Science.gov

Sample records for action control evidence

  1. Actions, Action Sequences and Habits: Evidence That Goal-Directed and Habitual Action Control Are Hierarchically Organized

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral evidence suggests that instrumental conditioning is governed by two forms of action control: a goal-directed and a habit learning process. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) has been argued to underlie the goal-directed process; however, the way in which it interacts with habits and the structure of the habitual process has remained unclear. According to a flat architecture, the habitual process corresponds to model-free RL, and its interaction with the goal-directed process is coordinated by an external arbitration mechanism. Alternatively, the interaction between these systems has recently been argued to be hierarchical, such that the formation of action sequences underlies habit learning and a goal-directed process selects between goal-directed actions and habitual sequences of actions to reach the goal. Here we used a two-stage decision-making task to test predictions from these accounts. The hierarchical account predicts that, because they are tied to each other as an action sequence, selecting a habitual action in the first stage will be followed by a habitual action in the second stage, whereas the flat account predicts that the statuses of the first and second stage actions are independent of each other. We found, based on subjects' choices and reaction times, that human subjects combined single actions to build action sequences and that the formation of such action sequences was sufficient to explain habitual actions. Furthermore, based on Bayesian model comparison, a family of hierarchical RL models, assuming a hierarchical interaction between habit and goal-directed processes, provided a better fit of the subjects' behavior than a family of flat models. Although these findings do not rule out all possible model-free accounts of instrumental conditioning, they do show such accounts are not necessary to explain habitual actions and provide a new basis for understanding how goal-directed and habitual action control interact. PMID:24339762

  2. Action observation for upper limb function after stroke: evidence-based review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, KyeongMi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to suggest evidenced information about action observation to improve upper limb function after stroke. [Methods] A systematic review of randomized controlled trials involving adults aged 18 years or over and including descriptions of action observation for improving upper limb function was undertaken. Electronic databases were searched, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PEDro (the Physiotherapy Evidence Database), for articles published between 2000 to 2014. Following completion of the searches, two reviewers independently assessed the trials and extracted data using a data extraction form. The same two reviewers independently documented the methodological quality of the trials by using the PEDro scale. [Results] Five randomized controlled trials were ultimately included in this review, and four of them (80%) reported statistically significant effects for motor recovery of upper limb using action observation intervention in between groups. [Conclusion] This review of the literature presents evidence attesting to the benefits conferred on stroke patints resulting from participation in an action observation intervention. The body of literature in this field is growing steadily. Further work needs to be done to evaluate the evidence for different conditions after stroke and different duration of intervention. PMID:26644700

  3. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  4. Prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases through evidence-based public health: implementing the NCD 2020 action plan.

    PubMed

    Diem, Günter; Brownson, Ross C; Grabauskas, Vilius; Shatchkute, Aushra; Stachenko, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    The control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was addressed by the declaration of the 66th United Nations (UN) General Assembly followed by the World Health Organization's (WHO) NCD 2020 action plan. There is a clear need to better apply evidence in public health settings to tackle both behaviour-related factors and the underlying social and economic conditions. This article describes concepts of evidence-based public health (EBPH) and outlines a set of actions that are essential for successful global NCD prevention. The authors describe the importance of knowledge translation with the goal of increasing the effectiveness of public health services, relying on both quantitative and qualitative evidence. In particular, the role of capacity building is highlighted because it is fundamental to progress in controlling NCDs. Important challenges for capacity building include the need to bridge diverse disciplines, build the evidence base across countries and the lack of formal training in public health sciences. As brief case examples, several successful capacity-building efforts are highlighted to address challenges and further evidence-based decision making. The need for a more comprehensive public health approach, addressing social, environmental and cultural conditions, has led to government-wide and society-wide strategies that are now on the agenda due to efforts such as the WHO's NCD 2020 action plan and Health 2020: the European Policy for Health and Wellbeing. These efforts need research to generate evidence in new areas (e.g. equity and sustainability), training to build public health capacity and a continuous process of improvement and knowledge generation and translation. PMID:25758171

  5. The developing cognitive substrate of sequential action control in 9- to 12-month-olds: evidence for concurrent activation models.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, S A; Paulus, M; Spapé, M; Biro, S; Hommel, B

    2015-05-01

    Nine-month-olds start to perform sequential actions. Yet, it remains largely unknown how they acquire and control such actions. We studied infants' sequential-action control by employing a novel gaze-contingent eye tracking paradigm. Infants experienced occulo-motor action sequences comprising two elementary actions. To contrast chaining, concurrent and integrated models of sequential-action control, we then selectively activated secondary actions to assess interactions with the primary actions. Behavioral and pupillometric results suggest 12-month-olds acquire sequential action without elaborate strategy through exploration. Furthermore, the inhibitory mechanisms ensuring ordered performance develop between 9 and 12 months of age, and are best captured by concurrent models. PMID:25704583

  6. The role of cue-response mapping in motorvisual impairment and facilitation: Evidence for different roles of action planning and action control in motorvisual dual-task priming

    PubMed Central

    Thomaschke, Roland; Hopkins, Brian; Christopher Miall, R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions impair the visual perception of categorically action-consistent stimuli. On the other hand, actions can also facilitate the perception of spatially action-consistent stimuli. We suggest that motorvisual impairment is due to action planning processes, while motorvisual facilitation is due to action control mechanisms. This implies that because action planning is sensitive to modulations by cue-response mapping so should motorvisual impairment, while motorvisual facilitation should be insensitive to manipulations of cue-response mapping as is action control. We tested this prediction in three dual-task experiments. The impact of performing left and right key presses on the perception of unrelated, categorically or spatially consistent, stimuli was studied. As expected, we found motorvisual impairment for categorically consistent stimuli and motorvisual facilitation for spatially consistent stimuli. In all experiments, we compared congruent with incongruent cue-key mappings. Mapping manipulations affected motorvisual impairment, but not motorvisual facilitation. The results support our suggestion that motorvisual impairment is due to action planning, and motorvisual facilitation to action control. PMID:21806310

  7. Implicit and explicit control of motor actions: revisiting some early evidence.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Richard; Hardy, Lew; Oldham, Anthony

    2007-02-01

    Two studies have questioned Masters' (1992) contention that skills acquired in implicit practice conditions are less likely to fail under pressure than those acquired explicitly. The studies produced conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to revisit the designs of both studies in an attempt to clarify the situation. Thirty-two participants were allocated to one of three separate implicit training groups or an explicit training group, and practised putting golf balls. Participants were exposed to an anxiety intervention at two points during practice. Putting performance across practice and anxiety phases were analysed using the number of putts successfully completed as the main dependent variable. We found further evidence for the suggestion that motor skills are robust under pressure when acquired in implicit practice conditions. PMID:17319055

  8. Antidiuretic action of angiotensin II in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for endocrine control of kidney function in cyclostomes.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C S; Brown, J A; Rankin, J C

    2010-10-01

    Intravenous infusion of angiotensin II ([Asn¹ Val⁵]-Ang II) at 10⁻⁹ mol min⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body mass produced a significant antidiuresis in river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis, captured during upstream migration and maintained in fresh water. Although the renin-angiotensin hormonal system (RAS) is now recognized in jawless fishes, until this study, the role of homologous Ang II in L. fluviatilis kidney function had not been examined. This study provides the first evidence for an antidiuretic action of Ang II in cyclostomes and, in evolutionary terms, suggests a renal function for the RAS in early vertebrates. PMID:21039513

  9. The Role of Cue-Response Mapping in Motorvisual Impairment and Facilitation: Evidence for Different Roles of Action Planning and Action Control in Motorvisual Dual-Task Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaschke, Roland; Hopkins, Brian; Miall, R. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions impair the visual perception of categorically action-consistent stimuli. On the other hand, actions can also facilitate the perception of spatially action-consistent stimuli. We suggest that motorvisual impairment is due to action planning processes, while motorvisual facilitation is due to action control…

  10. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial compatibility task in which their own actions…

  11. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  12. The role of action control and action planning on fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Gan, Yiqun; Miao, Miao; Hamilton, Kyra; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Globally, fruit and vegetable intake is lower than recommended despite being an important component to a healthy diet. Adopting or maintaining a sufficient amount of fruit and vegetables in one's diet may require not only motivation but also self-regulatory processes. Action control and action planning are two key volitional determinants that have been identified in the literature; however, it is not fully understood how these two factors operate between intention and behavior. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the roles of action control and action planning as mediators between intentions and dietary behavior. A longitudinal study with three points in time was conducted. Participants (N = 286) were undergraduate students and invited to participate in a health behavior survey. At baseline (Time 1), measures of intention and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed. Two weeks later (Time 2), action control and action planning were assessed as putative sequential mediators. At Time 3 (two weeks after Time 2), fruit and vegetable consumption was measured as the outcome. The results revealed action control and action planning to sequentially mediate between intention and subsequent fruit and vegetable intake, controlling for baseline behavior. Both self-regulatory constructs, action control and action planning, make a difference when moving from motivation to action. Our preliminary evidence, therefore, suggests that planning may be more proximal to fruit and vegetable intake than action control. Further research, however, needs to be undertaken to substantiate this conclusion. PMID:25819607

  13. Stillbirths: epidemiology, evidence, and priorities for action.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Lawn, Joy E; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2010-12-01

    The annual global burden of stillbirths amounts to an estimated 3.2 million%, 98% of which occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Of these, 1.02 million (32%) are intrapartum, ie, taking place during labor. The most important causes of stillbirths in LMICs include obstructed or prolonged labor, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, syphilis and gram-negative infections, malaria in endemic areas, and undernutrition. Interventions that target these causes can play an important role in reducing stillbirths. There is a clear benefit of emergency obstetrical care, particularly Cesarean delivery, on intrapartum rates in LMICs when Cesarean rates are less than 8% to 10%. Provision of a skilled birth attendant is another important intervention whereby labor complications can be prevented, identified, managed, and/or referred. Among interventions for infections, syphilis screening and treatment can prevent as many as 50% of all stillbirths in areas with high syphilis prevalence, reducing the risk of stillbirths among treated women to that of untreated women. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and insecticide-treated mosquito nets are also interventions with strong recommendation, especially in the first 2 pregnancies. Balanced energy protein supplementation is an important nutritional intervention to prevent stillbirths in undernourished women, especially in LMICs. Creation of increased demand for health services within communities and increasing their uptake also can play a role in averting stillbirths. Other potential social and behavioral interventions include birth spacing, smoking cessation and indoor air pollution control, although the evidence for these is weak. PMID:21094413

  14. NAMING DYNAMIC AND STATIC ACTIONS: NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Daniel; Manzel, Kenneth; Asp, Erik; Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in identifying the neural correlates of action naming, but the bulk of previous work on this topic has utilized static stimuli. Recent research comparing the visual processing of dynamic versus static actions suggests that these two types of stimuli engage largely overlapping neural systems, raising the possibility that the higher-order processing requirements for naming dynamic and static actions might not be very different. To explore this issue in greater depth, we developed the Dynamic Action Naming Test (DANT), which consists of 158 video clips 3–5 sec in length, for each of which the participant is asked to produce the most appropriate verb. We administered the DANT to 78 brain-damaged patients drawn from our Patient Registry, and to a demographically matched group of 50 normal participants. Out of the 16 patients who performed defectively on the DANT, nearly all (15/16) had damage in the left hemisphere. Lesion analysis indicated that the frontal operculum was the most frequent area of damage in the 15 patients; also, damage to the posterolateral temporal-occipital sector (in and near MT) was specifically related to defective dynamic action naming. Most of the brain-damaged participants (n = 71) also received our Static Action Naming Test (SANT), and we found that performances on verb items that were common across the DANT and SANT were highly correlated (R = .91). Moreover, patients who failed the DANT almost invariably also failed the SANT. These findings lend further support to the hypothesis that there is considerable commonality in the neural systems underlying the use of verbs to orally name dynamic and static actions, a conclusion that is in turn compatible with the concept of “representational momentum.” Our results also contribute more generally to the rapidly growing field of research on embodied cognition. PMID:18486456

  15. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. PMID:27485132

  16. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  17. Impulsive action: emotional impulses and their control

    PubMed Central

    Frijda, Nico H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel theoretical view on impulsive action, integrating thus far separate perspectives on non-reflective action, motivation, emotion regulation, and impulse control. We frame impulsive action in terms of directedness of the individual organism toward, away, or against other givens – toward future states and away from one’s present state. First, appraisal of a perceived or thought-of event or object on occasion, rapidly and without premonition or conscious deliberation, triggers a motive to modify one’s relation to that event or object. Situational specifics of the event as perceived and appraised motivate and guide selection of readiness for a particular kind of purposive action. Second, perception of complex situations can give rise to multiple appraisals, multiple motives, and multiple simultaneous changes in action readiness. Multiple states of action readiness may interact in generating action, by reinforcing or attenuating each other, thereby yielding impulse control. We show how emotion control can itself result from a motive state or state of action readiness. Our view links impulsive action mechanistically to states of action readiness, which is the central feature of what distinguishes one kind of emotion from another. It thus provides a novel theoretical perspective to the somewhat fragmented literature on impulsive action. PMID:24917835

  18. Deciding as Intentional Action: Control over Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Common-sense folk psychology and mainstream philosophy of action agree about decisions: these are under an agent's direct control, and are thus intentional actions for which agents can be held responsible. I begin this paper by presenting a problem for this view. In short, since the content of the motivational attitudes that drive deliberation and decision remains open-ended until the moment of decision, it is unclear how agents can be thought to exercise control over what they decide at the moment of deciding. I note that this problem might motivate a non-actional view of deciding—a view that decisions are not actions, but are instead passive events of intention acquisition. For without an understanding of how an agent might exercise control over what is decided at the moment of deciding, we lack a good reason for maintaining commitment to an actional view of deciding. However, I then offer the required account of how agents exercise control over decisions at the moment of deciding. Crucial to this account is an understanding of the relation of practical deliberation to deciding, an understanding of skilled deliberative activity, and the role of attention in the mental action of deciding. PMID:26321765

  19. Automatic motor activation in the executive control of action

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jennifer; Boy, Frédéric; Husain, Masud; Sumner, Petroc

    2012-01-01

    Although executive control and automatic behavior have often been considered separate and distinct processes, there is strong emerging and convergent evidence that they may in fact be intricately interlinked. In this review, we draw together evidence showing that visual stimuli cause automatic and unconscious motor activation, and how this in turn has implications for executive control. We discuss object affordances, alien limb syndrome, the visual grasp reflex, subliminal priming, and subliminal triggering of attentional orienting. Consideration of these findings suggests automatic motor activation might form an intrinsic part of all behavior, rather than being categorically different from voluntary actions. PMID:22536177

  20. The Social Determinants of Tuberculosis: From Evidence to Action

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Delia; Evans, Carlton A.; Adato, Michelle; Petticrew, Mark; Porter, John D. H.

    2011-01-01

    Growing consensus indicates that progress in tuberculosis control in the low- and middle-income world will require not only investment in strengthening tuberculosis control programs, diagnostics, and treatment but also action on the social determinants of tuberculosis. However, practical ideas for action are scarcer than is notional support for this idea. We developed a framework based on the recent World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health and on current understanding of the social determinants of tuberculosis. Interventions from outside the health sector—specifically, in social protection and urban planning—have the potential to strengthen tuberculosis control. PMID:21330583

  1. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  2. Feedback control during voluntary motor actions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stephen H; Cluff, Tyler; Lowrey, Catherine R; Takei, Tomohiko

    2015-08-01

    Humans possess an impressive ability to generate goal-oriented motor actions to move and interact with the environment. The planning and initiation of these body movements is supported by highly distributed cortical and subcortical circuits. Recent studies, inspired by advanced control theory, highlight similar sophistication when we make online corrections to counter small disturbances of the limb or altered visual feedback. Such goal-directed feedback is likely generated by the same neural circuits associated with motor planning and initiation. These common neural substrates afford a highly responsive system to maintain goal-directed control and rapidly select new motor actions as required to deftly move and interact in a complex world. PMID:25827274

  3. Learning, attentional control and action video games

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2012-01-01

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  4. Learning, attentional control, and action video games.

    PubMed

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2012-03-20

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  5. Modelling the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed Central

    Beek, P J; Dessing, J C; Peper, C E; Bullock, D

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, several phenomenological dynamical models have been formulated that describe how perceptual variables are incorporated in the control of motor variables. We call these short-route models as they do not address how perception-action patterns might be constrained by the dynamical properties of the sensory, neural and musculoskeletal subsystems of the human action system. As an alternative, we advocate a long-route modelling approach in which the dynamics of these subsystems are explicitly addressed and integrated to reproduce interceptive actions. The approach is exemplified through a discussion of a recently developed model for interceptive actions consisting of a neural network architecture for the online generation of motor outflow commands, based on time-to-contact information and information about the relative positions and velocities of hand and ball. This network is shown to be consistent with both behavioural and neurophysiological data. Finally, some problems are discussed with regard to the question of how the motor outflow commands (i.e. the intended movement) might be modulated in view of the musculoskeletal dynamics. PMID:14561342

  6. The role of action prediction and inhibitory control for joint action coordination in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Haartsen, R; Stapel, J C; Hunnius, S

    2015-11-01

    From early in life, young children eagerly engage in social interactions. Yet, they still have difficulties in performing well-coordinated joint actions with others. Adult literature suggests that two processes are important for smooth joint action coordination: action prediction and inhibitory control. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the potential role of these processes in the early development of joint action coordination. Using a simple turn-taking game, we assessed 2½-year-old toddlers' joint action coordination, focusing on timing variability and turn-taking accuracy. In two additional tasks, we examined their action prediction capabilities with an eye-tracking paradigm and examined their inhibitory control capabilities with a classic executive functioning task (gift delay task). We found that individual differences in action prediction and inhibitory action control were distinctly related to the two aspects of joint action coordination. Toddlers who showed more precision in their action predictions were less variable in their action timing during the joint play. Furthermore, toddlers who showed more inhibitory control in an individual context were more accurate in their turn-taking performance during the joint action. On the other hand, no relation between timing variability and inhibitory control or between turn-taking accuracy and action prediction was found. The current results highlight the distinct role of action prediction and inhibitory action control for the quality of joint action coordination in toddlers. Underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and implications for processes involved in joint action coordination in general are discussed. PMID:26150055

  7. Subliminal Priming of Actions Influences Sense of Control over Effects of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenke, Dorit; Fleming, Stephen M.; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The experience of controlling one's own actions, and through them events in the outside world, is a pervasive feature of human mental life. Two experiments investigated the relation between this sense of control and the internal processes involved in action selection and cognitive control. Action selection was manipulated by subliminally priming…

  8. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I.; Mervis, Joshua E.; Ashinoff, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects. PMID:24600427

  9. Evidence for a role of action in colour perception.

    PubMed

    Bompas, Aline; O'Regan, J Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Action is not usually considered to play a role in colour perception. However, sensorimotor theories of perception (eg O'Regan and Noë, 2001 Behavior and Brain Science 24 939-1011) suggest that, on the contrary, the transformations created by action in the sensory input are a necessary condition for all perception. In the case of colour vision, eye movements may explain how a retina with significant irregularities in resolution and cone arrangement (Roorda and Williams, 1999 Nature 397 520-522) could permit the perception of a richly coloured world (Clark and O'Regan, 2000 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition volume 2: Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks pp 503-506; Skaff et al, 2002 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition volume 2, pp 681-684). We provide evidence that perception of colour is modified when an artificial coupling is introduced linking eye movements and colour changes. After 40 min of wearing left-field-blue/right-field-yellow spectacles, observers' colour vision adapts so that, after removing the spectacles, white patches seem to become bluer when the eyes move rightwards and yellower when the eyes move leftwards. This induced dependence of colour perception on the direction of eye saccade is shown to be related to the amount of eye movements during exposure. This result, which cannot be explained either by retinal adaptation, or by a conditioned association between colour and side, constitutes first clear evidence for a role of eye movements in perceived colour and argues for the involvement in colour perception of neural mechanisms continuously tuned to sensorimotor contingencies. PMID:16491709

  10. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  11. Electrochemical biofilm control: mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Istanbullu, Ozlem; Babauta, Jerome; Nguyen, Hung Duc; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been previously demonstrated that an electrical current can be used to control biofilm growth on metal surfaces, the literature results are conflicting and there is no accepted mechanism of action. One of the suggested mechanisms is the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on metal surfaces. However, there are literature studies in which H2O2 could not be detected in the bulk solution. This is most likely because H2O2 was produced at a low concentration near the surface and could not be detected in the bulk solution. The goals of this research were (1) to develop a well-controlled system to explain the mechanism of action of the bioelectrochemical effect on 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces and (2) to test whether the produced H2O2 can reduce cell growth on metal surfaces. It was found that H2O2 was produced near 316L SS surfaces when a negative potential was applied. The H2O2 concentration increased towards the surface, while the dissolved oxygen decreased when the SS surface was polarized to −600 mVAg/AgCl. When polarized and non-polarized surfaces with identical Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms were continuously fed with air-saturated growth medium, the polarized surfaces showed minimal biofilm growth while there was significant biofilm growth on the non-polarized surfaces. Although there was no detectable H2O2 in the bulk solution, it was found that the surface concentration of H2O2 was able to prevent biofilm growth. PMID:22827804

  12. Electrochemical biofilm control: mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Istanbullu, Ozlem; Babauta, Jerome; Duc Nguyen, Hung; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been previously demonstrated that an electrical current can be used to control biofilm growth on metal surfaces, the literature results are conflicting and there is no accepted mechanism of action. One of the suggested mechanisms is the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on metal surfaces. However, there are literature studies in which H(2)O(2) could not be detected in the bulk solution. This is most likely because H(2)O(2) was produced at a low concentration near the surface and could not be detected in the bulk solution. The goals of this research were (1) to develop a well-controlled system to explain the mechanism of action of the bioelectrochemical effect on 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces and (2) to test whether the produced H(2)O(2) can reduce cell growth on metal surfaces. It was found that H(2)O(2) was produced near 316L SS surfaces when a negative potential was applied. The H(2)O(2) concentration increased towards the surface, while the dissolved oxygen decreased when the SS surface was polarized to -600 mV(Ag/AgCl). When polarized and non-polarized surfaces with identical Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms were continuously fed with air-saturated growth medium, the polarized surfaces showed minimal biofilm growth while there was significant biofilm growth on the non-polarized surfaces. Although there was no detectable H(2)O(2) in the bulk solution, it was found that the surface concentration of H(2)O(2) was able to prevent biofilm growth. PMID:22827804

  13. Evidence for the Automatic Evaluation of Self-Generated Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Kristien; De Houwer, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of simple actions is swiftly determined through specific monitoring brain systems. However, it remains unclear whether this evaluation is accompanied by a rapid and compatible emotional appraisal of the action that allows to mark incorrect actions as negative/bad and conversely correct actions as positive/good. In this study, we used…

  14. Using Evidence: How Action Learning Can Support Individual and Organisational Learning through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Belinda; Sharp, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of action learning as a structured and deliberate learning process to support practitioners to implement change in an action research project. It discusses both action learning and action research before describing the context of the study. The article then goes on to discuss how the process of action learning…

  15. Increasing Physical Activity in Children: From Evidence to Action.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Tami L; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lindberg, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Daily physical activity has the potential to improve health and well-being, yet worldwide surveillance of physical activity levels indicate a growing number of children and adolescents do not meet current physical activity recommendations. The current symptom-reactive paradigm should be reconsidered, and preventive actions initiated, before inactive children become resistant to targeted interventions and require pharmacotherapy, and expensive medical procedures for treatment of preventable illnesses. A cascade of adverse events are associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Nurses are uniquely qualified to identify youth with exercise deficits and encourage daily participation in a variety of age-related physical activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness.Physical activity guidelines should support evidence-based activity recommendations by nurses working with children. New insights regarding the importance of improving muscular strength and motor skill performance early in life are valuable to nurses in formulating exercise recommendations for school-age youth. Specific education in pediatric exercise science provides the foundation for prescribing age-related exercise interventions consistent with the needs, abilities, and interests of infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents. Given the critical importance of primary prevention, transformational change in the current system for identifying and treating youth with exercise deficits is warranted. PMID:25811394

  16. Experimental evidence for action imitation in killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Comparative experimental studies of imitative learning have focused mainly on primates and birds. However, cetaceans are promising candidates to display imitative learning as they have evolved in socioecological settings that have selected for large brains, complex sociality, and coordinated predatory tactics. Here we tested imitative learning in killer whales, Orcinus orca. We used a 'do-as-other-does' paradigm in which 3 subjects witnessed a conspecific demonstrator's performance that included 15 familiar and 4 novel behaviours. The three subjects (1) learned the copy command signal 'Do that' very quickly, that is, 20 trials on average; (2) copied 100 % of the demonstrator's familiar and novel actions; (3) achieved full matches in the first attempt for 8-13 familiar behaviours (out of 15) and for the 2 novel behaviours (out of 2) in one subject; and (4) took no longer than 8 trials to accurately copy any familiar behaviour, and no longer than 16 trials to copy any novel behaviour. This study provides experimental evidence for body imitation, including production imitation, in killer whales that is comparable to that observed in dolphins tested under similar conditions. These findings suggest that imitative learning may underpin some of the group-specific traditions reported in killer whales in the field. PMID:22875725

  17. Inhibition, Disinhibition, and the Control of Action in Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Georgina M; Draper, Amelia; Dyke, Katherine; Pépés, Sophia E; Jackson, Stephen R

    2015-11-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by vocal and motor tics. TS is associated with impairments in behavioral inhibition, dysfunctional signaling of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, and alterations in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory influences within brain networks implicated in motor learning and the selection of actions. We review evidence that increased control over motor outputs, including the suppression of tics, may develop during adolescence in TS and be accompanied by compensatory, neuromodulatory, alterations in brain structure and function. In particular, we argue that increased control over motor outputs in TS is brought about by local increases in 'tonic' inhibition that lead to a reduction in the 'gain' of motor excitability. PMID:26440120

  18. Paradoxes of Social Control: Children's Perspectives and Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Marsha

    1998-01-01

    Describes an action research project that explored whether internally negotiated group control was possible among preadolescents in school settings. Presents John Dewey's thoughts on social control. Discusses study of students' perspectives and actions concerning authority issues and social control. Describes a social studies curriculum used to…

  19. The Evidence for the Effectiveness of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, H. Skipton; Marquardt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past 50 years, organizations and individuals around the world have reported success in their use of action learning programs to solve problems, develop leaders, build teams and transform their corporate cultures. However, very little rigorous research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of action learning. The authors…

  20. Continuous Improvement in Action: Educators' Evidence Use for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa; Redding, Christopher; Rubin, Mollie

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the article is the process educators use to interpret data to turn it into usable knowledge (Honig & Coburn, 2008) while engaging in a continuous improvement process. The authors examine the types of evidence educators draw upon, its perceived relevance, and the social context in which the evidence is examined. Evidence includes…

  1. Action-value comparisons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex control choice between goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W.; Dezfouli, Amir; Griffiths, Kristi R.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that choice between different actions reflects the difference between their action values yet little direct evidence confirming this assumption has been reported. Here we assess whether the brain calculates the absolute difference between action values or their relative advantage, that is, the probability that one action is better than the other alternatives. We use a two-armed bandit task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and modelled responses to determine both the size of the difference between action values (D) and the probability that one action value is better (P). The results show haemodynamic signals corresponding to P in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) together with evidence that these signals modulate motor cortex activity in an action-specific manner. We find no significant activity related to D. These findings demonstrate that a distinct neuronal population mediates action-value comparisons, and reveals how these comparisons are implemented to mediate value-based decision-making. PMID:25055179

  2. The predictive chameleon: evidence for anticipated social action.

    PubMed

    Genschow, Oliver; Brass, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated that movement observation leads to an activation of a corresponding motor representation in the observer. Recent theoretical accounts have put forward the idea that such motor simulation serves an anticipatory function. In line with this assumption, the results from 2 experiments indicate that merely observing an event in someone else (e.g., nose wrinkling) triggers the anticipated action in the observer (e.g., nose scratching). Moreover, extending recent findings on ideomotor action, our second experiment suggests that this anticipated action effect is based on inferring the other person's desire to act. Thus, our research demonstrates the existence of a link between inferring another person's desire to move and the release of an action that matches this desire. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:25665086

  3. Direct evidence of cognitive control without perceptual awareness.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Brenda; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Finkbeiner, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    A central question within the domain of human cognition is whether or not the ability to replace a current action with a new one (i.e., cognitive control) depends on a conscious appreciation of the environmental change that necessitates the new behavior. Specifically, it is not yet known if non-consciously perceived stimuli can trigger the modification of a currently ongoing action. We show for the first time that individuals are able to use non-consciously perceived information to modify the course and outcome of an ongoing action. Participants were presented with a masked (i.e., subliminal) 'stop' or 'go-on' prime stimulus whilst performing a routine reach-to-touch action. Despite being invisible to participants, the stop primes produced more hesitations mid-flight and more movement reversals than the go-on primes. This new evidence directly establishes that cognitive control (i.e., the ability to modify a currently ongoing action) does not depend on a conscious appreciation of the environmental trigger. PMID:25404552

  4. "Re-Culturing" Teacher Education: Inquiry, Evidence, and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Currently the press to make policy and practice decisions on the basis of evidence is being coupled with recognition that real change requires shifts in organizational culture. Consequently, there are now many efforts to "re-culture" organizations by making evidence central to decision making. In this article, the authors problematize the notion…

  5. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. PMID:25267824

  6. Action recognition depends on observer's level of action control and social personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ondobaka, Sasha; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; de Lange, Floris P; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Humans recognize both the movement (physical) goals and action (conceptual) goals of individuals with whom they are interacting. Here, we assessed whether spontaneous recognition of others' goals depends on whether the observers control their own behavior at the movement or action level. We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual's movement and action goals that are known to be encoded in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" brain networks. In order to address these questions, we used a computer-based card paradigm that made it possible to independently manipulate movement and action congruency of observed and executed actions. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to select either the right or left card (movement-control condition) or the higher or lower card (action-control condition), while we manipulated action- and movement-congruency of both actors' goals. An action-congruency effect was present in all conditions and the size of this effect was significantly correlated with self-reported empathy and ASD-like traits. In contrast, movement-congruency effects were only present in the movement-control block and were strongly dependent on action-congruency. These results illustrate that spontaneous recognition of others' behavior depends on the control scheme that is currently adopted by the observer. The findings suggest that deficits in action recognition are related to abnormal synthesis of perceived movements and prior conceptual knowledge that are associated with activations in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" cortical networks. PMID:24303046

  7. Diversity Challenged: Evidence on the Impact of Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores research on how increasing minority enrollment changes and enriches the educational process. The papers are: (1) "Student Diversity and Higher Learning" (Neil L. Rudenstine); (2) "A Policy Framework for Reconceptualizing the Legal Debate Concerning Affirmative Action in Higher Education" (Scott R. Palmer); (3)…

  8. Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

  9. Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

  10. The organization of perception and action in complex control skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard A.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to describe the perceptual, cognitive, and action processes that account for highly skilled human performance in complex task environments. In order to study such a performance in a controlled setting, a laboratory task was constructed and three experiments were performed using human subjects. A general framework was developed for describing the organization of perceptual, cognitive, and action process.

  11. Regulating Cognitive Control through Approach-Avoidance Motor Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Severine; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the regulatory function of approach-avoidance cues in activating cognitive control processes was investigated. It was hypothesized that avoidance motor actions, relative to approach motor actions, increase the recruitment of cognitive resources, resulting in better performance on tasks that draw on these capacities. In Study 1,…

  12. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  13. Action Planning and the Timescale of Evidence Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Tobias H.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decisions are based on the temporal integration of sensory evidence for different states of the outside world. The timescale of this integration process varies widely across behavioral contexts and individuals, and it is diagnostic for the underlying neural mechanisms. In many situations, the decision-maker knows the required mapping between perceptual evidence and motor response (henceforth termed “sensory-motor contingency”) before decision formation. Here, the integrated evidence can be directly translated into a motor plan and, indeed, neural signatures of the integration process are evident as build-up activity in premotor brain regions. In other situations, however, the sensory-motor contingencies are unknown at the time of decision formation. We used behavioral psychophysics and computational modeling to test if knowledge about sensory-motor contingencies affects the timescale of perceptual evidence integration. We asked human observers to perform the same motion discrimination task, with or without trial-to-trial variations of the mapping between perceptual choice and motor response. When the mapping varied, it was either instructed before or after the stimulus presentation. We quantified the timescale of evidence integration under these different sensory-motor mapping conditions by means of two approaches. First, we analyzed subjects’ discrimination threshold as a function of stimulus duration. Second, we fitted a dynamical decision-making model to subjects’ choice behavior. The results from both approaches indicated that observers (i) integrated motion information for several hundred ms, (ii) used a shorter than optimal integration timescale, and (iii) used the same integration timescale under all sensory-motor mappings. We conclude that the mechanisms limiting the timescale of perceptual decisions are largely independent from long-term learning (under fixed mapping) or rapid acquisition (under variable mapping) of sensory

  14. Evidence for fast dynamo action in a chaotic web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, A. D.; Childress, S.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of a magnetic field in a chaotic web is studied. The model flow possessing the web is closely related to the nearly integrable ABC flow with A = B and C much less than 1. The magnetic diffusivity is taken to be zero and the field is followed using the Cauchy solution. It is found that the flow folds the magnetic field constructively, in the sense that the average magnetic field in a chaotic region grows exponentially in time. This is suggestive of fast dynamo action, although the effect of diffusion of the strong streamwise magnetic field remains to be assessed.

  15. The Cognitive Representation of Intending Not to Act: Evidence for Specific Non-Action-Effect Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Simone; Brass, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    The question how we represent voluntary action on a cognitive level has recently become of increasing interest to researchers studying motor control. However, so far it has been neglected how we represent the voluntary omission of an action. In our attempt to investigate the representation of voluntary non-actions we demonstrated binding effects…

  16. Do Bans on Affirmative Action Hurt Minority Students? Evidence from the Texas Top 10% Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Kalena E.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of…

  17. Functional Dissociation between Perception and Action Is Evident Early in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2012-01-01

    The functional distinction between vision for perception and vision for action is well documented in the mature visual system. Ganel and colleagues recently provided direct evidence for this dissociation, showing that while visual processing for perception follows Weber's fundamental law of psychophysics, action violates this law. We tracked the…

  18. Evidence for participation of catecholamines in cardiac action of ouabain

    PubMed Central

    Seifen, E.

    1974-01-01

    1 The shortening of cycle length (=positive chronotropic effect) by ouabain produced in isolated spontaneously beating atria of the guinea-pig was analyzed. 2 The action of ouabain was dose-dependent; threshold response was seen at 1 × 10-7 M, and maximal response occurred at 4 × 10-7 M. The half-time of the ouabain effect was about 20 minutes. 3 The positive chronotropic effect of ouabain was reduced to 40% by β-adrenoceptor blockade (3.3 × 10-9 M propranolol) or by reserpine-depletion of catecholamines. Incubation of reserpine-treated atria with noradrenaline partially restored the action of ouabain. 4 The effect of ouabain was greatly dependent upon the calcium concentration. The optimal calcium level was 2.5 × 10-3 M. Calcium and ouabain acted synergistically. 5 Increasing calcium concentrations inhibited the positive chronotropic effect of noradrenaline in a manner similar to increasing ouabain concentrations. 6 A hypothesis is proposed which explains the chronotropic effect of ouabain on the basis of two mechanisms: (1) increase of the catecholamine concentration affecting the pacemaker; (2) mobilization of calcium, i.e. increase of the biologically effective intracellular calcium level. PMID:4451762

  19. Standardized Action Modules for Humanoid Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csaszar, Ambrus

    2005-01-01

    Humanoid robots could reduce the risks of hazardous work by replacing humans in dangerous environments and they could be useful helpers in environments designed primarily for humans. Currently, no robot is capable enough to fulfill either of these roles for any practical application, and the Humanoid Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Bio-Inspired Technologies and Systems group is striving to change that. For this summer, our goal was to endow a Fujitsu HOAP 2 humanoid robot with the necessary intelligence and knowledge to autonomously assemble a cubical frame structure from tubular bars and corner joints. Performing such a complicated task requires that the robot have a robust control architecture that allows for a multitude of abilities and Operation modes. We have designed and implemented a modular control architecture that allows reusability of existing code and the integration of work by many team members into the larger control system while providing an easy way to implement later improvements. Such a control system has allowed us to achieve important milestones in the humanoid robot assembly task.

  20. Expert evidence and medical manslaughter: vagueness in action.

    PubMed

    Quick, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the reliance placed on expert evidence in prosecutions of health professionals for gross negligence manslaughter, where juries must decide whether conduct goes beyond civil negligence and constitutes the crime of involuntary manslaughter. It argues that the test for liability is vague and examines some of the consequences of this. Given the vagueness of the offence, jurors are likely to place great reliance on expert medical evidence. Little is known about how experts negotiate the legal process, empirically speaking: how they approach their task, how they view their role as expert witnesses, and the attitudes, biases, and beliefs that may underpin their testimony. Drawing on the experiences and perceptions often medical experts, this article explores how experts manage the vagueness inherent in the task of interpreting and applying gross negligence. Experts appear to go beyond offering purely medical opinion and enjoy engaging with law and the legal process. PMID:22180927

  1. Impulsivity and predictive control are associated with suboptimal action-selection and action-value learning in regular gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Matthew S.M.; Jocham, Gerhard; Hunt, Laurence T.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.; Rogers, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity and cognitive biases are risk factors for gambling problems. However, little is known about precisely how these factors increase the risks of gambling-related harm in vulnerable individuals. Here, we modelled the behaviour of eighty-seven community-recruited regular, but not clinically problematic, gamblers during a binary-choice reinforcement-learning game, to characterise the relationships between impulsivity, cognitive biases, and the capacity to make optimal action selections and learn about action-values. Impulsive gamblers showed diminished use of an optimal (Bayesian-derived) probability estimate when selecting between candidate actions, and showed slower learning rates and enhanced non-linear probability weighting while learning action values. Critically, gamblers who believed that it is possible to predict winning outcomes (as 'predictive control') failed to use the game's reinforcement history to guide their action selections. Extensive evidence attests to the ease with which gamblers can erroneously perceive structure in the reinforcement history of games when there is none. Our findings demonstrate that the generic and specific risk factors of impulsivity and cognitive biases can interfere with the capacity of some gamblers to utilise structure when it is available in the reinforcement history of games, potentially increasing their risks of sustaining gambling-related harms. PMID:27274706

  2. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2013-10-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that intention-behavior discordance is from motivational (affective attitude, perceived behavioral control), self-regulatory (behavioral processes), and habitual (automaticity) constructs. PMID:23873134

  3. Evidence-Based Management and Action-at-a-Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Roger; Breen, Rosanna; Jenkins, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Organisational change in UK higher education has resulted in control of the student learning environment passing from specific disciplines such as psychology to central management teams and university-wide course frameworks. This poses the general question of how disciplines can exert influence upon broad pedagogic issues, when their control…

  4. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Regional focus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from presentations, discussions and debates addressing major policy and programmatic responses to HIV in six geographical regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America, Caribbean, and Middle East and North Africa. It draws from AIDS 2008 Leadership and Community Programmes, particularly the six regional sessions, and Global Village activities. While the epidemiological, cultural and socio-economic contexts in these regions vary considerably, several common, overarching principles and themes emerged. They include: advancing basic human rights, particularly for vulnerable and most at risk populations; ensuring the sustainability of the HIV response through long-term, predictable financing; strengthening health systems; investing in strategic health information; and improving accountability and the involvement of civil society in the response to AIDS. Equally important is the need to address political barriers to implementing evidence-based interventions such as opioid substitution therapy (OST), needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), comprehensive sexuality education for youth, and sexual and reproductive rights. Finally, these regional discussions emphasized the need for legislative and policy reforms related to structural barriers facing women and girls, MSM, IDUs, sex workers and migrant populations. PMID:19811672

  5. Preclinical evidence for the pharmacological actions of naringin: a review.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Saurabh; Rani, Neha; Krishnamurthy, Bhaskar; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2014-04-01

    Naringin, chemically 4',5,7- trihydroxyflavanone-7-rhamnoglucoside, is a major flavanone glycoside obtained from tomatoes, grapefruits, and many other citrus fruits. It has been experimentally documented to possess numerous biological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities. In vitro and in vivo studies have further established the usefulness of naringin in various preclinical models of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative disorders, osteoporosis, and rheumatological disorders. Apart from this, naringin has also exerted chemopreventive and anticancer attributes in various models of oral, breast, colon, liver, lung, and ovarian cancer. This wide spectrum of biological expediency has been documented to be a result of either the upregulation of various cell survival proteins or the inhibition of inflammatory processes, or a combination of both. Due to the scarcity of human studies on naringin, this review focuses on the various established activities of naringin in in vitro and in vivo preclinical models, and its potential therapeutic applications using the available knowledge in the literature. Additionally, it also encompasses the pharmacokinetic properties of naringin and its inhibition of CYP isoenzymes, and the subsequent drug interactions. Moreover, further clinical research is evidently needed to provide significant insights into the mechanisms underlying the effects of naringin in humans. PMID:24710903

  6. An action-incongruent secondary task modulates prediction accuracy in experienced performers: evidence for motor simulation.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Desmond; Lohse, Keith R; Hodges, Nicola J

    2016-07-01

    We provide behavioral evidence that the human motor system is involved in the perceptual decision processes of skilled performers, directly linking prediction accuracy to the (in)ability of the motor system to activate in a response-specific way. Experienced and non-experienced dart players were asked to predict, from temporally occluded video sequences, the landing position of a dart thrown previously by themselves (self) or another (other). This prediction task was performed while additionally performing (a) an action-incongruent secondary motor task (right arm force production), (b) a congruent secondary motor task (mimicking) or (c) an attention-matched task (tone-monitoring). Non-experienced dart players were not affected by any of the secondary task manipulations, relative to control conditions, yet prediction accuracy decreased for the experienced players when additionally performing the force-production, motor task. This interference effect was present for 'self' as well as 'other' decisions, reducing the accuracy of experienced participants to a novice level. The mimicking (congruent) secondary task condition did not interfere with (or facilitate) prediction accuracy for either group. We conclude that visual-motor experience moderates the process of decision making, such that a seemingly visual-cognitive prediction task relies on activation of the motor system for experienced performers. This fits with a motor simulation account of action prediction in sports and other tasks, and alerts to the specificity of these simulative processes. PMID:26021748

  7. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control

    PubMed Central

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or ‘model-based’ choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour. PMID:25267822

  8. Opportunities for State-Level Action to Reduce Firearm Violence: Proceeding From the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Firearm violence remains an important problem, and a large body of evidence shows that guns used in crime follow generally predictable paths from manufacturer to criminal end user. Policy initiatives based on that evidence have been shown to be effective. A recently published study conducted by a leading policy organization presents new evidence and makes specific recommendations for action by state-level policymakers. Unfortunately, the study's analysis is overly simplified, and the recommendations are therefore misleading. We suggest alternatives that are evidence based. PMID:21778510

  9. Anterior prefrontal cortex inhibition impairs control over social emotional actions.

    PubMed

    Volman, Inge; Roelofs, Karin; Koch, Saskia; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan

    2011-10-25

    When dealing with emotional situations, we often need to rapidly override automatic stimulus-response mappings and select an alternative course of action [1], for instance, when trying to manage, rather than avoid, another's aggressive behavior. The anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) has been linked to the control of these social emotional behaviors [2, 3]. We studied how this control is implemented by inhibiting the left aPFC with continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS; [4]). The behavioral and cerebral consequences of this intervention were assessed with a task quantifying the control of social emotional actions and with concurrent measurements of brain perfusion. Inhibition of the aPFC led participants to commit more errors when they needed to select rule-driven responses overriding automatic action tendencies evoked by emotional faces. Concurrently, task-related perfusion decreased in bilateral aPFC and posterior parietal cortex and increased in amygdala and left fusiform face area. We infer that the aPFC controls social emotional behavior by upregulating regions involved in rule selection [5] and downregulating regions supporting the automatic evaluation of emotions [6]. These findings illustrate how exerting emotional control during social interactions requires the aPFC to coordinate rapid action selection processes, the detection of emotional conflicts, and the inhibition of emotionally-driven responses. PMID:22000109

  10. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research: An emancipatory approach.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Luciana; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss the emancipatory approach to action research as an appropriate methodology for workers' meaningful implementation of evidence-based health care. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research is well supported by the literature. There are various approaches to action research, and they are coherent with the objectives and methods elected to develop the investigation. It is not clear which approach of action research is responsible for meaningful worker engagement in changing praxis. This is a discussion paper based on our experiences and supported by literature on collective health. Health care is defined as a social praxis, dependent upon the capitalist mode of production in which health workers engage themselves in a labour process that has negative (as alienation) as well as positive (as creativity) meanings. Emancipatory changes of social praxis through implementation of evidence-based health care require that participants understand the positive and negative meanings of their work and engage health workers in a conscious and intentional collaborative educational process. Implementation of evidence-based health care through emancipatory action research is capable of overcoming alienation and changing social practice through a participatory meaningful process of knowledge translation. PMID:27562664

  11. Dynamic Simulation and Static Matching for Action Prediction: Evidence from Body Part Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Accurately predicting other people's actions may involve two processes: internal real-time simulation (dynamic updating) and matching recently perceived action images (static matching). Using a priming of body parts, this study aimed to differentiate the two processes. Specifically, participants played a motion-controlled video game with…

  12. Mitigation of Remedial Action Schemes by Decentralized Robust Governor Control

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents transient stability improvement by a new distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHC). The integration of remedial action schemes (RAS) to the distributed hierarchical control architecture is studied. RAS in power systems are designed to maintain stability and avoid undesired system conditions by rapidly switching equipment and/or changing operating points according to predetermined rules. The acceleration trend relay currently in use in the US western interconnection is an example of RAS that trips generators to maintain transient stability. The link between RAS and DHC is through fast acting robust turbine/governor control that can also improve transient stability. In this paper, the influence of the decentralized robust turbine/governor control on the design of RAS is studied. Benefits of combining these two schemes are increasing power transfer capability and mitigation of RAS generator tripping actions; the later benefit is shown through simulations.

  13. Administrative Leadership as Projection, Social Control, and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.

    Over the past 50 years, theoretical and methodological problems have plagued the study of leadership. This paper, proposing an alternative theory, argues that leadership has three fundamental components: projection and social control, which are linked by action. Projection is the visualization of a project to be completed. Educational…

  14. Muscular Proprioception Contributes to the Control of Interceptive Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastin, Julien; Calvin, Sarah; Montagne, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The authors proposed a model of the control of interceptive action over a ground plane (Chardenon, Montagne, Laurent, & Bootsma, 2004). This model is based on the cancellation of the rate of change of the angle between the current position of the target and the direction of displacement (i.e., the bearing angle). While several sources of visual…

  15. Comparative investigations of manual action representations: evidence that chimpanzees represent the costs of potential future actions involving tools

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Scott H.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to adjust one's ongoing actions in the anticipation of forthcoming task demands is considered as strong evidence for the existence of internal action representations. Studies of action selection in tool use reveal that the behaviours that we choose in the present moment differ depending on what we intend to do next. Further, they point to a specialized role for mechanisms within the human cerebellum and dominant left cerebral hemisphere in representing the likely sensory costs of intended future actions. Recently, the question of whether similar mechanisms exist in other primates has received growing, but still limited, attention. Here, we present data that bear on this issue from a species that is a natural user of tools, our nearest living relative, the chimpanzee. In experiment 1, a subset of chimpanzees showed a non-significant tendency for their grip preferences to be affected by anticipation of the demands associated with bringing a tool's baited end to their mouths. In experiment 2, chimpanzees' initial grip preferences were consistently affected by anticipation of the forthcoming movements in a task that involves using a tool to extract a food reward. The partial discrepancy between the results of these two studies is attributed to the ability to accurately represent differences between the motor costs associated with executing the two response alternatives available within each task. These findings suggest that chimpanzees are capable of accurately representing the costs of intended future actions, and using those predictions to select movements in the present even in the context of externally directed tool use. PMID:22106426

  16. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  17. When does action comprehension need motor involvement? Evidence from upper limb aplasia.

    PubMed

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Andres, Michael; Pillon, Agnesa

    2013-01-01

    Motor theories of action comprehension claim that comprehending the meaning of an action performed by a conspecific relies on the perceiver's own motor representation of the same action. According to this view, whether an action belongs to the motor repertoire of the perceiver should impact the ease by which this action is comprehended. We tested this prediction by assessing the ability of an individual (D.C.) born without upper limbs to comprehend actions involving hands (e.g., throwing) or other body parts (e.g., jumping). The tests used a range of different visual stimuli differing in the kind of information provided. The results showed that D.C. was as accurate and fast as control participants in comprehending natural video and photographic presentations of both manual and nonmanual actions, as well as pantomimes. However, he was selectively impaired at identifying point-light animations of manual actions. This impairment was not due to a difficulty in processing kinematic information per se. D.C. was indeed as accurate as control participants in two additional tests requiring a fine-grained analysis of an actor's arm or whole-body movements. These results challenge motor theories of action comprehension by showing that the visual analysis of body shape and motion provides sufficient input for comprehending observed actions. However, when body shape information is sparsely available, motor involvement becomes critical to interpret observed actions. We suggest that, with natural human movement stimuli, motor representations contribute to action comprehension each time visual information is incomplete or ambiguous. PMID:24215324

  18. Evidence-Based Practice and School Libraries: Interconnections of Evidence, Advocacy, and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2015-01-01

    This author states that a professional focus on evidence based practice (EBP) for school libraries emerged from the International Association of School Librarianship conference when he presented the concept. He challenged the school library profession to actively engage in professional and reflective practices that chart, measure, document, and…

  19. Promoting Student Engagement through Evidence-Based Action Research with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strambler, Michael J.; McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    We present findings from a group-randomized teacher action research intervention to promote academic engagement and achievement among elementary school students. Eighteen teachers from 3 elementary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Intervention teachers studied evidence-based instructional practices that cultivate academic…

  20. Action Research: A Personal Epiphany and Journey with Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    The author reveals in this article that her action research journey in the land of evidence-based practice was not her own idea. She writes that she was lured by the profession's finest scholars who advocated for reflective dispositions for practitioners to improve their practice and demonstrate the school librarian's critical role in teaching and…

  1. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  2. Dopaminergic modulation of positive expectations for goal-directed action: evidence from Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolpe, Noham; Nombela, Cristina; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) impairs the control of movement and cognition, including the planning of action and its consequences. This provides the opportunity to study the dopaminergic influences on the perception and awareness of action. Here we examined the perception of the outcome of a goal-directed action made by medicated patients with PD. A visuomotor task probed the integration of sensorimotor signals with the positive expectations of outcomes (Self priors), which in healthy adults bias perception toward success in proportion to trait optimism. We tested the hypotheses that (i) the priors on the perception of the consequences of one’s own actions differ between patients and age- and sex-matched controls, and (ii) that these priors are modulated by the levodopa dose equivalent (LDEs) in patients. There was no overall difference between patients and controls in the perceptual priors used. However, the precision of patient priors was inversely related to their LDE. Patients with high LDE showed more accurate priors, representing predictions that were closer to the true distribution of performance. Such accuracy has previously been demonstrated when observing the actions of others, suggesting abnormal awareness of action in these patients. These results confirm a link between dopamine and the positive expectation of the outcome of one’s own actions, and may have implications for the management of PD. PMID:26500582

  3. Controlling biofilm with evidence-based dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Sebastian G

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes research that has assessed the effectiveness of various antimicrobial-containing dentifrices in preventing and/or reducing a number of oral health problems facing our patients today. The results of these studies indicate that, when compared with a conventional fluoride dentifrice, the triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice is the one with the most evidence to support its ability to deliver significant oral health benefits with no adverse effects. The benefits maybe summarized as follows: improved levels ofsupragingival plaque control; improved gingival health; reducedlikelihood of gingivitis progressing to periodontitis; arrest progression of periodontitis; prevention of supragingival calculus; and reduction in oral malodor. With increased interest in the association of oral health with systemic health, this dentifrice is well-positioned to help reduce the likelihood of gingivitis establishing itself and possibly developing into periodontitis (Figure 1). It also has the potential to have beneficial effects on general health because of its anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results presented in this article, it is clear that the general population can derive significant clinical benefits from the daily use of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice. The dental profession should feel confident to recommend its use to patients to improve oral health and maintain or promote overall health. PMID:21462625

  4. Decoding Actions and Emotions in Deaf Children: Evidence from a Biological Motion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Amanda Katherine; Heaton, Pamela; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the recognition of emotional and non-emotional biological movements in children with severe and profound deafness. Twenty-four deaf children, together with 24 control children matched on mental age and 24 control children matched on chronological age, were asked to identify a person's actions, subjective states,…

  5. Clinical practice guideline development manual: A quality-driven approach for translating evidence into action

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Richard M.; Shiffman, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Guidelines translate best evidence into best practice. A well-crafted guideline promotes quality by reducing healthcare variations, improving diagnostic accuracy, promoting effective therapy, and discouraging ineffective – or potentially harmful – interventions. Despite a plethora of published guidelines, methodology is often poorly defined and varies greatly within and among organizations. Purpose This manual describes the principles and practices used successfully by the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery to produce quality-driven, evidence-based guidelines using efficient and transparent methodology for action-ready recommendations with multi-disciplinary applicability. The development process, which allows moving from conception to completion in twelve months, emphasizes a logical sequence of key action statements supported by amplifying text, evidence profiles, and recommendation grades that link action to evidence. Conclusions As clinical practice guidelines become more prominent as a key metric of quality healthcare, organizations must develop efficient production strategies that balance rigor and pragmatism. Equally important, clinicians must become savvy in understanding what guidelines are – and are not – and how they are best utilized to improve care. The information in this manual should help clinicians and organizations achieve these goals. PMID:19464525

  6. Lifting the burden: a coordinated approach to action on Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control in NSW.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Jasmine; Hunt, Jennifer; Ivers, Rowena; Smyth, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence continues to be significantly higher among Aboriginal people than non-Aboriginal people, resulting in a range of serious health consequences and inequities. The Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AHandMRC) and the New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of Health (the Ministry) have worked in partnership to develop The ATRAC Framework: A Strategic Framework for Aboriginal Tobacco Resistance and Control in NSW, in collaboration with Aboriginal communities and a range of stakeholders. The goal of the ATRAC Framework is to reduce smoking prevalence and the harmful impacts of tobacco use among Aboriginal people and communities in NSW. The framework includes reviews of relevant evidence and recommended actions, organised under six areas: leadership, partnerships and coordination; community action, awareness and engagement; workforce development; supportive environments; quitting support; and evidence, evaluation and research. The framework stresses that, to be successful, Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control programs and activities need to be evidence based, coordinated, integrated and involve Aboriginal people and Aboriginal community controlled health organisations in all aspects, from development through to implementation and evaluation. Consultations and evidence reviews highlight the importance of workforce support and development, including the ongoing need for more workers specialising in Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control, as well as ongoing training for all staff involved in delivering care to Aboriginal people. Other key strategies identified in the framework include improving access to nicotine replacement therapy and other medications to support quitting; supporting, strengthening and building on existing innovative community-based programs; and further developing the evidence base. The AHandMRC and the Ministry will continue to work in partnership to drive the use of the ATRAC Framework by all people

  7. The functional neuroanatomy of decision making: prefrontal control of thought and action.

    PubMed

    Coutlee, Christopher G; Huettel, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Humans exhibit a remarkable capacity for flexible thought and action. Despite changing internal needs and external context, individuals maintain stable goals and pursue purposeful action. Functional neuroimaging research examining the neural underpinnings of such behavioral flexibility has progressed within several distinct traditions, as evident in the largely separate literatures on "cognitive control" and on "decision making." Both topics investigate the formulation of desires and intentions, the integration of knowledge and context, and the resolution of conflict and uncertainty. Additionally, each recognizes the fundamental role of the prefrontal cortex in supporting flexible selection of behavior. But despite this notable overlap, neuroimaging studies in cognitive control and decision making have exerted only limited influence on each other, in part due to differences in their theoretical and experimental groundings. Additionally, the precise organization of control processing within prefrontal cortex has remained unclear, fostering an acceptance of vague descriptions of decision making in terms of canonical cognitive control functions such as "inhibition" or "self-control." We suggest a unifying role for models of the hierarchical organization of action selection within prefrontal cortex. These models provide an important conceptual link between decision-making phenomena and cognitive-control processes, potentially facilitating cross-fertilization between these topics. PMID:21676379

  8. Banishing the Control Homunculi in Studies of Action Control and Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Ian P. L.; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, human self-control has fascinated scientists and nonscientists alike. Current theories often attribute it to an executive control system. But even though executive control receives a great deal of attention across disciplines, most aspects of it are still poorly understood. Many theories rely on an ill-defined set of “homunculi” doing jobs like “response inhibition” or “updating” without explaining how they do so. Furthermore, it is not always appreciated that control takes place across different timescales. These two issues hamper major advances. Here we focus on the mechanistic basis for the executive control of actions. We propose that at the most basic level, action control depends on three cognitive processes: signal detection, action selection, and action execution. These processes are modulated via error-correction or outcome-evaluation mechanisms, preparation, and task rules maintained in working and long-term memory. We also consider how executive control of actions becomes automatized with practice and how people develop a control network. Finally, we discuss how the application of this unified framework in clinical domains can increase our understanding of control deficits and provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel behavioral change interventions. PMID:25419227

  9. Azelaic Acid: Evidence-based Update on Mechanism of Action and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Brian C; Wu, Wesley; Rosen, Ted

    2015-09-01

    Azelaic acid is a complex molecule with many diverse activities. The latter include anti-infective and anti-inflammatory action. The agent also inhibits follicular keratinization and epidermal melanogenesis. Due to the wide variety of biological activities, azelaic acid has been utilized as a management tool in a broad spectrum of disease states and cutaneous disorders. This paper reviews the clinical utility of azelaic acid, noting the quality of the evidence supporting each potential use. PMID:26355614

  10. Evidence for a distributed hierarchy of action representation in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grafton, Scott T.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2007-01-01

    Complex human behavior is organized around temporally distal outcomes. Behavioral studies based on tasks such as normal prehension, multi-step object use and imitation establish the existence of relative hierarchies of motor control. The retrieval errors in apraxia also support the notion of a hierarchical model for representing action in the brain. In this review, three functional brain imaging studies of action observation using the method of repetition suppression are used to identify a putative neural architecture that supports action understanding at the level of kinematics, object centered goals and ultimately, motor outcomes. These results, based on observation, may match a similar functional anatomic hierarchy for action planning and execution. If this is true, then the findings support a functional anatomic model that is distributed across a set of interconnected brain areas that are differentially recruited for different aspects of goal oriented behavior, rather than a homogeneous mirror neuron system for organizing and understanding all behavior. PMID:17706312

  11. Implicit agency in observed actions: evidence for N1 suppression of tones caused by self-made and observed actions.

    PubMed

    Poonian, Simandeep K; McFadyen, Jessica; Ogden, Jessica; Cunnington, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Every day we make attributions about how our actions and the actions of others cause consequences in the world around us. It is unknown whether we use the same implicit process in attributing causality when observing others' actions as we do when making our own. The aim of this research was to investigate the neural processes involved in the implicit sense of agency we form between actions and effects, for both our own actions and when watching others' actions. Using an interval estimation paradigm to elicit intentional binding in self-made and observed actions, we measured the EEG responses indicative of anticipatory processes before an action and the ERPs in response to the sensory consequence. We replicated our previous findings that we form a sense of implicit agency over our own and others' actions. Crucially, EEG results showed that tones caused by either self-made or observed actions both resulted in suppression of the N1 component of the sensory ERP, with no difference in suppression between consequences caused by observed actions compared with self-made actions. Furthermore, this N1 suppression was greatest for tones caused by observed goal-directed actions rather than non-action or non-goal-related visual events. This suggests that top-down processes act upon the neural responses to sensory events caused by goal-directed actions in the same way for events caused by the self or those made by other agents. PMID:25321488

  12. Evidence for the mode of action of the highly cytotoxic Streptomyces polyketide kendomycin.

    PubMed

    Elnakady, Yasser A; Rohde, Manfred; Sasse, Florenz; Backes, Christina; Keller, Andreas; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Weissman, Kira J; Müller, Rolf

    2007-07-23

    The macrocyclic polyketide kendomycin exhibits antiosteoporotic and antibacterial activity, as well as strong cytotoxicity against multiple human tumor cell lines. Despite the promise of this compound in several therapeutic areas, the cellular target(s) of kendomycin have not been identified to date. We have used a number of approaches, including microscopy, proteomics, and bioinformatics, to investigate the mode of action of kendomycin in mammalian cell cultures. In response to kendomycin treatment, human U-937 tumor cells exhibit depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, caspase 3 activation, and DNA laddering, consistent with induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. To elucidate possible apoptotic triggers, DIGE and MALDI-TOF were used to identify proteins that are differently regulated in U-937 cells relative to controls. Statistical analysis of the proteomics data by the new web-based application GeneTrail highlighted several significant changes in protein expression, most notably among proteasomal regulatory subunits. Overall, the profile of altered expression closely matches that observed with other tumor cell lines in response to proteasome inhibition. Direct assay in vitro further shows that kendomycin inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the rabbit reticulocyte proteasome, with comparable efficacy to the established inhibitor MG-132. We have also demonstrated that ubiquitinylated proteins accumulate in kendomycin-treated U-937 cells, while vacuolization of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial swelling are induced in a second cell line derived from kangaroo rat epithelial (PtK(2)) cells, phenotypes classically associated with inhibition of the proteasome. This study therefore provides evidence that kendomycin mediates its cytotoxic effects, at least in part, through proteasome inhibition. PMID:17592829

  13. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2007-03-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal (Cry) and Cytolitic (Cyt) protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders--Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some detail. Phylogenetic analyses established that the diversity of the 3-Domain Cry family evolved by the independent evolution of the three domains and by swapping of domain III among toxins. Like other pore-forming toxins (PFT) that affect mammals, Cry toxins interact with specific receptors located on the host cell surface and are activated by host proteases following receptor binding resulting in the formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure that is insertion competent. In contrast, Cyt toxins directly interact with membrane lipids and insert into the membrane. Recent evidence suggests that Cyt synergize or overcome resistance to mosquitocidal-Cry proteins by functioning as a Cry-membrane bound receptor. In this review we summarize recent findings on the mode of action of Cry and Cyt toxins, and compare them to the mode of action of other bacterial PFT. Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases. PMID:17198720

  14. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Seko, Daiki; Ogawa, Shizuka; Li, Tao-Sheng; Taimura, Akihiro; Ono, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    μ-Crystallin (Crym), a thyroid hormone-binding protein, is abnormally up-regulated in the muscles of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, a dominantly inherited progressive myopathy. However, the physiologic function of Crym in skeletal muscle remains to be elucidated. In this study, Crym was preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle throughout the body. Crym-knockout mice exhibited a significant hypertrophy of fast-twitch glycolytic type IIb fibers, causing an increase in grip strength and high intensity running ability in Crym-null mice. Genetic inactivation of Crym or blockade of Crym by siRNA-mediated knockdown up-regulated the gene expression of fast-glycolytic contractile fibers in satellite cell-derived myotubes in vitro These alterations in Crym-inactivated muscle were rescued by inhibition of thyroid hormone, even though Crym is a positive regulator of thyroid hormone action in nonmuscle cells. The results demonstrated that Crym is a crucial regulator of muscle plasticity, controlling metabolic and contractile properties of myofibers, and thus the selective inactivation of Crym may be a potential therapeutic target for muscle-wasting diseases, such as muscular dystrophies and age-related sarcopenia.-Seko, D., Ogawa, S., Li, T.-S., Taimura, A., Ono, Y. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action. PMID:26718889

  15. Sparteine as an anticonvulsant drug: Evidence and possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Villalpando-Vargas, Fridha; Medina-Ceja, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Sparteine is a quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from Lupinus that has numerous pharmacological properties both in humans and animal models. In the central nervous system, sparteine reduces locomotor activity, has light analgesic effects, also has no effects on short-term memory or spatial learning and does not induce changes in behavior or electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. However, the anticonvulsant profile of sparteine is not fully characterized in experimental animals and there are no data in humans. Therefore, the present review focuses on the experimental evidence supporting the anticonvulsant action of sparteine in models of acute seizures and status epilepticus (SE), as well as its possible mechanisms of action. The evidence that supports the anticonvulsant effect of (-)-Sparteine sulfate includes the inhibition of seizures induced by maximal electro-stimulation, a delay in the onset of convulsive behavior and the prolongation of survival time in mice treated with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Additionally, sparteine delays the onset of convulsive behavior and decreases the severity and mortality of rats treated with PTZ and pilocarpine. Sparteine decreases amplitude and frequency or blocks the epileptiform activity induced by PTZ, pilocarpine and kainic acid. Sparteine may decrease hyperexcitability through the activation of the M2 and M4 subtypes of mAChRs, which is a probable mechanism of action that together with its systemic effects may favor its anticonvulsant effects against seizures and SE. PMID:27262285

  16. Estradiol Synthesis and Action at the Synapse: Evidence for “Synaptocrine” Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Saldanha, Colin J.; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2011-01-01

    Classically, the modulation of brain function and behavior by steroid hormones was linked exclusively to secretion by peripheral endocrine glands. Subsequently, steroid actions within the brain were shown dependent upon either synthesis and secretion by peripheral organs or by production within the CNS itself using peripheral sources of precursors. Discovery of the estrogen-synthetic enzyme aromatase in brain further bolstered the latter view and served as a catalyst for expanding concepts of neurosteroidogenesis. In parallel research, several steroids, including estradiol, were found to have rapid effects on neuronal excitability, partially explained by novel actions at neuronal membranes. Recent findings from multiple levels of analysis and labs necessitate an updated view on how steroids are delivered to neural circuits. There is now considerable evidence for expression of the aromatase enzyme within synaptic boutons in the vertebrate CNS. Furthermore, additional work now directly couples rapid regulation of neuroestrogen synthesis with neurophysiological and behavioral outcomes. In this review we summarize evidence for targeted and acute synaptic estrogen synthesis and perisynaptic estrogen actions in the CNS of songbirds. We evaluate these findings in the context of criteria associated with classic neuromodulatory signaling. We term this novel form of signaling “synaptocrine,” and discuss its implications. PMID:22654800

  17. Minimizing motor mimicry by myself: self-focus enhances online action-control mechanisms during motor contagion.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Stephanie; Brass, Marcel; Kühn, Simone; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2010-03-01

    Ideomotor theory of human action control proposes that activation of a motor representation can occur either through internally-intended or externally-perceived actions. Critically, sometimes these alternatives of eliciting a motor response may be conflicting, for example, when intending one action and perceiving another, necessitating the recruitment of enhanced action-control to avoid motor mimicry. Based on previous neuroimaging evidence, suggesting that reduced mimicry is associated with self-related processing, we aimed to experimentally enhance these action-control mechanisms during motor contagion by inducing self-focus. In two within-subjects experiments, participants had to enforce their action intention against an external motor contagion tendency under heightened and normal self-focus. During high self-focus participants showed reduced motor mimicry, induced either by mirror self-observation or self-referential judgments. This indicates that a self-focus provoking situation can enhance online action-control mechanisms, needed to resist unintentional motor contagion tendencies and thereby enables a modulation of automatic mirroring responses. PMID:20116291

  18. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Michael; Green, Jeffrey J.; Lau, Ellen; Williams, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sentences such as “The ship was sunk to collect the insurance” exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The non-finite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit vs. explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: “The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance.” Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1–4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive) and explicit (active or long passive) control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either “3 days ago” or “just in order” to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus, efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in

  19. How (and why) the visual control of action differs from visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Vision not only provides us with detailed knowledge of the world beyond our bodies, but it also guides our actions with respect to objects and events in that world. The computations required for vision-for-perception are quite different from those required for vision-for-action. The former uses relational metrics and scene-based frames of reference while the latter uses absolute metrics and effector-based frames of reference. These competing demands on vision have shaped the organization of the visual pathways in the primate brain, particularly within the visual areas of the cerebral cortex. The ventral ‘perceptual’ stream, projecting from early visual areas to inferior temporal cortex, helps to construct the rich and detailed visual representations of the world that allow us to identify objects and events, attach meaning and significance to them and establish their causal relations. By contrast, the dorsal ‘action’ stream, projecting from early visual areas to the posterior parietal cortex, plays a critical role in the real-time control of action, transforming information about the location and disposition of goal objects into the coordinate frames of the effectors being used to perform the action. The idea of two visual systems in a single brain might seem initially counterintuitive. Our visual experience of the world is so compelling that it is hard to believe that some other quite independent visual signal—one that we are unaware of—is guiding our movements. But evidence from a broad range of studies from neuropsychology to neuroimaging has shown that the visual signals that give us our experience of objects and events in the world are not the same ones that control our actions. PMID:24789899

  20. Coastal foredune evolution: evidence for physical control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Zarnetske, P. L.; Mull, J.; Hacker, S.; Seabloom, E.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal dunes in the US Pacific Northwest, comprising approximately 45% of the Oregon and Washington coasts, were historically managed to maximize coastal protection through the planting of two invasive beach grass species, European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria), and American beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata). The switch in dominance from native, Elymus mollis, to invasive dune species resulted in a complete state change in coastal dune systems. Prior to the invasion of the exotic species, native dune plants formed small hillocks or short parallel ridges depending on sand supply. In contrast, the invasive beach grasses create stable foredunes, with dune ridges reaching as much as 15 to 20 meters tall which intercept sand and decrease sand supply to the back dune. Currently pressure exists to manage some of these biogeomorphic systems for ecosystem restoration rather than solely for coastal protection. To balance these competing management objectives it has become crucial to quantify the relative importance of physical versus ecological controls on coastal dune evolution over various time and space scales. In this paper we examine the remarkable evolution of the foredunes within the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1988 to 2010, a time period in which quantitative topographic surveys are bracketed by quantitative ecological surveys of grass cover dominance. Most of the region’s foredunes were severely eroded during the two extraordinary winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Nina event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches and foredunes have, for the most part, experienced significant seaward progradation and vertical accretion. Across the mouth of the Columbia River significant gradients exist in both the ecological (grass species dominance and density) and physical (shoreline change rates) parameters that are thought to be first order controls on coastal dune geomorphology. These gradients allow us to test

  1. Evidence for a direct action of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A L; Fontoura, B F; Freire-Maia, L; Machado, C R; Camargos, E R; Teixeira, M M

    2001-05-01

    The ability of toxins to activate the cardiovascular system plays an important role in the morbidity and lethality of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenoming. Most of the actions of the scorpion toxins are indirect and due to the release of adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters. Accordingly, treatment following envenoming is targeted towards inhibition of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. Here, we have sought evidence for a direct action of T. serrulatus venom on the isolated rat heart (Langendorff's method). We show that the bradycardia induced by T. serrulatus venom was completely blocked by atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Similarly, the increase in heart rate that follows the venom-induced bradycardia was totally inhibited by a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist or by chemical sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine. In contrast to these findings, the venom-induced increase in contractile force was not modified by beta(1)-adrenoceptor blockade or by chemical sympathetic denervation. The results clearly demonstrate that the chronotropic effects of T. serrulatus are dependent on neurotransmitter release, but the inotropic effects are not. The neurotransmitter-independent increase in contractility seems to be a direct action of the venom on cardiomyocytes. We suggest that this direct effect on cardiac fibers may play a role in the development of cardiac arrhythmias and contractility defects following envenoming with T. serrulatus scorpion. PMID:11072050

  2. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material after discharge. The...

  3. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material after discharge. The...

  4. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material after discharge. The...

  5. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance. PMID:25772554

  6. Ghrelin action in the brain controls adipocyte metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Theander-Carrillo, Claudia; Wiedmer, Petra; Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Nogueiras, Ruben; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul; Castaneda, Tamara R.; Muzzin, Patrick; Schürmann, Annette; Szanto, Ildiko; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Many homeostatic processes, including appetite and food intake, are controlled by neuroendocrine circuits involving the CNS. The CNS also directly regulates adipocyte metabolism, as we have shown here by examining central action of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Chronic central ghrelin infusion resulted in increases in the glucose utilization rate of white and brown adipose tissue without affecting skeletal muscle. In white adipocytes, mRNA expression of various fat storage–promoting enzymes such as lipoprotein lipase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase–1 was markedly increased, while that of the rate-limiting step in fat oxidation, carnitine palmitoyl transferase–1α, was decreased. In brown adipocytes, central ghrelin infusion resulted in lowered expression of the thermogenesis-related mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 1 and 3. These ghrelin effects were dose dependent, occurred independently from ghrelin-induced hyperphagia, and seemed to be mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Additionally, the expression of some fat storage enzymes was decreased in ghrelin-deficient mice, which led us to conclude that central ghrelin is of physiological relevance in the control of cell metabolism in adipose tissue. These results unravel the existence of what we believe to be a new CNS-based neuroendocrine circuit regulating metabolic homeostasis of adipose tissue. PMID:16767221

  7. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    PubMed

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes. PMID:26299795

  8. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control. PMID:26655929

  9. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control. PMID:26655929

  10. One action system or two? Evidence for common central preparatory mechanisms in voluntary and stimulus-driven actions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gethin; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Waszak, Florian

    2011-11-16

    Human behavior is comprised of an interaction between intentionally driven actions and reactions to changes in the environment. Existing data are equivocal concerning the question of whether these two action systems are independent, involve different brain regions, or overlap. To address this question we investigated whether the degree to which the voluntary action system is activated at the time of stimulus onset predicts reaction times to external stimuli. We recorded event-related potentials while participants prepared and executed left- or right-hand voluntary actions, which were occasionally interrupted by a stimulus requiring either a left- or right-hand response. In trials where participants successfully performed the stimulus-driven response, increased voluntary motor preparation was associated with faster responses on congruent trials (where participants were preparing a voluntary action with the same hand that was then required by the target stimulus), and slower responses on incongruent trials. This suggests that early hand-specific activity in medial frontal cortex for voluntary action trials can be used by the stimulus-driven system to speed responding. This finding questions the clear distinction between voluntary and stimulus-driven action systems. PMID:22090496

  11. Coastal foredune evolution: evidence for ecological control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnetske, P. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Mull, J.; Hacker, S.; Seabloom, E.

    2010-12-01

    The development and modification of landscape features existing at the aquatic-terrestrial interface - estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, lacustrine environments, rivers and streams, and coastal dunes - is one of the most striking outcomes from the interactions and feedbacks between ecology and geomorphology. These distinct biophysical features arise from interactions among sediment, vegetation, and a fluid medium (air or water). Importantly, these features provide services including habitat, resources, and protection for human and ecological systems. Across 22 years (1988-2010) and 160 kilometers of coastline, we investigate the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes in shaping coastal foredunes along the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). This system is particularly well suited to investigate this interplay because it contains significant gradients of physical (e.g., shoreline change rates) and ecological (e.g., vegetation species and densities) forces. Further, the two dominant sand binding grass species (invasive Ammophila grasses) are individually associated with different foredune morphologies through space and time (A. arenaria occurs on taller foredunes while A. breviligulata occurs on shorter foredunes). Within the last 22 years, A. breviligulata has spread and replaced much of A. arenaria as the dominant vegetation on CRLC foredunes. We hypothesize that after accounting for the primary physical drivers shaping foredunes (shoreline change rate, sediment accumulation rates, and frequency/intensity of storm events including El Niño/La Niña), we will find an ecological control or an interaction among physical and ecological forces on PNW coastal foredune geomorphology. Here we test whether any residual variation in interannual- to decadal-scale coastal foredune evolution is due to the change in Ammophila species abundance and density over this time period, and determine whether grass species are

  12. Feelings of Control: Contingency Determines Experience of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James W.; Lagnado, David; Deal, Darvany C.; Haggard, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The experience of causation is a pervasive product of the human mind. Moreover, the experience of causing an event alters subjective time: actions are perceived as temporally shifted towards their effects [Haggard, P., Clark, S., & Kalogeras, J. (2002). Voluntary action and conscious awareness. "Nature Neuroscience," 5(4), 382-385]. This temporal…

  13. Inhibition of retinoic acid catabolism by minocycline: evidence for a novel mode of action?

    PubMed

    Regen, Francesca; Hildebrand, Martin; Le Bret, Nathalie; Herzog, Irmelin; Heuser, Isabella; Hellmann-Regen, Julian

    2015-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) represents an essential and highly potent endogenous retinoid with pronounced anti-inflammatory properties and potent anti-acne activity, and has recently been suggested to share a common anti-inflammatory mode of action with tetracycline antibiotics. We hypothesized that tetracyclines may directly interfere with RA homeostasis via inhibition of its local cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-mediated degradation, an essential component of tightly regulated skin RA homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we performed controlled in vitro RA metabolism assays using rat skin microsomes and measured RA levels in a RA-synthesizing human keratinocyte cell line, both in the presence and in the absence of minocycline, a tetracycline popular in acne treatment. Interestingly, minocycline potently blocked RA degradation in rat skin microsomes, and strikingly enhanced RA levels in RA-synthesizing cell cultures, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate a potential role for CYP-450-mediated RA metabolism in minocycline's pleiotropic mode of action and anti-acne efficacy and could account for the overlap between minocycline and RA-induced effects at the level of their molecular mode of action, but also clinically at the level of the rare side effect of pseudotumor cerebri, which is observed for both, RA and minocycline treatment. PMID:25810318

  14. Three speech sounds, one motor action: Evidence for speech-motor disparity from English flap production

    PubMed Central

    Derrick, Donald; Stavness, Ian; Gick, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that units of speech production bear a one-to-one relationship to speech motor actions pervades otherwise widely varying theories of speech motor behavior. This speech production and simulation study demonstrates that commonly occurring flap sequences may violate this assumption. In the word “Saturday,” a sequence of three sounds may be produced using a single, cyclic motor action. Under this view, the initial upward tongue tip motion, starting with the first vowel and moving to contact the hard palate on the way to a retroflex position, is under active muscular control, while the downward movement of the tongue tip, including the second contact with the hard palate, results from gravity and elasticity during tongue muscle relaxation. This sequence is reproduced using a three-dimensional computer simulation of human vocal tract biomechanics and differs greatly from other observed sequences for the same word, which employ multiple targeted speech motor actions. This outcome suggests that a goal of a speaker is to produce an entire sequence in a biomechanically efficient way at the expense of maintaining parity within the individual parts of the sequence. PMID:25786960

  15. Three speech sounds, one motor action: evidence for speech-motor disparity from English flap production.

    PubMed

    Derrick, Donald; Stavness, Ian; Gick, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    The assumption that units of speech production bear a one-to-one relationship to speech motor actions pervades otherwise widely varying theories of speech motor behavior. This speech production and simulation study demonstrates that commonly occurring flap sequences may violate this assumption. In the word "Saturday," a sequence of three sounds may be produced using a single, cyclic motor action. Under this view, the initial upward tongue tip motion, starting with the first vowel and moving to contact the hard palate on the way to a retroflex position, is under active muscular control, while the downward movement of the tongue tip, including the second contact with the hard palate, results from gravity and elasticity during tongue muscle relaxation. This sequence is reproduced using a three-dimensional computer simulation of human vocal tract biomechanics and differs greatly from other observed sequences for the same word, which employ multiple targeted speech motor actions. This outcome suggests that a goal of a speaker is to produce an entire sequence in a biomechanically efficient way at the expense of maintaining parity within the individual parts of the sequence. PMID:25786960

  16. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. PMID:26857824

  17. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. PMID:26857824

  18. Alcohol action on a neuronal membrane receptor: evidence for a direct interaction with the receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1994-01-01

    For almost a century, alcohols have been thought to produce their effects by actions on the membrane lipids of central nervous system neurons--the well known "lipid theory" of alcohol action. The rationale for this theory is the correlation of potency with oil/water or membrane/buffer partition coefficient. Although a number of recent studies have shown that alcohols can affect the function of certain neuronal neurotransmitter receptors, there is no evidence that the alcohols interact directly with these membrane proteins. In the present study, we report that inhibition of a neuronal neurotransmitter receptor, an ATP-gated ion channel, by a series of alcohols exhibits a distinct cutoff effect. For alcohols with a molecular volume of < or = 42.2 ml/mol, potency for inhibiting ATP-activated current was correlated with lipid solubility (order of potency: 1-propanol = trifluoroethanol > monochloroethanol > ethanol > methanol). However, despite increased lipid solubility, alcohols with a molecular volume of > or = 46.1 ml/mol (1-butanol, 1-pentanol, trichloroethanol, and dichloroethanol) were without effect on the ATP-activated current. The results suggest that alcohols inhibit the function of this neurotransmitter receptor by interacting with a small hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. PMID:8058780

  19. Relaxin for the Treatment of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Pharmacology, Mechanisms of Action, and Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tien M H; Goland, Sorel; Elkayam, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Acute heart failure remains a major cause of morbidity, and its treatment requires an increasing investment of the health care system. Whereas success in treating chronic heart failure has been achieved over the last decades, several pharmacological approaches for acute heart failure have been introduced but have failed to demonstrate any clinical benefit. Serelaxin is a recombinant human relaxin-2 vasoactive peptide that causes systemic and renal vasodilation. Data suggest that the clinical benefits may be attributable to a potential combination of multiple actions of serelaxin, including improving systemic, cardiac, and renal hemodynamics, and protecting cells and organs from damage via neurohormonal, anti-inflammatory, antiremodeling, antifibrotic, anti-ischemic, and proangiogenic effects. Recently, a number of clinical trials have demonstrated that serelaxin infusion over 48 hours improved dyspnea with more rapid relief of congestion during the first days after admission for heart failure. In addition, administration of serelaxin diminished cardiac, renal, and hepatic damage, which were associated with improved long-term mortality. Available data support substantial clinical benefits and significant promise for serelaxin as a treatment option for patients with acute heart failure. This review focuses on the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of serelaxin and provides a detailed discussion of the clinical evidence for this novel therapy in acute heart failure. PMID:26331289

  20. On-line and Model-based Approaches to the Visual Control of Action

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaiyong; Warren, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Two general approaches to the visual control of action have emerged in last few decades, known as the on-line and model-based approaches. The key difference between them is whether action is controlled by current visual information or on the basis of an internal world model. In this paper, we evaluate three hypotheses: strong on-line control, strong model-based control, and a hybrid solution that combines on-line control with weak off-line strategies. We review experimental research on the control of locomotion and manual actions, which indicates that (a) an internal world model is neither sufficient nor necessary to control action at normal levels of performance; (b) current visual information is necessary and sufficient to control action at normal levels; and (c) under certain conditions (e.g. occlusion) action is controlled by less accurate, simple strategies such as heuristics, visual-motor mappings, or spatial memory. We conclude that the strong model-based hypothesis is not sustainable. Action is normally controlled on-line when current information is available, consistent with the strong on-line control hypothesis. In exceptional circumstances, action is controlled by weak, context-specific, off-line strategies. This hybrid solution is comprehensive, parsimonious, and able to account for a variety of tasks under a range of visual conditions. PMID:25454700

  1. Sense of Control Depends on Fluency of Action Selection, Not Motor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambon, Valerian; Haggard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions, and, through these actions, events in the outside world. Sense of agency is widely held to involve a retrospective inference based on matching actual effects of an action with its expected effects. We hypothesise a second, prospective aspect of sense of agency, reflecting the…

  2. Local modulation of steroid action: rapid control of enzymatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Thierry D.; Cornil, Charlotte A.; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Meyer, Laurence; Mensah-Nyagan, A. Guy; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens can induce rapid, short-lived physiological and behavioral responses, in addition to their slow, but long-term, effects at the transcriptional level. To be functionally relevant, these effects should be associated with rapid modulations of estrogens concentrations. 17β-estradiol is synthesized by the enzyme aromatase, using testosterone as a substrate, but can also be degraded into catechol-estrogens via hydroxylation by the same enzyme, leading to an increase or decrease in estrogens concentration, respectively. The first evidence that aromatase activity (AA) can be rapidly modulated came from experiments performed in Japanese quail hypothalamus homogenates. This rapid modulation is triggered by calcium-dependent phosphorylations and was confirmed in other tissues and species. The mechanisms controlling the phosphorylation status, the targeted amino acid residues and the reversibility seem to vary depending of the tissues and is discussed in this review. We currently do not know whether the phosphorylation of the same amino acid affects both aromatase and/or hydroxylase activities or whether these residues are different. These processes provide a new general mechanism by which local estrogen concentration can be rapidly altered in the brain and other tissues. PMID:25852459

  3. Controlling Asthma New Guidelines. New Medications. New Action Plans.

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. New Guidelines. New Medications. New Action Plans. People everywhere and in every age ... I am putting the finishing touches on my new studio album that we hope to have out ...

  4. Visual control of an action discrimination in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Asen, Yael; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing and categorizing behavior is essential for all animals. The visual and cognitive mechanisms underlying such action discriminations are not well understood, especially in nonhuman animals. To identify the visual bases of action discriminations, four pigeons were tested in a go/no-go procedure to examine the contribution of different visual features in a discrimination of walking and running actions by different digital animal models. Two different tests with point-light displays derived from studies of human biological motion failed to support transfer of the learned action discrimination from fully figured models. Tests with silhouettes, contours, and the selective deletion or occlusion of different parts of the models indicated that information about the global motions of the entire model was critical to the discrimination. This outcome, along with earlier results, suggests that the pigeons' discrimination of these locomotive actions involved a generalized categorization of the sequence of configural poses. Because the motor systems for locomotion and flying in pigeons share little in common with quadruped motions, the pigeons' discrimination of these behaviors creates problems for motor theories of action recognition based on mirror neurons or related notions of embodied cognition. It suggests instead that more general motion and shape mechanisms are sufficient for making such discriminations, at least in birds. PMID:24879863

  5. Visual control of an action discrimination in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Muhammad A J; Asen, Yael; Cook, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing and categorizing behavior is essential for all animals. The visual and cognitive mechanisms underlying such action discriminations are not well understood, especially in nonhuman animals. To identify the visual bases of action discriminations, four pigeons were tested in a go/no-go procedure to examine the contribution of different visual features in a discrimination of walking and running actions by different digital animal models. Two different tests with point-light displays derived from studies of human biological motion failed to support transfer of the learned action discrimination from fully figured models. Tests with silhouettes, contours, and the selective deletion or occlusion of different parts of the models indicated that information about the global motions of the entire model was critical to the discrimination. This outcome, along with earlier results, suggests that the pigeons’ discrimination of these locomotive actions involved a generalized categorization of the sequence of configural poses. Because the motor systems for locomotion and flying in pigeons share little in common with quadruped motions, the pigeons’ discrimination of these behaviors creates problems for motor theories of action recognition based on mirror neurons or related notions of embodied cognition. It suggests instead that more general motion and shape mechanisms are sufficient for making such discriminations, at least in birds. PMID:24879863

  6. Modulation of the Action Control System by Social Intention: Unexpected Social Requests Override Preplanned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded…

  7. Flexible Control of Safety Margins for Action Based on Environmental Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hadjiosif, Alkis M.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the risk of slip, grip force (GF) control includes a safety margin above the force level ordinarily sufficient for the expected load force (LF) dynamics. The current view is that this safety margin is based on the expected LF dynamics, amounting to a static safety factor like that often used in engineering design. More efficient control could be achieved, however, if the motor system reduces the safety margin when LF variability is low and increases it when this variability is high. Here we show that this is indeed the case by demonstrating that the human motor system sizes the GF safety margin in proportion to an internal estimate of LF variability to maintain a fixed statistical confidence against slip. In contrast to current models of GF control that neglect the variability of LF dynamics, we demonstrate that GF is threefold more sensitive to the SD than the expected value of LF dynamics, in line with the maintenance of a 3-sigma confidence level. We then show that a computational model of GF control that includes a variability-driven safety margin predicts highly asymmetric GF adaptation between increases versus decreases in load. We find clear experimental evidence for this asymmetry and show that it explains previously reported differences in how rapidly GFs and manipulatory forces adapt. This model further predicts bizarre nonmonotonic shapes for GF learning curves, which are faithfully borne out in our experimental data. Our findings establish a new role for environmental variability in the control of action. PMID:26085634

  8. Learning to control actions: transfer effects following a procedural cognitive control computerized training.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Nitzan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have addressed action control training. In the current study, participants were trained over 19 days in an adaptive training task that demanded constant switching, maintenance and updating of novel action rules. Participants completed an executive functions battery before and after training that estimated processing speed, working memory updating, set-shifting, response inhibition and fluid intelligence. Participants in the training group showed greater improvement than a no-contact control group in processing speed, indicated by reduced reaction times in speeded classification tasks. No other systematic group differences were found across the different pre-post measurements. Ex-Gaussian fitting of the reaction-time distribution revealed that the reaction time reduction observed among trained participants was restricted to the right tail of the distribution, previously shown to be related to working memory. Furthermore, training effects were only found in classification tasks that required participants to maintain novel stimulus-response rules in mind, supporting the notion that the training improved working memory abilities. Training benefits were maintained in a 10-month follow-up, indicating relatively long-lasting effects. The authors conclude that training improved action-related working memory abilities. PMID:25799443

  9. Evidence Against a Central Control Model of Timing in Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Donald R.

    The evidence for the Terzuolo and Viviani central control model of timing in typing was questioned, using data collected from skilled typists and data published by Terzuolo and Viviani. (In this model keystroke times are generated in parallel from centrally stored, word-specific timing patterns. Differences in overall time to type a given word are…

  10. The effect of action video game playing on sensorimotor learning: Evidence from a movement tracking task.

    PubMed

    Gozli, Davood G; Bavelier, Daphne; Pratt, Jay

    2014-10-12

    Research on the impact of action video game playing has revealed performance advantages on a wide range of perceptual and cognitive tasks. It is not known, however, if playing such games confers similar advantages in sensorimotor learning. To address this issue, the present study used a manual motion-tracking task that allowed for a sensitive measure of both accuracy and improvement over time. When the target motion pattern was consistent over trials, gamers improved with a faster rate and eventually outperformed non-gamers. Performance between the two groups, however, did not differ initially. When the target motion was inconsistent, changing on every trial, results revealed no difference between gamers and non-gamers. Together, our findings suggest that video game playing confers no reliable benefit in sensorimotor control, but it does enhance sensorimotor learning, enabling superior performance in tasks with consistent and predictable structure. PMID:25318081

  11. Dopamine depletion affects communicative intentionality in Parkinson's disease patients: Evidence from action kinematics.

    PubMed

    Straulino, Elisa; Scaravilli, Tomaso; Castiello, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate communication is at the heart of successful, healthy social interactions in humans. Deficits in social communication are a hallmark of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Yet, very little research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying these issues. It has been suggested that dopamine is a candidate neurotransmitter system involved in stimulating communication in individuals that are not highly motivated to communicate. A typical model to study dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans is represented by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, who show motor, cognitive and motivational symptoms. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of social communication on actions in non-demented PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy control participants. Patients' ability to modulate motor patterning depending on the communicative intention motivating the action to be performed was evaluated both in "on" (with l-Dopa) and "off" (without l-Dopa) states. In two main conditions, participants were requested to reach towards, grasp an object, and either simply lift it (individual condition) or lift it with the intent to communicate a meaning to a partner (communicative condition). Movements' kinematics was recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results indicate that kinematics is sensitive to communicative intention and that l-Dopa treatment has positive effects on translating communicative intentions into specific motor patterns in PD patients. Although the to-be-grasped object remained the same both the controls and the PD patients in an 'on' state adopted different kinematic patterning for the 'individual' and the 'communication' conditions. The PD patients in the 'off' state, instead, were unable to kinematically differentiate between the two conditions. We contend that social and communicative impairments are associated with abnormalities in

  12. Embodied Action Improves Cognition in Children: Evidence from a Study Based on Piagetian Conservation Tasks.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Mariana; Carro, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence highlights the relevance of embodied cognition in learning processes. In this study we evaluate whether embodied action (enaction) improves cognitive understanding in children. Using the Piagetian conservation tasks in 6-7 year olds, we analyzed quantity conservation conceptualization in children who were active participants in the transformation process and compared these results to those of children who were mere observers of an adult's demonstration (as traditionally conducted). The investigation was performed with 105 first-graders. Conservation tasks were demonstrated to half the children, while the other half actively carried out the transformation of matter. Our findings showed that active manipulation of the material helped children recognize quantity invariance in a higher proportion than when the demonstration was only observed. That is, their enactive experience enabled them to comprehend conservation phenomena more easily than if they were merely passive observers. The outcome of this research thus emphasizes how active participation benefits cognitive processes in learning contexts, promoting autonomy, and agency during childhood. PMID:27047420

  13. Call to action on pneumococcal disease: review of vaccination evidence and outcomes of webcast programs.

    PubMed

    Grogg, Stanley E; Schultz, Jan

    2015-06-01

    In 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices issued updated recommendations for the use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) to immunize adults aged 19 to 64 years with risk factors and all adults aged 65 years or older. Despite these recommendations, rates of vaccination among adults remain low. Federal and state initiatives have been launched to encourage health care providers to incorporate vaccination screening and recommendations in practice. Several resources are available to improve vaccination rates, including implementing electronic medical records; engaging non-physician staff in assessing vaccination history and administering immunizations; adopting standing order protocols; and implementing strong recommendations to patients regarding needed immunizations. However, even in the face of compelling evidence-based research, implementing changes in practice is challenging. The American Osteopathic Association implemented a 2-part Web program called the Call to Action on Pneumococcal Disease. Although some changes in attitudes and intent to change were demonstrated by this initiative, there were no statistically significant increases in self-reported actual adoption of standing order protocols or increases in adult pneumococcal immunization. Nonetheless, some lessons were learned, and these results support the need for ongoing efforts in this area of medicine. PMID:26000904

  14. Genetic evidence for involvement of membrane trafficking in the action of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingling; Yao, Fan; Ma, Yan; Liu, Qiannan; Chen, Si; Hayafuji, Tsutomu; Kuno, Takayoshi; Fang, Yue

    2016-08-01

    To identify novel genes that mediate cellular sensitivity and resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), we performed a genome-wide genetic screening to identify altered susceptibility to 5-FU by Schizosaccharomyces pombe haploid nonessential gene deletion library containing 3004 deletion mutants. We identified 50 hypersensitive and 12 resistant mutants to this drug. Mutants sensitive or resistant to 5-FU were classified into various categories based on their putative functions. The largest group of the genes whose disruption renders cells altered susceptibility to 5-FU is involved in nucleic acid metabolism, but to our surprise, the second largest group is involved in membrane trafficking. In addition, several other membrane traffic mutants examined including gdi1-i11, ypt3-i5, Δryh1, Δric1, and Δaps1 exhibited hypersensitivity to 5-FU. Furthermore, we found that 5-FU in low concentration that generally do not affect cell growth altered the localization of Syb1, a secretory vesicle SNARE synaptobrevin which is cycled between the plasma membrane and the endocytic pathway. Notably, 5-FU at such low concentration also significantly inhibited the secretion of acid phosphatase. Altogether, our findings revealed the first evidence that 5-FU influences membrane trafficking as the potential underlying mechanism of the drug action. PMID:27255861

  15. Review of toluene action: clinical evidence, animal studies and molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Silvia L.; Rivera-García, María Teresa; Woodward, John J.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that individuals will engage in voluntary inhalation of volatile solvents for their rewarding effects. However, research into the neurobiology of these agents has lagged behind that of more commonly used drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This imbalance has begun to shift in recent years as the serious effects of abused inhalants, especially among children and adolescents, on brain function and behavior have become appreciated and scientifically documented. In this review, we discuss the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of toluene, a representative member of a large class of organic solvents commonly used as inhalants. This is followed by a brief summary of the clinical and pre-clinical evidence showing that toluene and related solvents produce significant effects on brain structures and processes involved in the rewarding aspects of drugs. This is highlighted by tables highlighting toluene’s effect on behaviors (reward, motor effects, learning, etc.) and cellular proteins (e.g. voltage and ligand-gated ion channels) closely associated the actions of abused substances. These sections demonstrate not only the significant progress that has been made in understanding the neurobiological basis for solvent abuse but also reveal the challenges that remain in developing a coherent understanding of this often overlooked class of drugs of abuse. PMID:25360325

  16. Embodied Action Improves Cognition in Children: Evidence from a Study Based on Piagetian Conservation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Carro, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence highlights the relevance of embodied cognition in learning processes. In this study we evaluate whether embodied action (enaction) improves cognitive understanding in children. Using the Piagetian conservation tasks in 6–7 year olds, we analyzed quantity conservation conceptualization in children who were active participants in the transformation process and compared these results to those of children who were mere observers of an adult's demonstration (as traditionally conducted). The investigation was performed with 105 first-graders. Conservation tasks were demonstrated to half the children, while the other half actively carried out the transformation of matter. Our findings showed that active manipulation of the material helped children recognize quantity invariance in a higher proportion than when the demonstration was only observed. That is, their enactive experience enabled them to comprehend conservation phenomena more easily than if they were merely passive observers. The outcome of this research thus emphasizes how active participation benefits cognitive processes in learning contexts, promoting autonomy, and agency during childhood. PMID:27047420

  17. Is recursion language-specific? Evidence of recursive mechanisms in the structure of intentional action.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Giuseppe; Adenzato, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In their 2002 seminal paper Hauser, Chomsky and Fitch hypothesize that recursion is the only human-specific and language-specific mechanism of the faculty of language. While debate focused primarily on the meaning of recursion in the hypothesis and on the human-specific and syntax-specific character of recursion, the present work focuses on the claim that recursion is language-specific. We argue that there are recursive structures in the domain of motor intentionality by way of extending John R. Searle's analysis of intentional action. We then discuss evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience supporting the claim that motor-intentional recursion is language-independent and suggest some explanatory hypotheses: (1) linguistic recursion is embodied in sensory-motor processing; (2) linguistic and motor-intentional recursions are distinct and mutually independent mechanisms. Finally, we propose some reflections about the epistemic status of HCF as presenting an empirically falsifiable hypothesis, and on the possibility of testing recursion in different cognitive domains. PMID:24762973

  18. Delayed Visual Feedback of One’s Own Action Promotes Sense of Control for Auditory Events

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Sense of control refers to one’s feelings to control environmental events through one’s own action. A prevailing view is that the sense of control is strong (or is not diminished) when predicted sensory signals, which are generated in motor control mechanisms, are consistent with afferent sensory signals. Such intact sense of control often leads to the misjudgment of temporal relation between timings of one’s action and its effect (so-called, intentional binding). The present study showed that the intentional binding could be enhanced by the delayed visual feedback of an agent’s action. We asked participants to press a button to produce a tone as action outcome. In some conditions, they were given the delayed visual feedback of their button press. Participants judged whether the onset of the auditory outcome was delayed from the timing of their button press. Consequently, delay detection thresholds were significantly higher when the feedback was given 0.2 and 0.4 s delays than when no feedback was displayed to the participants. The results indicate that action agents misjudge the timing of their action (button press) in the presence of the delayed visual feedback of their action. Interestingly, delay detection thresholds were strongly correlated with the subjective magnitude of the sense of control. Thus, the sense of control is possibly determined by cross-modal processing for action-related and outcome-related sensory signals. PMID:26635552

  19. Impact of action primes on implicit processing of thematic and functional similarity relations: evidence from eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Pluciennicka, Ewa; Wamain, Yannick; Coello, Yann; Kalénine, Solène

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the role of action representations in thematic and functional similarity relations between manipulable artifact objects. Recent behavioral and neurophysiological evidence indicates that while they are all relevant for manipulable artifact concepts, semantic relations based on thematic (e.g., saw-wood), specific function similarity (e.g., saw-axe), and general function similarity (e.g., saw-knife) are differently processed, and may relate to different levels of action representation. Point-light displays of object-related actions previously encoded at the gesture level (e.g., "sawing") or at the higher level of action representation (e.g., "cutting") were used as primes before participants identified target objects (e.g., saw) among semantically related and unrelated distractors (e.g., wood, feather, piano). Analysis of eye movements on the different objects during target identification informed about the amplitude and the timing of implicit activation of the different semantic relations. Results showed that action prime encoding impacted the processing of thematic relations, but not that of functional similarity relations. Semantic competition with thematic distractors was greater and earlier following action primes encoded at the gesture level compared to action primes encoded at higher level. As a whole, these findings highlight the direct influence of action representations on thematic relation processing, and suggest that thematic relations involve gesture-level representations rather than intention-level representations. PMID:26077343

  20. Body-Specific Motor Imagery of Hand Actions: Neural Evidence from Right- and Left-Handers

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Roel M.; Toni, Ivan; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    If motor imagery uses neural structures involved in action execution, then the neural correlates of imagining an action should differ between individuals who tend to execute the action differently. Here we report fMRI data showing that motor imagery is influenced by the way people habitually perform motor actions with their particular bodies; that is, motor imagery is ‘body-specific’ (Casasanto, 2009). During mental imagery for complex hand actions, activation of cortical areas involved in motor planning and execution was left-lateralized in right-handers but right-lateralized in left-handers. We conclude that motor imagery involves the generation of an action plan that is grounded in the participant's motor habits, not just an abstract representation at the level of the action's goal. People with different patterns of motor experience form correspondingly different neurocognitive representations of imagined actions. PMID:19949484

  1. Frontal Midline Theta Reflects Anxiety and Cognitive Control: Meta-Analytic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, James F.; Shackman, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from imaging and anatomical studies suggests that the midcingulate cortex (MCC) is a dynamic hub lying at the interface of affect and cognition. In particular, this neural system appears to integrate information about conflict and punishment in order to optimize behavior in the face of action-outcome uncertainty. In a series of meta-analyses, we show how recent human electrophysiological research provides compelling evidence that frontal-midline theta signals reflecting MCC activity are moderated by anxiety and predict adaptive behavioral adjustments. These findings underscore the importance of frontal theta activity to a broad spectrum of control operations. We argue that frontal-midline theta provides a neurophysiologically plausible mechanism for optimally adjusting behavior to uncertainty, a hallmark of situations that elicit anxiety and demand cognitive control. These observations compel a new perspective on the mechanisms guiding motivated learning and behavior and provide a framework for understanding the role of the MCC in temperament and psychopathology. PMID:24787485

  2. Frontal midline theta reflects anxiety and cognitive control: meta-analytic evidence.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Shackman, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from imaging and anatomical studies suggests that the midcingulate cortex (MCC) is a dynamic hub lying at the interface of affect and cognition. In particular, this neural system appears to integrate information about conflict and punishment in order to optimize behavior in the face of action-outcome uncertainty. In a series of meta-analyses, we show how recent human electrophysiological research provides compelling evidence that frontal-midline theta signals reflecting MCC activity are moderated by anxiety and predict adaptive behavioral adjustments. These findings underscore the importance of frontal theta activity to a broad spectrum of control operations. We argue that frontal-midline theta provides a neurophysiologically plausible mechanism for optimally adjusting behavior to uncertainty, a hallmark of situations that elicit anxiety and demand cognitive control. These observations compel a new perspective on the mechanisms guiding motivated learning and behavior and provide a framework for understanding the role of the MCC in temperament and psychopathology. PMID:24787485

  3. Evidence-Based Practice and Teacher Action-Research: A Reflection on the Nature and Direction of "Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colucci-Gray, Laura; Das, Sharmistha; Gray, Donald; Robson, Dean; Spratt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study was conceived as an opportunity to reflect on the place of action-research in the contested landscape of educational change in the UK where increasing emphasis has been put on the use of evidence to drive reform. In the context of a government-sponsored project in Scotland, this study looked at the impact of a scholarship initiative…

  4. Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework: A Review of Evidence-Based Learning Analytics Interventions at the Open University UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Boroowa, Avinash; Cross, Simon; Kubiak, Chris; Mayles, Kevin; Murphy, Sam

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop an evidence-based framework for learning analytics whereby stakeholders can manage, evaluate, and make decisions about which types of interventions work well and under which conditions. In this article, we will work towards developing a foundation of an Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework (A4AEF) that is…

  5. Children's Imitation of Causal Action Sequences Is Influenced by Statistical and Pedagogical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Daphna; Gopnik, Alison; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Shafto, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Children are ubiquitous imitators, but how do they decide which actions to imitate? One possibility is that children rationally combine multiple sources of information about which actions are necessary to cause a particular outcome. For instance, children might learn from contingencies between action sequences and outcomes across repeated…

  6. From evidence to action to deliver a healthy start for the next generation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Elizabeth; McDougall, Lori; Lawn, Joy E; Gupta, Anuradha; Claeson, Mariam; Pillay, Yogan; Presern, Carole; Lukong, Martina Baye; Mann, Gillian; Wijnroks, Marijke; Azad, Kishwar; Taylor, Katherine; Beattie, Allison; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Chopra, Mickey

    2014-08-01

    attention to increasing of health worker numbers and skills with attention to high-quality childbirth care for newborn babies as well as mothers and children; and (5) evaluation, tracking coverage of priority interventions and packages of care with clear accountability to accelerate progress and reach the poorest groups. The Every Newborn Action Plan provides an evidence-based roadmap towards care for every woman, and a healthy start for every newborn baby, with a right to be counted, survive, and thrive wherever they are born. PMID:24853599

  7. Improved top-down control reduces oculomotor capture: the case of action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Action video game players (AVGPs) have been demonstrated to outperform non-video-game players(NVGPs) on a range of cognitive tasks. Evidence to date suggests that AVGPs’ enhanced performance in attention based tasks can be accounted for by improved top-down control over the allocation of visuospatial attention. Thus,we propose that AVGPs provide a population that can be used to investigate the role of top-down factors in key models of attention. Previous work using AVGPs has indicated that they experience less interfering effects from a salient but task-irrelevant distractor in an attentional capture paradigm (Chisholm, Hickey, Theeuwes, & Kingstone,2010). Two fundamentally different bottom-up and top-down models of attention can account for this result. In the present study, we compared AVGP and NVGP performance in an oculomotor capture paradigm to address when and how top-down control modulates capture. In tracking eye movements, we acquired an explicit measurement of attention allocation and replicated the covert attention effect that AVGPs are quicker than NVGPs to attend to a target in the presence of a task-irrelevant distractor. Critically, our study reveals that this top-down gain is the result of fewer shifts of attention to the salient distractor, rather than faster disengagement after bottom-up capture has occurred. This supports the theory that top-down control can modulate the involuntary capture of attention [added]. PMID:22160821

  8. New Evidence about the Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking: Action of an Asymmetric Weak Heat Source.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Placido; Villari, Valentina; Scamporrino, Emilio; Micali, Norberto

    2015-09-17

    In the present study, we show how, in a stagnant water solution of uncharged aggregated achiral porphyrin-based molecules, a mirror-symmetry breaking (SB) can be induced and controlled by means of a weak asymmetric thermal gradient. In particular, it is shown that the optical activity of the aggregate porphyrin solution can be generated and reversed, in sign, only acting on the thermal ramp direction (heating or cooling). In order to avoid data misinterpretation, the aggregate structure modifications with the temperature change and the linear dichroism contribution to circular dichroism spectra were evaluated. A model simulation, using a finite element analysis approach describing the thermal flows, shows that small thermal gradients are able to give rise to asymmetric heat flow. The results reported here can be considered new evidence about the spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomenon induced by very weak forces having an important role in the natural chiral selective processes. PMID:26315854

  9. Evidence implementation: Development of an online methodology from the knowledge-to-action model of knowledge translation.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Craig; Stephenson, Matthew; Lizarondo, Lucylynn; van Den Hoek, Joan; Harrison, Margaret

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes an online facilitation for operationalizing the knowledge-to-action (KTA) model. The KTA model incorporates implementation planning that is optimally suited to the information needs of clinicians. The can-implement(©) is an evidence implementation process informed by the KTA model. An online counterpart, the can-implement.pro(©) , was developed to enable greater dissemination and utilization of the can-implement(©) process. The driver for this work was health professionals' need for facilitation that is iterative, informed by context and localized to the specific needs of users. The literature supporting this paper includes evaluation studies and theoretical concepts relevant to KTA model, evidence implementation and facilitation. Nursing and other health disciplines require a skill set and resources to successfully navigate the complexity of organizational requirements, inter-professional leadership and day-to-day practical management to implement evidence into clinical practice. The can-implement.pro(©) provides an accessible, inclusive system for evidence implementation projects. There is empirical support for evidence implementation informed by the KTA model, which in this phase of work has been developed for online uptake. Nurses and other clinicians seeking to implement evidence could benefit from the directed actions, planning advice and information embedded in the phases and steps of can-implement.pro(©) . PMID:27562662

  10. Translating evidence into policy for cardiovascular disease control in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading causes of premature mortality in India. Evidence from developed countries shows that mortality from these can be substantially prevented using population-wide and individual-based strategies. Policy initiatives for control of CVD in India have been suggested but evidence of efficacy has emerged only recently. These initiatives can have immediate impact in reducing morbidity and mortality. Of the prevention strategies, primordial involve improvement in socioeconomic status and literacy, adequate healthcare financing and public health insurance, effective national CVD control programme, smoking control policies, legislative control of saturated fats, trans fats, salt and alcohol, and development of facilities for increasing physical activity through better urban planning and school-based and worksite interventions. Primary prevention entails change in medical educational curriculum and improved healthcare delivery for control of CVD risk factors-smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Secondary prevention involves creation of facilities and human resources for optimum acute CVD care and secondary prevention. There is need to integrate various policy makers, develop effective policies and modify healthcare systems for effective delivery of CVD preventive care. PMID:21306620

  11. Feedback control of one's own action: Self-other sensory attribution in motor control.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2015-12-15

    The sense of agency, the subjective experience of controlling one's own action, has an important function in motor control. When we move our own body or even external tools, we attribute that movement to ourselves and utilize that sensory information in order to correct "our own" movement in theory. The dynamic relationship between conscious self-other attribution and feedback control, however, is still unclear. Participants were required to make a sinusoidal reaching movement and received its visual feedback (i.e., cursor). When participants received a fake movement that was spatio-temporally close to their actual movement, illusory self-attribution of the fake movement was observed. In this situation, since participants tried to control the cursor but it was impossible to do so, the movement error was increased (Experiment 1). However, when the visual feedback was reduced to make self-other attribution difficult, there was no further increase in the movement error (Experiment 2). These results indicate that conscious self-other sensory attribution might coordinate sensory input and motor output. PMID:26587957

  12. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... discharge to minimize impact, for instance during periods of unusual high water flows, wind, wave, and tidal... discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material after discharge. The...

  13. Tobacco control: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Mirza, Zafar; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Latif, Ehsan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Jafarey, Naeem A

    2004-12-01

    Reliance on revenue generated from tobacco is one of the fundamental barriers to effective tobacco control in Pakistan. The tobacco control component of the National Action Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD) deems it critical to address this issue. A range of policy and environmental strategies are part of this comprehensive effort; these involve regulating access and limiting demand through restrictions on advertising, marketing, promotion and through price and taxation. The NAP-NCD also encompasses community and school interventions, enforcement of tobacco control policies, cessation programmes, mass media counter-marketing campaigns for both prevention and cessation, and surveillance and evaluation of efforts. As part of NAP-NCD, surveillance of tobacco use has been integrated with a population-based NCD surveillance system. Featuring tobacco prominently as part of an NCD behavioural change strategy and providing wide-ranging information relevant to all aspects of tobacco prevention and control and smoking cessation have been identified as priority area in NAP-NCD. Other priority areas include the gradual phasing out of all types of advertising and eventually a complete ban on advertising; allocation of resources for policy and operational research around tobacco and building capacity in the health system in support of tobacco control. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to develop and enforce legislation on smuggling contrabands and counterfeiting and legislation to subject tobacco to stringent regulations governing pharmaceutical products. The adoption of measures to discourage tobacco cultivation and assist with crop diversification; integration of guidance on tobacco use cessation into health services and insuring the availability and access to nicotine replacement therapy are also part of NAP-NCD. PMID:15745325

  14. Micro-Control Actions of Segmented Actuator Patches Laminated on Deep Paraboloidal Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, Horn-Sen; Ding, Jianghong; Hagiwara, Ichiro

    Deep paraboloidal shells of revolution are common components for horns, nozzles, rocket fairings, etc. This study is to investigate the micro-control actions and distributed control effectiveness of precision deep paraboloidal shells laminated with segmented actuator patches. Mathematical models and governing equations of the paraboloidal shells laminated with distributed actuator layers segmented into patches are presented first, followed by formulations of distributed control forces and micro-control actions including meridional/circumferential membrane and bending control components based on an assumed mode shape function and the Taylor series expansion. Distributed control forces, patch sizes, actuator locations, micro-control actions, and normalized control authorities of a deep paraboloidal shell are analyzed in a case study. Analysis indicates that 1) the control forces and membrane/bending components are mode and location dependent, 2) the meridional/circumferential membrane control actions dominate the overall control effect, 3) there are optimal actuator locations resulting in the maximal control effects at the minimal control cost for each natural mode.

  15. The Emergence of a Novel Representation from Action: Evidence from Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boncoddo, Rebecca; Dixon, James A.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in embodied cognition has proposed that representations and actions are inextricably linked. The current study examines a developmental account of this relationship. Specifically, we propose that children's actions are foundational for novel representations. Thirty-two preschoolers, aged 3.4 to 5.7 years, were asked to solve a set of…

  16. Affirmative Action in Education: Evidence From Engineering College Admissions in India. NBER Working Paper No. 13926

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Marianne; Hanna, Rema; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2008-01-01

    Many countries mandate affirmative action in university admissions for traditionally disadvantaged groups. Little is known about either the efficacy or costs of these programs. This paper examines affirmative action in engineering colleges in India for "lower-caste" groups. We find that it successfully targets the financially disadvantaged: the…

  17. Contingency learning without awareness: evidence for implicit control.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, James R; Crump, Matthew J C; Cheesman, Jim; Besner, Derek

    2007-06-01

    The results of four experiments provide evidence for controlled processing in the absence of awareness. Participants identified the colour of a neutral distracter word. Each of four words (e.g., MOVE) was presented in one of the four colours 75% of the time (Experiments 1 and 4) or 50% of the time (Experiments 2 and 3). Colour identification was faster when the words appeared in the colour they were most often presented in relative to when they appeared in another colour, even for participants who were subjectively unaware of any contingencies between the words and the colours. An analysis of sequence effects showed that participants who were unaware of the relation between distracter words and colours nonetheless controlled the impact of the word on performance depending on the nature of the previous trial. A block analysis of contingency-unaware participants revealed that contingencies were learned rapidly in the first block of trials. Experiment 3 showed that the contingency effect does not depend on the level of awareness, thus ruling out explicit strategy accounts. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that the contingency effect results from behavioural control and not from semantic association or stimulus familiarity. These results thus provide evidence for implicit control. PMID:16899377

  18. A unique concept for automatically controlling the braking action of wheeled vehicles during minimum distance stops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthlome, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Test results of a unique automatic brake control system are outlined and a comparison is made of its mode of operation to that of an existing skid control system. The purpose of the test system is to provide automatic control of braking action such that hydraulic brake pressure is maintained at a near constant, optimum value during minimum distance stops.

  19. Linking actions and emotions: evidence from 15- and 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, Betty M

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated 15- and 18-month-olds' understanding of the link between actions and emotions. Infants watched a videotape in which three adult models performed an action on an object. Each adult expressed the same emotion (positive, negative, or neutral affect) on completion of the action. Infants were subsequently given 20 seconds to interact with the object. Infants were less likely to perform the target action after the models' expressed negative as opposed to positive or neutral affect. Although infants' imitative behaviour was influenced by the models' emotional displays, this social referencing effect was not apparent in their more general object-directed behaviour. For instance, infants in the negative emotion condition were just as quick to touch the object and spent the same amount of time touching the object as did infants in the neutral and positive emotion conditions. These findings suggest that infants understood that the models' negative affect was in response to the action, rather than the object itself. Infants apparently used this negative emotional information to appraise the action as one that was 'undesirable' or 'bad'. Consequently, infants were now loath to reproduce the action themselves. PMID:19994573

  20. Further evidence against a direct genotoxic mode of action for arsenic-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Catherine B.; Leszczynska, Joanna; Hickey, Christina; Rossman, Toby G.

    2007-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water, a mixture of arsenite and arsenate, is associated with increased skin and other cancers in Asia and Latin America, but not the United States. Arsenite alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in experimental animals; therefore, it is not a complete carcinogen in skin. We recently showed that low concentrations of arsenite enhanced the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in hairless mice, suggesting arsenic cocarcinogenesis with sunlight in skin cancer and perhaps with different carcinogenic partners for lung and bladder tumors. Cocarcinogenic mechanisms could include blocking DNA repair, stimulating angiogenesis, altering DNA methylation patterns, dysregulating cell cycle control, induction of aneuploidy and blocking apoptosis. Arsenicals are documented clastogens but not strong mutagens, with weak mutagenic activity reported at highly toxic concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Previously, we showed that arsenite, but not monomethylarsonous acid (MMA[III]), induced delayed mutagenesis in HOS cells. Here, we report new data on the mutagenicity of the trivalent methylated arsenic metabolites MMA(III) and dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] at the gpt locus in Chinese hamster G12 cells. Both methylated arsenicals seemed mutagenic with apparent sublinear dose responses. However, significant mutagenesis occurred only at highly toxic concentrations of MMA(III). Most mutants induced by MMA(III) and DMA(III) exhibited transgene deletions. Some non-deletion mutants exhibited altered DNA methylation. A critical discussion of cell survival leads us to conclude that clastogenesis occurs primarily at highly cytotoxic arsenic concentrations, casting further doubt as to whether a genotoxic mode of action (MOA) for arsenicals is supportable.

  1. Integrated Quality Control Measurement Project. Findings and Corrective Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price Waterhouse and Co., New York, NY.

    The Integrated Quality Control Measurement Project (IQCMP) of the U.S. Department of Education measured the quality of awards distributed during the 1988-89 award year under the three major Title IV programs: the Pell Grant program, the Campus-Based programs, and the Stafford Loan program, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of the…

  2. Humans are sensitive to attention control when predicting others' actions.

    PubMed

    Pesquita, Ana; Chapman, Craig S; Enns, James T

    2016-08-01

    Studies of social perception report acute human sensitivity to where another's attention is aimed. Here we ask whether humans are also sensitive to how the other's attention is deployed. Observers viewed videos of actors reaching to targets without knowing that those actors were sometimes choosing to reach to one of the targets (endogenous control) and sometimes being directed to reach to one of the targets (exogenous control). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that observers could respond more rapidly when actors chose where to reach, yet were at chance when guessing whether the reach was chosen or directed. This implicit sensitivity to attention control held when either actor's faces or limbs were masked (experiment 3) and when only the earliest actor's movements were visible (experiment 4). Individual differences in sensitivity to choice correlated with an independent measure of social aptitude. We conclude that humans are sensitive to attention control through an implicit kinematic process linked to empathy. The findings support the hypothesis that social cognition involves the predictive modeling of others' attentional states. PMID:27436897

  3. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  4. Left occipitotemporal cortex contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions: fMRI and TMS evidence.

    PubMed

    Perini, Francesca; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) in both tool and hand perception but the functional role of this region is not fully known. Here, by using a task manipulation, we tested whether tool-/hand-selective LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions. Participants viewed briefly presented pictures of kitchen and garage tools while they performed one of two tasks: in the action task, they judged whether the tool is associated with a hand rotation action (e.g., screwdriver) or a hand squeeze action (e.g., garlic press), while in the location task they judged whether the tool is typically found in the kitchen (e.g., garlic press) or in the garage (e.g., screwdriver). Both tasks were performed on the same stimulus set and were matched for difficulty. Contrasting fMRI responses between these tasks showed stronger activity during the action task than the location task in both tool- and hand-selective LOTC regions, which closely overlapped. No differences were found in nearby object- and motion-selective control regions. Importantly, these findings were confirmed by a TMS study, which showed that effective TMS over the tool-/hand-selective LOTC region significantly slowed responses for tool action discriminations relative to tool location discriminations, with no such difference during sham TMS. We conclude that left LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions. PMID:25140142

  5. From action representation to action execution: exploring the links between cognitive and biomechanical levels of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.; Volchenkov, Dima; Bläsing, Bettina E.; Schack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control. PMID:24065915

  6. Action Control of Autonomous Agents in Continuous Valued Space Using RFCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakawa, Shinichi; Nagao, Tomoharu

    Researches on action control of autonomous agents and multiple agents have attracted increasing attentions in recent years. The general method using action control of agents are neural network, genetic programming and reinforcement learning. In this study, we use neural network for action control of autonomous agents. Our method determines the structure and parameter of neural network in evolution. We proposed Flexibly Connected Neural Network (FCN) previously as a method of constructing arbitrary neural networks with optimized structures and parameters to solve unknown problems. FCN was applied to action control of an autonomous agent and showed experimentally that it is effective for perceptual aliasing problems. All of the experiments of FCN, however, are in only grid space. In this paper, we propose a new method based on FCN which can decide correct action in real and continuous valued space. The proposed method which called Real valued FCN (RFCN) optimizes input-output functions of each units, parameters of the input-output functions and speed of each units. In order to examine the effectiveness, we applied the proposed method to action control of an autonomous agent to solve continuous valued maze problems.

  7. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources. PMID:26670695

  8. Reducing the illusion of control when an action is followed by an undesired outcome.

    PubMed

    Matute, Helena; Blanco, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    The illusion of control is the belief that our behavior produces an effect that is actually independent from it. This illusion is often at the core of superstitious and pseudoscientific thinking. Although recent research has proposed several evidence-based strategies that can be used to reduce the illusion, the majority of these experiments have involved positive illusions-that is, those in which the potential outcomes are desired (e.g., recovery from illness or earning points). By contrast, many real-life superstitions and pseudosciences are tied to negative illusions-that is, those in which the potential consequences are undesired. Examples are walking under a ladder, breaking a mirror, or sitting in row 13, all of which are supposed to generate bad luck. Thus, the question is whether the available evidence on how to reduce positive illusions would also apply to situations in which the outcomes are undesired. We conducted an experiment in which participants were exposed to undesired outcomes that occurred independently of their behavior. One strategy that has been shown to reduce positive illusions consists of warning people that the outcomes might have alternative causes, other than the participants' actions, and telling them that the best they can do to find out whether an alternative cause is at work is to act on only about 50% of the trials. When we gave our participants this information in an experiment in which the outcomes were undesired, their illusion was enhanced rather than reduced, contrary to what happens when the outcome is desired. This suggests that the strategies that reduce positive illusions may work in just the opposite way when the outcome is undesired. PMID:24448764

  9. Light, heat, action: neural control of fruit fly behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Owald, David; Lin, Suewei; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a popular model to investigate fundamental principles of neural circuit operation. The sophisticated genetics and small brain permit a cellular resolution understanding of innate and learned behavioural processes. Relatively recent genetic and technical advances provide the means to specifically and reproducibly manipulate the function of many fly neurons with temporal resolution. The same cellular precision can also be exploited to express genetically encoded reporters of neural activity and cell-signalling pathways. Combining these approaches in living behaving animals has great potential to generate a holistic view of behavioural control that transcends the usual molecular, cellular and systems boundaries. In this review, we discuss these approaches with particular emphasis on the pioneering studies and those involving learning and memory. PMID:26240426

  10. I control therefore I do: judgments of agency influence action selection.

    PubMed

    Karsh, N; Eitam, B

    2015-05-01

    Our sense of being agents, that is of willingly controlling both our own bodies and the external environment is ubiquitous if thin. Empirical and theoretical work on this 'sense of agency' has documented motivational, cognitive and neural influences on implicit (out of awareness) and explicit (conscious) judgments of agency. For example, fluency of action selection processes has been recently shown to affect judgments of one's degree of control over an external event. However, it is an open question whether and how such judgments of agency act as input to other processes. In this study we demonstrate that the opposite relationship between action selection and judgment of agency also exists. Specifically, we show that manipulating one's objective control over the environment influences both the speed and the frequency of performing an action associated with that control. This pattern bears a striking resemblance to the effect that tangible rewards have on action selection and suggests that positive control feedback is rewarding to the organism, consequently affecting action selection. If further corroborated this 'reward from control' may explain everyday addictions such as prolonged engagement in arcade games and pathological behaviors, such as stereotypy. PMID:25724007

  11. Amyloid-Type Fiber Formation in Control of Enzyme Action: Interfacial Activation of Phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Code, Christian; Domanov, Yegor; Jutila, Arimatti; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2008-01-01

    The lag-burst behavior in the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was investigated at temperatures slightly offset from the main phase transition temperature Tm of this lipid, thus slowing down the kinetics of the activation process. Distinct stages leading to maximal activity were resolved using a combination of fluorescence parameters, including Förster resonance energy transfer between donor- and acceptor-labeled enzyme, fluorescence anisotropy, and lifetime, as well as thioflavin T fluorescence enhancement. We showed that the interfacial activation of PLA2, evident after the preceding lag phase, coincides with the formation of oligomers staining with thioflavin T and subsequently with Congo red. Based on previous studies and our findings here, we propose a novel mechanism for the control of PLA2, involving amyloid protofibrils with highly augmented enzymatic activity. Subsequently, these protofibrils form “mature” fibrils, devoid of activity. Accordingly, the process of amyloid formation is used as an on-off switch to obtain a transient burst in enzymatic catalysis. PMID:18339749

  12. The control action of the periodic perturbation on a hyperchaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-hui, Zhang; Ke, Shen

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a four-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system. By the numerical simulation the hyperchaotic attractor, Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimension are obtained, also it is confirmed that hyperchaos can be driven in the system described by the equation. The control action of the periodic perturbation on the autonomous hyperchaotic system is studied, and a control rule is obtained which indicates the relationship of the control action and the frequency characteristics after degeneration of the system. Finaly the circuit implementation of the dynamical system is given.

  13. Feeling of control of an action after supra and subliminal haptic distortions.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Sébastien; Poncelet, Patrick Eric; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Capobianco, Antonio; Dufour, André; Brochard, Renaud; Ott, Laurent; Giersch, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Here we question the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the feeling of control that can be modulated even when the feeling of being the author of one's own action is intact. With a haptic robot, participants made series of vertical pointing actions on a virtual surface, which was sometimes postponed by a small temporal delay (15 or 65 ms). Subjects then evaluated their subjective feeling of control. Results showed that after temporal distortions, the hand-trajectories were adapted effectively but that the feeling of control decreased significantly. This was observed even in the case of subliminal distortions for which subjects did not consciously detect the presence of a distortion. Our findings suggest that both supraliminal and subliminal temporal distortions that occur within a healthy perceptual-motor system impact the conscious experience of the feeling of control of self-initiated motor actions. PMID:25965942

  14. Toward a Psychophysics of Agency: Detecting Gain and Loss of Control over Auditory Action Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repp, Bruno H.; Knoblich, Gunther

    2007-01-01

    Theories of agency--the feeling of being in control of one's actions and their effects--emphasize either perceptual or cognitive aspects. This study addresses both aspects simultaneously in a finger-tapping paradigm. The tasks required participants to detect when synchronization of their taps with computer-controlled tones changed to…

  15. Action-Control Beliefs and School Experiences of Tanzanian Primary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Wanner, Brigitte; Sumra, Suleman; Little, Todd D.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated urban and rural Tanzanian elementary students' experiences and action-control beliefs about school performance using the revised Control, Agency, and Means-End Interview. Student surveys indicated that the Tanzanian educational system and teaching format were reflected in low performance-belief relationships. High achievers were more…

  16. An epithelial circadian clock controls pulmonary inflammation and glucocorticoid action

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Julie; Ince, Louise; Matthews, Laura; Mei, Junjie; Bell, Thomas; Yang, Nan; Saer, Ben; Begley, Nicola; Poolman, Toryn; Pariollaud, Marie; Farrow, Stuart; Demayo, Francesco; Hussell, Tracy; Worthen, G Scott; Ray, David; Loudon, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The circadian system is as an important regulator of immune function. Human inflammatory lung diseases frequently show time-of-day variation in symptom severity and lung function, but the mechanisms and cell types that are underlying these effects remain unclear. We show that pulmonary antibacterial responses are modulated by a circadian clock within epithelial club (Clara) cells. These drive circadian neutrophil recruitment to the lung via the chemokine CXCL5. Genetic ablation of the clock gene Bmal1 (also called Arntl or MOP3) in bronchiolar cells disrupts rhythmic Cxcl5 expression, resulting in exaggerated inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide and bacterial infection. Adrenalectomy blocks rhythmic inflammatory responses and the circadian regulation of CXCL5, suggesting a key role for the adrenal axis in driving CXCL5 expression and pulmonary neutrophil recruitment. Glucocorticoid receptor occupancy at the Cxcl5 locus shows circadian oscillations, but this is disrupted in mice with bronchiole-specific ablation of Bmal1, leading to enhanced CXCL5 expression despite normal corticosteroid secretion. In clock-gene disrupted mice the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone loses anti-inflammatory efficacy. We now define a regulatory mechanism that links the circadian clock and glucocorticoid hormones to control both time-of-day variation and also the magnitude of pulmonary inflammation and responses to bacterial infection. PMID:25064128

  17. Visual control of manual actions: brain mechanisms in typical development and developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette

    2013-11-01

    Some key stages in the development of manual actions have been discussed in this supplement based on the idea of the dorsal cortical stream as the pathway for translating visual information into action control. We argue that visual information, transmitted through specialized visuomotor dorsal-stream modules, is required in the control of manual actions for selecting and attending to the target object of the action, translating visual spatial information into motor programmes and planning a coordinated sequence of actions so as to reach an optimal end-state. In typical development, we illustrate dorsal-stream processing through results on the use of stereoscopic information to guide infants' reaches, and changes in target selection and detailed kinematics of reaches depending on age, object size, and reaching in darkness (when dorsal-stream information rapidly decays). We hypothesize 'dorsal-stream vulnerability' as a widespread feature of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, Williams syndrome, and children born very preterm. Such deficits, identified as abnormal visuomanual actions, are seen in bimanual coordination, visual guidance of action in the 'postbox' task, and failures in motor planning for end-state comfort. We discuss the possible application of these approaches to a wider range of disorders including developmental coordination disorder. PMID:24237273

  18. Health Inequity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: From Evidence to Action Applying an Appreciative Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Banks, Roger; Lennox, Nick; Ouellette-Kunz, Hélène; Meijer, Marijke; Lantman-de Valk, Henny van Schrojenstein

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current understanding of health inequities in people with intellectual disabilities does not readily translate into improvements in health status or health care. To identify opportunities for action, the 2013 IASSIDD health SIRG conference organized ten intensive workshops. Materials and methods: The workshops each addressed…

  19. Antinociceptive action of mitragynine in mice: evidence for the involvement of supraspinal opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, K; Mizowaki, M; Suchitra, T; Takayama, H; Sakai, S; Aimi, N; Watanabe, H

    1996-01-01

    Mitragynine is a major alkaloidal constituent extracted from the young leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (Rubiaceae). We investigated an antinociceptive activity of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of this alkaloid by the tail-pinch and hot-plate tests in mice, and evaluated the mechanisms of the action using naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Mitragynine (5.0-30 mg/kg, i.p. and 1.0-10 micrograms/mouse, i.c.v.) exerted a dose-dependent antinociceptive activity which was maximal at 15-45 min after injection in the tail-pinch and hot-plate tests, but it did not induce a morphine-like behavioral change. the antinociceptive actions of i.p. mitragynine were completely abolished by both s.c. (2 mg/kg) and i.c.v (10 micrograms/mouse) naloxone. The action of i.c.v. mitragynine (10 micrograms/mouse) was also antagonized by i.c.v. naloxone (10 micrograms/mouse). These results indicate that mitragynine itself can induce antinociception by acting in the brain, and that the supraspinal opioid systems are at least partly involved in the antinociceptive action of mitragynine in mice. PMID:8831802

  20. Interactive Context Integration in Children? Evidence from an Action Memory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecklenbrauker, Silvia; Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Goergens, N. Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Action-object phrases (e.g., "lift the bottle") are remembered better if they have been enacted rather than learned verbally. This enactment effect is largest in free recall for phrases with objects (e.g., "bottle") present because these phrases can be interactively encoded with those context objects ("interactive context integration") that serve…

  1. Do Affirmative Action Bans Lower Minority College Enrollment and Attainment?: Evidence from Statewide Bans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Using institutional data on race-specific college enrollment and completion, I examine whether minority students were less likely to enroll in a four-year public college or receive a degree following a statewide affirmative action ban. As in previous studies, I find that black and Hispanic enrollment dropped at the top institutions; however, there…

  2. Impact of Action Learning on Entrepreneurial Traits and Inclination: Evidence from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hilleas Chi Hang; Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comparative survey supplemented with focus group interviews, it was found that an action learning activity in an entrepreneurship programme produced both positive and negative results with regard to the entrepreneurial traits of students and their inclination towards entrepreneurship, depending on the influence of external and…

  3. Reflecting on Evidence: Leaders Use Action Research to Improve Their Teacher Performance Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on an action research (AR) project with six public high school leaders (reviewers) who volunteered to engage in an 18 month project to overcome their own defensiveness in addressing concerns with teachers (reviewees) whose performance they were evaluating. In the paper I outline how I acted as a coach in a long-term development…

  4. Praxic Skills in Down and Mentally Retarded Adults: Evidence for Multiple Action Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoia, Stefania; Pelamatti, Giovanna; Rumiati, Raffaella I.

    2004-01-01

    Functional relationships between praxic performance and visual recognition ability of mentally retarded adults are discussed, in an attempt to integrate findings from developmental disorders of action with those described in the adult literature. Three groups of participants took part in the study: adults with Down's syndrome (D), Mentally…

  5. The Theory of Reasoned Action and Self-Construal: Evidence from Three Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of self-construals on the attitudinal and normative components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in the cultures of Korea, Hawaii, and the mainland United States. Finds that undergraduate students in all three locations scored higher on independence than interdependence, and culture appears to affect the extent to which…

  6. Social categorization and cooperation in motor joint action: evidence for a joint end-state comfort.

    PubMed

    Dötsch, Dominik; Schubö, Anna

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated to what extent group membership affects an actor's representation of their partner's task in cooperative joint action. Participants performed a joint pick-and-place task in a naturalistic, breakfast-table-like paradigm which allowed the demonstration of varying degrees of cooperation. Participants transported a wooden cup from one end of a table to the other, with one actor moving it to an intermediate position from where their partner transported it to a goal position. Hand and finger movements were recorded via 3D motion tracking to assess actors' cooperative behavior. Before the joint action task was performed, participants were categorized as belonging to the same or to different groups, supposedly based on an assessment of their cognitive processing styles. Results showed that the orientation of the actors' fingers when picking up the cup was affected by its required angle at the goal position. When placing the cup at the intermediate position, most actors adapted the rotation of the cup's handle to the joint action goal, thereby facilitating the partner's subsequent movement. Male actors demonstrated such cooperative behavior only when performing the task together with an ingroup partner, while female actors demonstrated cooperative behavior irrespective of social categorization. These results suggest that actors tend to represent a partner's end-state comfort and integrate it into their own movement planning in cooperative joint action. However, social factors like group membership may modulate this tendency. PMID:25963752

  7. Evidence for differential action of indoleacetic acid upon ion fluxes in single cells of Petroselinum sativum.

    PubMed

    Bentrup, F W; Pfrüner, H; Wagner, G

    1973-12-01

    The apparent influx of (36)Cl(-) and (86)Rb(+)/K(+) into cells from the higher plant Petroselinum sativum has been measured during the presence and absence in the culture medium of indolacetic acid (IAA) which is an essential auxin of these cells. While 10(-5) M IAA did not significantly affect the influx of (86)Rb(+)/K(+), it substantially reduced that of (36)Cl(-), i.e. by a factor 0.25 within 30 min. This differential action of IAA, which holds for a reasonable range of external pH, is assumed to bear on current hypotheses that the primary events of auxin action involve plasmalemma functions. PMID:24474466

  8. Nuts and legume seeds for cardiovascular risk reduction: scientific evidence and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rávila G M; Gomes, Aline C; Naves, Maria M V; Mota, João F

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of tree nuts and legume seeds is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The reduction in blood lipids and in inflammatory and oxidative processes exhibited by bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibers, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phospholipids, carotenoids, some minerals, and arginine, has stimulated research on the mechanisms of action of these substances through distinct experimental approaches. It is, therefore, important to know the metabolic effect of each nut and legume seed or the mixture of them to choose the most suitable nutritional interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this narrative bibliographic review was to investigate the effects of tree nuts and legume seeds on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, as well as their mechanisms of action with regard to lipid profiles, insulin resistance, arterial pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The findings indicate that a mixture of nuts and legume seeds optimizes the protective effect against cardiovascular risk. PMID:26011909

  9. Why in 2016 are patients with hypertension not 100% controlled? A call to action.

    PubMed

    Redon, Josep; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Schmieder, Roland E; Volpe, Massimo; Weiss, Thomas W

    2016-08-01

    The objective is to consider the problem of high blood pressure (BP), a leading global risk factor, associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of treatment guidelines and a wide range of therapies, BP control is suboptimal in many countries. Recent data indicate that only around 40% of patients manage to achieve an adequate level of BP control. A group of international experts in the field of hypertension met in 2008 to consider this problem. The resulting white paper delivered an urgent call to action and identified six key issues for improving BP control. In 2015, a working group of investigators spontaneously undertook an action with the primary aim of considering the current hypertension management situation in Europe, to discuss whether the situation had changed since 2008 and to determine what can be learnt from the projects in other continents, such as the Canadian Hypertension Education Program, which has shown that higher levels of BP control can be achieved across a general population. The working group identified the main challenges affecting the improvement of BP control today and suggests five key actions: identify the BP treatment target of less than 140/90 mmHg for the majority of patients, simplify treatment strategies and encourage pill reduction, decrease therapeutic inertia, improve patient empowerment, and involve healthcare systems and reduce the prevailing focus on drug costs in many healthcare systems. Implementing key actions identified by the working group may help to improve achievement of better BP control across Europe. PMID:27270186

  10. Similar Mechanisms of Movement Control in Target- and Effect-Directed Actions toward Spatial Goals?

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions conducted toward temporal targets and temporal effects are controlled in a similar way. To investigate whether these findings also apply to spatially restricted movements we analyzed movement kinematics of continuous reversal movements toward given spatial targets and toward self-produced spatial effects in two experiments. In Experiment 1 target- and effect-directed movements were investigated in three different goal constellations. A spatial target/effect was always presented/produced on one movement side, on the other side either (a) no target/effect, (b) the same target/effect, or (c) a more difficult target/effect was presented/produced. Results showed that both target-directed and effect-directed movements have a typical spatial kinematic pattern and that both can be equally well described by linear functions as suggested by Fitts’ Law. However, effect-directed movements have longer movement times. In Experiment 2 participants performed target-directed movements to the one side and effect-directed movements to the other side of a reversal movement. More pronounced spatial kinematics were observed in effect-directed than in target-directed movements. Together, the results suggest that actions conducted toward spatial targets and spatial effects are controlled in a similar manner. Gradual differences in the kinematic patterns may arise because effects are cognitively more demanding. They may therefore be represented less accurately than targets. However, there was no indication of qualitative differences in the cognitive representations of effects and targets. This strengthens our assumption that both targets and effects play a comparable role in action control: they can both be viewed as goals of an action. Thus, ideomotor theories of action control should incorporate action targets as goals similar to action effects. PMID:23230426

  11. Are our actions aligned with our evidence? The skinny on changing the landscape of obesity.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita Bonnie; Steiner, Elizabeth; Escarce, José J; Collins, Rebecca L

    2013-03-01

    Recent debate about the role of food deserts in the United States (i.e., places that lack access to healthy foods) has prompted discussion on policies being enacted, including efforts that encourage the placement of full-service supermarkets into food deserts. Other initiatives to address obesogenic neighborhood features include land use zoning and parks renovations. Yet, there is little evidence to demonstrate that such policies effect change. While we suspect most researchers and policymakers would agree that effective neighborhood change could be a powerful tool in combating obesity, we desperately need strong and sound evidence to guide decisions about where and how to invest. PMID:23592652

  12. Mechanistic understanding of the modes of action of foam control agents.

    PubMed

    Denkov, Nikolai D; Marinova, Krastanka G; Tcholakova, Slavka S

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present briefly our current understanding of the modes of action of foam control agents (often termed "defoamers" or "antifoams"). After summarizing the background knowledge, reviewed in previous articles, the focus of the presentation is shifted to the antifoam studies from the last decade. The new experimental results, obtained by various research groups, are reviewed briefly to reveal the main mechanisms of antifoam action and the related key factors, governing the efficiency of the foam control agents. The role of the entry, spreading and bridging coefficients, of the entry barrier of the antifoam entities, and of the dynamics of surfactant adsorption is specifically discussed. PMID:24041857

  13. Motor control hierarchy in joint action that involves bimanual force production

    PubMed Central

    Masumoto, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The concept of hierarchical motor control has been viewed as a means of progressively decreasing the number of variables manipulated by each higher control level. We tested the hypothesis that turning an individual bimanual force-production task into a joint (two-participant) force-production task would lead to positive correlation between forces produced by the two hands of the individual participant (symmetric strategy) to enable negative correlation between forces produced by two participants (complementary strategy). The present study consisted of individual and joint tasks that involved both unimanual and bimanual conditions. In the joint task, 10 pairs of participants produced periodic isometric forces, such that the sum of forces that they produced matched a target force cycling between 5% and 10% of maximum voluntary contraction at 1 Hz. In the individual task, individuals attempted to match the same target force. In the joint bimanual condition, the two hands of each participant adopted a symmetric strategy of force, whereas the two participants adopted a complementary strategy of force, highlighting that the bimanual action behaved as a low level of a hierarchy, whereas the joint action behaved as an upper level. The complementary force production was greater interpersonally than intrapersonally. However, whereas the coherence was highest at 1 Hz in all conditions, the frequency synchrony was stronger intrapersonally than interpersonally. Moreover, whereas the bimanual action exhibited a smaller error and variability of force than the unimanual action, the joint action exhibited a less-variable interval and force than the individual action. PMID:25904710

  14. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical. PMID:25136651

  15. Power-based control with integral action for wind turbines connected to the grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, R. R.; Fernández, R. D.; Mantz, R. J.; Battaiotto, P. E.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a power shaping control with integral action is employed to control active and reactive powers of wind turbines connected to the grid. As it is well known, power shaping allows finding a Lyapunov function which ensures stability. In contrast to other passivity-based control theories, the power shaping controller design allows to use easily measurable variables, such as voltages and currents which simplify the physical interpretation and, therefore, the controller synthesis. The strategy proposed is evaluated in the context of severe operating conditions, such as abrupt changes in the wind speed and voltage drops.

  16. Affirmative Action and University Fit: Evidence from Proposition 209. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1224

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcidiacono, Peter; Aucejo, Esteban; Coate, Patrick; Hotz, V. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Proposition 209 banned the use of racial preferences in admissions at public colleges in California. We analyze unique data for all applicants and enrollees within the University of California (UC) system before and after Prop 209. After Prop 209, graduation rates increased by 4.4%. We present evidence that certain institutions are better at…

  17. Symposium on Girls' Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings. (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  18. Building research capacity for evidence-informed tobacco control in Canada: a case description.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Paul W; Viehbeck, Sarah; Robinson, Sarah J; Leatherdale, Scott T; Nykiforuk, Candace Ij; Jolin, Mari Alice

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of death and disability in Canada. Insufficient research capacity can inhibit evidence-informed decision making for tobacco control. This paper outlines a Canadian project to build research capacity, defined as a community's ability to produce research that adequately informs practice, policy, and future research in a timely, practical manner. A key component is that individuals and teams within the community must mutually engage around common, collectively negotiated goals to address specific practices, policies or programs of research. An organizing framework, a set of activities to build strategic recruitment, productivity tools, and procedures for enhancing social capital are described. Actions are intended to facilitate better alignment between research and the priorities of policy developers and service providers, enhance the external validity of the work performed, and reduce the time required to inform policy and practice. PMID:19664224

  19. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  20. Visual Experience Determines the Use of External Reference Frames in Joint Action Control

    PubMed Central

    Dolk, Thomas; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Fiehler, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Vision plays a crucial role in human interaction by facilitating the coordination of one's own actions with those of others in space and time. While previous findings have demonstrated that vision determines the default use of reference frames, little is known about the role of visual experience in coding action-space during joint action. Here, we tested if and how visual experience influences the use of reference frames in joint action control. Dyads of congenitally-blind, blindfolded-sighted, and seeing individuals took part in an auditory version of the social Simon task, which required each participant to respond to one of two sounds presented to the left or right of both participants. To disentangle the contribution of external—agent-based and response-based—reference frames during joint action, participants performed the task with their respective response (right) hands uncrossed or crossed over one another. Although the location of the auditory stimulus was completely task-irrelevant, participants responded overall faster when the stimulus location spatially corresponded to the required response side than when they were spatially non-corresponding: a phenomenon known as the social Simon effect (SSE). In sighted participants, the SSE occurred irrespective of whether hands were crossed or uncrossed, suggesting the use of external, response-based reference frames. Congenitally-blind participants also showed an SSE, but only with uncrossed hands. We argue that congenitally-blind people use both agent-based and response-based reference frames resulting in conflicting spatial information when hands are crossed and, thus, canceling out the SSE. These results imply that joint action control functions on the basis of external reference frames independent of the presence or (transient/permanent) absence of vision. However, the type of external reference frames used for organizing motor control in joint action seems to be determined by visual experience. PMID

  1. Do Bans on Affirmative Action Hurt Minority Students? Evidence from the Texas Top 10% Plan. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 10-168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Kalena E.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of…

  2. Spatial representations in older adults are not modified by action: Evidence from tool use.

    PubMed

    Costello, Matthew C; Bloesch, Emily K; Davoli, Christopher C; Panting, Nicholas D; Abrams, Richard A; Brockmole, James R

    2015-09-01

    Theories of embodied perception hold that the visual system is calibrated by both the body schema and the action system, allowing for adaptive action-perception responses. One example of embodied perception involves the effects of tool use on distance perception, in which wielding a tool with the intention to act upon a target appears to bring that object closer. This tool-based spatial compression (i.e., tool-use effect) has been studied exclusively with younger adults, but it is unknown whether the phenomenon exists with older adults. In this study, we examined the effects of tool use on distance perception in younger and older adults in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults estimated the distances of targets just beyond peripersonal space while either wielding a tool or pointing with the hand. Younger adults, but not older adults, estimated targets to be closer after reaching with a tool. In Experiment 2, younger and older adults estimated the distance to remote targets while using either a baton or a laser pointer. Younger adults displayed spatial compression with the laser pointer compared to the baton, although older adults did not. Taken together, these findings indicate a generalized absence of the tool-use effect in older adults during distance estimation, suggesting that the visuomotor system of older adults does not remap from peripersonal to extrapersonal spatial representations during tool use. PMID:26052886

  3. Evidence against hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in the antidiabetic action of leptin

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Gregory J.; Meek, Thomas H.; Matsen, Miles E.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin administration restores euglycemia in rodents with severe insulin-deficient diabetes, and recent studies to explain this phenomenon have focused on the ability of leptin to normalize excessive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Here, we employed a streptozotocin-induced rat model (STZ-DM) of uncontrolled insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus (uDM) to investigate the contribution of HPA axis suppression to leptin-mediated glucose lowering. Specifically, we asked if HPA axis activation is required for diabetic hyperglycemia, whether HPA axis normalization can be achieved using a dose of leptin below that needed to normalize glycemia, and if the ability of leptin to lower plasma glucocorticoid levels is required for its antidiabetic action. In STZ-DM rats, neither adrenalectomy-induced (ADX-induced) glucocorticoid deficiency nor pharmacological glucocorticoid receptor blockade lowered elevated blood glucose levels. Although elevated plasma levels of corticosterone were normalized by i.v. leptin infusion at a dose that raises low plasma levels into the physiological range, diabetic hyperglycemia was not altered. Lastly, the potent glucose-lowering effect of continuous intracerebroventricular leptin infusion was not impacted by systemic administration of corticosterone at a dose that maintained elevated plasma levels characteristic of STZ-DM. We conclude that, although restoring low plasma leptin levels into the physiological range effectively normalizes increased HPA axis activity in rats with uDM, this effect is neither necessary nor sufficient to explain leptin’s antidiabetic action. PMID:26529250

  4. Testosterone Modulates Altered Prefrontal Control of Emotional Actions in Psychopathic Offenders123

    PubMed Central

    von Borries, Anna Katinka Louise; Bulten, Berend Hendrik; Verkes, Robbert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their controlled goal-directed aggressive behavior. Yet, during social challenges, they often show uncontrolled emotional behavior. Healthy individuals can control their social emotional behavior through anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) downregulation of neural activity in the amygdala, with testosterone modulating aPFC–amygdala coupling. This study tests whether individual differences in this neuroendocrine system relate to the paradoxical lack of emotional control observed in human psychopathic offenders. Emotional control was operationalized with an fMRI-adapted approach–avoidance task requiring rule-driven control over rapid emotional responses. Fifteen psychopathic offenders and 19 matched healthy control subjects made approaching and avoiding movements in response to emotional faces. Control of social emotional behavior was required during affect-incongruent trials, when participants had to override affect-congruent, automatic action tendencies and select the opposite response. Psychopathic offenders showed less control-related aPFC activity and aPFC–amygdala coupling during trials requiring control of emotional actions, when compared with healthy control subjects. This pattern was particularly pronounced in psychopathic individuals with high endogenous testosterone levels. These findings suggest that reduced prefrontal coordination underlies reduced behavioral control in psychopathic offenders during emotionally provoking situations. Even though the modest sample size warrants replication, the modulatory role of endogenous testosterone on the aPFC–amygdala circuit suggests a neurobiological substrate of individual differences that is relevant for the advancement of treatment and the reduction of recidivism. PMID:26878057

  5. Update on the mechanism of action of bimatoprost: a review and discussion of new evidence.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Achim H-P; Woodward, David F

    2004-03-01

    Bimatoprost is a pharmacologically unique and highly efficacious anti-glaucoma agent. It appears to mimic the activity of the prostamides, which are biosynthesized from the natural endocannabinoid anandamide by the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2). Bimatoprost has also been suggested to lower intraocular pressure by behaving as a prodrug or, alternatively, by stimulating FP receptors directly. These three distinctly different hypotheses for the mechanism of bimatoprost activity are discussed in the light of current evidence. PMID:15016556

  6. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... containing discharged material properly to prevent point and nonpoint sources of pollution; (d) Timing...

  7. Self-Efficacy, Planning and Action Control in an Oral Self-Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline…

  8. Evaluating Cognitive Action Control Using Eye-Movement Analysis: An Oculomotor Adaptation of the Simon Task.

    PubMed

    Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Naudet, Florian; Dondaine, Thibaut; Auffret, Manon; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Argaud, Soizic; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive action control has been extensively studied using conflict tasks such as the Simon task. In most recent studies, this process has been investigated in the light of the dual route hypothesis and more specifically of the activation-suppression model using distributional analyses. Some authors have suggested that cognitive action control assessment is not specific to response modes. In this study we adapted the Simon task, using oculomotor responses instead of manual responses, in order to evaluate whether the resolution of conflict induced by a two-dimensional stimulus yielded similar results to what is usually reported in tasks with manual responses. Results obtained from 43 young healthy participants revealed the typical congruence effect, with longer reaction times (RT) and lesser accuracy in the incongruent condition. Conditional accuracy functions (CAF) also revealed a higher proportion of fast errors in the incongruent condition and delta plots confirmed that conflict resolution was easier, as the time taken to respond increased. These results are very similar to what has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, our observations are in line with the assumptions of the activation-suppression model, in which automatic activation in conflict situations is captured in the fastest responses and selective inhibition of cognitive action control needs time to build up. Altogether, our results suggest that conflict resolution has core mechanisms whatever the response mode, manual or oculomotor. Using oculomotor responses in such tasks could be of interest when investigating cognitive action control in patients with severe motor disorders. PMID:26973499

  9. Evaluating Cognitive Action Control Using Eye-Movement Analysis: An Oculomotor Adaptation of the Simon Task

    PubMed Central

    Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Naudet, Florian; Dondaine, Thibaut; Auffret, Manon; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Argaud, Soizic; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive action control has been extensively studied using conflict tasks such as the Simon task. In most recent studies, this process has been investigated in the light of the dual route hypothesis and more specifically of the activation-suppression model using distributional analyses. Some authors have suggested that cognitive action control assessment is not specific to response modes. In this study we adapted the Simon task, using oculomotor responses instead of manual responses, in order to evaluate whether the resolution of conflict induced by a two-dimensional stimulus yielded similar results to what is usually reported in tasks with manual responses. Results obtained from 43 young healthy participants revealed the typical congruence effect, with longer reaction times (RT) and lesser accuracy in the incongruent condition. Conditional accuracy functions (CAF) also revealed a higher proportion of fast errors in the incongruent condition and delta plots confirmed that conflict resolution was easier, as the time taken to respond increased. These results are very similar to what has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, our observations are in line with the assumptions of the activation-suppression model, in which automatic activation in conflict situations is captured in the fastest responses and selective inhibition of cognitive action control needs time to build up. Altogether, our results suggest that conflict resolution has core mechanisms whatever the response mode, manual or oculomotor. Using oculomotor responses in such tasks could be of interest when investigating cognitive action control in patients with severe motor disorders. PMID:26973499

  10. Action Control and Dispositional Hope: An Examination of Their Effect on Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papantoniou, Georgia; Moraitou, Despina; Katsadima, Effie; Dinou, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examined the effect of action control (i.e., disengagement, initiative, and persistence) and dispositional hope (i.e., pathways thought, and agency thinking) on self-regulated learning strategy use (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management) and course achievement. Method: A total of 275 undergraduate…

  11. Characterization of Spatial Repellent, Contact Irritant and Toxicant Chemical Actions of Standard Vector Control Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously described modular high-throughput screening system (HITTS) was used to characterize the spatial repellent, contact irritant and toxicant chemical actions of 14 compounds with a history of use in vector control. The response of F1-F4 Aedes aegypti to various concentrations of four organo...

  12. Top-level players' visual control of interceptive actions: Bootsma and van Wieringen (1990) 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Reinoud J; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H P; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of their participants under conditions with and without vision available during the execution of the drive. In the second step, through simulation they evaluated the extent to which a preprogrammed pattern of muscle stimulation acting on the dynamical characteristics of the musculoskeletal system could explain the patterns of movement observed, including the phenomena of kinematic convergence and compensatory variability. In this contribution, we show how methodological and conceptual shortcomings, pertaining to both parts of Van Soest et al.'s study, severely limit the impact of their findings. We argue that their conclusion-denying the possibility of visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions-cannot be upheld in the light of the existing evidence, while Bootsma and Van Wieringen's conclusion-in favor of the visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions in top-level players- still holds strong, even after 20 years. Irrespective of the trends of the moment, we suggest that both appropriate experimentation and principled theorization need to be deployed before a model-based predictive architecture can be considered as a serious alternative to a (more parsimonious) information-based control architecture. PMID:20695718

  13. Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Substrate Specificity: Evidence for New Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Göttle, Martin; Dove, Stefan; Seifert, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Since the isolation of Bacillus anthracis exotoxins in the 1960s, the detrimental activity of edema factor (EF) was considered as adenylyl cyclase activity only. Yet the catalytic site of EF was recently shown to accomplish cyclization of cytidine 5′-triphosphate, uridine 5′-triphosphate and inosine 5′-triphosphate, in addition to adenosine 5′-triphosphate. This review discusses the broad EF substrate specificity and possible implications of intracellular accumulation of cyclic cytidine 3′:5′-monophosphate, cyclic uridine 3′:5′-monophosphate and cyclic inosine 3′:5′-monophosphate on cellular functions vital for host defense. In particular, cAMP-independent mechanisms of action of EF on host cell signaling via protein kinase A, protein kinase G, phosphodiesterases and CNG channels are discussed. PMID:22852066

  14. Modulation of ethanol-intake by morphine: Evidence for a central site of action

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, K.D.; Reid, L.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subcutaneous administration of low doses of morphine increase, while subcutaneous naloxone decreases, ethanol-intake in rats. However, the site of action of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake remains unclear. In an attempt to elucidate this issue, seven graded doses of morphine were given intracerebroventricularly to rats 15 min prior to an opportunity to consume water and sweetened alcoholic beverage for 2 hr. Two lower doses of intracerebroventricular morphine reliably increased ethanol-intake, while higher doses decreased intake of water. Preference ratios were reliably increased by morphine doses of 1 {mu}g and higher. The present data provide support for a central site of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake.

  15. Evidence for action on improving the maternal and newborn health workforce: The basis for quality care.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jim; Sochas, Laura; Cometto, Giorgio; Matthews, Zoë

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious new goals to end preventable maternal and newborn deaths will not only require increased coverage but also improved quality of care. Unfortunately, current levels of quality in the delivery of maternal and newborn care are low in high-burden countries, for reasons that are intimately linked with inadequate planning and management of the maternal and newborn health workforce. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health is a key opportunity to strengthen global and country-level accountability frameworks for the health workforce and its capacity to deliver quality care. In order to succeed, maternal and newborn health specialists must embrace this strategy and its linkages with the new Global Strategy for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health; action is needed across high- and low-income countries; and any accountability framework must be underpinned by ambitious, measurable indicators and strengthened data collection on human resources for health. PMID:26725857

  16. Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Greeson, J. M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 +/- 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence-response curves (R(2) = 0.81-0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R(2) = 0.91), which identifies 446-477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.

  17. Evidence for a Novel Mechanism of Antimicrobial Action of a Cyclic R-,W-Rich Hexapeptide

    PubMed Central

    Scheinpflug, Kathi; Krylova, Oxana; Nikolenko, Heike; Thurm, Charley; Dathe, Margitta

    2015-01-01

    The development of antimicrobial peptides as new class of antibiotic agents requires structural characterisation and understanding of their diverse mechanisms of action. As the cyclic hexapeptide cWFW (cyclo(RRRWFW)) does not exert its rapid cell killing activity by membrane permeabilisation, in this study we investigated alternative mechanisms of action, such as peptide translocation into the cytoplasm and peptide interaction with components of the phospholipid matrix of the bacterial membrane. Using fluorescence microscopy and an HPLC-based strategy to analyse peptide uptake into the cells we could confirm the cytoplasmic membrane as the major peptide target. However, unexpectedly we observed accumulation of cWFW at distinct sites of the membrane. Further characterisation of peptide-membrane interaction involved live cell imaging to visualise the distribution of the lipid cardiolipin (CL) and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the binding affinity to model membranes with different bacterial lipid compositions. Our results demonstrate a distribution of the cyclic peptide similar to that of cardiolipin within the membrane and highly preferred affinity of cWFW for CL-rich phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) matrices. These observations point to a novel mechanism of antimicrobial killing for the cyclic hexapeptide cWFW which is neither based on membrane permeabilisation nor translocation into the cytoplasm but rather on preferred partitioning into particular lipid domains. As the phospholipids POPE/CL play a key role in the dynamic organisation of bacterial membranes we discuss the consequences of this peptide-lipid-interaction and outline the impact on antimicrobial peptide research. PMID:25875357

  18. Direct evidence for the atovaquone action on the Plasmodium cytochrome bc1 complex.

    PubMed

    Siregar, Josephine E; Kurisu, Genji; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Watanabe, Yoh-ichi; Hirai, Makoto; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Syafruddin, Din; Marzuki, Sangkot; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Atovaquone, a coenzyme Q analogue has been indicated to specifically target the cytochrome bc1 complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the malarial parasite and other protozoan. Various mutations in the quinone binding site of the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium spp. such as M133I, L144S, L271V, K272R, Y268C, Y268S, Y268N, and V284F are suggesting to associate with resistance to atovaquone. There is no direct evidence of relation between the mutations and resistance to atovaquone in Plasmodium parasite that has been available. Technical difficulties in isolating active assayable mitochondria in the malarial parasite hinder us to obtain direct biochemical evidence to support the relation between the mutations and drug resistance. The establishment of a mitochondrial isolation method for the malaria parasite has allowed us to test the degree of resistance of Plasmodium berghei isolates to atovaquone directly. We have tested the activity of dihydroorotate (DHO)-cytochrome c reductase in various P. berghei atovaquone resistant clones in the presence of a wide concentration range of atovaquone. Our results show the IC(50) of P. berghei atovaquone resistant clones is much higher (1.5 up to 40 nM) in comparison to the atovaquone sensitive clones (0.132-0.465 nM). The highest IC(50) was revealed in clones carrying Y268C and Y268N mutations (which play an important role in atovaquone resistance in Plasmodium falciparum), with an approximately 100-fold increase. The findings indicate the importance of the mutation in the quinone binding site of the cytochrome b gene and that provide a direct evidence for the atovaquone inhibitory mechanism in the cytochrome bc1 complex of the parasite. PMID:25264100

  19. Visual control of braking in goal-directed action and sport.

    PubMed

    Bardy, B G; Warren, W H

    1997-12-01

    Reaching a moving object, avoiding an obstacle, or controlling a rotation are common requirements of experts in sport and goal-directed action. Since the original analysis of optic flow, a large number of studies have addressed the problem of perception and control of braking. In this paper, the perception-action strategies described for deceleration control are reviewed; driving, docking, landing, somersaulting, running and reaching are analysed. The role played by 'tau dot', the first temporal derivative of tau, is shown to be critical. However, the so-called constant tau-dot strategy proposed to explain how we regulate our deceleration in such circumstances is critically examined and rejected. New directions in the problem of braking control are proposed that emphasize: (1) the advantage of tau-dot over other kinematic variables; (2) the task specificity of tau-dot; (3) the need to consider tau-dot as a control variable; and (4) the role played by the controller dynamics in the perception-action loop. Several directions for future research are suggested. PMID:9486438

  20. Neural Evidence for the Flexible Control of Mental Representations.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Drysdale, Andrew T; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to explore neural evidence for the simultaneous engagement of multiple mental codes while retaining a visual object in short-term memory (STM) and, if successful, to explore the neural bases of strategic prioritization among these codes. We used multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data to track patterns of brain activity associated with three common mental codes: visual, verbal, and semantic. When participants did not know which dimension of a sample stimulus would be tested, patterns of brain activity during the memory delay indicated that a visual representation was quickly augmented with both verbal and semantic re-representations of the stimulus. The verbal code emerged as most highly activated, consistent with a canonical visual-to-phonological recoding operation in STM. If participants knew which dimension of a sample stimulus would be tested, brain activity patterns were biased toward the probe-relevant stimulus dimension. Interestingly, probe-irrelevant neural states persisted at an intermediate level of activation when they were potentially relevant later in the trial, but dropped to baseline when cued to be irrelevant. These results reveal the neural dynamics underlying the creation and retention of mental codes, and they illustrate the flexible control that humans can exert over these representations. PMID:24935778

  1. Willed action and its impairments.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, M

    1998-09-01

    Actions are goal-directed behaviours that usually involve movem ent. There is evidence that intentional self-generated actions (willed actions) are controlled differently from routine, stereotyped actions that are externally triggered by environmental stimuli. We review evidence from investigations using positron emission tomography (PET), recordings of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and conclude that willed actions are controlled by a network of frontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate) and subcortical (thalamus and basal ganglia) areas. We also consider evidence suggesting that some of the cognitive and motor deficits of patients with frontal lesions, Parkinson's disease, or schizophrenia as well as apathy and abulia and rarer phenomena such as primary obsessional slowness can be considered as reflecting im pairment of willed actions. We propose that the concept of a willed action system based on the frontostriatal circuits provides a useful framework for integrating the cognitive, motor, and motivational deficits found in these disorders. Problems remaining to be resolved include: identification of the component processes of willed actions; the specific and differential role played by each of the frontal cortical and subcortical areas in the control of willed actions; the specific mechanisms of impairm ent of willed actions in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and frontal damage; and the precise role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the willed action system. PMID:22448836

  2. Antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav.: evidence for the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Svetaz, Laura; Agüero, María Belén; Alvarez, Sandra; Luna, Lorena; Feresin, Gabriela; Derita, Marcos; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana

    2007-08-01

    Petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of fruits, aerial parts and exudate of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) showed moderate antifungal activities against the yeasts C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and C. neoformans (MICs: 62.5 - 250 microg/mL) and very strong antifungal activities against the dermatophytes M. gypseum, T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs: 8 - 16 microg/mL) thus supporting the ethnopharmacological use of this plant. Antifungal activity-directed fractionation of active extracts by using bioautography led to the isolation of 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone (1) and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (2) as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity. Second-order studies included MIC (80), MIC (50) and MFC of both chalcones in an extended panel of clinical isolates of the most sensitive fungi, and also comprised a series of targeted assays. They showed that the most active chalcone 2 is fungicidal rather than fungistatic, does not disrupt the fungal membranes up to 4 x MFC and does not act by inhibiting the fungal cell wall. So, 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone would act by a different mechanism of action than the antifungal drugs in current clinical use, such as amphotericin B, azoles or echinocandins, and thus appears to be very promising as a novel antifungal agent. PMID:17628836

  3. Direct evidence for the economy of action: glucose and the perception of geographical slant.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Simone; Zadra, Jonathan R; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2010-01-01

    When locomoting in a physically challenging environment, the body draws upon available energy reserves to accommodate increased metabolic demand. Ingested glucose supplements the body's energy resources, whereas non-caloric sweetener does not. Two experiments demonstrate that participants who had consumed a glucose-containing drink perceived the slant of a hill to be less steep than did participants who had consumed a drink containing non-caloric sweetener. The glucose manipulation influenced participants' explicit awareness of hill slant but, as predicted, it did not affect a visually guided action of orienting a tilting palmboard to be parallel to the hill. Measured individual differences in factors related to bioenergetic state, such as fatigue, sleep quality, fitness, mood, and stress, also affected perception: lower energetic states were associated with steeper perceptions of hill slant. This research shows that the perception of the spatial layout of the environment is influenced by the energetic resources available for locomotion within it. Our findings are consistent with the view that spatial perceptions are influenced by bioenergetic factors. PMID:20514996

  4. Central actions of calcitonin on body temperature and intestinal motility in rats: evidence for different mediations.

    PubMed

    Fargeas, M J; Fioramonti, J; Buéno, L

    1985-06-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of calcitonin and PGE2 on intestinal motility and body temperature were examined in conscious rats chronically fitted with intraparietal electrodes in the small intestine, a cannula in a cerebral lateral ventricle and a subcutaneous thermistor probe. Both calcitonin and PGE2 restored the fasted pattern of intestinal motility in fed rats and induced an increase in body temperature. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase with calcium antagonistic properties, and TMB-8, an intracellular calcium antagonist, blocked the effects of calcitonin on intestinal motility and body temperature. Piroxicam, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase which does not affect calcium uptake blocked the thermic but not the intestinal effects of calcitonin. TMB-8 but not indomethacin or piroxicam partially blocked the effects of PGE2 on both intestinal motility and body temperature. It is concluded that the central hyperthermic effect of calcitonin is mediated through the formation and the release of prostaglandins whereas the central action of calcitonin on digestive motility results from intracerebral effects on calcium fluxes. PMID:3875880

  5. Direct Evidence for the Economy of Action: Glucose and the Perception of Geographical Slant

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Zadra, Jonathan R.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    When locomoting in a physically challenging environment, the body draws upon available energy reserves to accommodate increased metabolic demand. Ingested glucose supplements the body’s energy resources, whereas non-caloric sweetener does not. Two experiments demonstrate that participants who had consumed a glucose-containing drink perceived a hills slant to be less steep than did participants who had consumed a drink containing non-caloric sweetener. The glucose manipulation influenced participants’ explicit awareness of hill slant but, as predicted, it did not affect a visually-guided action of orienting a tilting palmboard to be parallel to the hill. Measured individual differences in factors related to bioenergetic state such as fatigue, sleep quality, fitness, mood, and stress also affected perception such that lower energetic states were associated with steeper perceptions of hill slant. This research shows that the perception of the environment’s spatial layout is influenced by the energetic resources available for locomotion within it. Our findings are consistent with the view that spatial perceptions are influenced by bioenergetic factors. PMID:20514996

  6. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence and Implications for Clinical Actions

    PubMed Central

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of how to best provide clinical serves to bilingual children with suspected or confirmed primary language impairment (PLI) is predicated on understanding typical development in dual-language learners as well as the PLI profile. This article reviews general characteristics of children learning two languages, including three that challenge the diagnosis and treatment of PLI; uneven distribution of abilities in the child's two languages, cross-linguistic associations within bilingual learners, and individual variation in response to similar social circumstances. The diagnostic category of PLI (also referred to in the literature as specific language impairment or SLI) is described with attention to how language impairment, in the face of otherwise typical development, manifests in children learning two languages. Empirical evidence related to differential diagnosis of PLI in bilingual children is then reviewed and issues related to the generalization of treatment gains in dual-language learners with PLI are introduced. PMID:20371080

  7. Decalage in Infants' Knowledge about Occlusion and Containment Events: Converging Evidence from Action Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Baillargeon, Renee

    2006-01-01

    In the present research, 6-month-old infants consistently searched for a tall toy behind a tall as opposed to a short occluder. However, when the same toy was hidden inside a tall or a short container, only older, 7.5-month-old infants searched for the tall toy inside the tall container. These and control results (1) confirm previous…

  8. The point of no return: A fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958. Thinking. New York: Basic Books) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough "lead time" for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action. PMID:25633089

  9. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  10. Economic evidence on identifying clinically actionable findings with whole-genome sequencing: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Michael P; Ladabaum, Uri; Pletcher, Mark J; Marshall, Deborah A; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2016-02-01

    The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommends that mutations in 56 genes for 24 conditions are clinically actionable and should be reported as secondary findings after whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Our aim was to identify published economic evaluations of detecting mutations in these genes among the general population or among targeted/high-risk populations and conditions and identify gaps in knowledge. A targeted PubMed search from 1994 through November 2014 was performed, and we included original, English-language articles reporting cost-effectiveness or a cost-to-utility ratio or net benefits/benefit-cost focused on screening (not treatment) for conditions and genes listed by the ACMG. Articles were screened, classified as targeting a high-risk or general population, and abstracted by two reviewers. General population studies were evaluated for actual cost-effectiveness measures (e.g., incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER)), whereas studies of targeted populations were evaluated for whether at least one scenario proposed was cost-effective (e.g., ICER of ≤$100,000 per life-year or quality-adjusted life-year gained). A total of 607 studies were identified, and 32 relevant studies were included. Identified studies addressed fewer than one-third (7 of 24; 29%) of the ACMG conditions. The cost-effectiveness of screening in the general population was examined for only 2 of 24 conditions (8%). The cost-effectiveness of most genetic findings that the ACMG recommends for return has not been evaluated in economic studies or in the context of screening in the general population. The individual studies do not directly address the cost-effectiveness of WGS. PMID:25996638

  11. Action of trimebutine in cat and rabbit colon: evidence of an opioid-like effect.

    PubMed

    Blanquet, F; Bouvier, M; Gonella, J

    1985-09-01

    Because trimebutine (TMB) is a drug that modulates colonic motility, we have attempted to determine the modifications of electrical activity underlying the motor effects of this drug. Experiments have been carried out on cat colon in vivo and on rabbit proximal colon in vivo and in vitro. The action of TMB (0.5-2 mg/kg in vivo; 10(-7) M-10(-6) M in vitro) consisted of an initiation or of an increase of spike potential activity that was unaffected by atropine (0.1 mg/kg for the cat, 2-3 mg/kg in vivo and 10(-6) M in vitro for the rabbit) and by hexamethonium (1.5 mg/kg for the cat and 2 mg/kg in vivo or 10(-6) M in vitro for the rabbit). In the cat under atropine, spike activity became cyclical, i.e., bursts of spikes were interrupted by periods of electrical silence. In the cat, TMB decreased the amplitude of excitatory junction potentials. Under atropine, TMB induced rhythmic variations in the amplitude of inhibitory junction potentials for 30 to 40 min. In the rabbit under TMB, excitatory junction potentials were enhanced whereas inhibitory junction potential amplitude was decreased. All the effects of TMB on spontaneous activity as well as on junction potentials are very similar to those observed in a previous work with morphine and enkephalins. The effects of TMB, unaffected by guanethidine, were antagonized by naloxone (2 mg/kg in vivo, 10(-6) M in vitro). These results suggest that opiate receptors, presumably located on intramural neurons, are involved in the effects of TMB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2993591

  12. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  13. Yoga for the Treatment of Insomnia among Cancer Patients: Evidence, Mechanisms of Action, and Clinical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M.; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke J.; Kamen, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Up to 90% of cancer patients report symptoms of insomnia during and after treatment. Symptoms of insomnia include excessive daytime sleepiness, difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and waking up too early. Insomnia symptoms are among the most prevalent, distressing and persistent cancer- and cancer treatment-related toxicities reported by patients, and can be severe enough to increase cancer morbidity and mortality. Despite the ubiquity of insomnia symptoms, they are under-screened, under-diagnosed, and under-treated in cancer patients. When insomnia symptoms are identified, providers are hesitant to prescribe, and patients are hesitant to take pharmaceuticals due to polypharmacy concerns. In addition, sleep medications do not cure insomnia. Yoga is a well-tolerated mode of exercise with promising evidence for its efficacy in improving insomnia symptoms among cancer patients. This article reviews existing clinical research on the effectiveness of yoga for treating insomnia among cancer patients. The article also provides clinical recommendations for prescribing yoga for the treatment of insomnia in this population. PMID:25861453

  14. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  15. Applications of Control Theory to the Dynamics and Propagation of Cardiac Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Laura M.; Stockton, Jonathan F.; Otani, Niels F.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a widespread cause of death in the industrialized world. Most cases of sudden cardiac arrest are due to ventricular fibrillation (VF), a lethal cardiac arrhythmia. Electrophysiological abnormalities such as alternans (a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration) and conduction block have been suspected to contribute to the onset of VF. This study focuses on the use of control-systems techniques to analyze and design methods for suppressing these precursor factors. Control-systems tools, specifically controllability analysis and Lyapunov stability methods, were applied to a two-variable Karma model of the action-potential (AP) dynamics of a single cell, to analyze the effectiveness of strategies for suppressing AP abnormalities. State-feedback-integral (SFI) control was then applied to a Purkinje fiber simulated with the Karma model, where only one stimulating electrode was used to affect the system. SFI control converted both discordant alternans and 2:1 conduction block back toward more normal patterns, over a wider range of fiber lengths and pacing intervals compared with a Pyragas-type chaos controller. The advantages conferred by using feedback from multiple locations in the fiber, and using integral (i.e., memory) terms in the controller, are discussed. PMID:20407833

  16. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1) produced 0.10 kcal · kg−1 · hr−1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1, P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:22028959

  17. Do motion controllers make action video games less sedentary? A randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1)) produced 0.10 kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1) (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1), P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:22028959

  18. Enhancing Web-Based Mindfulness Training for Mental Health Promotion With the Health Action Process Approach: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Amy TY; Cheung, Eliza YL; Lin, Cherry LY; Ngai, Karin CS

    2015-01-01

    Background With increasing evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of Web-based interventions and mindfulness-based training in improving health, delivering mindfulness training online is an attractive proposition. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two Internet-based interventions (basic mindfulness and Health Action Process Approach enhanced mindfulness) with waitlist control. Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) principles were used to enhance participants’ efficacy and planning. Methods Participants were recruited online and offline among local universities; 321 university students and staff were randomly assigned to three conditions. The basic and HAPA-enhanced groups completed the 8-week fully automated mindfulness training online. All participants (including control) were asked to complete an online questionnaire pre-program, post-program, and at 3-month follow-up. Results Significant group by time interaction effect was found. The HAPA-enhanced group showed significantly higher levels of mindfulness from pre-intervention to post-intervention, and such improvement was sustained at follow-up. Both the basic and HAPA-enhanced mindfulness groups showed better mental well-being from pre-intervention to post-intervention, and improvement was sustained at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions Online mindfulness training can improve mental health. An online platform is a viable medium to implement and disseminate evidence-based interventions and is a highly scalable approach to reach the general public. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-12002954; http://www.chictr.org/en/proj/show.aspx?proj=3904 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VCdG09pA). PMID:25599904

  19. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  20. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  1. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  2. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  3. Need for Affect, Need for Cognition, and the Intention-Fruit Consumption Relationship: An Action-Control Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Predictors of action-control profiles are useful targets for health behaviour change interventions, but action-control research has not focused on fruit consumption and has not yet included need for affect and need for cognition, despite the demonstrated usefulness of these variables in a broad range of research. The role of these…

  4. Influences of Children's and Adolescents' Action-Control Processes on School Achievement, Peer Relationships, and Coping with Challenging Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, G. John; Little, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation represents a core aspect of human functioning that influences positive development across the life span. This chapter focuses on the action-control model, a key facet of self-regulation during childhood and early adolescence. The authors discuss the development of action-control beliefs, paying particular attention to their…

  5. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  6. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin in auxin action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    -dependent manner suggests that calcium/CaM regulate ZmSAUR1 at the post-translational level. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of calcium/CaM-mediated signaling in auxin-mediated signal transduction.

  7. Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. Methods We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Results The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Conclusions Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. PMID:23452663

  8. The Riccati equation, imprimitive actions and symplectic forms. [with application to decentralized optimal control problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garzia, M. R.; Loparo, K. A.; Martin, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper looks at the structure of the solution of a matrix Riccati differential equation under a predefined group of transformations. The group of transformations used is an expanded form of the feedback group. It is shown that this group of transformations is a subgroup of the symplectic group. The orbits of the Riccati differential equation under the action of this group are studied and it is seen how these techniques apply to a decentralized optimal control problem.

  9. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Malta, Deborah C.; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated. PMID:24323944

  10. 2003 Sitewide Institutional Controls Annual Assessment Report for Hanford CERCLA Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    TEIMOURI, A.E.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this assessment as specified in the Institutional Controls (IC) Plan was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of ICs associated with ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980'' (CERCLA) Records of Decision (RODs); and (2) to identify corrective actions as necessary. Additionally, this assessment covered an assessment of sitewide ICs at the Hanford Site. The IC Plan was approved by the Tri-Party agencies July 2002, ''Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for Hanford CERCLA Response Actions,'' DOE/RL-2001-41, Revision 0. The goal of the Plan was to identify ICs for current CERCLA response actions, describe how they are implemented and maintained, and serve as a reference for the selection of ICs in the future. Section 4.2 of the IC Plan summarizes the objectives for the assessment as follows: ''A focused and periodic self-assessment and reporting of ICs provides for an evaluation of the effectiveness of the controls and the opportunity for cost-effective improvements.

  11. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    PubMed

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  12. Blockade of striatal neurone responses to morphine by aminophylline: evidence for adenosine mediation of opiate action.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, M. N.; Stone, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    1 The responses of cortical and striatal neurones to morphine and adenosine applied iontophoretically have been studied in the male rat. 2 The majority of cells (57%) within the corpus striatum were profoundly inhibited, and a smaller proportion (18%) excited by morphine. Adenosine depressed the firing rate of 30/44 cells in the striatum, excitation never being observed. In contrast, the responses of cortical cells to morphine were typically weak and required longer ejection pulses to effect comparable changes in firing rate. 3 Aminophylline applied iontophoretically, as an anion, proved able to antagonize reversibly both morphine and adenosine in parallel. 4 On a number of cells, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was used as a control depressant but aminophylline did not appear to reduce these responses. 5 The responses to morphine (both inhibitory and excitatory) were not easily antagonized by naloxone. Typically, excitatory reponses were easier to antagonize than the inhibitory ones. 6 It is concluded that a consequence of the interaction of morphine with its receptors may be the release of adenosine which subsequently produces the inhibition observed with morphine. PMID:7378652

  13. The Economics of Tobacco Control: Evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviors, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the ITC Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximize the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  14. Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Leykum, Luci K; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Harmon, Joel; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-01-01

    Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process. PMID:19852784

  15. Action-Effect Codes in and before the Central Bottleneck: Evidence from the Psychological Refractory Period Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paelecke, Marko; Kunde, Wilfried

    2007-01-01

    Voluntary motor actions aim at and are thus governed by predictable action effects. Therefore, representations of an action's effects normally must become activated prior to the action itself. In 5 psychological refractory period experiments the authors investigated whether the activation of such effect representations coincides with the response…

  16. Evidence and control of bifurcations in a respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, Matías A. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2013-12-15

    We studied the pressure patterns used by domestic canaries in the production of birdsong. Acoustically different sound elements (“syllables”) were generated by qualitatively different pressure gestures. We found that some ubiquitous transitions between syllables can be interpreted as bifurcations of a low dimensional dynamical system. We interpreted these results as evidence supporting a model in which different timescales interact nonlinearly.

  17. Perception-action map learning in controlled multiscroll systems applied to robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; De Fiore, Sebastiano; Fortuna, Luigi; Patané, Luca

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a new technique for action-oriented perception in robots is presented. The paper starts from exploiting the successful implementation of the basic idea that perceptual states can be embedded into chaotic attractors whose dynamical evolution can be associated with sensorial stimuli. In this way, it can be possible to encode, into the chaotic dynamics, environment-dependent patterns. These have to be suitably linked to an action, executed by the robot, to fulfill an assigned mission. This task is addressed here: the action-oriented perception loop is closed by introducing a simple unsupervised learning stage, implemented via a bio-inspired structure based on the motor map paradigm. In this way, perceptual meanings, useful for solving a given task, can be autonomously learned, based on the environment-dependent patterns embedded into the controlled chaotic dynamics. The presented framework has been tested on a simulated robot and the performance have been successfully compared with other traditional navigation control paradigms. Moreover an implementation of the proposed architecture on a Field Programmable Gate Array is briefly outlined and preliminary experimental results on a roving robot are also reported.

  18. Perception-action map learning in controlled multiscroll systems applied to robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Arena, Paolo; De Fiore, Sebastiano; Fortuna, Luigi; Patané, Luca

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a new technique for action-oriented perception in robots is presented. The paper starts from exploiting the successful implementation of the basic idea that perceptual states can be embedded into chaotic attractors whose dynamical evolution can be associated with sensorial stimuli. In this way, it can be possible to encode, into the chaotic dynamics, environment-dependent patterns. These have to be suitably linked to an action, executed by the robot, to fulfill an assigned mission. This task is addressed here: the action-oriented perception loop is closed by introducing a simple unsupervised learning stage, implemented via a bio-inspired structure based on the motor map paradigm. In this way, perceptual meanings, useful for solving a given task, can be autonomously learned, based on the environment-dependent patterns embedded into the controlled chaotic dynamics. The presented framework has been tested on a simulated robot and the performance have been successfully compared with other traditional navigation control paradigms. Moreover an implementation of the proposed architecture on a Field Programmable Gate Array is briefly outlined and preliminary experimental results on a roving robot are also reported. PMID:19123629

  19. 29 CFR 102.39 - Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. 102.39 Section 102.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS... Hearings § 102.39 Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. Any such proceeding shall, so far...

  20. 29 CFR 102.39 - Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. 102.39 Section 102.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS... Hearings § 102.39 Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. Any such proceeding shall, so far...

  1. 29 CFR 102.39 - Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. 102.39 Section 102.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS... Hearings § 102.39 Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. Any such proceeding shall, so far...

  2. 29 CFR 102.39 - Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. 102.39 Section 102.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS... Hearings § 102.39 Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. Any such proceeding shall, so far...

  3. 29 CFR 102.39 - Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. 102.39 Section 102.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS... Hearings § 102.39 Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. Any such proceeding shall, so far...

  4. Network Influences on Dissemination of Evidence-Based Guidelines in State Tobacco Control Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Douglas A.; Wald, Lana M.; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Bach, Laura E.; Harris, Jenine K.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding the social network relationships that influence dissemination of evidence-based public health practices and policies. In public health, it is critical that evidence-based guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs," are…

  5. Activated Stat5 trafficking Via Endothelial Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles Controls IL-3 Pro-angiogenic Paracrine Action

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Giusy; Dentelli, Patrizia; Togliatto, Gabriele; Rosso, Arturo; Gili, Maddalena; Gallo, Sara; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Camussi, Giovanni; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2016-01-01

    Soluble factors and cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) control vascular cell fate during inflammation. The present study investigates the impact of Interleukin 3 (IL-3) on EV release by endothelial cells (ECs), the mechanisms involved in EV release and paracrine actions. We found that IL-3 increases EV release, which is prevented by IL-3Ralpha blockade. EVs released upon IL-3 stimulation were able to induce pro-angiogenic signals as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay performed on the promoter region of cyclin D1 and tridimensional tube-like structure formation. We herein demonstrate that these effects rely on the transfer of miR-126-3p, pre-miR-126 and, more importantly, of activated signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5) from IL-3-EV cargo into recipient ECs. We show, using the dominant negative form (ΔN)STAT5 and an activated STAT5 (1*6STAT5) constructs, that STAT5 drives IL-3-mediated EV release, miR-126-3p and pSTAT5 content. Finally, using EVs recovered from ΔNSTAT5 expressing ECs, we provide evidence that miR-126-3p and pSTAT5 trafficking is relevant for IL-3-mediated paracrine pro-angiogenic signals. These results indicate that IL-3 regulates EC-EV release, cargo and IL-3 angiogenic paracrine action via STAT5. Moreover, these results provide evidence that EC-derived IL-3-EVs can serve as pro-angiogenic clinical delivery wound healing devices. PMID:27157262

  6. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  7. Toxicity induced by Prasiola crispa to fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea: evidence for bioinsecticide action.

    PubMed

    Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Paula, Mariane Trindade; Pereira, Betina Kappel; Albuquerque, Margelli Pereira; Victoria, Filipe Carvalho; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of the alga Prasiola crispa extract (PcE) were investigated in a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea) model. In flies, toxicity was assessed as mortality and biochemical alterations including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress markers. The cardiotoxic action of PcE was also examined in a model of semi-isolated cockroach heart. The administration of PcE (2 mg/ml) to flies for 24 h resulted in a marked increase in mortality rate (7.6-fold rise compared to control). AChE activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, and hydroperoxide formation remained unchanged. Fly glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly altered after PcE treatment. Fraction III (ethyl acetate) of PcE was significantly more toxic to flies compared to fractions I (methanol) and II (ethanol). A significant decrease was noted in cockroach semi-isolated heart function. The addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), an oxidizing agent, concomitant with the extract significantly blocked this effect, suggesting that reduced compounds may be involved in the cardiotoxic action produced by PcE. Our results show for the first time the adverse effects of PcE in two insect models, Drosophila melanogaster and Nauphoetacinerea. The insecticidal properties of PcE may be related to changes in important antioxidant/detoxifying systems, as well as to changes in insect cardiac function. PMID:24555652

  8. An Action Dependent Heuristic Dynamic Programming-controlled Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Transient Stability Augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinpu; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yu, Xiaopeng

    To enhance the stability of power system, the active power and reactive power can be absorbed from or released to Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit according to system power requirements. This paper proposes a control strategy based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programing (ADHDP) which can control SMES to improve the stability of electric power system with on-line learning ability. Based on back propagation (BP) neural network, ADHDP approximates the optimal control solution of nonlinear system through iteration step by step. This on-line learning ability improves its performance by learning from its own mistakes through reinforcement signal from external environment, so that it can adjust the neural network weights according to the back propagation error to achieve optimal control performance. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, simulation tests are carried out in Matlab/Simulink. And a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) controlled method is used to compare the performance of ADHDP. Simulation results show that the proposed controller demonstrates superior damping performance on power system oscillation caused by three-phase fault and wind power fluctuation over the PI controller.

  9. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  10. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control. PMID:26474982

  11. Further evidences for the mode of action of the larvicidal m-pentadecadienyl-phenol isolated from Myracrodruon urundeuva seeds against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Souza, Terezinha M; Menezes, Erika S Bezerra; Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Almeida Filho, Luiz Carlos P; Martins, Jorge M; Moreno, Frederico B; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Moura, Arlindo A Araripe; Carvalho, Ana F Urano

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, dengue fever is considered the most important arbovirosis worldwide and its control is still based upon combating the vector Aedes aegypti. Besides monitoring of mosquito populations resistant to conventional insecticides, the search for new environmentally safe insecticides and conduction of molecular studies focusing on the elucidation of mode of action and possible resistance mechanisms are considered the key for a sustainable management of the mosquito vector. Thus, the present work aimed to assess changes in protein expression of 3rd-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti after exposure to the natural insecticide m-pentadecadienyl-phenol. Bidimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry resulted in identification of 12 proteins differentially expressed between control and treated groups. Larvae exposed to the toxic compound for 24h showed elevated detoxification response (glutathione-S-transferase), increased levels of stress-related proteins (HSP70) as well as evidence of lysosome stabilization to enable survival. Furthermore, expression of proteins involved in protection of peritrophic membrane and metabolism of lipids indicated systemic effect of toxic effects in treated larvae. PMID:26299195

  12. Sustained vs. Transient Cognitive Control: Evidence of a Behavioral Dissociation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funes, Maria Jesus; Lupianez, Juan; Humphreys, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two well known effects associated with cognitive control, conflict adaptation (the Gratton effect) and conflict context (proportion congruent effects), reflect a single common or separate control systems. To test this we examined if these two effects generalized from one kind of conflict to another by using a…

  13. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    PubMed

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed. PMID:27126600

  14. Mixed control for perception and action: timing and error correction in rhythmic ball-bouncing.

    PubMed

    Siegler, I A; Bazile, C; Warren, W H

    2013-05-01

    The task of bouncing a ball on a racket was adopted as a model system for investigating the behavioral dynamics of rhythmic movement, specifically how perceptual information modulates the dynamics of action. Two experiments, with sixteen participants each, were carried out to definitively answer the following questions: How are passive stability and active stabilization combined to produce stable behavior? What informational quantities are used to actively regulate the two main components of the action-the timing of racket oscillation and the correction of errors in bounce height? We used a virtual ball-bouncing setup to simultaneously perturb gravity (g) and ball launch velocity (v b) at impact. In Experiment 1, we tested the control of racket timing by varying the ball's upward half-period t up while holding its peak height h p constant. Conversely, in Experiment 2, we tested error correction by varying h p while holding t up constant. Participants adopted a mixed control mode in which information in the ball's trajectory is used to actively stabilize behavior on a cycle-by-cycle basis, in order to keep the system within or near the passively stable region. The results reveal how these adjustments are visually controlled: the period of racket oscillation is modulated by the half-period of the ball's upward flight, and the change in racket velocity from the previous impact (via a change in racket amplitude) is governed by the error to the target. PMID:23515627

  15. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response

    PubMed Central

    Soshi, Takahiro; Ando, Kumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Nakazawa, Kanako; Tsumura, Hideki; Okada, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Post-error slowing (PES) is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms). Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs). Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS). Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but PES did not take place immediately. Delayed PES was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to PES. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with PES and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater PES and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and PES did not occur quickly. Furthermore, PES and its neural correlate (N2) were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke impulsive behaviors. PMID:25674058

  16. [Social control in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): discourse, action and reaction].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Maria Caldeira; Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2013-08-01

    This article seeks to describe and analyze the dynamics of social participation, from the standpoint of the social representations of the City Health Councillors of Belo Horizonte on the significance of social control. A methodological approach was used, backed by qualitative research techniques: semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Three years after the survey, documentary research was conducted to check for signs of institutional reaction seeking to minimize or even to overcome the difficulties reported. It was ascertained that the City Health Council political institution activated several mechanisms to improve their techniques of action and organization and also the commitment of stakeholders to this forum. PMID:23896915

  17. Bilingualism modulates dual mechanisms of cognitive control: Evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julia; Yudes, Carolina; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral findings with the AX-Continous Performance Task (AX-CPT; Morales et al., 2013) show that bilinguals only outperform monolinguals under conditions that require the highest adjustment between monitoring (proactive) and inhibitory (reactive) control, which supports the idea that bilingualism modulates the coordination of different control mechanisms. In an ERP experiment we aimed to further investigate the role that bilingualism plays in the dynamic combination of proactive and reactive control in the AX-CPT. Our results strongly indicate that bilingualism facilitates an effective adjustment between both components of cognitive control. First, we replicated previous behavioral results. Second, ERP components indicated that bilingualism influences the conflict monitoring, response inhibition and error monitoring components of control (as indexed by the N2 and P3a elicited by the probe and the error-related negativity following incorrect responses, respectively). Thus, bilinguals exerted higher reactive control than monolinguals but only when they needed to overcome the competing cue-information. These findings join others in suggesting that a better understanding of the cognitive benefits of bilingualism may require consideration of a multi-component perspective. PMID:25448864

  18. A Domain-Specific System for Representing Knowledge of Both Man-Made Objects and Human Actions. Evidence from a Case with an Association of Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to…

  19. Neuronal codes for the inhibitory control of impulsive actions in the rat infralimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Ohmura, Yu; Izumi, Takeshi; Matsushima, Toshiya; Amita, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Taku; Yoshida, Takayuki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Poor impulse control is a debilitating condition observed in various psychiatric disorders and could be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. The rat infralimbic cortex (IL), located in the ventral portion of the medial prefrontal cortex, has been implicated in impulse control. To elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control, we recorded single unit activity in the IL of a rat performing a 3-choiceserial reaction time task (3-CSRTT) and 2-choice task (2-CT), which are animal models for impulsivity. The inactivation of IL neuronal activity with an injection of muscimol (0.1 μg /side) disrupted impulse control in the 3-CSRTT. More than 60% (38/56) of isolated IL units were linked to impulse control, while approximately 30% of all units were linked to attentional function in the 3-CSRTT. To avoid confounding motor-related units with the impulse control-related units, we further conducted the 2-CT in which the animals' motor activities were restricted during recording window. More than 30% (14/44) of recorded IL units were linked to impulse control in the 2-CT. Several types of impulse control-related units were identified. Only 16% of all units were compatible with the results of the muscimol experiment, which showed a transient decline in the firing rate immediately before the release of behavioral inhibition. This is the first study to elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control in the IL and to propose that IL neurons control impulsive actions in a more complex manner than previously considered. PMID:26341319

  20. Facilitation effect of observed motor deviants in a cooperative motor task: Evidence for direct perception of social intention in action.

    PubMed

    Quesque, François; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Coello, Yann

    2016-08-01

    Spatiotemporal parameters of voluntary motor action may help optimize human social interactions. Yet it is unknown whether individuals performing a cooperative task spontaneously perceive subtly informative social cues emerging through voluntary actions. In the present study, an auditory cue was provided through headphones to an actor and a partner who faced each other. Depending on the pitch of the auditory cue, either the actor or the partner were required to grasp and move a wooden dowel under time constraints from a central to a lateral position. Before this main action, the actor performed a preparatory action under no time constraint, consisting in placing the wooden dowel on the central location when receiving either a neutral ("prêt"-ready) or an informative auditory cue relative to who will be asked to perform the main action (the actor: "moi"-me, or the partner: "lui"-him). Although the task focused on the main action, analysis of motor performances revealed that actors performed the preparatory action with longer reaction times and higher trajectories when informed that the partner would be performing the main action. In this same condition, partners executed the main actions with shorter reaction times and lower velocities, despite having received no previous informative cues. These results demonstrate that the mere observation of socially driven motor actions spontaneously influences the low-level kinematics of voluntary motor actions performed by the observer during a cooperative motor task. These findings indicate that social intention can be anticipated from the mere observation of action patterns. PMID:26288247

  1. Evidence suggesting individual ocular motor control of each eye (muscle).

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, L F

    1994-01-01

    Current models of the ocular motor system are usually presented in their most reduced form, are unilateral in architecture, and precise yoking is presumed. Although this simplifies the models, it does not accurately simulate the actual neuroanatomy and limits the models to simple, stereotyped responses. Studies of normal humans and monkeys have demonstrated striking disconjugacies in normal responses. Normal saccades may be disconjugate, or 1 eye may exhibit a dynamic overshoot. Asymmetric vergence can result in disconjugate saccades, unequal magnification spectacles cause differential saccadic gain adjustment, and saccades to unequal disparities also cause unequal saccades in the 2 eyes. In strabismus, deviated eyes typically do not mimic the movements of the fixating eye nor do their latent or congenital nystagmus waveforms duplicate those of the fixating eye. In spasmus nutans, each eye oscillates independently of the other. In achiasmatic dogs, uni-ocular saccades and uni-ocular nystagmus waveforms are seen; the same may be true in human achiasma. These data from both normals and those with abnormalities suggest that current models for ocular motor control are inadequate representations of the actual system. The inability of unilateral, yoked control (or even bilateral, yoked control) system models to duplicate the ocular motor responses of binocular mammals suggests that their ocular motor systems evolved from the bilateral, independent control systems seen in chameleons. One need only postulate a yoking overlay superimposed on two independent control systems to achieve conjugacy (bilateral, yoked, independent control) of the eyes. Abnormalities producing grossly disconjugate eye movements may then be simulated using the independent control of each eye released by a deficiency in the yoking overlay. Independent control of each eye coupled with the essential bilateral brain stem architecture implies that each individual muscle is driven by independent

  2. Evidence for solar wind control of Saturn radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Using data collected by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in 1980 and 1981, strong evidence is presented for a direct correlation between variations in the solar wind at Saturn and the level of activity of Saturn's nonthermal radio emission. Correlation coefficients of 57 to 58% are reached at lag times of 0 to 1 days between the arrival at Saturn of high pressure solar wind streams and the onset of increased radio emission. The radio emission exhibits a long-term periodicity of 25 days, identical to the periodicity seen in the solar wind at this time and consistent with the solar rotation period. The energy coupling efficiency between the solar wind with the Saturn radio emission is estimated and compared with that for Earth.

  3. Tools in polypharmacy. Current evidence from observational and controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Dovjak, P

    2012-08-01

    Increasing evidence in managing polypharmacy in the growing elderly population with a higher prevalence of multiple chronic disease is the basis for this paper. Poor adherence, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions, and inappropriate medication challenge the prescriptions of health care providers in this group of patients. Risk factors, the prevalence of polypharmacy, and the impact on health issues will be shown by analyzing the recent literature. Based on intervention trials, several tools in polypharmacy have emerged as practical guides for clinical practice or for the geriatric ward to solve this problem. The Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) and national lists of potentially inappropriate medication used in clinical practice are presented, including Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to the Right Treatment (START), Screening Tool of Older Persons' Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP), and Assess, Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, Adherence, Development, Emergence, Minimization, Interdisciplinarity, Alertness (ACADEMIA). PMID:22767400

  4. Stimulus onset predictability modulates proactive action control in a Go/No-go task

    PubMed Central

    Berchicci, Marika; Lucci, Giuliana; Spinelli, Donatella; Di Russo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the presence/absence of visual cues specifying the onset of an upcoming, action-related stimulus modulates pre-stimulus brain activity, associated with the proactive control of goal-directed actions. To this aim we asked 12 subjects to perform an equal probability Go/No-go task with four stimulus configurations in two conditions: (1) uncued, i.e., without any external information about the timing of stimulus onset; and (2) cued, i.e., with external visual cues providing precise information about the timing of stimulus onset. During task both behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Behavioral results showed faster response times in the cued than uncued condition, confirming existing literature. ERPs showed novel results in the proactive control stage, that started about 1 s before the motor response. We observed a slow rising prefrontal positive activity, more pronounced in the cued than the uncued condition. Further, also pre-stimulus activity of premotor areas was larger in cued than uncued condition. In the post-stimulus period, the P3 amplitude was enhanced when the time of stimulus onset was externally driven, confirming that external cueing enhances processing of stimulus evaluation and response monitoring. Our results suggest that different pre-stimulus processing come into play in the two conditions. We hypothesize that the large prefrontal and premotor activities recorded with external visual cues index the monitoring of the external stimuli in order to finely regulate the action. PMID:25964751

  5. The Bivalency Effect: Evidence for Flexible Adjustment of Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2012-01-01

    When bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with features for two different tasks) appear occasionally, performance is slower on subsequent univalent stimuli. This "bivalency effect" reflects an adjustment of cognitive control arising from the more demanding context created by bivalent stimuli. So far, it has been investigated only on task switch trials,…

  6. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions.

    PubMed

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Wu, Yueh-Chen; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed. PMID:27429634

  7. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Wu, Yueh-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed. PMID:27429634

  8. How preparation changes the need for top-down control of the basal ganglia when inhibiting premature actions.

    PubMed

    Jahfari, Sara; Verbruggen, Frederick; Frank, Michael J; Waldorp, Lourens J; Colzato, Lorenza; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Forstmann, Birte U

    2012-08-01

    Goal-oriented signals from the prefrontal cortex gate the selection of appropriate actions in the basal ganglia. Key nodes within this fronto-basal ganglia action regulation network are increasingly engaged when one anticipates the need to inhibit and override planned actions. Here, we ask how the advance preparation of action plans modulates the need for fronto-subcortical control when a planned action needs to be withdrawn. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected while human participants performed a stop task with cues indicating the likelihood of a stop signal being sounded. Mathematical modeling of go trial responses suggested that participants attained a more cautious response strategy when the probability of a stop signal increased. Effective connectivity analysis indicated that, even in the absence of stop signals, the proactive engagement of the full control network is tailored to the likelihood of stop trial occurrence. Importantly, during actual stop trials, the strength of fronto-subcortical projections was stronger when stopping had to be engaged reactively compared with when it was proactively prepared in advance. These findings suggest that fronto-basal ganglia control is strongest in an unpredictable environment, where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the optimization of reactive control. Importantly, these results further indicate that the advance preparation of action plans reduces the need for reactive fronto-basal ganglia communication to gate voluntary actions. PMID:22875921

  9. Evidence for interhemispheric conflict during meta-control in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ünver, Emre; Güntürkün, Onur

    2014-08-15

    In birds each hemisphere receives visual input from the contralateral eye. Since birds have no corpus callosum, avian brains are often seen as 'natural split brains'. How do birds cope with situations, when both hemispheres are brought into conflict? If under such conditions one hemisphere completely determines the response, this is called meta-control. This phenomenon has recently been demonstrated in pigeons. The aim of the current study is to test, if meta-control results from an interhemispheric conflict that would require interhemispheric interaction, possibly via the commissura anterior. To this end, we trained pigeons in a forced-choice color discrimination task under monocular condition such that each hemisphere was trained with a different pair of colors. Subsequently, pigeons were binocularly tested with conflicting and non-conflicting stimulus patterns. Conflicting stimuli indeed produced a delayed reaction time as expected when two divergent decisions create a conflict. In addition, we sometimes observed a pecking pattern that seemed to represent the average of two discrepant and hemisphere-specific movements. Thus, pigeons possibly undergo interhemispheric conflict during meta-control even without a corpus callosum. However, also when having decided to peck a certain color, the planned movement trajectory of the other hemisphere sometimes compromises the final pecking movement. PMID:24844753

  10. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict. PMID:24530615

  11. Evidence for simvastatin anti-inflammatory actions based on quantitative analyses of NETosis and other inflammation/oxidation markers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghoul, Walid M.; Kim, Margarita S.; Fazal, Nadeem; Azim, Anser C.; Ali, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Simvastatin (SMV) has been shown to exhibit promising anti-inflammatory properties alongside its classic cholesterol lowering action. We tested these emerging effects in a major thermal injury mouse model (3rd degree scald, ~20% TBSA) with previously documented, inflammation-mediated intestinal defects. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) inflammation measurement methods were used alongside classic gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness measurements with exogenous melatonin treatment as a positive control. Our hypothesis is that simvastatin has protective therapeutic effects against early postburn gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness. To test this hypothesis, we compared untreated thermal injury (TI) adult male mice with TI littermates treated with simvastatin (0.2 mg/kg i.p., TI + SMV) immediately following burn injury and two hours before being sacrificed the day after; melatonin-treated (Mel) (1.86 mg/kg i.p., TI + Mel) mice were compared as a positive control. Mice were assessed for the following: (1) tissue oxidation and neutrophil infiltration in terminal ileum mucosa using classic carbonyl, Gr-1, and myeloperoxidase immunohistochemical or biochemical assays, (2) NETosis in terminal ileum and colon mucosa homogenates and peritoneal and fluid blood samples utilizing flow cytometric analyses of the surrogate NETosis biomarkers, picogreen and Gr-1, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as measured in terminal ileum and colon with FITC-dextran and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Our results reveal that simvastatin and melatonin exhibit consistently comparable therapeutic protective effects against the following: (1) gut mucosa oxidative stress as revealed in the terminal ileum by markers of protein carbonylation as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Gr-1 infiltration, (2) NETosis as revealed in the gut milieu, peritoneal lavage and plasma utilizing picogreen and Gr-1 flow cytometry and microscopy, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as

  12. Building the evidence base for global tobacco control.

    PubMed Central

    Corrao, M. A.; Guindon, G. E.; Cokkinides, V.; Sharma, N.

    2000-01-01

    The tobacco control movement needs a global information system permitting routine monitoring of the tobacco trade, tobacco farming, the tobacco industry, the prevalence of tobacco use, associated mortality, and national resources for combating tobacco. The Tobacco Control Country Profiles database, a data collection initiative led by the American Cancer Society in collaboration with WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, represents the first step in the development of such a system. Baseline data on several indicators of tobacco use were obtained from 191 Member States of WHO, two Associate Members, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (Hong Kong SAR), China (Province of Taiwan) and the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The methods used to compile the data are described in the present paper. Selected indicators from the database were analysed in order to demonstrate the potential utility and value of data derived from an information system devoted to tobacco control. The analyses covered gender-specific smoking prevalence by WHO Region, per capita cigarette consumption by Human Development Index (HDI) category, and average real annual percentage changes in cigarette prices between 1990 and 1999 for selected countries in each category. In 1998, men were almost four times more likely than women to be smokers. The prevalence of smoking among men was highest in the Western Pacific Region. The differential in gender-specific smoking prevalence was narrowest in the Region of the Americas and the European Region. It was wider in the South-East Asia Region and the Western Pacific Region. The lowest and highest per capita consumption of manufactured cigarettes occurred in the lowest and highest HDI categories respectively. In the medium HDI category, China's growing cigarette consumption after 1975 had a major bearing on the rise in per capita consumption. Cigarette price trends suggest that there is considerable scope for increasing taxes on tobacco

  13. Evidence-based control of plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Santos, A

    2003-01-01

    Most adults brush and floss inadequately, and constant education and/or reinforcement is often required. Bacteria are usually left behind with mechanical oral health routines, and chemotherapeutic agents may have a key role as adjuncts to daily home-care. To date, two antiseptic mouthwashes have received the ADA Seal of Acceptance: Peridex (Zila Pharmaceuticals, Phoenix, AZ, USA; CHX, chlorhexidine) and Listerine (Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Morris Plains, NJ, USA; essential oil (EO) mouthwash). CHX has a strong affinity for tooth and tissue surfaces, but can cause brown staining on the teeth and tongue. Patients must also wait until all traces of toothpaste are removed before rinsing with CHX. Long-term use of an EO mouthwash is microbiologically safe, with no changes observed in the bacterial composition of supragingival plaque, and no evidence of antimicrobial resistance. A number of trials have demonstrated the long-term plaque- and gingivitis-reducing properties of both CHX and EO mouthwashes. These studies clearly demonstrate that these agents have lasting efficacy, and can access hard-to-reach areas. PMID:12787197

  14. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  15. Evidence of Metacognitive Control by Humans and Monkeys in a Perceptual Categorization Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Metacognition research has focused on the degree to which nonhuman primates share humans' capacity to monitor their cognitive processes. Convincing evidence now exists that monkeys can engage in metacognitive monitoring. By contrast, few studies have explored metacognitive control in monkeys, and the available evidence of metacognitive control…

  16. Hierarchical Control and Skilled Typing: Evidence for Word-Level Control over the Execution of Individual Keystrokes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Matthew J. C.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2010-01-01

    Routine actions are commonly assumed to be controlled by hierarchically organized processes and representations. In the domain of typing theories, word-level information is assumed to activate the constituent keystrokes required to type each letter in a word. We tested this assumption directly using a novel single-letter probe technique. Subjects…

  17. Experimental Studies on Model Reference Adaptive Control with Integral Action Employing a Rotary Encoder and Tachometer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Shu-Nan; Bai, Yu-Guang; Liu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive law with an integral action is designed and implemented on a DC motor by employing a rotary encoder and tachometer sensors. The stability is proved by using the Lyapunov function. The tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero according to the Barbalat lemma. The tracking performance is specified by a reference model, the convergence rate of Lyapunov function is specified by the matrix Q and the control action and the state weighting are restricted by the matrix Γ. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control. The maximum errors of the position and velocity with the integral action are reduced from 0.4 V and 1.5 V to 0.2 V and 0.4 V, respectively. The adaptive control with the integral action gives satisfactory performance, even when it suffers from input disturbance. PMID:23575034

  18. Stronger Discounting of External Cause by Action in Human Adults: Evidence for an Action-Based Hypothesis of Visual Collision Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsumatsu, Hidemichi

    2013-01-01

    When an actor performs an action on an external object, the actor feels that he or she is exerting a force on that object. By extension, when an observer views a collision between 2 objects, he or she is able to perceive the force that is exerted on the objects during the collision. The latter case is puzzling, as force is not a visual feature per…

  19. Evidence for a central mode of action for etoricoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-08-01

    The COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib modulates the peripheral and central nociceptive mechanisms in animals. This interaction has not been studied in patients with pain. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover, 4-week treatment study investigated the pain mechanisms modulated by etoricoxib in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomized to group A (60 mg/d etoricoxib followed by placebo) or B (placebo followed by 60 mg/d etoricoxib). The quantitative, mechanistic pain biomarkers were pressure pain thresholds, temporal summation (TS), and conditioning pain modulation. Clinical readouts were Brief Pain Inventory, WOMAC, painDETECT questionnaire (PD-Q), and time and pain intensity during walking and stair climbing. Etoricoxib as compared with placebo significantly modulated the pressure pain thresholds (P = 0.012, localized sensitization) at the knee and leg (control site) (P = 0.025, spreading sensitization) and TS assessed from the knee (P = 0.038) and leg (P = 0.045). Conditioning pain modulation was not modulated. The Brief Pain Inventory (pain scores), PD-Q, WOMAC, and walking and stair climbing tests were all significantly improved by etoricoxib. Based on a minimum of 30% or 50% pain alleviation (day 0-day 28), responders and nonresponders were defined. The nonresponders showed a significant association between increased facilitation of TS and increased pain alleviation. None of the other parameters predicted the degree of pain alleviation. Generally, a responder to etoricoxib has the most facilitated TS. In conclusion, etoricoxib (1) modulated central pain modulatory mechanisms and (2) improved pain and function in painful osteoarthritis. Stronger facilitation of TS may indicate a better response to etoricoxib, supporting the central mode-of-action of the drug. PMID:27007068

  20. Evidence for predatory control of the invasive round goby

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Witzel, L.D.; Einhouse, D.W.; Pothoven, S.A.; Whitford, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    We coupled bioenergetics modeling with bottom trawl survey results to evaluate the capacity of piscivorous fish in eastern Lake Erie to exert predatory control of the invading population of round goby Neogobius melanostomus. In the offshore (>20 m deep) waters of eastern Lake Erie, burbot Lota lota is a native top predator, feeding on a suite of prey fishes. The round goby invaded eastern Lake Erie during the late 1990s, and round goby population size increased dramatically during 1999–2004. According to annual bottom trawl survey results, round goby abundance in offshore waters peaked in 2004, but then declined during 2004–2008. Coincidentally, round goby became an important component of burbot diet beginning in 2003. Using bottom trawling and gill netting, we estimated adult burbot abundance and age structure in eastern Lake Erie during 2007. Diet composition and energy density of eastern Lake Erie burbot were also determined during 2007. This information, along with estimates of burbot growth, burbot mortality, burbot water temperature regime, and energy densities of prey fish from the literature, were incorporated into a bioenergetics model application to estimate annual consumption of round goby by the adult burbot population. Results indicated that the adult burbot population in eastern Lake Erie annually consumed 1,361 metric tons of round goby. Based on the results of bottom trawling, we estimated the biomass of yearling and older round goby in offshore waters eastern Lake Erie during 2007–2008 to be 2,232 metric tons. Thus, the adult burbot population was feeding on round goby at an annual rate equal to 61% of the estimated round goby standing stock. We concluded that the burbot population had high potential to exert predatory control on round goby in offshore waters of eastern Lake Erie.

  1. Control of dengue: Consensus views of Endemic Disease Control Agents and Community Health Agents on their integrated action.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, João Paulo de Morais; Oliveira, Ellen Synthia Fernandes de; Teixeira, Ricardo Antônio Gonçalves; Lemos, Cristiane Lopes Simão; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2016-08-01

    Dengue is one of Brazil's most important public health challenges. Activities for its prevention and control have been based on the strategy of integrated management proposed in health policies, in which the central actors are the Endemic Disease Control Agent(ACE) and the Community Health Agent (ACS). This study analyzes consensus opinions produced by ACSs and ACEs on theactions for incorporating ACEs into the teams of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). It is a qualitative study from a large municipality in Brazil in which dengue is endemic, using a focus group of professionals that is subsequently analyzed using Collective Subject Discourse Analysis, supported by WebQDA. The results indicate consensus positions in relation to the following subjects: I) difficulty in the process of integration of ACSs and ACEs for control of dengue; II) inclusion of ACEs in the primary healthcare of the ESF; and III) absence of monitoring and assessment of the integrated actions. In conclusion, there are needs: to make participants more aware, seeking changes in behavior; to offer an environment of support to those involved with training courses about dengue; and to monitor the process of integration, and evaluate it periodically, creating indicators of quality and quantity. PMID:27557006

  2. Symposium sur l'education des filles. Faits, Problemes, Actions. (Symposium on Girls' Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and explored implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential collapse as primary evidence of the mode of action of naphthoquinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Naphthoquinones (NQs) are privileged structures in medicinal chemistry due to the biological effects associated with the induction of oxidative stress. The present study evaluated the activities of sixteen NQs derivatives on Trypanosoma cruzi. Results Fourteen NQs displayed higher activity against bloodstream trypomastigotes of T. cruzi than benznidazole. Further assays with NQ1, NQ8, NQ9 and NQ12 showed inhibition of the proliferation of axenic epimastigotes and intracelulluar amastigotes interiorized in macrophages and in heart muscle cells. NQ8 was the most active NQ against both proliferative forms of T. cruzi. In epimastigotes the four NQs induced mitochondrial swelling, vacuolization, and flagellar blebbing. The treatment with NQs also induced the appearance of large endoplasmic reticulum profiles surrounding different cellular structures and of myelin-like membranous contours, morphological characteristics of an autophagic process. At IC50 concentration, NQ8 totally disrupted the ΔΨm of about 20% of the parasites, suggesting the induction of a sub-population with metabolically inactive mitochondria. On the other hand, NQ1, NQ9 or NQ12 led only to a discrete decrease of TMRE + labeling at IC50 values. NQ8 led also to an increase in the percentage of parasites labeled with DHE, indicative of ROS production, possibly the cause of the observed mitochondrial swelling. The other three NQs behaved similarly to untreated controls. Conclusions NQ1, NQ8, NQ9 and NQ12 induce an autophagic phenotype in T. cruzi epimastigoted, as already observed with others NQs. The absence of oxidative stress in NQ1-, NQ9- and NQ12-treated parasites could be due to the existence of more than one mechanism of action involved in their trypanocidal activity, leaving ROS generation suppressed by the detoxification system of the parasite. The strong redox effect of NQ8 could be associated to the presence of the acetyl group in its structure facilitating quinone reduction, as

  4. Evidence for predictive control in lifting series of virtual objects.

    PubMed

    Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir

    2010-06-01

    The human motor control system gracefully behaves in a dynamic and time varying environment. Here, we explored the predictive capabilities of the motor system in a simple motor task of lifting a series of virtual objects. When a subject lifts an object, she/he uses an expectation of the weight of the object to generate a motor command. All models of motor learning employ learning algorithms that essentially expect the future to be similar to the previously experienced environment. In this study, we asked subjects to lift a series of increasing weights and determined whether they extrapolated from past experience and predicted the next weight in the series even though that weight had never been experienced. The grip force at the beginning of the lifting task is a clean indication of the motor expectation. In contrast to the motor learning literature asserting adaptation by means of expecting a weighted average based on past experience, our results suggest that the motor system is able to predict the subsequent weight that follows a series of increasing weights. PMID:20428856

  5. On the evidence for human use and control of fire at Schöningen.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Miller, Christopher E; Ligouis, Bertrand; Hambach, Ulrich; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Richter, Daniel; Urban, Brigitte; Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    When and how humans began to control fire has been a central debate in Paleolithic archaeology for decades. Fire plays an important role in technology, social organization, subsistence, and manipulation of the environment and is widely seen as a necessary adaptation for the colonization of northern latitudes. Many researchers view purported hearths, burnt wooden implements, and heated flints from Schöningen as providing the best evidence for the control of fire in the Lower Paleolithic of Northern Europe. Here we present results of a multianalytical study of the purported hearths along with a critical examination of other possible evidence of human use or control of fire at Schöningen. We conclude that the analyzed features and artifacts present no convincing evidence for human use or control of fire. Our study also shows that a multianalytical, micro-contextual approach is the best methodology for evaluating claims of early evidence of human-controlled fire. We advise caution with macroscopic, qualitative identification of combustion features, burnt flint, and burnt wood without the application of such techniques as micromorphology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, organic petrology, luminescence, and analysis of mineral magnetic parameters. The lack of evidence for the human control of fire at Schöningen raises the possibility that fire control was not a necessary adaptation for the human settlement of northern latitudes in the Lower Paleolithic. PMID:26087650

  6. Control of action potential propagation by intracellular Ca2+ in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lüscher, C; Lipp, P; Lüscher, H R; Niggli, E

    1996-01-01

    1. To assess the role of intracellular Ca2+ in action potential (AP) propagation, whole-cell recordings of cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells were carried out while Ca2+ was simultaneously measured with a laser-scanning confocal microscope. 2. Flash photolytic liberation of a Ca2+ buffer during trains of APs which partly failed to invade the DRG cell body immediately lowered intracellular Ca2+ and restored safe AP propagation. Furthermore, the speed of the propagated AP was reduced considerably when intracellular Ca2+ was increased by flash photolysis of caged Ca2+. 3. Both results suggest that intracellular Ca2+ regulates the safety factor for AP propagation and may thus provide a control mechanism for synaptic integration, which acts pre- as well as postsynaptically. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8821131

  7. The efference cascade, consciousness, and its self: naturalizing the first person pivot of action control

    PubMed Central

    Merker, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    The 20 billion neurons of the neocortex have a mere hundred thousand motor neurons by which to express cortical contents in overt behavior. Implemented through a staggered cortical “efference cascade” originating in the descending axons of layer five pyramidal cells throughout the neocortical expanse, this steep convergence accomplishes final integration for action of cortical information through a system of interconnected subcortical way stations. Coherent and effective action control requires the inclusion of a continually updated joint “global best estimate” of current sensory, motivational, and motor circumstances in this process. I have previously proposed that this running best estimate is extracted from cortical probabilistic preliminaries by a subcortical neural “reality model” implementing our conscious sensory phenomenology. As such it must exhibit first person perspectival organization, suggested to derive from formating requirements of the brain's subsystem for gaze control, with the superior colliculus at its base. Gaze movements provide the leading edge of behavior by capturing targets of engagement prior to contact. The rotation-based geometry of directional gaze movements places their implicit origin inside the head, a location recoverable by cortical probabilistic source reconstruction from the rampant primary sensory variance generated by the incessant play of collicularly triggered gaze movements. At the interface between cortex and colliculus lies the dorsal pulvinar. Its unique long-range inhibitory circuitry may precipitate the brain's global best estimate of its momentary circumstances through multiple constraint satisfaction across its afferents from numerous cortical areas and colliculus. As phenomenal content of our sensory awareness, such a global best estimate would exhibit perspectival organization centered on a purely implicit first person origin, inherently incapable of appearing as a phenomenal content of the sensory

  8. Temporal stability of the action-perception cycle for postural control in a moving visual environment.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, T M; Schöner, G; Gielen, C C

    1994-01-01

    When standing human subjects are exposed to a moving visual environment, the induced postural sway forms a stable temporal relationship with the visual information. We have investigated this relationship experimentally with a new set-up in which a computer generates video images which correspond to the motion of a 3D environment. The suggested mean distance to a sinusoidally moving wall is varied and the temporal relationship to induced sway is analysed (1) in terms of the fluctuations of relative phase between visual and sway motion and (2) in terms of the relaxation time of relative phase as determined from the rate of recovery of the stable relative phase pattern following abrupt changes in the visual motion pattern. The two measures are found to converge to a well-defined temporal stability of the action-perception cycle. Furthermore, we show that this temporal stability is a sensitive measure of the strength of the action-perception coupling. It decreases as the distance of the visual scene from the observer increases. This fact and the increase of mean relative phase are consistent with predictions of a linear second-order system driven by the visual expansion rate. However, the amplitude of visual sway decreases little as visual distance increases, in contradiction to the predictions, and is suggestive of a process that actively generates sway. The visual expansion rate on the optic array is found to decrease strongly with visual distance. This leads to the conclusion that postural control in a moving visual environment cannot be understood simply in terms of minimization of retinal slip, and that dynamic coupling of vision into the postural control system must be taken into account. PMID:8187859

  9. How to minimize power in dissolved oxygen control... DSM in action

    SciTech Connect

    Skrentner, R.G.; Lutman, C.G.

    1994-12-31

    As part of the EPRI Municipal Water and Sewage Project, Demand-Side Energy Management, EPRI retained EMA to evaluate the life cycle cost of three alternatives for controlling low-pressure centrifugal compressors to reduce power costs. The alternatives included: inlet guide vanes, inlet butterfly valves, and adjustable speed drives. This paper contains the findings and identifies actions that could benefit wastewater treatment facilities. Many wastewater treatment plants use an activated sludge process to remove organic pollutants. In this process, a large mass of microbes consumes the organic matter in the wastewater. The microbes require diffused oxygen to metabolize the organic material. The diffused air mixes with the contents of the aeration basin and provides oxygen to the microbes. The basic activated sludge process has the following features: (1) An aeration basin with provisions for oxygenation and mixing of the mixed liquor, (2) A settling tank or clarifier to separate mixed liquor solids and liquid, (3) A sludge recycling system to return settled activated sludge to the aeration basin, and (4) A sludge wasting system to remove solids at the rate that it grows, thus maintaining the desired mass of solids in the process. The operator has three main control variables: (1) Aeration rate to control the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration basin. The operator sets the aeration rate to maintain dissolved oxygen at 1-2 mg/l. (2) Sludge recycle rate to control the concentration of the return sludge and the mass of solids in the clarifier. The operator sets the return rate to maintain the sludge blanket level at some predetermined depth. (3) Sludge wasting rate to control the solids retention time and mass of solids in the process. The operator sets the waste rate usually once per day to remove a pre-determined mass.

  10. 78 FR 51184 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... AGENCY Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional... air pollution control programs will be less than its expenditures were for such programs during the... programs were cut by 31% each while land quality program funds were cut by 44%. ODEQ then reduced...

  11. Configural information is processed differently in human action.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that observers' sensitivity to configural information in dynamic human action is disrupted when action is inverted, whereas sensitivity to featural action information is not. The current research involved two experiments that expand upon this basic finding. Experiment 1 revealed that featural and configural action information are processed similarly in static representations of action as in dynamic action. Experiment 2 indicated that configural processing is uniquely sensitive to orientation only in human action as compared to a similar control stimulus. These findings further support the idea that the perception of action recruits specialized orientation-specific configural processing, and parallel similar findings in face perception and visual expertise. PMID:22208127

  12. Troubling practices of control: re-visiting Hannah Arendt's ideas of human action as praxis of the unpredictable.

    PubMed

    Kohlen, Helen

    2015-07-01

    In this article, Hannah Arendt's concept of action will be used to problematize current transformations of the health care sector and examine some responses by ethicists in light of those transformations. The sphere of human interaction that should typify health care work is identified as an action of unpredictable praxis in contrast to controllable procedures and techniques which increasingly take place in the health care sector. PMID:25919950

  13. Framing Progress In Global Tobacco Control To Inform Action On Noncommunicable Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wipfli, Heather L; Samet, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Much has been learned about the tobacco epidemic, including its consequences, effective measures to control it, and the actors involved. This article identifies lessons learned that are applicable to the other principal external causes of noncommunicable diseases: alcohol abuse, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity. Among these lessons are the development of evidence-based strategies such as proven cessation methods, tax increases, and smoke-free policies; the role of multinational corporations in maintaining markets and undermining control measures; and the need for strategies that reach across the life course and that begin with individuals and extend to higher levels of societal organization. Differences are also clear. Tobacco products are relatively homogeneous and have no direct benefit to consumers, whereas food and alcohol consumed in moderation are not inherently dangerous. Some tobacco-related diseases have the singular predominant cause of smoking, while many noncommunicable diseases have multiple interlocking causes such as poor diet, excess alcohol consumption, insufficient physical activity, and smoking, along with genetics. Thus, the tobacco control model of comprehensive multilevel strategies is applicable to the control of noncommunicable diseases, but the focus must be on multiple risk factors. PMID:26355049

  14. Sharing Control: Developing Research Literacy through Community-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juergensmeyer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…

  15. Executive Control of Language in the Bilingual Brain: Integrating the Evidence from Neuroimaging to Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis Georges; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2011-01-01

    In this review we will focus on delineating the neural substrates of the executive control of language in the bilingual brain, based on the existing neuroimaging, intracranial, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and neuropsychological evidence. We will also offer insights from ongoing brain-imaging studies into the development of expertise in multilingual language control. We will concentrate specifically on evidence regarding how the brain selects and controls languages for comprehension and production. This question has been addressed in a number of ways and using various tasks, including language switching during production or perception, translation, and interpretation. We will attempt to synthesize existing evidence in order to bring to light the neural substrates that are crucial to executive control of language. PMID:21954391

  16. What proportion of primary psychiatric interventions are based on evidence from randomised controlled trials?

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, J R; Game, D; Jenkins, N E; Peterson, L A; Pottinger, G R; Sackett, D L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of psychiatric inpatients receiving primary interventions based on randomised controlled trials or systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Retrospective survey. SETTING: Acute adult general psychiatric ward. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted to the ward during a 28 day period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary interventions were classified according to whether or not they were supported by evidence from randomised controlled trials or systematic reviews. RESULTS: The primary interventions received by 26/40 (65%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 51% to 79%) of patients admitted during the period were based on randomised trials or systematic reviews. CONCLUSIONS: When patients were used as the denominator, most primary interventions given in acute general psychiatry were based on experimental evidence. The evidence was difficult to locate; there is an urgent need for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials in this area. PMID:10164145

  17. Evidence for the role of self-priming in epistemic action: expertise and the effective use of memory.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Paul P; Wenger, Michael J; Copeland, Angelina M

    2008-01-01

    Epistemic actions are physical actions people take to simplify internal problem solving rather than to move closer to an external goal. When playing the video game Tetris, for instance, experts routinely rotate falling shapes more than is strictly needed to place the shapes. Maglio and Kirsh [Kirsh, D., & Maglio, P. (1994). On distinguishing epistemic from pragmatic action. Cognitive Science, 18, 513-549; Maglio, P. P. (1995). The computational basis of interactive skill. PhD thesis, University of California, San Diego] proposed that such actions might serve the purpose of priming memory by external means, reducing the need for internal computation (e.g., mental rotation), and resulting in performance improvements that exceed the cost of taking additional actions. The present study tests this priming hypothesis in a set of four experiments. The first three explored precisely the conditions under which priming produces benefits. Results showed that presentation of multiple orientations of a shape led to faster responses than did presentation of a single orientation, and that this effect depended on the interval between preview and test. The fourth explored whether the benefit of seeing shapes in multiple orientations outweighs the cost of taking the extra actions to rotate shapes physically. Benefits were measured using a novel statistical method for mapping reaction-time data onto an estimate of the increase in processing capacity afforded by seeing multiple orientations. Cost was measured using an empirical estimate of time needed to take action in Tetris. Results showed that indeed the increase in internal processing capacity obtained from seeing shapes in multiple orientations outweighed the time to take extra actions. PMID:17434134

  18. GABAergic actions on cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons: implications for control of behavioral state.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, K A; Kristiansen, U

    2010-12-15

    Cholinergic neurons of the pontine laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) play a critical role in regulation of behavioral state. Therefore, elucidation of mechanisms that control their activity is vital for understanding of how switching between wakefulness, sleep and anesthetic states is effectuated. In vivo studies suggest that GABAergic mechanisms within the pons play a critical role in behavioral state switching. However, the postsynaptic, electrophysiological actions of GABA on LDT neurons, as well as the identity of GABA receptors present in the LDT mediating these actions is virtually unexplored. Therefore, we studied the actions of GABA agonists and antagonists on cholinergic LDT cells by performing patch clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. Under conditions where detection of Cl(-) -mediated events was optimized, GABA induced gabazine (GZ)-sensitive inward currents in the majority of LDT neurons. Post-synaptic location of GABA(A) receptors was demonstrated by persistence of muscimol-induced inward currents in TTX and low Ca(2+) solutions. THIP, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist with a preference for δ-subunit containing GABA(A) receptors, induced inward currents, suggesting the existence of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors. LDT cells also possess GABA(B) receptors as baclofen-activated a TTX- and low Ca(2+)-resistant outward current that was attenuated by the GABA(B) antagonists CGP 55845 and saclofen. The tertiapin sensitivity of baclofen-induced outward currents suggests that a G(IRK) mediated this effect. Further, outward currents were never additive with those induced by application of carbachol, suggesting that they were mediated by activation of GABA(B) receptors linked to the same G(IRK) activated in these cells by muscarinic receptor stimulation. Activation of GABA(B) receptors inhibited Ca(2+) increases induced by a depolarizing voltage step shown previously to activate VOCCs in cholinergic LDT neurons. Baclofen-mediated reductions in depolarization

  19. Top-Down Control of Visual Alpha Oscillations: Sources of Control Signals and Their Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Rajagovindan, Rajasimhan; Han, Sahng-Min; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Alpha oscillations (8–12 Hz) are thought to inversely correlate with cortical excitability. Goal-oriented modulation of alpha has been studied extensively. In visual spatial attention, alpha over the region of visual cortex corresponding to the attended location decreases, signifying increased excitability to facilitate the processing of impending stimuli. In contrast, in retention of verbal working memory, alpha over visual cortex increases, signifying decreased excitability to gate out stimulus input to protect the information held online from sensory interference. According to the prevailing model, this goal-oriented biasing of sensory cortex is effected by top-down control signals from frontal and parietal cortices. The present study tests and substantiates this hypothesis by (a) identifying the signals that mediate the top-down biasing influence, (b) examining whether the cortical areas issuing these signals are task-specific or task-independent, and (c) establishing the possible mechanism of the biasing action. High-density human EEG data were recorded in two experimental paradigms: a trial-by-trial cued visual spatial attention task and a modified Sternberg working memory task. Applying Granger causality to both sensor-level and source-level data we report the following findings. In covert visual spatial attention, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the right hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the right frontal eye field (FEF) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) being the main sources of top-down influences. During retention of verbal working memory, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the left hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) being the main source of top-down influences. In both experiments, top-down influences are mediated by alpha oscillations, and the biasing effect is likely achieved via an inhibition

  20. Top-Down Control of Visual Alpha Oscillations: Sources of Control Signals and Their Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Rajagovindan, Rajasimhan; Han, Sahng-Min; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Alpha oscillations (8-12 Hz) are thought to inversely correlate with cortical excitability. Goal-oriented modulation of alpha has been studied extensively. In visual spatial attention, alpha over the region of visual cortex corresponding to the attended location decreases, signifying increased excitability to facilitate the processing of impending stimuli. In contrast, in retention of verbal working memory, alpha over visual cortex increases, signifying decreased excitability to gate out stimulus input to protect the information held online from sensory interference. According to the prevailing model, this goal-oriented biasing of sensory cortex is effected by top-down control signals from frontal and parietal cortices. The present study tests and substantiates this hypothesis by (a) identifying the signals that mediate the top-down biasing influence, (b) examining whether the cortical areas issuing these signals are task-specific or task-independent, and (c) establishing the possible mechanism of the biasing action. High-density human EEG data were recorded in two experimental paradigms: a trial-by-trial cued visual spatial attention task and a modified Sternberg working memory task. Applying Granger causality to both sensor-level and source-level data we report the following findings. In covert visual spatial attention, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the right hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the right frontal eye field (FEF) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) being the main sources of top-down influences. During retention of verbal working memory, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the left hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) being the main source of top-down influences. In both experiments, top-down influences are mediated by alpha oscillations, and the biasing effect is likely achieved via an inhibition

  1. Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) protocol: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Justin B; Elston, John; Evangelou, Nikos; Gerry, Stephen; Fugger, Lars; Kennard, Christopher; Kong, Yazhuo; Palace, Jacqueline; Craner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neurodegeneration is a widely accepted contributor to the development of long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). While current therapies in MS predominantly target inflammation and reduce relapse rate they have been less effective at preventing long-term disability. The identification and evaluation of effective neuroprotective therapies within a trial paradigm are key unmet needs. Emerging evidence supports amiloride, a licenced diuretic, as a neuroprotective agent in MS through acid sensing ion channel blockade. Optic neuritis (ON) is a common manifestation of MS with correlates of inflammation and neurodegeneration measurable within the visual pathways. Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) will utilise a multimodal approach to assess the neuroprotective efficacy of amiloride in acute ON. Methods and analysis 46 patients will be recruited within 28 days from onset of ON visual symptoms and randomised on a 1:1 basis to placebo or amiloride 10 mg daily. Double-blinded treatment groups will be balanced for age, sex and visual loss severity by a random-deterministic minimisation algorithm. The primary objective is to demonstrate that amiloride is neuroprotective in ON as assessed by scanning laser polarimetry of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness at 6 months in the affected eye compared to the unaffected eye at baseline. RNFL in combination with further retinal measures will also be assessed by optical coherence tomography. Secondary outcome measures on brain MRI will include cortical volume, diffusion-weighted imaging, resting state functional MRI, MR spectroscopy and magnetisation transfer ratio. In addition, high and low contrast visual acuity, visual fields, colour vision and electrophysiology will be assessed alongside quality of life measures. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was given by the south central Oxford B research ethics committee (REC reference: 13/SC/0022). The findings

  2. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Felix R.; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., “love”) which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into

  3. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Felix R; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., "love") which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories - related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts - was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or 'epiphenomenal' to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into modality

  4. Effects of being imitated on motor responses evoked by pain observation: exerting control determines action tendencies when perceiving pain in others.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Lize; Andres, Michael; Brass, Marcel

    2014-05-14

    Brain-imaging research has shown that experiencing pain oneself and perceiving pain in others lead to a similar pattern of activation, suggesting that the latter is based on internal simulation of the observed pain. Further evidence for this idea stems from transcranial magnetic stimulation measuring corticospinal excitability (CSE). It has been demonstrated that our motor cortex is involved whenever we observe another person receiving painful stimulation to the hand (Avenanti et al., 2005). However, both decreases and increases of CSE have been described during pain observation, so the exact nature of these CSE changes has remained unclear so far. In the present study, we hypothesized that CSE changes are determined by the control that the observer has over the hand that receives painful stimulation. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the control over the observed hand using a paradigm in which participants' movements are being imitated by a hand on screen-giving them full control over the hand-or not. Consistent with previous results, we evidenced a decrease in CSE when participants experienced no control over the hand that received painful stimulation. In contrast, inducing control resulted in an increase in CSE. We conclude that exerting control over the observed hand leads to a completely altered action tendency. Whereas an anesthetic response is typically observed in the absence of control, increasing control induces motor facilitation reminiscent of preparation of an avoidance response. PMID:24828648

  5. Effectiveness of female controlled barrier methods in preventing sexually transmitted infections and HIV: current evidence and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, A; Padian, N

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of female controlled physical and chemical barrier methods in preventing STI/HIV transmission, to examine recent reviews on microbicide development, and to highlight promising research directions. To discuss challenges in conducting effectiveness research and in translating results to public health intervention. Methods: Systematic review of articles that examined the disease prevention effectiveness of at least one female controlled barrier method. Review of conference abstracts that presented clinical and preclinical microbicide data. Results: Randomised controlled trials provide evidence that female condoms confer as much protection from STIs as male condoms. Observational studies suggest that the diaphragm protects against STI pathogens. Several microbicide effectiveness studies are under way and new directions, such as adaptation of therapeutic agents as preventive products, are being examined. Substantial attention is now given to product formulation and novel delivery strategies. Combining microbicide products with different mechanisms of action as well as combining chemical and physical barriers will be necessary to maximise prevention effectiveness. Conclusions: Increased investment in the development and identification of female controlled barrier methods offers promise that additional products will be available in the years ahead. Generalising trial results to a community setting, promoting products that may be less effective than male condoms, and bringing an effective product to scale introduce public health challenges that warrant attention. The need for female controlled barrier methods that provide women with the opportunity to take an active role in reducing their STI/HIV risk are urgently needed and constitute an essential tool to prevent continued spread of these infections. PMID:15923284

  6. The effect of behavioral preferences on skill acquisition in determining unspecified, suitable action patterns to control humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Taiki; Watanabe, Tetsuyou

    2015-08-01

    This research investigated the effect of behavioral preferences on learning efficiency when attempting to determine unspecified, but suitable action sequences for unfamiliar tasks. The goal of this research was to develop a skill acquisition support system for the elderly to aid them in using unfamiliar IT products, particularly those of welfare systems. Here, behavioral preference is defined as the type of action sequences that people would prefer to adopt for completing unfamiliar tasks. To achieve this goal, this research investigated the action sequences of participants when they attempt to control the posture of an unfamiliar humanoid robot with an unfamiliar controller. The participants were assigned the task of making the humanoid stand on one foot. Machine-learning-based methods were presented for analyzing the behavioral preferences. The analysis results indicate that participants having behavioral preferences of adopting random action sequences can complete the task in a much shorter time, compared to participants having a behavioral preference of adopting action sequences similar to those of previous actions. PMID:26738048

  7. Rapid effect of progesterone on transepithelial resistance of human fetal membranes: evidence for non-genomic action.

    PubMed

    Verikouki, C H; Hatzoglou, C H; Gourgoulianis, K I; Molyvdas, P A; Kallitsaris, A; Messinis, I E

    2008-02-01

    1. The factors that regulate human fetal membrane transport mechanisms are unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of progesterone on transepithelial electrical resistance (R(TE)) in the human amniochorion. 2. Fetal membranes from uncomplicated term pregnancies were obtained immediately after vaginal or Caesarean deliveries. Intact pieces were mounted as planar sheets separating an Ussing chamber. Progesterone (10(-4) to 10(-7) mol/L), mifepristone (10(-4) to 10(-8) mol/L) and combinations of progesterone plus mifepristone were applied to the chambers facing the fetal or maternal sides of the membrane. The R(TE) was measured before and 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45 and 60 min after each solution was added (at 37 degrees C). The R(TE) was calculated in Omega.cm(2), according to Ohm's law. 3. The mean (+/-SEM) basal value of R(TE) before the application of any substance in all experiments was 29.1 +/- 0.4 Omega.cm(2). The net change in the R(TE) (Delta R(TE)) in relation to the basal value was calculated in each experiment. Progesterone, mifepristone and the combination of progesterone and mifepristone induced a rapid, surge-type increase in R(TE) during the 1st min on both sides of the membrane. The combination of progesterone plus mifepristone exerted a synergistic action. The effect was stronger on the fetal side than on the maternal side for all substances tested (P < 0.05). The highest Delta R(TE) during the 1st min on the fetal side was seen with the combination of progesterone plus mifepristone (4.0 +/- 0.3 Omega.cm(2)) and the lowest Delta R(TE) occurred with mifepristone (1.5 +/- 0.1 Omega.cm(2)). 4. The present results demonstrated that the R(TE) of human fetal membranes increases rapidly in response to progesterone. It is possible that changes in R(TE) play a role in the control of membrane permeability during pregnancy. PMID:17892501

  8. The theory-of-mind network in support of action verb comprehension: evidence from an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Bi, Yanchao; Zhao, Ying; Luo, Chunming; Li, Xingshan

    2015-02-01

    The theory-of-mind (ToM) network refers to a specific group of brain regions implicated in the thinking of people's mental states. It remains unclear how this network contributes to verb comprehension. In the present study, we compared brain activations evoked by verbs that refer to social actions, private actions, and nonhuman events. All classic regions of the ToM network, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) whose activation during word comprehension is typically interpreted as the processing of motion properties, showed stronger activations to social action verbs than the others. These findings indicate that the ToM network is involved in the processing of social/mental knowledge of verb meanings. Furthermore, the activation of the pSTS during word comprehension mainly reflects the processing of social/mental properties but not that of biological-motion properties. PMID:25498409

  9. Brain Activity (fNIRS) in Control State Differs from the Execution and Observation of Object-Related and Object-Unrelated Actions.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Cortesi, Livia

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored cortical correlates of action execution and observation, directly comparing control condition condition and execution-observation, using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Transitive actions (meaningful gestures produced in presence of an object) or intransitive actions (meaningful gestures produced in absence of an object) were performed. Increased oxygenated hemoglobin levels were revealed for both action execution and action observation in premotor cortex, and sensorimotor cortex compared to control condition. However, a higher activity in motor areas was observed for action execution than motor observation. In contrast the posterior parietal cortex was similarly activated in case of both execution and observation task. Finally, it was shown that action execution and observation of transitive more than intransitive gestures was supported by similar parietal posterior areas. These findings support the hypothesis of a partial common network for observation and execution of action, and significant implications related to action types (transitive vs. intransitive). PMID:26675979

  10. An Erk/Cdk5 axis controls the diabetogenic actions of PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Alexander S.; McAllister, Fiona E.; Camporez, João Paulo G.; Zushin, Peter-James H.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Shulman, Gerald I.; Gygi, Steven P.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARγ at serine 273 by Cdk5 stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues1. Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic PPARγ ligand drugs, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARγ partial/non-agonists2. To better understand the importance of this obesity-linked PPARγ phosphorylation, we created mice that ablated Cdk5 specifically in adipose tissues. Surprisingly, these mice have both a paradoxical increase in PPARγ phosphorylation at S273 and worsened insulin resistance. Unbiased proteomic studies show that ERK kinases are activated in these KO animals. We show here that ERK directly phosphorylates S273 of PPARγ in a robust manner and that Cdk5 suppresses ERKs through direct action on a novel site in MEK, the ERK kinase. Importantly, pharmacological MEK and ERK inhibition markedly improves insulin resistance in both obese wild type and ob/ob mice, and also completely reverses the deleterious effects of the Cdk5 ablation. These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARγ function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25409143

  11. An ERK/Cdk5 axis controls the diabetogenic actions of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Banks, Alexander S; McAllister, Fiona E; Camporez, João Paulo G; Zushin, Peter-James H; Jurczak, Michael J; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Shulman, Gerald I; Gygi, Steven P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-01-15

    Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) at serine 273 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic drugs that bind PPARγ, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARγ partial agonists or non-agonists. For a better understanding of the importance of this obesity-linked PPARγ phosphorylation, we created mice that ablated Cdk5 specifically in adipose tissues. These mice have both a paradoxical increase in PPARγ phosphorylation at serine 273 and worsened insulin resistance. Unbiased proteomic studies show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases are activated in these knockout animals. Here we show that ERK directly phosphorylates serine 273 of PPARγ in a robust manner and that Cdk5 suppresses ERKs through direct action on a novel site in MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of MEK and ERK markedly improves insulin resistance in both obese wild-type and ob/ob mice, and also completely reverses the deleterious effects of the Cdk5 ablation. These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARγ function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25409143

  12. Vehicle action: effective policy for controlling drunk and other high-risk drivers?

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B; Deyoung, David J

    2002-05-01

    License suspension effectively reduces recidivism and crash involvement of those convicted of driving while impaired (DWI). The impact of this sanction, however, is being reduced by the large number of offenders (up to 75%) who drive even though suspended. To deal with this problem. several states have enacted laws providing for vehicle impoundment, immobilization, or forfeiture for repeat DWI offenders and for driving while suspended (DWS) offenders. Although a 1992 review of vehicle sanctions for DWI and DWS offenders showed 32 states with such laws, they were infrequently applied. Further, none of those laws had been adequately evaluated. This paper reviews the studies of vehicle action programs in California, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Oregon, and Washington that have been applied broadly enough to permit evaluation. Although none of the studies has applied random assignment to ensure equal groups. several have applied sufficient statistical controls to provide reasonably credible results. All the programs reviewed showed positive effects. including some relatively large recidivism reductions, from denying offenders the use of their vehicles for 1-6 months. Highlighted in this review are several issues that appear to be important to the effectiveness of vehicle sanctioning programs. PMID:11939354

  13. Interactions between wave action and grazing control the distribution of intertidal macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Per R; Granhag, Lena; Moschella, Paula S; Aberg, Per; Hawkins, Stephen J; Thompson, Richard C

    2006-05-01

    Canopy-forming macroalgae are key species on temperate rocky shores. However, there is a lack of understanding of how the relative balance of physical and biological factors controls the establishment and persistence of intertidal macroalgae. Here we present an integrated study of the relative importance of wave-induced forces and grazing for the recruitment and survival of the canopy-forming intertidal macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis. A set of overtopped breakwaters provided a nearly unconfounded gradient in wave exposure between seaward and landward sides. A biomechanical analysis was performed based on empirical measurements of maximum drag forces in breaking waves, a model of long-term maximum wave height, and the breaking stress of Fucus spp. The estimated maximum flow speed (7-8 m/s) on the seaward side of the breakwaters was predicted to completely dislodge or prune Fucus spp. larger than approximately 10 cm, while dislodgment was highly unlikely on the landward side for all sizes. Experimental transplantation of Fucus spp. supported the biomechanical analysis but also suggested that mechanical abrasion may further limit survival in wave-exposed locations. Experimental removal of the limpet Patella vulgata, which was the principal grazer at this site, resulted in recruitment of Fucus spp. on the seaward side. We present a model of limpet grazing that indicates that limpet densities >5-20 individuals/m2 provide a proximate mechanism preventing establishment of Fucus spp., whereas wave action >2 m/s reduces persistence through dislodgment and battering. In a conceptual model we further propose that recruitment and survival of juvenile Fucus spp. are controlled indirectly by wave exposure through higher limpet densities at exposed locations. This model predicts that climate change, and in particular an increased frequency of storm events in the northeast Atlantic, will restrict fucoids to more sheltered locations. PMID:16761596

  14. Additional Evidence of the Trypanocidal Action of (−)-Elatol on Amastigote Forms through the Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Desoti, Vânia Cristina; Lazarin-Bidóia, Danielle; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2014-01-01

    Chagas’ disease, a vector-transmitted infectious disease, is caused by the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Drugs that are currently available for the treatment of this disease are unsatisfactory, making the search for new chemotherapeutic agents a priority. We recently described the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol, extracted from the macroalga Laurencia dendroidea. However, nothing has been described about the mechanism of action of this compound on amastigotes that are involved in the chronic phase of Chagas’ disease. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of (−)-elatol on the formation of superoxide anions (O2•−), DNA fragmentation, and autophagy in amastigotes of T. cruzi to elucidate the possible mechanism of the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol. Treatment of the amastigotes with (−)-elatol increased the formation of O2•− at all concentrations of (−)-elatol assayed compared with untreated parasites. Increased fluorescence was observed in parasites treated with (−)-elatol, indicating DNA fragmentation and the formation of autophagic compartments. The results suggest that the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol might involve the induction of the autophagic and apoptotic death pathways triggered by an imbalance of the parasite’s redox metabolism. PMID:25257785

  15. Using Data Comparison and Interpretation to Develop Procedural Understandings in the Primary Classroom: Case Study Evidence from Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Paul; Siraj-Blatchford, John

    2006-01-01

    The development of a science education that includes a focus upon the nature of science suggests the need for "pedagogic tools" that can be used to engage children with the procedural understandings that are central to the scientific approach to enquiry. This paper reports on a collaborative action research project that focused on the use of…

  16. Inferior frontal oscillations reveal visuo-motor matching for actions and speech: evidence from human intracranial recordings.

    PubMed

    Halje, Pär; Seeck, Margitta; Blanke, Olaf; Ionta, Silvio

    2015-12-01

    The neural correspondence between the systems responsible for the execution and recognition of actions has been suggested both in humans and non-human primates. Apart from being a key region of this visuo-motor observation-execution matching (OEM) system, the human inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is also important for speech production. The functional overlap of visuo-motor OEM and speech, together with the phylogenetic history of the IFG as a motor area, has led to the idea that speech function has evolved from pre-existing motor systems and to the hypothesis that an OEM system may exist also for speech. However, visuo-motor OEM and speech OEM have never been compared directly. We used electrocorticography to analyze oscillations recorded from intracranial electrodes in human fronto-parieto-temporal cortex during visuo-motor (executing or visually observing an action) and speech OEM tasks (verbally describing an action using the first or third person pronoun). The results show that neural activity related to visuo-motor OEM is widespread in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Speech OEM also elicited widespread responses partly overlapping with visuo-motor OEM sites (bilaterally), including frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Interestingly a more focal region, the inferior frontal gyrus (bilaterally), showed both visuo-motor OEM and speech OEM properties independent of orolingual speech-unrelated movements. Building on the methodological advantages in human invasive electrocorticography, the present findings provide highly precise spatial and temporal information to support the existence of a modality-independent action representation system in the human brain that is shared between systems for performing, interpreting and describing actions. PMID:26282276

  17. Evidence that perceived behavioural control is a multidimensional construct: perceived control and perceived difficulty.

    PubMed

    Trafimow, David; Sheeran, Paschal; Conner, Mark; Finlay, Krystina A

    2002-03-01

    Four studies were performed to test whether Ajzen's (1988, 1991) concept of perceived behavioural control is really an amalgamation of two variables, which we term 'perceived control' and 'perceived difficulty'. Perceived control refers to the extent to which people consider the performance of a behaviour to be under their voluntary control. Perceived difficulty refers to whether people consider a behaviour to be easy or difficult to perform, Findings from Studies 1 to 4 demonstrate that it is possible to perform manipulations that affect perceived control more than perceived difficulty, or that affect perceived difficulty more than perceived control. Studies 2-4 used a variety of paradigms to show that people distinguish between beliefs that are presumed to underlie perceived control and perceived difficulty. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis in Study 5 to determine whether perceived control or perceived difficulty is more important for predicting behavioural intentions and behaviours. Taken together, the findings support the distinction between perceived control and perceived difficulty, and also suggest that perceived difficulty is a better predictor of most behavioural intentions and behaviours than is perceived control. PMID:11970777

  18. Exam Preparation: The Influence of Action Control, Procrastination and Examination Experience on Students' Goal Intention and Implementation Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the framework of the intention-behavior-gap analysis in relation to exam preparation I examined whether intention--subdivided into goal and implementation intention--is influenced directly by the determinants action control, procrastination and examination experience which is consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior and…

  19. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  20. Developing Global Perspectives about Nuclear Arms Control among Proactive Action Students in Rural Schools: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    A teacher's guide to developing global perspectives about nuclear arms control among proactive action students in rural schools oulines the historical development of the current nuclear situation, describes a nuclear age curriculum, explains the importance of proactive and global perspectives, covers simulated situations, and provides a glossary…

  1. Postnatal maturation of rat hypothalamoneurohypophysial neurons: evidence for a developmental decrease in calcium entry during action potentials.

    PubMed

    Widmer, H; Amerdeil, H; Fontanaud, P; Desarménien, M G

    1997-01-01

    Action potentials and voltage-gated currents were studied in acutely dissociated neurosecretory cells from the rat supraoptic nucleus during the first three postnatal weeks (PW1-PW3), a period corresponding to the final establishment of neuroendocrine relationships. Action potential duration (at half maximum) decreased from 2.7 to 1.8 ms; this was attributable to a decrease in decay time. Application of cadmium (250 microM) reduced the decay time by 43% at PW1 and 21% at PW3, indicating that the contribution of calcium currents to action potentials decreased during postnatal development. The density of high-voltage-activated calcium currents increased from 4.4 to 10.1 pA/pF at postnatal days 1-5 and 11-14, respectively. The conductance density of sustained potassium current, measured at +20 mV, increased from 0.35 (PW1) to 0.53 (PW3) nS/pF. The time to half-maximal amplitude did not change. Conductance density and time- and voltage-dependent inactivation of the transient potassium current were stable from birth. At PW1, the density and time constant of decay (measured at 0 mV) were 0.29 nS/pF (n = 12) and 17.9 ms (n = 10), respectively. Voltage-dependent properties and density (1.1 nS/pF) of the sodium current did not change postnatally. During PW1, fitting the mean activation data with a Boltzmann function gave a half-activation potential of -25 mV. A double Boltzman equation was necessary to adequately fit the inactivation data, suggesting the presence of two populations of sodium channels. One population accounted for approximately 14% of the channels, with a half-inactivation potential of -86 mV; the remaining population showed a half-inactivation potential of -51 mV. A mathematical model, based on Hodgkin-Huxley equations, was used to assess the respective contributions of individual currents to the action potential. When the densities of calcium and sustained potassium currents were changed from immature to mature values, the decay time of the action

  2. Converging evidence for control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level.

    PubMed

    Bugg, Julie M; Hutchison, Keith A

    2013-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that cognitive control is implemented at the list and context levels in the color-word Stroop task. At first blush, the finding that Stroop interference is reduced for mostly incongruent items as compared with mostly congruent items (i.e., the item-specific proportion congruence [ISPC] effect) appears to provide evidence for yet a third level of control, which modulates word reading at the item level. However, evidence to date favors the view that ISPC effects reflect the rapid prediction of high-contingency responses and not item-specific control. In Experiment 1, we first show that an ISPC effect is obtained when the relevant dimension (i.e., color) signals proportion congruency, a problematic pattern for theories based on differential response contingencies. In Experiment 2, we replicate and extend this pattern by showing that item-specific control settings transfer to new stimuli, ruling out alternative frequency-based accounts. In Experiment 3, we revert to the traditional design in which the irrelevant dimension (i.e., word) signals proportion congruency. Evidence for item-specific control, including transfer of the ISPC effect to new stimuli, is apparent when 4-item sets are employed but not when 2-item sets are employed. We attribute this pattern to the absence of high-contingency responses on incongruent trials in the 4-item set. These novel findings provide converging evidence for reactive control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level, reveal theoretically important factors that modulate reliance on item-specific control versus contingency learning, and suggest an update to the item-specific control account (Bugg, Jacoby, & Chanani, 2011). PMID:22845037

  3. Predicate structures, gesture, and simultaneity in the representation of action in British Sign Language: evidence from deaf children and adults.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Kearsy; Smith, Sandra; Sevcikova, Zed

    2013-01-01

    British Sign Language (BSL) signers use a variety of structures, such as constructed action (CA), depicting constructions (DCs), or lexical verbs, to represent action and other verbal meanings. This study examines the use of these verbal predicate structures and their gestural counterparts, both separately and simultaneously, in narratives by deaf children with various levels of exposure to BSL (ages 5;1 to 7;5) and deaf adult native BSL signers. Results reveal that all groups used the same types of predicative structures, including children with minimal BSL exposure. However, adults used CA, DCs, and/or lexical signs simultaneously more frequently than children. These results suggest that simultaneous use of CA with lexical and depicting predicates is more complex than the use of these predicate structures alone and thus may take deaf children more time to master. PMID:23670881

  4. No Evidence for Threat-Induced Spatial Prioritization of Somatosensory Stimulation during Pain Control Using a Synchrony Judgment Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    Topical research efforts on attention to pain often take a critical look at the modulatory role of top-down factors. For instance, it has been shown that the fearful expectation of pain at a location of the body directs attention towards that body part. In addition, motivated attempts to control this pain were found to modulate this prioritization effect. Such studies have often used a temporal order judgment task, requiring participants to judge the order in which two stimuli are presented by indicating which one they perceived first. As this constitutes a forced-choice response format, such studies may be subject to response bias. The aim of the current study was to address this concern. We used a ternary synchrony judgment paradigm, in which participants judged the order in which two somatosensory stimuli occurred. Critically, participants now also had the option to give a ‘simultaneous’ response when they did not perceive a difference. This way we eliminated the need for guessing, and thus reduced the risk of response bias. One location was threatened with the possibility of pain in half of the trials, as predicted by an auditory cue. Additionally, half of the participants (pain control group) were encouraged to avoid pain stimuli by executing a quick button press. The other half (comparison group) performed a similar action, albeit unrelated to the occurrence of pain. Our data did not support threat-induced spatial prioritization, nor did we find evidence that pain control attempts influenced attention in any way. PMID:27270456

  5. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    PubMed

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for. PMID:24222405

  6. New Insights into the Role of Mast Cells in Autoimmunity: Evidence for a Common Mechanism of Action?

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Margaret E.; Hatfield, Julianne K.; Brown, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are classically considered innate immune cells that act as first responders in many microbial infections and have long been appreciated as potent contributors to allergic reactions. However, recent advances in the realm of autoimmunity have made it clear that these cells are also involved in the pathogenic responses that exacerbate disease. In the murine models of multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and bullous pemphigoid, both the pathogenic role of mast cells and some of their mechanisms of action are shared. Similar to their role in infection and a subset of allergic responses, mast cells are required for the efficient recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Although this mast cell-dependent neutrophil response is protective in infection settings, it is postulated that neutrophils promote local vascular permeability and facilitate the entry of inflammatory cells that enhance tissue destruction at target sites. However, there is still much to learn. There is little information regarding mechanisms of mast cell activation in disease. Nor is it known how many mast cell-derived mediators are relevant and whether interactions with other cells are implicated in these diseases including T cells, B cells and astrocytes. Here we review the current state of knowledge about mast cells in autoimmune disease. We also discuss findings regarding newly discovered mast cell actions and factors that modulate mast cell function. We speculate that much of this new information will ultimately contribute to a greater understanding of the full range of mast cell actions in autoimmunity. PMID:21354470

  7. Different mechanisms for role relations versus verb-action congruence effects: evidence from ERPs in picture-sentence verification.

    PubMed

    Knoeferle, Pia; Urbach, Thomas P; Kutas, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Extant accounts of visually situated language processing do make general predictions about visual context effects on incremental sentence comprehension; these, however, are not sufficiently detailed to accommodate potentially different visual context effects (such as a scene-sentence mismatch based on actions versus thematic role relations, e.g., (Altmann & Kamide, 2007; Knoeferle & Crocker, 2007; Taylor & Zwaan, 2008; Zwaan & Radvansky, 1998)). To provide additional data for theory testing and development, we collected event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as participants read a subject-verb-object sentence (500 ms SOA in Experiment 1 and 300 ms SOA in Experiment 2), and post-sentence verification times indicating whether or not the verb and/or the thematic role relations matched a preceding picture (depicting two participants engaged in an action). Though incrementally processed, these two types of mismatch yielded different ERP effects. Role-relation mismatch effects emerged at the subject noun as anterior negativities to the mismatching noun, preceding action mismatch effects manifest as centro-parietal N400s greater to the mismatching verb, regardless of SOAs. These two types of mismatch manipulations also yielded different effects post-verbally, correlated differently with a participant's mean accuracy, verbal working memory and visual-spatial scores, and differed in their interactions with SOA. Taken together these results clearly implicate more than a single mismatch mechanism for extant accounts of picture-sentence processing to accommodate. PMID:25216075

  8. The vascular actions of insulin control its delivery to muscle and regulate the rate-limiting step in skeletal muscle insulin action

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, EJ; Eggleston, EM; Inyard, AC; Wang, H; Li, G; Chai, W; Liu, Z

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that insulin delivery to skeletal muscle interstitium is the rate-limiting step in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake and that this process is impaired by insulin resistance. In this review we examine the basis for the hypothesis that insulin acts on the vasculature at three discrete steps to enhance its own delivery to muscle: (1) relaxation of resistance vessels to increase total blood flow; (2) relaxation of pre-capillary arterioles to increase the microvascular exchange surface perfused within skeletal muscle (microvascular recruitment); and (3) the trans-endothelial transport (TET) of insulin. Insulin can relax resistance vessels and increase blood flow to skeletal muscle. However, there is controversy as to whether this occurs at physiological concentrations of, and exposure times to, insulin. The microvasculature is recruited more quickly and at lower insulin concentrations than are needed to increase total blood flow, a finding consistent with a physiological role for insulin in muscle insulin delivery. Microvascular recruitment is impaired by obesity, diabetes and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Insulin TET is a third potential site for regulating insulin delivery. This is underscored by the consistent finding that steady-state insulin concentrations in plasma are approximately twice those in muscle interstitium. Recent in vivo and in vitro findings suggest that insulin traverses the vascular endothelium via a trans-cellular, receptor-mediated pathway, and emerging data indicate that insulin acts on the endothelium to facilitate its own TET. Thus, muscle insulin delivery, which is rate-limiting for its metabolic action, is itself regulated by insulin at multiple steps. These findings highlight the need to further understand the role of the vascular actions of insulin in metabolic regulation. PMID:19283361

  9. Breaking a habit: a further role of the phonological loop in action control.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Erina; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J; Saito, Satoru

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has suggested that keeping track of a task goal in rapid task switching may depend on the phonological loop component of working memory. In this study, we investigated whether the phonological loop plays a similar role when a single switch extending over several trials is required after many trials on which one has performed a competing task. Participants were shown pairs of digits varying in numerical and physical size, and they were required to decide which digit was numerically or physically larger. An experimental cycle consisted of four blocks of 24 trials. In Experiment 1, participants in the task change groups performed the numerical-size judgment task during the first three blocks, and then changed to the physical-size judgment task in the fourth. Participants in the continuation groups performed only the physical-size judgment task throughout all four blocks. We found negative effects of articulatory suppression on the fourth block, but only in the task change groups. Experiment 2 was a replication, with the modification that both groups received identical instructions and practice. Experiment 3 was a further replication using numerical-size judgment as the target task. The results showed a pattern similar to that from Experiment 1, with negative effects of articulatory suppression found only in the task change group. The congruity of numerical and physical size had a reliable effect on performance in all three experiments, but unlike the task change, it did not reliably interact with articulatory suppression. The results suggest that in addition to its well-established role in rapid task switching, the phonological loop also contributes to active goal maintenance in longer-term action control. PMID:23595305

  10. Antidepressant Controlled Trial For Negative Symptoms In Schizophrenia (ACTIONS): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Thomas Re; Leeson, Verity C; Paton, Carol; Costelloe, Céire; Simon, Judit; Kiss, Noemi; Osborn, David; Killaspy, Helen; Craig, Tom Kj; Lewis, Shôn; Keown, Patrick; Ismail, Shajahan; Crawford, Mike; Baldwin, David; Lewis, Glyn; Geddes, John; Kumar, Manoj; Pathak, Rudresh; Taylor, Simon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent deficiencies in emotional responsiveness, motivation, socialisation, speech and movement. When persistent, they are held to account for much of the poor functional outcomes associated with schizophrenia. There are currently no approved pharmacological treatments. While the available evidence suggests that a combination of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication may be effective in treating negative symptoms, it is too limited to allow any firm conclusions. OBJECTIVE To establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of augmentation of antipsychotic medication with the antidepressant citalopram for the management of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. DESIGN A multicentre, double-blind, individually randomised, placebo-controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING Adult psychiatric services, treating people with schizophrenia. PARTICIPANTS Inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, on continuing, stable antipsychotic medication, with persistent negative symptoms at a criterion level of severity. INTERVENTIONS Eligible participants were randomised 1 : 1 to treatment with either placebo (one capsule) or 20 mg of citalopram per day for 48 weeks, with the clinical option at 4 weeks to increase the daily dosage to 40 mg of citalopram or two placebo capsules for the remainder of the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcomes were quality of life measured at 12 and 48 weeks assessed using the Heinrich's Quality of Life Scale, and negative symptoms at 12 weeks measured on the negative symptom subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. RESULTS No therapeutic benefit in terms of improvement in quality of life or negative symptoms was detected for citalopram over 12 weeks or at 48 weeks, but secondary analysis suggested modest improvement in the negative symptom domain, avolition/amotivation, at 12 weeks (mean difference -1.3, 95% confidence interval -2.5 to -0.09). There

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for Typhoid Fever Control: A Call for Coordinated Action

    PubMed Central

    Steele, A. Duncan; Hay Burgess, Deborah C.; Diaz, Zoey; Carey, Megan E.; Zaidi, Anita K. M.

    2016-01-01

    The burden of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is substantial and has high impact in toddlers and young children. This burden is relatively well documented in Asia, and this supplement provides new data on the substantial burden in several sub-Saharan African countries. Challenges in standardized surveillance and imperfect diagnostic tools have resulted in patchy local disease data, which are not well acknowledged or integrated into local country evidence and health awareness for decision making. There is a need to strengthen diagnostics for the generation of burden data in country. Furthermore, the guidelines and training for treatment of enteric fever cases in Africa are sorely needed to help mitigate the inappropriate use of antimicrobial treatment. Classic water safety and access to sanitation development remain powerful tools for the control of typhoid fever, yet the huge economic costs and long timelines are unlikely to provide a short- to middle-term solution. Emerging threats, including multidrug resistance and increasing urbanization in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, warrant focused attention to shorter-term interventions including immunization, and must include vaccine strategies with the new typhoid conjugate vaccines. PMID:26933019

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Typhoid Fever Control: A Call for Coordinated Action.

    PubMed

    Steele, A Duncan; Hay Burgess, Deborah C; Diaz, Zoey; Carey, Megan E; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2016-03-15

    The burden of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is substantial and has high impact in toddlers and young children. This burden is relatively well documented in Asia, and this supplement provides new data on the substantial burden in several sub-Saharan African countries. Challenges in standardized surveillance and imperfect diagnostic tools have resulted in patchy local disease data, which are not well acknowledged or integrated into local country evidence and health awareness for decision making. There is a need to strengthen diagnostics for the generation of burden data in country. Furthermore, the guidelines and training for treatment of enteric fever cases in Africa are sorely needed to help mitigate the inappropriate use of antimicrobial treatment. Classic water safety and access to sanitation development remain powerful tools for the control of typhoid fever, yet the huge economic costs and long timelines are unlikely to provide a short- to middle-term solution. Emerging threats, including multidrug resistance and increasing urbanization in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, warrant focused attention to shorter-term interventions including immunization, and must include vaccine strategies with the new typhoid conjugate vaccines. PMID:26933019

  13. An evidence-based vector control strategy for military deployments: the British Army experience.

    PubMed

    Croft, A M; Baker, D; von Bertele, M J

    2001-01-01

    We describe the British Army's current strategy for controlling arthropod vectors of disease during overseas deployments. Military commanders and medical officers have different, but complementary responsibilities in achieving vector control. In this paper we define a hierarchy of evidence-based vector control guidelines. Field guidelines must be based on the best available research evidence, preferably that derived from pragmatic randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and from systematic reviews of trials. Assessing the effectiveness of different vector control measures involves a trade-off between the relative benefits and harm of different technology options. There is compelling scientific evidence that bed nets and screens treated with a pyrethroid insecticide are highly effective in protecting against nocturnally active, anthropophilic arthropods (including ectoparasites), and will reduce the incidence of malaria, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis and Chagas' disease. Etofenprox and deltamethrin are the safest pyrethroids, and permethrin the least safe. Vector control strategies of probable effectiveness are the use of insecticide-treated clothing, the wearing of protective clothing, and the correct use of DEET-based topical insect repellents. Aerosol insecticides are of debatable effectiveness. Other effective vector control measures, of limited usefulness during deployments, include electric fans, mosquito coils/vaporising mats, and smoke. "Biological" vector control measures, and insect buzzers/electrocuters are ineffective. Practical insect avoidance measures, based on an understanding of vector biology, complete the military vector-control arsenal. We conclude that practical insect avoidance measures, combined with pyrethroid-treated nets and clothing, and DEET-based topical repellents, can achieve almost 100% protection against biting arthropods. PMID:11584666

  14. Does self-control improve with practice? Evidence from a six-week training program.

    PubMed

    Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal; Baird, Harriet; Macdonald, Ian; Webb, Thomas L; Harris, Peter R

    2016-08-01

    Can self-control be improved through practice? Several studies have found that repeated practice of tasks involving self-control improves performance on other tasks relevant to self-control. However, in many of these studies, improvements after training could be attributable to methodological factors (e.g., passive control conditions). Moreover, the extent to which the effects of training transfer to real-life settings is not yet clear. In the present research, participants (N = 174) completed a 6-week training program of either cognitive or behavioral self-control tasks. We then tested the effects of practice on a range of measures of self-control, including lab-based and real-world tasks. Training was compared with both active and no-contact control conditions. Despite high levels of adherence to the training tasks, there was no effect of training on any measure of self-control. Trained participants did not, for example, show reduced ego depletion effects, become better at overcoming their habits, or report exerting more self-control in everyday life. Moderation analyses found no evidence that training was effective only among particular groups of participants. Bayesian analyses suggested that the data were more consistent with a null effect of training on self-control than with previous estimates of the effect of practice. The implication is that training self-control through repeated practice does not result in generalized improvements in self-control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27359129

  15. Infection control in implantation of cardiac implantable electronic devices: current evidence, controversial points, and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Sideris, Skevos; Dilaveris, Polychronis; Gatzoulis, Konstantinos; Goudevenos, John A

    2016-04-01

    A significant increase in the implantation of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is evident over the past years, while there is evidence for a disproportionate increase in CIED-related infections. The cumulative probability of device infection seems to be higher in implantable cardioverter defibrillator and in cardiac resynchronization therapy patients compared with permanent pacemaker patients. Given that more than a half of CIED infections are possibly related to the operative procedure, there is a need for effective periprocedural infection control. However, many of the current recommendations are empirical and not evidence-based, while questions, unresolved issues, and conflicting evidence arise. The perioperative systemic use of antibiotics confers significant benefit in prevention of CIED infections. However, there are no conclusive data regarding the specific value of each agent in different clinical settings, the value of post-operative antibiotic treatment as well as the optimal duration of therapy. The merit of local pocket irrigation with antibiotic and/or antiseptic agents remains unproved. Of note, recent evidence indicates that the application of antibacterial envelopes into the device pocket markedly decreases the infection risk. In addition, limited reports on strict integrated infection control protocols show a dramatic reduction in infection rates in this setting and therefore deserve further attention. Finally, the relative impact of particular factors on the infection risk, including the type of the CIED, patients' individual characteristics and comorbidities, should be further examined since it may facilitate the development of tailored prophylactic interventions for each patient. PMID:26516219

  16. Symposium on Girls' Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings (Arabic Version). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and explored implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  17. Predicting mechanism of biphasic growth factor action on tumor growth using a multi-species model with feedback control

    PubMed Central

    Konstorum, Anna; Sprowl, Stephanie A.; Waterman, Marian L.; Lander, Arthur D.; Lowengrub, John S.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of growth factors and drugs are known to act in a biphasic manner: at lower concentrations they cause increased division of target cells, whereas at higher concentrations the mitogenic effect is inhibited. Often, the molecular details of the mitogenic effect of the growth factor are known, whereas the inhibitory effect is not. Hepatoctyte Growth Factor, HGF, has recently been recognized as a strong mitogen that is present in the microenvironment of solid tumors. Recent evidence suggests that HGF acts in a biphasic manner on tumor growth. We build a multi-species model of HGF action on tumor cells using different hypotheses for high dose-HGF activation of a growth inhibitor and show that the shape of the dose-response curve is directly related to the mechanism of inhibitor activation. We thus hypothesize that the shape of a dose-response curve is informative of the molecular action of the growth factor on the growth inhibitor. PMID:25075381

  18. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sharon L.; Schroder, Hans S.; Moran, Tim P.; Durbin, C. Emily; Moser, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes – the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) – measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes – startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry – in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years. PMID:26386550

  19. Providing patients with reviews of evidence about COPD treatments: a controlled trial of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harris, M; Smith, B J; Veale, A; Esterman, A; Frith, P A; Selim, P

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many countries have identified gaps between what is known from research evidence and what is done in clinical practice. Merely making research evidence available to practitioners does not cause much change in their behaviour, and researchers are now looking for more effective ways to improve the implementation of evidence. We report outcomes at three months of a parallel group trial of an evidence based patient manual designed to improve implementation of evidence by the patient's doctors. The patient manual was produced with extensive patient and professional input. It contained summaries of the evidence for treatments used in COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and prompted discussion of evidence with doctors. Participants in the intervention arm of the trial (n = 125) were supplied with the manual and participants in the control arm (n = 124) were supplied with a pamphlet about COPD produced by the Australian Lung Foundation. The primary outcome measure (rates of current influenza vaccination and bone density testing) was an indicator of evidence based management of COPD. Secondary outcomes were quality of life (mastery component), satisfaction with information, communication with usual doctor, and anxiety. At three months no pattern of benefit in outcome measures was found for either group. Process measures showed high levels of personal use of the manual but progression to conversations with doctors for fewer than half of participants, and little treatment change. The findings highlight the difficulties of promoting changes in health behaviour and show that even when all stakeholders are consulted success is not guaranteed. Further research is required to identify those patients most likely to use manuals such as the one reported here, and how to make patient mediated interventions more effective for a greater proportion of the target population. PMID:16916007

  20. Bacteriocins: modes of action and potentials in food preservation and control of food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Abee, T; Krockel, L; Hill, C

    1995-12-01

    -negative bacteria possess an additional layer, the so-called outer membrane which is composed of phospholipids, proteins and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and this membrane is impermeable to most molecules. Nevertheless, the presence of porins in this layer will allow the free diffusion of molecules with a molecular mass below 600 Da. The smallest bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are approximately 3 kDa and are thus too large to reach their target, the cytoplasmic membrane (Klaenhammer, 1993; Stiles and Hastings, 1991). However, Stevens et al. (1991) and Ray (1993) have demonstrated that Salmonella species and other Gram-negative bacteria become sensitive to nisin after exposure to treatments that change the permeability barrier properties of the outer membrane (see below). This review will focus on the mode of action of lantibiotics (class I) and class II LAB bacteriocins and their potentials in food preservation and control of food poisoning. PMID:8750665

  1. Self-regulatory predictors of eating disorder symptoms: Understanding the contributions of action control and willpower beliefs.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elizabeth D; Pollert, Garrett A; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    Action orientation, or the ability to regulate both positive and negative affect to perform goal-directed action, has been associated with eating behavior in previous research. Additionally, differences in beliefs about self-control have been shown to influence behavior, but it is unclear how these beliefs impact disordered eating behavior or how they may interact with other self-regulatory mechanisms to predict eating outcomes. In this study, 1128 participants were recruited online via Amazon Mechanical Turk to answer questions about self-regulation constructs and eating behavior. A three-way moderated regression analysis was used to assess relationships between two subtypes of action orientation (failure-related action orientation, or AOF, which describes an ability to up-regulate positive affect, and decision-related action orientation, or AOD, which describes an ability to down-regulate negative affect), willpower beliefs, and binge eating. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction between AOD, AOF, and willpower beliefs such that the interaction between AOF and willpower beliefs was only significant for those with low AOD. These findings suggest an ability to down-regulate negative affect (high AOF) is a protective factor against increased disordered eating, though this may not be the case for individuals with an inability to up-regulate positive affect (low AOD) and simultaneously ascribe to beliefs that willpower is a limited resource. PMID:26643592

  2. Evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms in the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 on the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Seto, David; Kar, Satyabrata; Quirion, Rémi

    1997-01-01

    The biphasic nature of the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by use of brain slice superfusion.Both the potentiating (10−13 M) and inhibitory (10−9 M) effects of IL-2 on hippocampal ACh release were stimulation-dependent and were blocked by a neutralizing IL-2 receptor antibody, suggesting the activation of typical IL-2 receptors in both cases.Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 10 μM) failed to block the potentiation of ACh release induced by a very low concentration of IL-2 (10−13M) suggesting a direct effect on cholinergic nerve terminals.In contrast, the inhibitory effect seen at a higher concentration (10−9 M) was TTX-sensitive, and hence indicative of an indirect action.To establish the nature of this intermediate mediator, blockers of nitric oxide synthesis, and of opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were used. Only GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists altered the inhibitory action of IL-2, suggesting the participation of GABA as mediator.Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the potent role of IL-2 in the modulation of cholinergic function in the rat hippocampus. PMID:9134229

  3. Neurobehavioral evidence for individual differences in canine cognitive control: an awake fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Peter F; Spivak, Mark; Berns, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    Based on behavioral evidence, the domestic dog has emerged as a promising comparative model of human self-control. However, while research on human inhibition has probed heterogeneity and neuropathology through an integration of neural and behavioral evidence, there are no parallel data exploring the brain mechanisms involved in canine inhibition. Here, using a combination of cognitive testing and awake neuroimaging in domestic dogs, we provide evidence precisely localizing frontal brain regions underpinning response inhibition in this species and demonstrate the dynamic relationship between these regions and behavioral measures of control. Thirteen dogs took part in an in-scanner go/no-go task and an out-of-scanner A-not-B test. A frontal brain region was identified showing elevated neural activity for all subjects during successful inhibition in the scanner, and dogs showing greater mean brain activation in this region produced fewer false alarms. Better performance in the go/no-go task was also correlated with fewer errors in the out-of-scanner A-not-B test, suggesting that dogs show consistent neurobehavioral individual differences in cognitive control, as is seen in humans. These findings help establish parity between human and canine mechanisms of self-control and pave the way for future comparative studies examining their function and dysfunction. PMID:27062134

  4. The supply and demand for pollution control: Evidence from wastewater treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, V.D.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determination of pollution control from wastewater treatment plants as an economic decision facing local or regional regulators. Pollution control is measured by plant design effluent concentration levels and is fully endogenous in a supply- and-demand model of treatment choice. On the supply side, plant costs are a function of the design treatment level of the plant, and on the demand side, treatment level is a function of both the costs of control and the regional or regulatory preferences for control. We find evidence that the economic model of effluent choice by local regulators has a good deal of explanatory power. We find evidence that wastewater treatment plant removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD) is sensitive to many local factors including the size of the treatment plant, the flow rate of the receiving water, the population density of the surrounding area, regional growth, state sensitivity to environmental issues, state income, and the extent to which the damages from pollution fall on other states. We find strong evidence that regulators are sensitive to capital costs in determining the design level of BOD effluent reduction at a plant. Thus, proposed reductions in federal subsidies for wastewater treatment plant construction are likely to have significant adverse effects on water quality. ?? 1992.

  5. Mistakes were made: neural mechanisms for the adaptive control of action initiation by the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Laubach, Mark; Caetano, Marcelo S; Narayanan, Nandakumar S

    2015-01-01

    Studies in rats, monkeys and humans have established that the medial prefrontal cortex is crucial for the ability to exert adaptive control over behavior. Here, we review studies on the role of the rat medial prefrontal cortex in adaptive control, with a focus on simple reaction time tasks that can be easily used across species and have clinical relevance. The performance of these tasks is associated with neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex that reflects stimulus detection, action timing, and outcome monitoring. We describe rhythmic neural activity that occurs when animals initiate a temporally extended action. Such rhythmic activity is coterminous with major changes in population spike activity. Testing animals over a series of sessions with varying pre-stimulus intervals showed that the signals adapt to the current temporal demands of the task. Disruptions of rhythmic neural activity occur on error trials (premature responding) and lead to a persistent encoding of the error and a subsequent change in behavioral performance (i.e. post-error slowing). Analysis of simultaneously recorded spike activity suggests that the presence of strong theta rhythms is coterminous with altered network dynamics, and might serve as a mechanism for adaptive control. Computational modeling suggests that these signals may enable learning from errors. Together, our findings contribute to an emerging literature and provide a new perspective on the neuronal mechanisms for the adaptive control of action. PMID:25636373

  6. Control of steroid receptor dynamics and function by genomic actions of the cochaperones p23 and Bag-1L

    PubMed Central

    Cato, Laura; Neeb, Antje; Brown, Myles

    2014-01-01

    Molecular chaperones encompass a group of unrelated proteins that facilitate the correct assembly and disassembly of other macromolecular structures, which they themselves do not remain a part of. They associate with a large and diverse set of coregulators termed cochaperones that regulate their function and specificity. Amongst others, chaperones and cochaperones regulate the activity of several signaling molecules including steroid receptors, which upon ligand binding interact with discrete nucleotide sequences within the nucleus to control the expression of diverse physiological and developmental genes. Molecular chaperones and cochaperones are typically known to provide the correct conformation for ligand binding by the steroid receptors. While this contribution is widely accepted, recent studies have reported that they further modulate steroid receptor action outside ligand binding. They are thought to contribute to receptor turnover, transport of the receptor to different subcellular localizations, recycling of the receptor on chromatin and even stabilization of the DNA-binding properties of the receptor. In addition to these combined effects with molecular chaperones, cochaperones are reported to have additional functions that are independent of molecular chaperones. Some of these functions also impact on steroid receptor action. Two well-studied examples are the cochaperones p23 and Bag-1L, which have been identified as modulators of steroid receptor activity in nuclei. Understanding details of their regulatory action will provide new therapeutic opportunities of controlling steroid receptor action independent of the widespread effects of molecular chaperones. PMID:25422595

  7. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are associated with dysfunction in stimulus valuation but not action valuation.

    PubMed

    Piray, Payam; Zeighami, Yashar; Bahrami, Fariba; Eissa, Abeer M; Hewedi, Doaa H; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2014-06-01

    A substantial subset of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffers from impulse control disorders (ICDs), which are side effects of dopaminergic medication. Dopamine plays a key role in reinforcement learning processes. One class of reinforcement learning models, known as the actor-critic model, suggests that two components are involved in these reinforcement learning processes: a critic, which estimates values of stimuli and calculates prediction errors, and an actor, which estimates values of potential actions. To understand the information processing mechanism underlying impulsive behavior, we investigated stimulus and action value learning from reward and punishment in four groups of participants: on-medication PD patients with ICD, on-medication PD patients without ICD, off-medication PD patients without ICD, and healthy controls. Analysis of responses suggested that participants used an actor-critic learning strategy and computed prediction errors based on stimulus values rather than action values. Quantitative model fits also revealed that an actor-critic model of the basal ganglia with different learning rates for positive and negative prediction errors best matched the choice data. Moreover, whereas ICDs were associated with model parameters related to stimulus valuation (critic), PD was associated with parameters related to action valuation (actor). Specifically, PD patients with ICD exhibited lower learning from negative prediction errors in the critic, resulting in an underestimation of adverse consequences associated with stimuli. These findings offer a specific neurocomputational account of the nature of compulsive behaviors induced by dopaminergic drugs. PMID:24899705

  8. Shared and Distinct Neuroanatomic Regions Critical for Tool-related Action Production and Recognition: Evidence from 131 Left-hemisphere Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Leyla Y; Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2015-12-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe have been characterized as human homologues of the monkey "mirror neuron" system, critical for both action production (AP) and action recognition (AR). However, data from brain lesion patients with selective impairment on only one of these tasks provide evidence of neural and cognitive dissociations. We sought to clarify the relationship between AP and AR, and their critical neural substrates, by directly comparing performance of 131 chronic left-hemisphere stroke patients on both tasks--to our knowledge, the largest lesion-based experimental investigation of action cognition to date. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, we found that lesions to primary motor and somatosensory cortices and inferior parietal lobule were associated with disproportionately impaired performance on AP, whereas lesions to lateral temporo-occipital cortex were associated with a relatively rare pattern of disproportionately impaired performance on AR. In contrast, damage to posterior middle temporal gyrus was associated with impairment on both AP and AR. The distinction between lateral temporo-occipital cortex, critical for recognition, and posterior middle temporal gyrus, important for both tasks, suggests a rough gradient from modality-specific to abstract representations in posterior temporal cortex, the first lesion-based evidence for this phenomenon. Overall, the results of this large patient study help to bring closure to a long-standing debate by showing that tool-related AP and AR critically depend on both common and distinct left hemisphere neural substrates, most of which are external to putative human mirror regions. PMID:26351989

  9. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence from In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive technique that has been experimentally tested for a number of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Preliminary observations suggest that this approach can indeed influence a number of cellular and molecular pathways that may be disease relevant. However, the mechanisms of action underlying its beneficial effects are largely unknown and need to be better understood to allow this therapy to be used optimally. In this review, we summarize the physiological responses observed in vitro and in vivo, with a particular emphasis on cellular and molecular cascades associated with inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity recruited by direct current stimulation, a topic that has been largely neglected in the literature. A better understanding of the neural responses to transcranial direct current stimulation is critical if this therapy is to be used in large-scale clinical trials with a view of being routinely offered to patients suffering from various conditions affecting the central nervous system. PMID:25522391

  10. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of transcranial direct current stimulation: evidence from in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Simon J; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive technique that has been experimentally tested for a number of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Preliminary observations suggest that this approach can indeed influence a number of cellular and molecular pathways that may be disease relevant. However, the mechanisms of action underlying its beneficial effects are largely unknown and need to be better understood to allow this therapy to be used optimally. In this review, we summarize the physiological responses observed in vitro and in vivo, with a particular emphasis on cellular and molecular cascades associated with inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity recruited by direct current stimulation, a topic that has been largely neglected in the literature. A better understanding of the neural responses to transcranial direct current stimulation is critical if this therapy is to be used in large-scale clinical trials with a view of being routinely offered to patients suffering from various conditions affecting the central nervous system. PMID:25522391

  11. Resilience in action: an evidence-informed, theoretically driven approach to building strengths in an office-based setting.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Carlson, Elyse C

    2011-12-01

    Positive Youth Development and resilience-based strategies designed to develop youth capabilities are promising means to reduce risky behaviors. This article focuses on applying a strengths-based approach in a health setting. It is anchored in behavioral models that propose that people make health-promoting decisions when they possess enough information to wish to change, motivation to drive them toward change, and the skill sets to take action toward and then maintain healthier behaviors. It considers how our interactions will benefit when we (1) form a trustworthy connection and health-promoting partnership, (2) use a behavioral screen that addresses risk in the context of existing strengths, (3) elicit strengths as well as challenges, (4) facilitate youth to derive their own solutions, and (5) offer teens positive coping strategies. PMID:22423460

  12. The interplay of maternal sensitivity and gentle control when predicting children's subsequent academic functioning: Evidence of mediation by effortful control.

    PubMed

    Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L; Seay, Danielle M; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and measures of children's academic functioning were combined across 72 and 84 months (T5/T6; Ns = 255, 222, 200, 162, and 143). Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that T1 maternal sensitivity moderated the relation between T1 maternal gentle control and T2 EC, and T3 EC predicted children's later academic functioning. There was evidence for moderated mediation, such that when maternal sensitivity was high, children's EC mediated the relation between T1 maternal gentle control and children's academic functioning, even after controlling for stability of the constructs. The relation between maternal gentle control and children's EC was not significant under conditions of low maternal sensitivity. Implications for parenting programs are offered and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228451

  13. Electrophysiological evidence for the action of a center-surround mechanism on semantic processing in the left hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, Diana; Shelley-Tremblay, John F.; Ritter, Walter; Dynowska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Physiological evidence was sought for a center-surround attentional mechanism (CSM), which has been proposed to assist in the retrieval of weakly activated items from semantic memory. The CSM operates by facilitating strongly related items in the “center” of the weakly activated area of semantic memory, and inhibiting less strongly related items in its “surround”. In this study weak activation was created by having subjects acquire the meanings of new words to a recall criterion of only 50%. Subjects who attained this approximate criterion level of performance were subsequently included in a semantic priming task, during which ERPs were recorded. Primes were newly learned rare words, and targets were either synonyms, non-synonymously related words, or unrelated words. All stimuli were presented to the RVF/LH (right visual field/left hemisphere) or the LVF/RH (left visual field/right hemisphere). Under RVF/LH stimulation the newly learned word primes produced facilitation on N400 for synonym targets, and inhibition for related targets. No differences were observed under LVF/RH stimulation. The LH thus, supports a CSM, whereby a synonym in the “center” of attention, focused on the newly learned word, is facilitated, whereas a related word in the “surround” is inhibited. The data are consistent with the view of this laboratory that semantic memory is subserved by a spreading activation system in the LH. Also consistent with our view, there was no evidence of spreading activation in the RH. The findings are discussed in the context of additional recent theories of semantic memory. Finally, the adult right hemisphere may require more learning than the LH in order to demonstrate evidence of meaning acquisition. PMID:24416022

  14. Upper limb children action-observation training (UP-CAT): a randomised controlled trial in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rehabilitation for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) aimed to improve function of the impaired upper limb (UL) uses a wide range of intervention programs. A new rehabilitative approach, called Action-Observation Therapy, based on the recent discovery of mirror neurons, has been used in adult stroke but not in children. The purpose of the present study is to design a randomised controlled trial (RCT) for evaluating the efficacy of Action-Observation Therapy in improving UL activity in children with HCP. Methods/Design The trial is designed according to CONSORT Statement. It is a randomised, evaluator-blinded, match-pair group trial. Children with HCP will be randomised within pairs to either experimental or control group. The experimental group will perform an Action-Observation Therapy, called UP-CAT (Upper Limb-Children Action-Observation Training) in which they will watch video sequences showing goal-directed actions, chosen according to children UL functional level, combined with motor training with their hemiplegic UL. The control group will perform the same tailored actions after watching computer games. A careful revision of psychometric properties of UL outcome measures for children with hemiplegia was performed. Assisting Hand Assessment was chosen as primary measure and, based on its calculation power, a sample size of 12 matched pairs was established. Moreover, Melbourne and ABILHAND-Kids were included as secondary measures. The time line of assessments will be T0 (in the week preceding the onset of the treatment), T1 and T2 (in the week after the end of the treatment and 8 weeks later, respectively). A further assessment will be performed at T3 (24 weeks after T1), to evaluate the retention of effects. In a subgroup of children enrolled in both groups functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, exploring the mirror system and sensory-motor function, will be performed at T0, T1 and T2. Discussion The paper aims to describe the

  15. Neural and Behavioral Evidence for an Intrinsic Cost of Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Kool, Wouter; McGuire, Joseph T.; Wang, Gary J.; Botvinick, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity for self-control is critical to adaptive functioning, yet our knowledge of the underlying processes and mechanisms is presently only inchoate. Theoretical work in economics has suggested a model of self-control centering on two key assumptions: (1) a division within the decision-maker between two ‘selves’ with differing preferences; (2) the idea that self-control is intrinsically costly. Neuroscience has recently generated findings supporting the ‘dual-self’ assumption. The idea of self-control costs, in contrast, has remained speculative. We report the first independent evidence for self-control costs. Through a neuroimaging meta-analysis, we establish an anatomical link between self-control and the registration of cognitive effort costs. This link predicts that individuals who strongly avoid cognitive demand should also display poor self-control. To test this, we conducted a behavioral experiment leveraging a measure of demand avoidance along with two measures of self-control. The results obtained provide clear support for the idea of self-control costs. PMID:24013455

  16. Qualitative Differences between Bilingual Language Control and Executive Control: Evidence from Task-Switching

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, Marco; Hernández, Mireia; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that highly proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2), the so-called “symmetrical switch cost” effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC) can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC). We tested highly proficient Catalan–Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1) or L3 (Experiment 2) depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag). In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (color and shape). Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system. PMID:22275905

  17. The potential role of homocysteine in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI): review of current evidence and plausibility of action.

    PubMed

    Stanger, O

    2004-12-01

    Several millions of patients with coronary heart disease worldwide are treated by means ofpercutaneous interventions each year. Above all conventional balloon dilation and implantation of uncoated stents are, however, only of limited success as reflected by 6-month restenosis rates of 50% (balloon dilation) and 25-35% (bare-metal stent). It is therefore of utmost importance to identify high-risk groups and explore further secondary-prophylactic measures for the prevention of restenosis. A large body of evidence suggests that elevated homocysteine and/or folate and B-vitamin deficiencies are relevant risk factors for restenoses due to their proatherothrombotic potential. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an ideal target as this parameter can be lowered easily, safely and at a low cost by means of folate and B-vitamin supplementation. The results of published studies exploring a potential correlation between homocysteine levels and the risk of restenosis and those of interventional studies for the reduction of the risk of restenosis have not yet lead to consistent conclusions. However, a critical assessment can by no means exclude the plausibility of postinterventional lowering of homocysteine levels. This review aims at providing insight into the current evidence and biological plausibility of homocysteine-lowering therapy in regard to PCI-related vascular damage. Currently available clinical observational and interventional studies are reviewed in detail. PMID:15704259

  18. Evidence for Helical Magnetic fields in Kiloparsec-Scale AGN Jets and the Action of a Cosmic Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabuzda, D. C.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopulos, I.; Kazanas, D.

    2012-01-01

    A search for transverse kiloparsec-scale gradients in Faraday rotation-measure (RM) maps of extragalactic radio sources in the literature has yielded 6 AGNs displaying continuous, monotonic RM gradients across their jets, oriented roughly orthogonal to the local jet direction. The most natural interpretation of such transverse RM gradients is that they are caused by the systematic change in the line-of-sight components of helical magnetic fields associated with these jets. All the identified transverse RM gradients increase in the counterclockwise (CCW) direction on the sky relative to the centers of these AGNs. Taken together with the results of Contopoulos et al. who found evidence for a predominance of clockwise (CW) transverse RM gradients across parsec-scale (VLBI) jets, this provides new evidence for preferred orientations of RM gradients due to helical jet magnetic fields, with a reversal from CW in the inner jets to CCW farther from the centers of activity. This can be explained by the "Poynting-Robertson cosmic-battery" mechanism, which can generate helical magnetic fields with a. characteristic "twist," which are expelled with the jet outflows. If the Poynting-Robertson battery mechanism is not operating, an alternative mechanism must be identified, which is able to explain the 'predominance of CW /CCW RM gradients on parsec/kiloparsec scales.

  19. Sensory gain control (amplification) as a mechanism of selective attention: electrophysiological and neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hillyard, S A; Vogel, E K; Luck, S J

    1998-01-01

    Both physiological and behavioral studies have suggested that stimulus-driven neural activity in the sensory pathways can be modulated in amplitude during selective attention. Recordings of event-related brain potentials indicate that such sensory gain control or amplification processes play an important role in visual-spatial attention. Combined event-related brain potential and neuroimaging experiments provide strong evidence that attentional gain control operates at an early stage of visual processing in extrastriate cortical areas. These data support early selection theories of attention and provide a basis for distinguishing between separate mechanisms of attentional suppression (of unattended inputs) and attentional facilitation (of attended inputs). PMID:9770220

  20. Internal quality control in point-of-care testing: where's the evidence?

    PubMed

    Holt, Helen; Freedman, Danielle B

    2016-03-01

    ISO 22870 standards require protocols for performance of internal quality control for all point-of-care testing devices and training of users in its theory and practice. However, the unique setting of point-of-care testing (i.e. processes conducted by non-scientific users) means that laboratory internal quality control programmes do not easily translate to point-of-care testing. In addition, while the evidence base for internal quality control within the laboratory has been increasing, the equivalent literature surrounding point-of-care testing is very limited. This has led to wide variation in what is considered acceptable practice for internal quality control at the point of care. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that internal quality control is an area of deficiency in point-of-care testing. Internal quality control protocols used at point-of-care testing should be defined based on risk management. The protocol will therefore be dependent on analyser complexity and availability of inbuilt system checks, the risk associated with release of an incorrect patient result as well as frequency of use. The emphasis should be on designing an effective internal quality control protocol as opposed to the inherent tendency of introducing high-frequency quality control. Typically a simple pass or fail criterion is used for internal quality control in point-of-care testing based on whether internal quality control results fall within assigned ranges. While simply taught, such criteria can require broad internal quality control ranges to decrease the probability of false rejection (also reducing the probability of error detection). Customized internal quality control ranges, two-tier acceptance systems and assay-specific internal quality control can be used to improve error detection rates. PMID:26486440

  1. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-07-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians. PMID:27261273

  2. Impaired Action Control in Schizophrenia: The Role of Volitional Saccade Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Benedikt; Jager, Markus; Bottlender, Ronald; Kathmann, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients show prefrontal cortex dysfunctions of neurodevelopmental origin, but the cognitive implications of these dysfunctions are not yet understood. This study used experimental variations of oculomotor tasks to evaluate the relative roles of volitional action initiation and the inhibition of reflexive behavior. Thirty…

  3. Hepatic mTORC1 Opposes Impaired Insulin Action to Control Mitochondrial Metabolism in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kucejova, Blanka; Duarte, Joao; Satapati, Santhosh; Fu, Xiaorong; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B; Brugarolas, James; Burgess, Shawn C

    2016-07-12

    Dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism during hepatic insulin resistance may contribute to pathophysiologies ranging from elevated glucose production to hepatocellular oxidative stress and inflammation. Given that obesity impairs insulin action but paradoxically activates mTORC1, we tested whether insulin action and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) contribute to altered in vivo hepatic mitochondrial metabolism. Loss of hepatic insulin action for 2 weeks caused increased gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial anaplerosis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle oxidation, and ketogenesis. However, activation of mTORC1, induced by the loss of hepatic Tsc1, suppressed these fluxes. Only glycogen synthesis was impaired by both loss of insulin receptor and mTORC1 activation. Mice with a double knockout of the insulin receptor and Tsc1 had larger livers, hyperglycemia, severely impaired glycogen storage, and suppressed ketogenesis, as compared to those with loss of the liver insulin receptor alone. Thus, activation of hepatic mTORC1 opposes the catabolic effects of impaired insulin action under some nutritional states. PMID:27346353

  4. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Restrictions on Polygraph Usage Under Exemptions § 801.21 Adverse employment action under... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or...

  5. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Restrictions on Polygraph Usage Under Exemptions § 801.21 Adverse employment action under... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or...

  6. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Restrictions on Polygraph Usage Under Exemptions § 801.21 Adverse employment action under... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or...

  7. An fMRI study of joint action-varying levels of cooperation correlates with activity in control networks.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, Thierry; Marchant, Jennifer L; Kilner, James; Frith, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    As social agents, humans continually interact with the people around them. Here, motor cooperation was investigated using a paradigm in which pairs of participants, one being scanned with fMRI, jointly controlled a visually presented object with joystick movements. The object oscillated dynamically along two dimensions, color and width of gratings, corresponding to the two cardinal directions of joystick movements. While the overall control of each participant on the object was kept constant, the amount of cooperation along the two dimensions varied along four levels, from no (each participant controlled one dimension exclusively) to full (each participant controlled half of each dimension) cooperation. Increasing cooperation correlated with BOLD signal in the left parietal operculum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while decreasing cooperation correlated with activity in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the intraparietal sulci and inferior temporal gyri bilaterally, and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. As joint performance improved with the level of cooperation, we assessed the brain responses correlating with behavior, and found that activity in most of the areas associated with levels of cooperation also correlated with the joint performance. The only brain area found exclusively in the negative correlation with cooperation was in the dorso medial frontal cortex, involved in monitoring action outcome. Given the cluster location and condition-related signal change, we propose that this region monitored actions to extract the level of cooperation in order to optimize the joint response. Our results, therefore, indicate that, in the current experimental paradigm involving joint control of a visually presented object with joystick movements, the level of cooperation affected brain networks involved in action control, but not mentalizing. PMID:22715326

  8. Building evidence for peer-led interventions: assessing the cost of the Adolescent Asthma Action program in Australia.

    PubMed

    Otim, Michael E; Jayasinha, Ranmalie; Forbes, Hayley; Shah, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among adolescents in Australia. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents, in particular, face substantial inequalities in asthma-related outcomes. Triple A (Adolescent Asthma Action) is a peer-led education intervention, which aims to improve asthma self-management and reduce the uptake of smoking among adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of implementing the Triple A program in Australia. Standard economic costing methods were used. It involved identifying the resources that were utilised (such as personnel and program materials), measuring them and then valuing them. We later performed sensitivity analysis so as to identify the cost drivers and a stress test to test how the intervention can perform when some inputs are lacking. Results indicate that the estimated cost of implementing the Triple A program in five schools was $41060, assuming that the opportunity cost of all the participants and venues was accounted for. This translated to $8212 per school or $50 per target student. From sensitivity analysis and a stress test, it was identified that the cost of the intervention (in practice) was $14 per student. This appears to be a modest cost, given the burden of asthma. In conclusion, the Triple A program is an affordable intervention to implement in high schools. The potential asthma cost savings due to the program are significant. If the Triple A program is implemented nation-wide, the benefits would be substantial. PMID:25230153

  9. A role for the precuneus in thought–action fusion: Evidence from participants with significant obsessive–compulsive symptoms☆

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2013-01-01

    Likelihood thought–action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005), which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19–30 Hz) activity in the precuneus (p < .05). Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01), suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network. PMID:24371793

  10. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an 'evidence-based climatic health' transfrontier training program.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique; Essiembre, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1) the development of advanced training adapted to 'global environment' change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc) and 2) the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives - a chair that emphasizes 'innoversity' (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity) and 'transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions'. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute) based in Montreal is a center for 'transdisciplinary research' on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid adaptation of the public health sector, the public mental health sector, and the public service sector to climate change, as well as a center for complex collaborations on evidence-based climatic health 'training'. This program-focused article comprises two main sections. The first section presents the 'general' and 'specific contexts' in which the

  11. [Rabies in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: analysis of surveillance and control actions in the municipal field].

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Flavio Fernando Batista; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; Paixão, Rita Leal

    2015-02-01

    Rabies is an anthropozoonosis characterized by acute viral encephalitis with a lethality rate close to 100%, and it has undergone an epidemiologic transition in which the cycle involving chiroptera is increasing in importance. The scope of this research sought to analyze the rabies surveillance and control actions carried out in municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of zoonosis control service managers proportionately calculated in accordance with the Health Regions, according to the State Regionalization Guidance Plan. The data gathered was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Based on the results attained, the conclusion reached is that the rabies surveillance and control actions were being unsatisfactorily conducted, especially for items related to the monitoring of vampire bat colonies, viral circulation surveillance, notification and monitoring of suspect or aggressive animals, quantification of dog population and population control of stray dogs. The surveillance and control of rabies was being neglected, and was not a priority in the health services in the municipalities evaluated. PMID:25715151

  12. Efficacy and the Strength of Evidence of U.S. Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas; Brewer, Robert D.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Klitzner, Michael; Mosher, James; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Robert; Toomey, Traci L.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Public policy can limit alcohol consumption and its associated harms, but no direct comparison of the relative efficacy of alcohol control policies exists for the U.S. Purpose To identify alcohol control policies and develop quantitative ratings of their efficacy and strength of evidence. Methods In 2010, a Delphi panel of ten U.S. alcohol policy experts identified and rated the efficacy of alcohol control policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among both the general population and youth, and the strength of evidence informing the efficacy of each policy. The policies were nominated based on scientific evidence and potential for public health impact. Analysis was conducted in 2010–2012. Results Panelists identified and rated 47 policies. Policies limiting price received the highest ratings, with alcohol taxes receiving the highest ratings for all four outcomes. Highly rated policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the general population were also highly rated among youth, although several policies were rated more highly for youth compared with the general population. Policy efficacy ratings for the general population and youth were positively correlated for reducing both binge drinking (r = 0.50) and alcohol-impaired driving (r = 0.45). The correlation between efficacy ratings for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving was strong for the general population (r = 0.88) and for youth (r = 0.85). Efficacy ratings were positively correlated with strength-of-evidence ratings. Conclusions Comparative policy ratings can help characterize the alcohol policy environment, inform policy discussions, and identify future research needs. PMID:23790985

  13. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-10-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central

  14. Inhibition control impairments in adolescent smokers: electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Junsen; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Cheng, Jiadong; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Bi, Yanzhi; Sha, Shi; Shen, Xiaomin; Zhang, Ben; Xue, Ting; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Smoking during adolescence may promote nicotine dependence later on in life. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the neural mechanisms of adolescent smokers. As inhibition control is emphasized in several contemporary theoretical models of addiction, in the current study, we focused on the electrophysiological evidence of inhibition control deficits in adolescent smokers. By using relatively homogenous groups of adolescent smokers (n = 18) and matched nonsmokers (n = 18), we employed event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the N200 and P300 amplitude and latency differences during a Go/NoGo task between the adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, more NoGo response errors, reduced NoGo P300 amplitude, and longer P300 latency were observed in adolescent smokers. Correlation analysis revealed that the NoGo P300 amplitudes were significantly correlated with NoGo errors in both adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for inhibitory control impairments in adolescent smokers. It is hoped that our results may enhance understanding of the pathology of inhibitory control in adolescent smokers. PMID:26093534

  15. Interference control in adult ADHD: no evidence for interference control deficits if response speed is controlled by delta plots.

    PubMed

    Soutschek, Alexander; Schwarzkopf, Wolfgang; Finke, Kathrin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Müller, Hermann J; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Sorg, Christian; Schubert, Torsten

    2013-05-01

    Several theoretical accounts assume that interference control deficits belong to the core symptoms of adult ADHD. However, findings of increased interference effects in adult ADHD patients compared with healthy adults may be confounded with the simultaneous finding of generally slower responses in the patient group. The current study compared the magnitude of the interference effect in the Stroop task between a group of adults with ADHD and a healthy adult control group in a procedure that accounted for differences in overall response speed by using delta plots. The amount of interference did not differ between patient and control group at comparable reaction time levels. These results challenge the conclusions of the previous studies, in that they indicate that interference control is not impaired in adult ADHD. PMID:23542807

  16. Cancer control planners' perceptions and use of evidence-based programs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Peggy A; Fernandez, Maria E; Williams, Rebecca S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Escoffery, Cam; Kreuter, Matthew W; Pfeiffer, Debra; Kegler, Michelle C; Reese, LeRoy; Mistry, Ritesh; Bowen, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network surveyed 282 cancer control planners to inform its efforts to increase the use of evidence-based cancer control programs (EBPs; programs that have been scientifically tested and have successfully changed behavior). Respondents included planners from organizations in state Comprehensive Cancer Control coalitions as well as other governmental and nongovernmental organizations and community-based coalitions. Respondents provided information about personal and organizational characteristics, their cancer control programs, their attitudes toward EBPs, and their awareness and use of Web-based resources for EBPs. Although findings showed strong preferences for cancer control programs that have been shown to work, less than half of respondents (48%) had ever used EBP resources. Regardless of whether they had used EBP resources, almost all respondents (97%) indicated that further training would help them and their organizations adopt and adapt EBPs for use in their communities. The most frequently endorsed training needs were finding and securing additional resources (such as funding and technical assistance), followed by adapting EBPs for cultural appropriateness. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consortium is using these findings to develop a Web-based interactive training and decision support tool that is responsive to the needs identified by the survey respondents. PMID:20357600

  17. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top–down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top–down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1–L2 and L2–L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top–down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  18. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top-down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top-down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1-L2 and L2-L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top-down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  19. A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded) evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. Methods In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a) scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b) organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c) consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel. Results Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized. The proposed framework includes: 1) compilation of a list of potential interventions 2) modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3) streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4) refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans. Conclusions Development of a comprehensive tobacco control plan

  20. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  1. Implementation of a two-part unit-based multiple intervention: moving evidence-based practice into action.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, Judy; Thomas, Margot; Grégoire, Diane; Ledoux, Sheila

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the impact of a 2-part unit-based multiple intervention on the use by pediatric critical care nurses of best practice guidelines for pressure-ulcer prevention. A total of 23 nurses participated in a repeated-measures design pre- and post-intervention to address 2 questions: Is there a difference in nurses' evidence-based practices following implementation of an educational intervention only versus implementation of both an educational and an innovative intervention? Are the changes sustained 6 months after completion of the intervention? A significant change occurred in the implementation of 2 of 11 recommended practices following both interventions: assessment of risk of pressure ulcers using an age-appropriate tool (p < or = 0.001), and the documentation of same (p < or = 0.001). These changes may have been sustained. The findings bring to light the real challenges encountered when attempting to implement and evaluate multiple knowledge translation strategies associated with complex best practice guidelines in clinical practice. PMID:18714900

  2. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science.

    PubMed

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Brown, Glen; Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement.Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  3. Actions of genistein on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel gating. Evidence for two binding sites with opposite effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Zeltwanger, S; Yang, I C; Nairn, A C; Hwang, T C

    1998-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that genistein increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel activity in the presence of saturating concentrations of forskolin and calyculin A in intact cells. Possible molecular mechanisms for genistein's action include inhibition of tyrosine kinases, inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, or direct binding of genistein to CFTR. Since genistein inhibits several enzymes that hydrolyze ATP, and ATP hydrolysis is an intrinsic property of CFTR, we examined the effect of genistein on CFTR gating in excised inside-out patches from Hi-5 insect cells and NIH3T3 cells expressing recombinant CFTR. Genistein (50 microM) did not open phosphorylated CFTR channels by itself, but increased the ATP- induced CFTR channel current by approximately twofold. A similar magnitude of enhancement was observed when genistein was applied with PKI, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase A, or vanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, suggesting that inhibition of protein phosphatases or tyrosine kinases does not account for genistein's effects. The enhancement of channel current increased with increasing concentrations of genistein and reached a maximum at 35 microM genistein. At higher concentrations of genistein concentration, CFTR channel current decreased, resulting in a bell-shaped dose-response relationship. In the absence of genistein, both open- and closed-time histograms could be fitted with a single exponential function, yielding a mean open time (tauO) of 0.302 +/- 0.002 s, and a mean closed time (tauC) of 0.406 +/- 0.003 s. In the presence of 50 microM genistein, the open time histogram could be fitted with a double exponential function with tauO1 = 0.429 +/- 0. 003 s and tauO2 = 2.033 +/- 0.173 s. Thus, genistein induced a prolonged open state, an effect that mimics that of nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs. Closed time analysis showed that 50 microM genistein caused a prolonged closed state with a time

  4. The GPCR membrane receptor, DopEcR, mediates the actions of both dopamine and ecdysone to control sex pheromone perception in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Abrieux, Antoine; Duportets, Line; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory information mediating sexual behavior is crucial for reproduction in many animals, including insects. In male moths, the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL) is specialized in the treatment of information on the female-emitted sex pheromone. Evidence is accumulating that modulation of behavioral pheromone responses occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. We recently showed that a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), AipsDopEcR, with its homologue known in Drosophila for its double affinity to the main insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and dopamine (DA), present in the ALs, is involved in the behavioral response to pheromone in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Here we tested the role of AipsDopEcR as compared to nuclear 20E receptors in central pheromone processing combining receptor inhibition with intracellular recordings of AL neurons. We show that the sensitivity of AL neurons for the pheromone in males decreases strongly after AipsDopEcR-dsRNA injection but also after inhibition of nuclear 20E receptors. Moreover we tested the involvement of 20E and DA in the receptor-mediated behavioral modulation in wind tunnel experiments, using ligand applications and receptor inhibition treatments. We show that both ligands are necessary and act on AipsDopEcR-mediated behavior. Altogether these results indicate that the GPCR membrane receptor, AipsDopEcR, controls sex pheromone perception through the action of both 20E and DA in the central nervous system, probably in concert with 20E action through nuclear receptors. PMID:25309365

  5. How Early is Infants' Attention to Objects and Actions Shaped by Culture? New Evidence from 24-Month-Olds Raised in the US and China

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Fu, Xiaolan; Ferguson, Brock; Geraghty, Kathleen; Leddon, Erin; Liang, Jing; Zhao, Min-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that the culture in which we are raised shapes the way that we attend to the objects and events that surround us. What remains unclear, however, is how early any such culturally-inflected differences emerge in development. Here, we address this issue directly, asking how 24-month-old infants from the US and China deploy their attention to objects and actions in dynamic scenes. By analyzing infants' eye movements while they observed dynamic scenes, the current experiment revealed striking convergences, overall, in infants' patterns of visual attention in the two communities, but also pinpointed a brief period during which their attention reliably diverged. This divergence, though modest, suggested that infants from the US devoted relatively more attention to the objects and those from China devoted relatively more attention to the actions in which they were engaged. This provides the earliest evidence for strong overlap in infants' attention to objects and events in dynamic scenes, but also raises the possibility that by 24 months, infants' attention may also be shaped subtly by the culturally-inflected attentional proclivities characteristic of adults in their cultural communities. PMID:26903905

  6. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  7. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  8. Placebo-induced decrease in fatigue: evidence for a central action on the preparatory phase of movement.

    PubMed

    Piedimonte, Alessandro; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Carlino, Elisa

    2015-02-01

    Placebos have been found to affect a number of pathological processes and physiological functions through expectations of clinical improvement. Recently, the study of the placebo effect has moved from the clinical to the physical performance setting, wherein placebos can boost performance by increasing muscle work and by decreasing perceived exertion. However, nothing is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of this phenomenon. Here we show for the first time that a placebo, which subjects believed to be endurance-increasing caffeine, reduces fatigue by acting at the central level on the preparatory phase of movement. In fact, we recorded the readiness potential, which is the expression of the preparatory phase of movement at the level of the supplementary motor area, during repeated flexions of the index finger in a control group that did not receive any treatment and in a placebo group that received placebo caffeine. In the control group, as the number of flexions increased, both fatigue and readiness potential amplitude increased. By contrast, in the placebo group, as the number of flexions increased we found a decrease in perceived exertion along with no increase in readiness potential amplitude. This placebo-induced modulation of the readiness potential suggests that placebos reduce fatigue by acting centrally during the anticipatory phase of movement, thus emphasizing the important role of the central nervous system in the generation of fatigue. PMID:25522899

  9. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granek, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  10. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Granek, Joshua A; Sergio, Lauren E

    2015-08-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  11. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction.

    PubMed

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species. PMID:23004351

  12. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an ‘evidence-based climatic health’ transfrontier training program

    PubMed Central

    Lapaige, Véronique; Essiembre, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1) the development of advanced training adapted to ‘global environment’ change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc) and 2) the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives – a chair that emphasizes ‘innoversity’ (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity) and ‘transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions’. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute) based in Montreal is a center for ‘transdisciplinary research’ on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid adaptation of the public health sector, the public mental health sector, and the public service sector to climate change, as well as a center for complex collaborations on evidence-based climatic health ‘training’. This program-focused article comprises two main sections. The first section presents the ‘general’ and

  13. Cancer mode of action, weight of evidence, and proposed cancer reference value for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Okolica, Michelle R; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L

    2012-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, CAS No. 121-82-4) is a component of munitions formulations, and has been detected in groundwater samples collected at various US military sites. Clean up target levels for RDX may be derived based on consideration of acceptable cumulative human exposure as expressed in toxicity reference values. Evaluations of the cancer weight of evidence and possible modes of action (MOA) for RDX-induced cancer were conducted. It was concluded that the available data provide suggestive evidence of human carcinogenic potential for RDX. While a mutagenic/genotoxic MOA for RDX is unlikely, no alterative MOA is strongly supported by the available data. A nonlinear (threshold) approach to the assessment of human cancer risk was recommended, and a recommended chronic cancer reference dose of 0.08mg/kg/day was derived. For comparison only, computations using a linear approach were also conducted, yielding a cancer risk specific dose of 0.000235mg/kg/day for 1 in 10(5) risk; this value is 2.6-fold higher the current US EPA risk specific dose for 1 in 10(5) risk. Thus, cleanup standards based on human health risk from RDX exposure could potentially depend on the willingness of risk managers to accept a nonlinear MOA and nonlinear toxicity risk value derivation. PMID:22841928

  14. Evidence-Based Medicine applied to the control of communicable disease incidents when evidence is scarce and the time is limited.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S; Jansen, A; Leitmeyer, K; Murdoch, H; Forland, F

    2013-01-01

    Control of acute communicable disease incidents demands rapid risk assessment, often with minimal peer-reviewed literature available but conducted in the public's view. This paper explores how methods of evidence-based medicine (EBM) can be applied in this scenario to improve decision making and risk communication. A working group with members from EBM organisations, public health institutions and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control used a six-stage framework for rapid risk assessments: preparation, risk detection/verification, risk assessment, development of advice, implementation, and evaluation. It concluded that data from observational studies, surveillance and modelling play a vital role in the evidence base. However, there is a need to further develop protocols and standards, to perform, report and register outbreak investigations more systematically and rigorously, and to allow rapid retrieval of the evidence in emergencies. Lack of evidence for risk assessment and advice (usual for new and emerging diseases) should be made explicit to policy makers and the public. Priorities are to improve templates for reporting and assessing the quality of case and outbreak reports, apply grading systems to evidence generated from field investigations, improve retrieval systems for incident reports internationally, and assess how to communicate uncertainties of scientific evidence more explicitly. PMID:23806298

  15. Developing Competencies for Training Practitioners in Evidence-Based Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Ballew, Paula; Kittur, Nupur D.; Elliott, Michael B.; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Krebill, Hope; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Competency-based education allows public health departments to better develop a workforce aimed at conducting evidence-based control cancer. Methods A two-phased competency development process was conducted that systematically obtained input from practitioners in health departments and trainers in academe and community agencies (n = 60). Results Among the 26 competencies developed, 10 were rated at the beginner level, 12 were intermediate, and 4 were advanced. Community-level input competencies were seen as beginner level, whereas policy-related competencies were rated as advanced. Conclusion While adaptation to various audiences is needed, these competencies provide a foundation on which to build practitioner-focused training programs. PMID:19526405

  16. An Interdependent Model of Central/Peripheral Chemoreception: Evidence and Implications for Ventilatory Control

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Curtis A.; Forster, Hubert V.; Blain, Grégory M.; Dempsey, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    In this review we discuss the implications for ventilatory control of newer evidence suggesting that central and peripheral chemoreceptors are not functionally separate but rather that they are dependent upon one another such that the sensitivity of the medullary chemoreceptors is critically determined by input from the carotid body chemoreceptors and vice versa i.e., they are interdependent. We examine potential interactions of the interdependent central and carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors with other ventilatory-related inputs such as central hypoxia, lung stretch, and exercise. The limitations of current approaches addressing this question are discussed and future studies are suggested. PMID:20206717

  17. Controls and constrains of the membrane disrupting action of Aurein 1.2

    PubMed Central

    Shahmiri, Mahdi; Enciso, Marta; Mechler, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Aurein 1.2 is a 13 residue antimicrobial peptide secreted by the Australian tree frog Litoria Aurea. It is a surface-acting membrane disrupting peptide that permeabilizes bacterial membranes via the carpet mechanism; the molecular details of this process are mostly unknown. Here the mechanism of action of Aurein 1.2 was investigated with an emphasis on the role of membrane charge and C-terminal amidation of the peptide. Using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) fingerprinting it was found that the membrane charge correlates with membrane affinity of the peptide, however the binding and the membrane disrupting processes are not charge driven; increased membrane charge reduces the membrane disrupting activity. Coarse grain simulations revealed that phenylalanine residues act as membrane anchors. Accordingly Aurein 1.2 has the ability to bind to any membrane. Furthermore, bundling precludes membrane disruption in case of wild type peptides, while non C-terminal amidated peptides form random aggregates leading to detachment from the membrane. Hence C-terminal amidation is crucial for Aurein 1.2 action. Our results suggest that Aurein 1.2 acts via aggregation driven membrane penetration. The concomitant change in the tension of the outer leaflet imposes a spontaneous curvature on the membrane, leading to disintegration. PMID:26574052

  18. Action control is mediated by prefrontal BDNF and glucocorticoid receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Gourley, Shannon L; Swanson, Andrew M; Jacobs, Andrea M; Howell, Jessica L; Mo, Michelle; Dileone, Ralph J; Koleske, Anthony J; Taylor, Jane R

    2012-12-11

    Stressor exposure biases decision-making strategies from those based on the relationship between actions and their consequences to others restricted by stimulus-response associations. Chronic stressor exposure also desensitizes glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and diminishes motivation to acquire food reinforcement, although causal relationships are largely not established. We show that a history of chronic exposure to the GR ligand corticosterone or acute posttraining GR blockade with RU38486 makes rodents less able to perform actions based on their consequences. Thus, optimal GR binding is necessary for the consolidation of new response-outcome learning. In contrast, medial prefrontal (but not striatal) BDNF can account for stress-related amotivation, in that selective medial prefrontal cortical Bdnf knockdown decreases break-point ratios in a progressive-ratio task. Knockdown also increases vulnerability to RU38486. Despite the role of BDNF in dendritic spine reorganization, deep-layer spine remodeling does not obviously parallel progressive-ratio response patterns, but treatment with the Na(+)-channel inhibitor riluzole reverses corticosteroid-induced motivational deficits and restores prefrontal BDNF expression after corticosterone. We argue that when prefrontal neurotrophin systems are compromised, and GR-mediated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback is desensitized (as in the case of chronic stress hormone exposure), amotivation and inflexible maladaptive response strategies that contribute to stress-related mood disorders result. PMID:23185000

  19. Controls and constrains of the membrane disrupting action of Aurein 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmiri, Mahdi; Enciso, Marta; Mechler, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Aurein 1.2 is a 13 residue antimicrobial peptide secreted by the Australian tree frog Litoria Aurea. It is a surface-acting membrane disrupting peptide that permeabilizes bacterial membranes via the carpet mechanism; the molecular details of this process are mostly unknown. Here the mechanism of action of Aurein 1.2 was investigated with an emphasis on the role of membrane charge and C-terminal amidation of the peptide. Using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) fingerprinting it was found that the membrane charge correlates with membrane affinity of the peptide, however the binding and the membrane disrupting processes are not charge driven; increased membrane charge reduces the membrane disrupting activity. Coarse grain simulations revealed that phenylalanine residues act as membrane anchors. Accordingly Aurein 1.2 has the ability to bind to any membrane. Furthermore, bundling precludes membrane disruption in case of wild type peptides, while non C-terminal amidated peptides form random aggregates leading to detachment from the membrane. Hence C-terminal amidation is crucial for Aurein 1.2 action. Our results suggest that Aurein 1.2 acts via aggregation driven membrane penetration. The concomitant change in the tension of the outer leaflet imposes a spontaneous curvature on the membrane, leading to disintegration.

  20. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

  1. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  2. A series of experiments aimed at clarifying the mode of action of barley straw in cyanobacterial growth control.

    PubMed

    Iredale, Robert S; McDonald, Adrian T; Adams, David G

    2012-11-15

    For over 25 years it has been known that rotting barley straw can be used to prevent the development of blooms of cyanobacteria and algae in freshwater bodies, although its effectiveness can be variable. The mode of action is still not understood, although a number of hypotheses have been suggested, many of which are supported by little or no experimental evidence. Here, we provide the first experimental confirmation that microbial activity is responsible for the release of either the growth inhibitory fraction, or its precursor, from whole straw, after three or more weeks of decomposition. However, a much more rapid release of inhibitory components was achieved by fine chopping of fresh straw. In bioassays of straw activity the choice of both the cyanobacterial test strain and the assay temperature affected the outcome. The inhibitory activity of straw was greater when decomposition was carried out in the presence of UV-supplemented visible light and this activity was reduced in the presence of catalase, implying that straw activity may in part involve hydrogen peroxide. A better understanding of straw decomposition is required to clarify the mode of action of straw and allow the optimisation of its use in the field. PMID:22989994

  3. Three key regions for supervisory attentional control: Evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Edna C.; Mueller, Veronika I.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The supervisory attentional system has been proposed to mediate non-routine, goal-oriented behaviour by guiding the selection and maintenance of the goal-relevant task schema. Here, we aimed to delineate the brain regions that mediate these high-level control processes via neuroimaging meta-analysis. In particular, we investigated the core neural correlates of a wide range of tasks requiring supervisory control for the suppression of a routine action in favour of another, non-routine one. Our sample comprised n = 173 experiments employing go/no-go, stop-signal, Stroop or spatial interference tasks. Consistent convergence across all four paradigm classes was restricted to right anterior insula and inferior frontal junction, with anterior midcingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area being consistently involved in all but the go/no-go task. Taken together with lesion studies in patients, our findings suggest that the controlled activation and maintenance of adequate task schemata relies, across paradigms, on a right-dominant midcingulo-insular-inferior frontal core network. This also implies that the role of other prefrontal and parietal regions may be less domain-general than previously thought. PMID:25446951

  4. Evaluation and control of ergonomics actions in federal public service: the case of FIOCRUZ-RJ.

    PubMed

    Ricarta, Simone L Santa Isabel; Vidala, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Bonfattia, Renato José

    2012-01-01

    This article presents information about the development of the dissertation. Deals with the production of ergonomic diagnosis in the environments and work processes of an important center of research and development in Public Health, FIOCRUZ. Critically evaluates the performance of a team promoting and facilitating the process of implementing ergonomic changes suggested. Through analysis of documents and statements by some managers and representatives of Human Resources was possible to identify the factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation process, linking them to the organization of the institution and conduct of the agents involved. Finally, it makes a reflection on practice, results and developments involved in the processes of change initiated by the ergonomic actions, proposing its replication along with other institutes of the Civilian Personnel of Federal Public Administration. PMID:22316778

  5. Randomised controlled trial of clinical decision support tools to improve learning of evidence based medicine in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Gabriel M; Johnston, Janice M; Tin, Keith Y K; Wong, Irene O L; Ho, Lai-Ming; Lam, Wendy W T; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the educational effectiveness on learning evidence based medicine of a handheld computer clinical decision support tool compared with a pocket card containing guidelines and a control. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting University of Hong Kong, 2001. Participants 169 fourth year medical students. Main outcome measures Factor and individual item scores from a validated questionnaire on five key self reported measures: personal application and current use of evidence based medicine; future use of evidence based medicine; use of evidence during and after clerking patients; frequency of discussing the role of evidence during teaching rounds; and self perceived confidence in clinical decision making. Results The handheld computer improved participants' educational experience with evidence based medicine the most, with significant improvements in all outcome scores. More modest improvements were found with the pocket card, whereas the control group showed no appreciable changes in any of the key outcomes. No significant deterioration was observed in the improvements even after withdrawal of the handheld computer during an eight week washout period, suggesting at least short term sustainability of effects. Conclusions Rapid and convenient access to valid and relevant evidence on a portable computing device can improve learning in evidence based medicine, increase current and future use of evidence, and boost students' confidence in clinical decision making. PMID:14604933

  6. Geophysical Evidence for Abiotic Controls on Peatland Patterning at Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, J.; Slater, L.; Glaser, P.; Comas, X.; O'Brien, M.

    2007-12-01

    The autogenic and allogenic controls on the formation of distinctive and dramatic vegetation patterning found in northern peatlands remain unclear. Groundwater model studies and investigations using point measurements lack intensive data over multiple scales, primarily due to the intensive time required and difficult logistics required to work in these remote ecosystems. We provide geophysical evidence that lithological controls on vegetation patterning exist at multiple scales in ombrotrophic peatlands of northern Minnesota and Maine. Surveys using electrical imaging methods (including resistivity, induced polarization, and ground penetrating radar) at sites in the Red Lake Peatland Complex (160 km2), as well as Kanokolus Bog (1.65 km2) and the Caribou Bog Peatland Complex (22 km2) in Maine reveal sharp vegetation gradients coinciding with changes in the mineral soil lithology. In contrast, large-scale, continuous, patterned zones found in the Red lake Complex coincide with strikingly uniform mineral soil lithology as inferred from the geophysical images. Small-scale (0.3 km2) vegetation patterns observed in Caribou Bog also coincide with small scale lithologic changes in both the mineral and organic deposits. These results provide evidence that the subsurface hydrogeologic framework regulates vegetation patterning in peatlands across multiple scales, presumably by regulating (1) the supply of mineral solutes to the surface vegetation water, and (2) water levels within the organic soil.

  7. Who responds to financial incentives for weight loss? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Paloyo, Alfredo R; Reichert, Arndt R; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Tauchmann, Harald

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on the heterogeneous impacts of financial incentives on weight loss. Between March 2010 and January 2012, in a randomized controlled trial, we assigned 700 obese persons to three experimental arms. We test whether particular subgroups react differently to financial incentives for weight loss. Two treatment groups obtained a cash reward (€150 and €300 with 237 and 229 participants, respectively) for achieving an individually-assigned target weight within four months; the control group (234 participants) was not incentivized. Participants and administrators were not blinded to the intervention. We find that monetary rewards effectively induced obese individuals to reduce weight across all subgroups. However, there is no evidence for treatment-effect heterogeneity for those groups that were incentivized. Among those who were in the €300 group, statistically significant and large weight losses were observed for women, singles, and those who are not working (all above 4 kg in four months). In addition, the magnitude of the reward matters only for women and migrants. The effectiveness of financial incentives to reduce weight nevertheless raises sensitive ethical issues that should be taken into consideration by policymakers. PMID:26448164

  8. Gender differences in condom use prediction with Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and control.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Silva, A; Sánchez-García, M; Nunes, C; Martins, A

    2007-10-01

    There is much evidence that demonstrates that programs and interventions based on the theoretical models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been effective in the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of both models in the prediction of condom use, distinguishing two components inside the variable Perceived Behavioural Control of the TPB model: self-efficacy and control. The perspective of gender differences is also added. The study was carried out in a sample of 601 Portuguese and Spanish university students. The results show that the females have a higher average in all the TPB variables than males, except in the frequency of condom use: females request the use of condoms less frequently than males. On the other hand, for both females and males the TPB model predicts better condom-use intention than the TRA. However there are no differences between the two models in relation to the prediction of condom-use behaviour. For prediction of intention, the most outstanding variable among females is attitude, while among males they are subjective norm and self-efficacy. Finally, we analyze the implications of these data from a theoretical and practical point of view. PMID:18058403

  9. Social Priming Improves Cognitive Control in Elderly Adults—Evidence from the Simon Task

    PubMed Central

    Aisenberg, Daniela; Cohen, Noga; Pick, Hadas; Tressman, Iris; Rappaport, Michal; Shenberg, Tal; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task), which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person): 1) negative—characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2) neutral—characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3) positive—excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton) that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities. PMID:25635946

  10. Out of control: Evidence for anterior insula involvement in motor impulsivity and reactive aggression

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Alexander T.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Schuhmann, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Inhibiting impulsive reactions while still defending one’s vital resources is paramount to functional self-control and successful development in a social environment. However, this ability of successfully inhibiting, and thus controlling one’s impulsivity, often fails, leading to consequences ranging from motor impulsivity to aggressive reactions following provocation. Although inhibitory failure represents the underlying mechanism, the neurocognition of social aggression and motor response inhibition have traditionally been investigated in separation. Here, we aimed to directly investigate and compare the neural mechanisms underlying the failure of inhibition across those different modalities of self-control. We used functional imaging to reveal the overlap in neural correlates between failed motor response inhibition (measured by a go/no-go task) and reactive aggression (measured by the Taylor aggression paradigm) in healthy males. The core overlap of neural correlates was located in the anterior insula, suggesting common anterior insula involvement in motor impulsivity as well as reactive aggression. This evidence regarding an overarching role of the anterior insula across different modalities of self-control enables an integrative perspective on insula function and a better integration of cognitive, social and emotional factors into a comprehensive model of impulsivity. Furthermore, it can eventually lead to a better understanding of clinical syndromes involving inhibitory deficits. PMID:24837479

  11. Action and Traction: Cytoskeletal Control of Receptor Triggering at the Immunological Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Comrie, William A.; Burkhardt, Janis K.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that F-actin dynamics drive the micron-scale cell shape changes required for migration and immunological synapse (IS) formation. In addition, recent evidence points to a more intimate role for the actin cytoskeleton in promoting T cell activation. Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical input into intracellular biochemical changes, is thought to play a critical role in several aspects of immunoreceptor triggering and downstream signal transduction. Multiple molecules associated with signaling events at the IS have been shown to respond to physical force, including the TCR, costimulatory molecules, adhesion molecules, and several downstream adapters. In at least some cases, it is clear that the relevant forces are exerted by dynamics of the T cell actomyosin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, there is evidence that the cytoskeleton of the antigen-presenting cell also plays an active role in T cell activation, by countering the molecular forces exerted by the T cell at the IS. Since actin polymerization is itself driven by TCR and costimulatory signaling pathways, a complex relationship exists between actin dynamics and receptor activation. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanosensitive aspects of T cell activation, paying specific attention to how F-actin-directed forces applied from both sides of the IS fit into current models of receptor triggering and activation. PMID:27014258

  12. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Krefta, Marlena; Michałowski, Bartosz; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such “bilingual” mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct—single or dual—language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1) —English (L2) childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading), and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants' performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs) of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language context. PMID:26300834

  13. Low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation over left dorsal premotor cortex improves the dynamic control of visuospatially cued actions

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Nick S.; Bestmann, Sven; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weiss, Michael M.; Christensen, Lars O.D.; Frackowiak, Richard S.J.; Rothwell, John C.; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2013-01-01

    Left rostral dorsal premotor cortex (rPMd) and supramarginal gyrus (SMG) have been implicated in the dynamic control of actions. In 12 right-handed healthy individuals we applied 30 minutes of low-frequency (1Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left rPMd to investigate the involvement of left rPMd and SMG in the rapid adjustment of actions guided by visuospatial cues. After rTMS, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while making spatially congruent button presses with right or left index finger in response to a left- or right-sided target. Subjects were asked to covertly prepare motor responses as indicated by a directional cue presented one second before the target. On 20% of trials the cue was invalid requiring subjects to re-adjust their motor plan according to the target location. Compared to sham rTMS, real rTMS increased the number of correct responses in invalidly cued trials. After real rTMS, task-related activity of the stimulated left rPMd showed increased task-related coupling with activity in ipsilateral SMG and adjacent anterior intraparietal area (AIP). Individuals who showed a stronger increase in left-hemispheric premotor-parietal connectivity also made fewer errors on invalidly cued trials after rTMS. The results suggest that rTMS over left rPMd improved the ability to dynamically adjust visuospatial response mapping by strengthening left-hemispheric connectivity between rPMd and the SMG-AIP region. These results support the notion that left rPMd and SMG-AIP contribute towards dynamic control of actions, and demonstrate that low-frequency rTMS can enhance functional coupling between task-relevant brain regions and improve some aspects of motor performance. PMID:20610756

  14. Hemoglobin, exercise training, and health status in patients with chronic heart failure (from the HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial).

    PubMed

    Piña, Ileana L; Lin, Li; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Isitt, John J; Whellan, David J; Schulman, Kevin A; Flynn, Kathryn E

    2013-10-01

    Anemia is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), with a prevalence ranging from 10% to 56%, and may be a risk factor for poor outcomes. Anemia in HF remains poorly understood, with significant gaps in its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), with most studies in HF being retrospective or from registries. The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of hemoglobin (Hgb) with HRQoL and training-induced changes in HRQoL in a cohort of patients in Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION). Using data from HF-ACTION, a randomized controlled trial of exercise training in patients with HF and low left ventricular ejection fractions, HRQoL was measured using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) at baseline, 3 and 12 months, and annually up to 4 years. Treatment group effects on HRQoL were estimated using linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. It was hypothesized that baseline Hgb would be correlated with baseline KCCQ scales and that Hgb would moderate the beneficial effect of exercise training on HRQoL. Hgb level was not significantly correlated with baseline HRQoL. Baseline Hgb did not moderate the beneficial effect of exercise training on KCCQ overall or subscales relative to usual care. In conclusion, in the HF-ACTION cohort, there was no correlation with baseline Hgb and baseline HRQoL as measured by the KCCQ. In addition, the beneficial effects of HRQoL from exercise training were not modulated by baseline Hgb. PMID:23809621

  15. Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling in the human nucleus accumbens tracks action monitoring during cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Dürschmid, Stefan; Zaehle, Tino; Kopitzki, Klaus; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C.; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T.; Hinrichs, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) is an important structure for the transfer of information between cortical and subcortical structures, especially the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. However, the mechanism that allows the NAcc to achieve this integration is not well understood. Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (PAC) of oscillations in different frequency bands has been proposed as an effective mechanism to form functional networks to optimize transfer and integration of information. Here we assess PAC between theta and high gamma oscillations as a potential mechanism that facilitates motor adaptation. To address this issue we recorded intracranial field potentials directly from the bilateral human NAcc in three patients while they performed a motor learning task that varied in the level of cognitive control needed to perform the task. As in rodents, PAC was observable in the human NAcc, transiently occurring contralateral to a movement following the motor response. Importantly, PAC correlated with the level of cognitive control needed to monitor the action performed. This functional relation indicates that the NAcc is engaged in action monitoring and supports the evaluation of motor programs during adaptive behavior by means of PAC. PMID:24109448

  16. Lipid-lowering therapies, glucose control and incident diabetes: evidence, mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Zafrir, Barak; Jain, Mohit

    2014-08-01

    Lipid-lowering therapies constitute an essential part in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and are consistently shown to reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes in wide-scale populations. Recently, there is increased awareness of the possibility that lipid-lowering drugs may affect glucose control and insulin resistance. This phenomenon is reported in all classes of lipid-modifying agents, with differential effects of distinct drugs. Since the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes is rising, and lipid-modifying therapies are widely used to reduce the cardiovascular burden in these populations, it is of importance to examine the relationship between lipid-lowering drugs, glycemic control and incident diabetes. In the current review we discuss the evidence, ranging from experimental studies to randomized controlled clinical trials and meta-analyses, of how lipid-modifying therapies affect glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Cumulative data suggest that both statins and niacin are associated with increased risk of impaired glucose control and development of new-onset diabetes, as opposed to bile-acid sequestrants which display concomitant moderate lipid and glucose lowering effects, and fibrates (particularly the pan-PPAR agonist bezafibrate) which may produce beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Ezetimibe is implied to ameliorate metabolic markers such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, with yet little support from clinical trials, while fish oils which in experimental studies produce favorable effects on insulin sensitivity, although studied extensively, continue to show inconclusive effects on glucose homeostasis in patients with diabetes. Suggested mechanisms of how lipid-modifying agents affect glucose control and their clinical implications in this context, are summarized. PMID:24952127

  17. A simple heuristic for Internet-based evidence search in primary care: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eberbach, Andreas; Becker, Annette; Rochon, Justine; Finkemeler, Holger; Wagner, Achim; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) are confronted with a wide variety of clinical questions, many of which remain unanswered. Methods In order to assist GPs in finding quick, evidence-based answers, we developed a learning program (LP) with a short interactive workshop based on a simple three-step-heuristic to improve their search and appraisal competence (SAC). We evaluated the LP effectiveness with a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants (intervention group [IG] n=20; control group [CG] n=31) rated acceptance and satisfaction and also answered 39 knowledge questions to assess their SAC. We controlled for previous knowledge in content areas covered by the test. Results Main outcome – SAC: within both groups, the pre–post test shows significant (P=0.00) improvements in correctness (IG 15% vs CG 11%) and confidence (32% vs 26%) to find evidence-based answers. However, the SAC difference was not significant in the RCT. Other measures Most workshop participants rated “learning atmosphere” (90%), “skills acquired” (90%), and “relevancy to my practice” (86%) as good or very good. The LP-recommendations were implemented by 67% of the IG, whereas 15% of the CG already conformed to LP recommendations spontaneously (odds ratio 9.6, P=0.00). After literature search, the IG showed a (not significantly) higher satisfaction regarding “time spent” (IG 80% vs CG 65%), “quality of information” (65% vs 54%), and “amount of information” (53% vs 47%). Conclusion Long-standing established GPs have a good SAC. Despite high acceptance, strong learning effects, positive search experience, and significant increase of SAC in the pre–post test, the RCT of our LP showed no significant difference in SAC between IG and CG. However, we suggest that our simple decision heuristic merits further investigation. PMID:27563264

  18. INL SITEWIDE INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS, AND OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PLAN FOR CERCLA RESPONSE ACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    JOLLEY, WENDELL L

    2008-02-05

    On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the 'Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites', which required a Site-wide institutional controls plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. This revision identifies and consolidates the institutional controls and operations and maintenance requirements into a single document.

  19. [Actions for legionellosis prevention and control: a challenge for public health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Gea-Izquierdo, Enrique; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Haro-García, Luis

    2012-06-01

    Legionellosis is a respiratory disease originating in systems that produce aerosol and contain Legionella sp. In recent decades, Spain has developed a regulatory framework for prevention and control of legionellosis. This article describes the epidemiology of legionellosis and the importance of controlling the transmission of bacteria in the fight against the disease. In that regard, it becomes clear the role of reviewing critical facilities and the inclusion of new ones in the preventive legislation, the estimation of risk, and the improvement in the diagnostic processes and progress in new prevention protocols. PMID:22858778

  20. Control of acidity development on solid sulfur due to bacterial action.

    PubMed

    Crescenzi, Francesco; Crisari, Antonella; Dangeli, Edoardo; Nardella, Alessandro

    2006-11-01

    The global production of sulfur, which is currently obtained almost exclusively as an involuntary byproduct of the oil and gas industry, is exceeding the market demand so that long term storage or even definitive disposal of elemental sulfur is often needed to handle production surplus. The storage of large quantities of elemental sulfur calls for solidifying liquid sulfur in huge blocks, hundred meters wide on each side and as high as 20 meters. Sulfur, in presence of water and air, can be oxidized to sulfuric acid by a ubiquitous microorganism: Thiobacillus. On large blocks, this natural phenomenon may lead to soil and water acidification. Research projects have addressed suppression of Thiobacilli activity to prevent acidification, but no industrial applications have been reported. This work describes the inhibition of sulfur biological oxidation attainable by exposing sulfur to a high ionic strength environment. The bacteriostatic action is produced by contacting sulfur with a solution of an inorganic salt, such as sodium chloride, having an ionic strength similar to sea water. Possible ways to exploit the inhibitory effect to prevent the generation of acidity from sulfur storage blocks are suggested. PMID:17144310

  1. Cognitive Control of Intentions for Voluntary Actions in Individuals with a High Level of Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poljac, Edita; Poljac, Ervin; Yeung, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive control generating deviant adaptive cognition have been proposed to account for the strong preference for repetitive behavior in autism. We examined if this preference reflects intentional deficits rather than problems in task execution in the broader autism phenotype using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Participants…

  2. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled substance exemptions. 801.21 Section 801.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or the refusal to take a polygraph test. (b) Analysis of a polygraph test chart or refusal to take a...

  3. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controlled substance exemptions. 801.21 Section 801.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or the refusal to take a polygraph test. (b) Analysis of a polygraph test chart or refusal to take a...

  4. Autonomy for sensor-rich vehicles: Interaction between sensing and control actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Gabriel M.

    While autonomous vehicles have the potential to enable many revolutionary technologies, assisting people through unprecedented automation, they introduce many challenges in control system design. One step toward increasing their autonomy is to formulate an optimization problem that exploits models connecting the effects of the sensing and control systems to optimize the performance of the overall system. Using these models, the robots are able to intelligently experiment with their environment to work toward achieving their goals. This thesis presents techniques to directly exploit the connection between sensing and control, focusing on algorithms for mobile sensors and mobile sensor networks. Algorithms are developed to compute information theoretic quantities using a particle filter representation of the probability distributions over the states being estimated. To make the approach scalable to increasing network size, single-node and pairwise-node approximations to the mutual information are derived for general probability density models, with analytical bounds on the error incurred, and computation time that is polynomial in the number of sensors. The pairwise-node approximation is proven to be a more accurate objective function than the single-node approximation. A decentralized optimization algorithm is presented to implement these techniques, using a novel collision avoidance method incorporating hybrid control. The characteristics of these algorithms are explored in simulation of autonomous search using three sensing modalities: range, bearing, and magnetic rescue beacon. For each sensing modality, the behavior of these non-parametric methods are compared and contrasted with the results of linearized methods. The proposed methods produce similar results in some scenarios, yet they capture effects in more general scenarios not possible with linearized methods. Monte Carlo results demonstrate that the pairwise-node approximation provides superior performance

  5. Speed Pressure in Conflict Situations Impedes Inhibitory Action Control in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Van Wouwe, N.C.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Claassen, D.O.; Kanoff, K.; Bashore, T.R.; Wylie, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative basal ganglia disease that disrupts cognitive control processes involved in response selection. The current study investigated the effects of PD on the ability to resolve conflicts during response selection when performance emphasized response speed versus response accuracy. Twenty-one (21) PD patients and 21 healthy controls (HC) completed a Simon conflict task, and a subset of 10 participants from each group provided simultaneous movement-related potential (MRP) data to track patterns of motor cortex activation and inhibition associated with the successful resolution of conflicting response tendencies. Both groups adjusted performance strategically to emphasize response speed or accuracy (i.e., speed-accuracy effect). For HC, interference from a conflicting response was reduced when response accuracy rather than speed was prioritized. For PD patients, however, there was a reduction in interference, but it was not statistically significant. The conceptual framework of the Dual-Process Activation-Suppression (DPAS) model revealed that the groups experienced similar susceptibility to making fast impulsive errors in conflict trials irrespective of speed-accuracy instructions, but PD patients were less proficient and delayed compared to HC at suppressing the interference from these incorrect response tendencies, especially under speed pressure. Analysis of MRPs on response conflict trials showed attenuated inhibition of the motor cortex controlling the conflicting impulsive response tendency in PD patients compared to HC. These results further confirm the detrimental effects of PD inhibitory control mechanisms and their exacerbation when patients perform under speed pressure. The results also suggest that a downstream effect of inhibitory dysfunction in PD is diminished inhibition of motor cortex controlling conflicting response tendencies. PMID:25017503

  6. Teaching of evidence-based medicine to medical students in Mexico: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important competency for the healthcare professional. Experimental evidence of EBM educational interventions from rigorous research studies is limited. The main objective of this study was to assess EBM learning (knowledge, attitudes and self-reported skills) in undergraduate medical students with a randomized controlled trial. Methods The educational intervention was a one-semester EBM course in the 5th year of a public medical school in Mexico. The study design was an experimental parallel group randomized controlled trial for the main outcome measures in the 5th year class (M5 EBM vs. M5 non-EBM groups), and quasi-experimental with static-groups comparisons for the 4th year (M4, not yet exposed) and 6th year (M6, exposed 6 months to a year earlier) groups. EBM attitudes, knowledge and self-reported skills were measured using Taylor’s questionnaire and a summative exam which comprised of a 100-item multiple-choice question (MCQ) test. Results 289 Medical students were assessed: M5 EBM=48, M5 non-EBM=47, M4=87, and M6=107. There was a higher reported use of the Cochrane Library and secondary journals in the intervention group (M5 vs. M5 non-EBM). Critical appraisal skills and attitude scores were higher in the intervention group (M5) and in the group of students exposed to EBM instruction during the previous year (M6). The knowledge level was higher after the intervention in the M5 EBM group compared to the M5 non-EBM group (p<0.001, Cohen's d=0.88 with Taylor's instrument and 3.54 with the 100-item MCQ test). M6 Students that received the intervention in the previous year had a knowledge score higher than the M4 and M5 non-EBM groups, but lower than the M5 EBM group. Conclusions Formal medical student training in EBM produced higher scores in attitudes, knowledge and self-reported critical appraisal skills compared with a randomized control group. Data from the concurrent groups add validity evidence to the study

  7. No evidence for true training and transfer effects after inhibitory control training in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Enge, Sören; Behnke, Alexander; Fleischhauer, Monika; Küttler, Lena; Kliegel, Matthias; Strobel, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies reported that training of working memory may improve performance in the trained function and beyond. Other executive functions, however, have been rarely or not yet systematically examined. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of inhibitory control (IC) training to produce true training-related function improvements in a sample of 122 healthy adults using a randomized, double-blind pretest/posttest/follow-up design. Two groups performed either adaptive (training group) or nonadaptive (active control) versions of go/no-go and stop-signal tasks for 3 weeks. Training gains as well as near-transfer to an untrained Stroop task and far-transfer to psychometric fluid intelligence were explored. Although the adaptive group could substantially improve overall IC task performance after training, no differences to the active control group occurred, neither at posttest nor at follow-up testing. A large decrease in response latency from pre- to posttest (and from pretest to 4 months' follow-up testing) was found when the training group was compared to the passive control group, which, however, does not sufficiently control for possible confounds. Thus, no conclusive evidence was found that this performance increase mirrors a true increase in IC function. The fact that training improvement was mainly related to response latency may indicate that individuals were more focused on performance gains in the prepotent go trials but less on the stop trials to meet the requirements of the tasks as well as possible. The challenges for response inhibition training studies are extensively discussed. PMID:24707778

  8. Disturbed motor control of rhythmic movement at 2 h and delayed after maximal eccentric actions.

    PubMed

    Bottas, Reijo; Miettunen, Kari; Komi, Paavo V; Linnamo, Vesa

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exercise-induced muscle damage on elbow rhythmic movement (RM) performance and neural activity pattern and to investigate whether this influence is joint angle specific. Ten males performed an exercise of 50 maximal eccentric elbow flexions in isokinetic machine with duty cycle of 1:15. Maximal dynamic and isometric force tests (90 degrees , 110 degrees and 130 degrees elbow angle) and both active and passive stretch reflex tests of elbow flexors were applied to the elbow joint. The intentional RM was performed in the horizontal plane at elbow angles; 60-120 degrees (SA-RM), 80-140 degrees (MA-RM) and 100-160 degrees (LA-RM). All measurements together with the determination of muscle soreness, swelling, passive stiffness, serum creatine kinase were conducted before, immediately and 2h as well as 2 days, 4 days, 6 days and 8 days post-exercise. Repeated maximal eccentric actions modified the RM trajectory symmetry acutely (SA-RM) and delayed (SA/MA/LA-RM) until the entire follow up of 8 days. Acutely lowered MA-RM peak velocity together with reduced activity of biceps brachii (BB) at every RM range, reflected a poorer acceleration and deceleration capacity of elbow flexors. A large acute drop of BB EMG burst amplitude together with parallel decrease in BB active stretch reflex amplitude, especially 2h post-exercise, suggested an inhibitory effect originating most likely from groups III/IV mechano-nociceptors. PMID:20064728

  9. Genetic control of ethanol action on the central nervous system. An EEG study in twins.

    PubMed

    Propping, P

    1977-03-14

    The purpose of the investigation is to claify the genetic contribution to the interindividual variability of ethanol action on the central nervous system. The 52 adult male healthy twin pairs (26 MZ, 26 DZ) got 1.2 ml/kg ethanol p.o. under standardized conditions; furthermore, 13 non-twin subjects were repeatedly subjected to the same procedure in order to test the intraindividual variability. The EEG was recorded before and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after alcohol intake. The EEGs were off-line analyzed by means of a computer program for time domain analysis. As was already known, on the average alcohol led to a better synchronisation of the EEG, i.e., the number of beta-waves decreased whereas the number of alpha- and theta-waves increased. The extent of the alcohol effect on the EEG varied enormously between individuals; however, the EEGs of MZ twins proved to react indentically to alcohol loading, whereas the EEGs of DZ twins became mor dissimilar during the course of the experiment. The low-voltage EEG presumably is resistant to alchohol; furthermore, it is supposed that there exists a special beta-prone EEG-type which is also genetic in origin. The identical EEG reaction of MZ twins to alcohol loading could not be attributed to more similar blood alcohol concentrations. It is hypothesized that the differences in the extent of the alcohol effect on the EEG between individuals might reflect differences in the sensitivity of the ascending reticular activating system. In the literature it has frequently been reported that alcoholics have preferentially brain wave patterns which are poorly synchronized. These findings are discussed in the light of the present results. PMID:557449

  10. Evidence that science locus of control orientation can be modified through instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haury, David L.

    A desire to foster enduring, positive attitudes toward science teaching among elementary school teachers led to study of self-perceptions. On the basis of evidence for strong links between locus of control orientation and attitudes, an attempt was made to enhance internality through instruction.A quasiexperimental research strategy was employed to compare the effects of two instructional treatments, with pretest measures being used to check the initial equivalence of treatment groups, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) being used to test treatment effects. Both treatments incorporated strategies known to have positive effects on attitudes, but the experimental treatment was novel in its emphasis on self-management, goal clarification, and individualized course expectations.There was found by ANCOVA to be a significant (p 0.05) difference in science locus of control (SciLOC) orientation between groups following treatment, with subjects exposed to the experimental treatment exhibiting greater internality. Quantitative comprehension and subject age were employed as covariates of SciLOC orientation, and subject gender was employed as a moderator variable. Though the treatment effect is small, accounting for 3% of the variance in SciLOC orientation, control orientation is shown susceptible to educational intervention. These results encourage attention to teacher attitudes from a rather new perspective, and they raise several interesting research questions regarding instructional methods and the long-term effects of enhancing internality.

  11. Control and eradication of tuberculosis in cattle: a systematic review of economic evidence.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, A; Pelone, F; LaTorre, G; De Giusti, M; Saulle, R; Mannocci, A; Sala, M; Della Marta, U; Scaramozzino, P

    2016-07-16

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of zoonotic importance for which control and eradication programmes have been carried out in many countries for decades. While the impact of these programmes on public health is still uncertain, the impact on trade is significant because of movement restrictions for animals, costs of testing and culling. The objective of this systematic review was to provide a contribution to the general debate over costs against benefits for the control and eradication of bovine TB in cattle. The search strategy was performed on four electronic databases following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The selection process, data abstraction and quality appraisal were carried out according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. The search identified 66 articles out of which eight fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The evidence gathered in this review by combining the conclusions of the most methodologically sound articles supports the idea that, when multiple cost and benefit components are taken into account, efforts to control or eradicate bovine TB may be effective in reducing disease prevalence, economically viable and worth doing. PMID:27422918

  12. Tuberculosis control in prisons, from research to action: the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experience.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alexandra; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high tuberculosis (TB) rates observed in the Brazilian prison population highlights the need for more efficient TB control measures in this population, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro where detection rates are 30 times higher than in the general population. We present results of epidemiological, biomathematics modelling, molecular biology, psychosocological, architectural and juridical studies carried out in this state in order to assess the situation and to develop TB control strategies adapted to the specificities of the prison context. The implementation of these strategies implies to take into account the day-to-day realty of prison life and to turn more effective the supervision of the prison health system by instances in charge of monitoring the fulfillment of sentences, so as to guarantee access of prisoners to health in conformity with international and national laws. PMID:27383341

  13. Refrigerator with variable capacity compressor and cycle priming action through capacity control and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2016-03-15

    A refrigerator appliance (and associated method) that includes a condenser, evaporator and a multi-capacity compressor. The appliance also includes a pressure reducing device arranged within an evaporator-condenser refrigerant circuit, and a valve system for directing or restricting refrigerant flow through the device. The appliance further includes a controller for operating the compressor upon the initiation of a compressor ON-cycle at a priming capacity above a nominal capacity for a predetermined or calculated duration.

  14. The virtual library in action: Collaborative international control of high-energy physics pre-print

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitz, P.A.; Addis, L.; Galic, H.; Johnson, T.

    1996-02-01

    This paper will discuss how control of the grey literature in high-energy physics pre-prints developed through a collaborative effort of librarians and physicists. It will highlight the critical steps in the development process and describe one model of a rapidly evolving virtual library for high-energy physics information. In conclusion, this paper will extend this physics model to other areas of grey literature management.

  15. Using Markov Models of Fault Growth Physics and Environmental Stresses to Optimize Control Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bole, Brian; Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George

    2012-01-01

    A generalized Markov chain representation of fault dynamics is presented for the case that available modeling of fault growth physics and future environmental stresses can be represented by two independent stochastic process models. A contrived but representatively challenging example will be presented and analyzed, in which uncertainty in the modeling of fault growth physics is represented by a uniformly distributed dice throwing process, and a discrete random walk is used to represent uncertain modeling of future exogenous loading demands to be placed on the system. A finite horizon dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve for an optimal control policy over a finite time window for the case that stochastic models representing physics of failure and future environmental stresses are known, and the states of both stochastic processes are observable by implemented control routines. The fundamental limitations of optimization performed in the presence of uncertain modeling information are examined by comparing the outcomes obtained from simulations of an optimizing control policy with the outcomes that would be achievable if all modeling uncertainties were removed from the system.

  16. Spacecraft dynamics under the action of Y-dot magnetic control law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavoli, Alessandro; Giulietti, Fabrizio; Avanzini, Giulio; De Matteis, Guido

    2016-05-01

    The paper investigates the dynamic behavior of a spacecraft when a single magnetic torque-rod is used for achieving a pure spin condition by means of the so-called Y-dot control law. Global asymptotic convergence to a pure spin condition is proven on analytical grounds when the dipole moment is proportional to the rate of variation of the component of the magnetic field along the desired spin axis. Convergence of the spin axis towards the orbit normal is then explained by estimating the average magnetic control torque over one orbit. The validity of the analytical results, based on some simplifying assumptions and approximations, is finally investigated by means of numerical simulation for a fully non-linear attitude dynamic model, featuring a tilted dipole model for Earth's magnetic field. The analysis aims to support, in the framework of a sound mathematical basis, the development of effective control laws in realistic mission scenarios. Results are presented and discussed for relevant test cases.

  17. The approach of comprehensive tobacco control in cancer prevention: elements and evidence.

    PubMed

    John, U

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this overview is to present measures of comprehensive tobacco control (CTC) and recent evidence according to their efficacy. CTC includes eight measures: raising taxes, consumer regulations, information about tobacco products, advertisement and sponsoring, economic alternatives to the production of tobacco, programmes for the support of the motivation to stop smoking and maintain tobacco abstinence, including the change of attitudes and norms in the population to support non-smoking, financial and human resources of CTC, and quality assurance of CTC. These measures include single elements such as activities against smuggling, to be considered in conjunction with tax increases. Evidence, particularly from single US states, reveals the efficacy of CTC. As discussed, the literature shows that programmes have not yet included all single elements. This is due to individual, programme-related and external limiting factors. It is concluded that in spite of these, CTC programmes are effective in adults as well as minors. A dose-response relationship between CTC and reduction of smoker rates, the amount of tobacco consumption and tobacco-attributable mortality is probable. PMID:12394241

  18. Pleiotropic Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) in Dysregulated Metabolic Homeostasis, Inflammation and Cancer: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Antonio Simone; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Nigro, Angela; Sofo, Vincenza; Salmeri, Francesca Maria; Rossetti, Paola; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Rizzo, Gianluca; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have demonstrated a lot of important effects in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and in the correct functioning of adipose tissue. Recently, many studies have evaluated a possible effect of PPARs on tumor cells. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of PPARs, their action and their future prospective; Methods: Narrative review aimed to synthesize cutting-edge evidence retrieved from searches of computerized databases; Results: PPARs play a key role in metabolic diseases, which include several cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired immunity and the increasing risk of cancer; in particular, PPARα and PPARβ/δ mainly enable energy combustion, while PPARγ contributes to energy storage by enhancing adipogenesis; Conclusion: PPAR agonists could represent interesting types of molecules that can treat not only metabolic diseases, but also inflammation and cancer. Additional research is needed for the identification of high-affinity, high-specificity agonists for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and other metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed also to elucidate the role of PPARs in cancer. PMID:27347932

  19. Factors Influencing the Decisions and Actions of Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in Three Plausible NextGen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the current air traffic management (ATM) system, pilots and air traffic controllers have well-established roles and responsibilities: pilots fly aircraft and are concerned with energy management, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort; controllers separate aircraft and are concerned with safety and management of traffic flows. Despite having different goals and obligations, both groups must be able to effectively communicate and interact with each other for the ATM system to work. This interaction will become even more challenging as traffic volume increases dramatically in the near future. To accommodate this increase, by 2025 the national air transportation system in the U.S. will go through a transformation that will modernize the ATM system and make it safer, more effective, and more efficient. This new system, NextGen, will change how pilots and controllers perform their tasks by incorporating advanced technologies and employing new procedures. It will also distribute responsibility between pilots, controllers and automation over such tasks as maintaining aircraft separation. The present chapter describes three plausible concepts of operations that allocate different ATM responsibilities to these groups. We describe how each concept changes the role of each operator and the types of decisions and actions performed by them.

  20. Human memory retrieval and inhibitory control in the brain: beyond correlational evidence.

    PubMed

    Penolazzi, Barbara; Stramaccia, Davide Francesco; Braga, Miriam; Mondini, Sara; Galfano, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Retrieving information from long-term memory can result in the episodic forgetting of related material. One influential account states that this retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) phenomenon reflects inhibitory mechanisms called into play to decrease retrieval competition. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that the prefrontal cortex, which is critically engaged in inhibitory processing, is also involved in retrieval competition situations. Here, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to address whether inhibitory processes could be causally linked to RIF. tDCS was administered over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the retrieval-practice phase in a standard retrieval-practice paradigm. Sixty human participants were randomly assigned to anodal, cathodal, or sham-control groups. The groups showed comparable benefits for practiced items. In contrast, unlike both the sham and anodal groups, the cathodal group exhibited no RIF. This pattern is interpreted as evidence for a causal role of inhibitory mechanisms in episodic retrieval and forgetting. PMID:24806685

  1. Evidence that the ZNT3 protein controls the total amount of elemental zinc in synaptic vesicles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linkous, D.H.; Flinn, J.M.; Koh, J.Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Bertsch, P.M.; Jones, B.F.; Giblin, L.J.; Frederickson, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ZNT3 protein decorates the presynaptic vesicles of central neurons harboring vesicular zinc, and deletion of this protein removes staining for zinc. However, it has been unclear whether only histochemically reactive zinc is lacking or if, indeed, total elemental zinc is missing from neurons lacking the Slc30a3 gene, which encodes the ZNT3 protein. The limitations of conventional histochemical procedures have contributed to this enigma. However, a novel technique, microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence, reveals that the normal 2- to 3-fold elevation of zinc concentration normally present in the hippocampal mossy fibers is absent in Slc30a3 knockout (ZNT3) mice. Thus, the ZNT3 protein evidently controls not only the "stainability" but also the actual mass of zinc in mossy-fiber synaptic vesicles. This work thus confirms the metal-transporting role of the ZNT3 protein in the brain. ?? The Histochemical Society, Inc.

  2. Evidence That the ZNT3 Protein Controls the Total Amount of Elemental Zinc in Synaptic Vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Linkous,D.; Flinn, J.; Koh, J.; Lanzirotti, A.; Bertsch, P.; Jones, B.; Giblin, L.; Fredrickson, C.

    2008-01-01

    The ZNT3 protein decorates the presynaptic vesicles of central neurons harboring vesicular zinc, and deletion of this protein removes staining for zinc. However, it has been unclear whether only histochemically reactive zinc is lacking or if, indeed, total elemental zinc is missing from neurons lacking the Slc30a3 gene, which encodes the ZNT3 protein. The limitations of conventional histochemical procedures have contributed to this enigma. However, a novel technique, microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence, reveals that the normal 2- to 3-fold elevation of zinc concentration normally present in the hippocampal mossy fibers is absent in Slc30a3 knockout (ZNT3) mice. Thus, the ZNT3 protein evidently controls not only the 'stainability' but also the actual mass of zinc in mossy-fiber synaptic vesicles. This work thus confirms the metal-transporting role of the ZNT3 protein in the brain.

  3. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds’ flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints. PMID:26046799

  4. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds' flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints. PMID:26046799

  5. Prevention and control of mental illnesses and mental health: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Minhas, Fareed A; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Badar, Asma; Mohamud, Khalif Bile

    2004-12-01

    As part of the National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD), mental illnesses have been grouped alongside non-communicable diseases (NCD) within a combined strategic framework in order to synchronize public health actions. The systematic approach for mental illnesses is centred on safeguarding the rights of the mentally ill, reducing stigma and discrimination, and de-institutionalisation and rehabilitation of the mentally ill in the community outlining roles of healthcare providers, the community, legislators and policy makers. The approach has implications for support functions in a number of areas including policy building, manpower and material development and research. Priority action areas for mental health as part of NAP-NCD include the integration of surveillance of mental illnesses in a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system; creating awareness about mental health as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy; integration of mental health with primary healthcare; the development of sustainable public health infrastructure to support community mental health initiatives; building capacity of the health system in support of prevention and control activities; effective implementation of existing legislation and harmonizing working relationships with law enforcing agencies. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to integrate mental health into health services as part of a sustainable and integrated medical education programme for all categories of healthcare providers and the availability of essential psychotropic drugs at all healthcare levels. It lays emphasis on protecting the interests of special groups such as prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, women, children and individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, it promotes need-based research for contemporary mental health issues. PMID:15745329

  6. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Scope Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. Methods and results One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: –1.8%, –12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, –7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: –2.1%, –8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, –5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Conclusion Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. PMID:25851421

  7. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin action induced by increasing energy expenditure or decreasing energy intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Edward P.; Racette, Susan B.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Fontana, Luigi; Steger-May, Karen; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Klein, Samuel; Holloszy, John O.

    2006-01-01

    Background Weight loss, through caloric restriction (CR) or increases in exercise energy expenditure (EX), improves glucose tolerance and insulin action. However, EX may further improve glucoregulation through weight-loss independent mechanisms. Objective To assess the hypothesis that weight loss through EX improves glucoregulation and circulating factors involved in insulin action, to a greater extent than does similar weight loss through CR. Design Sedentary 50- to 60-year-old men and women (body mass index=23.5–29.9 kg/m2) were randomized to 12-month EX (n=18) or CR (n=18) weight loss interventions or to a healthy lifestyle (HL) control group (n=10). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and the glucose and insulin areas under the curve (AUCs) were assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were assessed in fasting serum. Fat mass was determined by DXA. Results Yearlong energy deficits were not different between EX and CR as evidenced by body weight and fat mass changes. ISI increased, and the glucose and insulin AUCs decreased in the EX and CR groups and remained unchanged in the HL group but did not differ between EX and CR. Marginally significant increases in adiponectin, and decreases in the TNFα-to-adiponectin ratio, occurred in the EX and CR groups but not in the HL group. Conclusions EX- and CR-induced weight losses are both effective for improving glucose tolerance and insulin action in non-obese, healthy, middle-aged men and women; however, it does not appear that exercise training-induced weight loss results in greater improvements than those that result from CR. PMID:17093155

  8. Is Dengue Vector Control Deficient in Effectiveness or Evidence?: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Leigh R.; Donegan, Sarah; McCall, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a vaccine could be available as early as 2016, vector control remains the primary approach used to prevent dengue, the most common and widespread arbovirus of humans worldwide. We reviewed the evidence for effectiveness of vector control methods in reducing its transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings Studies of any design published since 1980 were included if they evaluated method(s) targeting Aedes aegypti or Ae. albopictus for at least 3 months. Primary outcome was dengue incidence. Following Cochrane and PRISMA Group guidelines, database searches yielded 960 reports, and 41 were eligible for inclusion, with 19 providing data for meta-analysis. Study duration ranged from 5 months to 10 years. Studies evaluating multiple tools/approaches (23 records) were more common than single methods, while environmental management was the most common method (19 studies). Only 9/41 reports were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two out of 19 studies evaluating dengue incidence were RCTs, and neither reported any statistically significant impact. No RCTs evaluated effectiveness of insecticide space-spraying (fogging) against dengue. Based on meta-analyses, house screening significantly reduced dengue risk, OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05–0.93, p = 0.04), as did combining community-based environmental management and water container covers, OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.15–0.32, p<0.0001). Indoor residual spraying (IRS) did not impact significantly on infection risk (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.22–2.11; p = 0.50). Skin repellents, insecticide-treated bed nets or traps had no effect (p>0.5), but insecticide aerosols (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.44–2.86) and mosquito coils (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.09–1.91) were associated with higher dengue risk (p = 0.01). Although 23/41 studies examined the impact of insecticide-based tools, only 9 evaluated the insecticide susceptibility status of the target vector population during the study. Conclusions/Significance This review and meta

  9. Comprehensive Cancer Control Partners’ Use of and Attitudes About Evidence-Based Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rose, John M.; Townsend, Julie S.; Fonseka, Jamila; Richardson, Lisa C.; Chovnick, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardees are encouraged to work with partners (eg, nonprofit organizations) to develop and implement plans to reduce the cancer burden in their jurisdictions using evidence-based practices (EBPs). However, the extent of EBP use among awardees and their partners is not well understood. Methods From March through July 2012, we conducted a web-based survey of program partners referred by NCCCP program directors who were involved in implementation of cancer control plans. Results Approximately 53% of referred partners (n = 83) completed surveys, 91.6% of whom represented organizations. Most partners reported involvement in helping to identify (80.5%), adapt (81.7%), implement (90.4%), and evaluate (81.9%) EBPs. The factors rated most frequently as very important when selecting EBPs were “consistent with our organization’s mission” (89.2%) and “cost-effective” (81.9%). Although most respondents said that their organizations understood the importance of using EBPs (84.3%) and had adequate access to cancer registry data (74.7%), few reported having sufficient financial resources to develop new EBPs (7.9%). The most frequently mentioned benefit of using EBPs was that they are proven to work. Resource limitations and difficulty adapting EBPs for specific populations and settings were challenges. Conclusions Our findings help indicate how NCCCP partners are involved in using EBPs and can guide ongoing efforts to encourage the use of EBPs for cancer control. The challenges of using EBPs that partners identified highlight the need to improve strategies to translate cancer prevention and control research into practice in real-world settings and for diverse populations. PMID:26182148

  10. Synergistic action of master transcription factors controls epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hongyuan; Liu, Yuwei; Xue, Mengzhu; Liu, Haiyue; Du, Shaowei; Zhang, Liwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex multistep process in which phenotype switches are mediated by a network of transcription factors (TFs). Systematic characterization of all dynamic TFs controlling EMT state transitions, especially for the intermediate partial-EMT state, represents a highly relevant yet largely unexplored task. Here, we performed a computational analysis that integrated time-course EMT transcriptomic data with public cistromic data and identified three synergistic master TFs (ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB) that regulate the transition through the partial-EMT state. Overexpression of these regulators predicted a poor clinical outcome, and their elimination readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. Importantly, these factors utilized a clique motif, physically interact and their cumulative binding generally characterized EMT-associated genes. Furthermore, analyses of H3K27ac ChIP-seq data revealed that ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB are associated with super-enhancers and the administration of BRD4 inhibitor readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. These findings have implications for systematic discovery of master EMT regulators and super-enhancers as novel targets for controlling metastasis. PMID:26926107

  11. Control system and method for an automatic transmission providing smooth engagement action

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, K.

    1987-08-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission system for a vehicle, the automatic transmission system comprising a gear transmission mechanism which comprises a rotational element, and first and second friction engaging means which are oppositely changed over between engaged and disengaged states so as to alternately provide one of a first speed stage and a second speed stage of the gear transmission mechanism, a control system comprising: first means for detecting a rotational speed of the rotational element; second means for controlling an engagement and disengagement of the first friction engaging means so as to increase a degree of engagement of the first friction engaging means when activated in one of first and second actuating directions thereof and to decrease the degree of engagement of the first friction engaging means when activated in the other of the first and second actuating directions: third means for repetitively comparing each current value of the rotational speed of the rotational element detected by the first means with a preceding value of the rotational speed of the rotational element detected by the first means in the repetitive comparison; fourth means for activating the second means to incrementally activate the second means in one of the first and second actuating directions each time the third means detects in the repetitive comparison.

  12. Synergistic action of master transcription factors controls epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hongyuan; Liu, Yuwei; Xue, Mengzhu; Liu, Haiyue; Du, Shaowei; Zhang, Liwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex multistep process in which phenotype switches are mediated by a network of transcription factors (TFs). Systematic characterization of all dynamic TFs controlling EMT state transitions, especially for the intermediate partial-EMT state, represents a highly relevant yet largely unexplored task. Here, we performed a computational analysis that integrated time-course EMT transcriptomic data with public cistromic data and identified three synergistic master TFs (ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB) that regulate the transition through the partial-EMT state. Overexpression of these regulators predicted a poor clinical outcome, and their elimination readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. Importantly, these factors utilized a clique motif, physically interact and their cumulative binding generally characterized EMT-associated genes. Furthermore, analyses of H3K27ac ChIP-seq data revealed that ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB are associated with super-enhancers and the administration of BRD4 inhibitor readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. These findings have implications for systematic discovery of master EMT regulators and super-enhancers as novel targets for controlling metastasis. PMID:26926107

  13. Action-centered display design: Observations and conclusions to HMI by applying digital I and C in main control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Treier, C.; Zeck, K.; Weich, A.; Schildheuer, R.

    2006-07-01

    With the increasing use of digital I and C systems, the shift personnel in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has the chance to dispose of new supporting methods that influence their actions directly or indirectly. Besides the automation of monitoring and control functions, the task- and problem-oriented increased number of (current state) information in screen based displays is to be mentioned. A few released screen based displays of a German NPP illustrate the influence on the course of action. Therefore the design of displays won't only be determined by the operating mode in future but displays themselves are influencing the operating mode offering both very compact and dynamic information that can directly be used in the operating mode. In order to be able to take these future key functions adequately and early into consideration when designing screen based displays, the development of design instruments like Style Guides with Good Practice methods and construction catalogues both on a company and on an company spanning level is essential: a challenging task for economy and science and also for standardization committees that shall be illustrated in the following report. (authors)

  14. Subluminal optical pulse propagation in amplifying media and temperature controlled laser action in scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kijoon

    In the first half of the thesis, we investigated methods of controlling the group velocity of an optical probe pulse by another optical pulse. We focused on the gain linecenter region of an optical amplifier where group velocity can be very small due to the large dispersion. We made use of an optically pumped barium nitrate (Ba(NO3)2) Raman crystal to delay a probe pulse which is tuned to the Raman gain center, and measured the delay time as a function of pump pulse intensity. Within the intensity region where no significant amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) occurs, we observed pulse delays greater than the input pulse width and obtained predictions based on quasi-steady state Raman gain estimates. We also theoretically studied group velocity control in an optically pumped far-infrared (OPFIR) molecular gas amplifier system, where even larger group velocity reductions are expected due to the extremely narrow low-pressure gain linewidth. By using a 5-level model of a molecular gas, the change of group velocity was calculated as a function of pump beam intensity and gas pressure, and a minimum achievable value of the group velocity was estimated. Furthermore, the effect of static electric field was studied, where the selection rule-dependent level splitting by the DC Stark effect alters the gain lineshape, and hence the group velocity. In the second half, we experimentally and theoretically studied the emission characteristics from a novel random laser system where scattering power can be controlled by temperature. Our system is a laser dye-dissolved aqueous solution of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) which has a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at ˜41°C. When pumped with optical pulses, this system exhibits drastic spectral narrowing of emission with increasing temperature. A numerical calculation was performed by using a ring laser model developed for non-coherent random laser system, and the results were compared with the experimental linewidth vs

  15. Cognitive control of intentions for voluntary actions in individuals with a high level of autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Poljac, Edita; Poljac, Ervin; Yeung, Nick

    2012-12-01

    Impairments in cognitive control generating deviant adaptive cognition have been proposed to account for the strong preference for repetitive behavior in autism. We examined if this preference reflects intentional deficits rather than problems in task execution in the broader autism phenotype using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Participants chose between two tasks differing in their relative strength by indicating first their voluntary task choice and then responding to the subsequently presented stimulus. We observed a stronger repetition bias for the harder task in high AQ participants, with no other differences between the two groups. These findings indicate that the interference between competing tasks significantly contributes to repetitive behavior in autism by modulating the formation of task intentions when choosing tasks voluntarily. PMID:22434281

  16. Sequential and Coordinated Actions of c-Myc and N-Myc Control Appendicular Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Sara; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Keene, Douglas R.; Hurlin, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background During limb development, chondrocytes and osteoblasts emerge from condensations of limb bud mesenchyme. These cells then proliferate and differentiate in separate but adjacent compartments and function cooperatively to promote bone growth through the process of endochondral ossification. While many aspects of limb skeletal formation are understood, little is known about the mechanisms that link the development of undifferentiated limb bud mesenchyme with formation of the precartilaginous condensation and subsequent proliferative expansion of chondrocyte and osteoblast lineages. The aim of this study was to gain insight into these processes by examining the roles of c-Myc and N-Myc in morphogenesis of the limb skeleton. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate c-Myc function in skeletal development, we characterized mice in which floxed c-Myc alleles were deleted in undifferentiated limb bud mesenchyme with Prx1-Cre, in chondro-osteoprogenitors with Sox9-Cre and in osteoblasts with Osx1-Cre. We show that c-Myc promotes the proliferative expansion of both chondrocytes and osteoblasts and as a consequence controls the process of endochondral growth and ossification and determines bone size. The control of proliferation by c-Myc was related to its effects on global gene transcription, as phosphorylation of the C-Terminal Domain (pCTD) of RNA Polymerase II, a marker of general transcription initiation, was tightly coupled to cell proliferation of growth plate chondrocytes where c-Myc is expressed and severely downregulated in the absence of c-Myc. Finally, we show that combined deletion of N-Myc and c-Myc in early limb bud mesenchyme gives rise to a severely hypoplastic limb skeleton that exhibits features characteristic of individual c-Myc and N-Myc mutants. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that N-Myc and c-Myc act sequentially during limb development to coordinate the expansion of key progenitor populations responsible for forming the limb

  17. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production

    PubMed Central

    Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. PMID:25673742

  18. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Kristina; Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. PMID:25673742

  19. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai‘i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. PMID:20414477

  20. How the mode of action affects evidence of planning and movement kinematics in aging: End-state comfort in older adults.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Sara M; Gonzalez, Dave A; Roy, Eric A; Bryden, Pamela J

    2016-05-01

    Motor deficits are commonly observed with age; however, it has been argued that older adults are more adept when acting in natural tasks and do not differ from young adults in these contexts. This study assessed end-state comfort and movement kinematics in a familiar task to examine this further. Left- and right-handed older adults picked up a glass (upright or overturned) as if to pour water in four modes of action (pantomime, pantomime with image/cup as a guide, actual grasping). With increasing age, a longer deceleration phase (in pantomime without a stimulus) and less end-state comfort (in pantomime without a stimulus and image as a guide) was displayed as the amount of contextual information available to guide movement decreased. Changes in movement strategies likely reflect an increased reliance on feedback control and demonstration of a more cautious movement. A secondary aim of this study was to assess hand preference and performance, considering conflicting reports of manual asymmetries with age. Performance differences in the Grooved Pegboard place task indicate left handers may display a shift towards right handedness in some, but not all cases. Summarizing, this study supports age-related differences in planning and control processes in a familiar task, and changes in manual asymmetries with age in left handers. PMID:26617081

  1. Evidence for interventions to prevent and control obesity among children and adolescents: its applicability to India.

    PubMed

    Sreevatsava, Meghana; Narayan, K M Venkat; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2013-03-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise worldwide and its increasing prevalence in low and middle income countries is well-known. Obesity interventions have the potential to prevent adverse health outcomes; however, large gaps in research and knowledge about the efficacy and sustainability of such interventions remain. The objectives of this article were to review the evidence for interventions to prevent and control obesity among children and adolescents, evaluate their applicability in India, and discuss the challenges to sustain such interventions. The authors reviewed published research focusing on childhood obesity interventions, especially in India and other lower-resource countries. Nine observational and 10 interventional studies were reviewed. Most studies identified were from developed countries and took place at day-care settings, schools, and after school programs. Nineteen reported studies were grouped into categories: diet (2), physical activity (4), childcare programs (2), media-based programs (2), parental involvement (2), multi-component studies (1), and screen time (6). Most interventions were effective in reducing BMI, decreasing sedentary behaviors, and increasing physical activity. Sustainability of these interventions was not evaluated. While there is no one method or simple intervention to address obesity, multi-component approaches involving home and school environments are promising and warrant evaluation in India. Literature on obesity prevention and control in India and in lower-resource countries, however, is sparse. Existing gaps in knowledge about obesity should be addressed by conducting research in India and carrying out interventions to determine what strategies will be successful and sustainable locally. PMID:23054854

  2. Nanometre-scale evidence for interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation control of silicate glass corrosion.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Roland; Cotte, Stéphane; Cadel, Emmanuel; Malladi, Sairam; Karlsson, Lisa S; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Cabié, Martiane; Seyeux, Antoine

    2015-03-01

    Silicate glasses are durable solids, and yet they are chemically unstable in contact with aqueous fluids-this has important implications for numerous industrial applications related to the corrosion resistance of glasses, or the biogeochemical weathering of volcanic glasses in seawater. The aqueous dissolution of synthetic and natural glasses results in the formation of a hydrated, cation-depleted near-surface alteration zone and, depending on alteration conditions, secondary crystalline phases on the surface. The long-standing accepted model of glass corrosion is based on diffusion-coupled hydration and selective cation release, producing a surface-altered zone. However, using a combination of advanced atomic-resolution analytical techniques, our data for the first time reveal that the structural and chemical interface between the pristine glass and altered zone is always extremely sharp, with gradients in the nanometre to sub-nanometre range. These findings support a new corrosion mechanism, interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation. Moreover, they also highlight the importance of using analytical methods with very high spatial and mass resolution for deciphering the nanometre-scale processes controlling corrosion. Our findings provide evidence that interfacial dissolution-reprecipitation may be a universal reaction mechanism that controls both silicate glass corrosion and mineral weathering. PMID:25559424

  3. Does Encouragement Matter in Improving Gender Imbalances in Technical Fields? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Unkovic, Cait; Sen, Maya; Quinn, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Does encouragement help address gender imbalances in technical fields? We present the results of one of the first and largest randomized controlled trials on the topic. Using an applied statistics conference in the social sciences as our context, we randomly assigned half of a pool of 3,945 graduate students to receive two personalized emails encouraging them to apply (n = 1,976) and the other half to receive nothing (n = 1,969). We find a robust, positive effect associated with this simple intervention and suggestive evidence that women responded more strongly than men. However, we find that women's conference acceptance rates are higher within the control group than in the treated group. This is not the case for men. The reason appears to be that female applicants in the treated group solicited supporting letters at lower rates. Our findings therefore suggest that "low dose" interventions may promote diversity in STEM fields but may also have the potential to expose underlying disparities when used alone or in a non-targeted way. PMID:27097315

  4. Use of cyclodextrins to manipulate plasma membrane cholesterol content: evidence, misconceptions and control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zidovetzki, Raphael

    2007-01-01

    The physiological importance of cholesterol in the cell plasma membrane has attracted increased attention in recent years. Consequently, the use of methods of controlled manipulation of membrane cholesterol content has also increased sharply, especially as a method of studying putative cholesterol-enriched cell membrane domains (rafts). The most common means of modifying the cholesterol content of cell membranes is the incubation of cells or model membranes with cyclodextrins, a family of compounds, which, due to the presence of relatively hydrophobic cavity, can be used to extract cholesterol from cell membranes. However, the mechanism of this activity of cyclodextrins is not completely established. Moreover, under conditions commonly used for cholesterol extraction, cyclodextrins may remove cholesterol from both raft and non-raft domains of the membrane as well as alter the distribution of cholesterol between plasma and intracellular membranes. In addition, other hydrophobic molecules such as phospholipids may also be extracted from the membranes by cyclodextrins. We review the evidence for the specific and non-specific effects of cyclodextrins and what is known about the mechanisms for cyclodextrin-induced cholesterol and phospholipid extraction. Finally, we discuss useful control strategies that may help to verify that the observed effects are due specifically to cyclodextrin-induced changes in cellular cholesterol. PMID:17493580

  5. Does Encouragement Matter in Improving Gender Imbalances in Technical Fields? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Unkovic, Cait; Sen, Maya; Quinn, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Does encouragement help address gender imbalances in technical fields? We present the results of one of the first and largest randomized controlled trials on the topic. Using an applied statistics conference in the social sciences as our context, we randomly assigned half of a pool of 3,945 graduate students to receive two personalized emails encouraging them to apply (n = 1,976) and the other half to receive nothing (n = 1,969). We find a robust, positive effect associated with this simple intervention and suggestive evidence that women responded more strongly than men. However, we find that women’s conference acceptance rates are higher within the control group than in the treated group. This is not the case for men. The reason appears to be that female applicants in the treated group solicited supporting letters at lower rates. Our findings therefore suggest that “low dose” interventions may promote diversity in STEM fields but may also have the potential to expose underlying disparities when used alone or in a non-targeted way. PMID:27097315

  6. Isostaticity and Controlled Force Transmission in the Cytoskeleton: A Model Awaiting Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    A new model is proposed for force transmission through the cytoskeleton (CSK). A general discussion is first presented on the physical principles that underlie the modeling of this phenomenon. Some fundamental problems of conventional models—continuous and discrete—are examined. It is argued that mediation of focused forces is essential for good control over intracellular mechanical signals. The difficulties of conventional continuous models in describing such mediation are traced to a fundamental assumption rather than to their being continuous. Relevant advantages and disadvantages of continuous and discrete modeling are discussed. It is concluded that favoring discrete models is based on two misconceptions, which are clarified. The model proposed here is based on the idea that focused propagation of mechanical stimuli in frameworks over large distances (compared to the mesh size) can only occur when considerable regions of the CSK are isostatic. The concept of isostaticity is explained and a recently developed continuous isostaticity theory is briefly reviewed. The model enjoys several advantages: it leads to good control over force mediation; it explains nonuniform stresses and action at a distance; it is continuous, making it possible to model force propagation over long distances; and it enables prediction of individual force paths. To be isostatic, or nearly so, CSK networks must possess specific structural characteristics, and these are quantified. Finally, several experimental observations are interpreted using the new model and implications are discussed. It is also suggested that this approach may give insight into the dynamics of reorganization of the CSK. Many of the results are amenable to experimental measurements, providing a testing ground for the proposed picture, and generic experiments are suggested. PMID:16912215

  7. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  8. Rapid Responses and Mechanism of Action for Low-Dose Bisphenol S on ex Vivo Rat Hearts and Isolated Myocytes: Evidence of Female-Specific Proarrhythmic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoqian; Ma, Jianyong; Chen, Yamei

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisphenol S (BPS) has increasingly been used as a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA) in some “BPA-free” consumer goods and in thermal papers. Wide human exposure to BPS has been reported; however, the biological and potential toxic effects of BPS are poorly understood. Objective In this study, we sought to elucidate the sex-specific rapid effect of BPS in rat hearts and its underlying mechanism. Methods We examined the rapid effects of BPS in rat hearts using electrophysiology, confocal and conventional fluorescence imaging, and immunoblotting. Treatment was administered via acute perfusion of excised hearts or isolated cardiac myocytes. Results In female rat hearts acutely exposed to 10–9 M BPS, the heart rate was increased; in the presence of catecholamine-induced stress, the frequency of ventricular arrhythmia events was markedly increased. BPS-exposed hearts showed increased incidence of arrhythmogenic-triggered activities in female ventricular myocytes and altered myocyte Ca2+ handling, particularly spontaneous Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The dose responses of BPS actions were inverted U-shaped. The impact of BPS on myocyte Ca2+ handling was mediated by estrogen receptor β signaling and by rapid increases in the phosphorylation of key Ca2+ handling proteins, including ryanodine receptor and phospholamban. The proarrhythmic effects of BPS were female specific; male rat hearts were not affected by BPS at the organ, myocyte, or protein levels. Conclusion Rapid exposure to low-dose BPS showed proarrhythmic impact on female rat hearts; these effects at the organ, cellular, and molecular levels are remarkably similar to those reported for BPA. Evaluation of the bioactivity and safety of BPS and other BPA analogs is necessary before they are used as BPA alternatives in consumer products. Citation Gao X, Ma J, Chen Y, Wang HS. 2015. Rapid responses and mechanism of action for low-dose bisphenol S on ex vivo rat hearts and isolated

  9. Differential action for ethanol on baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate and sympathetic efferent discharge in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Z.; Abdel-Rahman, A.R.A.; Wooles, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The acute effects of ethanol (0.33, 0.66, or 1 g/kg) on baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) and sympathetic efferent discharge (SED) were investigated in rats. The two higher doses of ethanol caused a progressive and significant increase in baseline SED and a slight increase in HR. The findings suggest that the sensitivity of the reflex control of SED was preserved whereas that of HR was impaired after acute ethanol administration. Since these findings were obtained in the same animals, the data suggest that acute ethanol has a differential action on reflex control of SED and HR. Further, the significant increase in SED after moderate and high doses of ethanol suggests an increased central sympathetic tone as recordings were made from preganglionic nerve fibers (splanchnic nerve). The absence of an increase in baseline MAP, in spite of a significant increase in baseline SED following acute ethanol injection, could be explained, at least in part, by an ethanol-evoked reduction in pressor responsiveness to phenylephrine, an ..cap alpha..-adrenergic agonist.

  10. Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria vectors have acquired widespread resistance to many of the currently used insecticides, including synthetic pyrethroids. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides for effective management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. In the present study, chlorfenapyr was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi for its possible use in vector control. Methods Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against An. culicifacies and An. stephensi was assessed using adult bioassay tests. In the laboratory, determination of diagnostic dose, assessment of residual activity on different substrates, cross-resistance pattern with different insecticides and potentiation studies using piperonyl butoxide were undertaken by following standard procedures. Potential cross-resistance patterns were assessed on field populations of An. culicifacies. Results A dose of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as the diagnostic concentration for assessing susceptibility applying the WHO tube test method in anopheline mosquitoes with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period. The DDT-resistant/malathion-deltamethrin-susceptible strain of An. culicifacies species C showed higher LD50 and LD99 (0.67 and 2.39% respectively) values than the DDT-malathion-deltamethrin susceptible An. culicifacies species A (0.41 and 2.0% respectively) and An. stephensi strains (0.43 and 2.13% respectively) and there was no statistically significant difference in mortalities among the three mosquito species tested (p > 0.05). Residual activity of chlorfenapyr a.i. of 400 mg/m2 on five fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement + distemper was found to be effective up to 24 weeks against An. culicifacies and up to 34 weeks against An. stephensi. No cross-resistance to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and deltamethrin was observed with chlorfenapyr in laboratory-reared strains of An. stephensi and field-caught An. culicifacies. Potentiation studies

  11. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  12. The Effect and Action Mechanisms of Oligochitosan on Control of Stem Dry Rot of Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiqin; Cao, Zhimin; Wu, Zhou; Wang, Xing; Li, Xiuhong

    2016-01-01

    In this report, the effects of two oligochitosans, i.e., oligochitosan A (OCHA) and oligochitosan B (OCHB), on control of dry rot of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) caused by Fusarium sambucinum (F. sambucinum) were evaluated. First, both oligochitosans show desirable ability to decrease the infection of F. sambucinum. Second, the oligochitosans strongly inhibit the radial colony and submerged biomass growth of F. sambucinum. Lastly, these oligochitosans are capable of increasing the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) significantly, as well as enhancing the content of total phenolics in Z. bungeanum stems. These findings indicate that the protective effects of OCHA and OCHB on Z. bungeanum stems against dry rot may be associated with the direct fungitoxic function against pathogen and the elicitation of biochemical defensive responses in Z. bungeanum stems. The outcome of this report suggests that oligochitosans may serve as a promising natural fungicide to substitute, at least partially, for synthetic fungicides in the disease management of Z. bungeanum. PMID:27376270

  13. The Effect and Action Mechanisms of Oligochitosan on Control of Stem Dry Rot of Zanthoxylum bungeanum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiqin; Cao, Zhimin; Wu, Zhou; Wang, Xing; Li, Xiuhong

    2016-01-01

    In this report, the effects of two oligochitosans, i.e., oligochitosan A (OCHA) and oligochitosan B (OCHB), on control of dry rot of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) caused by Fusarium sambucinum (F. sambucinum) were evaluated. First, both oligochitosans show desirable ability to decrease the infection of F. sambucinum. Second, the oligochitosans strongly inhibit the radial colony and submerged biomass growth of F. sambucinum. Lastly, these oligochitosans are capable of increasing the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) significantly, as well as enhancing the content of total phenolics in Z. bungeanum stems. These findings indicate that the protective effects of OCHA and OCHB on Z. bungeanum stems against dry rot may be associated with the direct fungitoxic function against pathogen and the elicitation of biochemical defensive responses in Z. bungeanum stems. The outcome of this report suggests that oligochitosans may serve as a promising natural fungicide to substitute, at least partially, for synthetic fungicides in the disease management of Z. bungeanum. PMID:27376270

  14. Quality control measurements for fluoroscopy systems in eight countries participating in the SENTINEL EU coordination action.

    PubMed

    Zoetelief, J; Schultz, F W; Kottou, S; Gray, L; O'Connor, U; Salat, D; Kepler, K; Kaplanis, P; Jankowski, J; Schreiner, A; Vassileva, J

    2008-01-01

    Quality control (QC) is becoming increasingly important in relation to the introduction of digital medical imaging systems using X rays. It was, therefore, decided to organise and perform a trial on image quality and physical measurements. The SENTINEL toolkit for QC measurements of fluoroscopy systems containing equipment and instructions for their use in the assessment of dose and image quality circulated among participants in the trial. The participants reported on their results. In the present contribution, the impact of the trial on the selected protocols is presented. The Medical Physics and Bioengineering protocol appeared to be useful for QC, and also for digital systems. The protocol needs an additional section, or an addition to each section, to state compliance with the requirements. The circular cross-sections of the Leeds test objects need adaptation for rectangular flat panel detector (FPD) systems. Only one participant was able to perform the monitor test using MoniQA. This is due to the fact that assistance is required from the suppliers of the X-ray systems. This problem needs to be solved to apply MoniQA in practice. PMID:18310607

  15. The global health network on alcohol control: successes and limits of evidence-based advocacy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to address alcohol harm have significantly increased since the mid-1990 s. By 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) had adopted the non-binding Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. This study investigates the role of a global health network, anchored by the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (GAPA), which has used scientific evidence on harm and effective interventions to advocate for greater global public health efforts to reduce alcohol harm. The study uses process-tracing methodology and expert interviews to evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this network. The study documents how network members have not only contributed to greater global awareness about alcohol harm, but also advanced a public health approach to addressing this issue at the global level. Although the current network represents an expanding global coalition of like-minded individuals, it faces considerable challenges in advancing its cause towards successful implementation of effective alcohol control policies across many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The analysis reveals a need to transform the network into a formal coalition of regional and national organizations that represent a broader variety of constituents, including the medical community, consumer groups and development-focused non-governmental organizations. Considering the growing harm of alcohol abuse in LMICs and the availability of proven and cost-effective public health interventions, alcohol control represents an excellent 'buy' for donors interested in addressing non-communicable diseases. Alcohol control has broad beneficial effects for human development, including promoting road safety and reducing domestic violence and health care costs across a wide variety of illnesses caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:26276763

  16. Empirical evidence for multi-scaled controls on wildfire size distributions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povak, N.; Hessburg, P. F., Sr.; Salter, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological theory asserts that regional wildfire size distributions are examples of self-organized critical (SOC) systems. Controls on SOC event-size distributions by virtue are purely endogenous to the system and include the (1) frequency and pattern of ignitions, (2) distribution and size of prior fires, and (3) lagged successional patterns after fires. However, recent work has shown that the largest wildfires often result from extreme climatic events, and that patterns of vegetation and topography may help constrain local fire spread, calling into question the SOC model's simplicity. Using an atlas of >12,000 California wildfires (1950-2012) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we fit four different power-law models and broken-stick regressions to fire-size distributions across 16 Bailey's ecoregions. Comparisons among empirical fire size distributions across ecoregions indicated that most ecoregion's fire-size distributions were significantly different, suggesting that broad-scale top-down controls differed among ecoregions. One-parameter power-law models consistently fit a middle range of fire sizes (~100 to 10000 ha) across most ecoregions, but did not fit to larger and smaller fire sizes. We fit the same four power-law models to patch size distributions of aspect, slope, and curvature topographies and found that the power-law models fit to a similar middle range of topography patch sizes. These results suggested that empirical evidence may exist for topographic controls on fire sizes. To test this, we used neutral landscape modeling techniques to determine if observed fire edges corresponded with aspect breaks more often than expected by random. We found significant differences between the empirical and neutral models for some ecoregions, particularly within the middle range of fire sizes. Our results, combined with other recent work, suggest that controls on ecoregional fire size distributions are multi-scaled and likely are not purely SOC. California

  17. Feeling safe in the plane: neural mechanisms underlying superior action control in airplane pilot trainees--a combined EEG/MRS study.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ali; Quetscher, Clara; Dharmadhikari, Shalmali; Chmielewski, Witold; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Edden, Richard; Dydak, Ulrike; Beste, Christian

    2014-10-01

    In day-to-day life, we need to apply strategies to cascade different actions for efficient unfolding of behavior. While deficits in action cascading are examined extensively, almost nothing is known about the neuronal mechanisms mediating superior performance above the normal level. To examine this question, we investigate action control in airplane pilot trainees. We use a stop-change paradigm that is able to estimate the efficiency of action cascading on the basis of mathematical constraints. Behavioral and EEG data is analyzed along these constraints and integrated with neurochemical data obtained using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) from the striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) -ergic system. We show that high performance in action cascading, as exemplified in airplane pilot trainees, can be driven by intensified attentional processes, circumventing response selection processes. The results indicate that the efficiency of action cascading and hence the speed of responding as well as attentional gating functions are modulated by striatal GABA and Glutamate + Glutamine concentrations. In superior performance in action cascading similar increases in the concentrations of GABA and Glutamate + Glutamine lead to stronger neurophysiological and behavioral effects as compared to subjects with normal performance in action cascading. PMID:24753040

  18. Economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in India: Need for urgent action to control the disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balbir B; Dhand, Navneet K; Ghatak, Sandeep; Gill, Jatinder P S

    2014-01-01

    to control and manage the disease in the country. PMID:24148988

  19. Stimulus- and goal-driven control of eye movements: action videogame players are faster but not better.

    PubMed

    Heimler, Benedetta; Pavani, Francesco; Donk, Mieke; van Zoest, Wieske

    2014-11-01

    Action videogame players (AVGPs) have been shown to outperform nongamers (NVGPs) in covert visual attention tasks. These advantages have been attributed to improved top-down control in this population. The time course of visual selection, which permits researchers to highlight when top-down strategies start to control performance, has rarely been investigated in AVGPs. Here, we addressed specifically this issue through an oculomotor additional-singleton paradigm. Participants were instructed to make a saccadic eye movement to a unique orientation singleton. The target was presented among homogeneous nontargets and one additional orientation singleton that was more, equally, or less salient than the target. Saliency was manipulated in the color dimension. Our results showed similar patterns of performance for both AVGPs and NVGPs: Fast-initiated saccades were saliency-driven, whereas later-initiated saccades were more goal-driven. However, although AVGPs were faster than NVGPs, they were also less accurate. Importantly, a multinomial model applied to the data revealed comparable underlying saliency-driven and goal-driven functions for the two groups. Taken together, the observed differences in performance are compatible with the presence of a lower decision bound for releasing saccades in AVGPs than in NVGPs, in the context of comparable temporal interplay between the underlying attentional mechanisms. In sum, the present findings show that in both AVGPs and NVGPs, the implementation of top-down control in visual selection takes time to come about, and they argue against the idea of a general enhancement of top-down control in AVGPs. PMID:25073611

  20. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, M. H.; Hossain, M. Ashraf; Kashem, M. A.; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance. PMID:24723819