ongoing resurgence of research on actinomycetes with historical background since the commencement in 1940, for the attention of worldwide researchers. Coupled with increasing advancement in molecular and analytical tools and techniques, the discovery of next-generation antibiotics could be possible by revisiting the untapped potential of actinomycetes from different natural sources. PMID:27594853

  5. Studies on Actinomycetal Resources under Extreme Environments in the West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.

    2005-12-01

    s: Actinomycetes play a quite important role in natural ecological system and they are also profile producers of antibiotics, antitumor agents, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and immunomodifiers. which have been widely applied in industry, agriculture, forestry and pharmaceutical industry. In the past, the research work on actinomycetes was mainly concentrated on that of common habitats. Actinomycetes resources under extreme environments (including extreme high and low temperature, extreme high or low pH, high salt concentration etc.) have received comparatively little attention from microbiologists. Actinomycetes are regarded as one kind of sideline microorganisms and those under extreme environments are better materials for biological evolution and phylogenetic development in research. There are much more unknown species and much more worth researching for actinomycetes under extreme environments. There are many extreme environmental resources in the west of China. For example, wide range snow-mountains, basified soil and lakes, widely distributed acid and alkaline hot-springs in Yunnan provinces; more than 73.3 million hektares basified soil and salt lakes in Xinjiang Province and many unusual environments in Qinghai Province and other western Provinces. They were mostly precious natural resources and were destroyed, relatively fewer can provided us with unique conditions for study on actinomycetal resources under extreme environments. In recent years, our main work was focusing on study of extremophilic actinomycetal resources in the west of China by using conventional cultivation-methods and culture-independent methods (PCR-clone and DGGE/TGGE, etc), Results showed that large amount of unknown microbial resources (including actinomycetal resources) existed in natural extreme environments. Additionally, lots of new taxa were isolated and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Further, we got some new compounds with different bioactivities from these

  6. Purification and characterization of phosphonoglycans from glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphonates, compounds with direct C-P bonds, consist of a group of chemically diverse natural products, which play important roles in the global environment. We identified phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters from two actinomycete strains, Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauen...

  7. Purification and characterization of phosphonoglycans from Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters from two actinomycete strains, Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338, were identified by screening for the PEP mutase gene, which is required for the biosynthesis of most phosphonates. Subsequent examination of the two strains...

  8. Purification and characterization of phosphonoglycans from Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphonates, compounds with direct C-P bonds, consist of a group of chemically diverse natural products, which play important roles in the global environment. We identified phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters from two actinomycete strains, Glycomyces sp. NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauen...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain BMG5.12, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from Tunisian Soils.

    PubMed

    Nouioui, Imen; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Cantor, Michael N; Chen, Amy; Detter, J Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Hua, Susan Xinyu; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nordberg, Henrik P; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Sen, Arnab; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Wei, Chia-Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain BMG5.12, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from Tunisian soils with the ability to infect Elaeagnus angustifolia and Myrica gale. PMID:23846272

  10. Production of Bioactive Compounds by Actinomycetes and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Arthala Praveen; Viswanath, Buddolla; Saigopal, D. V. R.; Narasimha, Golla

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycete was isolated from mangrove soil collected from Nellore region of Andhra Pradesh, India, and screened for its ability to produce bioactive compounds. The cultural, morphological, and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequencing suggest that the isolated strain is Nocardiopsis alba. The bioactive compounds produced by this strain were purified by column chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of the isolated compounds (fractions) was estimated and fraction F2 showed very near values to the standard ascorbic acid. The potential fraction obtained by column chromatography was subjected to HPLC for further purification, then this purified fraction F2 was examined by FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy to elucidate its chemical structure. By spectral data, the structure of the isolated compound was predicted as “(Z)-1-((1-hydroxypenta-2,4-dien-1-yl)oxy)anthracene-9,10-dione.” PMID:24790761

  11. New Benzoxazine Secondary Metabolites from an Arctic Actinomycete

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyuho; Ahn, Chan-Hong; Shin, Yoonho; Won, Tae Hyung; Ko, Keebeom; Lee, Sang Kook; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Nam, Seung-Il; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Two new secondary metabolites, arcticoside (1) and C-1027 chromophore-V (2), were isolated along with C-1027 chromophore-III and fijiolides A and B (3–5) from a culture of an Arctic marine actinomycete Streptomyces strain. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated through NMR, mass, UV, and IR spectroscopy. The hexose moieties in 1 were determined to be d-glucose from a combination of acid hydrolysis, derivatization, and gas chromatographic analyses. Arcticoside (1) and C-1027 chromophore-V (2), which have a benzoxazine ring, inhibited Candida albicans isocitrate lyase. Chromophore-V (2) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against breast carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells and colorectal carcinoma cells (line HCT-116), with IC50 values of 0.9 and 2.7 μM, respectively. PMID:24796308

  12. Actinomycetes inhibit filamentous fungi from the cuticle of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants.

    PubMed

    Dângelo, Rômulo Augusto Cotta; de Souza, Danival José; Mendes, Thais Demarchi; Couceiro, Joel da Cruz; Lucia, Terezinha Maria Castro Della

    2016-03-01

    Actinomycetes bacteria associated with leafcutter ants produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties against Escovopsis, a fungus specialized in attacking the gardens of fungus-growing ants, which denies the ants their food source. Because previous studies have used fungi isolated from fungus gardens but not from ant integument, the aims of the present study were to isolate actinomycetes associated with the cuticle of the Acromyrmex spp. and to quantify their inhibition abilities against the filamentous fungal species carried by these ants. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes had varied strain-dependent effects on several filamentous fungal species in addition to antagonistic activity against Escovopsis. The strain isolated from Acromyrmex balzani was identified as a Streptomyces species, whereas the remaining isolates were identified as different strains belonging to the genus Pseudonocardia. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that actinomycetes do not act specifically against Escovopsis mycoparasites and may have the ability to inhibit other species of pathogenic fungi. PMID:26805489

  13. Specificity of actinomycetal complexes in urbanozems of the city of Kirov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.; Shirokikh, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    The number and composition of the actinomycetal population was studied in urbanozems in the city of Kirov. It was shown that the total population of actinomycetes was an order of magnitude lower than that in the background territories, and the generic structure of the actinomycetal complex and the species composition of the streptomycetes were transformed under the influence of the urbanization factors. The obtained data were compared with the concentrations of the mobile forms of Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn in different ecotopes (industrial, traffic, and recreation zones). The increase of the relative portion of micromonosporic actinomycetes in comparison with the background (reference) soils was observed in the complexes of the industrial and transport ecotopes mostly contaminated with heavy metals. It was found that the antibiotic potential of the streptomycetes in the contaminated soils was lower than in the soils of the background territories.

  14. [Study of natural mutiple drug resistance in actinomycetes of the genus Streptomyes].

    PubMed

    Puzynina, G G; Danilenko, V N; Lomovskaia, N D; Trenina, G A

    1977-10-01

    Natural strains of actinomycetes belonging to 3 systematic groups of the Streptomyces genera, i.e. blue, gray and globisporine were characterized for their resistance to antibiotics and sulfamids. The majority of the strains were shown to have stable inherited multiple resistence to a wide variety of antibiotics. Linkage analysis for resistance determinants in pairs showed random distribution of most of the determinants among the members of the blue and grey groups of the actinomycetes. Non-random distribution of the resistance determinants to Tc, Cm and Rm in TcCm, TcRm conbinations for the blue group actinomycetes and to Om, Rm, Fa, Lm, Em, Rm and Tc in OmRm, FaLm, EmPm, TcOm combinations among the members of the grey group of actinomycetes was found. PMID:921232

  15. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soil with potential as biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Gonzalo; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Abad, Manuel; Fornes, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The search for new biocontrol strategies to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms has become widely widespread due to environmental concerns. Among actinomycetes, Streptomyces species have been extensively studied since they have been recognized as important sources of antibiotics. Actinomycete strains were isolated from a calcareous soil, 2 two-phase olive mill waste ('alperujo') composts, and the compost-amended soil by using selective media, and they were then co-cultured with 5 phytopathogenic fungi and 1 bacterium to perform an in vitro antagonism assay. Forty-nine actinomycete strains were isolated, 12 of them showing a great antagonistic activity towards the phytopathogenic microorganisms tested. Isolated strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic procedures. Eleven isolates concerned the genus Streptomyces and 1 actinomycete with chitinolytic activity belonged to the genus Lechevalieria. PMID:21190787

  16. Marine actinomycetes as an emerging resource for the drug development pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zotchev, Sergey B

    2012-04-30

    Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinomycetes from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, yielding many important anti-infective and anti-cancer drugs. However, frequent re-discovery of the same compounds in terrestrial actinomycetes have made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinomycetes isolated from the marine environment currently receive considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. This review highlights achievements and challenges in the isolation of marine actinomycetes, some examples of bioactive metabolites identified by conventional screening, and presents new developments in the field of genome mining and heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters leading to the discovery of novel compounds. PMID:21683100

  17. Diversity of actinomycetes isolated from subseafloor sediments after prolonged low-temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Ulanova, Dana; Goo, Kian-Sim

    2015-05-01

    Subseafloor sediments present an untapped source of novel bacterial species with industrially important bioactivities. Subseafloor core samples collected during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 315, 316, and 331 and stored in Kochi Core Center at -80 °C for 1 to 4 years were used for cultivation-based study of viable actinomycetes. In total, more than 100 actinomycete-like colonies were isolated from two deep-frozen subseafloor sediment samples. Isolated actinomycetes showed close similarity to known Actinotalea, Dietzia, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Microbacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella species and were halotolerant. Bioactivity assays revealed that two of the isolates were producing potent antibacterial compound(s) and one isolate was having antifungal activity. Our study demonstrated that deep-frozen subseafloor core samples could be a potential source of viable actinomycetes, which may be used in drug discovery. PMID:25381631

  18. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes of plants and organic horizons in tundra and taiga soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrova, M. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Yakushev, A. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Makarova, E. P.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    It has been revealed that in organic horizons and plants of the tundra and taiga ecosystems under low temperatures, actinomycetal complexes form. The population density of psychrotolerant actinomycetes in organic horizons and plants reaches tens and hundreds of thousands CFU/g of substrate or soil, and decreases in the sequence litters > plants > soils > undecomposed plant remains > moss growths. The mycelium length of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches 220 m/g of substrate. Application of the FISH method has demonstrated that metabolically active psychrotolerant bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria constitute 30% of all metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the Bacterià domain of the prokaryotic microbial community of soils and plants. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes in tundra and taiga ecosystems possess antimicrobial properties.

  19. Stimulation of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production by actinomycetes after cyclic chlorination in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Yi, Min; Alum, Absar

    2015-01-01

    The impact of fluctuation in chlorine residual on actinomycetes and the production of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were studied in cast-iron and PVC model distribution systems. Actinomycetes were spiked in each system and continued operation for a 12-day non-chlorine experiment, resulting in no changes in actinomycetes and MIB concentrations. Three cyclic chlorination events were performed and chlorine residuals were maintained as follows: 1.0 mg L(-1) for 24 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0.5 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h and 2 mg L(-1) for 24 h. After each chlorination event, 2 -3 log decrease in actinomycetes was noted in both systems. However, within 48 h at 0 mg L(-1) chlorine, the actinomycetes recovered to the pre-chlorination levels. On the contrary, MIB concentration in both systems remained un-impacted after the first cycle and increased by fourfold (< 5 to > 20 mg L(-1)) after the second cycle, which lasted through the third cycle despite the fact that actinomycetes numbers fluctuated 2-3 logs during this time period. For obtaining biofilm samples from field, water meters were collected from municipality drinking water distribution systems located in central Arizona. The actinomycetes concentration in asbestos cement pipe and cast iron pipe averaged 3.1 × 10(3) and 1.9 × 10(4) CFU cm(-2), respectively. The study shows that production of MIB is associated with changes in chlorine residual in the systems. This is the first report of cyclic chlorine shock as a stimulus for MIB production by actinomycetes in drinking water distribution system's ecology. PMID:25723062

  20. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  1. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Sreevidya, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Kudapa, H.; Varshney, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20 °C to 40 °C, pH range of 7–11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  2. Isolation and characterization of actinomycete antagonists of a fungal root pathogen.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D L; Lynch, J M; Whipps, J M; Ousley, M A

    1993-11-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected isolates were screened for in vitro antagonism towards Pythium ultimum by use of a Difco cornmeal agar assay procedure. Five isolates were very strong antagonists of the fungus, four were strong antagonists, and ten others were weakly antagonistic. The remaining isolates showed no antagonism by this assay. Additional studies showed that several of the P. ultimum antagonists also strongly inhibited growth of other root-pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates showing antifungal activity in the in vitro assay were also tested for their effects on the germination and short-term growth of lettuce plants in glasshouse pot studies in the absence of pathogens. None of the actinomycetes prevented seed germination, although half of the isolates retarded seed germination and outgrowth of the plants by 1 to 3 days. During 18-day growth experiments, biomass yields of some actinomycete-inoculated plants were reduced in comparison with untreated control plants, although all plants appeared healthy and well rooted. None of the actinomycetes significantly enhanced plant growth over these short-term experiments. For some, but not all, actinomycetes, some correlations between delayed seed germination and reduced 18-day plant biomass yields were seen. For others, plant biomass yields were not reduced despite an actinomycete-associated delay in seed germination and plant outgrowth. Preliminary glasshouse experiments indicated that some of the actinomycetes protect germinating lettuce seeds against

  3. Psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong

    2014-01-01

    Psoas abscesses are classified into primary or secondary according to infectious etiology. However, the psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection is very rare. Here we report a case of psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection in a young woman. The disease was treated successfully. A literature review of psoas abscess in relation to its etiology, identification, and difficulties in the treatment is also presented. PMID:25356161

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Actinomycete Antagonists of a Fungal Root Pathogen †

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Don L.; Lynch, James M.; Whipps, John M.; Ousley, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected isolates were screened for in vitro antagonism towards Pythium ultimum by use of a Difco cornmeal agar assay procedure. Five isolates were very strong antagonists of the fungus, four were strong antagonists, and ten others were weakly antagonistic. The remaining isolates showed no antagonism by this assay. Additional studies showed that several of the P. ultimum antagonists also strongly inhibited growth of other root-pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates showing antifungal activity in the in vitro assay were also tested for their effects on the germination and short-term growth of lettuce plants in glasshouse pot studies in the absence of pathogens. None of the actinomycetes prevented seed germination, although half of the isolates retarded seed germination and outgrowth of the plants by 1 to 3 days. During 18-day growth experiments, biomass yields of some actinomycete-inoculated plants were reduced in comparison with untreated control plants, although all plants appeared healthy and well rooted. None of the actinomycetes significantly enhanced plant growth over these short-term experiments. For some, but not all, actinomycetes, some correlations between delayed seed germination and reduced 18-day plant biomass yields were seen. For others, plant biomass yields were not reduced despite an actinomycete-associated delay in seed germination and plant outgrowth. Preliminary glasshouse experiments indicated that some of the actinomycetes protect germinating lettuce seeds against

  5. Continuing hunt for endophytic actinomycetes as a source of novel biologically active metabolites.

    PubMed

    Masand, Meeta; Jose, Polpass Arul; Menghani, Ekta; Jebakumar, Solomon Robinson David

    2015-12-01

    Drug-resistant pathogens and persistent agrochemicals mount the detrimental threats against human health and welfare. Exploitation of beneficial microorganisms and their metabolic inventions is most promising way to tackle these two problems. Since the successive discoveries of penicillin and streptomycin in 1940s, numerous biologically active metabolites have been discovered from different microorganisms, especially actinomycetes. In recent years, actinomycetes that inhabit unexplored environments have received significant attention due to their broad diversity and distinctive metabolic potential with medical, agricultural and industrial importance. In this scenario, endophytic actinomycetes that inhabit living tissues of plants are emerging as a potential source of novel bioactive compounds for the discovery of drug leads. Also, endophytic actinomycetes are considered as bio-inoculants to improve crop performance through organic farming practices. Further efforts on exploring the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the plants warrant the likelihood of discovering new taxa and their metabolites with novel chemical structures and biotechnological importance. This mini-review highlights the recent achievements in isolation of endophytic actinomycetes and an assortment of bioactive compounds. PMID:26410426

  6. Diversity, bioactivities, and metabolic potentials of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from traditional medicinal plants in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng; Feng, Zhi-Xiang; Tian, Jie-Wei; Lei, Zu-Chao; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chu, Yi-Wen; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic activity of the actinomycetes community, including 13 traditional medicinal plants collected in Sichuan province, China, using multiple approaches such as morphological and molecular identification methods, bioactivity assays, and PCR screening for genes involved in antibiotics biosynthesis. 119 endophytic actinomycetes were recovered; 80 representative strains were chosen for 16S rRNA gene partial sequence analyses, with 66 of them being affiliated to genus Streptomyces and the remaining 14 strains being rare actinomycetes. Antimicrobial tests showed that 12 (15%) of the 80 endophytic actinomycetes displayed inhibitory effects against at least one indicator pathogens, which were all assigned to the genus Streptomyces. In addition, 87.5% and 58.8% of the isolates showed anticancer and anti-diabetic activities, respectively. Meanwhile, the anticancer activities of the isolates negatively correlated with their anti-diabetic activities. Based on the results of PCR screening, five genes, PKS-I, PKS-II, NRPS, ANSA, and oxyB, were detected in 55.0%, 58.8%, 90.0%, 18.8% and 8.8% of the 80 actinomycetes, respectively. In conclusion, the PCR screening method employed in the present study was conducive for screening and selection of potential actinomycetes and predicting potential secondary metabolites, which could overcome the limitations of traditional activity screening models. PMID:26721714

  7. Bioactive Potential of Actinomycetes from Less Explored Ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Nonmycobacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Radhakrishnan; Venugopal, Gopikrishnan; Subramaniam, Balaji; Ramasamy, Balagurunathan; Kumar, Vanaja

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive potential of actinomycetes isolated from certain less explored Indian ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other nonmycobacterial pathogens was investigated. Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples collected from desert, coffee plantation, rubber forest, and hill area and their cultural and micromorphological characteristics were studied. Crude extracts were prepared by agar surface fermentation and tested against M. tuberculosis isolates by luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay at 100 µg/mL. Activity against nonmycobacterial pathogens was studied by agar plug method. Totally 54 purified cultures of actinomycetes including 43 Streptomyces and 11 non-Streptomyces were isolated. While screening for antitubercular activity, extracts of 39 actinomycetes showed activity against one or more M. tuberculosis isolates whereas 27 isolates exhibited antagonistic activity against nonmycobacterial pathogens. In particular crude extracts from sixteen actinomycete isolates inhibited all the three M. tuberculosis isolates tested. Findings of the present study concluded that less explored ecosystems investigated in this study are the potential resource for bioactive actinomycetes. Further purification and characterization of active molecule from the potential extracts will pave the way for determination of MIC, toxicity, and specificity studies. PMID:27437460

  8. Bioactive Potential of Actinomycetes from Less Explored Ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Nonmycobacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Gopikrishnan; Subramaniam, Balaji; Ramasamy, Balagurunathan

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive potential of actinomycetes isolated from certain less explored Indian ecosystems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other nonmycobacterial pathogens was investigated. Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples collected from desert, coffee plantation, rubber forest, and hill area and their cultural and micromorphological characteristics were studied. Crude extracts were prepared by agar surface fermentation and tested against M. tuberculosis isolates by luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay at 100 µg/mL. Activity against nonmycobacterial pathogens was studied by agar plug method. Totally 54 purified cultures of actinomycetes including 43 Streptomyces and 11 non-Streptomyces were isolated. While screening for antitubercular activity, extracts of 39 actinomycetes showed activity against one or more M. tuberculosis isolates whereas 27 isolates exhibited antagonistic activity against nonmycobacterial pathogens. In particular crude extracts from sixteen actinomycete isolates inhibited all the three M. tuberculosis isolates tested. Findings of the present study concluded that less explored ecosystems investigated in this study are the potential resource for bioactive actinomycetes. Further purification and characterization of active molecule from the potential extracts will pave the way for determination of MIC, toxicity, and specificity studies.

  9. Influence of moisture on the vital activity of actinomycetes in a cultivated low-moor peat soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Doroshenko, E. A.; Likhacheva, A. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.; Pochatkova, T. N.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2007-05-01

    It was found that the actinomycetal complex of a cultivated low-moor peat soil is characterized by a high population density and diversity of actinomycetes; representatives of eleven genera were isolated from this soil: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Microbispora, Microtetraspora, Streptosporangium, Nocardioides, Saccharomonospora, Kibdelosporangium, and Thermomonospora. Some genera were isolated from the soil under all the studied levels of soil moisture. The so-called rare (rarely occurring) genera (Saccharomonospora, Kibdelosporangium, and Thermomonospora) were isolated upon the low level of soil moisture, which ensured an absence of competition from the more abundant actinomycetes. Spores of all the studied actinomycetes could germinate under the low moisture level (a w = 0.67). The level of moisture a w = 0.98 was found to be optimal for the development of the actinomycetes. The complete cycle of the development of all the actinomycetes up to spore formation occurring was only observed under the high moisture level (a w = 0.98).

  10. Study on the flocculability of the Arthrobacter sp., an actinomycete resuscitated from the VBNC state.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Xiuying; Ding, Linxian; Yokota, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A bioflocculant with high flocculating activity, LC13-SF, produced by strain LC13(T) which was in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, and which was woken up by Rpf (resuscitation promoting factor), was systematically investigated with regard to its fermentation conditions and flocculating activity. The key parameters influencing the bioflocculant LC13-SF were investigated through measuring the optical density at 660 (OD(660)) of the fermentation liquid and the optical density at 550 (OD(550)) of the centrifugal supernatant. The flocculating efficiency and the Zeta potentials were chosen as the response variables for the study of the flocculating activity. The results showed that the optimal conditions for bioflocculant LC13-SF production were a fermentation time of 72 h, an initial pH of 7.0, a fermentation temperature of 30°C and a shaking speed of 150 r/min. The optimized flocculating process was as follows: a final volume percentage of bioflocculant LC13-SF and 0.5% (w/w) CaCl(2) were 1.5 and 5%, respectively in a 4 g/L Kaolin suspension, and the system pH was adjusted to 8.0. Under these conditions, the flocculating efficiency and the absolute value of the Zeta potential reached 94.83% and 4.37, respectively. PMID:22806783

  11. Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi sp. nov.: A Multitolerant Actinomycete Isolated from Dolomitic Marble

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Hofner, Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Hezbri, Karima; Gtari, Maher; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    A novel Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic actinobacterium, tolerant to mitomycin C, heavy metals, metalloids, hydrogen peroxide, desiccation, and ionizing- and UV-radiation, designated G18T, was isolated from dolomitic marble collected from outcrops in Samara (Namibia). The growth range was 15–35°C, at pH 5.5–9.5 and in presence of 1% NaCl, forming greenish-black coloured colonies on GYM Streptomyces agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for other representatives of the genus Geodermatophilus. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and small amount of diphosphatidylglycerol. MK-9(H4) was the dominant menaquinone and galactose was detected as diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0 and the unsaturated C17:1ω8c and C16:1ω7c. The 16S rRNA gene showed 97.4–99.1% sequence identity with the other representatives of genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G18T is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi. Type strain is G18T (= DSM 44209T = CCUG 63018T). The INSDC accession number is HF970583. The novel R software package lethal was used to compute the lethal doses with confidence intervals resulting from tolerance experiments. PMID:25114928

  12. Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi sp. nov.: a multitolerant actinomycete isolated from dolomitic marble.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Hofner, Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Hezbri, Karima; Gtari, Maher; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    A novel Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic actinobacterium, tolerant to mitomycin C, heavy metals, metalloids, hydrogen peroxide, desiccation, and ionizing- and UV-radiation, designated G18T, was isolated from dolomitic marble collected from outcrops in Samara (Namibia). The growth range was 15-35°C, at pH 5.5-9.5 and in presence of 1% NaCl, forming greenish-black coloured colonies on GYM Streptomyces agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for other representatives of the genus Geodermatophilus. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and small amount of diphosphatidylglycerol. MK-9(H4) was the dominant menaquinone and galactose was detected as diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0 and the unsaturated C17:1 ω8c and C16:1 ω7c. The 16S rRNA gene showed 97.4-99.1% sequence identity with the other representatives of genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G18T is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi. Type strain is G18T (=DSM 44209T=CCUG 63018T). The INSDC accession number is HF970583. The novel R software package lethal was used to compute the lethal doses with confidence intervals resulting from tolerance experiments. PMID:25114928

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain CcI6, a Salt-Tolerant Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodule of Casuarina cunninghamiana

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Samira R.; Oshone, Rediet; Hurst, Sheldon G.; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a 5.57-Mbp draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain CcI6, a salt-tolerant nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casurina cunninghamiana grown in Egyptian soils. PMID:24435877

  14. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. Strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W.; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, J. Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Gtari, Maher; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavromatis, K; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S.

    2013-01-01

    Members of actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. stain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.

  15. Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodbhane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina L; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida. PMID:23516220

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain CcI6, a Salt-Tolerant Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodule of Casuarina cunninghamiana.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Samira R; Oshone, Rediet; Hurst, Sheldon G; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a 5.57-Mbp draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain CcI6, a salt-tolerant nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casurina cunninghamiana grown in Egyptian soils. PMID:24435877

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Soil Actinomycete Kocuria rhizophila▿

    PubMed Central

    Takarada, Hiromi; Sekine, Mitsuo; Kosugi, Hiroki; Matsuo, Yasunori; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Omata, Seiha; Kishi, Emi; Shimizu, Ai; Tsukatani, Naofumi; Tanikawa, Satoshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2008-01-01

    The soil actinomycete Kocuria rhizophila belongs to the suborder Micrococcineae, a divergent bacterial group for which only a limited amount of genomic information is currently available. K. rhizophila is also important in industrial applications; e.g., it is commonly used as a standard quality control strain for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Sequencing and annotation of the genome of K. rhizophila DC2201 (NBRC 103217) revealed a single circular chromosome (2,697,540 bp; G+C content of 71.16%) containing 2,357 predicted protein-coding genes. Most of the predicted proteins (87.7%) were orthologous to actinobacterial proteins, and the genome showed fairly good conservation of synteny with taxonomically related actinobacterial genomes. On the other hand, the genome seems to encode much smaller numbers of proteins necessary for secondary metabolism (one each of nonribosomal peptide synthetase and type III polyketide synthase), transcriptional regulation, and lateral gene transfer, reflecting the small genome size. The presence of probable metabolic pathways for the transformation of phenolic compounds generated from the decomposition of plant materials, and the presence of a large number of genes associated with membrane transport, particularly amino acid transporters and drug efflux pumps, may contribute to the organism's utilization of root exudates, as well as the tolerance to various organic compounds. PMID:18408034

  18. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-09-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene encoding a putative membrane-anchored GH18 chitinase (Tfu0868) from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was produced as SUMO fusion protein and, upon removal of the SUMO domain, soluble pure TfChi18A was obtained with yields typically amounting to 150mg per litre of culture. The enzyme was found to be relatively thermostable (apparent Tm=57.5°C) but not particularly thermoactive, the optimum temperature being 40-45°C. TfChi18A bound to α- and β-chitin and degraded both these substrates. Interestingly, activity towards colloidal chitin was minimal and in this case, substrate inhibition was observed. TfChi18A also cleaved soluble chito-oligosaccharides and showed a clear preference for substrates having five sugars or more. While these results show that TfChi18A is a catalytically competent GH18 chitinase, the observed catalytic rates were low compared to those of well-studied GH18 chitinases. This suggests that TfChi18A is not a true chitinase and not likely to endow T. fusca with the ability to grow on chitin. PMID:27108953

  19. Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov., Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov., isolated from plant roots, and emended description of the genus Phytohabitans.

    PubMed

    Inahashi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Omura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoko

    2012-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated K09-0627(T), was isolated from the roots of an orchid collected in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Two actinomycete strains K11-0047(T) and K11-0057(T) were isolated from the roots of Rumex acetosa and Houttuynia cordata collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Phytohabitans, and that they were closely related to each other and to Phytohabitans suffuscus K07-0523(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the three isolates and Phytohabitans suffuscus were below 70%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values and phenotypic characteristics, the strains should be classified as novel species in the genus Phytohabitans, for which the names Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov. (type strain, K09-0627(T)=JCM 17387(T)=NBRC 107702(T)=DSM 45551(T)), Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0047(T)=JCM 17829(T)=NBRC 108638(T)=BCC 48146(T)) and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0057(T)=JCM 17830(T)=NBRC 108639(T)=BCC 48147(T)) are proposed. PMID:22228668

  20. Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges: Sources for Chemical and Phylogenetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Yang, Chen; Horn, Hannes; Hajjar, Dina; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery. PMID:24824024

  1. Actinomycetes for Marine Drug Discovery Isolated from Mangrove Soils and Plants in China

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kui; Gao, An-Hui; Xie, Qing-Yi; Gao, Hao; Zhuang, Ling; Lin, Hai-Peng; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Jia; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Goodfellow, Michael; Ruan, Ji-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a largely unexplored source for actinomycetes with the potential to produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Consequently, we set out to isolate, characterize and screen actinomycetes from soil and plant material collected from eight mangrove sites in China. Over 2,000 actinomycetes were isolated and of these approximately 20%, 5%, and 10% inhibited the growth of Human Colon Tumor 116 cells, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, while 3% inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a protein related to diabetes. In addition, nine isolates inhibited aurora kinase A, an anti-cancer related protein, and three inhibited caspase 3, a protein related to neurodegenerative diseases. Representative bioactive isolates were characterized using genotypic and phenotypic procedures and classified to thirteen genera, notably to the genera Micromonospora and Streptomyces. Actinomycetes showing cytotoxic activity were assigned to seven genera whereas only Micromonospora and Streptomyces strains showed anti-PTP1B activity. We conclude that actinomycetes isolated from mangrove habitats are a potentially rich source for the discovery of anti-infection and anti-tumor compounds, and of agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. PMID:19370169

  2. Actinomycetes from the South China Sea sponges: isolation, diversity, and potential for aromatic polyketides discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges often harbor dense and diverse microbial communities including actinobacteria. To date no comprehensive investigation has been performed on the culturable diversity of the actinomycetes associated with South China Sea sponges. Structurally novel aromatic polyketides were recently discovered from marine sponge-derived Streptomyces and Saccharopolyspora strains, suggesting that sponge-associated actinomycetes can serve as a new source of aromatic polyketides. In this study, a total of 77 actinomycete strains were isolated from 15 South China Sea sponge species. Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 12 families and 20 genera, among which three rare genera (Marihabitans, Polymorphospora, and Streptomonospora) were isolated from marine sponges for the first time. Subsequently, β-ketoacyl synthase (KSα) gene was used as marker for evaluating the potential of the actinomycete strains to produce aromatic polyketides. As a result, KSα gene was detected in 35 isolates related to seven genera (Kocuria, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, and Streptomyces). Finally, 10 strains were selected for small-scale fermentation, and one angucycline compound was detected from the culture extract of Streptomyces anulatus strain S71. This study advanced our knowledge of the sponge-associated actinomycetes regarding their diversity and potential in producing aromatic polyketides. PMID:26483773

  3. Phylogenetic characterization of culturable actinomycetes associated with the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from Gulf of Mannar.

    PubMed

    Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Manju, Sivalingam; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is a virtually untapped source of novel actinomycete diversity and its metabolites. Investigating the diversity of actinomycetes in other marine macroorganisms, like seaweeds and sponges, have resulted in isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. Actinomycetes diversity associated with corals and their produced metabolites have not yet been explored. Hence, in this study we attempted to characterize the culturable actinomycetes population associated with the coral Acropora digitifera. Actinomycetes were isolated from the mucus of the coral wherein the actinomycetes count was much higher when compared with the surrounding seawater and sediment. Actinobacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene primers were used for identifying the isolates at the molecular level in addition to biochemical tests. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes revealed several polymorphic groups within the isolates. Sequencing and blast analysis of the isolates revealed that some isolates had only 96.7% similarity with its nearest match in GenBank indicating that they may be novel isolates at the species level. The isolated actinomycetes exhibited good antibacterial activity against various human pathogens. This study offers for the first time a prelude about the unexplored culturable actinomycetes diversity associated with a scleractinian coral and their bioactive capabilities. PMID:21105906

  4. Ecological and Taxonomic Features of Actinomycetal Complexes in Soils of the Lake Elton Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Dubrova, M. S.; Kuznetsova, A. I.; Gracheva, T. A.; Manucharova, N. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2016-02-01

    In the sor (playa) solonchaks of chloride and sulfate-chloride salinity (the content of readily soluble salts is 0.9-1.0%) in the delta of the Khara River discharging into Lake Elton, the number of mycelial actinobacteria (actinomycetes) is low ((2-3) × 103 CFU/g of soil). At a distance from the water's edge, these soils are substituted for the light chestnut ones, for which an elevated number of actinomycetes (an order of magnitude higher than in the sor solonchaks) and a wider generic spectrum are characteristic. The actinomycetal complex is included the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, whereas in the sor solonchaks around the lake, representatives of Micromonospora were not found.

  5. Actinomycetal complexes in drained peat soils of the taiga zone upon pyrogenic succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Glushkova, N. A.; Bannikov, M. V.; Shvarov, A. P.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-04-01

    The number and diversity of actinomycetes in peat soils vary in dependence on the stage of pyrogenic succession. In the cultivated peat soil, the number of actinomycetes after fires decreases by three-four times, mainly at the expense of acidophilic and neutrophilic groups. An increase in the number of mycelial prokaryotes (at the expense of alkaliphilic forms) is seen on the fifth year of functioning of the pyrogenic peat soil. The species diversity of streptomycetes in peat soils also decreases after fires. An increase in the range of streptomycetal species at the expense of neutrophilic and alkaliphilic forms takes place on the fifth year of the pyrogenic succession. Parameters of the actinomycetal complex—the population density, species composition, and ecological features—are the criteria whose changes allow us to judge the state of peat soils in the course of their pyrogenic succession.

  6. Isolation and identification of biocontrol agent Streptomyces rimosus M527 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dandan; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Xianhao; Yu, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens and as plant growth promoters. In this study, a total of 320 actinomycetes were isolated from various habitats in China. Among which, 77 strains have been identified as antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum which usually caused fusarium wilt of cucumber. Of these, isolate actinomycete M527 not only displayed broad-spectrum antifungal activity but also showed the strongest antagonistic activity against the spore germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. In pot experiments, the results indicated that isolate M527 could promote the shoot growth and prevent the development of the disease on cucumber caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. The control efficacy against seedling fusarium wilt of cucumber after M527 fermentation broth root-irrigation was up to 72.1% as compared to control. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate M527 was identified as Streptomyces rimosus. PMID:27192632

  7. Analysis of coenzyme A activated compounds in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Cabruja, Matías; Lyonnet, Bernardo Bazet; Millán, Gustavo; Gramajo, Hugo; Gago, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Acyl-CoAs are crucial compounds involved in essential metabolic pathways such as the Krebs cycle and lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolisms, and they are also key signal molecules involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid biosynthesis in many organisms. In this study, we took advantage of the high selectivity of mass spectrometry and developed an ion-pairing reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (IP-RP-HPLC/ESI-HRMS) method to carry on a comprehensive analytical determination of the wide range of fatty acyl-CoAs present in actinomycetes. The advantage of using a QTOF spectrometer resides in the excellent mass accuracy over a wide dynamic range and measurements of the true isotope pattern that can be used for molecular formula elucidation of unknown analytes. As a proof of concept, we used this assay to determine the composition of the fatty acyl-CoA pools in Mycobacterium, Streptomyces, and Corynebacterium species, revealing an extraordinary difference in fatty acyl-CoA amounts and species distribution between the three genera and between the two species of mycobacteria analyzed, including the presence of different chain-length carboxy-acyl-CoAs, key substrates of mycolic acid biosynthesis. The method was also used to analyze the impact of two fatty acid synthase inhibitors on the acyl-CoA profile of Mycobacterium smegmatis, which showed some unexpected low levels of C24 acyl-CoAs in the isoniazid-treated cells. This robust, sensitive, and reliable method should be broadly applicable in the studies of the wide range of bacteria metabolisms in which acyl-CoA molecules participate. PMID:27270600

  8. Effect of cadmium on soil bacteria and actinomycetes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.E.; Wollum, A.G. II

    1981-04-01

    Soil procaryotic populations were evaluated from a soybean field (Glycine max L.) that had been amended 3 years previously with Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/ 2 1/2H/sub 2/O) at rates corresponding to 0, 6, 22, and 40 kg Cd/ha. Replicate aliquots of soil suspensions from the treated plots were plated on media containing increasing concentrations of Cd. This was done to determine if soil bacteria and actinomycetes (procaryotes) that were tolerant of Cd had developed in Cd-treated soils. It was found that the level of DTPA-TEA extractable soil Cd had no influence on the development of Cd-tolerant soil populations on media amended with Cd. Rather, it was found that low levels of media Cd retarded procaryote growth, whereas high levels did not. This also occurred regardless of the level of soil extractable Cd. Soil moisture at the time of sampling was found to be inversely related to procaryote numbers on media containing 0 ppM Cd and directly related on media containing 10, 20, and 40 ppM Cd. On media containing 5 ppM Cd, numbers of soil organisms were low with respect to the control and other Cd media levels and had no relationship to soil moisture. Growth rate constants of 58 pure cultured bacteria were determined at Cd concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppM in liquid media. The organisms exhibited tolerant, intolerant, and stimulated responses of Cd; however, 50% were intolerant to 5 ppM Cd but tolerant at concentrations > 5 ppM.

  9. Crystallochemical transformation of phyllosilicates under the impact of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Omarova, E. O.; Lobakova, E. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Manucharov, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of the crystallochemical structure of phyllosilicates (vermiculite and biotite) under the impact of growing cyanobacterial and actinomycetal associations, as well as monocultures of cyanobacteria and actinomycetes, has been studied. The character of the mineral transformation depends on their crystallochemical structure and the type of biota. The most significant changes take place in the contact zone between minerals and microbial associations; the effect of microbial monocultures is smaller. The transformation of biotite proceeds via the stage of ordered mica-vermiculite (smectite) neoformation (rectorite); the destruction of vermiculite has been identified.

  10. Discovery of pentangular polyphenols hexaricins A-C from marine Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 by genome mining.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Chen, Haiyan; Guo, Zhengyan; Liu, Ning; Li, Jine; Huang, Ying; Xiang, Wensheng; Chen, Yihua

    2016-05-01

    Many novel microbial nature products were discovered from Actinobacteria by genome mining methods. However, only a few number of genome mining works were carried out in rare actinomycetes. An important reason precluding the genome mining efforts in rare actinomycetes is that most of them are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. Herein, we chose the rare marine actinomycete Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 to explore its secondary metabolite diversity by genome mining. The genetic manipulation method has never been established for Streptosporangium strains. At first, we set up the genetic system of Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 unprecedentedly. The draft genome sequencing of Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 revealed that it contains more than 20 cryptic secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. A type II polyketide synthases-containing cluster (the hex cluster) was predicted to encode compounds with a pentangular polyphenol scaffold by in silico analysis. The products of the hex cluster were uncovered by comparing the metabolic profile of Streptosporangium sp. CGMCC 4.7309 with that of the hex30 inactivated mutant, in which a key ketoreductase gene was disrupted. Finally, three pentangular polyphenols were isolated and named as hexaricins A (1), B (2), and C (3). The inconsistency of the stereochemistry of C-15 in hexaricins A, B, and C indicates a branch point in their biosynthesis. Finally, the biosynthetic pathway of the hexaricins was proposed based on bioinformatics analysis. PMID:26754814

  11. Alkaloids from the mangrove-derived actinomycete Jishengella endophytica 161111.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Kong, Fandong; Wei, Jingjing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Hong, Kui; Zhu, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    A new alkaloid, 2-(furan-2-yl)-6-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (1), along with 12 known compounds, 2-(furan-2-yl)-5-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (2), (S)-4-isobutyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (3), (S)-4-isopropyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (4), (4S)-4-(2-methylbutyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (5), (S)-4-benzyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (6), flazin (7), perlolyrine (8), 1-hydroxy-β-carboline (9), lumichrome (10), 1H-indole-3-carboxaldehyde (11), 2-hydroxy-1-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone (12), and 5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (13), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of an endophytic actinomycetes, Jishengella endophytica 161111. The new structure 1 and the absolute configurations of 2-6 were determined by spectroscopic methods, J-based configuration analysis (JBCA) method, lactone sector rule, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 8-11 were active against the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 with IC50 and selectivity index (SI) values of 38.3(±1.2)/25.0(±3.6)/39.7(±5.6)/45.9(±2.1) μg/mL and 3.0/16.1/3.1/11.4, respectively. The IC50 and SI values of positive control, ribavirin, were 23.1(±1.7) μg/mL and 32.2, respectively. The results showed that compound 9 could be a promising new hit for anti-H1N1 drugs. The absolute configurations of 2-5, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and the specific rotations of 3-6 were also reported here for the first time. PMID:24451190

  12. Alkaloids from the Mangrove-Derived Actinomycete Jishengella endophytica 161111

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Kong, Fandong; Wei, Jingjing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Hong, Kui; Zhu, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    A new alkaloid, 2-(furan-2-yl)-6-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (1), along with 12 known compounds, 2-(furan-2-yl)-5-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (2), (S)-4-isobutyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (3), (S)-4-isopropyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (4), (4S)-4-(2-methylbutyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (5), (S)-4-benzyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (6), flazin (7), perlolyrine (8), 1-hydroxy-β-carboline (9), lumichrome (10), 1H-indole-3-carboxaldehyde (11), 2-hydroxy-1-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone (12), and 5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (13), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of an endophytic actinomycetes, Jishengella endophytica 161111. The new structure 1 and the absolute configurations of 2–6 were determined by spectroscopic methods, J-based configuration analysis (JBCA) method, lactone sector rule, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 8–11 were active against the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 with IC50 and selectivity index (SI) values of 38.3(±1.2)/25.0(±3.6)/39.7(±5.6)/45.9(±2.1) μg/mL and 3.0/16.1/3.1/11.4, respectively. The IC50 and SI values of positive control, ribavirin, were 23.1(±1.7) μg/mL and 32.2, respectively. The results showed that compound 9 could be a promising new hit for anti-H1N1 drugs. The absolute configurations of 2–5, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and the specific rotations of 3–6 were also reported here for the first time. PMID:24451190

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Planomonospora sphaerica JCM9374, a Rare Actinomycete

    PubMed Central

    Dohra, Hideo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Inoue, Yuto

    2016-01-01

    Planomonospora sphaerica is a rare actinomycete that is a potential antibiotic producer. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. sphaerica strain JCM9374. This is the first genome report of a bacterium belonging to the genus Planomonospora. The genome information of P. sphaerica will contribute to studies on the structure and function of antibiotics. PMID:27492001

  14. Anthracimycin, a potent anthrax antibiotic from a marine-derived actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Nam, Sang-Jip; Locke, Jeffrey B; Kauffman, Christopher A; Beatty, Deanna S; Paul, Lauren A; Fenical, William

    2013-07-22

    Licensed to kill: A new antibiotic, anthracimycin (see scheme), produced by a marine-derived actinomycete in saline culture, shows significant activity toward Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax infections. Chlorination of anthracimycin gives a dichloro derivative that retains activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as anthrax, but also shows activity against selected Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23776159

  15. Biodiversity, Anti-Trypanosomal Activity Screening, and Metabolomic Profiling of Actinomycetes Isolated from Mediterranean Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; MacIntyre, Lynsey; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Horn, Hannes; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponge–associated actinomycetes are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In the present study, a total of 64 actinomycetes were isolated from 12 different marine sponge species that had been collected offshore the islands of Milos and Crete, Greece, eastern Mediterranean. The isolates were affiliated to 23 genera representing 8 different suborders based on nearly full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Four putatively novel species belonging to genera Geodermatophilus, Microlunatus, Rhodococcus and Actinomycetospora were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of < 98.5% to currently described strains. Eight actinomycete isolates showed bioactivities against Trypanosma brucei brucei TC221 with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <20 μg/mL. Thirty four isolates from the Milos collection and 12 isolates from the Crete collection were subjected to metabolomic analysis using high resolution LC-MS and NMR for dereplication purposes. Two isolates belonging to the genera Streptomyces (SBT348) and Micromonospora (SBT687) were prioritized based on their distinct chemistry profiles as well as their anti-trypanosomal activities. These findings demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of utilizing metabolomics tools to prioritize chemically unique strains from microorganism collections and further highlight sponges as rich source for novel and bioactive actinomycetes. PMID:26407167

  16. Population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated to the rhizosphere of Theobroma cacao

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Tâmara R.; da Silva, Augusto C.M.; Soares, Ana Cristina F.; de Souza, Jorge T.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of growth-promoting bacteria, only a reduced number of studies were conducted with these microorganisms on Theobroma cacao. The objectives of this work were to study the population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated with the rhizosphere of cacao as a first step in their application in plant growth promotion and biological control. The populations densities of actinomycetes in soil and cacao roots were similar, with mean values of 1,0 x 106 CFU/g and 9,6 x 105 CFU/g, respectively. All isolates selected and used in this study were identified through sequencing analyses of a fragment of the rpoB gene that encodes the β-subunit of the RNA polymerase as species of the genus Streptomyces. In vitro cellulolytic, xilanolytic and chitinolytic activity, indolacetic acid production and phosphate solubilization activities were observed in most of the isolates tested. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that actinomycetes account for a higher percentage of the total population of culturable bacteria in soil than on cacao roots. Additionally, actinomycetes from the cacao rhizosphere are genetically diverse and have potential applications as agents of growth promotion. PMID:24031247

  17. Biodiversity, Anti-Trypanosomal Activity Screening, and Metabolomic Profiling of Actinomycetes Isolated from Mediterranean Sponges.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; MacIntyre, Lynsey; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Horn, Hannes; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponge-associated actinomycetes are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In the present study, a total of 64 actinomycetes were isolated from 12 different marine sponge species that had been collected offshore the islands of Milos and Crete, Greece, eastern Mediterranean. The isolates were affiliated to 23 genera representing 8 different suborders based on nearly full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Four putatively novel species belonging to genera Geodermatophilus, Microlunatus, Rhodococcus and Actinomycetospora were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of < 98.5% to currently described strains. Eight actinomycete isolates showed bioactivities against Trypanosma brucei brucei TC221 with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <20 μg/mL. Thirty four isolates from the Milos collection and 12 isolates from the Crete collection were subjected to metabolomic analysis using high resolution LC-MS and NMR for dereplication purposes. Two isolates belonging to the genera Streptomyces (SBT348) and Micromonospora (SBT687) were prioritized based on their distinct chemistry profiles as well as their anti-trypanosomal activities. These findings demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of utilizing metabolomics tools to prioritize chemically unique strains from microorganism collections and further highlight sponges as rich source for novel and bioactive actinomycetes. PMID:26407167

  18. Antimicrobial biosynthetic potential and genetic diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gohain, Anwesha; Gogoi, Animesh; Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Singh, Bhim P; Gupta, Vijai K; Sharma, Rajeev; Saikia, Ratul

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes are one of the primary groups that share symbiotic relationships with medicinal plants and are key reservoir of biologically active compounds. In this study, six selective medicinal plants were targeted for the first time for endophytic actinomycetes isolation from Gibbon Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam, India, during winter and summer and 76 isolates were obtained. The isolates were found to be prevalent in roots followed by stem and leaves. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 16 genera, including rare genera, Verrucosispora, Isoptericola and Kytococcus, which have never been previously reported as endophytic. The genus Streptomyces (66%) was dominant in both seasons. Shannon's diversity index showed that Azadirachta indica (1.49), Rauwolfia serpentina (1.43) and Emblica officinalis (1.24) were relatively good habitat for endophytic actinomycetes. Antimicrobial strains showed prevalence of polyketide synthase (PKS) type-II (85%) followed by PKS type-I (14%) encoded in the genomes. Expression studies showed 12-fold upregulation of PKSII gene in seventh day of incubation for Streptomyces antibioticus (EAAG90). Our results emphasize that the actinomycetes assemblages within plant tissue exhibited biosynthetic systems encoding for important biologically active compounds. PMID:26347302

  19. Artificial Chromosomes to Explore and to Exploit Biosynthetic Capabilities of Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Alduina, Rosa; Gallo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important source of biologically active compounds, like antibiotics, antitumor agents, and immunosuppressors. Genome sequencing is revealing that this class of microorganisms has larger genomes relative to other bacteria and uses a considerable fraction of its coding capacity (5–10%) for the production of mostly cryptic secondary metabolites. To access actinomycetes biosynthetic capabilities or to improve the pharmacokinetic properties and production yields of these chemically complex compounds, genetic manipulation of the producer strains can be performed. Heterologous expression in amenable hosts can be useful to exploit and to explore the genetic potential of actinomycetes and not cultivable but interesting bacteria. Artificial chromosomes that can be stably integrated into the Streptomyces genome were constructed and demonstrated to be effective for transferring entire biosynthetic gene clusters from intractable actinomycetes into more suitable hosts. In this paper, the construction of several shuttle Escherichia coli-Streptomyces artificial chromosomes is discussed together with old and new strategies applied to improve heterologous production of secondary metabolites. PMID:22919271

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Planomonospora sphaerica JCM9374, a Rare Actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Dohra, Hideo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Inoue, Yuto; Kodani, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Planomonospora sphaerica is a rare actinomycete that is a potential antibiotic producer. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. sphaerica strain JCM9374. This is the first genome report of a bacterium belonging to the genus Planomonospora The genome information of P. sphaerica will contribute to studies on the structure and function of antibiotics. PMID:27492001

  1. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jennifer R.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Teshima, Hazuki; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Huntemann, Marcel; Wei, Chia-Lin; Han, James; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, K; Szeto, Ernest; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Sello, Jason K.

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

  2. Red Soils Harbor Diverse Culturable Actinomycetes That Are Promising Sources of Novel Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Ning; Li, Xiaomin; Ding, Yun; Shang, Fei; Gao, Yongsheng; Ruan, Jisheng

    2015-01-01

    Red soils, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of southern China, are characterized by low organic carbon, high content of iron oxides, and acidity and, hence, are likely to be ideal habitats for acidophilic actinomycetes. However, the diversity and biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes in such habitats are underexplored. Here, a total of 600 actinomycete strains were isolated from red soils collected in Jiangxi Province in southeast China. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a high diversity of the isolates, which were distributed into 26 genera, 10 families, and 7 orders within the class Actinobacteria; these taxa contained at least 49 phylotypes that are likely to represent new species within 15 genera. The isolates showed good physiological potentials for biosynthesis and biocontrol. Chemical screening of 107 semirandomly selected isolates spanning 20 genera revealed the presence of at least 193 secondary metabolites from 52 isolates, of which 125 compounds from 39 isolates of 12 genera were putatively novel. Macrolides, polyethers, diketopiperazines, and siderophores accounted for most of the known compounds. The structures of six novel compounds were elucidated, two of which had a unique skeleton and represented characteristic secondary metabolites of a putative novel Streptomyces phylotype. These results demonstrate that red soils are rich reservoirs for diverse culturable actinomycetes, notably members of the families Streptomycetaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, and Streptosporangiaceae, with the capacity to synthesize novel bioactive compounds. PMID:25724963

  3. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

  4. A mixed community of actinomycetes produce multiple antibiotics for the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Attine ants live in an intensely studied tripartite mutualism with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, which provides food to the ants, and with antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria. One hypothesis suggests that bacteria from the genus Pseudonocardia are the sole, co-evolved mutualists of attine ants and are transmitted vertically by the queens. A recent study identified a Pseudonocardia-produced antifungal, named dentigerumycin, associated with the lower attine Apterostigma dentigerum consistent with the idea that co-evolved Pseudonocardia make novel antibiotics. An alternative possibility is that attine ants sample actinomycete bacteria from the soil, selecting and maintaining those species that make useful antibiotics. Consistent with this idea, a Streptomyces species associated with the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus was recently shown to produce the well-known antifungal candicidin. Candicidin production is widespread in environmental isolates of Streptomyces, so this could either be an environmental contaminant or evidence of recruitment of useful actinomycetes from the environment. It should be noted that the two possibilities for actinomycete acquisition are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Results In order to test these possibilities we isolated bacteria from a geographically distinct population of A. octospinosus and identified a candicidin-producing Streptomyces species, which suggests that they are common mutualists of attine ants, most probably recruited from the environment. We also identified a Pseudonocardia species in the same ant colony that produces an unusual polyene antifungal, providing evidence for co-evolution of Pseudonocardia with A. octospinosus. Conclusions Our results show that a combination of co-evolution and environmental sampling results in the diversity of actinomycete symbionts and antibiotics associated with attine ants. PMID:20796277

  5. Sensitivity of Various Bacteria, Including Actinomycetes, and Fungi to Cadmium and the Influence of pH on Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

    1977-01-01

    A variety of microorganisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive eubacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, were tested for their sensitivity to cadmium (Cd). In general, the actinomycetes were more tolerant to Cd than were the eubacteria; gram-negative eubacteria were more tolerant to Cd than were gram-positive eubacteria. The period of exponential growth of the eubacteria and actinomycetes was extended in the presence of Cd. Wide extremes in sensitivity to Cd were noted among the fungi; there was no correlation between the class of fungus and tolerance to Cd. Fungal sporulation was more sensitive to Cd than was mycelial growth, as spore formation was inhibited at Cd concentrations that were noninhibitory to mycelial proliferation. The toxicity of Cd to the eubacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi appeared to be pH dependent, as toxicity was generally potentiated at pH 8 or 9. PMID:16345227

  6. Presence, molecular characteristics and geosmin producing ability of actinomycetes isolated from South Korean terrestrial and aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Kim, Yun S; Kim, Min-Jeong; Oh, Sung-Ae; Choi, Ilhwan; Choi, Jaewon; Park, Jong-Geun; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Yeon; Lee, Kyeunghee; Lee, Chan Hee

    2011-01-01

    The unpleasant odor of drinking water is one of the major problems in many water utilities in the world. Actinomycetes have long been associated with odorous compounds. Considering the paucity of research on Actinomycetes producing odorous compounds in South Korea, presence of Actinomycetes, their molecular characteristics and ability to produce odorous compounds were investigated in this study. Findings confirmed the presence of Actinomycetes in surface soil, sediment, and water samples from four sites: two artificial lakes [Paldang and Cheongpyeong (CP)], and two streams [Gyeongan (GA) and Yangpyeong]. Surface soil and sediment from CP area had the greatest concentration of Actinomycetes (8.2 x 10(7) and 6.8 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFUs)/gram, dry weight, respectively). When water samples are considered, samples from GA had the highest concentration (1.9 x 10(2) CFU/mL). 16S rRNA sequencing and molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that Streptomyces was the dominant genus (64.1%). In addition, the isolated Actinomycetes synthesized 5.4 ng/L geosmin as demonstrated by thermal desorption unit-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:22049774

  7. Biodegradation of cis-1,4-Polyisoprene Rubbers by Distinct Actinomycetes: Microbial Strategies and Detailed Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Linos, Alexandros; Berekaa, Mahmoud M.; Reichelt, Rudolf; Keller, Ulrike; Schmitt, Jürgen; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Several actinomycetes isolated from nature were able to use both natural rubber (NR) and synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber (IR) as a sole source of carbon. According to their degradation behavior, they were divided into two groups. Representatives of the first group grew only in direct contact to the rubber substrate and led to considerable disintegration of the material during cultivation. The second group consisted of weaker rubber decomposers that did not grow adhesively, as indicated by the formation of clear zones (translucent halos) around bacterial colonies after cultivation on NR dispersed in mineral agar. Taxonomic analysis of four selected strains based on 16S rRNA similarity examinations revealed two Gordonia sp. strains, VH2 and Kb2, and one Mycobacterium fortuitum strain, NF4, belonging to the first group as well as one Micromonospora aurantiaca strain, W2b, belonging to the second group. Schiff's reagent staining tests performed for each of the strains indicated colonization of the rubber surface, formation of a bacterial biofilm, and occurrence of compounds containing aldehyde groups during cultivation with NR latex gloves. Detailed analysis by means of scanning electron microscopy yielded further evidence for the two different microbial strategies and clarified the colonization efficiency. Thereby, strains VH2, Kb2, and NF4 directly adhered to and merged into the rubber material, while strain W2b produced mycelial corridors, especially on the surface of IR. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy comprising the attenuated total reflectance technique was applied on NR latex gloves overgrown by cells of the Gordonia strains, which were the strongest rubber decomposers. Spectra demonstrated the decrease in number of cis-1,4 double bonds, the formation of carbonyl groups, and the change of the overall chemical environment, indicating that an oxidative attack at the double bond is the first metabolic step of the biodegradation process. PMID:10742254

  8. Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by an actinomycete in pure culture.

    PubMed Central

    Parales, R E; Adamus, J E; White, N; May, H D

    1994-01-01

    An actinomycete capable of sustained aerobic growth on 1,4-dioxane was isolated from a dioxane-contaminated sludge samples. The actinomycete, CB1190, grows on 1,4-dioxane as the sole carbon and energy source with a generation time of approximately 30 h. CB1190 degrades 1,4-dioxane at a rate of 0.33 mg of dioxane min-1 mg of protein-1 and mineralizes 59.5% of the dioxane to CO2. CB1190 also grows with other cyclic and linear ethers as the sole carbon and energy sources, including 1,3-dioxane, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydropyran, diethyl ether, and butyl methyl ether. CB1190 is capable of aerobic autotrophic growth on H2 and CO2. PMID:7811088

  9. Diversity of actinomycetes isolated from Challenger Deep sediment (10,898 m) from the Mariana Trench.

    PubMed

    Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Stach, James E M; Ward, Alan C; Horikoshi, Koki; Bull, Alan T; Goodfellow, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Thirty-eight actinomycetes were isolated from sediment collected from the Mariana Trench (10,898 m) using marine agar and media selective for actinomycetes, notably raffinose-histidine agar. The isolates were assigned to the class Actinobacteria using primers specific for members of this taxon. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to the genera Dermacoccus, Kocuria, Micromonospora, Streptomyces, Tsukamurella and Williamsia. All of the isolates were screened for genes encoding nonribosomal peptide and polyketide synthetases. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase sequences were detected in more than half of the isolates and polyketide synthases type I (PKS-I) were identified in five out of 38 strains. The Streptomyces isolates produced several unusual secondary metabolites, including a PKS-I associated product. In initial testing for piezotolerance, the Dermacoccus strain MT1.1 grew at elevated hydrostatic pressures. PMID:16538400

  10. Volatile terpenes from actinomycetes: a biosynthetic study correlating chemical analyses to genome data.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Patrick; Citron, Christian A; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2013-11-25

    The volatile terpenes of 24 actinomycetes whose genomes have been sequenced (or are currently being sequenced) were collected by use of a closed-loop stripping apparatus and identified by GC/MS. The analytical data were compared against a phylogenetic analysis of all 192 currently available sequences of bacterial terpene cyclases (excluding geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol synthases). In addition to the several groups of terpenes with known biosynthetic origin, selinadienes were identified as a large group of biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes that are produced by several streptomycetes. The detection of a large number of previously unrecognised side products of known terpene cyclases proved to be particularly important for an in depth understanding of biosynthetic pathways to known terpenes in actinomycetes. Interpretation of the chemical analytical data in the context of the phylogenetic tree of bacterial terpene cyclases pointed to the function of three new enzymes: (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase, selina-3,7(11)-diene synthase and aristolochene synthase. PMID:24243698

  11. Inhibition of Vibrio biofilm formation by a marine actinomycete strain A66.

    PubMed

    You, JianLan; Xue, XiaoLi; Cao, LiXiang; Lu, Xin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, LiXin; Zhou, ShiNing

    2007-10-01

    China remains by far the largest aquaculture producer in the world. However, biofilms formed by pathogenic Vibrio strains pose serious problems to marine aquaculture. To provide a strategy for biofilm prevention, control, and eradication, extracts from 88 marine actinomycetes were screened. Thirty-five inhibited the biofilm formation of Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio anguillarum at a concentration of 2.5% (v/v). Thirty-three of the actinomycete extracts dispersed the mature biofilm. Six extracts inhibited the quorum-sensing system of V. harveyi by attenuating the signal molecules N-acylated homoserine lactones' activity. Strain A66, which was identified as Streptomyces albus, both attenuated the biofilms and inhibited their quorum-sensing system. It is suggested that strain A66 is a promising candidate to be used in future marine aquaculture. PMID:17624525

  12. Isolation and characterization of novel marine-derived actinomycete taxa rich in bioactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Magarvey, Nathan A; Keller, Jessica M; Bernan, Valerie; Dworkin, Martin; Sherman, David H

    2004-12-01

    A unique selective enrichment procedure has resulted in the isolation and identification of two new genera of marine-derived actinobacteria. Approximately 90% of the microorganisms cultured by using the presented method were from the prospective new genera, a result indicative of its high selectivity. In this study, 102 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments collected from the Bismarck Sea and the Solomon Sea off the coast of Papua New Guinea. A combination of physiological parameters, chemotaxonomic characteristics, distinguishing 16S rRNA gene sequences, and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes provided strong evidence for the two new genera (represented by strains of the PNG1 clade and strain UMM518) within the family Micromonosporaceae. Biological activity testing of fermentation products from the new marine-derived actinomycetes revealed that several had activities against multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens, malignant cells, and vaccinia virus replication. PMID:15574955

  13. Resistance to thiostrepton, siomycin, and sporangiomycin in actinomycetes that produce them.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J; Cundliffe, E

    1980-01-01

    The antibiotics thiostrepton, siomycin, and sporangiomycin are closely related both in structure and in mode of action. Actinomycetes which produce this group of compounds possess ribonucleic acid-pentose methylases, which act upon 23S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and render ribosomes resistant to the action of these antibiotics. This is achieved via the formation of a single residue of 2'-O-methyladenosine per ribosome. PMID:6155371

  14. Isolation, taxonomy, and antagonistic properties of halophilic actinomycetes in Saharan soils of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Meklat, Atika; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of a population of 52 halophilic actinomycetes was evaluated by a polyphasic approach, which showed the presence of members of the Actinopolyspora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Streptomonospora, and Saccharopolyspora genera. One strain was considered to be a new member of the last genus, and several other strains seemed to be new species. Furthermore, 50% of strains were active against a broad range of indicators and contained genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:21764956

  15. Genetic Screening Strategy for Rapid Access to Polyether Ionophore Producers and Products in Actinomycetes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Ning; Xi, Lijun; Rong, Xiaoying; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Polyether ionophores are a unique class of polyketides with broad-spectrum activity and outstanding potency for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites, and they are produced exclusively by actinomycetes. A special epoxidase gene encoding a critical tailoring enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds has been found in all five of the complete gene clusters of polyether ionophores published so far. To detect potential producer strains of these antibiotics, a pair of degenerate primers was designed according to the conserved regions of the five known polyether epoxidases. A total of 44 putative polyether epoxidase gene-positive strains were obtained by the PCR-based screening of 1,068 actinomycetes isolated from eight different habitats and 236 reference strains encompassing eight major families of Actinomycetales. The isolates spanned a wide taxonomic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, and actinomycetes isolated from acidic soils seemed to be a promising source of polyether ionophores. Four genera were detected to contain putative polyether epoxidases, including Micromonospora, which has not previously been reported to produce polyether ionophores. The designed primers also detected putative epoxidase genes from diverse known producer strains that produce polyether ionophores unrelated to the five published gene clusters. Moreover, phylogenetic and chemical analyses showed a strong correlation between the sequence of polyether epoxidases and the structure of encoded polyethers. Thirteen positive isolates were proven to be polyether ionophore producers as expected, and two new analogues were found. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this epoxidase gene screening strategy to aid the rapid identification of known products and the discovery of unknown polyethers in actinomycetes. PMID:21421776

  16. Isolation, Taxonomy, and Antagonistic Properties of Halophilic Actinomycetes in Saharan Soils of Algeria ▿

    PubMed Central

    Meklat, Atika; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of a population of 52 halophilic actinomycetes was evaluated by a polyphasic approach, which showed the presence of members of the Actinopolyspora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Streptomonospora, and Saccharopolyspora genera. One strain was considered to be a new member of the last genus, and several other strains seemed to be new species. Furthermore, 50% of strains were active against a broad range of indicators and contained genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:21764956

  17. Biosynthetic Potential of Phylogenetically Unique Endophytic Actinomycetes from Tropical Plants▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Janso, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Guy T.

    2010-01-01

    The culturable diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with tropical, native plants is essentially unexplored. In this study, 123 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from tropical plants collected from several locations in Papua New Guinea and Mborokua Island, Solomon Islands. Isolates were found to be prevalent in roots but uncommon in leaves. Initially, isolates were dereplicated to the strain level by ribotyping. Subsequent characterization of 105 unique strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 17 different genera were represented, and rare genera, such as Sphaerisporangium and Planotetraspora, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were quite prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from known genera within Thermomonosporaceae and Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be unique genera. Bioactivity testing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling of crude fermentation extracts were performed on 91 strains. About 60% of the extracts exhibited bioactivity or displayed LC-MS profiles with spectra indicative of secondary metabolites. The biosynthetic potential of 29 nonproductive strains was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Despite their lack of detectable secondary metabolite production in fermentation, most were positive for type I (66%) and type II (79%) PKS genes, and all were positive for NRPS genes. These results suggest that tropical plants from New Guinea and the adjacent archipelago are hosts to unique endophytic actinomycetes that possess significant biosynthetic potential. PMID:20472734

  18. Isolation and in vitro selection of actinomycetes strains as potential probiotics for aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Milagro García; Campa-Córdova, Ángel Isidro; Saucedo, Pedro Enrique; González, Marlen Casanova; Marrero, Ricardo Medina; Mazón-Suástegui, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to describe a series of in vitro tests that may aid the discovery of probiotic strains from actinomycetes. Materials and Methods: Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediments using four different isolation media, followed by antimicrobial activity and toxicity assessment by the agar diffusion method and the hemolysis of human blood cells, respectively. Extracellular enzymatic production was monitored by the hydrolysis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Tolerance to different pH values and salt concentrations was also determined, followed by hydrophobicity analysis and genetic identification of the most promising strains. Results: Five out of 31 isolated strains showed antimicrobial activity against three Vibrio species. Three non-hemolytic strains (N7, RL8 and V4) among these active isolates yielded positive results in hydrophobicity tests and exhibited good growth at salt concentrations ranging from 0% to 10%, except strain RL8, which required a salt concentration >0.6%. Although these strains did not grow at pH<3, they showed different enzymatic activities. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains N7 and V4 have more than 99% identity with several Streptomyces species, whereas the closest matches to strain RL8 are Streptomyces panacagri and Streptomyces flocculus, with 98% and 98.2% similarity, respectively. Conclusion: Three actinomycetes strains showing probiotic-like properties were discovered using several in vitro tests that can be easily implemented in different institutions around the world. PMID:27047067

  19. Actinomycete complexes in soils of industrial and residential zones in the city of Kirov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2014-02-01

    The number, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetal complexes in the soils of the industrial and residential zones of the city of Kirov are considered. The total content of mobile cadmium, zinc, lead, iron, and nickel in the soils of the industrial biotopes was 1.8 and 6.0 times higher than their concentration in the soils of the residential and background zones, respectively. In the heavy metal (HM)-polluted soils, the share of actinomycetes in the total number of prokaryotes and the relative abundance of the micromono-spores in the actinomycetal complex were much higher and the species diversity of the streptomycetes was lower than these characteristics in the soils of the residential zone. The differences in the composition of the mycelial prokaryote complexes appear to be related to the selective resistance of some of their representatives to heavy metals. The possibility to select the strains resistant to HMs and suitable for use in the bioremediation of polluted soils is considered.

  20. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination. PMID:23835992

  1. Actinomycetes: A Repertory of Green Catalysts with a Potential Revenue Resource

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Divya; Nawani, Neelu; Prakash, Mansi; Bodas, Manish; Mandal, Abul; Khetmalas, Madhukar; Kapadnis, Balasaheb

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis, one of the oldest technologies, is becoming a favorable alternative to chemical processes and a vital part of green technology. It is an important revenue generating industry due to a global market projected at $7 billion in 2013 with a growth of 6.7% for enzymes alone. Some microbes are important sources of enzymes and are preferred over sources of plant and animal origin. As a result, more than 50% of the industrial enzymes are obtained from bacteria. The constant search for novel enzymes with robust characteristics has led to improvisations in the industrial processes, which is the key for profit growth. Actinomycetes constitute a significant component of the microbial population in most soils and can produce extracellular enzymes which can decompose various materials. Their enzymes are more attractive than enzymes from other sources because of their high stability and unusual substrate specificity. Actinomycetes found in extreme habitats produce novel enzymes with huge commercial potential. This review attempts to highlight the global importance of enzymes and extends to signify actinomycetes as promising harbingers of green technology. PMID:23691495

  2. Diversity of Fungi, Bacteria, and Actinomycetes on Leaves Decomposing in a Stream▿

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mitali; Royer, Todd V.; Leff, Laura G.

    2007-01-01

    Although fungi, bacteria, and specific bacterial taxa, such as the actinomycetes, have been studied extensively in various habitats, few studies have examined them simultaneously, especially on decomposing leaves in streams. In this study, sugar maple and white oak leaves were incubated in a stream in northeastern Ohio for 181 days during which samples were collected at regular intervals. Following DNA extraction, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed using fungus-, bacterium-, and actinomycete-specific primers. In addition, fungal and bacterial biomass was estimated. Fungal biomass differed on different days but not between leaves of the two species and was always greater than bacterial biomass. There were significant differences in bacterial biomass through time and between leaf types on some days. Generally, on the basis of DGGE, few differences in community structure were found for different leaf types. However, the ribotype richness of fungi was significantly greater than those of the bacteria and actinomycetes, which were similar to each other. Ribotype richness decreased toward the end of the study for each group except bacteria. Lack of differences between the two leaf types suggests that the microorganisms colonizing the leaf biofilm were primarily generalists that could exploit the resources of the leaves of either species equally well. Thus, we conclude that factors, such as the ecological role of the taxa (generalists versus specialists), stage of decay, and time of exposure, appeared to be more important determinants of microbial community structure than leaf quality. PMID:17142366

  3. Chromium(VI) resistance and removal by actinomycete strains isolated from sediments.

    PubMed

    Polti, Marta A; Amoroso, María J; Abate, Carlos M

    2007-03-01

    Forty-one isolated actinomycetes were used to study qualitative and semi-quantitative screening of chromium(VI) resistance. Chromate-removing activity was estimated using the Cr(VI) specific colorimetric reagent 1,5-diphenylcarbazide. Twenty percent of the isolates from El Cadillal (EC) and 14% of isolates from a copper filter plant (CFP) were able to grow at 13 mM of Cr(VI). All isolates from sugar cane (SCP) could grow up to Cr(VI) concentration of 17 mM. EC, CFP and SCP strains were able to remove 24%, 30% and more than 40% of Cr(VI), respectively. The highest and lowest Cr(VI) specific removal values were 75.5 mg g(-1) cell by M3 (CFP), and 1.5 mg g(-1) cell by C35 (EC) strains. Eleven Cr(VI) resistant strains were characterized and identified as species of the genera Streptomyces (10) and Amycolatopsis (1). Differences on actinomycete community composition between contaminated and non-contaminated soil were found. This study showed the potential capacity of actinomycetes as tools for Cr(VI) bioremediation. PMID:17182076

  4. Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E

    2007-08-01

    The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones. PMID:17578635

  5. Old Meets New: Using Interspecies Interactions to Detect Secondary Metabolite Production in Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes, a group of filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria, have long been a remarkable source of useful therapeutics. Recent genome sequencing and transcriptomic studies have shown that these bacteria, responsible for half of the clinically used antibiotics, also harbor a large reservoir of gene clusters, which have the potential to produce novel secreted small molecules. Yet, many of these clusters are not expressed under common culture conditions. One reason why these clusters have not been linked to a secreted small molecule lies in the way that actinomycetes have typically been studied: as pure cultures in nutrient-rich media that do not mimic the complex environments in which these bacteria evolved. New methods based on multispecies culture conditions provide an alternative approach to investigating the products of these gene clusters. We have recently implemented binary interspecies interaction assays to mine for new secondary metabolites and to study the underlying biology in inter-actinomycete interactions. Here we describe the detailed biological and chemical methods comprising these studies. PMID:23084935

  6. Changes in the structure of the rhizosphere complex of actinomycetes in the ontogenesis of winter rye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Merzaeva, O. V.; Zenova, G. M.

    2006-06-01

    Changes in the taxonomic structure of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of winter rye ( Secale cereale L.) growing on acid soddy-podzolic soil were studied. During the first stages of ontogenesis of winter rye, the rhizosphere complex of mycelial prokaryotes was characterized by a relatively level generic structure (with respect to the indices of abundance and frequency of particular genera), low values of the species diversity, and low domination frequency of the species from the Streptomyces genus. The numbers and species diversity of the streptomycetes increased during the further growth of the winter rye, so that streptomycetes became a dominant group in the complex of the rhizosphere actinomycetes. According to the two-way ANOVA, the population density of the Micromonospora and the Streptosporangium genera in the rhizosphere was mainly dictated by the winter rye variety, whereas the population density of the streptomycetes depended on the particular stage of the winter rye development. The differences between the actinomycetal complexes characteristic of different varieties of winter rye at the early stages of its development was leveled by the end of the winter rye growth.

  7. Eco-taxonomic insights into actinomycete symbionts of termites for discovery of novel bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Kurtböke, D Ipek; French, John R J; Hayes, R Andrew; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Termites play a major role in foraging and degradation of plant biomass as well as cultivating bioactive microorganisms for their defense. Current advances in "omics" sciences are revealing insights into function-related presence of these symbionts, and their related biosynthetic activities and genes identified in gut symbiotic bacteria might offer a significant potential for biotechnology and biodiscovery. Actinomycetes have been the major producers of bioactive compounds with an extraordinary range of biological activities. These metabolites have been in use as anticancer agents, immune suppressants, and most notably, as antibiotics. Insect-associated actinomycetes have also been reported to produce a range of antibiotics such as dentigerumycin and mycangimycin. Advances in genomics targeting a single species of the unculturable microbial members are currently aiding an improved understanding of the symbiotic interrelationships among the gut microorganisms as well as revealing the taxonomical identity and functions of the complex multilayered symbiotic actinofloral layers. If combined with target-directed approaches, these molecular advances can provide guidance towards the design of highly selective culturing methods to generate further information related to the physiology and growth requirements of these bioactive actinomycetes associated with the termite guts. This chapter provides an overview on the termite gut symbiotic actinoflora in the light of current advances in the "omics" science, with examples of their detection and selective isolation from the guts of the Sunshine Coast regional termite Coptotermes lacteus in Queensland, Australia. PMID:24817085

  8. Conservation of thiol-oxidative stress responses regulated by SigR orthologues in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Sik; Dufour, Yann S.; Yoo, Ji Sun; Cho, Yoo-Bok; Park, Joo-Hong; Nam, Gi-Baeg; Kim, Hae Min; Lee, Kang-Lok; Donohue, Timothy J.; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Summary Numerous thiol-reactive compounds cause oxidative stress where cells counteract by activation of survival strategies regulated by thiol-based sensors. In Streptomyces coelicolor, a model actinomycete, a sigma/antisigma pair SigR/RsrA controls the response to thiol-oxidative stress. To unravel its full physiological functions, chromatin immuno-precipitation combined with sequence and transcript analyses were employed to identify 108 SigR target genes in S. coelicolor and to predict orthologous regulons across actinomycetes. In addition to reported genes for thiol homeostasis, protein degradation and ribosome modulation, 64 additional operons were identified suggesting new functions of this global regulator. We demonstrate that SigR maintains the level and activity of the housekeeping sigma factor HrdB during thiol-oxidative stress, a novel strategy for stress responses. We also found that SigR defends cells against UV and thiol-reactive damages, in which repair UvrA takes a part. Using a refined SigR-binding sequence model, SigR orthologues and their targets were predicted in 42 actinomycetes. This revealed a conserved core set of SigR targets to function for thiol homeostasis, protein quality control, possible modulation of transcription and translation, flavin-mediated redox reactions, and Fe-S delivery. The composition of the SigR regulon reveals a robust conserved physiological mechanism to deal with thiol-oxidative stress from bacteria to human. PMID:22651816

  9. Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

  10. Anticancer property of sediment actinomycetes against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, S; Fredimoses, M; Gnanadesigan, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anticancer property of marine sediment actinomycetes against two different breast cancer cell lines. Methods In vitro anticancer activity was carried out against breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. Partial sequences of the 16s rRNA gene, phylogenetic tree construction, multiple sequence analysis and secondary structure analysis were also carried out with the actinomycetes isolates. Results Of the selected five actinomycete isolates, ACT01 and ACT02 showed the IC50 value with (10.13±0.92) and (22.34±5.82) µg/mL concentrations, respectively for MCF-7 cell line at 48 h, but ACT01 showed the minimum (18.54±2.49 µg/mL) level of IC50 value with MDA-MB-231 cell line. Further, the 16s rRNA partial sequences of ACT01, ACT02, ACT03, ACT04 and ACT05 isolates were also deposited in NCBI data bank with the accession numbers of GQ478246, GQ478247, GQ478248, GQ478249 and GQ478250, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that, the isolates of ACT02 and ACT03 were represented in group I and III, respectively, but ACT01 and ACT02 were represented in group II. The multiple sequence alignment of the actinomycete isolates showed that, the maximum identical conserved regions were identified with the nucleotide regions of 125 to 221st base pairs, 65 to 119th base pairs and 55, 48 and 31st base pairs. Secondary structure prediction of the 16s rRNA showed that, the maximum free energy was consumed with ACT03 isolate (-45.4 kkal/mol) and the minimum free energy was consumed with ACT04 isolate (-57.6 kkal/mol). Conclusions The actinomycete isolates of ACT01 and ACT02 (GQ478246 and GQ478247) which are isolated from sediment sample can be further used as anticancer agents against breast cancer cell lines. PMID:23569875

  11. Analysis of a ribosomal RNA operon in the actinomycete Frankia.

    PubMed

    Normand, P; Cournoyer, B; Simonet, P; Nazaret, S

    1992-02-01

    The organisation of ribosomal RNA-encoding (rrn) genes has been studied in Frankia sp. strain ORS020606. The two rrn clusters present in Frankia strain ORS020606 were isolated from genomic banks in phage lambda EMBL3 by hybridization with oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes. The 5'-3' gene order is the usual one for bacteria: 16S-23S-5S. The two clusters are not distinguishable by restriction enzyme mapping inside the coding section, but vary considerably outside it. Sequencing showed that the 16S-rRNA-encoding gene of ORS020606 is very closely related to that of another Alnus-infective Frankia strain (Ag45/Mut15) and highly homologous to corresponding genes of Streptomyces spp. Two possible promoter sequences were detected upstream from the 16S gene, while no tRNA-encoding gene was detected in the whole operon. Regions with a high proportion of divergence for the study of phylogenetic relationships within the genus were looked for and found in the first intergenic spacer, in the 23S and in the 16S gene. PMID:1372279

  12. Antiviral Indolosesquiterpenoid Xiamycins C-E from a Halophilic Actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hwan; Ha, Thi-Kim-Quy; Oh, Won Keun; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2016-01-22

    New metabolites, xiamycins C-E (1-3), were isolated from a Streptomyces. sp (#HK18) culture inhabiting the topsoil in a Korean solar saltern. The planar structures of the xiamycins C-E were elucidated as carbazole-bearing indolosesquiterpenoids using a combined analysis of NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of these new compounds were determined by analyses of NOESY and ECD data. When the xiamycins were tested for inhibitory activity on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), xiamycin D (2) showed the strongest inhibitory effect on PEDV replication (EC50 = 0.93 μM) with low cytotoxicity (CC50 = 56.03 μM), thus displaying a high selective index (60.31). Quantitative real-time PCR data revealed the inhibitory effect of 2 on genes encoding essential structural proteins (GP6 nucleocapsid, GP2 spike, and GP5 membrane) for PEDV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The antiviral activity of xiamycin D (2) was also supported by both Western blotting of the GP2 spike and GP6 nucleocapsid protein synthesis of PEDV. Therefore, xiamycin D shows the potential of indolosesquiterpenoids as new and promising chemical skeletons against PEDV-related viruses. PMID:26698879

  13. The biodegradation of layered silicates under the influence of cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    The weathering of sheet silicates is well known to be related to local and global geochemical cycles. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. Microorganisms have a diverse range of mechanisms of minerals' structure transformation (acid- and alkali formation, biosorption, complexing, etc). One of the methods is an ability of exopolysaccharide-formation, in particular the formation of mucus, common to many bacteria, including cyanobacteria. Mucous covers cyanobacteria are the specific econiches for other bacteria, including actinomycetes. The objective was to analyze the structural changes of clay minerals under the influence of the cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associative growth. The objects of the study were: 1) the experimental symbiotic association, consisting of free-living heterocyst-formative cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Kutz. ATCC 294132 and actinomycete Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus FR837630, 2) rock samples obtained from the Museum of the Soil Science Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University: kaolinite, consisting of kaolin (96%) Al4 (OH) 8 [Si4O10]; mixed with hydromica, chlorite and quartz; vermiculite, consisting of vermiculite (Ca, Mg, ...)*(Mg, Fe)3(OH)2[(Si, Al)4O10]*4H2O and trioctahedral mica (biotite). The mineralogical compositions of the rocks were determined by the universal X-ray Diffractometer Carl Zeiss Yena. The operationg regime was kept constant (30 kv, 40 mA). The cultivation of the association of actinomycete S. cyanoefuscatus and cyanobacterium A. variabilis caused a reduction in the intensity of kaolinite and hydromica reflexes. However, since both (mica and kaolinite) components have a rigid structure, the significant structural transformation of the minerals was not revealed. Another pattern was observed in the experiment, where the rock sample of vermiculite was used as the mineral

  14. Study of the effects of urban organic residues on the distribution of culturable actinomycetes in a Tunisian agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Mokni-Tlili, Sonia; Jaoua, Leila; Murano, Fumio; Jedidi, Naceur; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to identify a collection of actinomycetes isolates and to study the influence of amendment [municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and farmyard manure (FM)] on their distribution in agricultural soil. For this purpose, a phenotypic and molecular characterization of 226 isolates collected from soil (with and without amendment) and 55 isolates from MSWC and FM was developed. The phenotypic study showed that the majority of strains isolated belong to the genus Streptomyces. By using the 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (restriction digest using six enzymes AluI, HhaI, MspI, TaqI, RsaI and HaeIII), two clusters were found: Streptomyces, dominant genus and Amycolatopsis, followed by Nocardioides. This result agreed with phylogeny revealed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The number of these actinomycetes in soil increased with FM or MSWC application. The studied soil is a potential source for isolation of actinomycetes, especially Streptomyces, and the application of organic amendment to the soil appeared to have an impact on the diversity of actinomycetes. Amendment of the soil with MSWC and FM significantly increased the number of actinomycetes due to the contribution of bacteria originally contained in biowastes and/or by stimulation of the endogenous soil micro-organisms. PMID:19423577

  15. Production and characterization of a thermostable glucoamylase from Streptosporangium sp. endophyte of maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Stamford, T L M; Stamford, N P; Coelho, L C B B; Araújo, J M

    2002-06-01

    Thermostable amylolytic enzymes are currently investigated to improve industrial processes of starch degradation. Streptosporangium sp. an endophytic actinomycete isolated from leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) showed glucoamylase production, using starch-Czapek medium, and the highest rate was obtained in the initial growth phase, after incubation for 24 h at pH 8.0. Maximum glucoamylase activity (158 U mg(-1) protein) was obtained at pH 4.5 and 70 degrees C. The isolated enzyme exhibited thermostable properties as indicated by retention of 100% of residual activity at 70 degrees C for 30 min with total inhibition at 100 degrees C. Extracellular enzyme from Streptosporangium sp. was purified by fractionated precipitation with ammonium sulphate. After 60% saturation produced 421 U mg(-1) protein, and yield was 74% with purification 2.7 fold. The enzyme produced by Streptosporangium sp. has potential for industrial applications. PMID:12056484

  16. Production and characterization of a thermostable alpha-amylase from Nocardiopsis sp. endophyte of yam bean.

    PubMed

    Stamford, T L; Stamford, N P; Coelho, L C; Araújo, J M

    2001-01-01

    Thermostable amylolytic enzymes have been currently investigated to improve industrial processes of starch degradation. Studies on production of alpha-amylase by Nocardiopsis sp., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban), showed that higher enzyme levels were obtained at the end of the logarithmic growth phase after incubation for 72 h at pH 8.6. Maximum activity of alpha-amylase was obtained at pH 5.0 and 70 degrees C. The isolated enzyme exhibited thermostable properties as indicated by retention of 100% of residual activity at 70 degrees C, and 50% of residual activity at 90 degrees C for 10 min. Extracellular enzyme from Nocardiopsis sp. was purified by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate. After 60% saturation produced 1130 U mg-1 protein and yield was 28% with purification 2.7-fold. The enzyme produced by Nocardiopsis sp. has potential for industrial applications. PMID:11131797

  17. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819

  18. Isolation and characterization of potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyohannes, Gebreselema; Moges, Feleke; Sahile, Samuel; Raja, Nagappan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate, evaluate and characterize potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 31 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by primary screening. In the primary screening, 11 promising isolates were identified and subjected to solid state and submerged state fermentation methods to produce crude extracts. The fermented biomass was extracted by organic solvent extraction method and tested against bacterial strains by disc and agar well diffusion methods. The isolates were characterized by using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods. Results The result obtained from agar well diffusion method was better than disc diffusion method. The crude extract showed higher inhibition zone against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. One-way analysis of variance confirmed most of the crude extracts were statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of crude extracts were 1.65 mg/mL and 3.30 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 1.84 mg/mL and 3.80 mg/mL against Escherichia coli respectively. The growth of aerial and substrate mycelium varied in different culture media used. Most of the isolates were able to hydrolysis starch and urea; able to survive at 5% concentration of sodium chloride; optimum temperature for their growth was 30 °C. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed that freshwater actinomycetes of Lake Tana appear to have immense potential as a source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:23730554

  19. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819

  20. Lignin-solubilizing ability of actinomycetes isolated from termite (Termitidae) gut. [Streptomyces viridosporus

    SciTech Connect

    Pasti, M.B.; Crawford, D.L. ); Pometto, A.L., III ); Nuti, M.P. )

    1990-07-01

    The lignocellulose-degrading abilities of 11 novel actinomycete strains isolated from termite gut were determined and compared with that of the well-characterized actinomycete, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. Lignocellulose bioconversion was followed by (i) monitoring the degradation of ({sup 14}C)lignin- and ({sup 14}C)cellulose-labeled phloem of Abies concolor to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}C-labeled water-soluble products, (ii) determining lignocellulose, lignin, and carbohydrate losses resulting from growth on a lignocellulose substrate prepared from corn stalks (Zea mays), and (iii) quantifying production of a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate (acid-precipitable polymeric lignin). Of the assays used, total lignocellulose weight loss was most useful in determining overall bioconversion ability but not in identifying the best lignin-solubilizing strains. A screening procedure based on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from ({sup 14}C-lignin)lignocellulose combined with measurement of acid-precipitable polymeric lignin yield was the most effective in identifying lignin-solubilizing strains. For the termite gut strains, the pH of the medium showed no increase after 3 weeks of growth on lignocellulose. This is markedly different from the pattern observed with S. viridosporus T7A, which raises the medium pH considerably. Production of extracellular peroxidases by the 11 strains and S. viridosporus T7A was followed for 5 days in liquid cultures. On the basis of an increase of specific peroxidase activity in the presence of lignocellulose in the medium, the actinomycetes could be placed into the same three groups.

  1. Characterization of an effective actinorhizal microsymbiont, Frankia sp. AvcI1 (Actinomycetales).

    PubMed

    Baker, D; Torrey, J G

    1980-09-01

    The actinomycete, Frankia sp. AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa was grown in axenic culture and used to inoculate host seedlings. This bacterium has been shown to be an infective and effective nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont which can be distinguished from other frankiae, in vitro, on the basis of size, distinctive morphology, and growth characteristics. Cross-inoculation studies indicated that the host range of this symbiont encompasses all of the members of the genera Alnus, Myrica, and Comptonia tested. In all cases, the symbioses developed were effective in fixing atmospheric dinitrogen. PMID:7459721

  2. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory dimeric indole derivatives from the marine actinomycetes Rubrobacter radiotolerans.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Lin; Huang, Lei; Liu, Juan; Song, Yan; Gao, Jie; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong; Chen, Guangtong

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of the bioactive secondary metabolites of the marine actinomycetes Rubrobacter radiotolerans led to the isolation and characterization of two naturally rare dimeric indole derivatives (1 and 2). The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, and the absolute configurations were assigned by CD calculations. The acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity of compounds 1 and 2 was evaluated, both of which showed moderate activity with IC50 values of 11.8 and 13.5μM, respectively. PMID:25655350

  3. The Marine Actinomycete Genus Salinispora: A Model Organism for Secondary Metabolite Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Paul R.; Moore, Bradley S.; Fenical, William

    2015-01-01

    This review covers the initial discovery of the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora through its development as a model for natural product research. A focus is placed on the novel chemical structures reported with reference to their biological activities and the synthetic and biosynthetic studies they have inspired. The time line of discoveries progresses from more traditional bioassay-guided approaches through the application of genome mining and genetic engineering techniques that target the products of specific biosynthetic gene clusters. This overview exemplifies the extraordinary biosynthetic diversity that can emanate from a narrowly defined genus and supports future efforts to explore marine taxa in the search for novel natural products. PMID:25730728

  4. Glucanolytic Actinomycetes Antagonistic to Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi, the Causal Agent of Raspberry Root Rot

    PubMed Central

    Valois, D.; Fayad, K.; Barasubiye, T.; Garon, M.; Dery, C.; Brzezinski, R.; Beaulieu, C.

    1996-01-01

    A collection of about 200 actinomycete strains was screened for the ability to grow on fragmented Phytophthora mycelium and to produce metabolites that inhibit Phytophthora growth. Thirteen strains were selected, and all produced (beta)-1,3-, (beta)-1,4-, and (beta)-1,6-glucanases. These enzymes could hydrolyze glucans from Phytophthora cell walls and cause lysis of Phytophthora cells. These enzymes also degraded other glucan substrates, such as cellulose, laminarin, pustulan, and yeast cell walls. Eleven strains significantly reduced the root rot index when inoculated on raspberry plantlets. PMID:16535313

  5. Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2014-05-01

    Four strains of actinomycete, designated strains JR-19T, JR-12, JR-29 and JR-41T were isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil. Phylogenetic, morphological, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the four strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Microscopic observation revealed that the four strains produced spirales spore chains with spiny surfaces. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the four strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that these strains and the members of the genus Streptomyces exhibited moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3-99.3%, with the most closely related strains being Streptomyces shenzhenensis 172115T and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. [to accommodate strains JR-19T (type strain; =KACC 16472T=NBRC 108883T), JR-12 (=KACC 16471) and JR-29 (=KACC 16473)] and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov. [for strain JR-41T (=KACC 16580T=NBRC 108885T)] are proposed. PMID:24478213

  6. Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov., isolated from medicinal plants in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sheng; Chen, Hua-Hong; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T), were isolated from the roots of Scoparia dulcis and Maytenus austroyunnanensis, two Chinese medicinal plants, and their taxonomic status was established based on a polyphasic investigation. The organisms were found to have chemical and morphological markers typical of members of the genus Glycomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that they were closely related to each other and to Glycomyces sambucus E71(T). A battery of physiological characteristics and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that strains YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from the related known Glycomyces species. On the basis of the data presented, it is evident that each of these strains represents a novel species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 56256(T) =KCTC 19158(T) =DSM 44968(T)) and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov. (type strain YIM 61331(T) =KCTC 19527(T) =CCTCC AA 208004(T)) are proposed. PMID:19406786

  7. Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Rong, Xiaoying; Zucchi, Tiago D; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, BK125(T) and BK199(T), isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125(T) ( = KACC 20902(T) = CGMCC 4.5798(T)) and BK199(T) ( = KACC 21003(T) = CGMCC 4.6824(T)) as the respective type strains. PMID:22922536

  8. Siderophore production by actinomycetes isolates from two soil sites in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joanna; Postmaster, Armin; Soon, Hooi Peng; Keast, David; Carson, Kerry C

    2012-04-01

    The actinomycetes are metabolically flexible soil micro-organisms capable of producing a range of compounds of interest, including siderophores. Siderophore production by actinomycetes sampled from two distinct and separate geographical sites in Western Australia were investigated and found to be generally similar in the total percentage of siderophore producers found. The only notable difference was the proportion of isolates producing catechol siderophores with only 3% found in site 1 (from the north-west of Western Australia and reportedly containing 40% magnetite) and 17% in site 2 (a commercial stone fruit orchard in the hills east of Perth with a soil base ranging from sandy loam to laterite). Further detailed characterization of isolates of interest identified a Streptomyces that produced extracellularly excreted enterobactin, the characteristic Enterobacteriaceae siderophore, and also revealed some of the conditions required for enterobactin production. Carriage of the entF gene, which codes for the synthetase responsible for the final assembly of the tri-cyclic structure of enterobactin, was confirmed by PCR in this isolate. Another separate Streptomyces produced a compound that matched the UV/VIS spectra of heterobactin, a siderophore previously only described in Rhodococcus and Nocardia. PMID:22038645

  9. A diaminopimelic acid auxotrophic Escherichia coli donor provides improved counterselection following intergeneric conjugation with actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Allard, Nancy; Garneau, Daniel; Poulin-Laprade, Dominic; Burrus, Vincent; Brzezinski, Ryszard; Roy, Sébastien

    2015-08-01

    Considering the medical, biotechnological, and economical importance of actinobacteria, there is a continuous need to improve the tools for genetic engineering of a broad range of these microorganisms. Intergeneric conjugation has proven to be a valuable yet imperfect tool for this purpose. The natural resistance of many actinomycetes to nalidixic acid (Nal) is generally exploited to eliminate the sensitive Escherichia coli donor strain following conjugation. Nevertheless, Nal can delay growth and have other unexpected effects on the recipient strain. To provide an improved alternative to antibiotics, we propose a postconjugational counterselection using a diaminopimelic acid (DAP) auxotrophic donor strain. The DAP-negative phenotype was obtained by introducing a dapA deletion into the popular methylase-negative donor strain E. coli ET12567/pUZ8002. The viability of ET12567 and its ΔdapA mutant exposed to DAP deprivation or Nal selection were compared in liquid pure culture and after mating with Streptomyces coelicolor. Results showed that death of the E. coli ΔdapA Nal-sensitive donor strain occurred more efficiently when subjected to DAP deprivation than when exposed to Nal. Our study shows that postconjugational counterselection based on DAP deprivation circumvents the use of antibiotics and will facilitate the transfer of plasmids into actinomycetes with high biotechnological potential, yet currently not accessible to conjugative techniques. PMID:26166710

  10. Screening of Marine Actinomycetes from Segara Anakan for Natural Pigment and Hydrolytic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asnani, A.; Ryandini, D.; Suwandri

    2016-02-01

    Marine actinomycetes have become sources of great interest to natural product chemistry due to their new chemical entities and bioactive metabolites. Since April 2010, we have screened actinobacteria from five sites that represent different ecosystems of Segara Anakan lagoon. In this present study we focus on specific isolates, K-2C which covers 1) actinomycetes identification based on morphology observation and 16S rRNA gene; 2) fermentation and isolation of pigment; 3) structure determination of pigment; and 4) hydrolytic enzymes characterization; Methodologies relevant to the studies were implemented accordingly. The results indicated that K-2C was likely Streptomyces fradiae strain RSU15, and the best fermentation medium should contain starch and casein with 21 days of incubation. The isolate has extracellular as well as intracellular pigments. Isolated pigments gave purple color with λmax of 529.00 nm. The pigment was structurally characterized. Interestingly, Streptomyces K-2C was able to produce potential hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, urease, and nitrate reductase.

  11. Endophytic Actinomycetes: A Novel Source of Potential Acyl Homoserine Lactone Degrading Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chankhamhaengdecha, Surang; Hongvijit, Suphatra; Srichaisupakit, Akkaraphol; Charnchai, Pattra; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2013-01-01

    Several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria employ N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL) quorum sensing (QS) system to control their virulence traits. Degradation of acyl-HSL signal molecules by quorum quenching enzyme (QQE) results in a loss of pathogenicity in QS-dependent organisms. The QQE activity of actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil and inside plant tissue was explored in order to obtain novel strains with high HSL-degrading activity. Among 344 rhizospheric and 132 endophytic isolates, 127 (36.9%) and 68 (51.5%) of them, respectively, possessed the QQE activity. The highest HSL-degrading activity was at 151.30 ± 3.1 nmole/h/mL from an endophytic actinomycetes isolate, LPC029. The isolate was identified as Streptomyces based on 16S  rRNA gene sequence similarity. The QQE from LPC029 revealed HSL-acylase activity that was able to cleave an amide bond of acyl-side chain in HSL substrate as determined by HPLC. LPC029 HSL-acylase showed broad substrate specificity from C6- to C12-HSL in which C10HSL is the most favorable substrate for this enzyme. In an in vitro pathogenicity assay, the partially purified HSL-acylase efficiently suppressed soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum as demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSL-acylase activity derived from an endophytic Streptomyces. PMID:23484156

  12. Genome sequencing reveals complex secondary metabolome in the marine actinomycete Salinispora tropica

    PubMed Central

    Udwary, Daniel W.; Zeigler, Lisa; Asolkar, Ratnakar N.; Singan, Vasanth; Lapidus, Alla; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent fermentation studies have identified actinomycetes of the marine-dwelling genus Salinispora as prolific natural product producers. To further evaluate their biosynthetic potential, we sequenced the 5,183,331-bp S. tropica CNB-440 circular genome and analyzed all identifiable secondary natural product gene clusters. Our analysis shows that S. tropica dedicates a large percentage of its genome (≈9.9%) to natural product assembly, which is greater than previous Streptomyces genome sequences as well as other natural product-producing actinomycetes. The S. tropica genome features polyketide synthase systems of every known formally classified family, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, and several hybrid clusters. Although a few clusters appear to encode molecules previously identified in Streptomyces species, the majority of the 17 biosynthetic loci are novel. Specific chemical information about putative and observed natural product molecules is presented and discussed. In addition, our bioinformatic analysis not only was critical for the structure elucidation of the polyene macrolactam salinilactam A, but its structural analysis aided the genome assembly of the highly repetitive slm loci. This study firmly establishes the genus Salinispora as a rich source of drug-like molecules and importantly reveals the powerful interplay between genomic analysis and traditional natural product isolation studies. PMID:17563368

  13. Antimicrobial potential of Halophilic actinomycetes against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Sana; Sajid, Imran

    2016-03-01

    A collection of forty halophilic actinomycetes isolated from water and mud samples of the saline lake at Kalar Kahar, salt range, Pakistan, was screened to investigate their antimicrobial potential against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens. The isolates exhibited significant tolerance to alkaline conditions and grew well at pH 9-11. The taxonomic status of the isolated strains was determined by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that majority of the isolates (90%) belong to the genus Streptomyces. Most of the isolates exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity up to 20mm zone of inhibition against MDR ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally the isolates showed moderate to high cytotoxicity in the range of 40 to 80% larval mortality against Artemia salina in a micro well cytotoxicity assay. The chemical screening or the so called metabolic fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of each isolate, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using various staining reagents and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), indicated an impressive diversity of the compounds produced by these strains. The study reveals that these halophilic actinomycetes are a promising source of bioactive compounds. The preparative scale fermentation, isolation, purification and structure elucidation of the compounds produced by them may yield novel antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27087086

  14. Genome sequencing reveals complex secondary metabolome in themarine actinomycete Salinispora tropica

    SciTech Connect

    Udwary, Daniel W.; Zeigler, Lisa; Asolkar, Ratnakar; Singan,Vasanth; Lapidus, Alla; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.; Moore, BradleyS.

    2007-05-01

    Recent fermentation studies have identified actinomycetes ofthe marine-dwelling genus Salinispora as prolific natural productproducers. To further evaluate their biosynthetic potential, we analyzedall identifiable secondary natural product gene clusters from therecently sequenced 5,184,724 bp S. tropica CNB-440 circular genome. Ouranalysis shows that biosynthetic potential meets or exceeds that shown byprevious Streptomyces genome sequences as well as other naturalproduct-producing actinomycetes. The S. tropica genome features ninepolyketide synthase systems of every known formally classified family,non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and several hybrid clusters. While afew clusters appear to encode molecules previously identified inStreptomyces species,the majority of the 15 biosynthetic loci are novel.Specific chemical information about putative and observed natural productmolecules is presented and discussed. In addition, our bioinformaticanalysis was critical for the structure elucidation of the novelpolyenemacrolactam salinilactam A. This study demonstrates the potentialfor genomic analysis to complement and strengthen traditional naturalproduct isolation studies and firmly establishes the genus Salinispora asa rich source of novel drug-like molecules.

  15. Comparative genomics of actinomycetes with a focus on natural product biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Actinomycetes are a diverse group of medically, industrially and ecologically important bacteria, studied as much for the diseases they cause as for the cures they hold. The genomes of actinomycetes revealed that these bacteria have a large number of natural product gene clusters, although many of these are difficult to tie to products in the laboratory. Large scale comparisons of these clusters are difficult to perform due to the presence of highly similar repeated domains in the most common biosynthetic machinery: polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Results We have used comparative genomics to provide an overview of the genomic features of a set of 102 closed genomes from this important group of bacteria with a focus on natural product biosynthetic genes. We have focused on well-represented genera and determine the occurrence of gene cluster families therein. Conservation of natural product gene clusters within Mycobacterium, Streptomyces and Frankia suggest crucial roles for natural products in the biology of each genus. The abundance of natural product classes is also found to vary greatly between genera, revealing underlying patterns that are not yet understood. Conclusions A large-scale analysis of natural product gene clusters presents a useful foundation for hypothesis formulation that is currently underutilized in the field. Such studies will be increasingly necessary to study the diversity and ecology of natural products as the number of genome sequences available continues to grow. PMID:24020438

  16. Structural and functional properties of actinomycetal communities in chernozems and saline soils of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.

    2010-02-01

    In the profiles of ordinary and southern chernozems, the total numbers of amylolytic microorganisms and actinomycetes decreased with the depth by 2.4-4.2 and 3.4 times, respectively; in the profiles of solonetz and solonchak soils, by 4.2-5.3 and 4.8 times, respectively. In the genetic horizons of the ordinary and southern chernozems, the share of actinomycetes amounted to 29-30% of the total population of microorganisms; in the saline soils, it increases with the depth from 23 to 43%. In the chernozems, Streptomyces violaceomaculatus (Roseus section), St. sporoherbeus (Azureus), St. aerionidulus (Cinereus), St. enduracidicus (Cinereus), and St. grisinus (Cinereus) predominated; in the saline soils, St. violaceomaculatus and St. aerionidulus prevailed. In the ordinary chernozem, the Berger-Parker index was 1.5 times higher than in the southern chernozem. High similarity was found between the streptomycete communities in the chernozems (the Sorensen coefficient was 0.78). In the solonetzes, the species richness of the streptomycetes was higher by 1.7 times than in the solonchaks. In the chernozems, the similarity of the streptomycete communities was higher than in the solonchaks (0.78 and 0.60, respectively).

  17. Phosphatic precipitates associated with actinomycetes in speleothems from Grand Cayman, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian

    2009-07-01

    Calcitic speleothems from a cave located on the north central coast of Grand Cayman commonly include corrosion surfaces that developed when calcite precipitation ceased and corrosion mediated by condensates became the operative process. Dissolution features associated with these surfaces, including etched crystal surfaces, microcavities, and solution-widened boundaries between crystals, are commonly occupied by microbes and microbial mats that have been replaced by calcium phosphate and/or coated with calcium phosphate. No mineralized microbes were found in the calcite crystals that form the speleothems. The morphology of the mineralized hyphae (eight morphotypes) and spores (nine morphotypes) are indicative of actinomycetes, a group of microbes that are ideally adapted to life in oligotrophic cave environs. Superb preservation of the delicate hyphae, aerial hyphae, and delicate ornamentation on the hyphae and spores indicate that the microbes underwent rapid mineralized while close to their original life positions. Although these actinomycetes were extremely susceptible to replacement by calcium phosphate, there is no evidence that they directly or indirectly controlled precipitation. Nevertheless, the association between the P-rich precipitates and microbes shows that the use of phosphorus as a proxy for seasonal climate changes in paleoclimate analyses must be treated with caution.

  18. Development of actinomycetes in brown semidesert soil under low water pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.; Gracheva, T. A.; Lapygina, E. E.; Napol'skaya, K. R.; Sydnitsyna, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the spores of a xerotolerant Streptomyces odorifera strain germinated in brown semidesert soil even at extremely low soil water pressure ( P = -96.4 MPa, -964 atm, a w 0.50); the plantlets increased in length and formed mycelium, on which a new generation of spores was produced (a complete development cycle of the actinomycetes—from a spore to the formation of new spores—passed). The duration of the first cycles of the actinomycetes' development varied from 13 days at P = -27 atm to 57 days at P = -964 atm and was directly proportional to the absolute value of the soil water pressure ( P). In the first cycles of the actinomycetes' development, the rate of increase of the concentration of the germinated spores and mycelium, as well as the logarithms of the mycelium-to-germinated spore concentration ratios, was inversely proportional to the logarithm of P. These relationships indicated that the energy state of the water determined its availability to soil biota and, hence, the activity of its physiological and biochemical processes.

  19. Study of the cellulases produced by three mesophilic actinomycetes grown on bagasse as substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zyl, W.H.

    1985-09-01

    The cellulases that strains of Streptomyces albogrisolus, S. nitrosporeus, and Micromonospora melanosporea produce when grown on untreated ballmilled bagasse were investigated. Optimum conditions for extracellular cellulase production and activity were determined to be growth at pH 6.7-7.4 and 25-35 degrees C for 4-5 days and assay at pH 5.0-6.0 and 45-55 degrees C, respectively. The endoglucanases were thermally stable at 50 degrees C, but the Avicelases had a half-life of approximately 24 hours at this temperature. Nearly half of the endoglucanases and almost all of the Avicelases were absorbed on ballmilled bagasse after 15 minutes incubation at 50 degrees C. The ..beta..-glucosidases were found to be mainly intracellular or cell wall bound. These mesophilic actinomycetes concomitantly produced xylanases and ..beta..-xylosidases with cellulases that, apart from cellobiose and glucose, also release xylose from bagasse. This feature may be advantageous in the commercial application of the enzymes of mesophilic actinomycetes for the saccharification of natural cellulosic substrates.

  20. Influence of mode of storage and drying of fodder on thermophilic actinomycete aerocontamination in dairy farms of the Doubs region of France.

    PubMed Central

    Dalphin, J C; Pernet, D; Reboux, G; Martinez, J; Dubiez, A; Barale, T; Depierre, A

    1991-01-01

    Airborne contamination by thermophilic actinomycetes, micromycetes and Gram negative bacteria was determined on 34 dairy farms and related to fodder drying and storage methods. Eighteen farms had a barn drying system, eight with additional heating; the remaining 16 had traditional fodder storage methods. Three air samples were obtained for each farm with a six stage Andersen sampler. The thermophilic actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces and the dominant micromycetes as Aspergillus spp; there was no relation between the levels of these organisms. There were fewer thermophilic actinomycete colonies per Petri dish (stage 5 on the Anderson sampler) on farms with barn drying than on those with traditional storage (median (range) 7 (0-2628) and 56 (4-2628) respectively). The three farms where no thermophilic actinomycetes were found had barn drying with heating and the four most modern farms had lower thermophilic actinomycete colony counts than the others (median (range) 3 (0-10) and 48 (0-2628)). The level of thermophilic actinomycetes and, to a lesser degree, of micromycetes was higher where the farmer had farmer's lung. Thermophilic actinomycetes of the genus Streptomyces are probably the antigens associated with farmer's lung in the Doubs, and modern farms with barn drying and heating furnish some protection against this disease. PMID:1948788

  1. Entomopathogenic marine actinomycetes as potential and low-cost biocontrol agents against bloodsucking arthropods.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Karthik; Kumar, Gaurav; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Rao, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2013-11-01

    A novel approach to control strategies for integrated blood-feeding parasite management is in high demand, including the use of biological control agents. The present study aims to determine the efficacy of optimized crude extract of actinomycetes strain LK1 as biological control agent against the fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) and adults of Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), and Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Antiparasitic activity was optimized using the Plackett-Burman method, and the design was developed using the software Design-Expert version 8.0.7.1. The production of the optimized crude actinomycetes LK1 strain extract was performed using response surface methodology to optimize the process parameters of protease inhibitor activity of marine actinobacteria for the independent variables like pH, temperature, glucose, casein, and NaCl at two levels (-1 and +1). The potential actinomycetes strain was identified as Saccharomonas spp., and the metamodeling surface simulation procedure was followed. It was studied using a computer-generated experimental design, automatic control of simulation experiments, and sequential optimization of the metamodels fitted to a simulation response surface function. The central composite design (CCD) used for the analysis of treatment showed that a second-order polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results at R (2) = 0.9829 (p < 0.05). The optimized values of the variables for antioxidant production were pH 6.00, glucose 1.3%, casein 0.09%, temperature 31.23 °C, and NaCl 0.10%. The LK1 strain-optimized crude extract was purified using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, and the isolated protease inhibitor showed antiparasitic activity. The antiparasitic activity of optimized crude extract of LK1 was tested against larvae of A. stephensi (LC₅₀ = 31.82 ppm

  2. Structural-functional specificity of the complexes of psychrotolerant soil actinomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Dubrova, M. S.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2010-04-01

    The active growth and development of psychrotolerant actinomycetes take place in peat and podzolic soils of the tundra and taiga at temperatures below 10°C. The population density of psychrotolerant mycelial prokaryotes in these soils reaches thousands and tens of thousands of CFU/g of soil, and the length of their mycelium is up to 380 m/g of soil. The application of fluorescent in situ hybridization (the FISH method) demonstrated that the metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the phylogenetic group of Actinobacteria comprise up to 30% of the total number of bacteria in prokaryotic microbial communities of oligotrophic peat bog and podzolic soils. The portion of metabolically active mycelial actinobacteria exceeds the portion of unicellular actinobacteria. Psychrotolerant streptomycetes isolated from peat bog soils possess pectinolytic, amylolytic, and antagonistic activities at low temperatures (5°C).

  3. Pectinolytic Enzymes from Actinomycetes for the Degumming of Ramie Bast Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brühlmann, Fredi; Kim, Kwi Suk; Zimmerman, Wolfgang; Fiechter, Armin

    1994-01-01

    Actinomycetes isolated from 10 different soil and compost samples were screened for production of pectinolytic enzyme activities when grown on pectin-containing solid and liquid media. Pectinolytic enzymes, detected by using plate diffusion tests with a medium containing ramie (Boehmeria nivea) plant material as the sole carbon source, were mainly pectate lyases, but low activities of pectinesterases were also observed. Polygalacturonases and polymethylgalacturonases were not produced. Multiple forms of pectate lyases were detected in the culture supernatants of some of the strains by using the zymogram technique of isoelectric focusing gels. Xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities were always found to be associated with pectinolytic activities. None of the pectinolytic enzymes were produced in a medium with glucose as the sole carbon source. Treatment of ramie bast fibers with crude enzyme preparations from a selection of strains showed a good correlation between the pectate lyase activity applied and the degumming effect, resulting in good separation of the bast fibers. Images PMID:16349296

  4. Semi-solid-state fermentation: a promising alternative for neomycin production by the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isabel; Teixeira, José A; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2013-06-10

    The production of neomycin by the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae, under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions was the main subject of this study. Two supports (nylon sponge and orange peelings) were tested in order to determine the most suitable one for the production of neomycin by the above-mentioned microorganism. Nylon sponge led to the highest neomycin production, reaching a maximum value of 13,903 μg/mL on the 10th day of cultivation. As a control, the same experiment was performed under submerged fermentation (SmF) conditions, without solid support. Here the production of neomycin by S. fradiae was about 55-fold lower (i.e. 250 μg/mL) than that obtained for SSF. PMID:23570968

  5. Iron acquisition in the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora is controlled by the desferrioxamine family of siderophores

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alexandra A.; Schultz, Andrew W.; Kersten, Roland D.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Many bacteria produce siderophores for sequestration of growth-essential iron. Analysis of the Salinispora genomes suggests that these marine actinomycetes support multiple hydroxamate- and phenolate-type siderophore pathways. We isolated and characterized desferrioxamines (DFOs) B and E from all three recognized Salinispora species and linked their biosyntheses in S. tropica CNB-440 and S. arenicola CNS-205 to the des locus through PCR-directed mutagenesis. Gene inactivation of the predicted iron-chelator biosynthetic loci sid2-4 did not abolish siderophore chemistry. Additionally, these pathways could not restore the native growth characteristics of the des mutants in iron-limited media, although differential iron-dependent regulation was observed for the yersiniabactin-like sid2 pathway. Consequently, this study indicates that DFOs are the primary siderophores in laboratory cultures of Salinispora. PMID:22812504

  6. Protoplast fusion and gene recombination in the uncommon Actinomycete Planobispora rosea producing GE2270.

    PubMed

    Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Barucco, Daniele; Rossi, Roberta; Selva, Enrico; Marinelli, Flavia

    2007-07-01

    An efficient method for protoplast generation for the uncommon actinomycete Planobispora rosea, the producer of the thiazolylpeptide antibiotic GE2270, was developed using a combination of hen egg white lysozyme and Streptomyces globisporus mutanolysin. This method converted more than 70% of vegetative mycelium to protoplasts, which were then regenerated with 50% efficiency in an optimized medium. When P. rosea protoplasts were efficiently fused, recombination between different antibiotic (streptomycin and gentamicin) resistance markers originated sensitive strains (str(s)gen(s)) at frequencies as high as 18% and double resistant fusants (str(r)gen(r)) at frequencies as high as 29%. Double resistant fusants showed GE2270 productivity intermediate between the productivity of the parental strains. Protoplast generation and fusion in P. rosea makes whole genome shuffling feasible as an approach to be used alternately with classical random mutagenesis in industrial strain improvement programs. PMID:17721003

  7. Storage of Stock Cultures of Filamentous Fungi, Yeasts, and Some Aerobic Actinomycetes in Sterile Distilled Water

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, M. R.; Padhye, A. A.; Ajello, L.

    1974-01-01

    Castellani's procedure for maintaining cultures of filamentous fungi and yeasts in sterile distilled water was evaluated. Four hundred and seventeen isolates of 147 species belonging to 66 genera of filamentous fungi, yeasts, and aerobic actinomycetes were maintained in sterile distilled water at room temperature over periods ranging from 12 to 60 months in four independent experiments. Of the 417 cultures, 389 (93%) survived storage in sterile distilled water. The selection of good sporulating cultures and sufficient inoculum consisting of spores and hyphae suspended in sterile distilled water were the most important factors influencing survival in water over a longer period of time. The technique was found to be simple, inexpensive, and reliable. PMID:4854418

  8. Antimicrobial Activities of Some Actinomycetes Isolated from Different Rhizospheric Soils in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Ines; Oves, Daniel; Manteca, Angel; Genilloud, Olga; Altalhi, Abdullah; Nour, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Fifty four isolates of actinomycetes were collected from four different rhizospheric soils: 18 strains from palm tree bark and soil, 12 strains from an olive field soil, 9 strains from a coastal forest, and 15 strains from an agriculture soil situated in the Algerian-Tunisian border (Oum Tboul). Based on morphological and cultural characters, the isolates were classified as Streptomyces (42 strains), Micromonospora (4 strains), Pseudonocardia (1 strain), Actinomadura (1 strain), Nocardia (1 strain), and non-Streptomyces (5 strains). More than half of the isolates inhibited at least one tested pathogenic microorganisms in liquid culture. In addition, antimicrobial activities of some strains were tested on solid culture. Several bioactive compounds were identified by liquid chromatography joined with low-resolution mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) and analysed by MEDINA's database and by the dictionary of natural products Chapman & Hall. An interesting chlorinated compound with the molecular formula C20H37ClN2O4, produced by three different strains (SF1, SF2, and SF5), was subject of an attempted purification. However, it was demonstrated using confocal microscopy and LC/MS high resolution that this compound is produced only on solid culture. These three potential antimicrobial isolates showed high similarity with Streptomyces thinghirensis and Streptomyces lienomycini, in terms of morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences (bootstrap 97 %). All these findings prove the high antimicrobial diversity of the studied soils. The potential of the selected and other relatively unexplored extreme environments constitute a source of interesting actinomycete strains producing several biologically active secondary metabolites. PMID:27139253

  9. Activation and Products of the Cryptic Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Gene Clusters by Rifampin Resistance (rpoB) Mutations in Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yukinori; Kasahara, Ken; Hirose, Yutaka; Murakami, Kiriko; Kugimiya, Rie

    2013-01-01

    A subset of rifampin resistance (rpoB) mutations result in the overproduction of antibiotics in various actinomycetes, including Streptomyces, Saccharopolyspora, and Amycolatopsis, with H437Y and H437R rpoB mutations effective most frequently. Moreover, the rpoB mutations markedly activate (up to 70-fold at the transcriptional level) the cryptic/silent secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters of these actinomycetes, which are not activated under general stressful conditions, with the exception of treatment with rare earth elements. Analysis of the metabolite profile demonstrated that the rpoB mutants produced many metabolites, which were not detected in the wild-type strains. This approach utilizing rifampin resistance mutations is characterized by its feasibility and potential scalability to high-throughput studies and would be useful to activate and to enhance the yields of metabolites for discovery and biochemical characterization. PMID:23603745

  10. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  11. Evolution of cyclizing 5-aminolevulinate synthases in the biosynthesis of actinomycete secondary metabolites: outcomes for genetic screening techniques

    PubMed Central

    Petříčková, Kateřina; Chroňáková, Alica; Zelenka, Tomáš; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Petříček, Miroslav; Krištůfek, Václav

    2015-01-01

    A combined approach, comprising PCR screening and genome mining, was used to unravel the diversity and phylogeny of genes encoding 5-aminolevulinic acid synthases (ALASs, hemA gene products) in streptomycetes-related strains. In actinomycetes, these genes were believed to be directly connected with the production of secondary metabolites carrying the C5N unit, 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone, with biological activities making them attractive for future use in medicine and agriculture. Unlike “classical” primary metabolism ALAS, the C5N unit-forming cyclizing ALAS (cALAS) catalyses intramolecular cyclization of nascent 5-aminolevulinate. Specific amino acid sequence changes can be traced by comparison of “classical” ALASs against cALASs. PCR screening revealed 226 hemA gene-carrying strains from 1,500 tested, with 87% putatively encoding cALAS. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemA homologs revealed strain clustering according to putative type of metabolic product, which could be used to select producers of specific C5N compound classes. Supporting information was acquired through analysis of actinomycete genomic sequence data available in GenBank and further genetic or metabolic characterization of selected strains. Comparison of 16S rRNA taxonomic identification and BOX-PCR profiles provided evidence for numerous horizontal gene transfers of biosynthetic genes or gene clusters within actinomycete populations and even from non-actinomycete organisms. Our results underline the importance of environmental and evolutionary data in the design of efficient techniques for identification of novel producers. PMID:26300877

  12. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by actinomycetes isolated from TNT-contaminated and uncontaminated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasti-Grigsby, M.B.; Lewis, T.A.; Crawford, D.L.; Crawford, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Biotransformation of TNT has been reported under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Actinomycetes are important decomposers in composts. This study examines the tolerance of acitomycete cultures, isolated from both TNT-contaminated and uncontaminated environments for different concentrations to TNT, determined how selected isolates transform TNT, and examined whether such TNT transformations were constitutive or induced by exposure to TNT. 33 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Distribution and generic composition of culturable marine actinomycetes from the sediments of Indian continental slope of Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surajit; Lyla, P. S.; Ajmal Khan, S.

    2008-05-01

    Actinomycetes population from continental slope sediment of the Bay of Bengal was studied. Samples were collected during two voyages of FORV Sagar Sampada in 2004 (May-June) and 2005 (July) respectively from 11 transects (each transect had ca. 200 m, 500 m, and 1 000 m depth stations). The physicochemical parameters of overlying water, and sediment samples were also recorded. The actinomycete population ranged from 5.17 to 51.94 CFU/g dry sediment weight and 9.38 to 45.22 CFU/g dry sediment weight during the two cruises respectively. No actinomycete colony was isolated from stations in 1 000 m depth. Two-way analysis of variance showed significant variation among stations (ANOVA two-way, P<0.05), but no significance was found between the two cruises (ANOVA two-way, P<0.05). Populations in stations in 500 m depth in both cruises were higher than that of 200 m depth stations with statistically insignificant difference (ANOVA two-way, P>0.05). Three actinomycetes genera were identified. Streptomyces was found to be the dominating one in both the cruises, followed by Micromonospora, and Actinomyces. The spore of Streptomyces isolates showed the abundance in spiral spore chain. Spore surface was smooth. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the influencing physico-chemical factors were sediment pH, sediment temperature, TOC, porosity, salinity, and pressure. The media used in the present study was prepared with seawater. Thus, they may represent an autochthonous marine flora and deny the theory of land runoff carriage into the sea for adaptation to the salinity of the seawater and sediments.

  14. In situ identification of nocardioform actinomycetes in activated sludge using fluorescent rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.

    PubMed

    Schuppler, M; Wagner, M; Schön, G; Göbel, U B

    1998-01-01

    Hitherto, few environmental samples have been investigated by a 'full cycle rRNA analysis'. Here the results of in situ hybridization experiments with specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes developed on the basis of new sequences derived from a previously described comparative 16S rRNA analysis of nocardioform actinomycetes in activated sludge are reported. Application of the specific probes enabled identification and discrimination of the distinct populations of nocardioform actinomycetes in activated sludge. One of the specific probes (DLP) detected rod-shaped bacteria which were found in 13 of the 16 investigated sludge samples from various wastewater treatment plants, suggesting their importance in the wastewater treatment process. Another probe (GLP2) hybridized with typically branched filaments of nocardioforms mainly found in samples from enhanced biological phosphorus removal plants, suggesting that these bacteria are involved in sludge foaming. The combination of in situ hybridization with fluorescently labelled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and confocal laser scanning microscopy improved the detection of nocardioform actinomycetes, which often showed only weak signals inside the activated-sludge flocs. PMID:9467916

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the endophytic actinomycete R18(6) against multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Tiele; Van Der Sand, Sueli

    2016-03-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes are promising sources of antimicrobial substances. This study evaluates the activity of metabolites produced by the endophytic actinomycete R18(6) against Gram-negative bacteria multiresistant to antimicrobials. R18(6) isolate was grown in submerged cultures under different conditions: carbon source, temperature, pH and incubation time to optimize antimicrobials production. The actinomycete grown in base medium supplemented with 1% glucose, pH 6.5 and incubation at 30 ºC for 96 h with shaking at 100 rpm, exhibited the highest activity against the used Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude extract produced by the microorganism varied between 1/32 and 1/256. It had bactericide or bacteriostatic activity, depending on the Gram-negative organism. The active extract was stable at high temperatures, and unstable in medium containing proteolytic enzymes. Micromorphology of R18(6) was investigated by optical and scan microscopy, revealing that it was morphologically similar to the genusStreptomyces. PMID:26871499

  16. Nitrogen regulator GlnR controls uptake and utilization of non-phosphotransferase-system carbon sources in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng-Heng; Yao, Lili; Xu, Ya; Liu, Wei-Bing; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2015-12-22

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying the uptake and utilization of multiple types of carbohydrates in actinomycetes remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that GlnR (central regulator of nitrogen metabolism) serves as a universal regulator of nitrogen metabolism and plays an important, previously unknown role in controlling the transport of non-phosphotransferase-system (PTS) carbon sources in actinomycetes. It was observed that GlnR can directly interact with the promoters of most (13 of 20) carbohydrate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter loci and can activate the transcription of these genes in response to nitrogen availability in industrial, erythromycin-producing Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Deletion of the glnR gene resulted in severe growth retardation under the culture conditions used, with select ABC-transported carbohydrates (maltose, sorbitol, mannitol, cellobiose, trehalose, or mannose) used as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we found that GlnR-mediated regulation of carbohydrate transport was highly conserved in actinomycetes. These results demonstrate that GlnR serves a role beyond nitrogen metabolism, mediating critical functions in carbon metabolism and crosstalk of nitrogen- and carbon-metabolism pathways in response to the nutritional states of cells. These findings provide insights into the molecular regulation of transport and metabolism of non-PTS carbohydrates and reveal potential applications for the cofermentation of biomass-derived sugars in the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. PMID:26644570

  17. Spontaneous and induced mutations to rifampicin, streptomycin and spectinomycin resistances in actinomycetes: mutagenic mechanisms and applications for strain improvement.

    PubMed

    Baltz, Richard H

    2014-09-01

    Chemical mutagenesis continues to be an important foundational methodology for the generation of highly productive actinomycete strains for the commercial production of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. In the past, the determination of frequencies of chemically induced resistance to rifampicin (RifR), spectinomycin (SpcR) and streptomycin (StrR) have served as surrogate markers to monitor the efficiencies and robustness of mutagenic protocols. Recent studies indicate that high level RifR, SpcR and StrR phenotypes map to specific regions of the rpoB, rpsE and rpsL genes, respectively, in actinomycetes. Moreover, mutagenesis to RifR can occur spontaneously at many different sites in rpoB, and all six types of base-pair substitutions, as well as in-frame deletions and insertions, have been observed. The RifR/rpoB system provides a robust method to rank mutagenic protocols, to evaluate mutagen specificity and to study spontaneous mutagenesis mechanisms involved in the maintenance of high G+C content in Streptomyces species and other actinomycetes. PMID:25118108

  18. Structural and Functional Characterizations of SsgB, a Conserved Activator of Developmental Cell Division in Morphologically Complex Actinomycetes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A.; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2010-01-20

    SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic 'whirly' single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners.

  19. Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus and cancer cells by marine actinomycete strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Yan, Peisheng

    2014-12-01

    Ten actinomycete strains isolated from the Yellow Sea off China's coasts were identified as belonging to two genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. Six Streptomyces strains (MA10, 2SHXF01-3, MA35, MA05-2, MA05-2-1 and MA08-1) and one Nocardiopsis strain (MA03) were predicted to have the potential to produce aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of the KSα (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the type II PKS (polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Four strains (MA03, MA01, MA10 and MA05-2) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth (inhibition rate >50%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (inhibition rate >75%) of the mutant aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NFRI-95. The ethyl acetate extracts of the broth of these four strains displayed significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth, and the IC50 values were calculated (MA03: 0.275 mg mL-1, MA01: 0.106 mg mL-1, MA10: 1.345 mg mL-1 and MA05-2: 1.362 mg mL-1). Five strains (2SHXF01-3, MA03, MA05-2, MA01 and MA08-1) were selected based on their high cytotoxic activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the Nocardiopsis strain MA03 was particularly noted for its high antitumor activity against human carcinomas of the cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), kidney (Caki-1) and liver (HepG2) (IC50: 2.890, 1.981, 3.032 and 2.603 μg mL-1, respectively). The extract also remarkably inhibited colony formation of HeLa cells at an extremely low concentration (0.5 μg mL-1). This study highlights that marine-derived actinomycetes are a huge resource of compounds for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination and the development of novel drugs for human carcinomas.

  20. Plasmids in Frankia sp.

    PubMed

    Normand, P; Simonet, P; Butour, J L; Rosenberg, C; Moiroud, A; Lalonde, M

    1983-07-01

    A method to achieve cell lysis and isolate Frankia sp. plasmid DNA was developed. A screening of Frankia sp. strains belonging to different host compatibility groups (Alnus sp., Elaeagnus sp., Ceanothus sp.) showed that, of 39 strains tested, 4 (strains Cp11, ARgN22d, ArI3, and EUN1f) possessed plasmids ranging in size from 7.1 to 32.2 kilobase pairs as estimated from agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. A total of 11 plasmids were detected. PMID:6863219

  1. Chromate reductase activity in Streptomyces sp. MC1.

    PubMed

    Polti, Marta A; Amoroso, María J; Abate, Carlos M

    2010-02-01

    Biological transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by enzymatic reduction may provide a less costly and more environmentally friendly approach to remediation. In a previous report a Cr(VI) resistant actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sp. MC1, was able to reduce Cr(VI) present in a synthetic medium, soil extract and soil samples. This is the first time optimal conditions such as pH, temperature, growth phase and electron donor have been elucidated in vitro for Cr(VI) reduction by a streptomycete. Chromate reductase of Streptomyces sp. MC1 is a constitutive enzyme which was mainly associated with biomass and required NAD(P)H as an electron donor. It was active over a broad temperature (19-39 degrees C) and pH (5-8) range, and optimum conditions were 30 degrees C and pH 7. The enzyme was present in supernatant, pellet and cell free extract. Bioremediation with the enzyme was observed in non-compatible cell reproduction systems, conditions frequently found in contaminated environments. PMID:20339215

  2. [Effects of actinomycetes agent on ginseng growth and rhizosphere soil microflora].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Xue, Quan-hong; Shen, Guang-hui; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2013-08-01

    Taking the ginseng in Xiao Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the effects of applying Streptomyces pactum (Act12) on ginseng growth and on the soil microflora in root zone and root surface. After treated with Act12, the yield and quality of ginseng' s medicinal part improved, the induced enzyme activities in leaves and the root activity increased, and the numbers and proportions of soil bacteria and actinomycetes increased significantly while those of soil fungi decreased. Compared with the control, the soil microflora in treatment Act12 changed. The numbers of the dominant bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas koreensis, and Microbacterium oxydans were much higher in root zone soil and root surface soil, and the pathogen Plectosphaerella cucumerina decreased in root zone soil and disappeared in root surface soil. These results suggested that the addition of Act12 could improve the soil microflora, enhance the resistance and root activity of ginseng plant, and increase the ginseng yield and its quality. PMID:24380350

  3. Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

  4. Diversity and bioactivity of actinomycetes from marine sediments of the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shumin; Ye, Liang; Tang, Xuexi

    2012-03-01

    Among the 116 actinomycetes collected from marine sediments of the Yellow Sea, 56 grew slowly and appeared after 2-3 weeks of incubation. Among the 56 strains, only 3 required seawater (SW) for growth, and 21 grew well in the medium prepared with SW rather than distilled water (DW), while the remaining 32 grew well either with SW or with DW. Six representatives with different morphological characteristics, including 1 SW-requiring strain and 5 well-growing with SW strains, were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene. Two strains belong to Micrococcaceae and Nocardiopsaceae respectively. The other 4 strains belong to the family of Streptomycetaceae. In the analyzed 6 strains, one was related to Nocardiopsis spp. and the other three were related to Streptomyces spp., representing new taxa. Bioactivity testing of fermentation products from 3 SW-requiring strains and 21 well-growing with SW strains revealed that 17 strains possessed remarkable activities against gram-positive pathogen or/and tumor cells, suggesting that they were prolific resources for natural drug discovery.

  5. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Soil Cellulolytic Actinomycete Thermobifida fusca YX

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, A; Mavromatis, K; Ivanova, N; Anderson, Iain; Land, Miriam L; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Martinez, Michele; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Richardson, P M; Wilson, David B; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2007-01-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soil bacterium that belongs to Actinobacteria. It is a major degrader of plant cell walls and has been used as a model organism for the study of secreted, thermostable cellulases. The complete genome sequence showed that T. fusca has a single circular chromosome of 3,642,249 bp predicted to encode 3,117 proteins and 65 RNA species with a coding density of 85%. Genome analysis revealed the existence of 29 putative glycoside hydrolases in addition to the previously identified cellulases and xylanases. The glycosyl hydrolases include enzymes predicted to exhibit mainly dextran/starch- and xylan-degrading functions. T. fusca possesses two protein secretion systems: the sec general secretion system and the twin-arginine translocation system. Several of the secreted cellulases have sequence signatures indicating their secretion may be mediated by the twin-arginine translocation system. T. fusca has extensive transport systems for import of carbohydrates coupled to transcriptional regulators controlling the expression of the transporters and glycosylhydrolases. In addition to providing an overview of the physiology of a soil actinomycete, this study presents insights on the transcriptional regulation and secretion of cellulases which may facilitate the industrial exploitation of these systems.

  6. Diversity and evolution of secondary metabolism in the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora

    PubMed Central

    Ziemert, Nadine; Lechner, Anna; Wietz, Matthias; Millán-Aguiñaga, Natalie; Chavarria, Krystle L.; Jensen, Paul Robert

    2014-01-01

    Access to genome sequence data has challenged traditional natural product discovery paradigms by revealing that the products of most bacterial biosynthetic pathways have yet to be discovered. Despite the insight afforded by this technology, little is known about the diversity and distributions of natural product biosynthetic pathways among bacteria and how they evolve to generate structural diversity. Here we analyze genome sequence data derived from 75 strains of the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora for pathways associated with polyketide and nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis, the products of which account for some of today’s most important medicines. The results reveal high levels of diversity, with a total of 124 pathways identified and 229 predicted with continued sequencing. Recent horizontal gene transfer accounts for the majority of pathways, which occur in only one or two strains. Acquired pathways are incorporated into genomic islands and are commonly exchanged within and between species. Acquisition and transfer events largely involve complete pathways, which subsequently evolve by gene gain, loss, and duplication followed by divergence. The exchange of similar pathway types at the precise chromosomal locations in different strains suggests that the mechanisms of integration include pathway-level homologous recombination. Despite extensive horizontal gene transfer there is clear evidence of species-level vertical inheritance, supporting the concept that secondary metabolites represent functional traits that help define Salinispora species. The plasticity of the Salinispora secondary metabolome provides an effective mechanism to maximize population-level secondary metabolite diversity while limiting the number of pathways maintained within any individual genome. PMID:24616526

  7. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Soil Cellulolytic ActinomyceteThermobifida fusca

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Land, Miriam; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Martinez, Michele; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Richardson, Paul; Wilson,David B.; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2007-02-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soilbacterium that belongs to Actinobacteria. 3 It is a major degrader ofplant cell walls and has been used as a model organism for the study of 4secreted, thermostable cellulases. The complete genome sequence showedthat T. fusca has a 5 single circular chromosome of 3642249 bp predictedto encode 3117 proteins and 65 RNA6 species with a coding densityof 85percent. Genome analysis revealed the existence of 29 putative 7glycoside hydrolases in addition to the previously identified cellulasesand xylanases. The 8 glycosyl hydrolases include enzymes predicted toexhibit mainly dextran/starch and xylan 9 degrading functions. T. fuscapossesses two protein secretion systems: the sec general secretion 10system and the twin-arginine translocation system. Several of thesecreted cellulases have 11 sequence signatures indicating theirsecretion may be mediated by the twin-arginine12 translocation system. T.fusca has extensive transport systems for import of carbohydrates 13coupled to transcriptional regulators controlling the expression of thetransporters and14 glycosylhydrolases. In addition to providing anoverview of the physiology of a soil 15 actinomycete, this study presentsinsights on the transcriptional regulation and secretion of16 cellulaseswhich may facilitate the industrial exploitation of thesesystems.

  8. Sinosporangium fuscum sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Chunhametha, Suwanee; Thawai, Chitti; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques

    2015-06-01

    A novel actinomycete, A-T 8343T was isolated from a moist evergreen forest soil sample collected in the Trat Province, Thailand. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain A-T 8343T belonged to the genus Sinosporangium and was closely related to Sinosporangium siamense A-T 1946T (98.81 %) and Sinosporangium album 6014T (98.54 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values were 21.8-27 % with S. siamense A-T 1946T and 31.1-31.9 % with S. album 6014T, which were significantly below 70 %. The result differentiated A-T 8343T from the closest species. The organism developed spherical sporangia containing non-motile spores on aerial mycelia. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars contained rhamnose, ribose, madurose and glucose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H4). The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, N-acetylglucosamine-containing phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-mannosides, aminophosphoglycolipid and one unknown phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acids were saturated C16 : 0, iso C16 : 0, unsaturated C16 : 1 and C18 : 1. Following an evaluation of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, the new isolate is proposed as a representative novel species of the genus Sinosporangium to be named Sinosporangiumfuscum sp. nov. The type strain is A-T 8343T ( = BCC 52770T = NBRC 109516T). PMID:25744582

  9. Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Tamura, Tomohiko; Shibata, Chiyo; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain KC-112T, was isolated from soil collected from Similan Islands, Phang-Nga Province, Thailand. The strain exhibited morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The formation of smooth spiral spore chains was observed on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in whole-cell hydrolysates, but no diagnostic sugars were detected and the strain lacked mycolic acids. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown aminolipid, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 73 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain KC-112T was closely related to Streptomyces fumanus NBRC 13042T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces anandii NBRC 13438T (98.8 %) and Streptomyces capillispiralis NBRC 14222T (98.8 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain KC-112T and type strains of closely related species were lower than 70 %. On the basis of evidence from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain KC-112T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov. The type strain is KC-112T ( = KCTC 29502T = NBRC 110085T = PCU 347T = TISTR 2401T). PMID:26908169

  10. Meroparamycin production by newly isolated Streptomyces sp. strain MAR01: taxonomy, fermentation, purification and structural elucidation.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Moustafa Y; El-Assar, Samy A; Abdul-Gawad, Sahar M

    2006-08-01

    Twelve actinomycete strains were isolated from Egyptian soil. The isolated actinomycete strains were then screened with regard to their potential to generate antibiotics. The most potent of the producer strains was selected and identified. The cultural and physiological characteristics of the strain identified the strain as a member of the genus Streptomyces. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene (1.5 kb) of the most potent strain evidenced a 99% similarity with Streptomyces spp. and S. aureofaciens 16S rRNA genes, and the isolated strain was ultimately identified as Streptomyces sp. MAR01. The extraction of the fermentation broth of this strain resulted in the isolation of one major compound, which was active in vitro against gram-positive, gram-negative representatives and Candida albicans. The chemical structure of this bioactive compound was elucidated based on the spectroscopic data obtained from the application of MS, IR, UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis techniques. Via comparison to the reference data in the relevant literature and in the database search, this antibiotic, which had a molecular formula of C19H29NO2 and a molecular weight of 303.44, was determined to differ from those produced by this genus as well as the available known antibiotics. Therefore, this antibiotic was designated Meroparamycin. PMID:16953179

  11. Structure and Biosynthesis of Amychelin, an Unusual Mixed-Ligand Siderophore from Amycolatopsis sp. AA4

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Actinobacteria generate a large number of structurally diverse small molecules with potential therapeutic value. Genomic analyses of this productive group of bacteria show that their genetic potential to manufacture small molecules exceeds their observed ability by roughly an order of magnitude, and this revelation has prompted a number of studies to identify members of the unknown majority. As a potential window into this cryptic secondary metabolome, pairwise assays for developmental interactions within a set of 20 sequenced actinomycetes were carried out. These assays revealed that Amycolatopsis sp. AA4, a so-called “rare” actinomycete, produces a novel siderophore, amychelin, which alters the developmental processes of several neighboring streptomycetes. Using this phenotype as an assay, we isolated amychelin and solved its structure by NMR and MS methods coupled with an X-ray crystallographic analysis of its Fe-complex. The iron binding affinity of amychelin was determined using EDTA competition assays, and a biosynthetic cluster was identified and annotated to provide a tentative biosynthetic scheme for amychelin. PMID:21699219

  12. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

    2013-09-01

    An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. PMID:23692633

  13. Identification of antifungal niphimycin from Streptomyces sp. KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yoon; Kim, Jeong Do; Hong, Jin Sung; Ham, Jong Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2013-07-01

    Microbial culture extracts are used for natural product screening to find antifungal lead compounds. A microbial culture extract library was constructed using 343 actinomycete isolates to examine the value of the adenylate kinase (AK) assay for screening to identify antifungal metabolites that disrupt cell integrity in plant pathogenic fungi. A culture extract of Streptomyces sp. strain KP6107 lysed cells of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici which resulted in high AK activity. The active ingredient N-1 was purified from the culture extract using various chromatographic procedures and identified to be the guanidyl-polyol macrolide antibiotic, niphimycin, which is a potent fungal cell membrane disruptor. Niphimycin showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Alternaria mali, Aspergillus oryzae, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cercospora canescens, Cylindrocarpon destructans, F. oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Rhizoctonia solani at concentrations of 8-64 µg ml(-1). Anthracnose development in pepper plants was completely inhibited by treatment with 50 µg ml(-1) niphimycin, which was as effective as chlorothalonil. These results show that the AK assay is an efficient and selective tool in screening for cell membrane/wall disruptors of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:22915202

  14. Bioremediation of chromium(VI) contaminated soil by Streptomyces sp. MC1.

    PubMed

    Polti, Marta A; García, Roberto O; Amoroso, María J; Abate, Carlos M

    2009-06-01

    This work provides quantitative information on Cr(VI) reduction in soil samples by an indigenous actinomycete. Streptomyces sp. MC1, previously isolated from sugarcane, has shown ability to reduce Cr(VI) in liquid minimal medium. A reduction of 100 and 75% was obtained at initial Cr(VI) concentrations of 5 and 50 mg l(-1), respectively, after 48 h of incubation. Bioremediation ability of Streptomyces sp. MC1 was assayed in soil extracts and soil samples. Relative growth of Streptomyces sp. MC1 was 77 and 38% when grown in soil extract with 10 and 50 mg l(-1) of Cr(VI), respectively. MC1 was able to reduce 30% of Cr(VI) after 96 h of incubation with 10 mg l(-1) of Cr(VI), and reduction coincided with the exponential growth phase at pH 7 and 30 degrees C.In soil samples, Streptomyces sp. MC1 was able to reduce up to 94% of the Cr(VI) bioavailability (50 mg kg(-1)) after 7 d. These results were compared with non-inoculated soil samples with Cr(VI). Bioremediation activity of Streptomyces sp. MC1 was not inhibited by natural soil microbial flora. Besides, Streptomyces sp. MC1 growth was not inhibited by 50 mg kg(-1) of Cr(VI). In contrast to findings obtained by other authors, our results showed almost complete Cr(VI) removal from soil without any previous treatment, and without addition of any substrate and with a normal soil humidity level. These results confirm the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil bioremediation potential of Streptomyces sp. MC1. PMID:19025876

  15. Different Physiological Roles of ATP- and PPi-Dependent Phosphofructokinase Isoenzymes in the Methylotrophic Actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica

    PubMed Central

    Alves, A. M. C. R.; Euverink, G. J. W.; Santos, H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2001-01-01

    Cells of the actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica grown on glucose possess only a single, exclusively PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) (A. M. C. R. Alves, G. J. W. Euverink, H. J. Hektor, J. van der Vlag, W. Vrijbloed, D.H.A. Hondmann, J. Visser, and L. Dijkhuizen, J. Bacteriol. 176:6827–6835, 1994). When this methylotrophic bacterium is grown on one-carbon (C1) compounds (e.g., methanol), an ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (ATP-PFK) activity is specifically induced, completely replacing the PPi-PFK. The two A. methanolica PFK isoenzymes have very distinct functions, namely, in the metabolism of C6 and C1 carbon substrates. This is the first report providing biochemical evidence for the presence and physiological roles of PPi-PFK and ATP-PFK isoenzymes in a bacterium. The novel ATP-PFK enzyme was purified to homogeneity and characterized in detail at the biochemical and molecular levels. The A. methanolica ATP-PFK and PPi-PFK proteins possess a low level of amino acid sequence similarity (24%), clearly showing that the two proteins are not the result of a gene duplication event. PPi-PFK is closely related to other (putative) actinomycete PFK enzymes. Surprisingly, the A. methanolica ATP-PFK is most similar to ATP-PFK from the protozoon Trypanosoma brucei and PPi-PFK proteins from the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum, both spirochetes, very distinct from actinomycetes. The data thus suggest that A. methanolica obtained the ATP-PFK-encoding gene via a lateral gene transfer event. PMID:11717283

  16. Thermodynamics of a Ca(2+)-dependent highly thermostable alkaline protease from a haloalkliphilic actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Gohel, S D; Singh, S P

    2015-01-01

    An alkaline protease from salt-tolerant alkaliphilic actinomycetes, Nocardiopsis alba OK-5 was purified by a single-step hydrophobic interaction chromatography and characterized. The purified protease with an estimated molecular mass of 20 kDa was optimally active at 70 °C in 0-3 M NaCl and 0-100 mM Ca(2+) displaying significant stability at 50-80 °C. The enzyme was stable at 80 °C in 100 mM Ca(2+) with Kd of 17 × 10(-3) and t1/2 of 32 min. The activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (ΔH*), and entropy (ΔS*) for the protease deactivation calculated in the presence of 200 mM Ca(2+) were 38.15 kJ/mol, 35.49 kJ/mol and 183.48 J/mol, respectively. The change in free energy (ΔG*) for protease deactivation at 60 °C in 200 mM Ca(2+) was 95.88 kJ/mol. Decrease in ΔH* reflected reduced cooperativity of deactivation and unfolding. The enzyme was intrinsically stable that counteracted heat denaturation by a weak cooperativity during the unfolding. Further, the enzyme was highly stable in the presence of various cations, surfactants, H2O2, β-mercaptoethanol, and commercial detergents. The compatibility of the enzyme with various cations, surfactants, and detergent matrices suggests its suitability as an additive in the detergents and peptide synthesis. PMID:25150113

  17. Characterization of a Rifampin-Inactivating Glycosyltransferase from a Screen of Environmental Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Thaker, Maulik; Koteva, Kalinka; Waglechner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Identifying and understanding the collection of all antibiotic resistance determinants presented in the global microbiota, the antibiotic resistome, provides insight into the evolution of antibiotic resistance and critical information for the development of future antimicrobials. The rifamycins are broad-spectrum antibiotics that target bacterial transcription by inhibition of RNA polymerase. Although mutational alteration of the drug target is the predominant mechanism of resistance to this family of antibiotics in the clinic, a number of diverse inactivation mechanisms have also been reported. In this report, we investigate a subset of environmental rifampin-resistant actinomycete isolates and identify a diverse collection of rifampin inactivation mechanisms. We describe a single isolate, WAC1438, capable of inactivating rifampin by glycosylation. A draft genome sequence of WAC1438 (most closely related to Streptomyces speibonae, according to a 16S rRNA gene comparison) was assembled, and the associated rifampin glycosyltransferase open reading frame, rgt1438, was identified. The role of rgt1438 in rifampin resistance was confirmed by its disruption in the bacterial chromosome, resulting in a loss of antibiotic inactivation and a 4-fold decrease in MIC. Interestingly, examination of the RNA polymerase β-subunit sequence of WAC1438 suggests that it harbors a resistant target and thus possesses dual mechanisms of rifamycin resistance. Using an in vitro assay with purified enzyme, Rgt1438 could inactivate a variety of rifamycin antibiotics with comparable steady-state kinetics constants. Our results identify rgt1438 as a rifampin resistance determinant from WAC1438 capable of inactivating an assortment of rifamycins, adding a new element to the rifampin resistome. PMID:22802246

  18. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites. PMID:26946375

  19. Use of dyes in solid medium for screening ligninolytic activity of selective actinomycetes

    SciTech Connect

    Chahal, D.S.; Kluepfel, D.; Morosoli, R.

    1995-12-31

    Lignin, a three-dimensional biopolymer, not only encrusts the cellulose microfibrils in a sheath-like manner, but is also bonded physically and chemically to the plant polysaccharides. Unless the lignin is depolymerized, solubilized, or removed, the cellulose and hemicelluloses cannot be easily hydrolyzed by respective enzymes for their bioconversion into biofuels and chemicals. By now it has been established that lignin peroxidase (LiP) of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is responsible for degradation of lignin. It has been reported that LiP is produced during secondary metabolism under carbon or nitrogen limitation by this organism. In literature, usually low yields (per unit volume) of LiP with P. chrysosporium have been reported. The reasons for low yields may be attributed to insufficient nitrogen in production media, which ultimately affects the synthesis of LiP protein. Therefore, it necessitated a search for an organism that can produce a ligninolytic enzyme system during its primary metabolism, without any effect of nitrogen limitation in the fermentation medium and without supply of extra oxygen to the cultures. Glenn and Gold were the first to report that decolorization of polymeric dyes in liquid cultures is related to the lignin degradation system. They demonstrated that like lignin degradation, the decolorization of polymeric dyes by the white-rot basidiomycete P. chrysosporium occurred during secondary metabolism, was suppressed in cultures grown in the presence of high levels of nitrogen, and was strongly dependent on the oxygen concentration in the cultures. The present study was undertaken to establish if certain dyes in solid media could be used to screen ligninolytic activity of selective actinomycetes during their primary metabolism without the limitation of nitrogen in the medium.

  20. Discovery of phosphonic acid natural products by mining the genomes of 10,000 actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Ju, Kou-San; Gao, Jiangtao; Doroghazi, James R; Wang, Kwo-Kwang A; Thibodeaux, Christopher J; Li, Steven; Metzger, Emily; Fudala, John; Su, Joleen; Zhang, Jun Kai; Lee, Jaeheon; Cioni, Joel P; Evans, Bradley S; Hirota, Ryuichi; Labeda, David P; van der Donk, Wilfred A; Metcalf, William W

    2015-09-29

    Although natural products have been a particularly rich source of human medicines, activity-based screening results in a very high rate of rediscovery of known molecules. Based on the large number of natural product biosynthetic genes in microbial genomes, many have proposed "genome mining" as an alternative approach for discovery efforts; however, this idea has yet to be performed experimentally on a large scale. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale, high-throughput genome mining by screening a collection of over 10,000 actinomycetes for the genetic potential to make phosphonic acids, a class of natural products with diverse and useful bioactivities. Genome sequencing identified a diverse collection of phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters within 278 strains. These clusters were classified into 64 distinct groups, of which 55 are likely to direct the synthesis of unknown compounds. Characterization of strains within five of these groups resulted in the discovery of a new archetypical pathway for phosphonate biosynthesis, the first (to our knowledge) dedicated pathway for H-phosphinates, and 11 previously undescribed phosphonic acid natural products. Among these compounds are argolaphos, a broad-spectrum antibacterial phosphonopeptide composed of aminomethylphosphonate in peptide linkage to a rare amino acid N(5)-hydroxyarginine; valinophos, an N-acetyl l-Val ester of 2,3-dihydroxypropylphosphonate; and phosphonocystoximate, an unusual thiohydroximate-containing molecule representing a new chemotype of sulfur-containing phosphonate natural products. Analysis of the genome sequences from the remaining strains suggests that the majority of the phosphonate biosynthetic repertoire of Actinobacteria has been captured at the gene level. This dereplicated strain collection now provides a reservoir of numerous, as yet undiscovered, phosphonate natural products. PMID:26324907

  1. Discovery of phosphonic acid natural products by mining the genomes of 10,000 actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Kou-San; Gao, Jiangtao; Doroghazi, James R.; Wang, Kwo-Kwang A.; Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Li, Steven; Metzger, Emily; Fudala, John; Su, Joleen; Zhang, Jun Kai; Lee, Jaeheon; Cioni, Joel P.; Evans, Bradley S.; Hirota, Ryuichi; Labeda, David P.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Metcalf, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Although natural products have been a particularly rich source of human medicines, activity-based screening results in a very high rate of rediscovery of known molecules. Based on the large number of natural product biosynthetic genes in microbial genomes, many have proposed “genome mining” as an alternative approach for discovery efforts; however, this idea has yet to be performed experimentally on a large scale. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale, high-throughput genome mining by screening a collection of over 10,000 actinomycetes for the genetic potential to make phosphonic acids, a class of natural products with diverse and useful bioactivities. Genome sequencing identified a diverse collection of phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters within 278 strains. These clusters were classified into 64 distinct groups, of which 55 are likely to direct the synthesis of unknown compounds. Characterization of strains within five of these groups resulted in the discovery of a new archetypical pathway for phosphonate biosynthesis, the first (to our knowledge) dedicated pathway for H-phosphinates, and 11 previously undescribed phosphonic acid natural products. Among these compounds are argolaphos, a broad-spectrum antibacterial phosphonopeptide composed of aminomethylphosphonate in peptide linkage to a rare amino acid N5-hydroxyarginine; valinophos, an N-acetyl l-Val ester of 2,3-dihydroxypropylphosphonate; and phosphonocystoximate, an unusual thiohydroximate-containing molecule representing a new chemotype of sulfur-containing phosphonate natural products. Analysis of the genome sequences from the remaining strains suggests that the majority of the phosphonate biosynthetic repertoire of Actinobacteria has been captured at the gene level. This dereplicated strain collection now provides a reservoir of numerous, as yet undiscovered, phosphonate natural products. PMID:26324907

  2. Changes in Actinomycetes community structure under the influence of Bt transgenic brinjal crop in a tropical agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The global area under brinjal cultivation is expected to be 1.85 million hectare with total fruit production about 32 million metric tons (MTs). Brinjal cultivars are susceptible to a variety of stresses that significantly limit productivity. The most important biotic stress is caused by the Brinjal fruit and shoot Borer (FSB) forcing farmers to deploy high doses of insecticides; a matter of serious health concern. Therefore, to control the adverse effect of insecticides on the environment including the soil, transgenic technology has emerged as the effective alternative. However, the reports, regarding the nature of interaction of transgenic crops with the native microbial community are inconsistent. The effect of a Bt transgenic brinjal expressing the bio-insecticidal protein (Cry1Ac) on the rhizospheric community of actinomycetes has been assessed and compared with its non-transgenic counterpart. Results Significant variation in the organic carbon observed between the crops (non-Bt and Bt brinjal) may be due to changes in root exudates quality and composition mediated by genetic attributes of Bt transgenic brinjal. Real time quantitative PCR indicated significant differences in the actinomycetes- specific 16S rRNA gene copy numbers between the non-Bt (5.62-27.86) × 1011 g-1 dws and Bt brinjal planted soil (5.62-24.04) × 1011 g-1 dws. Phylogenetic analysis indicated 14 and 11, actinomycetes related groups in soil with non-Bt and Bt brinjal crop, respectively. Micrococaceaea and Nocardiodaceae were the dominant groups in pre-vegetation, branching, flowering, maturation and post-harvest stage. However, Promicromonosporaceae, Streptosporangiaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Geodermatophilaceae, Frankiaceae, Kineosporaceae, Actisymmetaceae and Streptomycetaceae were exclusively detected in a few stages in non-Bt brinjal rhizosphere soil while Nakamurellaceae, Corynebactericeae, Thermomonosporaceae and Pseudonocardiaceae in Bt brinjal counterpart

  3. Spoxazomicins A-C, novel antitrypanosomal alkaloids produced by an endophytic actinomycete, Streptosporangium oxazolinicum K07-0460(T).

    PubMed

    Inahashi, Yuki; Iwatsuki, Masato; Ishiyama, Aki; Namatame, Miyuki; Nishihara-Tsukashima, Aki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Yamada, Haruki; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yōko; Omura, Satoshi; Shiomi, Kazuro

    2011-04-01

    Three novel antitrypanosomal alkaloids, named spoxazomicins A-C, were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and HPLC from the culture broth of a new endophytic actinomycete species, Streptosporangium oxazolinicum K07-0460(T). The structures of the spoxazomicins were elucidated by NMR and X-ray crystal analyses and shown to be new types of pyochelin family antibiotic. Spoxazomicin A showed potent and selective antitrypanosomal activity with an IC₅₀ value of 0.11 μg ml⁻¹ in vitro without cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells (IC₅₀=27.8 μg ml⁻¹). PMID:21386848

  4. Complete genome sequence of Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T), a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sheng; Feng, Wei-Wei; Xing, Ke; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Wei-Jie; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2015-12-20

    Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) is a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from the oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L. collected from dry-hot valley, in Sichuan, China. The complete genome sequence of this actinomycete consists of one chromosome (11,759,770bp) with no plasmid. From the genome, we identified gene clusters responsible for polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthesis of natural products, and genes related to the plant growth promoting, such as zeatin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) and siderophore. The complete genome information may be useful to understand the beneficial interactions between K. phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) and host plants. PMID:26516119

  5. Degradation and induction specificity in actinomycetes that degrade p-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Hanne, L.F.; Kirk, L.L.; Appel, S.M.; Narayan, A.D.; Bains, K.K. )

    1993-10-01

    We have isolated two soil bacteria (identified as Arthrobacter aurescens TW17 and Nocardia sp. strain TW2) capable of degrading p-nitrophenol (PNP) and numerous other phenolic compounds. A. aurescens TW17 contains a large plasmid which correlated with the PNP degradation phenotype. Degradation of PNP by A. aurescens TW 17 was induced by preexposure to PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, or m-nitrophenol, whereas PNP degradation by Nocardia sp. strain TW2 was induced by PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, phenol, p-cresol, or m-nitrophenol. A. aurescens TW17 initially degraded PNP to hydroquinone and nitrite. Nocardia sp. strain TW2 initially converted PNP to hydroquinone or 4-nitrocatechol, depending upon the inducing compound.

  6. Screening of Rhizospheric Actinomycetes for Various In-vitro and In-vivo Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) Traits and for Agroactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Sumaira; Ali, Basharat; Sajid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    In this study 98 rhizospheric actinomycetes were isolated from different wheat and tomato fields, Punjab, Pakistan. The isolates were characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically and were subjected to a comprehensive in vitro screening for various plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. About 30% of the isolates screened were found to be the promising PGP rhizobacteria (PGPRs), which exhibited maximum genetic similarity (up to 98–99%) with different species of the genus Streptomyces by using16S rRNA gene sequencing. The most active indole acetic acid (IAA) producer Streptomyces nobilis WA-3, Streptomyces Kunmingenesis WC-3, and Streptomyces enissocaesilis TA-3 produce 79.5, 79.23, and 69.26 μg/ml IAA respectively at 500 μg/ml L-tryptophan. The highest concentration of soluble phosphate was produced by Streptomyces sp. WA-1 (72.13 mg/100 ml) and S. djakartensis TB-4 (70.36 mg/100 ml). All rhizobacterial isolates were positive for siderophore, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide production. Strain S. mutabilis WD-3 showed highest concentration of ACC-deaminase (1.9 mmol /l). For in-vivo screening, seed germination, and plant growth experiment were conducted by inoculating wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds with the six selected isolates. Significant increases in shoot length was observed with S. nobilis WA-3 (65%), increased root length was recorded in case of S. nobilis WA-3 (81%) as compared to water treated control plants. Maximum increases in plant fresh weight were recorded with S. nobilis WA-3 (84%), increased plant dry weight was recorded in case of S. nobilis WA-3 (85%) as compared to water treated control plants. In case of number of leaves, significant increase was recorded with S. nobilis WA-3 (27%) and significant increase in case of number of roots were recorded in case of strain S. nobilis WA-3 (30%) as compared to control plants. Over all the study revealed that these rhizospheric PGP Streptomyces are good candidates to be developed as

  7. Screening of Rhizospheric Actinomycetes for Various In-vitro and In-vivo Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) Traits and for Agroactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sumaira; Ali, Basharat; Sajid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    In this study 98 rhizospheric actinomycetes were isolated from different wheat and tomato fields, Punjab, Pakistan. The isolates were characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically and were subjected to a comprehensive in vitro screening for various plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. About 30% of the isolates screened were found to be the promising PGP rhizobacteria (PGPRs), which exhibited maximum genetic similarity (up to 98-99%) with different species of the genus Streptomyces by using16S rRNA gene sequencing. The most active indole acetic acid (IAA) producer Streptomyces nobilis WA-3, Streptomyces Kunmingenesis WC-3, and Streptomyces enissocaesilis TA-3 produce 79.5, 79.23, and 69.26 μg/ml IAA respectively at 500 μg/ml L-tryptophan. The highest concentration of soluble phosphate was produced by Streptomyces sp. WA-1 (72.13 mg/100 ml) and S. djakartensis TB-4 (70.36 mg/100 ml). All rhizobacterial isolates were positive for siderophore, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide production. Strain S. mutabilis WD-3 showed highest concentration of ACC-deaminase (1.9 mmol /l). For in-vivo screening, seed germination, and plant growth experiment were conducted by inoculating wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds with the six selected isolates. Significant increases in shoot length was observed with S. nobilis WA-3 (65%), increased root length was recorded in case of S. nobilis WA-3 (81%) as compared to water treated control plants. Maximum increases in plant fresh weight were recorded with S. nobilis WA-3 (84%), increased plant dry weight was recorded in case of S. nobilis WA-3 (85%) as compared to water treated control plants. In case of number of leaves, significant increase was recorded with S. nobilis WA-3 (27%) and significant increase in case of number of roots were recorded in case of strain S. nobilis WA-3 (30%) as compared to control plants. Over all the study revealed that these rhizospheric PGP Streptomyces are good candidates to be developed as

  8. Prauserella soli sp. nov., isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Awatef

    2015-09-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated 12-833(T), was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated site north of Kuwait. The isolated strain showed the ability to degrade crude oil and various hydrocarbons. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 12-833(T) belonged to the genus Prauserella and was closely related to Prauserella muralis 05-Be-005(T) (98.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Prauserella marina MS498(T) (96.9%) and Prauserella rugosa DSM 43194(T) (96.7%). The DNA G+C content of strain 12-833(T) was 71.1 mol%. Phenotypic, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain 12-833(T) represents a novel species of the genus Prauserella, for which the name Prauserella soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 12-833(T) ( = DSM 45819(T) = LMG 28346(T)). PMID:26070693

  9. Antibacterial potential of antagonistic Streptomyces sp. isolated from marine sponge Dendrilla nigra.

    PubMed

    Selvin, Joseph; Joseph, Soniya; Asha, K R T; Manjusha, W A; Sangeetha, V S; Jayaseema, D M; Antony, M C; Denslin Vinitha, A J

    2004-11-01

    The role of Streptomyces sp. (BTL7) in synthesis of antibacterial agents reported from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra was evaluated. Selective isolation of actinomycetes was performed on the newly developed selective media, Sponge Agar (SA) 1 and SA 2. The growth rate and antibiotic production were increased on the media supplemented with sponge extract. The chosen isolate BTL7 showed inhibitory interaction with Micrococcus luteus and the extracellular products contained potent antibacterial agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration of BTL7 against M. luteus was 44 microg protein/ml and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 88 microg protein/ml. Peak antibacterial activity was observed at 72 h in batch culture. Based on the findings, it could be inferred that bacterial endosymbionts sponges could form a reliable source for bioprospecting of next generation pharmaceutical agents. PMID:19712370

  10. Potential Chemopreventive Activity of a New Macrolide Antibiotic from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Skylar; Marler, Laura; Nam, Sang-Jip; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Pezzuto, John M.; Murphy, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Agents capable of inducing phase II enzymes such as quinone reductase 1 (QR1) are known to have the potential of mediating cancer chemopreventive activity. As part of a program to discover novel phase II enzyme-inducing molecules, we identified a marine-derived actinomycete strain (CNJ-878) that exhibited activity with cultured Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on this activity, a new macrolide, juvenimicin C (1), as well as 5-O-α-l-rhamnosyltylactone (2), were isolated from the culture broth of a Micromonospora sp. Compound 1 enhanced QR1 enzyme activity and glutathione levels by two-fold with CD values of 10.1 and 27.7 μM, respectively. In addition, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities were elevated. This is the first reported member of the macrolide class of antibiotics found to mediate these responses. PMID:23552877

  11. Hormaomycins B and C: New Antibiotic Cyclic Depsipeptides from a Marine Mudflat-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Chung, Beomkoo; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microbial culture conditions may trigger the production of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. While applying various culture conditions and monitoring secondary metabolite profiles using LC/MS, hormaomycins B and C (1 and 2) were discovered from a marine mudflat-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., collected in Mohang, Korea. The planar structures of the hormaomycins, which bear structurally-unique units, such as 4-(Z)-propenylproline, 3-(2-nitrocyclopropyl)alanine, 5-chloro-1-hydroxypyrrol-2-carboxylic acid and β-methylphenylalanine, were established as the first natural analogues belonging to the hormaomycin peptide class. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were deduced by comparing their CD spectra with that of hormaomycin. These hormaomycins exhibited significant inhibitory effects against various pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26287218

  12. Hyaluromycin, a New Hyaluronidase Inhibitor of Polyketide Origin from Marine Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Harunari, Enjuro; Imada, Chiaki; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Fukuda, Takao; Terahara, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluromycin (1), a new member of the rubromycin family of antibiotics, was isolated from the culture extract of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. as a HAase inhibitor on the basis of HAase activity screening. The structure of 1 was elucidated through the interpretation of NMR data for the compound and its 3″-O-methyl derivative in combination with an incorporation experiment with [1,2-13C2]acetate. The compound’s absolute configuration was determined by the comparison of its circular dichroism (CD) spectrum with those of other rubromycins. Hyaluromycin (1) consists of a γ-rubromycin core structure possessing a 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone (C5N) unit as an amide substituent of the carboxyl function; both structural units have been reported only from actinomycetes. Hyaluromycin (1) displayed approximately 25-fold more potent hyaluronidase inhibitory activity against hyaluronidase than did glycyrrhizin, a known inhibitor of plant origin. PMID:24451191

  13. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  14. Immunologic relatedness of extracellular ligninases from the actinomycetes Streptomyces viridosporus T7A and Streptomyces badius 252

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, T.S.; Roberts, M.A.; Crawford, D.L.; Hertel, G.

    1991-12-31

    Four isoforms of the extracellular lignin peroxidase of the ligninolytic actinomycete Streptomyces viridosporus T7A (ALip-P1, P2, P3, and P4) were individually purified by ultrafiltration and ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by electro-elution using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Three of the purified peroxidases were compared for their immunologic relatedness by Western blot analysis using a polyclonal antibody preparation produced in rabbits against pure isoform P3. The anti-P3 antibody was also tested for its reactivity towards a lignin peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and another ligninolytic actinomycete Streptomyces badius 252. Results showed that peroxidases ALip-P1 through ALip-P3 are immunologically related to one another. The peroxidases of S. badius, but not the peroxidase of P. chrysosporium, also reacted with the antibody, thus indicating that the lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus and S. badius are immunologically related. Based upon its specific affinity, fignin peroxidase isoform ALip-P3 of S. viridosporus was readily purified using an anti-P3 antibody affinity column.

  15. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection

    PubMed Central

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  16. A Novel and Effective Streptomyces sp. N2 Against Various Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Chen, Wei; Wu, Zhi-ming; Long, Yue; Li, Kun-tai

    2015-11-01

    Phytopathogenic fungi would induce a variety of plant diseases, resulting in a severe reduction of agricultural output. However, the current plant disease control is mainly dependent on the environmentally and healthily hazardous chemical fungicides. Thus, the present work aimed to isolate an effective antagonistic microorganism against various soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. By dual culture with Rhizoctonia solani, a novel Streptomyces specie, Streptomyces sp. N2, was screened out from a total of 167 isolated actinomycetes, which displayed a strong inhibitory effect on R. solani (26.85 ± 1.35 mm of inhibition zone diameter). By means of macroporous resin and silica gel column chromatography coupled with preparative HPLC, an antifungal metabolite (3-methyl-3,5-amino-4-vinyl-2-pyrone, C6H7O2N) was isolated and purified from Streptomyces sp. N2. The bioassay results showed that the purified antifungal metabolite could not only possess a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on a range of plant pathogenic fungi in vitro (e.g., R. solani, Pyricularia grisea, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Penicillium italicum, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), but also had a significantly effective in vivo biocontrol efficacy on grape fruits anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides. Microscopic observation indicated that the antifungal metabolite from Streptomyces sp. N2 would exert its antimicrobial activity by disorganizing the cytoplasmic organelles of phytopathogenic fungi. The above results suggested that Streptomyces sp. N2 was one of promising fungicide for biocontrol of fungal plant diseases, especially due to its broad-spectrum and effective antagonist on various plant pathogens. PMID:26306529

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, A. M.; Alvarado, J.; Bruce, D.; Chertkov, O.; De Hoff, P. L.; Detter, J. C.; Fujishige, N. A.; Goodwin, L. A.; Han, J.; Han, S.; Ivanova, N.; Land, M. L.; Lum, M. R.; Milani-Nejad, N.; Nolan, M.; Pati, A.; Pitluck, S.; Tran, S. S.; Woyke, T.; Valdes, M.

    2013-08-29

    Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and ability to degrade complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Johana; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; De Hoff, Peter L.; Detter, John C.; Fujishige, Nancy A.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, James; Han, Shunsheng; Ivanova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L.; Lum, Michelle R.; Milani-Nejad, Nima; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Tran, Stephen S.; Woyke, Tanja; Valdés, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions, including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and degradation of complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico. PMID:24072863

  19. Streptomyces hyaluromycini sp. nov., isolated from a tunicate (Molgula manhattensis).

    PubMed

    Harunari, Enjuro; Hamada, Moriyuki; Shibata, Chiyo; Tamura, Tomohiko; Komaki, Hisayuki; Imada, Chiaki; Igarashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive actinomycete, designated MB-PO13(T), was isolated from a tunicate (Molgula manhattensis) collected in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and its taxonomic position was studied by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain MB-PO13(T) was closely related to Streptomyces graminisoli JR-12(T) (99.72% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces shenzhenensis 172115(T) (99.23%). The strain contained LL-diaminopimelic acid in the whole-cell hydrolysate. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0 and C16:0. These data supported the affiliation of the novel strain to the genus Streptomyces. Meanwhile, results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests indicated that strain MB-PO13(T) was distinguished from known Streptomyces type strains. Therefore, strain MB-PO13(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces hyaluromycini sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is MB-PO13(T) (=NBRC 110483(T) =DSM 100105(T)). PMID:26531686

  20. Streptopyridines, volatile pyridine alkaloids produced by Streptomyces sp. FORM5

    PubMed Central

    Groenhagen, Ulrike; Maczka, Michael; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Streptomyces sp. FORM5 is a bacterium that is known to produce the antibiotic streptazolin and related compounds. We investigated the strain for the production of volatiles using the CLSA (closed-loop stripping analysis) method. Liquid and agar plate cultures revealed the formation of new 2-alkylpyridines (streptopyridines), structurally closely related to the already known 2-pentadienylpiperidines. The structures of the streptopyridines A to E were confirmed by total synthesis. The analysis of the liquid phase by solvent extraction or extraction with an Oasis adsorbent showed that streptazolin and 2-pentadienylpiperidine are the major compounds, while the streptopyridines are only minor components. In the gas phase, only the streptopyridines could be detected. Therefore, an orthogonal set of analysis is needed to assess the metabolic profile of bacteria, because volatile compounds are obviously overlooked by traditional analytical methods. The streptopyridines are strain specific volatiles that are accompanied by a broad range of headspace constituents that occur in many actinomycetes. Volatiles might be of ecological importance for the producing organism, and, as biosynthetic intermediates or shunt products, they can be useful as indicators of antibiotic production in a bacterium. PMID:24991297

  1. Micromonospora soli sp. nov., isolated from rice rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Thawai, Chitti; Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Thanaboripat, Dusanee; Laosinwattana, Chamroon; Koohakan, Prommart; Parinthawong, Nonglak

    2016-03-01

    An actinomycete strain SL3-70(T) was isolated from a rice field and characterised using a polyphasic approach. The morphological and chemotaxonomical characteristics of strain SL3-70(T) indicate that it belongs to the genus Micromonospora. The phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain SL3-70(T) is a member of the genus Micromonospora, and is closely related to Micromonospora echinaurantica DSM 43904(T) (99.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Micromonospora kangleipakensis MBRL 34(T) (98.8 %). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain SL3-70(T) and its relatives ranged from 21.2 % ± 0.6 to 38.7 % ± 0.4. The results obtained from our study indicate that strain SL3-70(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL3-70(T) (=BCC 67268(T); =NBRC 110009(T)). PMID:26800665

  2. Micromonospora humi sp. nov., isolated from peat swamp forest soil.

    PubMed

    Songsumanus, Apakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Thawai, Chitti; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Kudo, Takuji

    2011-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain P0402(T), was isolated from peat swamp forest soil collected in Thailand. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of this strain matched those of the genus Micromonospora, i.e. the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and N-glycolyl muramic acid in the peptidoglycan, whole-cell sugar pattern D, phospholipid type II, and cellular fatty acid type 3b. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a close relationship between strain P0402(T) and Micromonospora coxensis JCM 13248(T) (99.0 % similarity), Micromonospora eburnea JCM 12345(T) (99.0 %), Micromonospora marina JCM 12870(T) (98.9 %), Micromonospora halophytica JCM 3125(T) (98.7 %), Micromonospora chalcea JCM 3031(T) (98.7 %), Micromonospora purpureochromogenes JCM 3156(T) (98.6 %) and Micromonospora aurantiaca JCM 10878(T) (98.5 %). It could be clearly distinguished from these type strains based on low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic differences. On the basis of the data presented, strain P0402(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P0402(T) ( = JCM 15292(T)  = PCU 315(T)  = TISTR 1883(T)). PMID:20562246

  3. Catenulispora fulva sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated SA-246T, was isolated from a forest soil sample collected from Chungnam, South Korea. Applying a polyphasic approach, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Catenulispora using morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, including the presence of ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine in the peptidoglycan. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained predominantly rhamnose, mannose, ribose, arabinose, galactose and glucose. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain SA-246T belongs to the genus Catenulispora, showing the highest sequence similarity to Catenulispora yoronensis TT N02-20T (98.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Catenulispora subtropica TT 99-48T (98.2 %), Catenulispora graminis BR-34T (97.4 %), Catenulispora rubra Aac-30T (97.4 %) and Catenulispora acidiphila ID139908T (97.3 %). On the basis of polyphasic analysis from this study, strain SA-246T represents a novel species of the genus Catenulispora, for which the name Catenulispora fulva sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA-246T ( = KACC 17878T = NBRC 110074T). PMID:26507964

  4. Nocardia altamirensis sp. nov., isolated from Altamira cave, Cantabria, Spain.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Valme; Boiron, Patrick; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Laurent, Frédéric; Couble, Andrée; Laiz, Leonila; Klenk, Hans-Peter; González, Juan M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Mouniée, Delphine; Bergeron, Emanuelle; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2008-09-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, OFN S17(T), was isolated from a sample collected from Altamira Cave, Cantabria, Spain. This strain was identified by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The 16S rRNA, hsp65 and sod gene sequences of the strain were determined and compared with those of representative Nocardia species. The results showed that strain OFN S17(T) should be assigned to the genus Nocardia. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain OFN S17(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Nocardia tenerifensis (98.6, 96.2 and 96% similarity, respectively, for the 16S rRNA, hsp65 and sod gene sequences). The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses revealed 29% relative reassociation between the DNA of strain OFN S17(T) and N. tenerifensis DSM 44704(T). The phenotypic and genotypic data show that strain OFN S17(T) merits recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia altamirensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OFN S17(T) (=CIP 109606(T) =DSM 44997(T)). PMID:18768631

  5. Cadmium biosorption by Streptomyces sp. F4 isolated from former uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Siñeriz, Manuel Louis; Kothe, Erika; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2009-09-01

    46 actinomycetes were isolated from two polluted sites and one unpolluted site. One strain, F4, was selected through primary qualitative screening assays because of its cadmium resistance, and physiologically and taxonomically characterized. F4 was able to grow at 7.5% NaCl and 100 microg/ml lysozyme and at a pH between 6 and 10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that F4 was closely related to Streptomyces tendae. Growth of Streptomyces sp. F4 on culture medium with 8 mg/l Cd(2+) for 8 days showed 80% inhibition. Maximum specific biosorption was 41.7 mg Cd(2+)/g dry weight after 7 days of growth and highest Cd(2+ )concentration was found in the cell wall (41.2%). The exopolysaccharide layer only contained 7.4%, whereas 39.4% of Cd(2+) was found in the cytosolic fraction. Twelve % was found in the ribosomes and membrane fraction. This was verified with TEM, showing Streptomyces sp. F4 cytoplasm with dark granulate appearance. This study could present the potential capacity of Streptomyces sp. F4 for Cd(2+) bioremediation. PMID:19322827

  6. Extraction and Identification of Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from Marine Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Benita Mercy; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediment samples collected from the east coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Well diffusion and agar plug methods were used for the evaluation of antibiotic production by these isolates against drug resistant Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE). The potential isolate VITBRK2 was mass cultured for morphological and physiological characterization. The culturing conditions of the isolate were optimized and the recommendations of International Streptomyces Project were followed for the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen sources. The isolate was identified by comparing the properties with representative species in the key of Nonomura and Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Ethyl acetate extract prepared from the cell free culture broth of the isolate was analyzed using HPLC- diode array technique to characterize the metabolites and identify the antibiotics. VITBRK2 was found to be Gram-positive rod grey color aerial mycelium production. It was also non motile in nature with spiral spore chain morphology. VITBRK2 was identified as Streptomyces and designated as Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2. HPLC-DAD analysis showed the presence of indolo compounds (3- methyl-indole and 2-methyl- indole) along with amicoumacin antibiotic. The observed activity of Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2 against MRSA and VRE strains may be due to the presence of indolo compounds in the isolate. The results of this study suggested that secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2 could be used as a lead to control drug resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:25317399

  7. Actinomadura amylolytica sp. nov. and Actinomadura cellulosilytica sp. nov., isolated from geothermally heated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian-Yu; Liu, Lan; Zhou, En-Min; Wei, Da-Qiao; Ming, Hong; Xian, Wen-Dong; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Zhong, Jing-Mei; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-positive actinomycetes, designated YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T), were isolated from geothermally heated soil of Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-west China. The taxonomic position of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) belong to the genus Actinomadura. Both strains form extensively-branched substrate and aerial mycelia which differentiated into short spore chains. The cell wall of the two strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, while the whole-cell sugars detected were glucose, madurose, mannose and rhamnose. The polar lipid profile of strain YIM 77502(T) was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylinositol, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified polar lipid, while strain YIM 77510(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and phosphatidylinositol. The respiratory quinones of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids (>10 %) of strain YIM 77502(T) were C17:0, iso-C16:0, C17:010-methyl and iso-C18:0, and those of strain YIM 77510(T) were iso-C16:0, C17:010-methyl and iso-C18:0. The G+C contents of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were determined to be 71.3 and 70.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values of strains YIM 77502(T), YIM 77510(T) and their closest phylogenetic neighbours Actinomadura echinospora BCRC 12547(T) and Actinomadura umbrina KCTC 9343(T) were less than 70 %. Based on the morphological and physiological properties, and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the names Actinomadura amylolytica sp. nov. (type strain YIM 77502(T) = DSM 45822(T) = CCTCC AA 2012024(T)) and Actinomadura cellulosilytica sp. nov. (type

  8. A Pimarane Diterpene and Cytotoxic Angucyclines from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp. in Vietnam’s East Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mullowney, Michael W.; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Tanouye, Urszula; Burdette, Joanna E.; Pham, Van Cuong; Murphy, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1), lagumycin B (2), dehydrorabelomycin (3), phenanthroviridone (4), and WS-5995 A (5). These secondary metabolites were produced by a Micromonospora sp. isolated from sediment collected off the Cát Bà peninsula in the East Sea of Vietnam. Compound 1 is a novel Δ8,9-pimarane diterpene, representing one of approximately 20 actinomycete-produced diterpenes reported to date, while compound 2 is an angucycline antibiotic that has yet to receive formal characterization. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by combined NMR and MS analysis and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by analysis of NOESY NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Compounds 2–5 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity against a panel of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. Overall, this study highlights our collaborative efforts to discover novel biologically active molecules from the large, underexplored, and biodiversity-rich waters of Vietnam’s East Sea. PMID:26389922

  9. A Pimarane Diterpene and Cytotoxic Angucyclines from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp. in Vietnam's East Sea.

    PubMed

    Mullowney, Michael W; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Tanouye, Urszula; Burdette, Joanna E; Pham, Van Cuong; Murphy, Brian T

    2015-09-01

    A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1), lagumycin B (2), dehydrorabelomycin (3), phenanthroviridone (4), and WS-5995 A (5). These secondary metabolites were produced by a Micromonospora sp. isolated from sediment collected off the Cát Bà peninsula in the East Sea of Vietnam. Compound 1 is a novel Δ(8,9)-pimarane diterpene, representing one of approximately 20 actinomycete-produced diterpenes reported to date, while compound 2 is an angucycline antibiotic that has yet to receive formal characterization. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by combined NMR and MS analysis and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by analysis of NOESY NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Compounds 2-5 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity against a panel of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. Overall, this study highlights our collaborative efforts to discover novel biologically active molecules from the large, underexplored, and biodiversity-rich waters of Vietnam's East Sea. PMID:26389922

  10. Hoyosella altamirensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the order Actinomycetales isolated from a cave biofilm.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Valme; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesáreo; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Mouniée, Delphine; Laiz, Leonila; Couble, Andrée; Pötter, Gabriele; Boiron, Patrick; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2009-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain OFN S31(T), was isolated from a complex biofilm in the Altamira Cave, Spain. A polyphasic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of this strain. Phylogenetic analysis with 16S rRNA gene sequences of representatives of the genera Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Gordonia, Millisia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Segniliparus, Skermania, Tsukamurella and Williamsia indicated that strain OFN S31(T) formed a distinct taxon in the 16S rRNA gene tree that was more closely associated with the Mycobacterium clade. The type strain of Mycobacterium fallax was the closest relative of strain OFN S31(T) (95.6 % similarity). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose, which are characteristic components of cell-wall chemotype IV of actinomycetes. The sugars of the peptidoglycan were acetylated. The polar lipid pattern was composed of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. Strain OFN S31(T) is characterized by the absence of mycelium and mycolic acids. Strain OFN S31(T) had MK-8 as the major menaquinone. The DNA G+C content was 49.3 mol%, the lowest found among all taxa included in the suborder Corynebacterineae. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and genetic characteristics, strain OFN S31(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Hoyosella altamirensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Hoyosella altamirensis is strain OFN S31(T) (=CIP 109864(T) =DSM 45258(T)). PMID:19643882

  11. Potential of Microbispora sp. V2 as biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative agent of southern blight of Zea mays L (Baby corn)--in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, N N; Waghmode, M S; Gaikwad, P S; Gajbhiye, M H; Gunjal, A B; Nawani, N N; Kapadnis, B P

    2014-11-01

    The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 microg mL(-1) of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses' great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses. PMID:25434111

  12. The complete genome sequence of the acarbose producer Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 is known as the wild type producer of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, a potent drug used worldwide in the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. As the incidence of diabetes is rapidly rising worldwide, an ever increasing demand for diabetes drugs, such as acarbose, needs to be anticipated. Consequently, derived Actinoplanes strains with increased acarbose yields are being used in large scale industrial batch fermentation since 1990 and were continuously optimized by conventional mutagenesis and screening experiments. This strategy reached its limits and is generally superseded by modern genetic engineering approaches. As a prerequisite for targeted genetic modifications, the complete genome sequence of the organism has to be known. Results Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 [GenBank:CP003170], the first publicly available genome of the genus Actinoplanes, comprising various producers of pharmaceutically and economically important secondary metabolites. The genome features a high mean G + C content of 71.32% and consists of one circular chromosome with a size of 9,239,851 bp hosting 8,270 predicted protein coding sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the core genome revealed a rather distant relation to other sequenced species of the family Micromonosporaceae whereas Actinoplanes utahensis was found to be the closest species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. Besides the already published acarbose biosynthetic gene cluster sequence, several new non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-, polyketide synthase- and hybrid-clusters were identified on the Actinoplanes genome. Another key feature of the genome represents the discovery of a functional actinomycete integrative and conjugative element. Conclusions The complete genome sequence of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 marks an important step towards the rational genetic optimization of the acarbose production. In this regard, the

  13. Cultivable actinomycetes from rhizosphere of birch (Betula pendula) growing on a coal mine dump in Silets, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ostash, Bohdan; Gren, Tetiana; Hrubskyy, Yaroslav; Tistechok, Stepan; Beshley, Stepan; Baranov, Volodymyr; Fedorenko, Victor

    2014-08-01

    Five actinomycete strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of birch, one of a few native tree forms capable of thriving on the upper level of a coal mine dump near the village of Silets (Lvivska region, Ukraine). No such strains were isolated from surrounding gangue, or from nearby grass Calamagrostis epigeios. Using 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis of cell wall aminoacids, four of these strains were shown to belong to genus Streptomyces and one to be Amycolatopsis. The isolates were able to produce siderophores and antibacterial compounds. In comparison to the reference strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, certain rhizospheric isolates displayed somewhat increased survival in the presence of copper, iron(III), or chromium(VI) salts. The Amycolatopsis isolate was also shown to accumulate significant quantities of heavy metals from waste extracts. Possible roles of the described strains in coal mine dump ecology are discussed. PMID:23686352

  14. Chemical Composition of Cell-Wall Preparations from Strains of Various Form-Genera of Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Becker, B.; Lechevalier, M. P.; Lechevalier, H. A.

    1965-01-01

    Cell-wall preparations were made from more than 140 strains of aerobic actinomycetes representing most of the form-genera that have been proposed. All cell-wall preparations contained as major constituents glucosamine, muramic acid, alanine, and glutamic acid. In addition, cell-wall preparations from various types of streptomycetes and strains of Microëllobosporia contained glycine and ll-α,ε-diaminopimelic acid; those from strains of most Actinoplanaceae and micromonosporae contained glycine and meso-α-ε-diaminopimelic acid; those from strains of Thermoactinomyces, Microbispora, Dermatophilus, and nocardiae of the madurae-pelletieri group contained meso-α,ε-diaminopimelic acid; and those from strains of Thermomonospora, Micropolyspora, and most nocardiae contained meso-α,ε-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, and galactose. All the strains used were also studied morphologically. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14325886

  15. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of novel polyene type antimicrobial metabolite producing actinomycetes from marine sediments: Bay of Bengal India

    PubMed Central

    Valan, Arasu M; Asha, KRT; Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S; Agastian, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To isolate and indentify the promising antimicrobial metabolite producing Streptomyces strains from marine sediment samples from Andrapradesh coast of India. Methods Antagonistic actinomycetes were isolated by starch casein agar medium and modified nutrient agar medium with 1% glucose used as a base for primary screening. Significant antimicrobial metabolite producing strains were selected and identified by using biochemical and 16S rDNA level. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the organic extracts were done by using broth micro dilution method. Results Among the 210 actinomycetes, 64.3% exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria, 48.5 % showed activity towards Gram negative bacteria, 38.8% exhibited both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85 % isolates revealed significant antifungal activity. However, five isolates AP-5, AP-18, AP-41 and AP-70 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The analysis of cell wall hydrolysates showed the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in all the isolates. Sequencing analysis indicated that the isolates shared 98.5%-99.8% sequence identity to the 16S rDNA gene sequences of the Streptomyces taxons. The antimicrobial substances were extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which strains were cultivated at 30°Cfor five days. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro dilution technique. Each of the culture extracts from these five strains showed a typical polyene-like property. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts against Escherichia coli and Curvularia lunata were 67.5 and 125.0 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that hexane and ethyl acetate soluble extracellular products of novel isolates are effective against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. PMID:23569851

  16. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  17. Halichoblelide D, a New Elaiophylin Derivative with Potent Cytotoxic Activity from Mangrove-Derived Streptomyces sp. 219807.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Tian, Erli; Xu, Dongbo; Ma, Min; Deng, Zixin; Hong, Kui

    2016-01-01

    During our search for interesting bioactive secondary metabolites from mangrove actinomycetes, the strain Streptomyces sp. 219807 which produced a high elaiophylin yield of 4486 mg/L was obtained. A new elaiophylin derivative, halichoblelide D (1), along with seven known analogues 2-8 was isolated and identified from the culture broth. Their chemical structures were determined by detailed analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS data. The absolute configuration of halichoblelide D (1) was confirmed by comparing the CD spectrum with those of the reported analogues. Compounds 1-7 exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against HeLa and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.19 to 2.12 μM. PMID:27463707

  18. Butrepyrazinone, a New Pyrazinone with an Unusual Methylation Pattern from a Ghanaian Verrucosispora sp. K51G

    PubMed Central

    Kyeremeh, Kwaku; Acquah, Kojo Sekyi; Camas, Mustafa; Tabudravu, Jioji; Houssen, Wael; Deng, Hai; Jaspars, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    We report the structural characterization of a new pyrazinone analogue; butrepyrazinone, which was isolated from a new actinomycete strain Verrucosispora sp. K51G recovered from Ghanaian mangrove river sediment. Spectroscopy-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a compound from the fermentation culture and a combination of NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry and computer-aided calculations revealed that butrepyrazinone (10) possesses an unusual methylation pattern on the pyrazinone ring. Butrepyrazinone (10), however, displayed no antibacterial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 25923, the Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 and a panel of clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, suggesting that 10 may act as a signal molecule for this strain. Although the same molecule has been synthesized previously, this is the first report to disclose the discovery of butrepyrazinone (10) from nature. PMID:25325732

  19. Violapyrones H and I, new cytotoxic compounds isolated from Streptomyces sp. associated with the marine starfish Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Jae; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Junho; Lee, Min Ah; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-06-01

    Two new α-pyrone derivatives, violapyrones H (1) and I (2), along with known violapyrones B (3) and C (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. The strain was derived from a crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, collected from Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. The structures of violapyrones were elucidated by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESIMS data. Violapyrones (1-4) exhibited cytotoxicity against 10 human cancer cell lines with GI50 values of 1.10-26.12 μg/mL when tested using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. This is the first report on the cytotoxicity of violapyrones against cancer cell lines and the absolute configuration of violapyrone C. PMID:24886866

  20. Comparison of denitrification between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Srinandan S; Pande, Samay; Kapoor, Ashish; Nerurkar, Anuradha S

    2011-09-01

    Denitrification was compared between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp. in this study, both of which were isolated from activated sludge of a denitrifying reactor. Denitrification of both isolates showed contrasting patterns, where Diaphorobacter sp. showed accumulation of nitrite in the medium while Paracoccus sp. showed no accumulation. The nitrate reduction rate was 1.5 times more than the nitrite reduction in Diaphorobacter sp., as analyzed by the resting state denitrification kinetics. Increasing the nitrate concentration in the medium increased the nitrite accumulation in Diaphorobacter sp., but not in Paracoccus sp., indicating a branched electron transfer during denitrification. Diaphorobacter sp. was unable to denitrify efficiently at high nitrate concentrations from 1 M, but Paracoccus sp. could denitrify even up to 2 M nitrate. Paracoccus sp. was found to be an efficient denitrifier with insignificant amounts of nitrite accumulation, and it could also denitrify high amounts of nitrate up to 2 M. Efficient denitrification without accumulation of intermediates like nitrite is desirable in the removal of high nitrates from wastewaters. Paracoccus sp. is shown to suffice this demand and could be a potential organism to remove high nitrates effectively. PMID:21509603

  1. Structure of an MmyB-Like Regulator from C. aurantiacus, Member of a New Transcription Factor Family Linked to Antibiotic Metabolism in Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Lesley, Scott A.; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are important bacterial sources of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Many antibiotic gene clusters are controlled by pathway-specific activators that act in response to growth conditions. Here we present the crystal structure of an MmyB-like transcription regulator MltR (PDB code 3pxp) (Caur_2278) from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, in complex with a fatty acid (myristic acid). MltR is a distant homolog of the methylenomycin activator MmyB and consists of an Xre-type N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding module that is related to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain. This structure has enabled identification of a new family of bacterial transcription factors that are distributed predominantly in actinomycetes. Bioinformatics analysis of MltR and other characterized family members suggest that they are likely associated with antibiotic and fatty acid metabolism in actinomycetes. Streptomyces coelicolor SCO4944 is a candidate as an ancestral member of the family. Its ortholog in S. griseus, SGR_6891, is induced by A-factor, a γ-butyrolactone that controls antibiotic production and development, and is adjacent to the A-factor synthase gen, afsA. The location of mltR/mmyB homologs, in particular those adjacent to less well-studied antibiotic-related genes, makes them interesting genetic markers for identifying new antibiotic genes. A model for signal-triggered DNA-binding by MltR is proposed. PMID:22844465

  2. Micromonospora mangrovi sp. nov., isolated from mangrove soil.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing-Yi; Ren, Jian; Li, Lei; Li, Yu; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2016-04-01

    A novel actinomycete strain 2803GPT1-18(T) was isolated from a composite mangrove soil sample collected from Beihai, Guangxi province, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 2803GPT1-18(T) indicated high similarity with 'Micromonospora harpali' NEAU-JC6(T) (99.2 %), Micromonospora haikouensis 232617(T) (99.1 %), Micromonospora wenchangensis 2602GPT1-05(T) (99.1 %), Micromonospora schwarzwaldensis HKI0641(T) (99.1 %). The gyrB gene sequence analysis also indicated that strain 2803GPT1-18(T) should be assigned to the genus Micromonospora but different from any established Micromonospora species. The strain harbored meso-DAP and glycine as major cell wall amino acids, MK-10(H6) (53.5 %), MK-9(H6) (25.1 %) and MK-9(H4) (13.4 %) as predominant menaquinones. The characteristic whole cell sugars are arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose and mannose. The polar lipid profile comprises phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids present are iso-C16:0 (44.2 %) and iso-C15:0 (12.4 %). The DNA G+C content is 71.2 mol%. Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA relatedness and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that the novel strain could be readily distinguished from the closely related species. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, strain 2803GPT1-18(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2803GPT1-18(T) (=CCTCC AA2012012(T) = DSM45761(T)). PMID:26942919

  3. Micromonospora zhanjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from mangrove forest soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Lei; Deng, Zixin; Hong, Kui

    2015-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 2902at01T was isolated from soil collected at a mangrove forest in Zhanjiang, Guangdong province, China. The strain was identified using a polyphasic classification method. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 2902at01T showed the highest similarity to Micromonospora equina Y22T (98.3 %) and Micromonospora pattaloongensis TJ2-2T (98.1 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence also clearly showed that the strain was different from any previously discovered species of the genus Micromonospora. The characteristic whole-cell sugars were ribose and xylose. The cell-wall hydrolysates contained alanine, asparagine, glycine and meso-diaminopimelic acid. MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H8) were the major menaquinones of the novel strain. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The characteristic polar lipids of strain 2902at01T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 70.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization data combined with other physiological and biochemical features could distinguish strain 2902at01T from the reference strains M. equina Y22T and M. pattaloongensis TJ2-2 T. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, strain 2902at01T represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2902at01T ( = CCTCC AA2014018T = DSM 45902T). PMID:26446196

  4. Aeromicrobium halotolerans sp. nov., isolated from desert soil sample.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Lin, Pei; Chu, Xiao; Kook, MooChang; Li, Chang-Tian; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-07-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, and non-motile, rod-shaped actinomycete strain, designated YIM Y47(T), was isolated from soils collected from Turpan desert, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain YIM Y47(T) belonged to the genus Aeromicrobium. YIM Y47(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Aeromicrobium massiliense JC14(T) (96.47 %). Growth occurs at 20-45 °C (optimum at 30 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum at pH 7.0), and salinities of 0-7.0 % NaCl (optimum at 4.0 %). The strain YIM Y47(T) exhibits chemotaxonomic features with menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the predominant quinone, C16:0, C18:1 ω9c and 10-methyl C18:0 (>10 %) as major fatty acids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain YIM Y47(T) contained LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM Y47(T) was found to be 44.7 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM Y47(T) should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Aeromicrobium, with the name Aeromicrobium halotolerans sp. nov. The type strain is YIM Y47(T) (=KCTC 39113(T)=CGMCC 1.15063(T)=DSM 29939(T)=JCM 30627(T)). PMID:26892181

  5. Micromonospora fluostatini sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2015-12-01

    The novel actinomycete strain PWB-003T, which produced fluostatins B and C antibiotics, was isolated from nearshore sediment collected from Panwa Cape, Phuket Province, Thailand. Data from the present polyphasic study indicated that strain PWB-003T represented a member of the genus Micromonospora. It produced single spores on substrate mycelia and contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Whole-cell hydrolysate contained ribose, xylose, arabinose, mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-10 (H4). Cellular fatty acids comprised C18 : 1ω9c, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, the novel strain was closely related to Micromonospora eburnea LK2-10T (99.38 %), Micromonospora chaiyaphumensis MC5-1T (99.16 %), Micromonospora yangpuensis FXJ6.011T (98.97 %), Micromonospora echinaurantiaca DSM 43904T (98.97 %), Micromonospora pallida DSM 43817T (98.97 %), Micromonospora sagamiensis DSM 43912T and Micromonospora auratinigra JCM 12357T (both 98.97 %). The G+C content of the DNA was 74.5 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain PWB-003T and related type strains ranged from 11.3 ± 1.3 to 38.8 ± 1.1 %. On the basis of these observations, strain PWB-003T could be distinguished from its closely related type strains and is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora fluostatini sp. nov. (type strain PWB-003T = JCM 30529T = PCU 341T = TISTR 2345T) is proposed. PMID:26358439

  6. Kineococcus gypseus sp. nov., isolated from saline sediment.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinyuan; Li, Guiding; Chen, Xiu; Xu, Fangji; Li, Yong; Xu, LiHua; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Chenglin

    2015-10-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming coccus-shaped actinomycete, designated strain YIM 121300T, was isolated from alkaline sediment in Yuanjiang, Yunnan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain YIM 121300T was affiliated to the genus Kineococcus, and was closely related to Kineococcus aurantiacus IFO 15268T (97.3 % similarity). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other species of the genus Kineococcus was < 97 %. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The whole-cell sugars contained arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H2). Mycolic acids were not detected. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unknown phospholipid. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 1 A. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 75.1 mol%. DNA–DNA relatedness (55 ± 4 % to K. aurantiacus IFO 15268T) and differential phenotypic data demonstrated that strain YIM 121300T was distinguished from all related species of the genus Kineococcus. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic study, the organism should be assigned to a novel species of the genus Kineococcus, for which the name Kineococcus gypseus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 121300T ( = CCTCC AA 2013232T = DSM 27627T). PMID:26232950

  7. Analysis of pFQ31, a 8551-bp cryptic plasmid from the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia.

    PubMed

    Lavire, C; Louis, D; Perrière, G; Briolay, J; Normand, P; Cournoyer, B

    2001-04-01

    The actinomycete Frankia has never been transformed genetically. To favour the development of Frankia cloning vectors, we have fully sequenced the Frankia alni pFQ31 cryptic plasmid and performed analyses to characterise its coding and non-coding regions. This plasmid is 8551 bp-long and contains 72% G+C. Computer-assisted analyses identified 18 open reading frames (ORFs). These ORFs show a synonymous codon usage different from the one of Frankia chromosomal genes, suggesting an evolutionary bias linked to the nature of the replicon or a horizontal transfer. Three ORFs were found to encode genes likely to be involved in plasmid replication and stability: parFA (partition protein), ptrFA (transcriptional repressor of the GntR family) and repFA (initiation of replication). DNA signatures of a replication origin were identified in the ptrFA-repFA intergenic region. These structural motifs are similar to those observed among origins of iteron-containing plasmids replicating via a θ mode. PMID:11287155

  8. Chromomycins A2 and A3 from marine actinomycetes with TRAIL resistance-overcoming and Wnt signal inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Toume, Kazufumi; Tsukahara, Kentaro; Ito, Hanako; Arai, Midori A; Ishibashi, Masami

    2014-06-01

    A biological screening study of an actinomycetes strain assembly was conducted using a cell-based cytotoxicity assay. The CKK1019 strain was isolated from a sea sand sample. Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the CKK1019 strain culture broth, which exhibited cytotoxicity, led to the isolation of chromomycins A2 (1) and A3 (2). 1 and 2 showed potent cytotoxicity against the human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line (IC50 1; 1.7 and 2; 22.1 nM), as well as strong inhibitory effects against TCF/β-catenin transcription (IC50 1; 1.8 and 2; 15.9 nM). 2 showed the ability to overcome tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of chromomycins A2 (1) and A3 (2) on TRAIL resistance-overcoming activity, and on the Wnt signaling pathway, have not been reported previously. Thus, 1 and 2 warrant potential drug lead studies in relation to TRAIL-resistant and Wnt signal-related diseases and offer potentially useful chemical probes for investigating TRAIL resistance and the Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:24905484

  9. Natural merodiploidy involving duplicated rpoB alleles affects secondary metabolism in a producer actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Vigliotta, Giovanni; Tredici, Salvatore Maurizio; Damiano, Fabrizio; Montinaro, Maria Rosa; Pulimeno, Rita; di Summa, Roberta; Massardo, Domenica Rita; Gnoni, Gabriele V; Alifano, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Actinomadura sp. ATCC 39727 produces the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926, structurally similar to teicoplanin. Production of A40926 is governed by the stringent response at the transcriptional level. In fact, addition of an amino acid pool prevented the transcription of dbv cluster genes involved in the A40926 biosynthesis and the antibiotic production in chemically defined media, and a thiostrepton-resistant relaxed mutant was severely impaired in its ability to produce the antibiotic. The derivative strain rif19, highly resistant to rifampicin (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC > 200 microg ml(-1)), was isolated from the wild type strain that exhibited low resistance to rifampicin (MIC < 25 microg ml(-1)). In this strain A40926 production started earlier than in the wild type, and reached higher final levels. Moreover, the antibiotic production was not subjected to the stringent control. Molecular analysis led to the identification of two distinct rpoB alleles, rpoBS and rpoBR, in both the wild type and the rif19. rpoBR harboured the H426N missense which is responsible for rifampicin-resistance in bacteria, in addition to other nucleotide substitutions affecting the primary structure of the RNA polymerase beta-chain. Transcript analysis revealed that rpoBR was expressed at a very low level in the wild type strain during the pseudo-exponential growth phase, and that the amount of rpoBR mRNA increased during the transition to the stationary phase. In contrast, expression of rpoBR was constitutive in the rif19. The results of mRNA half-life analysis did not support the hypothesis that post-transcriptional events are responsible for the different rpoB expression patterns in the two strains, suggesting a role of transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:15659159

  10. Streptomyces atriruber sp. nov. and Streptomyces silaceus sp. nov.: New Species of Equine Origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Actinomycete strains isolated from lesions on equine placentas in Kentucky were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic identification. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, morphological observations, and the presence of the LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino-acid in whole...

  11. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116 Vanillin Dehydrogenase and Its Impact on the Biotechnical Production of Vanillin

    PubMed Central

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDHATCC 39116). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vanillin dehydrogenase in Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was investigated for the first time by using data from our genome sequence analysis and further bioinformatic approaches. The vdh gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the encoded vanillin dehydrogenase was characterized in detail. VDHATCC 39116 was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity and exhibited NAD+-dependent activity toward vanillin, coniferylaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. The enzyme showed its highest level of activity toward vanillin at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 44°C. In a next step, a precise vdh deletion mutant of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was generated. The mutant lost its ability to grow on vanillin and did not show vanillin dehydrogenase activity. A 2.3-times-higher vanillin concentration and a substantially reduced amount of vanillic acid occurred with the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Kmr mutant when ferulic acid was provided for biotransformation in a cultivation experiment on a 2-liter-bioreactor scale. Based on these results and taking further metabolic engineering into account, the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Kmr mutant represents an optimized and industrially applicable platform for the biotechnological production of natural vanillin. PMID:23064333

  12. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  13. Laser sculpting of atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunmei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-01-12

    Atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals were introduced by Linus Pauling to explain the nature of the chemical bond. Quantum dynamics simulations show that they can be sculpted by means of a selective series of coherent laser pulses, starting from the 1s orbital of the hydrogen atom. Laser hybridization generates atoms with state-selective electric dipoles, opening up new possibilities for the study of chemical reaction dynamics and heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:25257703

  14. Corynebacterium appendicis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A F; Steiner, U; Ludwig, W

    2002-07-01

    A lipophilic, coryneform bacterium isolated from a human clinical specimen was characterized by phenotypic and molecular-taxonomic methods. Chemotaxonomic investigations revealed the presence of cell-wall chemotype IV and short-chain mycolic acids consistent with the genus Corynebacterium. The isolate could be distinguished from other members of the genus Corynebacterium by positive urease and catalase tests as well as its failure to produce acid from carbohydrates. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that this isolate constitutes a distinct subline within the genus Corynebacterium, displaying >3.0% sequence divergence from other known Corynebacterium species. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that this isolate be classified as a novel species, Corynebacterium appendicis sp. nov., represented by strain IMMIB R-3491T (= DSM 44531T = NRRL B-24151T). PMID:12148623

  15. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain. PMID:13678040

  16. DADiSP processing guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    A guide for DADiSP software, intended for use by the Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) Team during and after the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-1 mission, is presented. DADiSP is a Data Analysis and Display Software developed and marketed by DSP Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This guide is intended to be used in addition to the DADiSP Worksheet User Manual and Reference Manual which are supplied by the company with the software. Technical support for DADiSP is available from DSP at (617) 577-1133. Access to DADiSP on Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) EGSE is being provided to the LPE team during USMP-1 for off-line processing of SAMS data.

  17. Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Monika; Worliczek, Hanna; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, designated D-1,5a(T) and D-1,5b, were isolated from a medieval wall painting in the chapel of Castle Herberstein, Styria (Austria). The Gram-positive, heterotrophic, aerobic, spore-forming rods showed nearly identical whole-cell protein patterns, identical genomic fingerprints and identical physiological profiles, demonstrating their relationship at the species level. Both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan, possessed a quinone system comprising menaquinone MK-7 and had fatty acid profiles in which C(15:0) iso and C(15:0) anteiso were predominant. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of D-1,5a(T) showed the highest similarity (99.5%) to the sequence of Bacillus sp. LMG 20243, and Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T) was the next most closely related established species (96.5%). Other type strains, such as Bacillus fastidiosus DSM 91(T), Bacillus indicus SD/3(T), Bacillus cibi JG-30(T), Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T), Bacillus cohnii DSM 6308(T), Bacillus bataviensis LMG 21833(T) and Bacillus soli LMG 21838(T), shared 96.0-96.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with D-1,5a(T). The combination of physiological and chemotaxonomic traits distinguishes the two strains from those species sharing the highest sequence similarities (96.0-96.5%). On the basis of these characteristics and the phylogenetic position of strain D-1,5a(T) (=DSM 16534(T)=CCM 7228(T)), this strain is assigned as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:16166719

  18. Genetically engineering Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 for the sustainable production of the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Daddy, Soumana; He, Qingfang

    2014-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid is the precursor of phenylpropanoids, which are plant secondary metabolites that are beneficial to human health. Tyrosine ammonia lyase catalyzes the production of p-coumaric acid from tyrosine. Because of their photosynthetic ability and biosynthetic versatility, cyanobacteria are promising candidates for the production of certain plant metabolites, including phenylpropanoids. Here, we produced p-coumaric acid in a strain of transgenic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis 6803). Whereas a strain of Synechocystis 6803 genetically engineered to express sam8, a tyrosine ammonia lyase gene from the actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis, accumulated little or no p-coumaric acid, a strain that both expressed sam8 and lacked slr1573, a native hypothetical gene shown here to encode a laccase that oxidizes polyphenols, produced ∼82.6 mg/L p-coumaric acid, which was readily purified from the growth medium. PMID:24927550

  19. Butremycin, the 3-Hydroxyl Derivative of Ikarugamycin and a Protonated Aromatic Tautomer of 5′-Methylthioinosine from a Ghanaian Micromonospora sp. K310

    PubMed Central

    Kyeremeh, Kwaku; Sekyi Acquah, Kojo; Sazak, Anil; Houssen, Wael; Tabudravu, Jioji; Deng, Hai; Jaspars, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    A new actinomycete strain Micromonospora sp. K310 was isolated from Ghanaian mangrove river sediment. Spectroscopy-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new compounds from the fermentation culture. One of the compounds is butremycin (2) which is the (3-hydroxyl) derivative of the known Streptomyces metabolite ikarugamycin (1) and the other compound is a protonated aromatic tautomer of 5′-methylthioinosine (MTI) (3). Both new compounds were characterized by 1D, 2D NMR and MS data. Butremycin (2) displayed weak antibacterial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 25923, the Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 and a panel of clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains while 3 did not show any antibacterial activity against these microbes. PMID:24534843

  20. Molecular Genetic Characterization of an Anthrabenzoxocinones Gene Cluster in Streptomyces Sp. FJS31-2 for the Biosynthesis of BE-24566B and Zunyimycin Ale.

    PubMed

    Lü, Yuhong; Yue, Changwu; Shao, Meiyun; Qian, Shengyan; Liu, Ning; Bao, Yuxin; Wang, Miao; Liu, Minghao; Li, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yinyin; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Genome mining is an effective tool used to discover novel natural products from actinomycetes. Genome sequence analysis of Streptomyces sp. FJS31-2 revealed the presence of one putative type II polyketide gene cluster (ABX), which may correspond to type II polyketide products including BE-24566B and its chloro-derivatives. The addition of natural humus acid successfully activated the biosynthsis of the abx gene cluster. BE-24566B and its chloro-derivatives, named zunyimycin A, were also detected. The targeted deletion of the polyketide skeleton synthesis genes such as abxp, abxk, and abxs was performed in the wild strain to identify the gene cluster for BE-24566B biosynthesis. PMID:27248985

  1. Genetically engineering Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 for the sustainable production of the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Daddy, Soumana; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    p-Coumaric acid is the precursor of phenylpropanoids, which are plant secondary metabolites that are beneficial to human health. Tyrosine ammonia lyase catalyzes the production of p-coumaric acid from tyrosine. Because of their photosynthetic ability and biosynthetic versatility, cyanobacteria are promising candidates for the production of certain plant metabolites, including phenylpropanoids. Here, we produced p-coumaric acid in a strain of transgenic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis 6803). Whereas a strain of Synechocystis 6803 genetically engineered to express sam8, a tyrosine ammonia lyase gene from the actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis, accumulated little or no p-coumaric acid, a strain that both expressed sam8 and lacked slr1573, a native hypothetical gene shown here to encode a laccase that oxidizes polyphenols, produced ∼82.6 mg/L p-coumaric acid, which was readily purified from the growth medium. PMID:24927550

  2. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Lara-Severino, Reyna Del Carmen; Camacho-López, Miguel Ángel; García-Macedo, Jessica Marlene; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo M; Sandoval-Trujillo, Ángel H; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detection limits of the excitation, emission, and synchronous fluorescence methods, during the quantification of the residual anthracene concentration from the following haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes cultures Kocuria rosea, Kocuria palustris, Microbacterium testaceum, and 4 strains of Nocardia farcinica, in order to establish the proper fluorescence method to study the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinobacteria. The study demonstrated statistical differences among the strains and among the fluorescence methods regarding the anthracene residual concentration. The results showed that excitation and emission fluorescence methods performed very similarly but sensitivity in excitation fluorescence is slightly higher. Synchronous fluorescence using Δλ = 150 nm is not the most convenient method. Therefore we propose the excitation fluorescence as the fluorescence method to be used in the study of the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes. PMID:26925294

  3. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Severino, Reyna del Carmen; Camacho-López, Miguel Ángel; García-Macedo, Jessica Marlene; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo M.; Sandoval-Trujillo, Ángel H.; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detection limits of the excitation, emission, and synchronous fluorescence methods, during the quantification of the residual anthracene concentration from the following haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes cultures Kocuria rosea, Kocuria palustris, Microbacterium testaceum, and 4 strains of Nocardia farcinica, in order to establish the proper fluorescence method to study the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinobacteria. The study demonstrated statistical differences among the strains and among the fluorescence methods regarding the anthracene residual concentration. The results showed that excitation and emission fluorescence methods performed very similarly but sensitivity in excitation fluorescence is slightly higher. Synchronous fluorescence using Δλ = 150 nm is not the most convenient method. Therefore we propose the excitation fluorescence as the fluorescence method to be used in the study of the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes. PMID:26925294

  4. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization−Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Mycobacterium species, Nocardia species, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, S. P.; Olson, S. L.; Connelly, B. J.; Lucas, B. C.; Rodning, A. A.; Walchak, R. C.; Deml, S. M.; Wohlfiel, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    The value of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and yeasts is well documented in the literature. Its utility for the identification of mycobacteria and Nocardia spp. has also been reported in a limited scope. In this work, we report the specificity of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of 162 Mycobacterium species and subspecies, 53 Nocardia species, and 13 genera (totaling 43 species) of other aerobic actinomycetes using both the MALDI-TOF MS manufacturer's supplied database(s) and a custom database generated in our laboratory. The performance of a simplified processing and extraction procedure was also evaluated, and, similar to the results in an earlier literature report, our viability studies confirmed the ability of this process to inactivate Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to analysis. Following library construction and the specificity study, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS was directly compared with that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the evaluation of 297 mycobacteria isolates, 148 Nocardia species isolates, and 61 other aerobic actinomycetes isolates under routine clinical laboratory working conditions over a 6-month period. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of these groups of organisms. Limitations in the databases and in the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to rapidly identify slowly growing mycobacteria are discussed. PMID:26637381

  5. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Mycobacterium species, Nocardia species, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter, S P; Olson, S L; Connelly, B J; Lucas, B C; Rodning, A A; Walchak, R C; Deml, S M; Wohlfiel, S L; Wengenack, N L

    2016-02-01

    The value of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and yeasts is well documented in the literature. Its utility for the identification of mycobacteria and Nocardia spp. has also been reported in a limited scope. In this work, we report the specificity of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of 162 Mycobacterium species and subspecies, 53 Nocardia species, and 13 genera (totaling 43 species) of other aerobic actinomycetes using both the MALDI-TOF MS manufacturer's supplied database(s) and a custom database generated in our laboratory. The performance of a simplified processing and extraction procedure was also evaluated, and, similar to the results in an earlier literature report, our viability studies confirmed the ability of this process to inactivate Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to analysis. Following library construction and the specificity study, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS was directly compared with that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the evaluation of 297 mycobacteria isolates, 148 Nocardia species isolates, and 61 other aerobic actinomycetes isolates under routine clinical laboratory working conditions over a 6-month period. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of these groups of organisms. Limitations in the databases and in the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to rapidly identify slowly growing mycobacteria are discussed. PMID:26637381

  6. Acetone extract from Streptoverticillium sp., a bacterium isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil, induces anti-inflammatory activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Da Cruz, Rodrigo B; Galdino, Pablinny M; Penna, Karlla G B D; Hoffmann, Karen; Costa, Elson A; Bataus, Luiz A M

    2013-01-01

    The Streptoverticillium sp. Z1 is an actinomycete isolated from the soil under Cerrado vegetation, the extract of this strain was investigated in nociceptive and inflammatory models. The Streptoverticillium extract (ExS) 50 and 100 mg/kg (s.c.) produced a significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings thereby demonstrating an anti-nociceptive effect. In the tail flick test the ExS (s.c.) was inactive. This result implited that ExS does not contain opioid-like compounds with central analgesic properties. In the inflammatory models, ExS 100 and 200 mg/kg (s.c.) were able to inhibit the croton oil-induced ear edema and, ExS 200 and 500 mg/kg (s.c.) inhibited the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The phospholipase A2 enzymatic assay showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of ExS was not due to direct effect on phospholipase A2 activity. These data suggest that Streptoverticillium sp. produces metabolites with anti-inflammatory effect and that these metabolites are unable to directly inhibit phospholipase A2 enzyme. PMID:23828355

  7. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium. PMID:25285910

  8. 76 FR 56876 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP), 9789 and 9789(SP) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is...

  9. Micromonospora tulbaghiae sp. nov., isolated from the leaves of wild garlic, Tulbaghia violacea.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Bronwyn M; Meyers, Paul R

    2010-06-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain TVU1(T), was isolated from leaves of the indigenous South African plant Tulbaghia violacea. Applying a polyphasic approach, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Micromonospora. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain TVU1(T) was most closely related to Micromonospora echinospora DSM 43816(T). However, phylogenetic analysis based on gyrB gene sequences showed that strain TVU1(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Micromonospora aurantiaca and Micromonospora chalcea. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain TVU1(T) and the type strains of M. echinospora, M. aurantiaca and M. chalcea were 7.6+/-4.5, 45.9+/-2.0 and 60.9+/-4.5 %, respectively. Strain TVU1(T) could be distinguished from the type strains of all three of these species by several physiological characteristics, such as colony colour, NaCl tolerance, growth temperature range and sole carbon source utilization pattern. Strain TVU1(T) (=DSM 45142(T)=NRRL B-24576(T)) therefore represents a novel species for which the name Micromonospora tulbaghiae sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:19667372

  10. Micromonospora halotolerans sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of a Pisum sativum plant.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Pukall, Rüdiger; Spröer, Cathrin; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Trujillo, Martha E

    2013-06-01

    A filamentous actinomycete strain designated CR18(T) was isolated on humic acid agar from the rhizosphere of a Pisum sativum plant collected in Spain. This isolate was observed to grow optimally at 28 °C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 5 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated a close relationship with the type strains of Micromonospora chersina and Micromonospora endolithica. A further analysis based on a concatenated DNA sequence stretch of 4,523 bp that included partial sequences of the atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and 16S rRNA genes clearly differentiated the new strain from recognized Micromonospora species compared. DNA-DNA hybridization studies further supported the taxonomic position of strain CR18(T) as a novel genomic species. Chemotaxonomic analyses which included whole cell sugars, polar lipids, fatty acid profiles and menaquinone composition confirmed the affiliation of the new strain to the genus Micromonospora and also highlighted differences at the species level. These studies were finally complemented with an array of physiological tests to help differentiate between the new strain and its phylogenetic neighbours. Consequently, strain CR18(T) (= CECT 7890(T) = DSM 45598(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Micromonospora halotolerans sp. nov. PMID:23494330

  11. Micromonospora pisi sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lorena C; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Trujillo, Martha E

    2010-02-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain GUI 15(T), isolated from the root nodules of a Pisum sativum plant was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GUI 15(T) showed highest similarity to Micromonospora pattaloongensis TJ2-2(T) (98.7 %) and Polymorphospora rubra TT 97-42(T) (98.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrase B gene also supported the close relationship of these three strains, but indicated that strain GUI 15(T) should be assigned to the genus Micromonospora. Chemotaxonomic results confirmed the position of the isolate in the genus Micromonospora, but revealed differences at the species level. The novel strain could be distinguished from recognized Micromonospora species by using a combination of physiological and biochemical tests. Based on these observations, strain GUI 15(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora pisi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GUI 15(T) (=DSM 45175(T)=LMG 24546(T)). PMID:19651739

  12. Identification of novel endophenaside antibiotics produced by Kitasatospora sp. MBT66.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changsheng; van Wezel, Gilles P; Hae Choi, Young

    2015-07-01

    Actinomycetes are a major source of bioactive secondary metabolites and are a focal point in the search for novel antimicrobial compounds that are needed to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here, we report the discovery of several novel phenazine-type antibiotics produced by Kitasatospora sp. MBT66. These include the novel glycosylated endophenazines A-E (1-5), together with N-prenylated endophenazine F1 (6). Compounds 1 and 3 contain a 2'-O-methylation of the sugar moiety, which is rare in nature and reported for the first time in connection with phenazines. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of their spectral data, including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-MS and the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of phenazines was identified. All phenazine derivatives showed antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, while compounds 1-3 and 5 also inhibited growth of the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. PMID:25690357

  13. Amycolatopsis tucumanensis sp. nov., a copper-resistant actinobacterium isolated from polluted sediments.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Alonso-Vega, Pablo; Trujillo, Martha E; Amoroso, María Julia; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2010-02-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, ABO(T), isolated from copper-polluted sediments showed remarkable copper resistance as well as high bioaccumulation abilities. Classical taxonomic methods, including chemotaxonomy and molecular techniques, were used to characterize the isolate. Strain ABO(T) developed a honey-yellow substrate mycelium on all ISP media tested. Abundant, white, aerial mycelium was only formed on ISP 2, 5 and 7 and MM agar. Both types of hyphae fragmented into squarish rod-shaped elements. The aerial mycelium displayed spore-like structures with smooth surfaces in long, straight to flexuous chains. The organism has a type-IV cell wall lacking mycolic acids and type-A whole-cell sugar pattern (meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose) in addition to a phospholipid type-II profile. 16S rRNA gene sequence studies indicated that this organism is a member of the family Pseudonocardiaceae and that it forms a monophyletic clade with Amycolatopsis eurytherma NT202(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain ABO(T) to A. eurytherma DSM 44348(T) was 39.5 %. It is evident from these genotypic and phenotypic data that strain ABO(T) represents a novel species in the genus Amycolatopsis, for which the name proposed is Amycolatopsis tucumanensis sp. nov. The type strain is ABO(T) (=DSM 45259(T) =LMG 24814(T)). PMID:19651731

  14. Actinoalloteichus nanshanensis sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of a fig tree (Ficus religiosa).

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Du, Jing; Xi, Lijun; Huang, Ying

    2011-05-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU 119(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of a fig tree and was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolate formed branching, non-fragmenting vegetative hyphae and produced black pigment on yeast extract/malt extract (ISP medium 2). The G+C content of the DNA was 76.6 mol%. The organism had chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Actinoalloteichus and was closely related to the type strains of Actinoalloteichus cyanogriseus, Actinoalloteichus spitiensis and Actinoalloteichus hymeniacidonis, currently the only three recognized species of the genus Actinoalloteichus, sharing 16S rRNA gene similarities of 96.4, 96.6 and 98.1 %, respectively. However, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the novel strain showed only 46.8 % relatedness with the type strain of A. hymeniacidonis. In addition, a set of phenotypic characteristics also readily distinguished strain NEAU 119(T) from the type strains of recognized species of the genus Actinoalloteichus. According to the above data, it is proposed that strain NEAU 119(T) represents a novel species, Actinoalloteichus nanshanensis sp. nov. The type strain of Actinoalloteichus nanshanensis is NEAU 119(T) ( = CGMCC 4.5714(T) = NBRC 106685(T)). PMID:20562245

  15. Novel bioactive metabolites from a marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Hawas, Usama W; Jaspars, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Extracts of the Egyptian marine actinomycete, Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000, were found to be highly bioactive. It was isolated from the marine red alga Laurenica spectabilis collected off the Ras-Gharib coast of the Red Sea, Egypt. According to detailed identification studies, the strain was classified as a member of the genus Nocardia. The cultivation and chemical analysis of this species yielded four structurally related compounds namely, chrysophanol 8-methyl ether (1), asphodelin; 4,7'-bichrysophanol (2) and justicidin B (3), in addition to a novel bioactive compound ayamycin; 1,1-dichloro-4-ethyl-5-(4-nitro-phenyl)-hexan-2-one (4) which is unique in contain both chlorination and a rarely observed nitro group. The compounds were isolated by a series of chromatographic steps and their structures of 1approximately 3 secured by detailed spectroscopic analysis of the MS and NMR data whereas that of 4 was elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These compounds displayed different potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi with MIC ranging from 0.1 to 10 microg/ml. PMID:18667786

  16. Streptomyces actinomycinicus sp. nov., isolated from soil of a peat swamp forest.

    PubMed

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain RCU-197T, was isolated from soil of a peat swamp forest in Rayong Province, Thailand. Using a polyphasic approach, the strain was classified in the genus Streptomyces. It contained ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. No diagnostic sugars were detected in whole-cell hydrolysates and there was a lack of mycolic acids. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The polar lipids profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown aminolipid and two unknown phospholipids. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the strain formed distinct clade within the genus Streptomyces and was closely related to Streptomyces echinatus NBRC 12763T (98.78 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). According to the polyphasic approach as well as DNA-DNA relatedness, the strain could be clearly differentiated from closely related species and represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces actinomycinicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RCU-197T ( = JCM 30864T = TISTR 2208T = PCU 342T). PMID:26510888

  17. Nocardiopsis ansamitocini sp. nov., a new producer of ansamitocin P-3 of the genus Nocardiopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Guang; Liu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Fei; Park, Dong-Jin; Guo, Jian-Wei; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-01-01

    An alkalitolerant actinomycete strain, designated EGI 80425T, capable of producing ansamitocin P-3, was isolated from a saline-alkali soil sample of Xinjiang province, north-west China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. Strain EGI 80425T formed non-fragmented substrate mycelia and white aerial hyphae with long spore chains. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and rhamnose as the major sugar. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8) and MK-9(H4). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain EGI 80425T was 70.2 mol%. Strain EGI 80425T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Nocardiopsis dassonvillei subsp. dassonvillei DSM 43111T (96.44 %). Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain EGI 80425T clustered with the members of the genus Nocardiopsis. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain EGI 80425T represents a novel species of the genus Nocardiopsis, for which the name Nocardiopsis ansamitocini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 80425T ( = CGMCC 9969T = KCTC 39605T). PMID:26486850

  18. Gordonia otitidis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with external otitis.

    PubMed

    Iida, Soji; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Kageyama, Akiko; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Chibana, Hiroji; Murata, Shota; Nomura, Fumio; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Mikami, Yuzuru

    2005-09-01

    The taxonomic positions of two clinically isolated actinomycetes were established using a polyphasic approach. The two strains, IFM 10032(T), isolated from ear discharge of a 28-year-old Japanese female patient with external otitis, and IFM 10148, isolated from pleural fluid of a 60-year-old Japanese male patient with bronchitis, possessed meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic amino acid, MK-9(H(2)) as the predominant menaquinone and mycolic acids ranging from 58 to 64 carbons. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were most closely related to those of Gordonia aichiensis, Gordonia sputi and 'Gordonia jacobaea'. Differences in several phenotypic characteristics together with genotypic distinctiveness distinguish strains IFM 10032(T) and IFM 10148 from these three species. DNA-DNA hybridization results and the combination of genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the two strains belong to a single species, and merit recognition of a novel species within the genus Gordonia. The name proposed for this taxon is Gordonia otitidis sp. nov.; the type strain is IFM 10032(T) (=DSM 44809(T)=JCM 12355(T)=NBRC 100426(T)). PMID:16166681

  19. SP-100 Advanced Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

  20. Antagonistic activity of endo-β-1,3-glucanase from a novel isolate, Streptomyces sp. 9X166, against black rot in orchids.

    PubMed

    Sakdapetsiri, Chatsuda; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Aramsirirujiwet, Yaovapa; Shirasaka, Norifumi; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2016-05-01

    A total of 123 actinomycetes was isolated from 12 varieties of wild orchids and screened for potential antagonistic activity against Phytophthora, which causes black rot disease in orchids. In vitro and in vivo experimental results revealed that Streptomyces sp. strain 9X166 showed the highest antagonistic activity; its β-1,3-glucanase production ability was a key mechanism for growth inhibition of the pathogen. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene allowed the identification of this strain, with high similarity (99.93%) to the novel species Streptomyces similaensis. The glucanase enzyme, purified to homogeneity by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, showed a specific activity of 58 U mg(-1) (a 3.9-fold increase) and yield of 6.4%. The molecular weight, as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, was approximately 99 and 80 kDa, respectively, suggesting that the enzyme was a monomer. The purified enzyme showed the highest substrate specificity to laminarin, indicating that it was β-1,3-glucanase. The hydrolyzed products of cello-oligosaccharides suggested that this enzyme was endo-type β-1,3-glucanase. Streptomyces sp. 9X166 culture filtrate, possessing β-1,3-glucanase activity, could degrade both freeze-dried and living mycelium. This is the first report on a β-1,3-glucanase-producing Streptomyces sp. that could be an effective biocontrol agent for black rot disease in orchids. PMID:26888054

  1. Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)). PMID:17392194

  2. Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elke; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Three yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, C36T, C37 and C39, were isolated in the Medical Clinic for Small Animals and Ungulates at the University for Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Austria. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain C36T was shown to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045T was the nearest relative (99.5 % sequence similarity). Other Pseudomonas species shared <97 % sequence similarity with strain C36T. The presence of Q-9 as the major ubiquinone, the predominance of putrescine and spermidine in its polyamine patterns and its fatty acid profile [i.e. the predominance of C(16 : 0), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or 2-OH C(15 : 0) iso), C(18 : 1)omega7c and the presence of 3-OH C(10 : 0), 3-OH C(12 : 0) and 2-OH C(12 : 0)] were in agreement with identification of this strain as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and the results of genomic fingerprinting clearly differentiated strain C36T from its phylogenetic relative P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain C36T represents a species that is distinct from P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. These data demonstrate that strain C36T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C36T (= LMG 21977T = DSM 15758T). Additionally, physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genomic fingerprints indicate that P. oleovorans ATCC 29347 may not be a member of the species P. oleovorans sensu stricto. PMID:15388721

  3. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction genes in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Erik; Cheng, Yating; Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, Kyounghyun; Safe, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factor (TF) Sp1 is overexpressed in multiple tumors and is a negative prognostic factor for patient survival. Sp1 and also Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in cancer cells and in this study, we have used results of RNA interference (RNAi) to show that the three TFs individually play a role in the growth, survival and migration/invasion of breast, kidney, pancreatic, lung and colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing L3.6pL pancreatic cancer cells as xenografts were significantly decreased in cells depleted for Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 (combined) or Sp1 alone. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of changes in gene expression in Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells after individual knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 demonstrates that these TFs regulate genes and pathways that correlated with the functional responses observed after knockdown but also some genes and pathways that inversely correlated with the functional responses. However, causal IPA analysis which integrates all pathway-dependent changes in all genes strongly predicted that Sp1-, Sp3- and Sp4-regulated genes were associated with the pro-oncogenic activity. These functional and genomic results coupled with overexpression of Sp transcription factors in tumor vs. non-tumor tissues and decreased Sp1 expression with age indicate that Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction (NOA) genes and are attractive drug targets for individual and combined cancer chemotherapies. PMID:26967243

  4. Genome-Based Discovery of a Novel Membrane-Bound 1,6-Dihydroxyphenazine Prenyltransferase from a Marine Actinomycete

    PubMed Central

    Zeyhle, Philipp; Bauer, Judith S.; Kalinowski, Jörn; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Gross, Harald; Heide, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Recently, novel prenylated derivatives of 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine have been isolated from the marine sponge-associated Streptomyces sp. SpC080624SC-11. Genome sequencing of this strain now revealed a gene cluster containing all genes necessary for the synthesis of the phenazine and the isoprenoid moieties. Unexpectedly, however, the cluster did not contain a gene with similarity to previously investigated phenazine prenyltransferases, but instead a gene with modest similarity to the membrane-bound prenyltransferases of ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis. Expression of this gene in E. coli and isolation of the membrane fraction proved that the encoded enzyme, Mpz10, catalyzes two successive prenylations of 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine. Mpz10 is the first example of a membrane-bound enzyme catalyzing the prenylation of a phenazine substrate, and one of few examples of membrane-bound enzymes involved in the prenylation of aromatic secondary metabolites in microorganisms. PMID:24892559

  5. Anti-MRSA and anti-TB metabolites from marine-derived Verrucosispora sp. MS100047.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Xie, Feng; Ren, Biao; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Qi; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Liu, Miaomiao; Han, Jianying; Oyeleye, Ayokunmi; Shen, Jinzhao; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-09-01

    Microbes belonging to the genus Verrucosispora possess significant chemical diversity and biological properties. They have attracted the interests of many researchers and are becoming promising resources in the marine natural product research field. A bioassay-guided isolation from the crude extract of Verrucosispora sp. strain MS100047, isolated from sediments collected from the South China Sea, has led to the identification of a new salicylic derivative, glycerol 1-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl benzoate (1), along with three known compounds, brevianamide F (2), abyssomicin B (3), and proximicin B (4). Compound 1 showed selective activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 12.5 μg/mL. Brevianamide F (2), which was isolated from actinomycete for the first time, showed a good anti-BCG activity with a MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL that has not been reported previously in literatures. Proximicin B (4) showed significant anti-MRSA (MIC = 3.125 μg/mL), anti-BCG (MIC = 6.25 μg/mL), and anti-tuberculosis (TB) (MIC = 25 μg/mL) activities. This is the first report on the anti-tubercular activities of proximicins. In addition, Verrucosispora sp. strain MS100047 was found to harbor 18 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters based on genomic sequence analysis. These include the biosynthetic loci encoding polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) consistent with abyssomicins and proximicins, respectively. The biosynthetic pathways of these isolated compounds have been proposed. These results indicate that MS100047 possesses a great potential as a source of active secondary metabolites. PMID:26975378

  6. Umezawaea endophytica sp. nov., isolated from tobacco root samples.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiao; Liu, Bing-Bing; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Duan, Yan-Qing; Nimaichand, Salam; Chen, Wei; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Two Gram-staining positive, aerobic and non-motile actinomycete strains, designated YIM 2047X(T) and YIM 2047D, were isolated from tobacco root samples collected from Shiling county, Yunnan province, South-West China. The isolates grew at 15-40 °C, pH 6.0-8.0 and 0-4.5 % NaCl (w/v). The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, galactose, mannose, ribose and rhamnose. The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major cellar fatty acids identified were iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, C16:0, C17:1 ω8c and C17:0. MK-9 (H4) was the predominant menaquinone. The genomic DNA G+C contents were 73.4 and 74.2 mol%, respectively. These chemotaxonomic data, together with their morphological properties, were consistent with the assignment of the two strains to the genus Umezawaea. They showed highest similarities to Umezawaea tangerina JCM 10302(T) on phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences and were found to form a coherent cluster. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values of YIM 2047X(T) and YIM 2047D with U. tangerina JCM 10302(T) were 46.5 ± 3.1 and 57.5 ± 1.6 %, respectively; while the reassociation value between themselves was 80.4 ± 2.3 %. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the two new isolates to be differentiated phenotypically from the recognized strain U. tangerina JCM 10302(T). On the basis of results from this polyphasic study, the strains were characterized as a novel species of the genus Umezawaea, for which the name Umezawaea endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 2047X(T) (=KCTC 39538(T) = CPCC 204132(T)). PMID:26228842

  7. Trehangelins A, B and C, novel photo-oxidative hemolysis inhibitors produced by an endophytic actinomycete, Polymorphospora rubra K07-0510.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuji; Okuyama, Ryuki; Kamiya, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Inahashi, Yuki; Yamaji, Kenzaburo; Takahashi, Yōko; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2013-06-01

    Three new natural products, designated trehangelins A, B and C, were isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel and octadecylsilyl silica gel column chromatographies and subsequent preparative HPLC from the cultured broth of an endophytic actinomycete strain, Polymorphospora rubra K07-0510. The trehangelins consisted of a trehalose moiety and two angelic acid moieties. Trehangelins A (IC50 value, 0.1 mg ml(-1)) and C (IC50 value, 0.4 mg ml(-1)), with symmetric structures, showed potent inhibitory activity against hemolysis of red blood cells induced by light-activated pheophorbide a. However, trehangelin B, with an asymmetric structure, displayed only a slight inhibition (IC50 value, 1.0 mg ml(-1)). PMID:23591606

  8. Atypical OmpR/PhoB Subfamily Response Regulator GlnR of Actinomycetes Functions as a Homodimer, Stabilized by the Unphosphorylated Conserved Asp-focused Charge Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei; Wang, Ying; Han, Xiaobiao; Zhang, Zilong; Wang, Chengyuan; Wang, Jin; Yang, Huaiyu; Lu, Yinhua; Jiang, Weihong; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The OmpR/PhoB subfamily protein GlnR of actinomycetes is an orphan response regulator that globally coordinates the expression of genes related to nitrogen metabolism. Biochemical and genetic analyses reveal that the functional GlnR from Amycolatopsis mediterranei is unphosphorylated at the potential phosphorylation Asp50 residue in the N-terminal receiver domain. The crystal structure of this receiver domain demonstrates that it forms a homodimer through the α4-β5-α5 dimer interface highly similar to the phosphorylated typical response regulator, whereas the so-called “phosphorylation pocket” is not conserved, with its space being occupied by an Arg52 from the β3-α3 loop. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments confirm that GlnR forms a functional homodimer via its receiver domain and suggest that the charge interactions of Asp50 with the highly conserved Arg52 and Thr9 in the receiver domain may be crucial in maintaining the proper conformation for homodimerization, as also supported by molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type GlnR versus the deficient mutant GlnR(D50A). This model is backed by the distinct phenotypes of the total deficient GlnR(R52A/T9A) double mutant versus the single mutants of GlnR (i.e. D50N, D50E, R52A and T9A), which have only minor effects upon both dimerization and physiological function of GlnR in vivo, albeit their DNA binding ability is weakened compared with that of the wild type. By integrating the supportive data of GlnRs from the model Streptomyces coelicolor and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we conclude that the actinomycete GlnR is atypical with respect to its unphosphorylated conserved Asp residue being involved in the critical Arg/Asp/Thr charge interactions, which is essential for maintaining the biologically active homodimer conformation. PMID:24733389

  9. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  10. Interplay of posttranslational modifications in Sp1 mediates Sp1 stability during cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2011-11-18

    Although Sp1 is known to undergo posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, little is known about the possible interplay between the different forms of Sp1 that may affect its overall levels. It is also unknown whether changes in the levels of Sp1 influence any biological cell processes. Here, we identified RNF4 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1. From in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that sumoylated Sp1 can recruit RNF4 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that subjects sumoylated Sp1 to proteasomal degradation. Sp1 mapping revealed two ubiquitination-related domains: a small ubiquitin-like modifier in the N-terminus of Sp1(Lys16) and the C-terminus of Sp1 that directly interacts with RNF4. Interestingly, when Sp1 was phosphorylated at Thr739 by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 during mitosis, this phosphorylated form of Sp1 abolished the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Our results show that, while sumoylated Sp1 subjects to proteasomal degradation, the phosphorylation that occurs during the cell cycle can protect Sp1 from degradation by repressing the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Thus, we propose that the interplay between posttranslational modifications of Sp1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and keeps Sp1 at a critical level for mitosis. PMID:21983342

  11. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed. PMID:19620357

  12. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  13. The Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Guowu

    2009-07-15

    Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

  14. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema

    Harper, Jason

    2014-06-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  15. The extent of grain yield and plant growth enhancement by plant growth-promoting broad-spectrum Streptomyces sp. in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Alekhya, Gottumukkala; Prakash, Bandikinda; Kudapa, Himabindu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular responses of five strains of Streptomyces sp. (CAI-17, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26 and KAI-27), with their proven potential for charcoal rot disease control in sorghum and plant growth-promotion (PGP) in sorghum and rice, were studied to understand the mechanisms causing the beneficial effects. In this investigation, those five strains were evaluated for their PGP capabilities in chickpea in the 2012-13 and 2013-14 post-rainy seasons. All of the Streptomyces sp. strains exhibited enhanced nodule number, nodule weight, root weight and shoot weight at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and pod number, pod weight, leaf area, leaf weight and stem weight at 60 DAS in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. At crop maturity, the Streptomyces strains had enhanced stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter and seed number plant(-1) in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the Streptomyces sp. also significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity, total nitrogen, available phosphorous and organic carbon in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. Of the five strains of Streptomyces sp., CAI-17, CAI-68 and CAI-78 were superior to KAI-26 and KAI-27 in terms of their effects on root and shoot development, nodule formation and crop productivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs had revealed the success in colonization of the chickpea roots by all five strains. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of selected PGP genes of actinomycetes revealed the selective up-regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-related and siderophore-related genes by CAI-68 and of β-1,3-glucanase genes by KAI-26. PMID:25646153

  16. Exploitation of biological wastes for the production of value-added hydrolases by Streptomyces sp. MSWC1 isolated from municipal solid waste compost.

    PubMed

    Mokni-Tlili, Sonia; Ben Abdelmalek, Imen; Jedidi, Naceur; Belghith, Hafedh; Gargouri, Ali; Abdennaceur, Hassen; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2010-09-01

    Actinomycetes with the ability to degrade natural polysaccharides were isolated during a screening programme from soil, farmyard manure and municipal solid waste compost. One of the most potent isolates was identified as Streptomyces sp. MSWC1 using morphological and biochemical properties along with 16S rDNA partial sequence analysis. The highest enzyme production by Streptomyces was observed for the xylanase and chitinase activity on different carbon sources with an optimum of 12,100 IU ml(-1) and 110 IU ml(-1) at 3 days' culture on 1% of xylan and chitin, respectively. To meet the demand of industry, low-cost medium is required for the production of hydrolases by Streptomyces sp. Strain MSWC1 grown on manure, compost, and a natural carbon source was used to evaluate the re-utilisation of biological wastes for the production of value-added products. Despite the presence of a high amount of toxic heavy metals in the compost, Streptomyces produced interesting enzymes that have been biochemically characterized. PMID:20022900

  17. Streptomyces alni sp. nov., a daidzein-producing endophyte isolated from a root of Alnus nepalensis D. Don.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Mei; Gu, Qiang; Zheng, Wen; Huang, Ying

    2009-02-01

    A filamentous actinomycete, designated strain D65(T), was isolated from a root of a wild tree, Alnus nepalensis D. Don (Nepalese Alder), collected in Xishuangbanna, China. It produced the bioactive agents daidzein and N-acetyltyramine and had morphological and chemical properties characteristic of streptomycetes. Pink to brownish red diffusible pigments were produced on several ISP media. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain D65(T) formed a distinct phyletic line that was most closely, albeit loosely, associated with Streptomyces hebeiensis YIM 001(T), Streptomyces aurantiogriseus NRRL B-5416(T), Streptomyces griseoviridis NBRC 12874(T), Streptomyces niveoruber NBRC 15428(T) and Streptomyces thermovulgaris NBRC 13473. A number of phenotypic properties allowed differentiation of the strain from related Streptomyces species. Therefore strain D65(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D65(T) (=CGMCC 4.3510(T)=NRRL B-24611(T)). PMID:19196762

  18. Monacyclinones, New Angucyclinone Metabolites Isolated from Streptomyces sp. M7_15 Associated with the Puerto Rican Sponge Scopalina ruetzleri.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Jan; Stewart, Allison K; van Wagoner, Ryan M; Elliott, Elizabeth; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Wright, Jeffrey L C

    2015-08-01

    During an investigation of new actinomycete species from Caribbean sponges for novel bioactive natural products, frigocyclinone (1), dimethyldehydrorabelomycin (3) and six new angucyclinone derivatives were isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain M7_15 associated with the sponge Scopalina ruetzleri. Of these, monacyclinones A-B (4-5) contain the core ring structure of dehydrorabelomycin (2) with the aminodeoxysugar found in frigocyclinone (1). Monacyclinone C (6) is a hydroxylated variant of frigocyclinone (1) and monacyclinone D (7) is a Baeyer Villiger derivative of (6) which also exists as the open chain hydrolysis product monacyclinone E (8). Monacyclinone F (9) contains two unique epoxide rings attached to the angucyclinone moiety and an additional aminodeoxysugar attached through an angular oxygen bond. All structures were confirmed through spectral analyses. Activity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells (SJCRH30) after 48 h of treatment was observed with frigocyclinone (1; EC50 = 5.2 µM), monacyclinone C (6; 160 µM), monacyclinone E (8; 270 µM), and monacyclinone F (9; 0.73 µM). The strongest bioactivity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells and gram-positive bacteria was exhibited by compound 9, suggesting that the extra aminodeoxysugar subunit is important for biological activity. PMID:26230704

  19. Actinoquinolines A and B, anti-inflammatory quinoline alkaloids from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp., strain CNP975.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hossam M; Boonlarppradab, Chollaratt; Fenical, William

    2016-07-01

    Actinomycete bacteria of the common genus Streptomyces can be routinely isolated from shallow and deep ocean sediments. Although commonly considered a terrestrial genus, and most abundantly found in soil, Streptomyces strains are found that have distinct requirements for seawater and routinely do not show significant similarity, with terrestrial strains by 16S ribosomal DNA phylogenetic sequence comparisons. Our examination of the culture broth of a Streptomyces sp., strain CNP975, isolated from a local La Jolla, California sediment sample, resulted in the isolation of actinoquinolines A and B (1, 2), which show significant inhibition of the arachidonic acid pathway enzymes cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. The new compounds contain the 3-hydroxyquinaldic acid (3HQA) motif found in numerous peptide antibiotics. In the actinoquinolines, 3HQA forms an amide linkage with a linear six-carbon fragment, formally a 2, 6-diamino-1, 5-dihydroxyhexane unit, a component of likely amino acid reductive off-loading origin. Actinoquinoline A illustrated amide rotational isomerism leading to complex NMR spectral data. Actinoquinoline B was assigned as the C-13 aldehyde analog isolated as an intramolecular hemiacetal. Reduction of 2 with NaBH4 yielded actinoquinoline A thus confirming the relative configurations of all centers in the actinoquinolines. PMID:27220408

  20. Monacyclinones, New Angucyclinone Metabolites Isolated from Streptomyces sp. M7_15 Associated with the Puerto Rican Sponge Scopalina ruetzleri

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Jan; Stewart, Allison K.; van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Elliott, Elizabeth; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Wright, Jeffrey L. C.

    2015-01-01

    During an investigation of new actinomycete species from Caribbean sponges for novel bioactive natural products, frigocyclinone (1), dimethyldehydrorabelomycin (3) and six new angucyclinone derivatives were isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain M7_15 associated with the sponge Scopalina ruetzleri. Of these, monacyclinones A–B (4–5) contain the core ring structure of dehydrorabelomycin (2) with the aminodeoxysugar found in frigocyclinone (1). Monacyclinone C (6) is a hydroxylated variant of frigocyclinone (1) and monacyclinone D (7) is a Baeyer Villiger derivative of (6) which also exists as the open chain hydrolysis product monacyclinone E (8). Monacyclinone F (9) contains two unique epoxide rings attached to the angucyclinone moiety and an additional aminodeoxysugar attached through an angular oxygen bond. All structures were confirmed through spectral analyses. Activity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells (SJCRH30) after 48 h of treatment was observed with frigocyclinone (1; EC50 = 5.2 µM), monacyclinone C (6; 160 µM), monacyclinone E (8; 270 µM), and monacyclinone F (9; 0.73 µM). The strongest bioactivity against rhabdomycosarcoma cancer cells and gram-positive bacteria was exhibited by compound 9, suggesting that the extra aminodeoxysugar subunit is important for biological activity. PMID:26230704

  1. Mineral phosphate solubilization by Streptomyces sp. CTM396 involves the excretion of gluconic acid and is stimulated by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Mounira Ben; Boukhris, Ines; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-03-01

    The actinomycetes isolates (128) which were taken from agricultural soil samples and collected near a rock phosphate processing unit were screened for mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability. A significant MPS activity was observed for 30 isolates on various phosphate sources when grown in the National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate broth. CTM396 and CTM397 strains which showed the highest MPS abilities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as members of the genus Streptomyces. Their MPS activity was proved to be concomitant with a drop in pH due to the secretion of gluconic acid (GA). This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR of genes gdh [encoding the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) responsible for GA production from glucose] and pqq (involved in biosynthesis of the pyrroloquinoline quinone cofactor of GDH), as well as the highlighting of GHD enzyme activity, for the first time in a Streptomyces sp. strain producing GA. Furthermore, the 0.05% of humic acids proved to have a stimulatory effect on the growth and the ability of CTM396 to solubilize Gafsa rock phosphate. According to this study, it is possible to use humic acids and Gafsa rock phosphate in association with spores of ad hoc Streptomyces strains as natural and efficient amendments to improve plant growth with no need of costly and pollutant transformation of Gafsa rock phosphate. PMID:25743071

  2. SP-100 Reactor Subsystem Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Scott F.

    1994-07-01

    The SP-100 reactor subsystem consists of the pressure vessel, vessel internals, and fuel elements. Type A (standard) Nb-1Zr and rhenium materials development efforts related to fabrication of the vessel, vessel internals, and fuel cladding/liner have been completed. Type A and Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr loop fabrication has been successfully demonstrated by prototypic testing with flowing lithium at 1350 K for 1500 hr. Development of UN fuel has been completed, and the performance validated by irradiation testing to the full life (7 yr. full power) burnup of 6 atom %. Neutronic and hydraulic core performance have been validated by engineering mockup critical experiments in the Zero Power Physics Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, and detailed core hydraulic flow testing with water. Essentially all feasibility issues have been settled for the full life SP-100 reactor subsystem. Remaining SP-100 reactor subsystem development efforts are focused on further reducing mass by the use of Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr rather than Type A, and demonstrating fuel life for beyond full life to perhaps 9 atom % burnup.

  3. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2016-02-01

    A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)). PMID:26597560

  4. Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov., isolated from Thai peat swamp forest soil.

    PubMed

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

    2016-05-01

    An actinomycete strain, RY45-3T, isolated from a peat swamp forest soil in Rayong Province, Thailand, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain belonged to the genus Nocardia on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The N-acyl group of muramic acid in the cell wall was glycolyl type. The diagnostic sugars in whole-cell hydrolysates were galactose and arabinose. MK-8 (H4ω-cycl) was the major menaquinone. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, strain RY45-3T was closely related to Nocardia jiangxiensis JCM 12861T (98.9 %), Nocardia nova JCM 6044T (98.8 %) and Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (98.6 %). The strain showed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with N. jiangxiensis JCM 12861T, N. nova JCM 6044T and N. pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (range from 3.6 to 55.3 %). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and the results mentioned, this strain could be differentiated from closely related type strains and represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov. (type strain RY45-3T = JCM 19832T = TISTR 2213T = PCU 334T) is proposed. PMID:26873179

  5. Nesterenkonia jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Jung, Seo-Youn; Kim, Wonyong; Nam, Sun-Woo; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2006-11-01

    A Gram-positive, non-motile, slightly halophilic actinomycete, strain JG-241T, was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain JG-241T grew optimally at 25-30 degrees C and in the presence of 2-5% (w/v) NaCl. The physiological and biochemical properties of strain JG-241T were distinguishable from those of recognized Nesterenkonia species. Strain JG-241T had a peptidoglycan type based on L-lys-gly-D-Asp. It contained MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9 as the predominant menaquinones and anteiso-C15:0) and anteiso-C17:0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 68.0 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain JG-241T falls within the radiation of the cluster comprising Nesterenkonia species. Similarity values between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JG-241T and those of the type strains of Nesterenkonia species ranged from 96.7 to 99.7%. DNA-DNA relatedness data and repetitive extragenic palindromic DNA-PCR genomic fingerprinting patterns showed that strain JG-241T differs genetically from recognized Nesterenkonia species. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, strain JG-241T represents a novel species of the genus Nesterenkonia, for which the name Nesterenkonia jeotgali sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JG-241T (=KCTC 19053T=JCM 12610T). PMID:17082396

  6. Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

    2014-06-01

    Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (μ'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher μ' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced. PMID:24736090

  7. Switching antibiotics production on and off in actinomycetes by an IclR family transcriptional regulator from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Jha, Amit Kumar; Kim, Byung-Gee; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-08-01

    Doxorubicin, produced by Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, is tightly regulated by dnrO, dnrN, and dnrI regulators. Genome mining of S. peucetius revealed the presence of the IclR (doxR) type family of transcription regulator mediating the signal-dependent expression of operons at the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Overexpression of doxR in native strain strongly repressed the drug production. Furthermore, it also had a negative effect on the regulatory system of doxorubicin, wherein the transcript of dnrI was reduced to the maximum level in comparision with the other two. Interestingly, the overexpression of the same gene also had strong inhibitory effects on the production of actinorhodin (blue pigment) and undecylprodigiosin (red pigment) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, herboxidiene production in Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982, and spinosyn production in Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395, respectively. Moreover, DoxR exhibited pleiotropic effects on the production of blue and red pigments in S. coelicolor when grown in different agar media, wherein the production of blue pigment was inhibited in R2YE medium and the red pigment was inhibited in YEME medium. However, the production of both blue and red pigments from S. coelicolor harboring doxR was halted in ISP2 medium, whereas S. coelicolor produced both pigmented antibiotics in the same plate. These consequences demonstrate that the on and off production of these antibiotics was not due to salt stress or media compositions, but was selectively controlled in actinomycetes. PMID:24786531

  8. Effects of plant stress signal molecules on the production of wilforgine in an endophytic actinomycete isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f.

    PubMed

    Miao, Guo-peng; Zhu, Chuan-shu; Feng, Jun-tao; Han, Li-rong; Zhang, Xing

    2015-04-01

    The endophytic actinomycete F4-20 was isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. and was confirmed to produce wilforgine, a secondary metabolite discovered in its host. F4-20 showed a close phylogenetic relationship to Streptomyces species. To seek elicitors that may enhance the production of wilforgine in F4-20, four plant stress molecules were applied to the in vitro liquid cultures. Results showed that methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhibited bacterial growth, whereas glutathione (GSH) treatment significantly increased bacterial growth. The wilforgine contents in the mycelia of F4-20 were reduced by MeJA and GSH but were induced by SA and H2O2. When added in the end of the culture period (7 day), 1 mM SA and 5 mM H2O2 resulted in 69.35 ± 1.71 and 71.80 ± 3.35 µg/g DW of wilforgine production, 1.55 and 1.60 fold to that of control (44.83 ± 1.35 µg/g DW), respectively. Though this improved production was about 6.5 times lower than that of the natural root (454.00 µg/g dry root bark), it provided an alternative method for the production of valuable plant secondary metabolites. PMID:25523369

  9. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Naik, Bindu; Gusain, Omprakash; Bisht, Gajraj S.

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6) was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27–37°C, pH 8–10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v). The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6) lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6) can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6) showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6). PMID:25191320

  10. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and promotion of tomato plant growth by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from native plants of Algerian Sahara.

    PubMed

    Goudjal, Yacine; Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2014-01-20

    Thirty-four endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of native plants of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemical studies showed that twenty-nine isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and five were non-Streptomyces. All isolates were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The six that had the greatest pathogen inhibitory capacities were subsequently tested for their in vivo biocontrol potential on R. solani damping-off in sterilized and non-sterilized soils, and for their plant-growth promoting activities on tomato seedlings. In both soils, coating tomato seeds with antagonistic isolates significantly reduced (P<0.05) the severity of damping-off of tomato seedlings. Among the isolates tested, the strains CA-2 and AA-2 exhibited the same disease incidence reduction as thioperoxydicarbonic diamide, tetramethylthiram (TMTD) and no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed. Furthermore, they resulted in a significant increase in the seedling fresh weight, the seedling length and the root length of the seed-treated seedlings compared to the control. The taxonomic position based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that the strains CA-2 and AA-2 were related to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (100% of similarity) and Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus JCM 4364(T) (100% of similarity), respectively. PMID:23920229

  11. Comparative analysis of oligonucleotide primers for high-throughput screening of genes encoding adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Bakal, Tomas; Goo, Kian-Sim; Najmanova, Lucie; Plhackova, Kamila; Kadlcik, Stanislav; Ulanova, Dana

    2015-11-01

    In the biosynthesis of diverse natural bioactive products the adenylation domains (ADs) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases select specific precursors from the cellular pool and activate them for further incorporation into the scaffold of the final compound. Therefore, the drug discovery programs employing PCR-based screening studies of microbial collections or metagenomic libraries often use AD-coding genes as markers of relevant biosynthetic gene clusters. However, due to significant sequence diversity of ADs, the conventional approach using only one primer pair in a single screening experiment could be insufficient for maximal coverage of AD abundance. In this study, the widely used primer pair A3F/A7R was compared with the newly designed aa194F/aa413R one by 454 pyrosequencing of two sets of actinomycete strains from highly dissimilar environments: subseafloor sediments and forest soil. Individually, none of the primer pairs was able to cover the overall diversity of ADs. However, due to slightly shifted specificity of the primer pairs, the total number and diversity of identified ADs were noticeably extended when both primer pairs were used in a single assay. Additionally, the efficiency of AD detection by different primer combinations was confirmed on the model of Salinispora tropica genomic DNA of known sequence. PMID:26296377

  12. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  13. Two New Species of Cryptococcus sp. and Candida sp. from Wild Flowers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Hong; Kang, Min-Gu; Ryu, Jin-Ju; Lee, Hyang-Burm; Kim, Chang-Mu; Kim, Ha-Kun

    2012-01-01

    Among 80 types of yeast isolated from wild flowers in Daejeon, Korea, two species that have not yet been identified by phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) genes and 26S rDNA sequences were identified as Candida sp. 44-C-1 and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1. Neither of the newly identified species formed ascospores, while Candida sp. 44-C-1 formed pseudomycelium and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1 did not. PMID:23323051

  14. Zinc Finger Independent Genome-Wide Binding of Sp2 Potentiates Recruitment of Histone-Fold Protein Nf-y Distinguishing It from Sp1 and Sp3

    PubMed Central

    Finkernagel, Florian; Stiewe, Thorsten; Nist, Andrea; Suske, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are grouped into families based on sequence similarity within functional domains, particularly DNA-binding domains. The Specificity proteins Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 are paradigmatic of closely related transcription factors. They share amino-terminal glutamine-rich regions and a conserved carboxy-terminal zinc finger domain that can bind to GC rich motifs in vitro. All three Sp proteins are ubiquitously expressed; yet they carry out unique functions in vivo raising the question of how specificity is achieved. Crucially, it is unknown whether they bind to distinct genomic sites and, if so, how binding site selection is accomplished. In this study, we have examined the genomic binding patterns of Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts by ChIP-seq. Sp1 and Sp3 essentially occupy the same promoters and localize to GC boxes. The genomic binding pattern of Sp2 is different; Sp2 primarily localizes at CCAAT motifs. Consistently, re-expression of Sp2 and Sp3 mutants in corresponding knockout MEFs revealed strikingly different modes of genomic binding site selection. Most significantly, while the zinc fingers dictate genomic binding of Sp3, they are completely dispensable for binding of Sp2. Instead, the glutamine-rich amino-terminal region is sufficient for recruitment of Sp2 to its target promoters in vivo. We have identified the trimeric histone-fold CCAAT box binding transcription factor Nf-y as the major partner for Sp2-chromatin interaction. Nf-y is critical for recruitment of Sp2 to co-occupied regulatory elements. Equally, Sp2 potentiates binding of Nf-y to shared sites indicating the existence of an extensive Sp2-Nf-y interaction network. Our results unveil strikingly different recruitment mechanisms of Sp1/Sp2/Sp3 transcription factor members uncovering an unexpected layer of complexity in their binding to chromatin in vivo. PMID:25793500

  15. High-molecular-mass multicatalytic proteinase complexes produced by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia strain BR.

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, P; Müller, A; Diem, H G; Schwencke, J

    1992-01-01

    A major-high-molecular mass proteinase and seven latent minor proteinases were found in cell extracts and in concentrates of culture medium from Frankia sp. strain BR after nondenaturing electrophoresis in mixed gelatin-polyacrylamide gels. All of these complexes showed multicatalytic properties. Their molecular masses and their sedimentation coefficients varied from 1,300 kDa (28S) to 270 kDa (12S). The electroeluted 1,300-kDa proteinase complex dissociated into 11 low-molecular-mass proteinases (40 to 19 kDa) after sodium dodecyl sulfate activation at 30 degrees C and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. All of these electroeluted proteinases hydrolyzed N-carbobenzoxy-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-4-methoxy-beta- naphthylamide, D-Val-Leu-Arg-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide, and Boc-Val-Pro-Arg-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide, whereas Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide was cleaved only by the six lower-molecular-mass proteinases (27.5 to 19 kDa). Examination by electron microscopy of uranyl acetate-stained, electroeluted 1,300- and 650-kDa intracellular and extracellular proteinase complexes showed ring-shaped and cylindrical particles (10 to 11 nm in diameter, 15 to 16 nm long) similar to those of eukaryotic prosomes and proteasomes. Polyclonal antibodies raised against rat skeletal muscle proteasomes cross-reacted with all of the high-molecular-mass proteinase complexes and, after denaturation of the electroeluted 1,300-kDa band, with polypeptides of 35 to 38, 65, and 90 kDa. Electrophoresis of the activated cell extracts under denaturing conditions revealed 11 to 17 gelatinases from 40 to 19 kDa, including the 11 proteinases of the 1,300-kDa proteinase complex. The inhibition pattern of these proteinases is complex. Thiol-reactive compounds and 1-10-phenanthroline strongly inhibited all of the proteinases, but inhibitors against serine-type proteinases were also effective for most of them. Images PMID:1537794

  16. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

    PubMed

    Marinkelle, C J

    1996-07-01

    Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

  17. SP-100 Control System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Jaikaran N.; Halfen, Frank J.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Syed, Akbar; Jiang, Thomas J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Otwell, Robert L.

    1994-07-01

    Recent work in lower power generic early applications for the SP-100 have resulted in control system design simplification for a 20 kWe design with thermoelectric power conversion. This paper presents the non-mission-dependent control system features for this design. The control system includes a digital computer based controller, dual purpose control rods and drives, temperature sensors, and neutron flux monitors. The thaw system is mission dependent and can be either electrical or based on NaK trace lines. Key features of the control system and components are discussed. As was the case for higher power applications, the initial on-orbit approach to criticality involves the relatively fast withdrawal of the control-rods to a near-critical position followed by slower movement through critical and into the power range. The control system performs operating maneuvers as well as providing for automatic startup, shutdown, restart, and reactor protection.

  18. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  19. The Genome Sequence of the Tomato-Pathogenic Actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 Reveals a Large Island Involved in Pathogenicity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Abt, Birte; Bekel, Thomas; Burger, Annette; Engemann, Jutta; Flügel, Monika; Gaigalat, Lars; Goesmann, Alexander; Gräfen, Ines; Kalinowski, Jörn; Kaup, Olaf; Kirchner, Oliver; Krause, Lutz; Linke, Burkhard; McHardy, Alice; Meyer, Folker; Pohle, Sandra; Rückert, Christian; Schneiker, Susanne; Zellermann, Eva-Maria; Pühler, Alfred; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Kaiser, Olaf; Bartels, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a plant-pathogenic actinomycete that causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of strain NCPPB382 was determined. The chromosome is circular, consists of 3.298 Mb, and has a high G+C content (72.6%). Annotation revealed 3,080 putative protein-encoding sequences; only 26 pseudogenes were detected. Two rrn operons, 45 tRNAs, and three small stable RNA genes were found. The two circular plasmids, pCM1 (27.4 kbp) and pCM2 (70.0 kbp), which carry pathogenicity genes and thus are essential for virulence, have lower G+C contents (66.5 and 67.6%, respectively). In contrast to the genome of the closely related organism Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the genome of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lacks complete insertion elements and transposons. The 129-kb chp/tomA region with a low G+C content near the chromosomal origin of replication was shown to be necessary for pathogenicity. This region contains numerous genes encoding proteins involved in uptake and metabolism of sugars and several serine proteases. There is evidence that single genes located in this region, especially genes encoding serine proteases, are required for efficient colonization of the host. Although C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grows mainly in the xylem of tomato plants, no evidence for pronounced genome reduction was found. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis seems to have as many transporters and regulators as typical soil-inhabiting bacteria. However, the apparent lack of a sulfate reduction pathway, which makes C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis dependent on reduced sulfur compounds for growth, is probably the reason for the poor survival of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in soil. PMID:18192381

  20. Quantitative Use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization To Examine Relationships between Mycolic Acid-Containing Actinomycetes and Foaming in Activated Sludge Plants

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Russell J.; Curtis, Thomas P.; Goodfellow, Michael; Stainsby, Fiona M.; Bingley, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The formation of viscous foams on aeration basins and secondary clarifiers of activated sludge plants is a common and widespread problem. Foam formation is often attributed to the presence of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes (mycolata). In order to examine the relationship between the number of mycolata and foam, we developed a group-specific probe targeting the 16S rRNA of the mycolata, a protocol to permeabilize mycolata, and a statistically robust quantification method. Statistical analyses showed that a lipase-based permeabilization method was quantitatively superior to previously described methods (P << 0.05). When mixed liquor and foam samples were examined, most of the mycolata present were rods or cocci, although filamentous mycolata were also observed. A nested analysis of variance showed that virtually all of the measured variance occurred between fields of view and not between samples. On this basis we determined that as few as five fields of view could be used to give a statistically meaningful sample. Quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to examine the relationship between foaming and the concentration of mycolata in a 20-m3 completely mixed activated sludge plant. Foaming occurred when the number of mycolata exceeded a certain threshold value. Baffling of the plant affected foaming without affecting the number of mycolata. We tentatively estimated that the threshold foaming concentration of mycolata was about 2 × 106 cells ml−1 or 4 × 1012 cells m−2. We concluded that quantitative use of FISH is feasible and that quantification is a prerequisite for rational investigation of foaming in activated sludge. PMID:10698786

  1. The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Abt, Birte; Bekel, Thomas; Burger, Annette; Engemann, Jutta; Flügel, Monika; Gaigalat, Lars; Goesmann, Alexander; Gräfen, Ines; Kalinowski, Jörn; Kaup, Olaf; Kirchner, Oliver; Krause, Lutz; Linke, Burkhard; McHardy, Alice; Meyer, Folker; Pohle, Sandra; Rückert, Christian; Schneiker, Susanne; Zellermann, Eva-Maria; Pühler, Alfred; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Kaiser, Olaf; Bartels, Daniela

    2008-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a plant-pathogenic actinomycete that causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of strain NCPPB382 was determined. The chromosome is circular, consists of 3.298 Mb, and has a high G+C content (72.6%). Annotation revealed 3,080 putative protein-encoding sequences; only 26 pseudogenes were detected. Two rrn operons, 45 tRNAs, and three small stable RNA genes were found. The two circular plasmids, pCM1 (27.4 kbp) and pCM2 (70.0 kbp), which carry pathogenicity genes and thus are essential for virulence, have lower G+C contents (66.5 and 67.6%, respectively). In contrast to the genome of the closely related organism Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the genome of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lacks complete insertion elements and transposons. The 129-kb chp/tomA region with a low G+C content near the chromosomal origin of replication was shown to be necessary for pathogenicity. This region contains numerous genes encoding proteins involved in uptake and metabolism of sugars and several serine proteases. There is evidence that single genes located in this region, especially genes encoding serine proteases, are required for efficient colonization of the host. Although C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grows mainly in the xylem of tomato plants, no evidence for pronounced genome reduction was found. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis seems to have as many transporters and regulators as typical soil-inhabiting bacteria. However, the apparent lack of a sulfate reduction pathway, which makes C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis dependent on reduced sulfur compounds for growth, is probably the reason for the poor survival of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in soil. PMID:18192381

  2. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Saare, Mario; Hämarik, Uku; Venta, Rainis; Panarina, Marina; Zucchelli, Chiara; Pihlap, Maire; Remm, Anu; Kisand, Kai; Toots, Urve; Möll, Kaidi; Salupere, Riina; Musco, Giovanna; Uibo, Raivo; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients. PMID:26347895

  3. Structural and functional differences among human surfactant proteins SP-A1, SP-A2 and co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2: role of supratrimeric oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Barbero, Fernando; Rivas, Germán; Steinhilber, Wolfram; Casals, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    SP-A (surfactant protein A) is a membrane-associated SP that helps to maintain the lung in a sterile and non-inflamed state. Unlike SP-As from other mammalian species, human SP-A consists of two functional gene products: SP-A1 and SP-A2. In all the functions examined, recombinant human SP-A1 invariably exhibits lower biological activity than SP-A2. The objective of the present study was to investigate why SP-A2 possesses greater biological activity than SP-A1 and what advantage accrues to having two polypeptide chains instead of one. We analysed structural and functional characteristics of recombinant baculovirus-derived SP-A1, SP-A2 and co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2 using a wide array of experimental approaches such as analytical ultracentrifugation, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and fluorescence. We found that the extent of supratrimeric assembly is much lower in SP-A1 than SP-A2. However, the resistance to proteolysis is greater for SP-A1 than for SP-A2. Co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2 had greater thermal stability than SP-A1 and SP-A2 and exhibited properties of each protein. On the one hand, SP-A1/SP-A2, like SP-A2, had a higher degree of oligomerization than SP-A1, and consequently had lower Kd for binding to bacterial Re-LPS (rough lipopolysaccharide), higher self-association in the presence of calcium and greater capability to aggregate Re-LPS and phospholipids than SP-A1. On the other hand, SP-A1/SP-A2, like SP-A1, was more resistant to trypsin degradation than SP-A2. Finally, the importance of the supratrimeric assembly for SP-A immunomodulatory function is discussed. PMID:17542781

  4. Isolation and characterization of a Nocardiopsis sp. from honeybee guts.

    PubMed

    Patil, Preeti B; Zeng, Yu; Coursey, Tami; Houston, Preston; Miller, Iain; Chen, Shawn

    2010-11-01

    Although actinomycetes are the plant-associated environmental bacteria best known for producing thousands of antibiotics, their presence in the guts of flower-feeding honeybees has rarely been reported. Here, we report on the selective isolation of actinomycetes from the gut microbiota of healthy honeybees, and their inhibitory activity against honeybee indigenous bacteria. More than 70% of the sampled honeybees (N>40) in a season carried at least one CFU of actinomycete. The isolates from bees of one location produced inhibitory bioactivities that were almost exclusively against several bee indigenous Bacillus strains and Gram-positive human pathogens but not Escherichia coli. An antibiotic-producing actinomycete closely related to Nocardiopsis alba was isolated from the guts in every season of the year. A DNA fragment encoding a homologous gene (phzD) involved in phenazine biosynthesis was identified in the isolate. Expression of the phzD detected by reverse transcription-PCR can explain the survival of this organism in anaerobic environments as some redox-active extracellular phenazines are commonly regarded as respiratory electron acceptors. The results raise important questions concerning the roles of the antibiotic-producing actinomycetes and the phenazine-like molecules in honeybee guts and honey. PMID:20846361

  5. Early experiences with the IBM SP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-06-01

    The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

  6. Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes. Results Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose following a Michaelis

  7. Superhard sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Meng; Ma, Mengdong; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; He, Julong

    2016-05-01

    Four sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772). The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  8. Antifeedant, larvicidal and growth inhibitory bioactivities of novel polyketide metabolite isolated from Streptomyces sp. AP-123 against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Considerable attention has been paid to actinomycetes, especially the secondary metabolites obtained from Streptomyces species, as the best alternatives to chemicals as biological control agents for polyphagous pests such as Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. On the basis of their novel biocontrol attributes, novel polyketide metabolite isolated from marine Streptomyces sp. AP-123 exhibited significant antifeedant, larvicidal and growth inhibitory activities against polyphagous pests. Results Leaf disc no-choice method was used for the insect bioassay. The polyketide metabolite presented significant antifeedant activities against H. armigera (78.51%) and S. litura (70.75%) at 1000 ppm concentration. The metabolite also exhibited high larvicidal activities against H. armigera (63.11%) and S. litura (58.22%) and the LC50 values were 645.25 ppm for H. armigera and 806.54 ppm for S. litura. The metabolite also prolonged the larval–pupal duration of the insects at all the tested concentrations. Conclusions The activities of the polyketide metabolite were concentration dependent for both the insects therefore it could be used as an agent to prepare new pesticidal formulations. PMID:23668716

  9. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, L. T., Jr.; Womack, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  10. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-01-31

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compability between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  11. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Myroides sp.*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shao-hua; Yuan, Shu-xing; Qu, Hai; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Ya-jun; Wang, Ming-xi; Ming, De-song

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Myroides (Myroides spp.) are rare opportunistic pathogens. Myroides sp. infections have been reported mainly in China. Myroides sp. is highly resistant to most available antibiotics, but the resistance mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Current strain identification methods based on biochemical traits are unable to identify strains accurately at the species level. While 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing can accurately achieve this, it fails to give information on the status and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, because the 16S rRNA sequence contains no information on resistance genes, resistance islands or enzymes. We hypothesized that obtaining the whole genome sequence of Myroides sp., using next generation sequencing methods, would help to clarify the mechanisms of pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance, and guide antibiotic selection to treat Myroides sp. infections. As Myroides sp. can survive in hospitals and the environment, there is a risk of nosocomial infections and pandemics. For better management of Myroides sp. infections, it is imperative to apply next generation sequencing technologies to clarify the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in these bacteria. PMID:26984839

  12. Heptaketides with antiviral activity from three endolichenic fungal strains Nigrospora sp., Alternaria sp. and Phialophora sp.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Wei; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gao, Hao; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Peng, Tao; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Two new heptaketides, (+)-(2S,3S,4aS)-altenuene (1a) and (-)-(2S,3S,4aR)-isoaltenuene (2a), together with six known compounds, (-)-(2R,3R,4aR)-altenuene (1b), (+)-(2R,3R,4aS)-isoaltenuene (2b), 5'-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (3), alternariol (4), alternariol-9-methyl ether (5), and 4-hydroxyalternariol-9-methyl ether (6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nigrospora sphaerica (No.83-1-1-2). Compounds 1a and 1b were separated from enantiomers 1 by chiral HPLC, and so were 2a and 2b from enantiomers 2. Interestingly, 1-6 were also obtained from other two endolichenic fungal strains Alternaria alternata (No.58-8-4-1) and Phialophora sp. (No.96-1-8-1). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by means of MS, HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1a-2b were determined by CD experiments and CD calculation. Of these compounds, 4 and 5 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro, with IC(50) values of 13.5 and 21.3 μM, and with selective index (SI) values of 26.5 and 17.1, respectively. PMID:22613072

  13. Characterization of the iron-regulated desA promoter of Streptomyces pilosus as a system for controlled gene expression in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Francisco J; Rincón, Javier; Martín, Juan F

    2003-01-01

    Background The bioavailability of iron is quite low since it is usually present as insoluble complexes. To solve the bioavailability problem microorganisms have developed highly efficient iron-scavenging systems based on the synthesis of siderophores that have high iron affinity. The systems of iron assimilation in microorganisms are strictly regulated to control the intracellular iron levels since at high concentrations iron is toxic for cells. Streptomyces pilosus synthesizes the siderofore desferrioxamine B. The first step in desferrioxamine biosynthesis is decarboxylation of L-lysine to form cadaverine, a desferrioxamine B precursor. This reaction is catalyzed by the lysine decarboxylase, an enzyme encoded by the desA gene that is repressed by iron. Results The binding of the DmdR (acronym for divalent metal dependent repressor) to the desA promoter in presence of Fe2+ or other divalent ions has been characterized. A 51 bp DNA fragment of the desA promoter containing the 9 bp inverted repeat was sufficient for binding of the DmdR repressor, as observed by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The desA mobility shift was prevented by neutralizing DmdR with anti-DmdR antibodies or by chelating the divalent metal in the binding reaction with 2,2'-dipyridyl. Binding to the desA promoter was observed with purified DmdR repressors of Streptomyces coelicolor or Rhodococcus fascians suggesting that there is a common mechanism of iron-regulation in actinomycetes. The complete desA promoter region was coupled using transcriptional fusions to the amy reporter gene (encoding α-amylase) in low copy or multicopy Streptomyces vectors. The iron-regulated desA promoter was induced by addition of the iron chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl resulting in a strong expression of the reporter gene. Conclusions The iron-regulated desA promoter can be used for inducible expression of genes in Streptomyces species, as shown by de-repression of the promoter when coupled to a reporter

  14. Metabolomics of the Bio-Degradation Process of Aflatoxin B1 by Actinomycetes at an Initial pH of 6.0

    PubMed Central

    Eshelli, Manal; Harvey, Linda; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; McNeil, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a cause of serious economic and health problems. Different processes have been used to degrade AFB1. In this study, biological degradation of AFB1 was carried out using three Actinomycete species, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, and S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762, in liquid cultures. Biodegradation of AFB1 was optimised under a range of temperatures from 25 to 40 °C and pH values of 4.0 to 8.0. An initial concentration of 20 µg/mL of AFB1 was used in this study. The amount of AFB1 remaining was measured against time by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with UV and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). All species were able to degrade the AFB1, and no significant difference was found between them. AFB1 remained in the liquid culture for R. erythropolis, S. lividans and S. aureofaciens were 0.81 µg/mL, 2.41 µg/mL and 2.78 µg/mL respectively, at the end of the first 24 h. Degradation occurred at all incubation temperatures and the pH with the optimal conditions for R. erythropolis was achieved at 30 °C and pH 6, whereas for S. lividans and S. aureofaciens the optimum conditions for degradation were 30 °C and pH 5. Analysis of the degradative route indicated that each microorganism has a different way of degrading AFB1. The metabolites produced by R. erythropolis were significantly different from the other two microorganisms. Products of degradation were identified through metabolomic studies by utilizing high-resolution mass spectral data. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that the degradation of AFB1 was associated with the appearance of a range of lower molecular weight compounds. The pathway of degradation or chemical alteration of AFB1 was followed by means of high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HR-FTMS) analysis as well as through the MS2 fragmentation to unravel the degradative pathway for AFB1. AFB1 bio

  15. Purification and Characterization of Phosphonoglycans from Glycomyces sp. Strain NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaomin; Price, Neil P. J.; Evans, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Two related actinomycetes, Glycomyces sp. strain NRRL B-16210 and Stackebrandtia nassauensis NRRL B-16338, were identified as potential phosphonic acid producers by screening for the gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) mutase, which is required for the biosynthesis of most phosphonates. Using a variety of analytical techniques, both strains were subsequently shown to produce phosphonate-containing exopolysaccharides (EPS), also known as phosphonoglycans. The phosphonoglycans were purified by sequential organic solvent extractions, methanol precipitation, and ultrafiltration. The EPS from the Glycomyces strain has a mass of 40 to 50 kDa and is composed of galactose, xylose, and five distinct partially O-methylated galactose residues. Per-deutero-methylation analysis indicated that galactosyl residues in the polysaccharide backbone are 3,4-linked Gal, 2,4-linked 3-MeGal, 2,3-linked Gal, 3,6-linked 2-MeGal, and 4,6-linked 2,3-diMeGal. The EPS from the Stackebrandtia strain is comprised of glucose, galactose, xylose, and four partially O-methylated galactose residues. Isotopic labeling indicated that the O-methyl groups in the Stackebrandtia phosphonoglycan arise from S-adenosylmethionine. The phosphonate moiety in both phosphonoglycans was shown to be 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate (2-HEP) by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry following strong acid hydrolysis of the purified molecules. Partial acid hydrolysis of the purified EPS from Glycomyces yielded 2-HEP in ester linkage to the O-5 or O-6 position of a hexose and a 2-HEP mono(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)ester. Partial acid hydrolysis of Stackebrandtia EPS also revealed the presence of 2-HEP mono(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)ester. Examination of the genome sequences of the two strains revealed similar pepM-containing gene clusters that are likely to be required for phosphonoglycan synthesis. PMID:24584498

  16. Cloning and Analysis of the Planosporicin Lantibiotic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Planomonospora alba

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Emma J.; Hesketh, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

  17. Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. and N. ostovani sp.nov. (Acari: Camerobiidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad; Yazdanpanah, Shima; Masoudian, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Neophyllobius Berlese, 1886 are described: Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. collected from soil under Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae) in Markazi province and Neophyllobius ostovani sp. nov. from soil and rotten leaves of oak trees in Fars province, Iran. A key to all known Iranian and Turkish species of Neophyllobius is provided. PMID:24870646

  18. Expression of surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D in murine decidua and immunomodulatory effects on decidual macrophages.

    PubMed

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, Aghila Rani; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Marri, Eswari Dodagatta-; Kouser, Lubna; Jamil, Kaiser; Alhamlan, Fatimah S; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules that belong to the C-type lectin family. In lungs, they play an important role in the clearance of pathogens and control of inflammation. SP-A and SP-D are also expressed in the female reproductive tract where they play an important role in pregnancy and parturition. However, the role of SP-A and SP-D expressed at the feto-maternal interface (decidua) remains unclear. Here, we have examined the expression of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua at 17.5 (pre-parturition) and 19.5dpc (near parturition) and their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated decidual macrophages. SP-A and SP-D were localized to stromal cells in the murine decidua at 17.5 and 19.5dpc in addition to cells lining the maternal spiral artery. Purified pre-parturition decidual cells were challenged with LPS with and without SP-A or SP-D, and expression of F4/80 and TNF-α were measured by flow cytometry. On their own, SP-A or SP-D did not affect the percentage of F4/80 positive cells while they suppressed the percentage of TNF-α positive cells. However, simultaneous addition of SP-A or SP-D, together with LPS, reduced TNF-α secreting F4/80 positive cells. It is likely that exogenous administration of SP-A and SP-D in decidua can potentially control infection and inflammation mediators during spontaneous term labor and infection-induced preterm labor. Thus, the presence of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua is likely to play a protective role against intrauterine infection during pregnancy. PMID:26421960

  19. Streptomyces zhihengii sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil of Psammosilene tunicoides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei-Juan; Fei, Jing-Jing; Salam, Nimaichand; Kim, Chang-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Xiao, Min; Huang, Hai-Quan; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated YIM T102(T), was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Psammosilene tunicoides W. C. Wu et C. Y. Wu collected from Lijiang, Yunnan Province, China. The taxonomic position of the new isolate was investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM T102(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Strain YIM T102(T) was most closely related to Streptomyces eurocidicus NRRL B-1676(T) with a pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.9 %. However, DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YIM T102(T) and S. eurocidicus NBRC 13491(T) was found to be 37.8 ± 1.8 %. The menaquinone composition detected for strain YIM T102(T) was MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8), while the major fatty acids were summed feature 4 (38.0 %), anteiso-C15:0 (13.1 %), iso-C16:0 (10.1 %), summed feature 3 (9.8 %) and C16:0 (9.0 %) and iso-C15:0 (5.2 %). The whole-cell hydrolysates contained galactose, glucose, ribose and mannose, along with LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 70.7 mol%. Strain YIM T102(T) also exhibited antagonistic activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae and Colletotrichum nicotianae Averna, based on the findings from the comparative analyses of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics; it is proposed that strain YIM T102 represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces zhihengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM T102(T) (=KCTC 39115(T) = DSM 42176(T) = CGMCC 4.7248(T)). PMID:27169711

  20. Tenggerimyces mesophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Nocardioidaceae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Min; Zhang, Tao; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Qin

    2015-10-01

    A novel aerobic actinomycete, designated strain I12A-02601T, was isolated from a desert soil crusts sample collected from the Shapotou region of Tengger Desert, north-west China. The substrate mycelia of this isolate were well-developed and branched, but not fragmented. The maturity aerial mycelia formed short chains of small, rod-shaped spores. The strain contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, dd-diaminopimelic acid, galactose, glucose, ribose and xylose in its whole-cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, N-acetylglucosamine-containing phospholipids, phosphatidylinositolmannoside and glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H8). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.2 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison showed that strain I12A-02601T was most closely related to members of the family Nocardioidaceae, such as Actinopolymorpha alba YIM 48868T (93.3 % sequence similarity), Actinopolymorpha pittospori PIP 143T (93.2 %), and Flindersiella endophytica EUM 378T (93.2 %). In the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain I12A-02601T formed a clade with the members of the genera Flindersiella, Thermasporomyces, and Actinopolymorpha in the family Nocardioidaceae. Combined data from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, led to the conclusion that strain I12A-02601T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Nocardioidaceae, for which the name Tenggerimyces mesophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is I12A-02601T ( = CPCC 203544T = DSM 45829T = NBRC 109454T). PMID:26297147

  1. Micromonospora schwarzwaldensis sp. nov., a producer of telomycin, isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Vela Gurovic, Maria Soledad; Müller, Sebastian; Domin, Nicole; Seccareccia, Ivana; Nietzsche, Sandor; Martin, Karin; Nett, Markus

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming actinomycete strain (HKI0641(T)) was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Black Forest, Germany. During screening for antimicrobial natural products this bacterium was identified as a producer of the antibiotic telomycin. Morphological characteristics and chemotaxonomic data indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Micromonospora. The peptidoglycan of strain HKI0641(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the fatty acid profile consisted predominantly of anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. MK-10(H4), MK-10(H2) and MK-10 were identified as the major menaquinones. To determine the taxonomic positioning of strain HKI0641(T), we computed a binary tanglegram of two rooted phylogenetic trees that were based upon 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences. The comparative analysis of the two common classification methods strongly supported the phylogenetic affiliation with the genus Micromonospora, but it also revealed discrepancies in the assignment at the level of the genomic species. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified Micromonospora coxensis DSM 45161(T) (99.1 % sequence similarity) and Micromonospora marina DSM 45555(T) (99.0 %) as the nearest taxonomic neighbours, whereas the gyrB sequence of strain HKI0641(T) indicated a closer relationship to Micromonospora aurantiaca DSM 43813(T) (95.1 %). By means of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, it was possible to resolve this issue and to clearly differentiate strain HKI0641(T) from other species of the genus Micromonospora. The type strains of the aforementioned species of the genus Micromonospora could be further distinguished from strain HKI0641(T) by several phenotypic properties, such as colony colour, NaCl tolerance and the utilization of carbon sources. The isolate was therefore assigned to a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora schwarzwaldensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain

  2. TA-3037A, a new inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase, produced by actinomycetes. I. Production, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Komagata, D; Sawa, T; Muraoka, Y; Imada, C; Okami, Y; Takeuchi, T

    1992-07-01

    TA-3037A, a new inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase was discovered in the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. TA-3037. It was purified by chromatography followed by solvent extraction and then isolated as yellow needles. TA-3037A has the molecular formula of C16H11NO4. It was competitive with the substrate, and the inhibition constant (Ki) was 4.9 microM. PMID:1517156

  3. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp(3)-sp(3) cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Craig P; Smith, Russell T; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-08-18

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox

  4. Sp8 regulates inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

    2014-04-29

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

  5. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriadis, Georgios; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kouser, Lubna; Alhamlan, Fatimah S.; Kishore, Uday; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain) on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR) as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP) genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and connexin 43 (CX43). In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one. PMID:26641881

  6. Regulation of Sp1 by cell cycle related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Alicia; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Roninson, Igor B.; Noé, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Sp1 transcription factor regulates the expression of multiple genes, including the Sp1 gene itself. We analyzed the ability of different cell cycle regulatory proteins to interact with Sp1 and to affect Sp1 promoter activity. Using an antibody array, we observed that CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 could interact with Sp1 and we confirmed these interactions by co-immunoprecipitation. CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 also activated the Sp1 promoter. Among the known Sp1-interacting proteins, E2F-DP1, Cyclin D1, Stat3 and Rb activated the Sp1 promoter, whereas p53 and NFκB inhibited it. The proteins that regulated Sp1 gene expression were shown by positive chromatin immunoprecipitation to be bound to the Sp1 promoter. Moreover, SKP2, BRCA2, p21, E2F-DP1, Stat3, Rb, p53 and NFκB had similar effects on an artificial promoter containing only Sp1 binding sites. Transient transfections of CDK4, Rad51, E2F-DP1, p21 and Stat3 increased mRNA expression from the endogenous Sp1 gene in HeLa cells whereas overexpression of NFκB, and p53 decreased Sp1 mRNA levels. p21 expression from a stably integrated inducible promoter in HT1080 cells activated Sp1 expression at the promoter and mRNA levels, but at the same time it decreased Sp1 protein levels due to the activation of Sp1 degradation. The observed multiple effects of cell cycle regulators on Sp1 suggest that Sp1 may be a key mediator of cell cycle associated changes in gene expression. PMID:18769160

  7. Benchmark physics experiments for SP-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, David N.; Carpenter, Stuart G.; Grasseschi, Gary L.; Smith, Dale M.

    A space nuclear power system (SNPS) benchmark reactor physics program was performed at Argonne's Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR). Two uranium fuelled, BeO reflected reactors were assembled to test 300 kWe conceptual designs considered for the SP-100. The major difference between configurations was the reactivity control concept. Program goals were to aid designers in evaluating SP-100 designs and provide guidance in defining a series of engineering mockup criticals to be performed in support of the ground engineering test. ZPPR-16 was a short program aimed at providing basic physics data for cores representing early SP-100 designs. All measurement results from the experimental program are available. Initial analysis, using standard deterministic methods, shows significant errors when compared against the measurements. Calculational difficulties are enhanced by the need to model a natural B4C/graphite room-return shield used in the ZPPR experiments.

  8. Comparison of Thraustochytrids Aurantiochytrium sp., Schizochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp., and Ulkenia sp. for production of biodiesel, long-chain omega-3 oils, and exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Lee Chang, Kim Jye; Nichols, Carol Mancuso; Blackburn, Susan I; Dunstan, Graeme A; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in coproducing biodiesel for transportation, as well as producing a feedstock for omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for use in nutraceuticals. In this study, we compared eight new endemic Australian thraustochytrid strains from the genera Aurantiochytrium, Schizochytrium, Thraustochytrium, and Ulkenia for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide (EPS), in addition to biodiesel and LC-PUFA. Aurantiochytrium sp. strains readily utilized glucose for biomass production, and increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased biomass yield by an average factor of 1.7. Ulkenia sp. strain TC 010 and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 033 did not utilize glucose, while Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 utilized less than half the glucose available by day 14, and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 004 utilized glucose at 4 % w/v but not 2 % w/v of the culture suggesting a threshold requirement between these values. Across all strains, increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased total fatty acid methyl ester content by an average factor of 1.9. Despite an increasing literature demonstrating the capacity of thraustochytrids for DHA synthesis, the production of EPS from these organisms is not well documented. A broad range of EPS yields was observed. The maximum yield of EPS was observed for Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 (299 mg/L). High biomass-producing strains that also have high lipid and high EPS yield may be better candidates for commercial production of biofuels and other coproducts. PMID:24463839

  9. Blastocystis sp. Infection Mimicking Clostridium Difficile Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Gaby S.; Chaudhari, Shobhana; Shady, Ahmed; Caballes, Ana; Hong, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of severe diarrhea related to Blastocystis sp. infection in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. The patient was admitted due to profuse diarrhea associated with fever and leukocytosis. Pertinent stool work-up such as leukocytes in stool, stool culture, clostridium difficile toxin B PCR, and serology for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus screening were all negative. Ova and parasite stool examination revealed Blastocystis sp. The patient was given intravenous metronidazole with clinical improvement by day three and total resolution of symptoms by day ten. PMID:27247810

  10. Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov., isolated from wild Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujinaga, Yuta; Inoue, Kai; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Soichi

    2013-05-01

    Four novel strains of members of the genus Bartonella, OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T), were isolated from the blood of wild-captured greater Egyptian jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus), fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) and golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus). All the animals were imported to Japan as pets from Egypt, Thailand and the Netherlands. The phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (37.4 mol% for strain OY2-1(T), 35.5 mol% for strain BR11-1(T), 35.7 mol% for strain FN15-2(T) and 37.2 mol% for strain KS2-1(T)), and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that those strains belong to the genus Bartonella. Sequence comparisons of gltA and rpoB genes suggested that all of the strains should be classified as novel species of the genus Bartonella. In phylogenetic trees based on the concatenated sequences of five loci, including the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes and the ITS region, and on the concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of three housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gltA and rpoB), all strains formed distinct clades and had unique mammalian hosts that could be discriminated from other known species of the genus Bartonella. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strains OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T) should be classified as representing novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. Type strains of Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are OY2-1(T) ( = JCM 17712(T) = KCTC 23655(T)), BR11-1(T) ( = JCM 17709(T) = KCTC 23909(T)), FN15-2(T) ( = JCM 17714(T) = KCTC 23657(T)) and KS2-1(T) ( = JCM 17706(T

  11. Cyanobactericidal effect of Rhodococcus sp. isolated from eutrophic lake on Microcystis sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ki; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Kim, Hee-Sik; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2010-11-01

    A bacterium, which was observed in all cultivations of Microcystis sp., was isolated and designated as Rhodococcus sp. KWR2. The growth of bloom-forming cyanobacteria, including four strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena variabilis, was suppressed by up to 75-88% by 2% (v/v) culture broth of KWR2 after 5 days. But KWR2 did not inhibit eukaryotic algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp. An extracellular algicidal substance produced by KWR2 showed a cyanobactericidal activity of 94% and was water-soluble with a molecular weight of lower than 8 kDa. PMID:20640876

  12. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  13. New anamorphic yeast species: Candida infanticola sp. nov., Candida polysorbophila sp. nov., Candida transvaalensis sp. nov., and Trigonopsis californica sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Candida and a new species of Trigonopsis are described based on their recognition from phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from large subunit ribosomal RNA, ITS1/ITS2 rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II. Candida infanticola sp. nov. (type strain...

  14. Lagenidium sp. Ocular Infection Mimicking Ocular Pythiosis

    PubMed Central

    Reinprayoon, Usanee; Permpalung, Nitipong; Plongla, Rongpong; Mendoza, Leonel; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of a Lagenidium sp. in a Thai patient who was diagnosed with severe keratitis that was unresponsive to antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species. PMID:23740721

  15. Lagenidium sp. ocular infection mimicking ocular pythiosis.

    PubMed

    Reinprayoon, Usanee; Permpalung, Nitipong; Kasetsuwan, Ngamjit; Plongla, Rongpong; Mendoza, Leonel; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2013-08-01

    This is a report of a Lagenidium sp. in a Thai patient who was diagnosed with severe keratitis that was unresponsive to antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species. PMID:23740721

  16. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. (Amorphea, Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Tekle, Yonas I; Gorfu, Lydia A; Anderson, O Roger

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Cochliopodium isolated from freshwater at Arabia Lake in Lithonia, GA, USA is described based on light microscopic morphology, fine structure, and molecular genetic evidence. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp., previously labeled as "isolate Con1" in prior publications, has been shown to group within the genus Cochliopodium in our molecular phylogenetic analysis. Light microscopy and fine structure evidence indicates the new isolate not only shares characters of the genus but also unique distinctive features. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. is typically round when stationary; or oval to sometimes broadly flabellate or triangular in shape during locomotion, with average length of 35 μm and breadth of 51 μm. Fine structure evidence indicates C. arabianum n. sp. has tower-like scales, lacking a terminal spine, sharing high similarity with its closest relative C. actinophorum. However, the scales of C. arabianum n. sp. are unique in height and the breadth of the base plate. Both morphological and molecular data, including SSU-rDNA and COI, indicate that this new species falls in a clade sufficiently different from other species to suggest that it is a valid new species. PMID:25851131

  17. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  18. Evoluation of SP-100 System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, Alan T.; Fujita, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    The current phase of the SP-100 program was initiated in 1986 with the objectives of developing the technology for Space Reactor Power Systems (SRPS) in the 10-1000k. We power range and perfoming ground system tests of both nuclear and non-nuclear major assemblies.

  19. Nitrogen fixation in Asaia sp. (family Acetobacteraceae).

    PubMed

    Samaddar, Neeloy; Paul, Arundhati; Chakravorty, Somnath; Chakraborty, Writachit; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Chowdhuri, Debarati; Gachhui, Ratan

    2011-08-01

    The genus Asaia (family Acetobacteraceae) was first introduced with a single species-Asaia bogorensis and later six more species were described namely A. siamensis, A. krungthepensis, A. lannaensis, A. platycodi, A. prunellae, and A. astilbes. Acetobacteraceae family has been divided into ten genera but, only three of them include nitrogen fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Acetobacter, and Swaminathania. This article originated from our study primarily aimed to isolate new endosymbiotic nitrogen fixer among Acetobacteraceae during which we have isolated, for the first time in India, four different strains of Asaia sp. from three different sources: Michalia champaca flower, Anopheles mosquito, and ant Tetraponera rufonigra. All the endosymbiotic strains isolated possess the ability to fix nitrogen. Evidence for both nitrogenase activity and the presence of nifH gene in isolated Asaia sp. is presented. Asaia bogorensis (MTCC 4041(T)) and A. siamensis (MTCC 4042(T)), two of the validated type strains available from the repository, were tested positive for the presence of functional nitrogenase. The nifH gene sequences from these type strains were also confirmed and compared with other nitrogen fixing members of the family Acetobacteraceae. Our result corroborate with the previous reports that Asaia sp. are indeed widely distributed in nature but this is the first time demonstration of their functional nitrogenase activity. This study shows Asaia sp. as fourth genera of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the family Acetobacteraceae. PMID:21681635

  20. Scaling study for SP-100 reactor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. C.; McKissock, B.

    Several ways were explored of extending SP-100 reactor technology to higher power levels. One approach was to use the reference SP-100 pin design and increase the fuel pin length and the number of fuel pins as needed to provide higher capability. The impact on scaling of a modified and advanced SP-100 reactor technology was also explored. Finally, the effect of using alternative power conversion subsystems, with SP-100 reactor technology was investigated. One of the principal concerns for any space based system is mass; consequently, this study focused on estimating reactor, shield, and total system mass. The RSMASS code (Marshall 1986) was used to estimate reactor and shield mass. Simple algorithms developed at NASA-Lewis were used to estimate the balance of system mass. Power ranges from 100 kWe to 10 MWe were explored assuming both one year and seven years of operation. Thermoelectric, Stirling, Rankine, and Brayton power conversion systems were investigated. The impact on safety, reliability, and other system attributes, caused by extending the technology to higher power levels, was also investigated.

  1. The retinoblastoma gene product RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transcription by liberating Sp1 from a negative regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L I; Nishinaka, T; Kwan, K; Kitabayashi, I; Yokoyama, K; Fu, Y H; Grünwald, S; Chiu, R

    1994-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product, RB, can either positively or negatively regulate expression of several genes through cis-acting elements in a cell-type-dependent manner. The nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma control element (RCE) motif, GCCACC or CCACCC, and the Sp1 consensus binding sequence, CCGCCC, can confer equal responsiveness to RB. Here, we report that RB activates transcription of the c-jun gene through the Sp1-binding site within the c-jun promoter. Preincubation of crude nuclear extracts with monoclonal antibodies to RB results in reduction of Sp1 complexes in a mobility shift assay, while addition of recombinant RB in mobility shift assay mixtures with CCL64 cell extracts leads to an enhancement of DNA-binding activity of SP1. These results suggest that RB is directly or indirectly involved in Sp1-DNA binding activity. A mechanism by which RB regulates transactivation is indicated by our detection of a heat-labile and protease-sensitive Sp1 negative regulator(s) (Sp1-I) that specifically inhibits Sp1 binding to a c-jun Sp1 site. This inhibition is reversed by addition of recombinant RB proteins, suggesting that RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transactivation by liberating Sp1 from Sp1-I. Additional evidence for Sp1-I involvement in Sp1-mediated transactivation was demonstrated by cotransfection of RB, GAL4-Sp1, and a GAL4-responsive template into CV-1 cells. Finally, we have identified Sp1-I, a approximately 20-kDa protein(s) that inhibits the Sp1 complexes from binding to DNA and that is also an RB-associated protein. These findings provide evidence for a functional link between two distinct classes of oncoproteins, RB and c-Jun, that are involved in the control of cell growth, and also define a novel mechanism for the regulation of c-jun expression. Images PMID:8007947

  2. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways. PMID:27250970

  3. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  4. Remote sensing data of SP mountain and SP lava flow in north-central Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain and SP flow in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization and compared with surface and aerial photography, Landsat multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is brighter on direct-polarization K-band images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data.

  5. 76 FR 22694 - SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 12, 2011, SP 49 Pipeline LLC (``SP 49'') submitted a request for waiver of the requirement to file the FERC Form... Pipe Line Company's (``Chevron'') pipeline system and associated equipment, specifically the South...

  6. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  7. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  8. Sp6 and Sp8 transcription factors control AER formation and dorsal-ventral patterning in limb development.

    PubMed

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C; Ros, Marian A

    2014-08-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6-/-;Sp8+/-) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  9. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  10. Sarcocystis sp. from cattle slaughtered in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Kubo, M; Itagaki, H

    2000-11-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was detected from cattle slaughtered in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The cysts were 3,400-4,400 x 198-238 microm in size and had the thick cyst wall which was 7 to 10 microm thick and provided with finger-like villar protrusions. The protrusions were 8-9.5 x 2-2.5 microm in size and had microtubules in the core. PMID:11129868

  11. Chlamydomonas sajao nov. sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Ralph A.

    1984-06-01

    A new species of Chlamydomonas, namely, C. sajao nov. sp. of the Volvocales, Chlorophyta was isolated from a duckweed growing near a ricefield in the vicinity of Guangzhou, China. This interesting unicellular green alga, similar to C. mexicana from Mexico, secretes quantities of extracellular mucilaginous polysaccharides, and may be employed in improving soil quality. The new species resembles C. waldenburgensis Moewus in most characteristics but differs in three important features.

  12. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  13. Sterols from the Madagascar sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ(5), Δ(7) and Δ(5,7), were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ(5,7) sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays. PMID:21339959

  14. The homopentameric chlorite dismutase from Magnetospirillum sp.

    PubMed

    Freire, Diana M; Rivas, Maria G; Dias, André M; Lopes, Ana T; Costa, Cristina; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; González, Pablo J

    2015-10-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) is a b-type heme containing enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of chlorite into chloride plus dioxygen. This enzyme has gained attention because it can be used in the development of bioremediation processes, biosensors, and controlled dioxygen production. In the present work, Cld was purified from Magnetospirillum sp. cells cultured anaerobically with acetate/perchlorate until stationary phase. Biochemical, spectroscopic and X-ray crystallography methods showed that Cld from Magnetospirillum sp. is a ~140 kDa homopentamer comprising ~27.8 kDa monomers. Preliminary X-ray crystallography studies confirmed the quaternary structure and the presence of one b-type heme per monomer. The EPR spectroscopic signature of the as-purified Cld samples is affected by the buffer composition used during the purification. Potassium phosphate buffer is the only buffer that affected neither the spectral nor the kinetic properties of Cld. Kinetic studies in solution revealed that Cld from Magnetospirillum sp. decomposes chlorite at high turnover rates with optimal pH6.0. A temperature below 10 °C is required to avoid enzyme inactivation due to cofactor bleaching during turnover, and to achieve full substrate consumption. Cld kinetic parameters were not affected when kinetic assays were performed in the presence of air or under argon atmosphere, but chloride is a weak mixed inhibitor that modifies the EPR signal of as-prepared samples. PMID:26218477

  15. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromate using permeabilized Brevibacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shimei; Ge, Shichao; Zhou, Maohong; Dong, Xinjiao

    2015-07-01

    Bioremediation has been found to be a useful method for removing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which is very toxic, from wastewater. Two strains of bacteria that were able to reduce Cr(VI) effectively were isolated from Cr(VI) contaminated soil samples and identified as Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 could grow in Luria-Broth medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 1000 and 1600 mg/L, respectively, and they completely reduced the Cr(VI) in LB medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 200 mg/L within 72 h. Further analyses revealed that permeabilized K1 and D6 cells reduced Cr(VI) more effectively than did the resting cells. Triton X-100 was the best permeabilizing agent that was tested. The permeabilized cells of both strains could completely reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewater twice before needing to be replenished. The results suggested that these chromate-reducing bacteria are potential candidates for practical use biotreating industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) with Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 being the more effective bacterium. PMID:25881152

  16. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history. PMID:27054834

  17. Salternamides A-D from a Halophilic Streptomyces sp. Actinobacterium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hwan; Shin, Yoonho; Lee, So-Hyoung; Oh, Ki-Bong; Lee, Sang Kook; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2015-04-24

    Salternamides A-D (1-4), the first secondary metabolites discovered from saltern-derived actinomycetes, were isolated from a halophilic Streptomyces strain isolated from a saltern on Shinui Island in the Republic of Korea. The planar structures of the salternamides, which are new members of the manumycin family, were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of the salternamides were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including the modified Mosher's method, J-based configuration analysis, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Salternamide A (1), which is the first chlorinated compound in the manumycin family, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116) and a gastric cancer cell line (SNU638) with submicromolar IC50 values. Salternamides A and D were also determined to be weak Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors. PMID:25700232

  18. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Yin, Xiaochang; Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase. PMID:26340746

  19. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase. PMID:26340746

  20. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. PMID:23890544

  1. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed. PMID:26031294

  2. Sulfitobacter geojensis sp. nov., Sulfitobacter noctilucae sp. nov., and Sulfitobacter noctilucicola sp. nov., isolated from coastal seawater.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Jung; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun Chul; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Eom, Mi Kyung; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-11-01

    Four Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterial strains, MM-124, MM-126, NB-68 and NB-77, were isolated from the coastal seawater or a region with a bloom of sea sparkle around Geoje island in Korea. The sequence similarity values of the 16S rRNA gene between the isolates and Sulfitobacter mediterraneus DSM 12244(T) ranged from 97.7 to 98.2%, and phylogenetic relationships suggested that they belong to a phylogenetic branch that includes the genera Sulfitobacter and Roseobacter. The isoprenoid quinone of all three novel strains was ubiquinone-10 and the major fatty acid was cis-vaccenic acid, as in other species of the genus Sulfitobacter. However, there were several differences in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics among the four strains and the reference species of the genus Sulfitobacter. Moreover, the average nucleotide identity values between the three sequenced isolates and the reference strains were below 76.33, indicating that genomic variation exists between the isolates and reference strains. Chemotaxonomic characteristics together with phylogenetic affiliations and genomic distances illustrate that strains MM-124, NB-68 and NB-77 represent novel species of the genus Sulfitobacter, for which the names Sulfitobacter geojensis sp. nov. (type strain MM-124(T) =KCTC 32124(T) =JCM 18835(T)), Sulfitobacter noctilucae sp. nov. (type strain NB-68(T) =KCTC 32122(T) =JCM 18833(T)) and Sulfitobacter noctilucicola sp. nov. (type strain NB-77(T) =KCTC 32123(T) =JCM 18834(T)) are proposed. PMID:25122614

  3. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. PMID:22225994

  4. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp(2) and sp(3) Bonding.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-11

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp(2) bonding found in graphitic C and sp(3) bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semimetallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain. PMID:27088819

  5. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp2and sp3Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-01

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp2 bonding found in graphitic C and sp3 bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semi-metallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain.

  6. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress. PMID:26325186

  7. O-Linked N-acetylglucosaminylation of Sp1 interferes with Sp1 activation of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kihong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Ha, Chang Hoon

    Glycolysis, the primary pathway metabolizing glucose for energy production, is connected to the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) which produces UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a GlcNAc donor for O-linked GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAc), as well as for traditional elongated glycosylation. Thus, glycolysis and O-GlcNAc are intimately associated. The present study reports the transcriptional activation of glycolytic genes by the transcription factor Sp1 and the O-GlcNAc-mediated suppression of Sp1-dependent activation of glycolytic genes. O-GlcNAc-deficient mutant Sp1 stimulated the transcription of nine glycolytic genes and cellular production of pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Consistently, this mutant Sp1 increased the protein levels of the two key glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase (PFK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Finally, the mutant Sp1 occupied GC-rich elements on PFK and GAPDH promoters more efficiently than wild-type Sp1. These results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 suppresses Sp1-mediated activation of glycolytic gene transcription. PMID:26499076

  8. O-GlcNAc modification of Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors negatively regulates their transcriptional activities.

    PubMed

    Ha, Changhoon; Lim, Kihong

    2015-11-13

    The addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on serine or threonine modifies a myriad of proteins and regulates their function, stability and localization. O-GlcNAc modification is common among chromosome-associated proteins, such as transcription factors, suggesting its extensive involvement in gene expression regulation. In this study, we demonstrate the O-GlcNAc status of the Sp family members of transcription factors and the functional impact on their transcriptional activities. We highlight the presence of O-GlcNAc residues in Sp3 and Sp4, but not Sp2, as demonstrated by their enrichment in GlcNAc positive protein fractions and by detection of O-GlcNAc residues on Sp3 and Sp4 co-expressed in Escherichia coli together with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) using an O-GlcNAc-specific antibody. Deletion mutants of Sp3 and Sp4 indicate that the majority of O-GlcNAc sites reside in their N-terminal transactivation domain. Overall, using reporter gene assays and co-immunoprecipitations, we demonstrate a functional inhibitory role of O-GlcNAc modifications in Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors. Thereby, our study strengthens the current notion that O-GlcNAc modification is an important regulator of protein interactome. PMID:26431879

  9. Infant formula alters surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-B expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maurice G; Atkins, Constance L; Bruce, Shirley R; Khan, Amir M; Liu, Yuying; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-09-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults. PMID:21520433

  10. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  11. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    SciTech Connect

    Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Kirpich, A.S.; Murata, R.; Smith, M.A.; Stephen, J.D. )

    1993-01-10

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kW[sub e] system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW[sub 2], Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kW[sub e] in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  12. SP-100, a project manager's view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, Vincent C.

    1983-01-01

    Born to meet the special needs of America's space effort, the SP-100 Program testifies to the cooperation among government agencies. The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are working together to produce a 100-kW power system for use in outer space. At this point in the effort, it is appropriate to review: The approach to meet program goals; the status of activities of the Project Office, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); and, because this is a meeting on materials, answers beings developed by the Project Office to vital questions on refractory alloy technology.

  13. Succinylated Apoptolidins from Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Fotso, Serge; Serrill, Jeffrey D; Shahab, Salmah; Santosa, Dwi Andreas; Ishmael, Jane E; Proteau, Philip J; Zabriskie, T Mark; Mahmud, Taifo

    2015-05-15

    Two new apoptolidins, 2'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (11) and 3'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (12), were isolated from the culture broth of an Indonesian Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242. These compounds inhibit the proliferation and viability of human H292 and HeLa cells. However, in contrast to apoptolidin A (1), they do not inhibit cellular respiration in H292 cells. It is proposed that apoptolidins are produced and secreted in their succinylated forms and 1 is the hydrolysis product of 11 and 12. PMID:25945812

  14. Superoxide radical production by sponges Sycon sp.

    PubMed

    Peskin, A V; Labas, Y A; Tikhonov, A N

    1998-08-28

    Using the catechol Tiron as an O2-. scavenger, we showed that sea sponges (Sycon sp.) produce superoxide radicals in sea water at a high rate without any stimuli added. The rate of O2-. outflow from sponges to their water surroundings reaches a value of 0.5 nmol/min per sponge at pH 6.5. The generation of O2-. was inhibited by Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and restored by the addition of KCN. We also confirmed the abiotic production of O2-. in sea water, detected earlier with a different method by Petasne and Zika [Nature 325 (1987) 516-518]. PMID:9738478

  15. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.; Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1990-07-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. SP-100 control drive assembly development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, Thomas; Gilchrist, A. Richard; Schuster, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10-year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking reliability data are identified for development testing. A specific development test description is provided as an example to demonstrate how this process is meeting the system reliability goals.

  17. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Natália Rocha; Amorim, Soraya Sander; Santos, Pricila Almeida; Reis, Flávia Donária; Cordeiro, Mônica Mendes; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II) ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II), we investigated the potential of Mn(II) oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II). A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II) removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II) by a nonenzymatic pathway. PMID:26697496

  18. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  19. Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. and Zelinkaderes brightae sp. nov. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Martin V.; Heiner, Iben; Ziemer, Ole; Neuhaus, Birger

    2007-12-01

    One new kinorhynch genus and species and one new species from the genus Zelinkaderes are described from sandy sediment off Fort Pierce, Florida. The new genus and species, Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the first trunk segment consisting of a closed ring, the second segment of a bent tergal plate with a midventral articulation and the following nine segments consisting of a tergal and two sternal plates. Cuspidate spines are not present, but flexible tubules are located on several segments, and in particular concentrated on the ventral side of the second segment. Middorsal spines are present on all trunk segments and are alternatingly offset to a position slightly lateral to the middorsal line. Zelinkaderes brightae nov. sp. is characterized by its spine formula in having middorsal spines on trunk segments 4, 6 and 8-11, lateroventral acicular spines on segment 2, lateral accessory cuspidate spines on segments 2 and 8, ventrolateral cuspidate spines on segments 4-6 and 9, lateroventral acicular spines present on segments 8 and 9, and midterminal, lateral terminal and lateral terminal accessory spines on segment 11. The spine formula of Z. brightae nov. sp. places it in a position in between Z. submersus and a clade consisting of Z. klepali and Z. floridensis. The new findings on Z. brightae nov. sp. have led us to propose an emended diagnosis for the genus.

  20. Coexisting bacterial populations responsible for multiphasic mineralization kinetics in soil. [Janthinobacterium sp. Rhodococcus sp

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, S.K.; Gier, M.J. )

    1990-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to study populations of indigenous microorganisms capable of mineralizing 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in two soils. Previous kinetic analyses indicated the presence of two coexisting populations of DNP-mineralizing microorganisms in a forest soil (soil 1). Studies in which eucaryotic and procaryotic inhibitors were added to this soil indicated that both populations were bacterial. Most-probable-number counts with media containing different concentrations of DNP indicated that more bacteria could mineralize low concentrations of DNP than could metabolize high concentrations of it. Enrichments with varying concentrations of DNP and various combinations of inhibitors consistently resulted in the isolation of the same two species of bacteria from soil 1. This soil contained a large number and variety of fungi, but no fungi capable of mineralizing DNP were isolated. The two bacterial isolates were identified as a Janthinobacterium sp. and a Rhodococcus sp. The Janthinobacterium sp. had a low {mu}{sub max} and a low K{sub m} for DNP mineralization, whereas the Rhodococcus sp. had much higher values for both parameters. These differences between the two species of bacteria were similar to differences seen when soil was incubated with different concentrations of DNP. Values for {mu}{sub max} from soil incubations were similar to {mu}{sub max} values obtained in pure culture studies. In contrast, K{sub s} and K{sub m} values showed greater variation between soil and pure culture studies.