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Sample records for activated fatty acids

  1. Physiological activities of hydroxyl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the search of value-added products from surplus soybean oil, we produced many new hydroxy fatty acids through microbial bioconversion. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial products, such as resins, waxes, nylons plastics, lubricants, cosmetics, and additives in coatings and...

  2. Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of new fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    D'Oca, Caroline Da Ros Montes; Coelho, Tatiane; Marinho, Tamara Germani; Hack, Carolina Rosa Lopes; Duarte, Rodrigo da Costa; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes

    2010-09-01

    This work reports the synthesis of new fatty acid amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:1 (OH), and 18:2 fatty acids families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time the activity of these compounds as antituberculosis agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, M. tuberculosis rifampicin resistance (ATCC 35338), and M. tuberculosis isoniazid resistance (ATCC 35822). The fatty acid amides derivate from ricinoleic acid were the most potent one among a series of tested compounds, with a MIC 6.25 microg/mL for resistance strains. PMID:20667727

  3. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. PMID:25510639

  4. Fatty Acid Activation in Cyanobacteria Mediated by Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthetase Enables Fatty Acid Recycling1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarzyk, Danuta; Fulda, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In cyanobacteria fatty acids destined for lipid synthesis can be synthesized de novo, but also exogenous free fatty acids from the culture medium can be directly incorporated into lipids. Activation of exogenous fatty acids is likely required prior to their utilization. To identify the enzymatic activity responsible for activation we cloned candidate genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and identified the encoded proteins as acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetases (Aas). The enzymes catalyze the ATP-dependent esterification of fatty acids to the thiol of acyl carrier protein. The two protein sequences are only distantly related to known prokaryotic Aas proteins but they display strong similarity to sequences that can be found in almost all organisms that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. To investigate the biological role of Aas activity in cyanobacteria, aas knockout mutants were generated in the background of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and S. elongatus PCC 7942. The mutant strains showed two phenotypes characterized by the inability to utilize exogenous fatty acids and by the secretion of endogenous fatty acids into the culture medium. The analyses of extracellular and intracellular fatty acid profiles of aas mutant strains as well as labeling experiments indicated that the detected free fatty acids are released from membrane lipids. The data suggest a considerable turnover of lipid molecules and a role for Aas activity in recycling the released fatty acids. In this model, lipid degradation represents a third supply of fatty acids for lipid synthesis in cyanobacteria. PMID:20061450

  5. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS), have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene. PMID:22433663

  6. Toxocara canis: Larvicidal activity of fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    Mata-Santos, Tas; D'Oca, Caroline da Ros Montes; Mata-Santos, Hlton Antnio; Fenalti, Juliana; Pinto, Nitza; Coelho, Tatiane; Berne, Maria Elisabeth; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonalves Montes; Scaini, Carlos James

    2016-02-01

    Considering the therapeutic potential of fatty acid amides, the present study aimed to evaluate their in vitro activity against Toxocara canis larvae and their cytotoxicity for the first time. Linoleylpyrrolidilamide was the most potent, with a minimal larvicidal concentration (MLC) of 0.05mg/mL and 27% cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages C57BL/6 mice, as assessed by the MTT assay. PMID:26783180

  7. Electrophilic fatty acids regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J; Batthyany, Carlos I; Rudolph, Tanja K; Rudolph, Volker; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Kelley, Eric E; Freeman, Bruce A

    2011-05-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO(2)-FA) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed by reactions of nitric oxide and nitrite. NO(2)-FA exert anti-inflammatory signaling actions through post-translational protein modifications. We report that nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO(2)) stimulates proMMP-7 and proMMP-9 proteolytic activity via adduction of the conserved cysteine switch domain thiolate. Biotin-labeled OA-NO(2) showed this adduction occurs preferentially with latent forms of MMP, confirming a role for thiol alkylation by OA-NO(2) in MMP activation. In addition to regulating pro-MMP activation, MMP expression was modulated by OA-NO(2) via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. MMP-9 transcription was decreased in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated THP-1 macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist Rosiglitazone. This was affirmed using a murine model of atherosclerosis, ApoE(-/-) mice, where in vivo OA-NO(2) administration suppressed MMP expression in atherosclerotic lesions. These findings reveal that electrophilic fatty acid derivatives can serve as effectors during inflammation, first by activating pro-MMP proteolytic activity via alkylation of the cysteine switch domain, and then by transcriptionally inhibiting MMP expression, thereby limiting the further progression of inflammatory processes. PMID:21454668

  8. Electrophilic Fatty Acids Regulate Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity and Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Batthyany, Carlos I.; Rudolph, Tanja K.; Rudolph, Volker; Khoo, Nicholas K. H.; Kelley, Eric E.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed by reactions of nitric oxide and nitrite. NO2-FA exert anti-inflammatory signaling actions through post-translational protein modifications. We report that nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) stimulates proMMP-7 and proMMP-9 proteolytic activity via adduction of the conserved cysteine switch domain thiolate. Biotin-labeled OA-NO2 showed this adduction occurs preferentially with latent forms of MMP, confirming a role for thiol alkylation by OA-NO2 in MMP activation. In addition to regulating pro-MMP activation, MMP expression was modulated by OA-NO2 via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. MMP-9 transcription was decreased in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated THP-1 macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist Rosiglitazone. This was affirmed using a murine model of atherosclerosis, ApoE?/? mice, where in vivo OA-NO2 administration suppressed MMP expression in atherosclerotic lesions. These findings reveal that electrophilic fatty acid derivatives can serve as effectors during inflammation, first by activating pro-MMP proteolytic activity via alkylation of the cysteine switch domain, and then by transcriptionally inhibiting MMP expression, thereby limiting the further progression of inflammatory processes. PMID:21454668

  9. Reconciling Ligase Ribozyme Activity with Fatty Acid Vesicle Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anella, Fabrizio; Danelon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The “RNA world” and the “Lipid world” theories for the origin of cellular life are often considered incompatible due to the differences in the environmental conditions at which they can emerge. One obstacle resides in the conflicting requirements for divalent metal ions, in particular Mg2+, with respect to optimal ribozyme activity, fatty acid vesicle stability and protection against RNA strand cleavage. Here, we report on the activity of a short L1 ligase ribozyme in the presence of myristoleic acid (MA) vesicles at varying concentrations of Mg2+. The ligation rate is significantly lower at low-Mg2+ conditions. However, the loss of activity is overcompensated by the increased stability of RNA leading to a larger amount of intact ligated substrate after long reaction periods. Combining RNA ligation assays with fatty acid vesicles we found that MA vesicles made of 5 mM amphiphile are stable and do not impair ligase ribozyme activity in the presence of approximately 2 mM Mg2+. These results provide a scenario in which catalytic RNA and primordial membrane assembly can coexist in the same environment. PMID:25513761

  10. Fatty Acid-Elongating Activity in Rapidly Expanding Leek Epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, K. J.; Post-Beittenmiller, D.

    1995-01-01

    A microsomal fatty acid elongase activity measured in epidermis of rapidly expanding leek (Allium porrum L.) was 10-fold higher in specific activity than preparations from store-bought leek. These preparations elongated acyl chains effectively using endogenous or supplied primers. Elongation of C20:0 was specifically inhibited by 2 [mu]M cerulenin, and labeling experiments with [3H]cerulenin labeled two polypeptides (65 and 88 kD). ATP was required for maximal elongase activity in expanding leaves but was lost in nonexpanding tissues. Both [14C]stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and [14C]stearate were maximally elongated in the presence of ATP. Addition of fully reduced CoA, however, inhibited [14C]stearate elongation, suggesting that stearoyl-CoA synthesis was not a prerequisite for elongation. Furthermore, microsomes preincubated with [14C]stearoyl-CoA plus ATP resulted in loss of radiolabel from the acyl-CoA pool without a corresponding loss in elongating activity. The lack of correlation between elongating activity and the label retained in the putative acyl-CoA substrate pool suggests that acyl-CoAs may not be the immediate precursors for elongation and that ATP plays a critical, yet undefined, role in the elongation process. We propose that an ATP-dependent elongating activity may generate the long-chain fatty acids required for wax biosynthesis. PMID:12228624

  11. Intracellular activation of EGFR by fatty acid synthase dependent palmitoylation

    PubMed Central

    Bollu, Lakshmi Reddy; Katreddy, Rajashekhara Reddy; Blessing, Alicia Marie; Pham, Nguyen; Zheng, Baohui; Wu, Xu; Weihua, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase. Canonically, the tyrosine kinase activity of EGFR is regulated by its extracellular ligands. However, ligand-independent activation of EGFR exists in certain cancer cells, and the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. In this study, using PC3 and A549 cells as a model, we have found that, in the absence of extracellular ligands, a subpopulation of EGFR is constitutively active, which is needed for maintaining cell proliferation. Furthermore, we have found that fatty acid synthase (FASN)-dependent palmitoylation of EGFR is required for EGFR dimerization and kinase activation. Inhibition of FASN or palmitoyl acyltransferases reduced the activity and down-regulated the levels of EGFR, and sensitized cancer cells to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It is concluded that EGFR can be activated intracellularly by FASN-dependent palmitoylation. This mechanism may serve as a new target for improving EGFR-based cancer therapy. PMID:26378037

  12. Brain fatty acid synthase activates PPAR? to maintain energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Manu V.; Zhu, Yimin; Lpez, Miguel; Yin, Li; Wozniak, David F.; Coleman, Trey; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wolfgang, Michael; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Lane, M. Daniel; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2007-01-01

    Central nervous system control of energy balance affects susceptibility to obesity and diabetes, but how fatty acids, malonyl-CoA, and other metabolites act at this site to alter metabolism is poorly understood. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS), rate limiting for de novo lipogenesis, decreases appetite independently of leptin but also promotes weight loss through activities unrelated to FAS inhibition. Here we report that the conditional genetic inactivation of FAS in pancreatic ? cells and hypothalamus produced lean, hypophagic mice with increased physical activity and impaired hypothalamic PPAR? signaling. Administration of a PPAR? agonist into the hypothalamus increased PPAR? target genes and normalized food intake. Inactivation of ? cell FAS enzyme activity had no effect on islet function in culture or in vivo. These results suggest a critical role for brain FAS in the regulation of not only feeding, but also physical activity, effects that appear to be mediated through the provision of ligands generated by FAS to PPAR?. Thus, 2 diametrically opposed proteins, FAS (induced by feeding) and PPAR? (induced by starvation), unexpectedly form an integrative sensory module in the central nervous system to orchestrate energy balance. PMID:17694178

  13. Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation

    SciTech Connect

    Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

    1987-05-01

    The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. /sup 14/C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell.

  14. Anti-cancer Activities of ω-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Qian, Steven Y.

    2014-01-01

    The ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are two major families of PUFAs present as essential cellular components which possess diverse bioactivities. The ω-3s, mainly found in seafood, are associated with many beneficial effects on human health, while the ω-6s are more abundant in our daily diet and could be implicated in many pathological processes including cancer development. Increasing evidence suggests that the adverse effects of ω-6s may be largely attributed to arachidonic acid (AA, a downstream ω-6) and the metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that stems from its cyclooxygenase (COX)-catalyzed lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, two of AA’s upstream ω-6s, γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), are shown to possess certain anti-cancer activities, including inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. In this paper, we review the documented anti-cancer activities of ω-6 PUFAs, including the recent findings regarding the anti-cancer effects of free radical-mediated DGLA peroxidation. The possible mechanisms and applications of DGLA (and other ω-6s) in inducing anti-cancer activity are also discussed. Considering the wide availability of ω-6s in our daily diet, the study of the potential beneficial effect of ω-6 PUFAs may guide us to develop an ω-6–based diet care strategy for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:24923568

  15. Antimicrobial activity of fatty acid methyl esters of some members of Chenopodiaceae.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Kannathasan, Krishnan; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts of four halophytic plants, viz. Arthrocnemum indicum, Salicornia brachiata, Suaeda maritima and Suaeda monoica belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae, were prepared and their composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The FAME extracts were also screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids. Among the fatty acids analyzed, the relative percentage of lauric acid was high in S. brachiata (61.85%). The FAME extract of S. brachiata showed the highest antibacterial and antifungal activities among the extracts tested. The other three extracts showed potent antibacterial and moderate anticandidal activities. PMID:18669016

  16. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  17. Fatty acids and neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Belkind-Gerson, J; Carren-Rodrguez, A; Contreras-Ochoa, C O; Estrada-Mondaca, S; Parra-Cabrera, M S

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the importance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in neurodevelopment was originally obtained from animal studies. These fatty acids are rapidly accreted in brain during the first postnatal year in animal and human infants, and they are found in high concentrations in breast milk. Reports of enhanced intellectual development in breast-fed children, and reports linking LCPUFA deficiency with neurodevelopmental disorders have stressed the physiological importance of DHA in visual and neural systems. In addition to high concentrations of fatty acids in breast milk, they are also present in fish and algae oil and have recently been added to infant formulas. Esterified poplyunsaturated fatty acids act in cellular membranes, in signal transduction, in neurotransmission, and in the formation of lipid rafts. Nonesterified polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate gene expression and ion channel activities, thus becoming neuroprotective agents. The conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid into ARA and DHA have led to randomized clinical trials that have studied whether infant formulas supplemented with DHA or both DHA and ARA would enhance visual and cognitive development. This review gives an overview of fatty acids and neurodevelopment, focusing on the findings from these studies. PMID:18667917

  18. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  19. Mammalian Fatty Acid Elongases

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Very long chain fatty acids confer functional diversity on cells by variations in their chain length and degree of unsaturation. Microsomal fatty acid elongation represents the major pathway for determining the chain length of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipids. The overall reaction for fatty acid elongation involves four enzymes and utilizes malonyl CoA, NADPH, and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. While the fundamental pathway and its requirements have been known for many years, recent advances have revealed a family of enzymes involved in the first step of the reaction, i.e., the condensation reaction. Seven fatty acid elongase subtypes (Elovl #17) have been identified in the mouse, rat, and human genomes. These enzymes determine the rate of overall fatty acid elongation. Moreover, these enzymes also display differential substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and regulation, making them important regulators of cellular lipid composition as well as specific cellular functions. Herein, methods are described to measure elongase activity, analyze elongation products, and alter cellular elongase expression. PMID:19763486

  20. Fatty acids regulate perilipin5 in muscle by activating PPAR?.

    PubMed

    Bindesbll, Christian; Berg, Ole; Arntsen, Borghild; Nebb, Hilde I; Dalen, Knut Tomas

    2013-07-01

    The surface of lipid droplets (LDs) in various cell types is coated with perilipin proteins encoded by the Plin genes. Perilipins regulate LD metabolism by selectively recruiting lipases and other proteins to LDs. We have studied the expression of perilipins in mouse muscle. The glycolytic fiber-enriched gastrocnemius muscle expresses predominantly Plin2-4. The oxidative fiber-enriched soleus muscle expresses Plin2-5. Expression of Plin2 and Plin4-5 is elevated in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from mice fed a high-fat diet. This effect is preserved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?-deficient mice. Mouse muscle derived C2C12 cells differentiated into glycolytic fibers increase transcription of these Plins when exposed to various long chain fatty acids (FAs). To understand how FAs regulate Plin genes, we used specific activators and antagonists against PPARs, Plin promoter reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, siRNA, and animal models. Our analyses demonstrate that FAs require PPAR? to induce transcription of Plin4 and Plin5. We further identify a functional PPAR binding site in the Plin5 gene and establish Plin5 as a novel direct PPAR? target in muscle. Our study reveals that muscle cells respond to elevated FAs by increasing transcription of several perilipin LD-coating proteins. This induction renders the muscle better equipped to sequester incoming FAs into cytosolic LDs. PMID:23606724

  1. Bactericidal Activity of the Human Skin Fatty Acid cis-6-Hexadecanoic Acid on Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, Michal L.; England, Simon R.; Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Josten, Michaele; Turner, Robert; Rauter, Yvonne; Hurd, Alexander; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Human skin fatty acids are a potent aspect of our innate defenses, giving surface protection against potentially invasive organisms. They provide an important parameter in determining the ecology of the skin microflora, and alterations can lead to increased colonization by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Harnessing skin fatty acids may also give a new avenue of exploration in the generation of control measures against drug-resistant organisms. Despite their importance, the mechanism(s) whereby skin fatty acids kill bacteria has remained largely elusive. Here, we describe an analysis of the bactericidal effects of the major human skin fatty acid cis-6-hexadecenoic acid (C6H) on the human commensal and pathogen S. aureus. Several C6H concentration-dependent mechanisms were found. At high concentrations, C6H swiftly kills cells associated with a general loss of membrane integrity. However, C6H still kills at lower concentrations, acting through disruption of the proton motive force, an increase in membrane fluidity, and its effects on electron transfer. The design of analogues with altered bactericidal effects has begun to determine the structural constraints on activity and paves the way for the rational design of new antistaphylococcal agents. PMID:24709265

  2. Adsorption of Palm Oil Carotene and Free Fatty Acids onto Acid Activated Cameroonian Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binwie Joy, Nde-Aga; Richard, Kamga; Pierre, Nguetnkam Jean

    The adsorption of carotene and free fatty acids from crude palm oil by local clay, activated with various concentrations of sulphuric acid (0.5, 1 and 2 M) was investigated. Kinetic studies of the adsorption of carotene and of free fatty acids at 65, 80 and 90C, showed that the time required attaining adsorption equilibrium decreases as the temperature increases, regardless of the adsorbent used. Clay activated with 1 M sulphuric acid solution was the most efficient local clay for the adsorption of carotene and of free fatty acid and it compared favourably with the industrial clay used as reference. The bleaching efficiency of local clay was correlated to the surface area of the adsorbents. It was found that the Freundlich equation is applicable to the adsorption isotherms of carotene from palm oil. The Brimberg model used to determine the activation energy of the adsorption process gave the values, 8212, 7211, 7411 and 376 kJ molG1, for industrial adsorbent, 0.5, 1 and 2 M activated clays, respectively.

  3. Unraveling fatty acid transport and activation mechanisms in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Rmi; Gamboa-Melndez, Heber; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thvenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid (FA) transport and activation have been extensively studied in the model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae but have rarely been examined in oleaginous yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica. Because the latter begins to be used in biodiesel production, understanding its FA transport and activation mechanisms is essential. We found that Y. lipolytica has FA transport and activation proteins similar to those of S. cerevisiae (Faa1p, Pxa1p, Pxa2p, Ant1p) but mechanism of FA peroxisomal transport and activation differs greatly with that of S. cerevisiae. While the ScPxa1p/ScPxa2p heterodimer is essential for growth on long-chain FAs, ?Ylpxa1 ?Ylpxa2 is not impaired for growth on FAs. Meanwhile, ScAnt1p and YlAnt1p are both essential for yeast growth on medium-chain FAs, suggesting they function similarly. Interestingly, we found that the ?Ylpxa1 ?Ylpxa2 ?Ylant1 mutant was unable to grow on short-, medium-, or long-chain FAs, suggesting that YlPxa1p, YlPxa2p, and YlAnt1p belong to two different FA degradation pathways. We also found that YlFaa1p is involved in FA storage in lipid bodies and that FA remobilization largely depended on YlFat1p, YlPxa1p and YlPxa2p. This study is the first to comprehensively examine FA intracellular transport and activation in oleaginous yeast. PMID:25887939

  4. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Activate Calcium Channels in Ventricular Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, James Min-Che; Xian, Hu; Bacaner, Marvin

    1992-07-01

    Nonesterified fatty acids accumulate at sites of tissue injury and necrosis. In cardiac tissue the concentrations of oleic acid, arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, and other fatty acids increase greatly during ischemia due to receptor or nonreceptor-mediated activation of phospholipases and/or diminished reacylation. In ischemic myocardium, the time course of increase in fatty acids and tissue calcium closely parallels irreversible cardiac damage. We postulated that fatty acids released from membrane phospholipids may be involved in the increase of intracellular calcium. We report here that low concentrations (3-30 ?M) of each long-chain unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic) and saturated (palmitic, stearic, and arachidic) fatty acid tested induced multifold increases in voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) in cardiac myocytes. In contrast, neither short-chain fatty acids (<12 carbons) or fatty acid esters (oleic and palmitic methyl esters) had any effect on ICa, indicating that activation of calcium channels depended on chain length and required a free carboxyl group. Inhibition of protein kinases C and A, G proteins, eicosanoid production, or nonenzymatic oxidation did not block the fatty acid-induced increase in ICa. Thus, long-chain fatty acids appear to directly activate ICa, possibly by acting at some lipid sites near the channels or directly on the channel protein itself. We suggest that the combined effects of fatty acids released during ischemia on ICa may contribute to ischemia-induced pathogenic events on the heart that involve calcium, such as arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and myocardial damage due to cytotoxic calcium overload.

  5. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ?6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  6. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  7. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPAR{alpha} activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR{gamma} agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

  8. Phosphatidate Phosphatase Activity Plays Key Role in Protection against Fatty Acid-induced Toxicity in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Fakas, Stylianos; Qiu, Yixuan; Dixon, Joseph L.; Han, Gil-Soo; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Sturley, Stephen L.; Carman, George M.

    2011-01-01

    The PAH1-encoded phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pivotal enzyme that produces diacylglycerol for the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and simultaneously controls the level of PA used for phospholipid synthesis. Quantitative lipid analysis showed that the pah1? mutation caused a reduction in TAG mass and an elevation in the mass of phospholipids and free fatty acids, changes that were more pronounced in the stationary phase. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the pah1? mutant were unaltered, although the ratio of palmitoleic acid to oleic acid was increased with a similar change in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The pah1? mutant exhibited classic hallmarks of apoptosis in stationary phase and a marked reduction in the quantity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Cells lacking PA phosphatase were sensitive to exogenous fatty acids in the order of toxicity palmitoleic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid. In contrast, the growth of wild type cells was not inhibited by fatty acid supplementation. In addition, wild type cells supplemented with palmitoleic acid exhibited an induction in PA phosphatase activity and an increase in TAG synthesis. Deletion of the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which counteracts PA phosphatase in controlling PA content, suppressed the defect in lipid droplet formation in the pah1? mutant. However, the sensitivity of the pah1? mutant to palmitoleic acid was not rescued by the dgk1? mutation. Overall, these findings indicate a key role of PA phosphatase in TAG synthesis for protection against fatty acid-induced toxicity. PMID:21708942

  9. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Duncan, Robin E.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Archer, Michael C.

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare utilization of fatty acids produced by FASN to those derived exogenously. • Cancer cells do not have a specific requirement for fatty acids produced by FASN. • Fatty acids produced by FASN are in excess of cell requirements and are excreted. • Increased FASN activity is not required to sustain elevations in glycolysis.

  10. Mechanistic and functional insights into fatty acid activation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pooja; Goyal, Aneesh; Natarajan, Vivek T; Rajakumara, Eerappa; Verma, Priyanka; Gupta, Radhika; Yousuf, Malikmohamed; Trivedi, Omita A.; Mohanty, Debasisa; Tyagi, Anil; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan; Gokhale, Rajesh S.

    2009-01-01

    The recent discovery of fatty acyl-AMP ligases (FAALs) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) provided a new perspective to fatty acid activation dogma. These proteins convert fatty acids to corresponding adenylates, which is an intermediate of acyl-CoA-synthesizing fatty acyl-CoA ligases (FACLs). Presently, it is not evident how obligate pathogens like Mtb have evolved such new themes of functional versatility and whether the activation of fatty acids to acyl-adenylates could indeed be a general mechanism. Here, based on elucidation of the first structure of a FAAL protein and by generating loss- as well as gain-of-function mutants that interconvert FAAL and FACL activities, we demonstrate that an insertion motif dictates formation of acyl-adenylate. Since FAALs in Mtb are crucial nodes in biosynthetic network of virulent lipids, inhibitors directed against these proteins provide a unique multi-pronged approach of simultaneously disrupting several pathways. PMID:19182784

  11. Phytanic acid is ligand and transcriptional activator of murine liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, C; Ellinghaus, P; Fobker, M; Seedorf, U; Assmann, G; Brchers, T; Spener, F

    1999-04-01

    Branched-chain phytanic acid is metabolized in liver peroxisomes. Sterol carrier protein 2/sterol carrier protein x (SCP2/SCPx) knockout mice, which develop a phenotype with a deficiency in phytanic acid degradation, accumulate dramatically high concentrations of this fatty acid in serum (Seedorf at al. 1998. Genes Dev. 12: 1189-1201) and liver. Concomitantly, a 6.9-fold induction of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) expression is observed in comparison to wild-type animals fed standard chow, possibly mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Cytosolic transport of phytanic acid to either peroxisomal membranes or to the nucleus for activation of PPARalpha may be mediated by L-FABP, which gives rise to the question whether phytanic acid is a transactivator of this protein. Here we show first that phytanic acid binds to recombinant L-FABP with high affinity. Then the increase of the in vivo phytanic acid concentration by phytol feeding to mice results in a 4-fold induction of L-FABP expression in liver, which is in the order of that attained with bezafibrate, a known peroxisome proliferator. Finally to test in vitro whether this induction is conferred by phytanic acid, we cotransfected HepG2 cells with an expression plasmid for murine PPARalpha and a CAT-reporter gene with 176 bp of the murine L-FABP promoter, containing the peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE). After incubation with phytanic acid, we observed a 3.2-fold induction of CAT expression. These findings, both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrate that phytanic acid is a transcriptional activator of L-FABP expression and that this effect is mediated via PPARalpha. PMID:10191295

  12. Fatty acid-binding protein activities in bovine muscle, liver and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.B.; Ekeren, P.A.; Sanders, J.O.

    1985-11-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue, sternomandibularis muscle and liver were obtained from steers immediately postmortem. Muscle strips and adipose tissue snips were incubated with 0.75 mM (1- UC)palmitate and 5 mM glucose. Muscle strips esterified palmitate at the rate of 2.5 nmol/min per gram tissue, which was 30% of the rate observed for adipose tissue. Fatty acid-binding protein activity was measured in 104,000 x g supernatant fractions of liver, muscle and adipose tissue homogenates. Muscle and adipose tissue fractions bound 840 and 140 pmol (1- UC)palmitoyl-CoA per gram tissue, respectively. Fatty acid-binding protein activity was greater in adipose tissue than in muscle when data were expressed per milligram protein. Fatty acid binding-protein activity was correlated with the rate of palmitate esterification within each tissue. Liver contained the highest fatty acid-binding protein activity.

  13. Brain microsomal fatty acid elongation is increased in abcd1-deficient mouse during active myelination phase.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masashi; Kawamichi, Misato; Shimura, Yusuke; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Watanabe, Shiro; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2015-12-01

    The dysfunction of ABCD1, a peroxisomal ABC protein, leads to the perturbation of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism and is the cause of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Abcd1-deficient mice exhibit an accumulation of saturated VLCFAs, such as C26:0, in all tissues, especially the brain. The present study sought to measure microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain of wild-type (WT) and abcd1-deficient mice during the course of development. The fatty acid elongation activity in the microsomal fraction was measured by the incorporation of [2-(14)C]malonyl-CoA into fatty acids in the presence of C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA. Cytosolic fatty acid synthesis activity was completely inhibited by the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain was significantly high at 3 weeks after birth and decreased substantially at 3 months after birth. Furthermore, we detected two different types of microsomal fatty acid elongation activity by using C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA as the substrate and found the activity toward C20:0-CoA in abcd1-deficient mice was higher than the WT 3-week-old animals. These results suggest that during the active myelination phase the microsomal fatty acid elongation activity is stimulated in abcd1-deficient mice, which in turn perturbs the lipid composition in myelin. PMID:26108493

  14. Insulin activation of plasma non-esterified fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A.; Lapidot, Smadar A.; Phair, Robert D.; Parks, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Insulin control of fatty acid metabolism has long been deemed dominated by suppression of adipose lipolysis. This studys goal was to test the hypothesis that this single role of insulin is insufficient to explain observed fatty acid dynamics. Methods and Results Fatty acid kinetics were measured during a meal-tolerance test and insulin sensitivity assessed by IVGTT in overweight human subjects (n=15, BMI 35.8 7.1 kg/m2). Non-steady state tracer kinetic models were formulated and tested using ProcessDB software. Suppression of adipose release alone could not account for NEFA concentration changes postprandially, but when combined with insulin activation of fatty acid uptake was consistent with the NEFA data. The observed insulin Km for NEFA uptake was inversely correlated with both insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake (IVGTT Si) (r=?0.626, P=0.01), and whole body fat oxidation after the meal (r=?0.538, P=0.05). Conclusions These results support insulin regulation of fatty acid turnover by both release and uptake mechanisms. Activation of fatty acid uptake is consistent with the human data, has mechanistic precedent in cell culture, and highlights a new potential target for therapies aimed at improving the control of fatty acid metabolism in insulin-resistant disease states. PMID:22723441

  15. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  17. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Early research suggests that taking a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids twice daily for ... that taking a combination of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids for 3 months can improve reading, ...

  18. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

  19. The biological activities of protein/oleic acid complexes reside in the fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Angelo; Spolaore, Barbara; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia

    2013-06-01

    A complex formed by human ?-lactalbumin (?-LA) and oleic acid (OA), named HAMLET, has been shown to have an apoptotic activity leading to the selective death of tumor cells. In numerous publications it has been reported that in the complex ?-LA is monomeric and adopts a partly folded or "molten globule" state, leading to the idea that partly folded proteins can have "beneficial effects". The protein/OA molar ratio initially has been reported to be 1:1, while recent data have indicated that the OA-complex is given by an oligomeric protein capable of binding numerous OA molecules per protein monomer. Proteolytic fragments of ?-LA, as well as other proteins unrelated to ?-LA, can form OA-complexes with biological activities similar to those of HAMLET, thus indicating that a generic protein can form a cytotoxic complex under suitable experimental conditions. Moreover, even the selective tumoricidal activity of HAMLET-like complexes has been questioned. There is recent evidence that the biological activity of long chain unsaturated fatty acids, including OA, can be ascribed to their effect of perturbing the structure of biological membranes and consequently the function of membrane-bound proteins. In general, it has been observed that the cytotoxic effects exerted by HAMLET-like complexes are similar to those reported for OA alone. Overall, these findings can be interpreted by considering that the protein moiety does not have a toxic effect on its own, but merely acts as a solubilising agent for the inherently toxic fatty acid. PMID:23499846

  20. Saturated fatty acids activate TLR-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 were shown to be activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) but inhibited by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, one report (ATVB 11:1944, 2009) suggested that SFA-induced TLR activation in cell culture systems is due to contaminants in BSA used for conjugating f...

  1. Epicuticular Wax Accumulation and Fatty Acid Elongation Activities Are Induced during Leaf Development of Leeks1

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Yoon; Hlousek-Radojcic, Alenka; Ponsamuel, Jayakumar; Liu, Dehua; Post-Beittenmiller, Dusty

    1998-01-01

    Epicuticular wax production was evaluated along the length of expanding leek (Allium porrum L.) leaves to gain insight into the regulation of wax production. Leaf segments from the bottom to the top were analyzed for (a) wax composition and load; (b) microsomal fatty acid elongase, plastidial fatty acid synthase, and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase activities; and (c) tissue and cellular morphological changes. The level of total wax, which was low at the bottom, increased 23-fold along the length of the leaf, whereas accumulation of the hentriacontan-16-one increased more than 1000-fold. The onset of wax accumulation was not linked to cell elongation but, rather, occurred several centimeters above the leaf base. Peak microsomal fatty acid elongation activity preceded the onset of wax accumulation, and the maximum fatty acid synthase activity was coincident with the onset. The C16:0- and C18:0-ACP-hydrolyzing activities changed relatively little along the leaf, whereas C18:1-ACP-hydrolyzing activity increased slightly prior to the peak elongase activity. Electron micrographic analyses revealed that wax crystal formation was asynchronous among cells in the initial stages of wax deposition, and morphological changes in the cuticle and cell wall preceded the appearance of wax crystals. These studies demonstrated that wax production and microsomal fatty acid elongation activities were induced within a defined and identifiable region of the expanding leek leaf and provide the foundation for future molecular studies. PMID:9501123

  2. Liver Fatty acid binding protein (L-Fabp) modulates murine stellate cell activation and diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Anping; Tang, Youcai; Davis, Victoria; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Kennedy, Susan M.; Song, Haowei; Turk, John; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is crucial to the development of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Quiescent HSCs contain lipid droplets (LDs), whose depletion upon activation induces a fibrogenic gene program. Here we show that liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-Fabp), an abundant cytosolic protein that modulates fatty acid (FA) metabolism in enterocytes and hepatocytes also modulates HSC FA utilization and in turn regulates the fibrogenic program. L-Fabp expression decreased 10-fold following HSC activation, concomitant with depletion of LDs. Primary HSCs isolated from L-FABP?/? mice contain fewer LDs than wild type (WT) HSCs, and exhibit upregulated expression of genes involved in HSC activation. Adenoviral L-Fabp transduction inhibited activation of passaged WT HSCs and increased both the expression of prolipogenic genes and also augmented intracellular lipid accumulation, including triglyceride and FA, predominantly palmitate. Freshly isolated HSCs from L-FABP?/? mice correspondingly exhibited decreased palmitate in the free FA pool. To investigate whether L-FABP deletion promotes HSC activation in vivo, we fed L-FABP?/? and WT mice a high fat diet supplemented with trans-fatty acids and fructose (TFF). TFF-fed L-FABP?/? mice exhibited reduced hepatic steatosis along with decreased LD abundance and size compared to WT mice. In addition, TFF-fed L-FABP?/? mice exhibited decreased hepatic fibrosis, with reduced expression of fibrogenic genes, compared to WT mice. Conclusion L-FABP deletion attenuates both diet-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrogenesis, despite the observation that L-Fabp paradoxically promotes FA and LD accumulation and inhibits HSC activation in vitro. These findings highlight the importance of cell-specific modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism in promoting fibrogenesis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:23401290

  3. Fatty acid transduction of nitric oxide signaling: Nitrolinoleic acid potently activates endothelial heme oxygenase 1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Marcienne M.; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Baker, Paul R. S.; Vidyasagar, Vijay; Powell, Pam; Chumley, Phil; Iles, Karen E.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Agarwal, Anupam

    2006-01-01

    Nitroalkenes are a class of cell signaling mediators generated by NO and fatty acid-dependent redox reactions. Nitrated fatty acids such as 10- and 12-nitro-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (nitrolinoleic acid, LNO2) exhibit pluripotent antiinflammatory cell signaling properties. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is up-regulated as an adaptive response to inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. LNO2 (110 ?M) induced HO-1 mRNA and protein up to 70- and 15-fold, respectively, in human aortic endothelial cells. This induction of HO-1 occurred within clinical LNO2 concentration ranges, far exceeded responses to equimolar amounts of linoleic acid and oxidized linoleic acid, and rivaled that induced by hemin. Ex vivo incubation of rat aortic segments with 25 ?M LNO2 resulted in a 40-fold induction of HO-1 protein that localized to endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Actinomycin D inhibited LNO2 induction of HO-1 in human aortic endothelial cells, and LNO2 activated a 4.5-kb human HO-1 promoter construct, indicating transcriptional regulation of the HO-1 gene. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) receptor antagonist GW9662 did not inhibit LNO2-mediated HO-1 induction, and a methyl ester derivative of LNO2 with diminished PPAR? binding capability also induced HO-1, affirming a PPAR?-independent mechanism. The NO scavengers 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and oxymyoglobin partially reversed induction of HO-1 by LNO2, revealing that LNO2 regulates HO-1 expression by predominantly NO-independent mechanisms. In summary, the metabolic and inflammatory signaling actions of nitroalkenes can be transduced by robust HO-1 induction. PMID:16537525

  4. Influence of ethylenediamine-n,n-disuccinic acid (EDDS) concentration on the bactericidal activity of fatty acids in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethylenediamine-N,N-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and antibacterial fatty acids (FA) was examined using the agar diffusion assay. Solutions of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids dissolved in potassium hydroxide (KOH) were supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM ...

  5. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  6. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of antimicrobial fatty acids and derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus *

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lu; Peng, Li-juan; Dong, Xiao-wu; Wu, Di; Wu, Vivian Chi-Hua; Feng, Feng-qin

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids and derivatives (FADs) are resources for natural antimicrobials. In order to screen for additional potent antimicrobial agents, the antimicrobial activities of FADs against Staphylococcus aureus were examined using a microplate assay. Monoglycerides of fatty acids were the most potent class of fatty acids, among which monotridecanoin possessed the most potent antimicrobial activity. The conventional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) were performed to establish two statistically reliable models (conventional QSAR: R 2=0.942, Q 2 LOO=0.910; CoMFA: R 2=0.979, Q 2=0.588, respectively). Improved forecasting can be achieved by the combination of these two models that provide a good insight into the structure-activity relationships of the FADs and that may be useful to design new FADs as antimicrobial agents. PMID:22302421

  7. Activation of Exogenous Fatty Acids to Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Cannot Bypass FabI Inhibition in Neisseria.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Bruhn, David F; Frank, Matthew W; Lee, Richard E; Rock, Charles O

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria is a Gram-negative pathogen with phospholipids composed of straight chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides that are not essential. The FabI inhibitor, AFN-1252, was deployed as a chemical biology tool to determine whether Neisseria can bypass the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by incorporating exogenous fatty acids. Neisseria encodes a functional FabI that was potently inhibited by AFN-1252. AFN-1252 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in growing Neisseria, a delayed inhibition of growth phenotype, and minimal inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, showing that its mode of action is through inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. Isotopic fatty acid labeling experiments showed that Neisseria encodes the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipids by an acyl-acyl carrier protein-dependent pathway. However, AFN-1252 remained an effective antibacterial when Neisseria were supplemented with exogenous fatty acids. These results demonstrate that extracellular fatty acids are activated by an acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasN) and validate type II fatty acid synthesis (FabI) as a therapeutic target against Neisseria. PMID:26567338

  8. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, T; Kamon, J; Minokoshi, Y; Ito, Y; Waki, H; Uchida, S; Yamashita, S; Noda, M; Kita, S; Ueki, K; Eto, K; Akanuma, Y; Froguel, P; Foufelle, F; Ferre, P; Carling, D; Kimura, S; Nagai, R; Kahn, B B; Kadowaki, T

    2002-11-01

    Adiponectin (Ad) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of Ad remain poorly identified. Here we show that phosphorylation and activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length Ad in skeletal muscle and only with full-length Ad in the liver. In parallel with its activation of AMPK, Ad stimulates phosphorylation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), fatty-acid oxidation, glucose uptake and lactate production in myocytes, phosphorylation of ACC and reduction of molecules involved in gluconeogenesis in the liver, and reduction of glucose levels in vivo. Blocking AMPK activation by dominant-negative mutant inhibits each of these effects, indicating that stimulation of glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by Ad occurs through activation of AMPK. Our data may provide a novel paradigm that an adipocyte-derived antidiabetic hormone, Ad, activates AMPK, thereby directly regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. PMID:12368907

  9. Effects of exogenous fatty acids and cholesterol on aminopeptidase activities in rat astroglia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Ramírez, M; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2002-12-01

    Several studies have addressed the interaction between fatty acids and lipids with central nervous system peptides. Because aminopeptidases (AP) are involved in the regulation of neuropeptides, this work studies several AP expressed in cultured astroglia, after exogenous addition of oleic and linoleic fatty acids and cholesterol to the culture medium. Alanyl-AP, arginyl-AP, cystyl-AP, leucyl-AP, tyrosyl-AP and pyroglutamyl-AP activities were analysed in whole cells using the corresponding aminoacyl-beta-naphthylamides as substrates. Oleic acid inhibits alanyl-AP, cystyl-AP and leucyl-AP activities, whereas linoleic acid inhibits alanyl-AP, arginyl-AP and tyrosyl-AP activities. Neither oleic acid nor linoleic acid modifies pyroglutamyl-AP activity. In contrast, cholesterol increases arginyl-AP, cystyl-AP, leucyl-AP, tyrosyl-AP and pyroglutamyl-AP activities, although it does not modify alanyl-AP activity. The changes reported here suggest that oleic and linoleic fatty acids and cholesterol can modulate peptide activities via their degradation route involving aminopeptidases; each of them being differentially regulated. PMID:12415561

  10. Pure short-chain glycerol fatty acid esters and glycerylic cyclocarbonic fatty acid esters as surface active and antimicrobial coagels protecting surfaces by promoting superhydrophilicity.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Romain; Alignan, Marion; Giacinti, Graldine; Renaud, Franois N R; Raymond, Bernard; Mouloungui, Zphirin

    2012-01-01

    Pure glycerol fatty acid esters and glycerylic cyclocarbonic fatty acid esters have an amphiphilic structure, giving these biomolecules a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties. Physico-chemical properties depend on chain lengths, odd or even carbon numbers on the chain, and glyceryl or cyclocarbonic polar heads. The spectrum of melting-point values for these molecules is large. Surface-activity is very important and through determination of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), some fatty-acid esters are considered as solvo-surfactant biomolecules. Coupling these self-aggregation and crystallization properties, superhydrophilic surfaces were obtained. An efficient durable water repellent coating of various metallic and polymeric surfaces was allowed. Moreover, these fatty acid esters promoting superhydrophilicity showed biological activity against Gram positive, Gram negative, and yeast-like micro-organisms. Such surfaces coated by self-assembled fatty acid esters in a stable coagel state present a novel solution to surface-contamination risks from pathogen proliferation. PMID:21968402

  11. Active role of fatty acid amino acid conjugates in nitrogen metabolidm by Spodoptera litura larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first fatty acid amino acid conjugate (FAC) was isolated from regurgitant of Spodoptera exigua larvae in 1997 [volicitin: N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)- L-glutamine], their role as elicitors of induced responses in plants has been well documented. However, studies of the biosyntheses as well as...

  12. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  13. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  14. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  15. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  16. Cytochrome b5 Coexpression Increases Tetrahymena thermophila Δ6 Fatty Acid Desaturase Activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dahmen, Jeremy L.; Olsen, Rebecca; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids, are important to the physiology of many microorganisms and metazoans and are vital to human development and health. The production of these and related fatty acids depends on Δ6 desaturases, the final components of an electron transfer chain that introduces double bonds into 18-carbon fatty acid chains. When a Δ6 desaturase identified from the ciliated protist Tetrahymena thermophila was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures supplemented with the 18:2Δ9,12 substrate, only 4% of the incorporated substrate was desaturated. Cytochrome b5 protein sequences identified from the genome of T. thermophila included one sequence with two conserved cytochrome b5 domains. Desaturation by the Δ6 enzyme increased as much as 10-fold when T. thermophila cytochrome b5s were coexpressed with the desaturase. Coexpression of a cytochrome b5 from Arabidopsis thaliana with the Δ6 enzyme also increased desaturation. A split ubiquitin growth assay indicated that the strength of interaction between cytochrome b5 proteins and the desaturase plays a vital role in fatty acid desaturase activity, illustrating the importance of protein-protein interactions in this enzyme activity. PMID:23584993

  17. Production of Biologically Active Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids have gained industrial attention because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. The bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from ...

  18. Production of Biologically Active Hydroxy Fatty Acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) have gained important attentions because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from different unsatu...

  19. Essential-oil and fatty-acid composition, and antioxidant activity of extracts of Ficaria kochii.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Mohadjerani, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Naqinezhad, Alireza

    2012-12-01

    The essential-oil and fatty-acid composition of the aerial parts of Ficaria kochii (Ledeb.) Iranshahr & Rech.f. native to Iran, and the antioxidant activity of various extracts of this plant were examined. The study by GC-FID and GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 61 compounds, representing 86.01% of the total oil composition. Phytol (10.49%), farnesol (7.72%), methyl linoleate (5.57%), and α-farnesene (4.96%) were the main components. The fatty-acid composition of the aerial parts of F. kochii was also analyzed by GC/MS. The major components were palmitic acid (25.9%), linolenic acid (25.3%), and linoleic acid (17.5%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids. The possible antioxidant activity of various extracts (prepared by using solvents with different polarity) of the F. kochii aerial parts was evaluated by screening for their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, Fe(III) -reducing power, total antioxidant activity, and inhibitory activity in the linoleic acid-peroxidation system. H(2) O proved to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of antioxidants, as the H(2) O extract contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds (2.78±0.23 GAE/g dry matter) and also exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity in all the assays used. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that the aerial parts of F. kochii can be used as natural and safe nutrition supplement in place of synthetic ones. PMID:23255443

  20. Dietary saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid oppositely affect hepatic NOD-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome through regulating nuclear factor-kappa B activation

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yong-Heng; Luo, Wen-Jing; Xu, Qin-Yu; Hua, Jing

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of different dietary fatty acids on hepatic inflammasome activation. METHODS: Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat diet or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet. Primary hepatocytes were treated with either saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or PUFAs as well as combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The expression of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. The activity of Caspase-1 and interleukine-1β production were measured. RESULTS: High-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis was sufficient to induce and activate hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome. SFA palmitic acid (PA) directly activated NLRP3 inflammasome and increased sensitization to LPS-induced inflammasome activation in hepatocytes. In contrast, PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had the potential to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome expression in hepatocytes and partly abolished LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, a high-fat diet increased but PUFA-enriched diet decreased sensitization to LPS-induced hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vivo. Moreover, PA increased but DHA decreased phosphorylated NF-κB p65 protein expression in hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: Hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome activation played an important role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dietary SFAs and PUFAs oppositely regulated the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome through direct activation or inhibition of NF-κB. PMID:26937141

  1. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  2. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L.) growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%). This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Results: Linolenic acid (45.83%) and oleic acid (47.54%) were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 0.011 mg GAE per dry matter) was the potent antioxidant in the assays. Results obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis). Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25050298

  3. Two new peroxy fatty acids with antibacterial activity from Ophioglossum thermale Kom.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Li, Xue-Jiao; Peng, Li; Xing, Yun; Mei, Rui-Feng; Wang, Jia-Peng; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Two new peroxy fatty acids, thermalic acids A (1) and B (2), together with eight known compounds, (3β)-methyl-3-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28 oate (3), luteolin (4), quercetin (5), 3-methoxyquercetin (6), ophioglonol (7), ophioglonol 4'-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (8), pedunculosumoside B (9), syringol (10), were isolated from the herba of Ophioglossum thermale Kom. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified by HRESIMS, EIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Both two acids exhibited potential antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. This is the first report of peroxy fatty acids isolated from herbaceous plants of Ophioglossaceae. PMID:26742995

  4. Recent developments in the antiprotozoal and anticancer activities of the 2-alkynoic fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, Nstor M

    2013-01-01

    The 2-alkynoic fatty acids are an interesting group of synthetic compounds that display antimycobacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention until recently. In this review we have summarized our present knowledge of the biomedical potential of the 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA) and 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA) together with several mechanistic pieces of work attesting to the fact that these compounds, and their metabolites, are good fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitors. The antiprotozoal activity of 2-HDA and 2-ODA against Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum, parasites responsible for visceral leishmaniasis and malaria, respectively, is also reviewed. The evidence obtained so far supports the fact that these fatty acids are good inhibitors of the L. donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) and the potency of LdTopIB inhibition is chain length dependent. We also demonstrate the generality of the antiprotozoal activity of 2-HDA and 2-ODA against P. falciparum, and review our present knowledge of their inhibition of key P. falciparum enzymes such as PfFabZ, PfFabG, and PfFabI together with some possible modes of inhibition. Recent research by our group has also demonstrated that 2-ODA displays antineoplastic activity, specifically against the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line via lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, which is a cell death mechanism principally associated to necrosis. This is the first comprehensive review of the medicinal chemistry of this interesting group of acetylenic fatty acids. PMID:23727443

  5. The influence of dietary fat on the lipogenic activity and fatty acid composition of rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Schmidt, P C; Serrato, C M

    1987-05-01

    The in vivo fatty acid synthesis rate, selected enzyme activities and fatty acid composition of rat white adipose tissue from animals fed semisynthetic diets of differing fat type and content were studied. All animals were starved for 48 hr and then refed a fat-free (FF) diet for 48 hr. They were then divided into three groups. One group was continued on the FF diet for 48 hr. Another group was fed a diet containing 44% of calories from corn oil (CO). The final group was fed a diet containing 44% of calories from completely hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO). The animals on the FF diet had a marked increase in adipose tissue fatty acid synthesis during the 96-hr feeding period (as measured by 3H incorporation into adipose fatty acids). Addition of either CO or HSO to the diets did not significantly inhibit fatty acid synthesis in dorsal or epididymal adipose tissue. The activities of the enzymes' fatty acid synthetase, ATP-citrate lyase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased on the FF diet and generally were not inhibited significantly by the addition of either fat to the diets. Linoleic acid was the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (ca. 22%) in adipose tissue. Monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic, oleic, cis-vaccenic) made up ca. 38% of the total adipose fatty acids, while saturated fatty acids accounted for about 32% (myristic, palmitic and stearic). White adipose tissue in mature male rats was a major depot for n-3 fatty acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3600209

  6. Lp-PLA2 inhibitory activities of fatty acid glycerols isolated from Saururus chinensis roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Song; Kim, Mi Jeong; Beck, Young-Il; Park, Yong-Dae; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2005-08-01

    (R)-Glycerol-monolinoleate 4 and (R)-glycerol-monostearate 5 were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Saururus chinensis roots and (R)- or (S)-fatty acid glycerols 4 and 5 were synthesized for confirming their structures and evaluating their inhibitory activities against Lp-PLA(2). The (R)-4 and (S)-4 exhibited Lp-PLA(2) inhibitory activities with IC(50) values of 45.0 and 52.0 microM, respectively. PMID:15961310

  7. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  8. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  9. bZIP67 Regulates the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content of Arabidopsis Seed Oil by Activating FATTY ACID DESATURASE3[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Ana; Kelly, Amlie A.; van Erp, Harrie; Shaw, Eve; Powers, Stephen J.; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seed maturation is accompanied by the deposition of storage oil, rich in the essential ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA). The synthesis of ALA is highly responsive to the level of FATTY ACID DESATURASE3 (FAD3) expression, which is strongly upregulated during embryogenesis. By screening mutants in LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1)inducible transcription factors using fatty acid profiling, we identified two mutants (lec1-like and bzip67) with a seed lipid phenotype. Both mutants share a substantial reduction in seed ALA content. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that bZIP67 binds G-boxes in the FAD3 promoter and enhances FAD3 expression but that activation is conditional on bZIP67 association with LEC1-LIKE (L1L) and NUCLEAR FACTOR-YC2 (NF-YC2). Although FUSCA3 and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 are required for L1L and bZIP67 expression, neither protein is necessary for [bZIP67:L1L:NF-YC2] to activate FAD3. We conclude that a transcriptional complex containing L1L, NF-YC2, and bZIP67 is induced by LEC1 during embryogenesis and specifies high levels of ALA production for storage oil by activating FAD3 expression. PMID:23995083

  10. Trans fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Trans fatty acids are manufactured fats created during a process called hydrogenation, which is aimed at stabilizing polyunsaturated oils to prevent them from becoming rancid and to keep them solid at room temperature. They may be particularly dangerous for ...

  11. Mouse very long-chain Acyl-CoA synthetase 3/fatty acid transport protein 3 catalyzes fatty acid activation but not fatty acid transport in MA-10 cells.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhengtong; Fraisl, Peter; Berger, Johannes; Jia, Zhenzhen; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Watkins, Paul A

    2004-12-24

    The family of proteins that includes very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSVL) consists of six members. These enzymes have also been designated fatty acid transport proteins. We cloned full-length mouse Acsvl3 cDNA and characterized its protein product ACSVL3/fatty acid transport protein 3. The predicted amino acid sequence contains two highly conserved motifs characteristic of acyl-CoA synthetases. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mouse Acsvl3 mRNA is highly expressed in adrenal gland, testis, and ovary, with lower expression in the brain of adult mice. A developmental Northern blot revealed that Acsvl3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in embryonic mouse brain (embryonic days 12-14) than in newborn or adult mice, suggesting a possible role in nervous system development. Immunohistochemistry revealed high ACSVL3 expression in adrenal cortical cells, spermatocytes and interstitial cells of the testis, theca cells of the ovary, cerebral cortical neurons, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Endogenous ACSVL3 was found primarily in mitochondria of MA-10 and Neuro2a cells by both Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions and immunofluorescence analysis. In MA-10 cells, loss-of-function studies using RNA interference confirmed that endogenous ACSVL3 is an acyl-CoA synthetase capable of activating both long-chain (C16:0) and very long-chain (C24:0) fatty acids. However, despite decreased acyl-CoA synthetase activity, initial rates of fatty acid uptake were unaffected by knockdown of Acsvl3 expression in MA-10 cells. These studies cast doubt on the designation of ACSVL3 as a fatty acid transport protein. PMID:15469937

  12. Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, B; Simard, R E; Holley, R A; Piette, G J; Bgin, A

    1997-07-22

    The antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils was examined against two gram-negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia liquefaciens) and four gram-positive (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium piscicola, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus sake) bacteria involved in meat spoilage. Various amounts of each preservative were added to brain heart infusion or MRS (deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe) agars, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for each organism. Essential oils were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography to determine the concentration of selected components commonly found in spices. B. thermosphacta, P. fluorescens and S. liquefaciens were not affected by fatty acids, and generally overcame the inhibitory effect of essential oils after 24 h of exposure. Among the fatty acids, lauric and palmitoleic acids exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 250 to 500 micrograms/ml, while myristic, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids were completely ineffective. For essential oils, clove, cinnamon, pimento, and rosemary were found to be the most active. The 1/100 dilution of those oils inhibited at least five of the six tested organisms. A relationship was found between the inhibitory effect of essential oils and the presence of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. PMID:9310850

  13. Effects of dipalmitoylglycerol and fatty acids on membrane structure and protein kinase C activity.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, E M; Zidovetzki, R

    1997-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of the saturated diacylglycerol (DAG) dipalmitin (DP) and saturated or polyunsaturated unesterified fatty acids (PUFAs) on both the structure of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS; 4:1 mol/mol) bilayers and on protein kinase C (PKC) activity were studied using 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and enzyme activity assays. In the absence of DP, PUFAs only slightly activated PKC whereas palmitic acid had no effect. In the absence of fatty acids, DP induced lateral phase separation of the bilayer into liquid-crystalline and gel phases. Under these conditions virtually all DP was sequestered into the gel phase and no activation of PKC was observed. The addition of polyunsaturated arachidonic or docosahexaenoic acids to the DP-containing bilayers significantly increased the relative amounts of DP and other lipid components in the liquid-crystalline phase, correlating with a dramatic increase in PKC activity. Furthermore, the effect was greater with PS, resulting in an enrichment of PS in the liquid-crystalline domains. In the presence of DP, palmitic acid did not decrease the amount of gel phase lipid and had no effect on PKC activity. The results explain the observed lack of PKC-activating capacity of long-chain saturated DAGs as due to the sequestration of DAG into gel domains wherein it is complexed with phospholipids and thus not available for the required interaction with the enzyme. PMID:9370455

  14. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation augments sympathetic nerve activity responses to physiological stressors in humans.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kevin D; Wilson, Thad E; Ray, Chester A

    2004-11-01

    An inverse relation exists between omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease development/mortality and sudden cardiac death in humans. Mechanisms underlying this cardioprotective effect are unknown, but could involve the autonomic nervous system. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation ("fish oil") would reduce muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest and attenuate increases during physiological stressors. MSNA (peroneal microneurography) was measured during rest, ischemic handgrip to fatigue (IHG), and a cold pressor test (CPT). Measurements were obtained before (PRE) and after (POST) 1 month of daily ingestion of either fish oil (experimental group, n=9) or olive oil capsules (control group, n=9). MSNA at rest was comparable PRE and POST in control (3+/-1 versus 3+/-1 bursts/30 seconds) and experimental (4+/-1 versus 5+/-1 bursts/30 seconds) subjects. IHG and CPT increased MSNA in both groups PRE and POST. MSNA, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate responses to the stressors were similar PRE and POST in the control group. In contrast, MSNA responses to IHG (Delta4+/-2 and Delta9+/-2 bursts/30 seconds; P<0.05 for PRE and POST, respectively) and CPT (Delta4+/-1 versus Delta10+/-2 bursts/30 seconds; P<0.05) were augmented after omega-3 fatty acid supplementation whereas arterial blood pressure and heart rate responses were unchanged. These data indicate that 1 month of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation does not change MSNA at rest but augments sympathetic outflow to physiological stressors. The mechanism underlying augmented MSNA responses to physiological stressors after omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is unknown, but may involve impaired peripheral vasoconstriction. PMID:15452023

  15. Apolipoprotein D Transgenic Mice Develop Hepatic Steatosis through Activation of PPARγ and Fatty Acid Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Marilyne; Lalonde, Simon; Najyb, Ouafa; Thiery, Maxime; Daneault, Caroline; Des Rosiers, Chrisitne; Rassart, Eric; Mounier, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing human apolipoprotein D (H-apoD) in the brain are resistant to neurodegeneration. Despite the use of a neuron-specific promoter to generate the Tg mice, they expressed significant levels of H-apoD in both plasma and liver and they slowly develop hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We show here that hepatic PPARγ expression in Tg mice is increased by 2-fold compared to wild type (WT) mice. Consequently, PPARγ target genes Plin2 and Cide A/C are overexpressed, leading to increased lipid droplets formation. Expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36, another PPARgamma target, is also increased in Tg mice associated with elevated fatty acid uptake as measured in primary hepatocytes. Elevated expression of AMPK in the liver of Tg leads to phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase, indicating a decreased activity of the enzyme. Fatty acid synthase expression is also induced but the hepatic lipogenesis measured in vivo is not significantly different between WT and Tg mice. In addition, expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation, is slightly upregulated. Finally, we show that overexpressing H-apoD in HepG2 cells in presence of arachidonic acid (AA), the main apoD ligand, increases the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Supporting the role of apoD in AA transport, we observed enrichment in hepatic AA and a decrease in plasmatic AA concentration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the hepatic steatosis observed in apoD Tg mice is a consequence of increased PPARγ transcriptional activity by AA leading to increased fatty acid uptake by the liver. PMID:26083030

  16. Apolipoprotein D Transgenic Mice Develop Hepatic Steatosis through Activation of PPARγ and Fatty Acid Uptake.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Marilyne; Lalonde, Simon; Najyb, Ouafa; Thiery, Maxime; Daneault, Caroline; Des Rosiers, Chrisitne; Rassart, Eric; Mounier, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing human apolipoprotein D (H-apoD) in the brain are resistant to neurodegeneration. Despite the use of a neuron-specific promoter to generate the Tg mice, they expressed significant levels of H-apoD in both plasma and liver and they slowly develop hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We show here that hepatic PPARγ expression in Tg mice is increased by 2-fold compared to wild type (WT) mice. Consequently, PPARγ target genes Plin2 and Cide A/C are overexpressed, leading to increased lipid droplets formation. Expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36, another PPARgamma target, is also increased in Tg mice associated with elevated fatty acid uptake as measured in primary hepatocytes. Elevated expression of AMPK in the liver of Tg leads to phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase, indicating a decreased activity of the enzyme. Fatty acid synthase expression is also induced but the hepatic lipogenesis measured in vivo is not significantly different between WT and Tg mice. In addition, expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation, is slightly upregulated. Finally, we show that overexpressing H-apoD in HepG2 cells in presence of arachidonic acid (AA), the main apoD ligand, increases the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Supporting the role of apoD in AA transport, we observed enrichment in hepatic AA and a decrease in plasmatic AA concentration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the hepatic steatosis observed in apoD Tg mice is a consequence of increased PPARγ transcriptional activity by AA leading to increased fatty acid uptake by the liver. PMID:26083030

  17. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  18. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less

  19. Fatty Acid Profile and Biological Activities of Linseed and Rapeseed Oils.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Zebrowski, Jacek; Duda, Magdalena; Gorka, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that fatty acids found in edible oils may exert beneficial health effects by the modulation of signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of selected edible oils-linseed (LO) and rapeseed (RO) oils-were tested in vitro on fibroblast cells. The fatty acid profile of the oils was determined using gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. LO was found to be rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas oleic acid was the most abundant species in RO. Fatty acids were taken up by the cells and promoted cell proliferation. No oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic or genotoxic effects were observed after oil stimulation. Oils ameliorated the process of wound healing as judged by improved migration of fibroblasts to the wounding area. As ALA-rich LO exhibited the most potent wound healing activity, ALA may be considered a candidate for promoting the observed effect. PMID:26703545

  20. Antifungal hydroxy fatty acids produced during sourdough fermentation: microbial and enzymatic pathways, and antifungal activity in bread.

    PubMed

    Black, Brenna A; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gnzle, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter(-1). Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter(-1). L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 0.03 g liter(-1) (mean standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  1. Antifungal Hydroxy Fatty Acids Produced during Sourdough Fermentation: Microbial and Enzymatic Pathways, and Antifungal Activity in Bread

    PubMed Central

    Black, Brenna A.; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter?1. Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter?1. L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 0.03 g liter?1 (mean standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  2. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the fermented milks obtained from three different species were evaluated. Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH assay showed activity in probiotic fermented milk obtained from all the products being highest in goat milk (93 %) followed by product from camel milk (86 %) and then product from cow milk (79 %). The composition of beneficial fatty acids such as stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were higher in fermented milk than the unfermented ones. Results suggested that probiotic bacteria are able to utilize the nutrients in goat and camel milk more efficiently compared to cow milk. Increase in antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milks enhances the therapeutic value of the products. PMID:25477694

  3. UCP2-induced fatty acid synthase promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation during sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jong-Seok; Lee, Seonmin; Park, Mi-Ae; Siempos, Ilias I.; Haslip, Maria; Lee, Patty J.; Yun, Mijin; Kim, Chun K.; Howrylak, Judie; Ryter, Stefan W.; Nakahira, Kiichi; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular lipid metabolism has been linked to immune responses; however, the precise mechanisms by which de novo fatty acid synthesis can regulate inflammatory responses remain unclear. The NLRP3 inflammasome serves as a platform for caspase-1–dependent maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrated that the mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) regulates NLRP3-mediated caspase-1 activation through the stimulation of lipid synthesis in macrophages. UCP2-deficient mice displayed improved survival in a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis. Moreover, UCP2 expression was increased in human sepsis. Consistently, UCP2-deficient mice displayed impaired lipid synthesis and decreased production of IL-1β and IL-18 in response to LPS challenge. In macrophages, UCP2 deficiency suppressed NLRP3-mediated caspase-1 activation and NLRP3 expression associated with inhibition of lipid synthesis. In UCP2-deficient macrophages, inhibition of lipid synthesis resulted from the downregulation of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key regulator of fatty acid synthesis. FASN inhibition by shRNA and treatment with the chemical inhibitors C75 and cerulenin suppressed NLRP3-mediated caspase-1 activation and inhibited NLRP3 and pro–IL-1β gene expression in macrophages. In conclusion, our results suggest that UCP2 regulates the NLRP3 inflammasome by inducing the lipid synthesis pathway in macrophages. These results identify UCP2 as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases such as sepsis. PMID:25574840

  4. Glucose regulates fatty acid binding protein interaction with lipids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Heather A.; Balanarasimha, Madhumitha; Huang, Huan; Kelzer, Matthew S.; Kaliappan, Alagammai; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Although the pathophysiology of diabetes is characterized by elevated levels of glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), nuclear mechanisms linking glucose and LCFA metabolism are poorly understood. As the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) shuttles LCFA to the nucleus, where L-FABP directly interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), the effect of glucose on these processes was examined. In vitro studies showed that L-FABP strongly bound glucose and glucose-1-phosphate (Kd = 103 19 nM and Kd = 20 3 nM, respectively), resulting in altered L-FABP conformation, increased affinity for lipid ligands, and enhanced interaction with PPAR?. In living cells, glucose stimulated cellular uptake and nuclear localization of a nonmetabolizable fluorescent fatty acid analog (BODIPY C-16), particularly in the presence of L-FABP. These data suggest for the first time a direct role of glucose in facilitating L-FABP-mediated uptake and distribution of lipidic ligands to the nucleus for regulation of PPAR? transcriptional activity. PMID:20628144

  5. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  6. Antibacterial activity of 2-alkynoic fatty acids against multidrug resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sanabria-Ros, David J.; Rivera-Torres, Yaritza; Maldonado-Domnguez, Gamalier; Domnguez, Idializ; Ros, Camille; Daz, Damarith; Rodrguez, Jos W.; Altieri-Rivera, Joanne S.; Ros-Olivares, Eddy; Cintrn, Gabriel; Montano, Nashbly; Carballeira, Nstor M.

    2014-01-01

    The first study aimed at determining the structural characteristics needed to prepare antibacterial 2-alkynoic fatty acids (2-AFAs) was accomplished by synthesizing several 2-AFAs and other analogues in 18-76% overall yields. Among all the compounds tested, the 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA) displayed the best overall antibacterial activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 15.6 ?g/mL), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (MIC = 15.5 ?g/mL), and Bacillus cereus (MIC = 31.3 ?g/mL), as well as against the Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.8 ?g/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 125 ?g/mL). In addition, 2-HDA displayed significant antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 (MIC = 15.6 ?g/mL) and clinical isolates of MRSA (MIC = 3.9 ?g/mL). No direct relationship was found between the antibacterial activity of 2-AFAs and their critical micelle concentration (CMC) suggesting that the antibacterial properties of these fatty acids are not mediated by micelle formation. It was demonstrated that the presence of a triple bond at C-2 as well as the carboxylic acid moiety in 2-AFAs are important for their antibacterial activity. 2-HDA has the potential to be further evaluated for use in antibacterial formulations. PMID:24365283

  7. Antibacterial activity of 2-alkynoic fatty acids against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Ros, David J; Rivera-Torres, Yaritza; Maldonado-Domnguez, Gamalier; Domnguez, Idializ; Ros, Camille; Daz, Damarith; Rodrguez, Jos W; Altieri-Rivera, Joanne S; Ros-Olivares, Eddy; Cintrn, Gabriel; Montano, Nashbly; Carballeira, Nstor M

    2014-02-01

    The first study aimed at determining the structural characteristics needed to prepare antibacterial 2-alkynoic fatty acids (2-AFAs) was accomplished by synthesizing several 2-AFAs and other analogs in 18-76% overall yields. Among all the compounds tested, the 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA) displayed the best overall antibacterial activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=15.6 ?g/mL), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (MIC=15.5 ?g/mL), and Bacillus cereus (MIC=31.3 ?g/mL), as well as against the Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.8 ?g/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=125 ?g/mL). In addition, 2-HDA displayed significant antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 (MIC=15.6 ?g/mL) and clinical isolates of MRSA (MIC=3.9 ?g/mL). No direct relationship was found between the antibacterial activity of 2-AFAs and their critical micelle concentration (CMC) suggesting that the antibacterial properties of these fatty acids are not mediated by micelle formation. It was demonstrated that the presence of a triple bond at C-2 and the carboxylic acid moiety in 2-AFAs are important for their antibacterial activity. 2-HDA has the potential to be further evaluated for use in antibacterial formulations. PMID:24365283

  8. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  9. Fatty acid composition of frequently consumed foods in Turkey with special emphasis on trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Ihsan

    2007-12-01

    Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty acids, arising as a result of ruminant activity, with an average content of 1.45 g/100 g fatty acids. The conjugated linoleic acid content of meat and chicken doner kebabs were found higher than other meat products. Chocolate samples contained trans fatty acids less than 0.17 g/100 g fatty acids, with the exceptional national product of chocolate bars and hazelnut cocoa cream (2.03 and 3.68 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Bakery products have the highest trans fatty acid contents and ranged from 0.99 to 17.77 g/100 g fatty acids. The average trans fatty acid contents of infant formula and ice-cream, which are milk-based products, were 0.79 and 1.50 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively. Among the analyzed foods, it was found that coffee whitener and powdered whipped topping had the highest saturated fatty acid contents, with an average content of 98.71 g/100 g fatty acids. PMID:17852509

  10. [Fatty acid of Chelidonium majus L. oil and its byologikal active as a food-additive].

    PubMed

    Kikalishvili, B; Zurabashvili, D; Wachnadze, N; Zurabashvili, Z; Giorgobiani, I

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study is individual identification of fatty acids in oil of Chelidonium majus L. and prediction of its effects as a food-additive. By high-effective liquid chromatographic methods, fatty acids were fractionated. Identification of the fatty acids constituents was based on comparison of their retentium time. Their relative concentrations are expressed as percentages of the total fatty acid component. The impact of Chelidonium majus L. oil as a food-additive supplement on the contents of fatty acid in liver lipids of mice was determined. Investigations were carried out on 40 imbred mice. The investigation showed that the 5% food-additive of Chelidonium majus L. oil fulfil an important role in physiological processes in imbred mice livers. PMID:22156681

  11. Stable isotope liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for fatty acid amide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Rakers, Christin; Zoerner, Alexander A; Engeli, Stefan; Batkai, Sandor; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2012-02-15

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the main enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide, AEA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and ethanolamine (EA). Published FAAH activity assays mostly employ radiolabeled anandamide or synthetic fluorogenic substrates. We report a stable isotope liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for specific, sensitive, and high-throughput capable FAAH activity measurements. The assay uses AEA labeled with deuterium on the EA moiety (d₄-AEA) as substrate and measures the specific reaction product tetradeutero-EA (d₄-EA) and the internal standard ¹³C₂-EA. Selected reaction monitoring of m/z 66→m/z 48 (d₄-EA) and m/z 64→m/z 46 (¹³C₂-EA) in the positive electrospray ionization mode after liquid chromatographic separation on a HILIC (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) column is performed. The assay was developed and thoroughly validated using recombinant human FAAH (rhFAAH) and then was applied to human blood and dog liver samples. rhFAAH-catalyzed d₄-AEA hydrolysis obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(M)=12.3 μM, V(max)=27.6 nmol/min mg). Oleoyl oxazolopyridine (oloxa) was a potent, partial noncompetitive inhibitor of rhFAAH (IC₅₀=24.3 nM). Substrate specificity of other fatty acid ethanolamides decreased with decreasing length, number of double bonds, and lipophilicity of the fatty acid skeleton. In human whole blood, we detected FAAH activity that was inhibited by oloxa. PMID:22146559

  12. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity, Fatty Acids Composition, and Functional Group Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sohail; Ahmad, Shabir; Bibi, Ahtaram; Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Kanwal, Farina; Zakir, Muhammad; Fatima, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL) and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL) of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00), stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10), and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02) divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%), eicosadienoic acid (15.12%), oleic acid (8.72%), and palmitic acid (8.14%) were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model. PMID:25489605

  13. Electrophilic Nitro-fatty Acids Activate NRF2 by a KEAP1 Cysteine 151-independent Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Kansanen, Emilia; Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Kuosmanen, Suvi M.; Tong, Kit I.; Leinonen, Hanna; Woodcock, Steven R.; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Carlberg, Carsten; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo; Freeman, Bruce A.; Levonen, Anna-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed in vivo via nitric oxide (NO)- and nitrite (NO2?)-dependent reactions. Nitro-fatty acids modulate signaling cascades via reversible covalent post-translational modification of nucleophilic amino acids in regulatory proteins and enzymes, thus altering downstream signaling events, such as Keap1-Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated gene expression. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which 9- and 10-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid (OA-NO2) activate the transcription factor Nrf2, focusing on the post-translational modifications of cysteines in the Nrf2 inhibitor Keap1 by nitroalkylation and its downstream responses. Of the two regioisomers, 9-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid was a more potent ARE inducer than 10-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid. The most OA-NO2-reactive Cys residues in Keap1 were Cys38, Cys226, Cys257, Cys273, Cys288, and Cys489. Of these, Cys273 and Cys288 accounted for ?50% of OA-NO2 reactions in a cellular milieu. Notably, Cys151 was among the least OA-NO2-reactive of the Keap1 Cys residues, with mutation of Cys151 having no effect on net OA-NO2 reaction with Keap1 or on ARE activation. Unlike many other Nrf2-activating electrophiles, OA-NO2 enhanced rather than diminished the binding between Keap1 and the Cul3 subunit of the E3 ligase for Nrf2. OA-NO2 can therefore be categorized as a Cys151-independent Nrf2 activator, which in turn can influence the pattern of gene expression and therapeutic actions of nitroalkenes. PMID:21357422

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  15. Inhibitory activities of omega-3 Fatty acids and traditional african remedies on keloid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Olaitan, Peter B; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E C; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M; Reichenberger, Ernst J

    2011-04-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies-boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter-leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world. PMID:24489452

  16. Inhibitory Activities of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Traditional African Remedies on Keloid Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Olaitan, Peter B.; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E.C.; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M.; Reichenberger, Ernst J.

    2012-01-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remediesboa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butterleading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world. PMID:24489452

  17. Study on Synthesis, Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Diisopropylphenyl Esters of Selected Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Yasa Sathyam; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bala Bhaskara; Jain, Nishant; Vijayalakshmi, Penumarthy

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of novel diisopropylphenyl esters of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), valproic acid (VA), butyric acid (BA) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA). These esters were chemically synthesized by the esterification of fatty acids with 2,6-diisopropylphenol and 2,4-diisopropylphenol (propofol). The structure of new conjugates viz. propofol-(alpha-linolenic acid) (2,6P-ALA and 2,4P-ALA), propofol-valproic acid (2,6P-VA and 2,4P-VA), propofol-butyric acid (2,6P-BA and 2,4P-BA) and propofol-(2-ethylhexanoic acid) (2,6P2-EHA and 2,4P-2-EHA) were characterized by FT-IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectral data. The synthesized conjugates having more lipophilic character were tested for antiproliferative in vitro studies on A549, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. All the conjugates showed specific growth inhibition on studied cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized esters, the conjugates synthesized from BA, VA and 2-EHA exhibited prominent growth inhibition against A549, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. The preliminary results suggest that the entire novel conjugates possess antiproliferative properties that reduce the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:26666272

  18. The role of nitrated fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in modulating inflammation.

    PubMed

    Narala, Venkata Ramireddy; Subramani, Parasuraman Aiya; Narasimha, Vydyanath R; Shaik, Firdose Begum; Panati, Kalpana

    2014-11-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), thought to be produced by nonenzymatic reactions of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) with naturally present unsaturated fatty acids, have recently been identified as one of the largest single pools of biologically active NO derivatives in human plasma. As the biological role of NFAs is unknown, initial in vitro studies have shown them to be potent suppressors of inflammatory responses. The aim of the study was to collect all the literature on NFAs and its interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?) and review in detail the anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR-? interceded by NFAs. A literature survey was performed using PubMed and ScienceDirect to gather complete information on NFAs and their interactions with PPAR-?. An exhaustive literature survey revealed that NFAs found in human plasma and urine comprises a class of cell signaling mediators that can activate PPAR-? within its physiological concentration. NFAs exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects through PPAR-? activation in various in vitro models tested. Besides its role in inflammation other properties of NFAs such as inhibition of enzymes, inducer of gene expression, etc., were discussed. NFAs are good electrophiles with pleiotropic biological activities. Hence NFAs can be treated as potent drug candidates. PMID:25241247

  19. Interactions between Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Selective Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Velkov, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular shuttles for fatty acids as well as lipophilic xenobiotics to the nucleus, where these ligands are released to a group of nuclear receptors called the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR mediated gene activation is ultimately involved in maintenance of cellular homeostasis through the transcriptional regulation of metabolic enzymes and transporters that target the activating ligand. Here we show that liver- (L-) FABP displays a high binding affinity for PPAR subtype selective drugs. NMR chemical shift perturbation mapping and proteolytic protection experiments show that the binding of the PPAR subtype selective drugs produces conformational changes that stabilize the portal region of L-FABP. NMR chemical shift perturbation studies also revealed that L-FABP can form a complex with the PPAR ligand binding domain (LBD) of PPAR?. This protein-protein interaction may represent a mechanism for facilitating the activation of PPAR transcriptional activity via the direct channeling of ligands between the binding pocket of L-FABP and the PPAR?LBD. The role of L-FABP in the delivery of ligands directly to PPAR? via this channeling mechanism has important implications for regulatory pathways that mediate xenobiotic responses and host protection in tissues such as the small intestine and the liver where L-FABP is highly expressed. PMID:23476633

  20. Molecular mechanism of recombinant liver fatty acid binding protein's antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Gong, Yuewen; She, Yi-Min; Wang, Guqi; Roberts, Michael S; Burczynski, Frank J

    2009-12-01

    Hepatocytes expressing liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) are known to be more resistant to oxidative stress than those devoid of this protein. The mechanism for the observed antioxidant activity is not known. We examined the antioxidant mechanism of a recombinant rat L-FABP in the presence of a hydrophilic (AAPH) or lipophilic (AMVN) free radical generator. Recombinant L-FABP amino acid sequence and its amino acid oxidative products following oxidation were identified by MALDI quadrupole time-of-flight MS after being digested by endoproteinase Glu-C. L-FABP was observed to have better antioxidative activity when free radicals were generated by the hydrophilic generator than by the lipophilic generator. Oxidative modification of L-FABP included up to five methionine oxidative peptide products with a total of approximately 80 Da mass shift compared with native L-FABP. Protection against lipid peroxidation of L-FABP after binding with palmitate or alpha-bromo-palmitate by the AAPH or AMVN free radical generators indicated that ligand binding can partially block antioxidant activity. We conclude that the mechanism of L-FABP's antioxidant activity is through inactivation of the free radicals by L-FABP's methionine and cysteine amino acids. Moreover, exposure of the L-FABP binding site further promotes its antioxidant activity. In this manner, L-FABP serves as a hepatocellular antioxidant. PMID:19474456

  1. Relationship of lipogenic enzyme activities to the rate of rat liver fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.; Kelley, D.; Schmidt, P.; Virk, S.; Serrato, C.

    1986-05-01

    The mechanism by which diet regulates liver lipogenesis is unclear. Here the authors report how dietary alterations effect the activities of key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 400-500 g, were fasted for 48h and then refed a fat-free, high carbohydrate (HC) diet (75% cal. from sucrose) for 0,3,9,24 and 48h, or refed a HC diet for 48h, then fed a high-fat (HF) diet (44% cal. from corn oil) for 3,9,24 and 48h. The FA synthesis rate and the activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase (AC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP citrate lyase (CL), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were determined in the livers. FA synthesis was assayed with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically except for AC which was assayed with /sup 14/C-bicarbonate. There was no change in the activity of AC during fasting or on the HC diet. Fasting decreased the rate of FA synthesis by 25% and the activities of FAS and CL by 50%; refeeding the HC diet induced parallel changes in FA synthesis and the activities of FAS, CL, and G6PDH. After 9h on the HF diet, FA synthesis had decreased sharply, AC activity increased significantly while no changes were detected in the other activities. Subsequently FA synthesis did not change while the activities of the enzymes decreased slowly. These enzymes did not appear to regulate FA synthesis during inhibition of lipogenesis, but FAS, CL or G6PDH may be rate limiting in the induction phase. Other key factors may regulate FA synthesis during dietary alterations.

  2. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of stratum corneum lipids from normal and essential fatty acid-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Bibel, D J; Miller, S J; Brown, B E; Pandey, B B; Elias, P M; Shinefield, H R; Aly, R

    1989-04-01

    Among the cutaneous effects of an essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) diet are hyperdesquamation, increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and altered lipid profiles, characteristics also common to inflammatory dermatoses. Because fatty acids are antimicrobial, we examined the indigenous skin flora of normal and EFAD hairless mice, and compared the antimicrobial efficacy of lipids extracted from their stratum corneum. EFAD mice supported 100-fold more bacteria than normal mice, and were the only group from which Staphylococcus aureus were routinely isolated. Despite this greater carriage, in vitro experiments demonstrated that EFAD lipids are more lethal than normal lipids against Streptococcus pyogenes, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, Micrococcus sp., and a coryneform. Skin fungi were equally susceptible to both extracts. After thin layer chromatography, the most active fractions were found to be glycosphingolipids and phospholipids. EFAD extracts had 35% more free fatty acids and 75% more glycosphingolipids; normal extracts had more triglycerides and phospholipids. S. aureus strain 502A survived equally well on EFAD as on normal mice. Normal lipids applied on EFAD mice had no additional effect, but EFAD lipids on normal mice brought about a 35% reduction of the inoculated bacteria. If the mice were pretreated with alcohol, carriage of strain 502A was reduced by 71%. If instead the mice were previously washed with acetone to increase TEWL, a 97% reduction of the staphylococcus occurred. The application of normal flora to such acetone-washed mice decreased the efficacy to 76%. EFAD and normal lipids on human subjects were equally ineffective in eliminating strain 502A.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2649598

  4. PGC-1? suppresses saturated fatty acid-induced macrophage inflammation by inhibiting TAK1 activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongen; Liu, Yan; Li, Di; Song, Jiayi; Xia, Min

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation of infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue is a key contributor to the initiation of adipose insulin resistance. These macrophages are exposed to high local concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) and can be proinflammatory activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs). However, the regulatory mechanisms on SFA-induced macrophage inflammation are still elusive. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) is a member of the PGC-1 family of transcriptional coactivators and has been reported to play a key role in SFAs metabolism and in the regulation of inflammatory signaling. However, it remains unclear whether PGC-1? is involved in SFA-induced macrophage inflammation. In this study, we found that PGC-1? expression was significantly decreased in response to palmitic acid (PA) in macrophages in a dose dependent manner. PGC-1? inhibited PA induced TNF?, MCP-1, and IL-1? mRNA and protein expressions. Furthermore, PGC-1? significantly antagonized PA induced macrophage nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 and JUN N-terminal kinase activation. Mechanistically, we revealed that TGF-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and its adaptor protein TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1) played a dominant role in the regulatory effects of PGC-1?. We confirmed that PGC-1? inhibited downstream inflammatory signals via binding with TAB1 and thus preventing TAB1/TAK1 binding and TAK1 activation. Finally, we showed that PGC-1? overexpression in PA treated macrophages improved adipocytes PI3K-Akt insulin signaling in a paracrine fashion. Collectively, our results uncovered a novel mechanism on how macrophage inflammation induced by SFAs was regulated and suggest a potential target in the treatment of obesity induced insulin resistance. 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(2):145-155, 2016. PMID:26748475

  5. Shc Proteins Influence the Activities of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Oxidation and Ketogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Kevork; Tomilov, Alexey A.; Tomilova, Natalia; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L.; Lam, Adam K.; Cortopassi, Gino A.; McDonald, Roger B.; Ramsey, Jon J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective ShcKO mice have low body fat and resist weight gain on a high fat diet, indicating that Shc proteins may influence enzymes involved in β-oxidation. To investigate this idea, the activities of β-oxidation and ketone body metabolism enzymes were measured. Methods The activities of β-oxidation enzymes (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and ketoacyl-CoA thiolase) in liver and hindlimb skeletal muscle, ketolytic enzymes (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase) in skeletal muscle, and ketogenic enzymes (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase) in liver were measured from wild-type and ShcKO mice. Results The activities of β-oxidation enzymes were increased (P < 0.05) in the ShcKO compared to wild-type mice in the fasted but not the fed state. In contrast, no uniform increases in the ketolytic enzyme activities were observed between ShcKO and wild-type mice. In liver, the activities of ketogenic enzymes were increased (P < 0.05) in ShcKO compared to wild-type mice in both the fed and fasted states. Levels of phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase from adipocytes were also increased (P < 0.05) in fasted ShcKO mice. Conclusions These studies indicate that the low Shc levels in ShcKO mice result in increased liver and muscle β-oxidation enzyme activities in response to fasting and induce chronic increases in the activity of liver ketogenic enzymes. Decreases in the level of Shc proteins should be considered as possible contributors to the increase in activity of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in response to physiological conditions which increase reliance on fatty acids as a source of energy. PMID:22683097

  6. Type I and type II fatty acid biosynthesis in Eimeria tenella : enoyl reductase activity and structure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J. Z.; Muench, S. P.; Allary, M.; Campbell, S.; Roberts, C. W.; Mui, E.; McLeod, R. L.; Rice, D. W.; Prigge, S. T.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria are the major causative agent of avian coccidiosis, leading to high economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent results show that Eimeria tenella harbours an apicoplast organelle, and that a key biosynthetic enzyme, enoyl reductase, is located in this organelle. In related parasites, enoyl reductase is one component of a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) and has proven to be an attractive target for antimicrobial compounds. We cloned and expressed the mature form of E. tenella enoyl reductase (EtENR) for biochemical and structural studies. Recombinant EtENR exhibits NADH-dependent enoyl reductase activity and is inhibited by triclosan with an IC50 value of 60 nM. The crystal structure of EtENR reveals overall similarity with other ENR enzymes; however, the active site of EtENR is unoccupied, a state rarely observed in other ENR structures. Furthermore, the position of the central beta-sheet appears to block NADH binding and would require significant movement to allow NADH binding, a feature not previously seen in the ENR family. We analysed the E. tenella genomic database for orthologues of well-characterized bacterial and apicomplexan FAS enzymes and identified 6 additional genes, suggesting that E. tenella contains a type II FAS capable of synthesizing saturated, but not unsaturated, fatty acids. Interestingly, we also identified sequences that appear to encode multifunctional type I FAS enzymes, a feature also observed in Toxoplasma gondii, highlighting the similarity between these apicomplexan parasites. PMID:17697396

  7. Activated peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism improves cardiac recovery in ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Skapare, Elina; Kuka, Janis; Makrecka, Marina; Cirule, Helena; Vavers, Edijs; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Grinberga, Solveiga; Pugovics, Osvalds; Dambrova, Maija

    2013-06-01

    Depressed oxidation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in heart ischemia leads to acute accumulation of LCFA metabolites that impair the functioning of the mitochondria. We hypothesized that reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) might activate peroxisomal LCFA oxidation and protect mitochondrial function in ischemia and reperfusion. In the present study, despite the long-term threefold reduction in L-carnitine content by 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)-propionate, the uptake and oxidation rates of LCFA in the heart in normoxia were not significantly influenced. The significant increase in PPAR? and PGC1? nuclear content, observed in this study, were followed by increased expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) which compensated for the limited CPT-I-dependent FA transport into the mitochondria. In ischemia followed by reperfusion, the redirection of LCFA oxidation from mitochondria to peroxisomes protected the mitochondria from the accumulation of LCFA. In turn, the recovery of FAO resulted in significant reduction of myocardial infarct size. In conclusion, the decreased L-carnitine content in the heart preserves its peroxisomal and mitochondrial function after ischemia and improves cardiac recovery during reperfusion. The functional interplay between the decrease in L-carnitine and the PPAR?/PGC1? pathway-induced redirection of FA metabolism protects the mitochondria against LCFA overload and provides a foundation for novel cardioprotective mechanisms. PMID:23525500

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Majkova, Zuzana; Layne, Joseph; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2011-02-15

    Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6{omega}-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), which concurrently abrogated A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A{sub 4}/J{sub 4} NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5{omega}-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

  9. Development of cyclobutene- and cyclobutane-functionalized fatty acids with inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sittiwong, Wantanee; Zinniel, Denise K.; Fenton, Robert J.; Marshall, Darrel; Story, Courtney B.; Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Powers, Robert; Barletta, Ral G.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven fatty acid analogs incorporating four-membered carbocycles (cyclobutenes, cyclobutanes, cyclobutanones, and cyclobutanols) were investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). A number of the analogs displayed inhibitory activity against both mycobacterial species in minimal media. Several of the molecules displayed potent levels of inhibition against Mtb with MIC values equal to or below those obtained with the anti-tuberculosis drugs D-cycloserine and isoniazid. In contrast, two of the analogs displaying the greatest activity against Mtb failed to inhibit E. coli growth under either set of conditions. Thus, the active molecules identified here (1, 2, 6, and 8) may provide the basis for development of anti-mycobacterial agents against Mtb. PMID:24902951

  10. Epoxide hydrolase activities and epoxy fatty acids in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Mamatha, Dadala M; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-04-01

    Culex mosquitoes have emerged as important model organisms for mosquito biology, and are disease vectors for multiple mosquito-borne pathogens, including West Nile virus. We characterized epoxide hydrolase activities in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, which suggested multiple forms of epoxide hydrolases were present. We found EH activities on epoxy eicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs and other eicosanoids are well-established lipid signaling molecules in vertebrates. We showed EETs can be synthesized in vitro from arachidonic acids by mosquito lysate, and EETs were also detected in vivo both in larvae and adult mosquitoes by LC-MS/MS. The EH activities on EETs can be induced by blood feeding, and the highest activity was observed in the midgut of female mosquitoes. The enzyme activities on EETs can be inhibited by urea-based inhibitors designed for mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH). The sEH inhibitors have been shown to play diverse biological roles in mammalian systems, and they can be useful tools to study the function of EETs in mosquitoes. Besides juvenile hormone metabolism and detoxification, insect epoxide hydrolases may also play a role in regulating lipid signaling molecules, such as EETs and other epoxy fatty acids, synthesized in vivo or obtained from blood feeding by female mosquitoes. PMID:25686802

  11. Supplementation of omega 3 fatty acids improves oxidative stress in activated BV2 microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Lorenzo; Dongmo, Bendjedith Momo; Avallone, Rossella

    2015-05-01

    Many reports have shown promising beneficial effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (L-PUFAs) of the omega 3 series in several brain diseases. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that omega 3 fatty acids supplement reduced pro-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that a supplement rich in PUFAs (SRP) increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner suggesting its protective role against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell death in BV2 microglial cell line. In the same cultures, the supplement rich in PUFAs reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production. A most prominent target for ROS management is the family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The co-treatment with SRP and LPS increased significantly the nuclear immunoreactivity of PPAR-?when compared the LPS treatment alone. Moreover, the chronic administration of the SRP in rats, increased the immunoreactivity of the PPAR-?1 protein confirming its potential neuroprotective effect. PMID:25582176

  12. [The fatty acid composition of peach oil and its biological activity].

    PubMed

    Kikalishvili, B Iu; Zurabashvili, D Z; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A; Nikola?shvili, M N

    2013-05-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography methods (Cromatograph PTC-1, repractometer R-401, column Bondopa? C18) were quantitatively and qualitatively identified most biological important high fatty acids, contained in peach oil (Persica Vulgaris) from ost region of Georgia (Kacheti). Their relative concentrations are expressed as percentages of the total fatty acids components. The chromatography investigation shaved, that the oil contained 12,981,0mg% linoleic, 9,970,3 mg% palmitic, 4,820,2 mg% linolenic, 3,580,1 mg% begenic and 2,160,1 mg% arachinic acids. The predominant fatty acids of peach oil were linoleic, palmitic and oleinic acids. The investigation showed different sensitivity of components contained in peach oil. PMID:23787514

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of fatty acid amides on the N-oleoylethanolamide-like activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Noguchi, Kaori; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shirahata, Akira; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of fatty acid amides were synthesized and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) agonistic activities were evaluated in a normal rat liver cell line, clone 9. The mRNAs of the PPAR-? downstream genes, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1 and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as PPAR-? agonistic activities. We prepared nine oleic acid amides. Their PPAR-? agonistic activities were, in decreasing order, N-oleoylhistamine (OLHA), N-oleoylglycine, Oleamide, N-oleoyltyramine, N-oleoylsertonin, and Olvanil. The highest activity was found with OLHA. We prepared and evaluated nine N-acylhistamines (N-acyl-HAs). Of these, OLHA, C16:0-HA, and C18:1?(9)-trans-HA showed similar activity. Activity due to the different chain length of the saturated fatty acid peaked at C16:0-HA. The PPAR-? antagonist, GW6471, inhibited the induction of the PPAR-? downstream genes by OLHA and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA). These data suggest that N-acyl-HAs could be considered new PPAR-? agonists. PMID:25832022

  14. Syntheses and biological activities of deoxy-d-allose fatty acid ester analogs.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Tazul Islam; Ando, Hikaru; Yanagita, Ryo C; Kawanami, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    We describe the syntheses of three different deoxy-D-allose analogs [2-deoxy-D-allose (2-DOAll), 1,2-dideoxy-D-allose (1,2-DOAll), and 1,2-didehydro-1,2-dideoxy-D-allose (1,2-DHAll)] and their fatty acid esters via regioselective lipase-catalyzed transesterification. Among them, 2-DOAll and its decanoate (2-DOAll-C10) showed higher inhibitory activity on plant growth, which is similar to D-allose (All) and its decanoate (All-C10). Bioassay results of deoxy-All-C10 on four plant species suggest that the hydroxy group at the C-1 position might be important showing growth inhibitory activity. In addition, co-addition of gibberellin (GA3) with 1,2-DHAll-C10 and 2-DOAll-C10 recovered plant growth, suggesting that they might mainly inhibit biosynthesis of gibberellin. PMID:26822163

  15. AMPK activation promotes lipid droplet dispersion on detyrosinated microtubules to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Herms, Albert; Bosch, Marta; Reddy, Babu J.N.; Schieber, Nicole L.; Fajardo, Alba; Rupérez, Celia; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Ferguson, Charles; Rentero, Carles; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Parton, Robert G.; Gross, Steven P.; Pol, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that provide fatty acids (FAs) to cellular processes including synthesis of membranes and production of metabolic energy. While known to move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs), the role of LD motion and whether it facilitates interaction with other organelles are unclear. Here we show that during nutrient starvation, LDs and mitochondria relocate on detyrosinated MT from the cell centre to adopt a dispersed distribution. In the cell periphery, LD–mitochondria interactions increase and LDs efficiently supply FAs for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. This cellular adaptation requires the activation of the energy sensor AMPK, which in response to starvation simultaneously increases LD motion, reorganizes the network of detyrosinated MTs and activates mitochondria. In conclusion, we describe the existence of a specialized cellular network connecting the cellular energetic status and MT dynamics to coordinate the functioning of LDs and mitochondria during nutrient scarcity. PMID:26013497

  16. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit Fc ? receptor I-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Ma, David W L; Kang, Jing X; Kulka, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    In vivo models show that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit some of the processes associated with allergic inflammation but the direct effect of n-3 PUFA on mast cells, the major effector cells in allergy, is poorly understood. We sought to determine the effect and mechanism of n-3 PUFA on Fc ? receptor I (Fc?RI)-mediated signal transduction and mast cell activation. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) were differentiated from bone marrow obtained from C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice. The fat-1 mice express fatty acid n-3 desaturase and produce endogenous n-3 PUFA. For comparison, exogenous n-3 PUFA were supplemented to WT BMMC and human mast cell (LAD2) cultures. Fat-1 BMMC released less ?-hexosaminidase (?-hex) and cysteinyl leukotrienes and produced less tumor necrosis factor and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. n-3 PUFA supplementation reduced LAD2 and BMMC degranulation (?-hex release) following Fc?RI activation. Fat-1 BMMC expressed less constitutive Lyn and linker of activated T cells (LAT), and Fc?RI-mediated phosphorylation of Lyn, spleen tyrosine kinase and LAT were reduced in fat-1 BMMC. Although the expression of surface and whole cell Fc?RI was similar in WT and fat-1 BMMC, unstimulated fat-1 BMMC showed reduced Fc?RI localization to lipid rafts, and stimulation with antigen resulted in aberrant Fc?RI shuttling to the rafts. Our results show that n-3 PUFA suppress Fc?RI-mediated activation of mast cells, which results in reduced mediator release. This effect is associated with a decrease in LAT and Lyn expression as well as abnormal shuttling of Fc?RI to lipid rafts. PMID:26363927

  17. Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Elahe; Rafraf, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef¬fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa¬tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure¬ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con¬centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both) and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048) compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women. PMID:24688934

  18. Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2009-05-01

    Fatty acids have been classified into "good" or "bad" groups according to their degree of unsaturation or whether they are "animal fat" or "vegetable fat". Today, it appears that the effects of fatty acids are complex and vary greatly according to the dose and the nature of the molecule. Monounsaturated fatty acids are still considered as having a "neutral" status, but any benefits may be related to the chemical environment of the source food or the associated overall food pattern. Controversy surrounds omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, because even though they lower LDL cholesterol levels, excessive intakes do not appear to be correlated with cardiovascular benefit. The omega-3 fatty acids are known to exert cardiovascular protective effects. Dairy fat and its cardiovascular impact are being evaluated. This review examines the existing literature on the relationships between the different fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19386031

  19. Hemolytic activity and solubilizing capacity of raffinose and melezitose fatty acid monoesters prepared by enzymatic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Morales, Juan C; Prez-Victoria, Jos M; Prez-Victoria, Ignacio

    2015-05-01

    The hemolytic activity and solubilizing capacity of two families of non-reducing trisaccharide fatty acid monoesters have been studied to assess their usefulness as surfactants for pharmaceutical applications. The carbohydrate-based surfactants investigated included homologous series of raffinose and melezitose monoesters bearing C10 to C18 acyl chains prepared by lipase-catalyzed synthesis in organic media. The hemolytic activity was determined in vitro using a static method based on the addition of the surfactants to an erythrocyte suspension and subsequent spectrophotometric determination of the released hemoglobin. The effect of the carbohydrate head group, the acyl chain length and the regioisomeric purity was investigated. In all cases, the carbohydrate monoester surfactants decreased their hemolytic activity (with respect to their critical micelle concentration) when increasing the length of the acyl chain. A very similar behaviour was observed either the carbohydrate head-group (raffinose and melezitose) or regardless of the regioisomeric purity. Interestingly, decanoyl (C10) and lauroyl (C12) monoesters were just marginally hemolytic at their critical micelle concentrations while the longer palmitoyl (C16) and (C18) stearoyl monoesters become hemolytic at concentrations much higher than their respective cmc. The palmitoyl and stearoyl monoesters also displayed higher solubilization capacity than the shorter acyl chain monoesters in a solubilization assay of a hydrophobic dye as a model drug mimic. These results suggest that raffinose and melezitose monoesters with long-chain fatty acids (C16 to C18) are promising surfactants for pharmaceutical applications and could be an alternative to the use of current commercial nonionic polyoxyethylene-based surfactants in parenteral formulations. PMID:25753196

  20. Reduced Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity in Adult Patients With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Di Santo, Serena; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by intra-hepatic fat accumulation and mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not fully explained. Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. We investigated its activity in patients with fatty liver. LAL activity (nmol/spot/h) was measured in 100 adult healthy subjects (HS) and in 240 NAFLD patients. A sub-analysis on 35 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was performed. Median LAL activity was 1.15 (0.95–1.72) in HS. It was significantly reduced in NAFLD [0.78 (0.61–1.01), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. A further reduction was observed in the subgroup of NASH [0.67 (0.51–0.77), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. Patients with LAL activity below median had higher values of serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-c (p < 0.05), and increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, p < 0.001; AST, p < 0.01; GGT, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with LAL activity below median were ALT (OR: 1.018, 95% CI 1.004–1.032, p = 0.011) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.551, 95% CI 1.241–5.245, p = 0.011), whilst statin use predicted a better LAL function (OR: 0.464, 95% CI 0.248–0.866, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest a strong association between impaired LAL activity and NAFLD. A better knowledge of the role of LAL may provide new insights in NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:26288848

  1. Differential effects of dietary fatty acids on rat liver alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase activity and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Yukari; Murotani, Gen; Tanabe, Atsushi; Saito, Kuniaki; Uehara, Koich; Morise, Akiko; Sato, Mayuki; Sanada, Hiroo

    2004-11-01

    Hepatic alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD; formerly termed picolinic carboxylase) [EC4.1.1.45] plays a key role in regulating NAD biosynthesis and the generation of quinolinate (quinolinic acid) from tryptophan. Quinolinate is a potent endogenous excitotoxin of neuronal cells. We previously reported that ingestion of fatty acids by rats leads to a decrease in their hepatic ACMSD activity. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clarified. We previously purified ACMSD and cloned cDNA encoding rat ACMSD. Therefore, in this study, we examined the differential effect of fatty acids on ACMSD mRNA expression by Northern blot. Moreover, we measured quinolinic acid concentration in rats fed on fatty acid. When diets containing 2% level of fatty acid were given to male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) for 8 days, long-chain saturated fatty acids and oleic acid did not affect ACMSD mRNA expression in the liver. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) strongly suppressed the liver ACMSD mRNA expression. In rats fed with high linoleic acid diet for 8 days, serum quinolinic acid was significantly increased as compared with the rats fed on a fatty acid-free diet under the condition of the approximately same calorie ingestion. These results suggest that the transcription level of ACMSD is modulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids, and suppressive potency of ACMSD mRNA is n-3 fatty acid family>linoleic acid (n-6 fatty acid)>saturated fatty acid. Moreover, this study provides the information that a high polyunsaturated fatty acid diet affects the production of quinolinic acid in serum by suppressing the ACMSD activity. PMID:15522828

  2. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

  3. Bioproduction of volatile fatty acid from the fermentation of waste activated sludge for in situ denitritation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation integrated with denitritation (the reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen gas) at different pHs was investigated in batch-mode reactors over a 24-day period. The results showed that in comparison with controlled pHs, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) bioproduction for in situ denitritation was significantly improved at uncontrolled pH. VFA fermented from WAS was quickly consumed by denitritation at uncontrolled pH, which accelerated sludge degradation. On the other hand, sludge digestion was benefited from the alkalinity produced from denitritation, while methanogenesis was prohibited by alkalinity and nitrite. The integrated sludge fermentation and denitritation can be cost-effectively applied to wastewater treatment plants, so that organic substrates (e.g., VFAs) are produced for denitritation via simultaneous sludge fermentation, which enables WAS reutilization and enhances nitrogen removal efficiency without the need of external carbon sources. PMID:26475401

  4. Design, synthesis and biological activity of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives as novel free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Xuekun; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianyong; Xia, Wenting; Zhou, Xianhao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-11-15

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) is a novel antidiabetic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes based on particular mechanism in amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We have previously identified a series of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives. Herein, we describe the further chemical modification of this series directed by ligand efficiency and ligand lipophilicity efficiency. All of these efforts lead to the discovery of the promising candidate 16, an excellent FFA1 agonist with robust agonistic activity (43.6 nM), desired LE and LLE values. Moreover, compound 16 revealed a great potential for improving the hyperglycemia levels in both normal and type 2 diabetic mice without the risk of hypoglycemia even at the high dose of 40 mg/kg. PMID:26482570

  5. Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaf and fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Riahi, Leila; Maaroufi, Abderrazak; Hasnaoui, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conceived to evaluate the essential fatty acids, secondary metabolites, antiradical and antimicrobial activities of unexploited Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. The obtained results indicated that the major components of fatty acids were oleic acid (88.12%) and elaidic acid (7.88%). Leaves contained higher amount of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins than fruits, although both methanolic extracts had significant antioxidant activities. Significant correlations were observed between the total phenol or flavonoid contents in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activity estimated by using both 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic radical-scavenging methods. In addition, both methanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibition zone diameters and the minimal inhibition concentration values were in the range of 10-17 mm and 3.1-50 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24805194

  6. Fatty Acid Elongation Is Independent of Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Activities in Leek and Brassica napus1

    PubMed Central

    Hlousek-Radojcic, Alenka; Evenson, Kimberly J.; Jaworski, Jan G.; Post-Beittenmiller, Dusty

    1998-01-01

    In both animal and plant acyl elongation systems, it has been proposed that fatty acids are first activated to acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) before their elongation, and that the ATP dependence of fatty acid elongation is evidence of acyl-CoA synthetase involvement. However, because CoA is not supplied in standard fatty acid elongation assays, it is not clear if CoA-dependent acyl-CoA synthetase activity can provide levels of acyl-CoAs necessary to support typical rates of fatty acid elongation. Therefore, we examined the role of acyl-CoA synthetase in providing the primer for acyl elongation in leek (Allium porrum L.) epidermal microsomes and Brassica napus L. cv Reston oil bodies. As presented here, fatty acid elongation was independent of CoA and proceeded at maximum rates with CoA-free preparations of malonyl-CoA. We also showed that stearic acid ([1-14C]18:0)-CoA was synthesized from [1-14C]18:0 in the presence of CoA-free malonyl-CoA or acetyl-CoA, and that [1-14C]18:0-CoA synthesis under these conditions was ATP dependent. Furthermore, the appearance of [1-14C]18:0 in the acyl-CoA fraction was simultaneous with its appearance in phosphatidylcholine. These data, together with the s of a previous study (A. Hlousek-Radojcic, H. Imai, J.G. Jaworski [1995] Plant J 8: 803809) showing that exogenous [14C]acyl-CoAs are diluted by a relatively large endogenous pool before they are elongated, strongly indicated that acyl-CoA synthetase did not play a direct role in fatty acid elongation, and that phosphatidylcholine or another glycerolipid was a more likely source of elongation primers than acyl-CoAs.

  7. Loss of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4/aP2 Reduces Macrophage Inflammation Through Activation of SIRT3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongliang; Hertzel, Ann V; Steen, Kaylee A; Bernlohr, David A

    2016-03-01

    Activation of proinflammatory macrophages plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Previous work using high fat-fed mice has shown that ablation of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP4/aP2) in macrophages leads to an antiinflammatory state both in situ and in vivo, and the mechanism is linked, in part, to increased intracellular monounsaturated fatty acids and the up-regulation of uncoupling protein 2. Here, we show that loss of FABP4/aP2 in macrophages additionally induces sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression and that monounsaturated fatty acids (C16:1, C18:1) lead to increased SIRT3 protein expression. Increased expression of SirT3 in FABP4/aP2 null macrophages occurs at the protein level with no change in SirT3 mRNA. When compared with controls, silencing of SIRT3 in Raw246.7 macrophages leads to increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. In contrast, loss of SIRT3 in FABP4/aP2-deficient macrophages attenuates the suppressed inflammatory signaling, reduced reactive oxygen species production, lipopolysaccharide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased fatty acid oxidation. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory phenotype of FABP4/aP2 null mice is mediated by increased intracellular monounsaturated fatty acids leading to the increased expression of both uncoupling protein 2 and SirT3. PMID:26789108

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Desbois, Andrew P.; Lawlor, Keelan C.

    2013-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 321024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 1530 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. PMID:24232668

  9. Antibacterial activity of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Andrew P; Lawlor, Keelan C

    2013-11-01

    New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32-1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15-30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. PMID:24232668

  10. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  11. Intestinal metabolism of fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Enser, M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The effect of concentration on the oxidation and incorporation into lipids of lauric acid and linoleic acid by rings of rat small intestine has been studied in vitro. 2. In the absence of glucose, the oxidation of lauric acid in the range 00150mm showed a maximum at 01mm. In the presence of glucose the maximum was at 05mm. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the presence of glucose increased throughout the concentration range 00150mm. 3. The incorporation of lauric acid into lipids was maximal at 0506mm in the presence of glucose, but at 10mm in the absence of glucose. At 08mm-lauric acid, in the presence of glucose, over 75% of the incorporated lauric acid was in triglycerides, but at 10mm they only contained 30%. The incorporation of glucose carbon into glycerides paralleled the incorporation of lauric acid. 4. In the range 00125mm-linoleic acid the quantity incorporated into lipids increased. In the range 00104mm linoleic acid was incorporated predominantly into triglycerides, but between 04 and 10mm most was in diglycerides, and between 25 and 50mm most was in monoglycerides. 5. The relationship of fatty acid concentration to the mechanism of absorption is discussed, together with the correlation between the distribution of the absorbed fatty acids within the tissue lipids and the lipase activity of intestinal mucosa. PMID:5837779

  12. Inhibition by fatty acids during fermentation of pre-treated waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Pratt, S; Liew, D; Batstone, D J; Werker, A G; Morgan-Sagastume, F; Lant, P A

    2012-05-31

    Fermentation of waste activated sludge produces volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which can be used as the carbon sources for numerous biological processes. However, product inhibition can limit extent of fermentation to VFAs. In this study, product inhibition during fermentation of waste activated sludge pre-treated by a thermal hydrolysis process (THP-WAS) was investigated. Product inhibition was confirmed as spiking reactors with high levels of a mix of VFAs prevented fermentation taking place. Various inhibition models were trialled and it was found that a threshold model (based on thermodynamics) provided the best fit between model and data. This is the first time that threshold type inhibition has been shown for a mixed substrate, mixed population system. Batch fermentations carried out with THP-WAS of different dilutions were used to evaluate the impact of different organic loadings. The threshold VFA concentration for the systems studied was determined to be 171gCOD(VFA)L(-1). Inhibition was shown to be due to the presence of a combination of VFAs containing 2-6 carbon atoms each. When evaluated individually, by spiking individual VFAs, all VFAs except for acetate had the same impact at this threshold; acetate being approximately 50% as inhibitory as the other organic acids (COD basis). Based on this, a weighted model could be proposed to better represent the data. Strategies to improve overall yield could be increased production of acetate, or dilution to below the inhibitory level. PMID:22361002

  13. FATTY ACIDS MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 ACTIVATION THROUGH REGULATION OF RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND RECRUITMENT INTO LIPID RAFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies (J Biol Chem 2003, 2004) demonstrated that saturated ...

  14. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  15. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.

  16. Influence of spontaneous hypertension on n-3 delta-6-desaturase activity and fatty acid composition of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Narce, M; Asdrubal, P; Delachambre, M C; Gresti, J; Poisson, J P

    1995-11-01

    The first rate limiting step in the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid is catalyzed by the delta-6-desaturase enzyme. The activity of such an enzyme was studied in order to investigate the n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid biogenesis during hypertension. Rat isolated hepatocyte n-3 delta-6-desaturase activity was higher in 1 month old Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats -- prehypertensive period-as compared to normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, whereas there was no significant differences at 12 months -- hypertensive period-. Our data indicate no correlation between the directly measured enzyme activity and the changes in hepatocyte n-3 fatty acid compositions. The loss of hepatocyte n-3 delta-6-desaturase activity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat may be a key factor in the evolution of hypertension related to aging through altering the eicosanoid balance. PMID:8609913

  17. Inhibition of tumor growth by a newly-identified activator for epidermal fatty acid binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Enyu; Singh, Puja; Zhai, Xiuhong; Li, Yan; Zhu, Ganqian; Zhang, Yuwen; Hao, Jiaqing; Chi, Young-In; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Cleary, Margot P.; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that expression of epidermal fatty acid binding protein (E-FABP) in tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) promotes macrophage anti-tumor activity by enhancing IFN? responses in tumor models. Thus, E-FABP represents a new protective factor in enhancing tumor immune surveillance against tumor development. Herein, we report the compound 5-(benzylamino)-2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,3-oxazole-4-carbonitrile (designated EI-05) as a novel E-FABP activator for inhibition of mammary tumor growth. EI-05 was selected from the ZINC compound library using molecular docking analysis based on the crystal structure of E-FABP. Although EI-05 is unable to bind E-FABP directly, it significantly increases E-FABP expression in macrophages during inflammation. Stimulation of macrophages with EI-05 remarkably enhances lipid droplet formation and IFN? production, which further promotes the anti-tumor activity of macrophages. Importantly, administering EI-05 in vivo significantly inhibits mammary tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse model. Altogether, these results suggest that EI-05 may represent a promising drug candidate for anti-tumor treatment through enhancing E-FABP activity and IFN? responses in macrophages. PMID:25796556

  18. Total dietary fat and fatty acid content modifies plasma phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity indices, and urinary prostaglandin E in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to diets high in fat, low fat diets are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that a low fat (LF; 20% fat) and a low fat high omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid diet (LFn3; 23% fat with 3% as ALA, EPA and DHA) would enhance n-3 composition of PLFA and reduce urinary ...

  19. Effect of Selection for High Activity-Related Metabolism on Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in Bank Voles.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Valencak, Teresa G; Ruf, Thomas; Sadowska, Edyta T; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Rudolf, Agata; Maiti, Uttaran; Koteja, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    Endothermy, high basal metabolic rates (BMRs), and high locomotor-related metabolism were important steps in the evolution of mammals. It has been proposed that the composition of membrane phospholipid fatty acids plays an important role in energy metabolism and exercise muscle physiology. In particular, the membrane pacemaker theory of metabolism suggests that an increase in cell membrane fatty acid unsaturation would result in an increase in BMR. We aimed to determine whether membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition of heart, liver, and gastrocnemius muscles differed between lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism-which also evolved an increased BMR-and unselected control lines. Proportions of fatty acids significantly differed among the organs: liver was the least unsaturated, whereas the gastrocnemius muscles were most unsaturated. However, fatty acid proportions of the heart and liver did not differ significantly between selected and control lines. In gastrocnemius muscles, significant differences between selection directions were found: compared to control lines, membranes of selected voles were richer in saturated C18:0 and unsaturated C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, whereas the pattern was reversed for saturated C16:0 and unsaturated C20:4n-6. Neither unsaturation index nor other combined indexes of fatty acid proportions differed between lines. Thus, our results do not support the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. However, the differences between selected and control lines in gastrocnemius muscles reflect chain lengths rather than number of double bonds and are probably related to differences in locomotor activity per se rather than to differences in the basal or routine metabolic rate. PMID:26658414

  20. Ligand-activated PPAR?-dependent DNA demethylation regulates the fatty acid ?-oxidation genes in the postnatal liver.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Tatsuya; Kamei, Yasutomi; Yuan, Xunmei; Takahashi, Mayumi; Kanai, Sayaka; Tamura, Erina; Tsujimoto, Kazutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Shimano, Hitoshi; Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Hatada, Izuho; Suganami, Takayoshi; Hashimoto, Koshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    The metabolic function of the liver changes sequentially during early life in mammals to adapt to the marked changes in nutritional environment. Accordingly, hepatic fatty acid ?-oxidation is activated after birth to produce energy from breast milk lipids. However, how it is induced during the neonatal period is poorly understood. Here we show DNA demethylation and increased mRNA expression of the fatty acid ?-oxidation genes in the postnatal mouse liver. The DNA demethylation does not occur in the fetal mouse liver under the physiologic condition, suggesting that it is specific to the neonatal period. Analysis of mice deficient in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and maternal administration of a PPAR? ligand during the gestation and lactation periods reveal that the DNA demethylation is PPAR? dependent. We also find that DNA methylation of the fatty acid ?-oxidation genes are reduced in the adult human liver relative to the fetal liver. This study represents the first demonstration that the ligand-activated PPAR?-dependent DNA demethylation regulates the hepatic fatty acid ?-oxidation genes during the neonatal period, thereby highlighting the role of a lipid-sensing nuclear receptor in the gene- and life-stage-specific DNA demethylation of a particular metabolic pathway. PMID:25311726

  1. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-22

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short precursors now gives us easy access to these extended molecules. PMID:26886879

  2. Covalent Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? Adduction by Nitro-fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, Francisco J.; Cole, Marsha P.; Groeger, Alison L.; Chen, Chen-Shan; Khoo, Nicholas K. H.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Motanya, U. Nkiru; Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Rudolph, Tanja K.; Rudolph, Volker; Bonacci, Gustavo; Baker, Paul R. S.; Xu, H. Eric; Batthyany, Carlos I.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Hallis, Tina M.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) binds diverse ligands to transcriptionally regulate metabolism and inflammation. Activators of PPAR? include lipids and anti-hyperglycemic drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Recently, TZDs have raised concern after being linked with increased risk of peripheral edema, weight gain, and adverse cardiovascular events. Most reported endogenous PPAR? ligands are intermediates of lipid metabolism and oxidation that bind PPAR? with very low affinity. In contrast, nitro derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids (NO2-FA) are endogenous products of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite (NO2?)-mediated redox reactions that activate PPAR? at nanomolar concentrations. We report that NO2-FA act as partial agonists of PPAR? and covalently bind PPAR? at Cys-285 via Michael addition. NO2-FA show selective PPAR? modulator characteristics by inducing coregulator protein interactions, PPAR?-dependent expression of key target genes, and lipid accumulation is distinctively different from responses induced by the TZD rosiglitazone. Administration of this class of signaling mediators to ob/ob mice revealed that NO2-FA lower insulin and glucose levels without inducing adverse side effects such as the increased weight gain induced by TZDs. PMID:20097754

  3. Cooperative interactions among intestinal GATA factors in activating the rat liver fatty acid binding protein gene.

    PubMed

    Divine, Joyce K; Staloch, Lora J; Haveri, Hanna; Rowley, Christopher W; Heikinheimo, Markku; Simon, Theodore C

    2006-08-01

    GATA-4, GATA-5, and GATA-6 are endodermal zinc-finger transcription factors that activate numerous enterocytic genes. GATA-4 and GATA-6 but not GATA-5 are present in adult murine small intestinal enterocytes, and we now report the simultaneous presence of all three GATA factors in murine small intestinal enterocytes before weaning age. An immunohistochemical survey detected enterocytic GATA-4 and GATA-6 at birth and 1 wk of age and GATA-5 at 1 wk but not birth. Interactions among GATA factors were explored utilizing a transgene constructed from the proximal promoter of the rat liver fatty acid binding protein gene (Fabp1). GATA-4 and GATA-5 but not GATA-6 activate the Fabp1 transgene through a cognate binding site at -128. A dose-response assay revealed a maximum in transgene activation by both factors, where additional factor did not further increase transgene activity. However, at saturated levels of GATA-4, additional transgene activation was achieved by adding GATA-5 expression construct, and vice versa. Similar cooperativity occurred with GATA-5 and GATA-6. Identical interactions were observed with a target transgene consisting of a single GATA site upstream of a minimal promoter. Furthermore, GATA-4 and GATA-5 or GATA-5 and GATA-6 bound to each other in solution. These results are consistent with tethering of one GATA factor to the Fabp1 promoter through interaction with a second GATA factor to produce increased target gene activation. Cooperative target gene activation was specific to an intestinal cell line and may represent a mechanism by which genes are activated in the small intestinal epithelium during the period before weaning. PMID:16603485

  4. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  5. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthus, Bertrand; zcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3g/100g, while in linseed oil mainly ?-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as ?- and ?-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  6. Transport of fatty acids across the human placenta: a review.

    PubMed

    Duttaroy, Asim K

    2009-01-01

    Essential fatty acids and their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives (20C) such as docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids are critical for proper fetal growth and development. Dietary intake as well as metabolism of these fatty acids, and their subsequent transfer from the mother to the fetus are therefore important requisites for developing fetus. The placenta is the key organ through which nutrients such as these fatty acids flow from the mother to the fetus. Cellular uptake and translocation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in different tissues is achieved by a concert of co-existing mechanism. Although LCFA can enter the cell via passive diffusion, emerging reports indicate that LCFA uptake is tightly regulated by several plasma membrane-located transport/binding proteins such as fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm), fatty acid transport protein (FATP) and intracellular FABPs in several tissues including human placenta. Fatty acid activated transcription factors (PPARs, LXR, RXR, and SREBP-1) have been demonstrated to regulate these fatty acid transport/binding proteins, and placental functions. Maternal fatty acids therefore may regulate their own placental transport as well as placental function via several fatty acid-activated transcription factors. This review summarizes recent developments on placental fatty acid transport and metabolisms, and the regulatory roles of these proteins in these processes. PMID:19041341

  7. Directed tagging of the Arabidopsis FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene with the maize transposon activator.

    PubMed Central

    James, D W; Lim, E; Keller, J; Plooy, I; Ralston, E; Dooner, H K

    1995-01-01

    The FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene of Arabidopsis is required for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids in the seed. The product of the FAE1 gene is presumed to be a condensing enzyme that extends the chain length of fatty acids from C18 to C20 and C22. We report here the cloning of FAE1 by directed transposon tagging with the maize element Activator (Ac). An unstable fae1 mutant was isolated in a line carrying Ac linked to the FAE1 locus on chromosome 4. Cosegregation and reversion analyses established that the new mutant was tagged by Ac. A DNA fragment flanking Ac was cloned by inverse polymerase chain reaction and used to isolate FAE1 genomic clones and a cDNA clone from a library made from immature siliques. The predicted amino acid sequence of the FAE1 protein shares homology with those of other condensing enzymes (chalcone synthase, stilbene synthases, and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III), supporting the notion that FAE1 is the structural gene for a synthase or condensing enzyme. FAE1 is expressed in developing seed, but not in leaves, as expected from the effect of the fae1 mutation on the fatty acid compositions of those tissues. PMID:7734965

  8. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p < 0.05). The oil yield was 6.58-7.17% which contained predominantly unsaturated fatty acids (89.42%). The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid was ca. 6/1. The total tocopherol content ranged from 37.49 to 59.82 ?g/g and mainly consisted of ?-tocopherol. Trace amount of ?- and ?-tocotrienols was also found. Black quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols. PMID:25529712

  9. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  10. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  11. Role of fatty acid transporters in epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Jeffrey H; Jahnsen, Frode

    2011-01-01

    Skin epidermis is an active site of lipid synthesis. The intercellular lipids of human stratum corneum (SC) are unique in composition and quite different from the lipids found in most biological membranes. The three major lipids in the SC are free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides. Fatty acids can be synthesized by keratinocytes de novo and, in addition, need to be taken up from the circulation. The latter process has been shown to be protein mediated, and several fatty acid transporters are expressed in skin. Recent studies of transgenic and knockout animal models for fatty acid transporters and the identification of fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 or SLC27A4) mutations as causative for Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome highlight the vital roles of fatty acid transport and metabolism in skin homeostasis. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the role of fatty acids and their transporters in cutaneous biology, including their involvement in epidermal barrier generation and skin inflammation. PMID:21695012

  12. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  13. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  14. Improved bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids from waste activated sludge by perennial ryegrass addition.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuting; Dai, Xiaohu; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Wang, Rongchang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2013-09-01

    To improve short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production from waste activated sludge (WAS), studies that focus on pre-treatment methods, pH control or adding extra carbon like rice were reported. In this study, a kind of green waste (perennial ryegrass) was used as carbon source to adjust carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) in WAS to enhance SCFAs production. The effects of different C/N ratio ranging from 26/1 to 7/1 on SCFAs production and cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin consumption were investigated in detail. It was observed that the maximal SCFAs yield was 368.71 g COD per kilogram of total solids (TS) at C/N 20/1 with fermentation time of 12 d, which was, respectively, over 4 and 12 times than that at C/N 26/1 (sole perennial ryegrass) and C/N 7/1 (sole WAS). Meanwhile, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin consumptions were 109.12, 148.74, 20.90 g COD/kg TS, respectively, at C/N 20/1 with fermentation time of 12 d. The analysis of the composition of SCFAs showed that acetic acid ranked the first among other acids from C/N ratio of 26/1 to 18/1, whereas propionic acid was the dominant product from C/N ratio of 16/1 to 7/1. Because the results of this study were different from previous studies of SCFAs generation, the mechanism of improved SCFAs at C/N ratio of 20/1 by perennial ryegrass addition was investigated. Results showed that as soluble COD, soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate increased, more substrates were available for SCFAs production at C/N ratio of 20/1. In addition, with the drop of pH to 4.82, methane generating was inhabitant and the SCFAs production was therefore significantly enhanced. Additionally, the mechanism of improved SCFAs generation was analyzed from the view of enzyme activities and microbial community. The experiments revealed that at C/N ratio of 20/1 the activities of enzymes were the highest comparing with other C/N ratios and lignin was the rate-limiting steps in WAS anaerobic digestion by perennial ryegrass addition. The 16S rRNA gene clone library demonstrated that Clostridia, Spirochaetes, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant microbial community at C/N ratio of 20/1. PMID:23764607

  15. Mammalian fatty acid synthase activity from crude tissue lysates tracing C-labeled substrates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Michael C; Karl Maluf, N; Wellberg, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Chris A; Murphy, Robert C; Anderson, Steve M

    2012-09-15

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN or FAS, EC 2.3.1.85) is the sole mammalian enzyme to synthesize fatty acids de novo from acetyl- and malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) esters. This article describes a new method that directly quantifies uniformly labeled (C??-labeled palmitate ([C??]palmitate) by tracing [C?]acetyl-CoA and [C?]malonyl-CoA using an in vitro FASN assay. This method used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect [C??]palmitate carboxylate anions (m/z 271) of pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives and was highly sensitive at femtomole quantities. Uniformly incorporated [C??]palmitate was the primary product of both recombinant and crude tissue lysate FASN. Quantification of FASN protein within crude tissue lysates ensured equal FASN amounts, preserved steady-state kinetics, and enabled calculation of FASN-specific activity. FASN activity determined by [C??]palmitate synthesis was consistent with values obtained from ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate (NADPH) oxidation assays. Analysis of FASN activity from tissue extracts was not hampered by contaminating enzymes or preexisting fatty acids. Crude mammary gland and liver lysates had significantly different activities at 82 and 65 nmol min? mg?, respectively, suggesting that tissue-specific activity levels differ in a manner unrelated to FASN amount. GC-MS quantification of [C??]palmitate synthesis permits sensitive evaluation of FASN activity from tissues of varied physiological states and of purified FASN activity in the presence of modifying proteins, enzymes, or drugs. PMID:22728958

  16. Liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene ablation reduces nuclear ligand distribution and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activity in cultured primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Avery L; Atshaves, Barbara P; Hostetler, Heather A; Huang, Huan; Davis, Jason; Lyuksyutova, Olga I; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2009-05-15

    The effect of liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene ablation on the uptake and distribution of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) to the nucleus by real-time laser scanning confocal imaging and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) activity was examined in cultured primary hepatocytes from livers wild-type L-FABP+/+ and gene ablated L-FABP-/- mice. Cultured primary hepatocytes from livers of L-FABP-/- mice exhibited: (i) reduced oxidation of palmitic acid, a common dietary long chain fatty acid (LCFA); (ii) reduced expression of fatty acid oxidative enzymes-proteins transcriptionally regulated by PPARalpha; (iii) reduced palmitic acid-induced PPARalpha co-immunoprecipitation with coactivator SRC-1 concomitant with increased PPARalpha co-immunoprecipitation with coinhibitor N-CoR; (iv) reduced palmitic acid-induced PPARalpha. Diminished PPARalpha activation in L-FABP null hepatocytes was associated with lower uptake of common dietary LCFA (palmitic acid as well as its fluorescent derivative BODIPY FL C(16)), reduced level of total unesterified LCFA, and real-time redistribution of BODIPY FL C(16) from the central nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope. Taken together, these studies support the hypothesis that L-FABP may facilitate ligand (LCFA)-activated PPARalpha transcriptional activity at least in part by increasing total LCFA ligand available to PPARalpha for inducing PPARalpha-mediated transcription of proteins involved in LCFA metabolism. PMID:19285478

  17. LIVER TYPE FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN (L-FABP) GENE ABLATION REDUCES NUCLEAR LIGAND DISTRIBUTION AND PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR ACTIVATED RECEPTOR-? ACTIVITY IN CULTURED PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES1

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Hostetler, Heather A.; Huang, Huan; Davis, Jason; Lyuksyutova, Olga I.; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    The effect of liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene ablation on the uptake and distribution of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) to the nucleus by real-time laser scanning confocal imaging and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR?) activity was examined in cultured primary hepatocytes from livers wild-type L-FABP+/+ and gene ablated L-FABP?/? mice. Cultured primary hepatocytes from livers of L-FABP?/? mice exhibited: (i) reduced oxidation of palmitic acid, a common dietary long chain fatty acid (LCFA); (ii) reduced expression of fatty acid oxidative enzymesproteins transcriptionally regulated by PPAR?; (iii) reduced palmitic acid-induced PPAR? coimmunoprecipitation with coactivator SRC1 concomitant with increased PPAR? coimmunoprecipitation with coinhibitor N-CoR; (iv) reduced palmitic acid-induced PPAR?. Diminished PPAR? activation in L-FABP null hepatocytes was associated with lower uptake of common dietary LCFA (palmitic acid as well as its fluorescent derivative BODIPY FL C16), reduced level of total unesterified LCFA, and real-time redistribution of BODIPY FL C16 from the central nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope. Taken together, these studies support the hypothesis that L-FABP may facilitate ligand (LCFA)-activated PPAR? transcriptional activity at least in part by increasing total LCFA ligand available to PPAR? for inducing PPAR?-mediated transcription of proteins involved in LCFA metabolism. PMID:19285478

  18. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  19. StructureActivity Relationships of ?-Keto Oxazole Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Christophe; Kelso, Michael J.; Romero, F. Anthony; Rayl, Thomas J.; Leung, Donmienne; Hwang, Inkyu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of the structureactivity relationships (SAR) of 2b (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the C2 acyl side chain. A series of aryl replacements or substituents for the terminal phenyl group provided effective inhibitors (e.g., 5c, aryl = 1-napthyl, Ki = 2.6 nM) with 5hh (aryl = 3-Cl-Ph, Ki = 900 pM) being 5-fold more potent than 2b. Conformationally-restricted C2 side chains were examined and many provided exceptionally potent inhibitors of which 11j (ethylbiphenyl side chain) was established to be a 750 pM inhibitor. A systematic series of heteroatoms (O, NMe, S), electron-withdrawing groups (SO, SO2), and amides positioned within and hydroxyl substitutions on the linking side chain were investigated which typically led to a loss in potency. The most tolerant positions provided effective inhibitors (12p, 6-position S, Ki = 3 nM or 13d, 2-position OH, Ki = 8 nM) comparable in potency to 2b. Proteomic-wide screening of selected inhibitors from the systematic series of >100 candidates prepared revealed that they are selective for FAAH over all other mammalian serine proteases. PMID:17559203

  20. Enhanced volatile fatty acids production of waste activated sludge under salinity conditions: Performance and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaoqiang; Wang, Shuying; Yuan, Zhiguo; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-03-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are essential for removing biological nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this work was to investigate whether and how the addition of NaCl could improve the production of VFAs from waste activated sludge (WAS). Sludge solubilization was efficiently improved by the addition of NaCl. Both protein and carbohydrate in the fermentation liquid increased with the dosage of NaCl, and it provided a larger amount of organic compounds for the production of the VFAs. NaCl had inhibitory effects on the production of methane and a high dosage of NaCl could severely suppress the growth of methanogens, which decreased the consumption of the VFAs. Consequently, the production of VFAs was significantly enhanced by the addition of NaCl. The maximum production of VFAs was achieved with the highest dosage of NaCl (3316 mg (COD)/L at the NaCl dosage 0.5 mol/L; 783 mg (COD)/L without the addition of NaCl). Therefore, this study indicates that using NaCl could be an efficient method for improving the production of VFAs from WAS. PMID:26320405

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure by directly activating large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Toshinori; Wissuwa, Bianka; Tian, Yutao; Tajima, Nobuyoshi; Xu, Rong; Bauer, Michael; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hou, Shangwei

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), found abundantly in oily fish, may have diverse health-promoting effects, potentially protecting the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. However, the mechanisms underlying the purported health-promoting effects of DHA remain largely unclear, in part because molecular signaling pathways and effectors of DHA are only beginning to be revealed. In vascular smooth muscle cells, large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels provide a critical vasodilatory influence. We report here that DHA with an EC50 of ?500 nM rapidly and reversibly activates BK channels composed of the pore-forming Slo1 subunit and the auxiliary subunit ?1, increasing currents by up to ?20-fold. The DHA action is observed in cell-free patches and does not require voltage-sensor activation or Ca2+ binding but involves destabilization of the closed conformation of the ion conduction gate. DHA lowers blood pressure in anesthetized wild-type but not in Slo1 knockout mice. DHA ethyl ester, contained in dietary supplements, fails to activate BK channels and antagonizes the stimulatory effect of DHA. Slo1 BK channels are thus receptors for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, and these fatty acidsunlike their ethyl ester derivativesactivate the channels and lower blood pressure. This finding has practical implications for the use of omega-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals for the general public and also for the critically ill receiving omega-3enriched formulas. PMID:23487785

  2. Participation of endogenous fatty acids in the secretory activity of the pancreatic B-cell.

    PubMed Central

    Malaisse, W J; Malaisse-Lagae, F; Sener, A; Hellerstrm, C

    1985-01-01

    The pancreatic B-cell may represent a fuel-sensor organ, the release of insulin evoked by nutrient secretagogues being attributable to an increased oxidation of exogenous and/or endogenous substrates. The participation of endogenous fatty acids in the secretory response of isolated rat pancreatic islets was investigated. Methyl palmoxirate (McN-3716, 0.1 mM), an inhibitor of long-chain-fatty-acid oxidation, suppressed the oxidation of exogenous [U-14C]palmitate and inhibited 14CO2 output from islets prelabelled with [U-14C]palmitate. Methyl palmoxirate failed to affect the oxidation of exogenous D-[U-14C]glucose or L-[U-14C]glutamine, the production of NH4+ and the output of 14CO2 from islets prelabelled with L-[U-14C]glutamine. In the absence of exogenous nutrient and after a lag period of about 60 min, methyl palmoxirate decreased O2 uptake to 69% of the control value. Methyl palmoxirate inhibited insulin release evoked by D-glucose, D-glyceraldehyde, 2-oxoisohexanoate, L-leucine, 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate or 3-phenylpyruvate. However, methyl palmoxirate failed to affect insulin release when the oxidation of endogenous fatty acids was already suppressed, e.g. in the presence of pyruvate or L-glutamine. These findings support the view that insulin release evoked by nutrient secretagogues tightly depends on the overall rate of nutrient oxidation, including that of endogenous fatty acids. PMID:3924031

  3. Effects of Pyrazinamide on Fatty Acid Synthesis by Whole Mycobacterial Cells and Purified Fatty Acid Synthase I

    PubMed Central

    Boshoff, Helena I.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Barry, Clifton E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of low extracellular pH and intracellular accumulation of weak organic acids were compared with respect to fatty acid synthesis by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The profile of fatty acids synthesized during exposure to benzoic, nicotinic, or pyrazinoic acids, as well as that observed during intracellular hydrolysis of the corresponding amides, was not a direct consequence of modulation of fatty acid synthesis by these compounds but reflected the response to inorganic acid stress. Analysis of fatty acid synthesis in crude mycobacterial cell extracts demonstrated that pyrazinoic acid failed to directly modulate the fatty acid synthase activity catalyzed by fatty acid synthase I (FAS-I). However, fatty acid synthesis was irreversibly inhibited by 5-chloro-pyrazinamide in a time-dependent fashion. Moreover, we demonstrate that pyrazinoic acid does not inhibit purified mycobacterial FAS-I, suggesting that this enzyme is not the immediate target of pyrazinamide. PMID:11914348

  4. Enhancement of E. coli acyl-CoA synthetase FadD activity on medium chain fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Way, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    FadD catalyses the first step in E. coli beta-oxidation, the activation of free fatty acids into acyl-CoA thioesters. This activation makes fatty acids competent for catabolism and reduction into derivatives like alcohols and alkanes. Alcohols and alkanes derived from medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 6–12 carbons) are potential biofuels; however, FadD has low activity on MCFAs. Herein, we generate mutations in fadD that enhance its acyl-CoA synthetase activity on MCFAs. Homology modeling reveals that these mutations cluster on a face of FadD from which the co-product, AMP, is expected to exit. Using FadD homology models, we design additional FadD mutations that enhance E. coli growth rate on octanoate and provide evidence for a model wherein FadD activity on octanoate can be enhanced by aiding product exit. These studies provide FadD mutants useful for producing MCFA derivatives and a rationale to alter the substrate specificity of adenylating enzymes. PMID:26157619

  5. Signalling pathways controlling fatty acid desaturation.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, María Cecilia; Banchio, Claudia E; de Mendoza, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms, plants and animals regulate the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) during changing environmental conditions as well as in response to nutrients. Unsaturation of fatty acid chains has important structural roles in cell membranes: a proper ratio of saturated to UFAs contributes to membrane fluidity. Alterations in this ratio have been implicated in various disease states including cardiovascular diseases, immune disorders, cancer and obesity. They are also the major components of triglycerides and intermediates in the synthesis of biologically active molecules such as eicosanoids, which mediates fever, inflammation and neurotransmission. UFAs homeostasis in many organisms is achieved by feedback regulation of fatty acid desaturases gene transcription. Here, we review recently discovered components and mechanisms of the regulatory machinery governing the transcription of fatty acid desaturases in bacteria, yeast and animals. PMID:18751908

  6. Identification and Functional Characterization of Genes Encoding Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Activities from Unicellular Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Vaezi, Royah; Napier, Johnathan A.; Sayanova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. The search led to the identification of two putative “front-end” desaturases (Δ6 and Δ4) from Ostreococcus RCC809 and one Δ6-elongase from F. cylindrus. Heterologous expression of putative open reading frames (ORFs) in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme activities efficiently convert their respective substrates: 54.1% conversion of α-linolenic acid for Δ6-desaturase, 15.1% conversion of 22:5n-3 for Δ4-desaturase and 38.1% conversion of γ-linolenic acid for Δ6-elongase. The Δ6-desaturase from Ostreococcus RCC809 displays a very strong substrate preference resulting in the predominant synthesis of stearidonic acid (C18:4Δ6,9,12,15). These data confirm the functional characterization of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic genes from these two species which have until now not been investigated for such activities. The identification of these new genes will also serve to expand the repertoire of activities available for metabolically engineering the omega-3 trait in heterologous hosts as well as providing better insights into the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine microalgae. PMID:24351909

  7. The liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is nutritionally regulated and activated by fatty acids and PPAR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Danno, Hirosuke; Ishii, Kiyo-aki; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Mikami, Motoki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yabe, Sachiko; Furusawa, Mika; Kumadaki, Shin; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2010-01-08

    To elucidate the physiological role of CREBH, the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of CREBH were estimated in various feeding states of wild and obesity mice. In the fast state, the expression of CREBH mRNA and nuclear protein were high and profoundly suppressed by refeeding in the wild-type mice. In ob/ob mice, the refeeding suppression was impaired. The diet studies suggested that CREBH expression was activated by fatty acids. CREBH mRNA levels in the mouse primary hepatocytes were elevated by addition of the palmitate, oleate and eicosapenonate. It was also induced by PPAR{alpha} agonist and repressed by PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that the CREBH promoter activity was induced by fatty acids and co-expression of PPAR{alpha}. Deletion studies identified the PPRE for PPAR{alpha} activation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that PPAR{alpha} directly binds to the PPRE. Activation of CREBH at fasting through fatty acids and PPAR{alpha} suggest that CREBH is involved in nutritional regulation.

  8. Effects of synthetic alkamides on Arabidopsis fatty acid amide hydrolase activity and plant development.

    PubMed

    Faure, Lionel; Cavazos, Ronaldo; Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; Petros, Robby A; Koulen, Peter; Blancaflor, Elison B; Chapman, Kent D

    2015-02-01

    Alkamides and N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are bioactive, amide-linked lipids that influence plant development. Alkamides are restricted to several families of higher plants and some fungi, whereas NAEs are widespread signaling molecules in both plants and animals. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has been described as a key contributor to NAE hydrolysis; however, no enzyme has been associated with alkamide degradation in plants. Herein reported is synthesis of 12 compounds structurally similar to a naturally occurring alkamide (N-isobutyl-(2E,6Z,8E)decatrienamide or affinin) with different acyl compositions more similar to plant NAEs and various amino alkyl head groups. These "hybrid" synthetic alkamides were tested for activity toward recombinant Arabidopsis FAAH and for their effects on plant development (i.e., cotyledon expansion and primary root length). A substantial increase in FAAH activity was discovered toward NAEs in vitro in the presence of some of these synthetic alkamides, such as N-ethyllauroylamide (4). This "enhancement" effect was found to be due, at least in part, to relief from product inhibition of FAAH by ethanolamine, and not due to an alteration in the oligomerization state of the FAAH enzyme. For several of these alkamides, an inhibition of seedling growth was observed with greater results in FAAH knockouts and less in FAAH over-expressing plants, suggesting that these alkamides could be hydrolyzed by FAAH in planta. The tight regulation of NAE levels in vivo appears to be important for proper seedling establishment, and as such, some of these synthetic alkamides may be useful pharmacological tools to manipulate the effects of NAEs in situ. PMID:25491532

  9. Fasciola hepatica Fatty Acid Binding Protein Induces the Alternative Activation of Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Santiago, Olgary

    2014-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a highly evolved parasite that uses sophisticated mechanisms to evade the host immune response. The immunosuppressive capabilities of the parasite have been associated with antigens secreted through the parasite's tegument, called excretory-secretory products (ESPs). Proteomic studies have identified the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as one of molecules present in the parasite ESPs. Although FABP has been investigated for potential use in the development of vaccines against fascioliasis, its direct interaction with cells of immune system has not been studied. In this study, FABP was purified in native form from soluble extracts of F. hepatica adult flukes using a combination of molecular sieving chromatography and preparative isoelectric focusing. The immunological effect of the purified protein, termed Fh12, was assayed in vitro using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) obtained from healthy human donors. Results from the assay indicate that Fh12 produced a significantly increased arginase expression and activity and induced the expression of chitinase-3-like protein (CHI3L1). The assay also showed that Fh12 downregulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). This indicates that Fh12 induced the production of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?). The results also demonstrated the ability of Fh12 to downregulate the secretion of the proinflammatory and inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-1?B, even after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as its ability to stimulate the overexpression of IL-10. These results suggest a potent anti-inflammatory role for Fh12, which could occur via targeting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). PMID:25225247

  10. Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor inhibits gluconeogenesis without affecting lipogenesis or fatty acid synthesis in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao; Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy; Swaan, Peter W.; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-08-15

    Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods: Ligand-based structure–activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database ( (www.specs.net)) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications: Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. - Highlights: • Novel hCAR activators were identified by computational and biological approaches. • The role of hCAR in hepatic energy metabolism was examined. • hCAR activators repress gluconeogenesis but not lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. • Human and mouse CAR exhibit differential effects on energy metabolism.

  11. Influence of environmental temperature on the fatty acid desaturation and elongation activity of fish (Pimelodus maculatus) liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    de Torrengo, M; Brenner, R R

    1976-01-22

    The effect of environmental temperature on the activity of liver microsomes of fish (Pimelodus maculatus) to desaturate and elongate oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids was studied. It was found that: 1. Fish kept at 14-15 degrees C had higher desaturation and elongation activity than animals kept at 29-30 degrees C. The ratio of activity was the same for the three fatty acids. 2. A decrease of the environmental temperature increased the V of linoleic acid desaturation to gamma-linolenic acid, but did not modify the approximate Km of the reaction. 3. The inactivation of the delta6-desaturase of microsomes separated from fish kept at 29-30 degrees C and 14-15 degrees C was the same when heated at 40 degrees C. However, the enzyme was deactivated faster when heated at 29-30 degrees C than at 14-15 degrees C. 4. The increase of the delta6-desaturation activity of the microsomes evoked by the decrease of the temperature of the aquarium was mostly compensated for by the correlative decrease of the specific reaction rate of the reaction. For this reason it is assumed that the adaptive change of the desaturation activity of the microsomes with the environmental temperature does not greatly modify the fatty acid composition of the fish. PMID:1252479

  12. Exchanging saturated fatty acids for (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids in a mixed meal may decrease postprandial lipemia and markers of inflammation and endothelial activity in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Masson, Christiaan J; Mensink, Ronald P

    2011-05-01

    Postprandial lipemia, low-grade systemic inflammation, and endothelial activity are related to metabolic disorders. It is well known that dietary fatty acid composition modulates postprandial lipemia, but information on the other metabolic risk markers is limited. We therefore studied the acute effects of a meal rich in SFA compared with those of a meal rich in (n-6) PUFA on postprandial responses in overweight men who are at an increased risk to develop the metabolic syndrome and its comorbidities. In a crossover design, the effects of 50 g butter (rich in SFA) on lipemia and markers for inflammation and endothelial activity were compared with those of 50 g sunflower oil [rich in (n-6) PUFA] during an 8-h postprandial mixed meal tolerance test in 13 overweight men. Postprandial changes in serum TG were comparable between the meals (P = 0.38), except for a reduction in the incremental area under the curve (P = 0.046) in the late postprandial phase after (n-6) PUFA (125 96 mmol?min?L(-1)) compared with SFA (148 98 mmol?min?L(-1)). Compared with the SFA meal, the (n-6) PUFA meal decreased plasma IL-6 (P = 0.003), TNF? (P = 0.005), soluble TNF receptors I and II (sTNFr; P = 0.024 and P < 0.001, respectively), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1; P = 0.030) concentrations. These results indicate that exchanging SFA from butterfat for (n-6) PUFA in a mixed meal may decrease postprandial lipemia and concentrations of IL-6, TNF?, sTNFr-I and -II, and sVCAM-1 in overweight men. PMID:21430255

  13. Fatty acid transduction of nitric oxide signaling: multiple nitrated unsaturated fatty acid derivatives exist in human blood and urine and serve as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul R S; Lin, Yiming; Schopfer, Francisco J; Woodcock, Steven R; Groeger, Alison L; Batthyany, Carlos; Sweeney, Scott; Long, Marshall H; Iles, Karen E; Baker, Laura M S; Branchaud, Bruce P; Chen, Yuqing E; Freeman, Bruce A

    2005-12-23

    Mass spectrometric analysis of human plasma and urine revealed abundant nitrated derivatives of all principal unsaturated fatty acids. Nitrated palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in concert with their nitrohydroxy derivatives. Two nitroalkene derivatives of the most prevalent fatty acid, oleic acid, were synthesized (9- and 10-nitro-9-cis-octadecenoic acid; OA-NO2), structurally characterized and determined to be identical to OA-NO2 found in plasma, red cells, and urine of healthy humans. These regioisomers of OA-NO2 were quantified in clinical samples using 13C isotope dilution. Plasma free and esterified OA-NO2 concentrations were 619 +/- 52 and 302 +/- 369 nm, respectively, and packed red blood cell free and esterified OA-NO2 was 59 +/- 11 and 155 +/- 65 nm. The OA-NO2 concentration of blood is approximately 50% greater than that of nitrated linoleic acid, with the combined free and esterified blood levels of these two fatty acid derivatives exceeding 1 microm. OA-NO2 is a potent ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at physiological concentrations. CV-1 cells co-transfected with the luciferase gene under peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element regulation, in concert with PPARgamma, PPARalpha, or PPARdelta expression plasmids, showed dose-dependent activation of all PPARs by OA-NO2. PPARgamma showed the greatest response, with significant activation at 100 nm, while PPARalpha and PPARdelta were activated at approximately 300 nm OA-NO2. OA-NO2 also induced PPAR gamma-dependent adipogenesis and deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at a potency exceeding nitrolinoleic acid and rivaling synthetic thiazo-lidinediones. These data reveal that nitrated fatty acids comprise a class of nitric oxide-derived, receptor-dependent, cell signaling mediators that act within physiological concentration ranges. PMID:16227625

  14. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  15. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a marine vertebrate: ontogenetic and nutritional regulation of a fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sofia; Castanheira, Filipa; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Conceio, Luis E C; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-04-01

    Solea senegalensis is an unusual marine teleost as it has very low dietary requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during early development. Aquaculture is rapidly becoming the main source of health-beneficial fish products for human consumption. This, associated with limited supply of LC-PUFA-rich ingredients for fish feeds, render S. senegalensis a highly interesting species in which to study the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway. We have cloned and functionally characterized fatty acyl desaturase and elongase cDNAs corresponding to ?4fad (with some ?5 activity for the n-3 series) and elovl5 with the potential to catalyze docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Changes in expression of both transcripts were determined during embryonic and early larval development, and transcriptional regulation in response to higher or lower dietary n-3 LC-PUFA was assessed during larval and post-larval stages. There was a marked pattern of regulation during early ontogenesis, with both transcripts showing peak expression coinciding with the start of exogenous feeding. Although elovl5 transcripts were present in fertilized eggs, ?4fad only appeared at hatching. However, eggs have high proportions of DHA (~20%) and high DHA/EPA ratio (~11) to meet the high demands for early embryonic development. The fatty acid profile of larvae after the start of exogenous feeding closely reflected dietary composition. Nonetheless, ?4fad was significantly up-regulated in response to LC-PUFA-poor diets, which may suggest biological relevance of this pathway in reducing LC-PUFA dietary requirements in this species, compared to other marine teleosts. These results indicate that sole is capable of synthesizing DHA from EPA through a Sprecher-independent pathway. PMID:22245719

  16. Production of medium chain saturated fatty acids with enhanced antimicrobial activity from crude coconut fat by solid state cultivation of Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Parfene, Georgiana; Horincar, Vicentiu; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Malik, Anushree; Bahrim, Gabriela

    2013-02-15

    Fatty acids profiles and antimicrobial activity of crude coconut fat hydrolysates obtained in solid-state cultivation system with a selected yeast strain Yarrowia lipolytica RO13 were performed. A preliminary step regarding extracellular lipase production and solid state enzymatic hydrolysis of crude fat at different water activity and time intervals up to 7 days was also applied. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used for quantification of medium chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFAs) and the results revealed a higher concentration of about 70% lauric acid from total fatty acids. Further, antimicrobial activity of fatty acids against some food-borne pathogens (Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus) was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the obtained hydrolysates varied from 12.5 to 1.56 ppm, significantly lower than values reported in literature. The results provide substantial evidence for obtaining biopreservative effects by coconut fat enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:23194533

  17. The Crystal Structure of Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase, A Cellular Machine with Eight Active Sites Working Together

    SciTech Connect

    Lomakin,I.; Xiong, Y.; Steitz, T.

    2007-01-01

    In yeast, the whole metabolic pathway for making 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids is carried out by fatty acid synthase, a 2.6 megadalton molecular-weight macromolecular assembly containing six copies of all eight catalytic centers. We have determined its crystal structure, which illuminates how this enzyme is initially activated and then carries out multiple steps of synthesis in each of six sterically isolated reaction chambers. Six of the catalytic sites are in the wall of the assembly facing an acyl carrier protein (ACP) bound to the ketoacyl synthase domain. Two-dimensional diffusion of substrates to the catalytic sites may be achieved by the electrostatically negative ACP swinging to each of the six electrostatically positive catalytic sites. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase domain lies outside the shell of the assembly, inaccessible to ACP that lies inside, suggesting that the attachment of the pantetheine arm to ACP must occur before complete assembly of the complex.

  18. [Identification and characterization of partner proteins interacting with fatty acid activation enzyme Slr1609 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803].

    PubMed

    Xu, Le; Wu, Qin; Jin, Hu; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-08-01

    To understand molecular modules related to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesis and eventually produce PUFA at high efficiency, we developed a protein complex analysis technology in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and applied it to identify possible partner proteins interacting with the key enzymes that catalyze PUFA biosynthesis. We first constructed a recombinant expression of protein of slr1609 encoding the fatty acid activation enzyme, by fusing 3xFLAG tag with the target protein. Then we verified its expression by Western blotting targeting 3xFLAG tag. To maximize purification of Slr1609 protein complex, we optimized the protein expression conditions of Slr1609 in Synechocystis in a 5 L fermenter by monitoring its gene expression using RT-qPCR. The purification of the Slr1609 protein complexes was demonstrated by a Native-PAGE analysis. Finally, LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis allowed identification of the possible partner proteins interacting with Slr1609. PMID:26762041

  19. Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Subventricular Zone Oxidize Fatty Acids to Produce Energy and Support Neurogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Makin, Rebecca; Sweet, Ian R; Trevelyan, Andrew J; Miwa, Satomi; Horner, Philip J; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2015-07-01

    Neural activity is tightly coupled to energy consumption, particularly sugars such as glucose. However, we find that, unlike mature neurons and astrocytes, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) do not require glucose to sustain aerobic respiration. NSPCs within the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) express enzymes required for fatty acid oxidation and show sustained increases in oxygen consumption upon treatment with a polyunsaturated fatty acid. NSPCs also demonstrate sustained decreases in oxygen consumption upon treatment with etomoxir, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. In addition, etomoxir decreases the proliferation of SVZ NSPCs without affecting cellular survival. Finally, higher levels of neurogenesis can be achieved in aged mice by ectopically expressing proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1?), a factor that increases cellular aerobic capacity by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic gene transcription. Regulation of metabolic fuel availability could prove a powerful tool in promoting or limiting cellular proliferation in the central nervous system. Stem Cells 2015;33:2306-2319. PMID:25919237

  20. Activation of eicosanoid metabolism in human airway epithelial cells by ozonolysis products of membrane fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Leikauf, G D; Zhao, Q; Zhou, S; Santrock, J

    1995-09-01

    Inhaled ozone can react with a variety of cellular macromolecules within the lung. Recent analyses of the chemistry of ozone reactions with unsaturated fatty acids, which are present in all membranes and in mucus in the airways, indicate that ozonolysis yields one aldehyde and one hydroxyhydroperoxide molecule for each molecule of ozone. The hydroxyhydroperoxide molecule is unstable in aqueous environments, and subsequently yields a second aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. The structure of common unsaturated fatty acids is such that attack by ozone at the carbon-carbon double bonds will yield 3-, 6-, and 9-carbon saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and hydroxyhydroperoxide. This study examines the effects of ozonolysis products on eicosanoid metabolism in human airway epithelial cells. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is important in a wide array of pathophysiological responses in the airway, and the release of eicosanoids by the epithelial barrier is likely to be significant in diseases induced by environmental factors. Previously, we demonstrated that ozone can increase eicosanoid synthesis from airway epithelial cells exposed in vitro. Human exposures to concentrations of ozone below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm, not to be exceeded for more than one hour once per year) also resulted in increased eicosanoids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. To determine whether ozonolysis products could activate eicosanoid release, we exposed human airway epithelial cells to 3-, 6-, and 9-carbon aldehydes, hydroxyhydroperoxides, and hydrogen peroxide. We measured (1) eicosanoid metabolism using high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassays, and (2) the effects of the aldehydes, hydroxyhydroperoxides, and hydrogen peroxide on cell lysis. Eicosanoid release increased after exposure to aldehyde; release induced by 9-carbon (nonanal) aldehyde was greater than that induced by the 6-carbon (hexanal) or 3-carbon (propanal) aldehydes. Hydroxyhydroperoxides induced greater eicosanoid release than the corresponding aldehydes of equivalent chain length. Again, the longer the aliphatic chain length of the hydroxyhydroperoxide the greater the effect. These effects were noted at concentrations of hydroxyhydroperoxide below those that produce cell lysis, and the time course of the two responses was dissimilar. Because hydroxyhydroperoxides can degrade into an aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, it is conceivable that the effects observed were attributable to the formation of either hydrogen peroxide or hydrogen peroxide and aldehyde. This mechanism is unlikely, however, because the effects of hydroxyhydroperoxides on eicosanoid release were dependent on chain length, whereas each hydroxyhydroperoxide can produce only one hydrogen peroxide molecule. Although hydrogen peroxide alone also stimulated eicosanoid metabolism, this effect was not augmented when aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide were added together. In addition, the dose of hydroxyhydroperoxide needed to produce an effect (10 to 100 microM) was lower than that of hydrogen peroxide (300 microM). We could not fully evaluate the effects of the unsaturated aldehydes and hydroxyhydroperoxides. Although the 6-carbon and 9-carbon cis-3-aldehydes could be synthesized from the cis-3-alcohols, the resulting aldehydes were not chemically stable. The cis-3-aldehydes were useful for producing the corresponding 1-hydroxy-alkenyl-hydroperoxides of high purity. These results support the method selected for chemical synthesis, but further studies are required to establish proper storage and handling methods before these compounds can be tested in assays of eicosanoid metabolism. PMID:11379054

  1. [6]-Gingerol inhibits de novo fatty acid synthesis and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity which triggers apoptosis in HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Impheng, Hathaichanok; Richert, Lysiane; Pekthong, Dumrongsak; Scholfield, C Norman; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Pungpetchara, Ittipon; Srisawang, Piyarat

    2015-01-01

    The de novo fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by key lipogenic enzymes, including fatty acid synthase (FASN) has emerged as one of the novel targets of anti-cancer approaches. The present study explored the possible inhibitory efficacy of [6]-gingerol on de novo fatty acid synthesis associated with mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction in HepG2 cells. We observed a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential accompanied by a reduction of fatty acid levels. [6]-gingerol administration manifested inhibition of FASN expression, indicating FASN is a major target of [6]-gingerol inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Indeed, we found that increased ROS generation could likely be a mediator of the anti-cancer effect of [6]-gingerol. A reduction of fatty acid levels and induction of apoptosis were restored by inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity, suggesting an accumulation of malonyl-CoA level could be the major cause of apoptotic induction of [6]-gingerol in HepG2 cells. The present study also showed that depletion of fatty acid following [6]-gingerol treatment caused an inhibitory effect on carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity (CPT-1), whereas C75 augmented CPT-1 activity, indicating that [6]-gingerol exhibits the therapeutic benefit on suppression of fatty acid ?-oxidation. PMID:26101700

  2. Biodegradation of C5-C 8 fatty acids and production of aroma volatiles by Myroides sp. ZB35 isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zijun; Zhu, Xiankun; Xi, Lijun; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Li; Lu, Jian R

    2014-05-01

    In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain. However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries. PMID:24810320

  3. Liquid fructose downregulates Sirt1 expression and activity and impairs the oxidation of fatty acids in rat and human liver cells.

    PubMed

    Rebollo, Alba; Roglans, Nria; Baena, Miguel; Snchez, Rosa M; Merlos, Manel; Alegret, Marta; Laguna, Juan C

    2014-04-01

    Fructose ingestion is associated with the production of hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. For fructose to attain these effects in rats, simultaneous induction of fatty acid synthesis and inhibition of fatty acid oxidation is required. We aimed to determine the mechanism involved in the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by fructose and whether this effect occurs also in human liver cells. Female rats were supplemented or not with liquid fructose (10% w/v) for 7 or 14 days; rat (FaO) and human (HepG2) hepatoma cells, and human hepatocytes were incubated with fructose 25mM for 24h. The expression and activity of the enzymes and transcription factors relating to fatty acid ?-oxidation were evaluated. Fructose inhibited the activity of fatty acid ?-oxidation only in livers of 14-day fructose-supplemented rats, as well as the expression and activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Similar results were observed in FaO and HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes. PPAR? downregulation was not due to an osmotic effect or to an increase in protein-phosphatase 2A activity caused by fructose. Rather, it was related to increased content in liver of inactive and acetylated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1?, due to a reduction in sirtuin 1 expression and activity. In conclusion, fructose inhibits liver fatty acid oxidation by reducing PPAR? expression and activity, both in rat and human liver cells, by a mechanism involving sirtuin 1 down-regulation. PMID:24434080

  4. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense [corrected].

    PubMed

    Leyva, Luis A; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae. PMID:25129521

  5. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  6. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-05-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multienzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review, we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with antimycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  7. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  8. Activation of phospholipase A2 in human neutrophils by polyunsaturated fatty acids and its role in stimulation of superoxide production.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, B S; Hii, C S; Ferrante, A

    1998-01-01

    Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to stimulate neutrophil responses such as the oxygen-dependent respiratory burst (superoxide production), the mechanisms involved still remain undefined. Here we investigate the effect of PUFA on the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-signal transduction process in human neutrophils. Exogenous eicosatetraenoic acid [arachidonic acid; C20:4(n-6)] or docosahexaenoic acid [C22:6(n-3)] promoted the release of [3H]C20:4(n-6) from prelabelled neutrophils in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which is indicative of PLA2 activation. The release of [3H]C20:4(n-6) from the cells by C20:4(n-6) and C22:6(n-3) was suppressed by PLA2 inhibitors. Other PUFA ¿eicosapentaenoic [C20:5(n-3)], octadecatrienoic [gamma-linolenic; C18:3(n-6)] and octadecadienoic [linoleic; C18:2(n-6)] acids¿ also had the ability to release [3H]C20:4(n-6); however, certain C20:4(n-6) derivatives [15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and C20:4(n-6) methyl ester] and saturated fatty acids [octadecanoic (stearic; C18:0) and eicosanoic (arachidic; C20:0) acids] had no significant effect. Treatment of the neutrophils with exogenous C22:6(n-3) caused the mass of endogenous unesterified C20:4(n-6) to increase. Incubation of the leucocytes with C20:4(n-6) or C22:6(n-3) evoked activation of the 85 kDa cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) and the 14 kDa secretory PLA2 (sPLA2), but not the cytosolic Ca2+-independent PLA2. In contrast, C20:0 did not activate any of the PLA2 isoforms. Activation of cPLA2 by PUFA was found to precede that of sPLA2. C22:6(n-3), C20:4(n-6) and other PUFA induced punctate localization of cPLA2 in the cells, which was not observed with saturated fatty acids. Pretreatment of the leucocytes with PLA2 inhibitors markedly decreased superoxide production induced by C20:4(n-6). These results show that PUFA activate PLA2 in neutrophils, which might have a mandatory role in biological responses. PMID:9841872

  9. Abnormal n-6 fatty acid metabolism in cystic fibrosis is caused by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Umunakwe, Obi C.; Seegmiller, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in PUFA metabolism, including increased metabolism of linoleate to arachidonate. Recent studies have connected these abnormalities to increased expression and activity of the Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase enzymes. However, the mechanism connecting these changes to the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations responsible for CF is unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that increased activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), previously described in CF bronchial epithelial cells, causes these changes in fatty acid metabolism by driving desaturase expression. Using CF bronchial epithelial cell culture models, we confirm elevated activity of AMPK in CF cells and show that it is due to increased phosphorylation of AMPK by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ). We also show that inhibition of AMPK or CaMKKβ reduces desaturase expression and reverses the metabolic alterations seen in CF cells. These results signify a novel AMPK-dependent mechanism linking the genetic defect in CF to alterations in PUFA metabolism. PMID:24859760

  10. Fatty acid regulation of fatty acid-binding protein expression in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Poirier, H; Niot, I; Degrace, P; Monnot, M C; Bernard, A; Besnard, P

    1997-08-01

    The effects of dietary oil intake and fatty acid infusions on the expression of intestinal and liver fatty acid-binding proteins (I-FABP and L-FABP, respectively) were investigated in the small intestine of mice. A daily force-feeding for 7 days with 0.2 ml sunflower oil specifically increased L-FABP mRNA and protein levels in duodenum and proximal jejunum. This upregulation was mediated in time- and dose-dependent manners by a minute quantity of linoleic acid, the main fatty acid found in sunflower oil. The L-FABP induction was only found with long-chain fatty acids, with the nonmetabolizable, substituted fatty acid alpha-bromopalmitate being far more active. A hormonally mediated effect is unlikely because long-chain fatty acids induced L-FABP mRNA in the Caco-2 cell line cultured in serum-free medium. Therefore, long-chain fatty acids are strong inducers of L-FABP gene expression in the small intestine. In contrast to data found in the rat, I-FABP gene expression appears to be unaffected by a lipid-enriched diet in the mouse. PMID:9277406

  11. Variation of Photosynthesis, Fatty Acid Composition, ATPase and Acid Phosphatase Activities, and Anatomical Structure of Two Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) Cultivars in Response to Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L. X.; Tang, J. H.; Xiao, B.; Yang, Y. J.; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The changes of photosynthetic parameters, water use efficiency (WUE), fatty acid composition, chlorophyll (Chl) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, fluoride (F) content, and leaf anatomical structure of two tea cultivars, “Pingyangtezao” (PY) and “Fudingdabai” (FD), after F treatments were investigated. The results show that net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) significantly decreased in both cultivars after 0.3 mM F treatment, but FD had higher Pn, gs, and WUE and lower E than PY. Chl content in PY significantly decreased after 0.2 and 0.3 mM F treatments, while no significant changes were observed in FD. The proportions of shorter chain and saturated fatty acids increased and those of longer chain and unsaturated fatty acids decreased in both cultivars under F treatments. The contents of MDA increased after F treatments but were higher in PY than in FD. In addition, F treatments decreased the activities of ATPase and acid phosphatase and increased F content in both cultivars; however, compared with PY, FD showed higher enzymatic activities and lower F content in roots and leaves. Leaf anatomical structure in FD indicated that cells in leaf midrib region were less injured by F than in PY. PMID:24023526

  12. ON EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR VENOM ACTIVATORS OF THE BLOOD, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO LECITHIN AND FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H

    1907-07-17

    In normal serums of the majority of mammalian and avian blood there exists certain substances capable of activating venom haemolysin. They are extractable from serum by means of ether, and are capable of conferring upon the originally non-activating serum a power to activate venom, when mixed with the latter. The ethereal extract consists of fatty acids, neutral fats and possibly also some ether soluble organic soaps. The fatty acids and soaps, especially of the oleinic series, acquire certain characteristics of complements in general, when they are mixed with serum. They are inactive without the venom in the mixture; they are inactivable with calcium chloride; they exhibit a tendency to go off in activity with age; they are inactive or only weakly active at 0 degrees C., and they are extractable by ether. In testing the serum from which the ether soluble substances are removed, it is found that no venom activating property is left. Warm alcoholic extraction of such serum yields, however, a large quantity of lecithin. In the case of non-activating serums no venom activating fats appear in the ethereal extract. Lecithin exists in such serum in no less quantity than in the activating kind. The addition of oleinic acid or its soluble soaps to a non-activating serum, in a ratio which corresponds to the percentage of fatty acids or soaps contained in some of the easily activating serums, will make the serum highly active in regard to venom. In normal serum of dog there exists, besides the group of activators already mentioned, another kind of venom activators which has been identified as a lecithin compound acting in the manner of free lecithin. A very sharp differentiation of the haemolysis produced by this activator and by the other groups of activators is obtained by means of calcium chloride, which is powerless against lecithin or lecithin compounds, but effective in removing the action of the latter. This lecithin containing proteid can be precipitated by half saturation with ammonium sulphate, but is perfectly soluble in water, and is not coagulated in neutral alkaline salt solutions upon boiling. Alcohol precipitates a proteid-like coagulum and extracts lecithin from it; ether does not extract lecithin from this compound. Non-activating serums do not contain any such lecithin compound. Lecithin contained in other serum proteids, mainly as lecithalbumin, and perhaps as contained in globulin, is not able to activate venom. This is true of all the serums with which I worked; it matters not whether these fractions (obtained with ammonium sulphate) belong to the most activating serum (dog) or to the non-activating serum (ox). The non-coagulable portion of all heated serum contains a venom activator of the nature of lecithin. This activator is contained in a non-coagulable proteid described by Howell which is identical with Chabrie's albumon. As there is no ether-extractable lecithin in this portion of the serum, the activating property of heated serum must be due to this proteid compound of lecithin. That this lecithin proteid does not pre-exist in normal serum but is produced by the action of high temperature is true of all serums except that of the dog. In venom activation we know now that lecithin becomes reactive with venom when it is transformed from other proteid compounds into the non-coagulable form, the albumon. Howell's view of the non-existence of the non-coagulable proteid in normal serum seems to receive a biological support from venom haemolysis. Ovovitellin derived from hen's egg is one of the best venom activators of the lecithin proteid type. The cause of venom susceptibility of various kinds of blood corpuscles does not depend upon the existence of lecithin in the corpuscles, but solely upon the amount of fatty acids, and perhaps, also, soaps and fats, contained in the corpuscles. The protection which calcium chloride gives against venom haemolysis is proof of the absence of lecithin activation. From the stroma of susceptible corpuscles fatty acids or some fats can be extracted with ether. After ethereal extraction the stroma becomes non-activating, while the extract contains fatty acids and some soaps or fats, which when added to venom-resistant corpuscles render the latter vulnerable to venom. The corpuscular solution of non-activating corpuscles does not contain enough fatty acids. The larger the amount of fatty acids and soaps in the corpuscles, the easier the cells undergo venom haemolysis. Lecithin exists in the strorna of all kinds of corpuscles, but in a form unavailable for venom activation. The somatic cytolytic processes caused by venom requires intracellular complements. The experiments performed on the cells of liver, kidney, testis and brain of the guinea-pig and rat indicate that the substances which act as complements are inactivable by calcium chloride. PMID:19867102

  13. [Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-02-01

    The brain is one of the organs with the highest level of lipids (fats). Brain lipids, formed of fatty acids, participate in the structure of membranes, for instance 50 % fatty acids are polyunsaturated in the gray matter, 1/3 are of the omega-3 family, and are thus of dietary origin. The omega-3 fatty acids (mainly alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) participated in one of the first experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out on ex vivo cultured brain cells, then on in vivo brain cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) from animals fed ALA deficient diet, finally on physicochemical (membrane fluidity), biochemical, physiological, neurosensory (vision an auditory responses), and behavioural or learning parameters. These findings indicated that the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for human infants determines to a certain extend the visual, neurological, and intellectual abilities. Thus, in view of these results and of the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is normal to consider that they could be involved in psychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Omega-3 fatty acids appear effective in the prevention of stress, however their role as regulator of mood is a matter for discussion. Indeed, they play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression (especially post partum), as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their role in major depression and bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease), only poorly documented, is not clearly demonstrated. The intervention of omega-3 in dyslexia, autism, and schizophrenia has been suggested, but it does not necessarily infer a nutritional problems. The respective importance of the vascular system (where the omega-3 are actually active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself, remain to be resolved. However, the insufficient supply of omega-3 fatty acids in today diet in occidental (less than 50 % of the recommended dietary intakes values for ALA) raises the problem of how to correct inadequate dietary habits, by prescribing mainly rapeseed (canola) and walnut oils on the one hand, fatty fish (wild, or farmed, but the nature of fatty acids present in fish flesh is the direct consequence of the nature of fats with which they have been fed), and eggs from laying hens fed omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:15691497

  14. Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Carol L; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity--the sphingoid bases D-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid--against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. D-sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 μg/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 μg/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 μg/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection. PMID:22155833

  15. Delta 6-desaturase activity in liver microsomes of rats fed diets enriched with cholesterol and/or omega 3 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M L; Sebokova, E; Thomson, A B; Clandinin, M T

    1988-01-01

    The effect of feeding semipurified diets enriched in linseed (rich in C18:3, omega 3 fatty acid) or fish (rich in C20:5, omega 3 and C22:6, omega 3 fatty acid) oil with and without cholesterol supplementation on the desaturation of linoleic acid (C18:2, omega 6) by rat liver microsomal fractions was investigated. Animals fed diets supplemented with beef tallow were used as equal-energy controls. Both linseed-oil and fish-oil diets, without added cholesterol, decrease conversion of C18:2, omega 6 fatty acid to gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3, omega 6). Reduction in delta 6-desaturation was significantly greater for animals fed the diet containing fish oil than with animals fed the linseed-oil diet. The major effect of cholesterol supplementation was to decrease the rate of desaturation of C18:2, omega 6, when fed in combination with the beef-tallow diet, whereas delta 6-desaturation was unaffected when cholesterol was fed along with diets high in omega 3 fatty acids (linseed oil or fish oil). The activity of the delta 6-desaturase in vitro is consistent with the fatty acid composition observed for the microsomal membranes on which this enzyme is localized. Dietary linseed oil and fish oil lowered the arachidonic (C20:4, omega 6) acid content of rat liver microsomes, with an accompanying increase in membrane eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, omega 3) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, omega 3) acid content, in comparison with the group fed beef tallow. Inclusion of cholesterol into the beef-tallow or linseed-oil diets resulted in decreased membrane C20:4, omega 6-fatty-acid content, with concomitant increase in C18:2, omega 6-fatty-acid content. However, addition of cholesterol to the fish-oil diet did not alter the microsomal membrane content of C20:4, omega 6 fatty acid. Thus it is suggested that (1) the decrease in prostaglandin E2, thromboxane and prostacyclin levels generally observed after fish-oil consumption may be at least partly due to inhibition of C20:4, omega 6-fatty-acid synthesis from C18:2, omega 6 fatty acid; and (2) consumption of fish oil prevents the further decrease in C20:4, omega 6-fatty-acid levels by dietary cholesterol that is apparent when cholesterol is fed in combination with diets high in saturated fat or C18:3, omega 3 fatty acid. PMID:3342019

  16. Modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, platelet aggregation and serum prostaglandins in rats fed spray-dried milk containing n-3 fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, T R; Baskaran, V; Krishnakantha, T P; Lokesh, B R

    2005-12-01

    Spray-dried milk enriched with n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil or fish oil were fed to rats to study its influence on liver lipid peroxides, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, serum prostaglandins and platelet aggregation. Significant level of alpha linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were accumulated at the expense of arachidonic acid in the liver of rats fed n-3 fatty acid enriched formulation. The linseed oil and fish oil enriched formulation fed group had 44 and 112% higher level of lipid peroxides in liver homogenate compared to control rats fed groundnut oil enriched formulation. Catalase activity in liver homogenate was increased by 37 and 183% respectively in linseed oil and fish oil formulation fed rats. The glutathione peroxidase activity decreased to an extent of 25-36% and glutathione transferase activity increased to an extent of 34-39% in rats fed n-3 fatty acids enriched formulation. Feeding n-3 fatty acid enriched formulation significantly elevated the n-3 fatty acids in platelets and increased the lipid peroxide level to an extent of 4.2-4.5 fold compared to control. The serum thromboxane B2 level was decreased by 35 and 42% respectively in linseed oil and fish oil enriched formulation fed rats, whereas, 6-keto- prostaglandin F1alpha level was decreased by 17 and 23% respectively in linseed oil and fish oil enriched formulation fed rats. The extent and rate of platelet aggregation was decreased significantly in n-3 fatty acids enriched formulation fed rats. This indicated that n-3 fatty acids enriched formulation beneficially reduces platelet aggregation and also enhances the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione transferase. PMID:16311900

  17. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  18. Fatty Acid and Essential Oil Compositions of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium with Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Ertaş, Abdulselam; Boğa, Mehmet; Haşimi, Nesrin; Yılmaz, Mustafa Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    This study represents the first report on the chemical composition and biological activity of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium. The major components of the essential oil were identified as hexatriacontene (23.0%), arachidic acid (15.5%) and α-selinene (10.0%). The main constituents of the fatty acid obtained from the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic acid (29.8%), linoleic acid (18.6%) and oleic acid (10.5%). In particular, the water extract exhibited higher activity than α-tocopherol and BHT, which were used as standards in the ABTS cation radical scavenging assay and indicated higher inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase enzyme than the reference compound, galanthamine but exhibited weak activity in β-carotene bleaching, DPPH-free radical scavenging, and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity assays. The petroleum ether extract exhibited higher activity than α-tocopherol which was used as standard in the β-carotene bleaching method at concentration 100 μg/mL. The acetone extract exhibited higher activity than α-tocopherol which was used as standard cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method at 100 μg/mL concentration. The acetone and methanol extracts were active on all microorganisms tested with a small zone diameter indicating weak activity. PMID:25561929

  19. Fatty Acid and Essential Oil Compositions of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium with Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Abdulselam; Boğa, Mehmet; Haşimi, Nesrin; Yılmaz, Mustafa Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    This study represents the first report on the chemical composition and biological activity of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium. The major components of the essential oil were identified as hexatriacontene (23.0%), arachidic acid (15.5%) and α-selinene (10.0%). The main constituents of the fatty acid obtained from the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic acid (29.8%), linoleic acid (18.6%) and oleic acid (10.5%). In particular, the water extract exhibited higher activity than α-tocopherol and BHT, which were used as standards in the ABTS cation radical scavenging assay and indicated higher inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase enzyme than the reference compound, galanthamine but exhibited weak activity in β-carotene bleaching, DPPH-free radical scavenging, and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity assays. The petroleum ether extract exhibited higher activity than α-tocopherol which was used as standard in the β-carotene bleaching method at concentration 100 μg/mL. The acetone extract exhibited higher activity than α-tocopherol which was used as standard cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method at 100 μg/mL concentration. The acetone and methanol extracts were active on all microorganisms tested with a small zone diameter indicating weak activity. PMID:25561929

  20. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  1. Structural Basis for Ligand Regulation of the Fatty Acid-binding Protein 5, Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ?/? (FABP5-PPAR?/?) Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Eric H.; Goswami, Devrishi; Griffin, Patrick R.; Noy, Noa; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a widely expressed group of calycins that play a well established role in solubilizing cellular fatty acids. Recent studies, however, have recast FABPs as active participants in vital lipid-signaling pathways. FABP5, like its family members, displays a promiscuous ligand binding profile, capable of interacting with numerous long chain fatty acids of varying degrees of saturation. Certain activating fatty acids induce the protein's cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation, stimulating PPAR?/? transactivation; however, the rules that govern this process remain unknown. Using a range of structural and biochemical techniques, we show that both linoleic and arachidonic acid elicit FABP5's translocation by permitting allosteric communication between the ligand-sensing ?2 loop and a tertiary nuclear localization signal within the ?-helical cap of the protein. Furthermore, we show that more saturated, nonactivating fatty acids inhibit nuclear localization signal formation by destabilizing this activation loop, thus implicating FABP5 specifically in cis-bonded, polyunsaturated fatty acid signaling. PMID:24692551

  2. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  3. Yhhu981, a novel compound, stimulates fatty acid oxidation via the activation of AMPK and ameliorates lipid metabolism disorder in ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-liang; Huang, Su-ling; Xie, Fu-chun; Zeng, Li-min; Hu, You-hong; Leng, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Defects in fatty acid metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity. In this study, we investigated the effects of a novel compound yhhu981 on fatty acid metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The capacity to stimulate fatty acid oxidation was assessed in C2C12 myotubes. The fatty acid synthesis was studied in HepG2 cells using isotope tracing. The phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was examined with Western blot analysis. For in vivo experiments, ob/ob mice were orally treated with yhhu981 acutely (300 mg/kg) or chronically (150 or 300 mg·kg−1·d−1 for 22 d). On the last day of treatment, serum and tissue samples were collected for analysis. Results: Yhhu981 (12.5–25 μmol/L) significantly increased fatty acid oxidation and the expression of related genes (Sirt1, Pgc1α and Mcad) in C2C12 myotubes, and inhibited fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, yhhu981 dose-dependently increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in both C2C12 myotubes and HepG2 cells. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, blocked fatty acid oxidation in yhhu981-treated C2C12 myotubes and fatty acid synthesis decrease in yhhu981-treated HepG2 cells. Acute administration of yhhu981 decreased the respiratory exchange ratio in ob/ob mice, whereas chronic treatment with yhhu981 ameliorated the lipid abnormalities and ectopic lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and liver of ob/ob mice. Conclusion: Yhhu981 is a potent compound that stimulates fatty acid oxidation, and exerts pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism by activating AMPK. PMID:25732571

  4. Suicide Deaths of Active Duty U.S. Military and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status: A Case Control Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Johnson, Jeremiah E.; Lin, Yu Hong; Hyun, Duk Y.; Loewke, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent escalation of US Military suicide deaths to record numbers has been an sentinel for impaired force efficacy and has accelerated the search for reversible risk factors. Objective Determine if deficiencies of neuroactive highly unsaturated omega-3 essential fatty acids (n-3 HUFA), in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with increased risk of suicide death among a large random sample of active duty US military. Methods Serum fatty acids were quantified as % of total fatty acids, among US military suicide deaths (n= 800) and controls (n=800) matched for age, date of collection, sex, rank and year of incident. Participants were Active Duty US Military personnel (2002–2008). Outcome measures, included death by suicide, post deployment health assessment questionnaire and ICD-9 mental health diagnosis data. Results Risks of suicide death was 14% higher, per standard deviation [SD] lower DHA % (OR =1.14, 95% CI; 1.02–1.27, p<0.03), in adjusted logistic regressions. Among men risk of suicide death was 62% greater with low serum DHA status (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR] =1.62, 95% CI 1.12–2.34, p<0.01, comparing DHA below 1.75% [n=1,389] to above [n=141]). Risk of suicide death was 54% greater in those who reported having seen wounded, dead or killed coalition personnel (OR = 1.54, 95% CI; 1.12–2.12, p< 0.007.) Conclusion This US military population had a very low and narrow range of n-3 HUFA status. Although these data suggest that low serum DHA may be a risk factor for suicides, well designed intervention trials are needed to evaluate causality. PMID:21903029

  5. Effect of ?-3 fatty acid supplementation on endothelial function, endogenous fibrinolysis and platelet activation in patients with a previous myocardial infarction: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Din, Jehangir N; Sarma, Jaydeep; Harding, Scott A; Lyall, Karin; Newby, David E; Flapan, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms through which ?-3 fatty acids reduce adverse cardiac events remain uncertain. We aimed to investigate the effect of ?-3 fatty acid supplementation on endothelial vasomotor function, endogenous fibrinolysis, and platelet and monocyte activation in patients with coronary heart disease. Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Setting Academic cardiac centre. Participants 20 male patients with a previous myocardial infarction. Intervention ?-3 Fatty acid supplementation (2?g/day for 6?weeks) versus olive oil placebo. Outcome measures Peripheral blood was taken for analysis of platelet and monocyte activation, and forearm blood flow (FBF) was assessed in a subset of 12 patients during intrabrachial infusions of acetylcholine, substance P and sodium nitroprusside. Stimulated plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) concentrations were measured during substance P infusion. Results All vasodilators caused dose-dependent increases in FBF (p<0.0001). ?-3 Fatty acid supplementation did not affect endothelium-dependent vasodilation with acetylcholine and substance P compared with placebo (p=0.5 and 0.9). Substance P caused a dose-dependent increase in plasma t-PA concentrations (p<0.0001), which was not affected by ?-3 fatty acid supplementation (p=0.9). ?-3 Fatty acids did not affect plateletmonocyte aggregation, platelet P-selectin or CD40L, or monocyte CD40. Conclusions We have demonstrated that dietary supplementation with ?-3 fatty acids does not affect endothelial vasomotor function, endothelial t-PA release, or platelet and monocyte activation in patients with coronary heart disease. Cardiac benefits conferred by ?-3 fatty acids in coronary heart disease are unlikely to be mediated through effects on these systems. PMID:24071458

  6. Activation of long chain fatty acids with acyl carrier protein: demonstration of a new enzyme, acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, T K; Cronan, J E

    1976-01-01

    A soluble enzyme activity which catalyzes the synthesis of acyl-acyl carrier protein from acyl carrier proteins, a long chain fatty acid, and ATP has been demonstrated in E. coli. The reaction requires high concentrations of both Ca++ and Mg++ for activity, and cleaves ATP to AMP and PPi. The fatty acyl product has been identified as acyl-acyl carrier protein by its solubility, thioester linkage, molecular weight, charge, and biological activity. Several criteria indicate the enzyme is distinct from acyl-CoA synthetase. The fatty acid specificity of the enzyme suggests a role of acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase in the incorporation of fatty acids into phospholipid. PMID:794875

  7. Fenofibrate, a PPAR? agonist, protect proximal tubular cells from albumin-bound fatty acids induced apoptosis via the activation of NF-kB

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Nan; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hanzhe; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Albumin-bound fatty acids is the main cause of renal damage, PPAR? is responsible in the metabolism of fatty acids. Previous study found that PPAR? played a protective role in fatty acids overload associated tubular injury. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether fenofibrate, a PPAR? ligands, could contribute to the renoprotective action in fatty acids overload proximal tubule epithelial cells. We observed in HK-2 cells that fenofibrate significantly inhibited fatty acids bound albumin (FA-BSA) induced up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8. Treatment with fenofibrate attenuated renal oxidative stress induced by FA-BSA as evidenced by decreased MDA level, increased SOD activity and catalase, GPx-1 expression. FA-BSA induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells were also obviously prevented by fenofibrate. Furthermore, fenofibrate significantly increased the expression of PPAR? mRNA and protein in FA-BSA treated cells. Finally, the activation of NF-kB induced by FA-BSA was markedly suppressed by fenofibrate. Taken together, our study describes a renoprotective role of fenofibrate in fatty acids associated tubular toxicity, and the transcriptional activation of PPAR? and suppression of NF-kB were at least partially involved. PMID:26617775

  8. Dietary fatty acids and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence in animals and humans shows that dietary fatty acids influence the absorption and utilization of certain mineral elements. Fat intake exceeding 10% of energy intake reduces calcium uptake and use by the body, and this effect is more pronounced with saturated compared to unsatu...

  9. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 ?9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 ?9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13cis) or ?-eleostearic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly ?-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of ?-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  10. Fatty Acid Transduction of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Paul R. S.; Lin, Yiming; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Groeger, Alison L.; Batthyany, Carlos; Sweeney, Scott; Long, Marshall H.; Iles, Karen E.; Baker, Laura M. S.; Branchaud, Bruce P.; Chen, Yuqing E.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of human plasma and urine revealed abundant nitrated derivatives of all principal unsaturated fatty acids. Nitrated palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in concert with their nitrohydroxy derivatives. Two nitroalkene derivatives of the most prevalent fatty acid, oleic acid, were synthesized (9- and 10-nitro-9-cis-octadecenoic acid; OA-NO2), structurally characterized and determined to be identical to OA-NO2 found in plasma, red cells, and urine of healthy humans. These regioisomers of OA-NO2 were quantified in clinical samples using 13C isotope dilution. Plasma free and esterified OA-NO2 concentrations were 619 52 and 302 369 nM, respectively, and packed red blood cell free and esterified OA-NO2 was 59 11 and 155 65 nM. The OA-NO2 concentration of blood is ~50% greater than that of nitrated linoleic acid, with the combined free and esterified blood levels of these two fatty acid derivatives exceeding 1 ?M. OA-NO2 is a potent ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at physiological concentrations. CV-1 cells co-transfected with the luciferase gene under peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element regulation, in concert with PPAR?, PPAR?, or PPAR? expression plasmids, showed dose-dependent activation of all PPARs by OA-NO2. PPAR? showed the greatest response, with significant activation at 100 nM, while PPAR? and PPAR? were activated at ~300 nM OA-NO2. OA-NO2 also induced PPAR?-dependent adipogenesis and deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at a potency exceeding nitrolinoleic acid and rivaling synthetic thiazo-lidinediones. These data reveal that nitrated fatty acids comprise a class of nitric oxide-derived, receptor-dependent, cell signaling mediators that act within physiological concentration ranges. PMID:16227625

  11. Prolonged exposure to palmitate impairs fatty acid oxidation despite activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, A S; Gaidhu, M P; Habib, S; So, M; Fediuc, S; Mirpourian, M; Musheev, M; Curi, R; Ceddia, R B

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of palmitate on fatty acid (FA) oxidation, AMPK/ACC phosphorylation/activation, intracellular lipid accumulation, and the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes in skeletal muscle cells. Exposure of L6 myotubes for 8 h to 200, 400, 600, and 800 microM of palmitate did not affect cell viability but significantly reduced FA oxidation by approximately 26.5%, approximately 43.5%, approximately 50%, and approximately 47%, respectively. Interestingly, this occurred despite significant increases in AMPK ( approximately 2.5-fold) and ACC ( approximately 3-fold) phosphorylation and in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity ( approximately 38-60%). Low concentrations of palmitate (50-100 microM) caused an increase ( approximately 30%) in CPT-1 activity. However, as the concentration of palmitate increased, CPT-1 activity decreased by approximately 32% after exposure for 8 h to 800 microM of palmitate. Although FA uptake was reduced ( approximately 35%) in cells exposed to increasing palmitate concentrations, intracellular lipid accumulation increased in a dose-dependent manner, reaching values approximately 2.3-, approximately 3-, and 4-fold higher than control in muscle cells exposed to 400, 600, and 800 microM palmitate, respectively. Interestingly, myotubes exposed to 400 microM of palmitate for 1 h increased basal glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis by approximately 40%. However, as time of incubation in the presence of palmitate progressed from 1 to 8 h, these increases were abolished and a time-dependent inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake ( approximately 65%) and glycogen synthesis ( approximately 30%) was observed in myotubes. These findings may help explain the dysfunctional adaptations that occur in glucose and FA metabolism in skeletal muscle under conditions of chronically elevated circulating levels of non-esterified FAs, such as in obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. PMID:18561258

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Fu, Caili; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan; Li, Tianhu; Huang, Dejian

    2014-02-15

    Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID. PMID:24128547

  13. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, Marina; Finkernagel, Florian; Cavalcante, Marcela Frota; Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra; Mller, Rolf; Brne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPAR? in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPK?1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPAR? agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPAR? increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPK?1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPAR?- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload. PMID:26098914

  14. In vitro antibacterial activities and mechanism of sugar fatty acid esters against five food-related bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Heyan; Hao, Tianyang; Li, Siran

    2015-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of sugar fatty acid esters, with different fatty acid and saccharide moieties, against five food-related bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Sucrose monocaprate showed the strongest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, especially Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were 2.5 and 10 mM, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for Gram-positive bacteria were 10 mM. Time-kill assay also showed that sucrose monocaprate significantly inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. The permeability of the cell membrane and intracellular proteins were both changed by sucrose monocaprate according to cell constituents' leakage, SDS-PAGE and scanning electron microscope assays. It is suggested that sucrose monocaprate, with both emulsifying and antibacterial activities, have a potential to serve as a safe multifunctional food additive in food industries. PMID:25977039

  15. Fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and synergistic contribution to antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

    2014-10-15

    Understanding the profile of lipophilic phytochemicals in lentils is necessary to better understand the health benefits of lentils. The fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions and antioxidant activities of the lipophilic extracts of 20 lentil cultivars (10 red and 10 green) were therefore examined. Lentils contained 1.52-2.95% lipids, of which 77.5-81.7% were unsaturated essential fatty acids. Total tocopherols ranged from 37 to 64?g/g DW, predominantly ?-tocopherol (96-98% of the tocopherol content), followed by ?- and ?-tocopherol. trans-Lutein was the primary and major carotenoid (64-78%) followed by trans-zeaxanthin (5-13%). Carotenoids and tocopherols showed weak correlation with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity (r=0.4893 and 0.3259, respectively), but good correlation when combined (r=0.6688), suggesting they may act synergistically. Carotenoids were found to contribute the most to the strong antioxidant activity measured by photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. Results from this study contribute to the development of lentil cultivars and related functional foods with increased health benefits. PMID:24837953

  16. Structure-activity analysis of harmful algae inhibition by congeneric compounds: case studies of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Shi, Jiyan; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of harmful algal blooms has been increasing significantly around the world. In order to ensure the safety of drinking water, procedures to screen potential materials as effective algicides are needed, and predictive methods which save both the labor and time compared with traditional experimental approaches, are particularly desirable. In this study, data from previous studies on the algal-growth inhibitory action of two kinds of compounds, namely, the action of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones on the harmful algae Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella marina, were modeled using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). The models were shown to have highly predictive ability and stability, and provided insight into the inhibitory mechanisms of congeneric compounds. The main descriptors in the fatty-acid models were the Connolly accessible area and the number of rotatable bonds, illustrating that molecular surface area and shape are important in their algicidal actions. In the thiazolidinedione models, the critical volume, octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP), and Connolly solvent-excluded volume were found to be significant, indicating that hydrophobicity, substituent group size, and mode of action are mechanistically important. Our results showed the algicidal activity of a series of compounds on different algae could be modeled, and each model is efficacious for compounds that fall into the application domain of the QSAR model. This work demonstrates how reliable predictions of the algicidal activity of novel compounds and explanations of their inhibitory mechanisms can be obtained. PMID:24562453

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family ...

  18. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  19. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    2000-02-22

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  20. Expression and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae with high activity on epoxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-11-01

    In insects, epoxide hydrolases (EHs) play critical roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic epoxides from the food resources and in the regulation of endogenous chemical mediators, such as juvenile hormones. Using the baculovirus expression system, we expressed and characterized an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae (AgEH) that is distinct in evolutionary history from insect juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases (JHEHs). We partially purified the enzyme by ion exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The experimentally determined molecular weight and pI were estimated to be 35 kD and 6.3 respectively, different than the theoretical ones. The AgEH had the greatest activity on long chain epoxy fatty acids such as 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-EET) and 9,10-epoxy-12Z-octadecenoic acids (9,10-EpOME or leukotoxin) among the substrates evaluated. Juvenile hormone III, a terpenoid insect growth regulator, was the next best substrate tested. The AgEH showed kinetics comparable to the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases, and the activity could be inhibited by AUDA [12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid], a urea-based inhibitor designed to inhibit the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases. The rabbit serum generated against the soluble epoxide hydrolase of Mus musculus can both cross-react with natural and denatured forms of the AgEH, suggesting immunologically they are similar. The study suggests there are mammalian sEH homologs in insects, and epoxy fatty acids may be important chemical mediators in insects. PMID:25173592

  1. Expression and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae with high activity on epoxy fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    In insects, epoxide hydrolases (EHs) play critical roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic epoxides from the food resources and in the regulation of endogenous chemical mediators, such as juvenile hormones. Using the baculovirus expression system, we expressed and characterized an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae (AgEH) that is distinct in evolutionary history from insect juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases (JHEHs). We partially purified the enzyme by ion exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The experimentally determined molecular weight and pI were estimated to be 35kD and 6.3 respectively, different than the theoretical ones. The AgEH had the greatest activity on long chain epoxy fatty acids such as 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-EET) and 9,10-epoxy-12Z-octadecenoic acids (9,10-EpOME or leukotoxin) among the substrates evaluated. Juvenile hormone III, a terpenoid insect growth regulator, was the next best substrate tested. The AgEH showed kinetics comparable to the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases, and the activity could be inhibited by AUDA [12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid], a urea-based inhibitor designed to inhibit the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases. The rabbit serum generated against the soluble epoxide hydrolase of Mus musculus can both cross-react with natural and denatured forms of the AgEH, suggesting immunologically they are similar. The study suggests there are mammalian sEH homologs in insects, and epoxy fatty acids may be important chemical mediators in insects. PMID:25173592

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect the Brain against Ischemic Injury by Activating Nrf2 and Upregulating Heme Oxygenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meijuan; Wang, Suping; Mao, Leilei; Leak, Rehana K.; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Wenting; Hu, Xiaoming; Sun, Baoliang; Cao, Guodong; Gao, Yanqin; Xu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a debilitating clinical disorder that affects millions of people, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. Fish oil is known to exert beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying protective mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) attenuate ischemic neuronal injury by activating nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in both in vitro and in vivo models. We observed that pretreatment of rat primary neurons with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly reduced neuronal death following oxygen-glucose deprivation. This protection was associated with increased Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation. Inhibition of HO-1 activity with tin protoporphyrin IX attenuated the protective effects of DHA. Further studies showed that 4-hydroxy-2E-hexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of peroxidation of n-3 PUFAs, was a more potent Nrf2 inducer than 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal derived from n-6 PUFAs. In an in vivo setting, transgenic mice overexpressing fatty acid metabolism-1, an enzyme that converts n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs, were remarkably resistant to focal cerebral ischemia compared with their wild-type littermates. Regular mice fed with a fish oil-enhanced diet also demonstrated significant resistance to ischemia compared with mice fed with a regular diet. As expected, the protection was associated with HO-1 upregulation, Nrf2 activation, and 4-HHE generation. Together, our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs are highly effective in protecting the brain, and that the protective mechanisms involve Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation by 4-HHE. Further investigation of n-3 PUFA neuroprotective mechanisms may accelerate the development of stroke therapies. PMID:24478369

  3. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (2090 min), temperature (3545 C) and pressure (5090 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  4. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed oil extracted by optimized supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20-90 min), temperature (35-45 C) and pressure (50-90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO(2) extraction conditions (45 C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO(2) is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  5. Central administration of oleate or octanoate activates hypothalamic fatty acid sensing and inhibits food intake in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2014-04-22

    If levels of fatty acids like oleate and octanoate are directly sensed through different fatty acid (FA) sensing systems in hypothalamus of rainbow trout, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of FA should elicit effects similar to those previously observed after intraperitoneal (IP) treatment. Accordingly, we observed after ICV treatment with oleate or octanoate decreased food intake accompanied in hypothalamus by reduced potential of lipogenesis and FA oxidation, and decreased potential of ATP-dependent inward rectifier potassium channel (K(+)ATP). Those changes support direct FA sensing through mechanisms related to FA metabolism and mitochondrial activity. The FA sensing through binding to FAT/CD36 and subsequent expression of transcription factors appears to be also direct but an interaction with peripheral hormones cannot be rejected. Moreover, decreased expression of NPY and increased expression of POMC were observed in parallel with the activation of FA sensing systems and decreased food intake. These results allow us to suggest the involvement of at least these peptides in controlling the decreased food intake noted after oleate and octanoate treatment in rainbow trout. PMID:24631300

  6. Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyun; Ruan, Weibin; Li, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jingan; Gao, Yubao; Wang, Jingguo

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of fatty acids against phytopathogenic fungi. Two pot experiments were conducted by mixing palmitic and oleic acids in the soil in which poor plant growth was observed. In addition, the antifungal activities of nine fatty acids (butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) against four phytopathogenic fungi: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, were assessed by measuring mycelial growth and spore germination via Petri dish assay. The results of the pot experiments showed that the mixture of palmitic and oleic acids enhanced the growth of the seedlings of continuous-tomato and continuous-cucumber. Except for oleic acid, in the Petri dish assay, the fatty acids tested were observed to inhibit the mycelial growth of one or more tested fungi. In addition to the suppression of mycelial growth, butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, and palmitic acid showed an inhibitory effect against spore germination and the extent of inhibition varied with both the type of fatty acids, and the fungi. In particular, capric acid displayed strong inhibitory effect against C. lagenarium on the mycelial growth and spore germination. The saturated fatty acids, i.e. palmitic acids, showed stronger antifungal activity than the unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic acid. It suggests that fatty acids might be applicable to exploring for alternative approaches to integrated control of phytopathogens. PMID:18443921

  7. Lipid and fatty acid composition of diatoms revisited: rapid wound-activated change of food quality parameters influences herbivorous copepod reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Wichard, Thomas; Gerecht, Andrea; Boersma, Maarten; Poulet, Serge A; Wiltshire, Karen; Pohnert, Georg

    2007-07-01

    Lipid and fatty acid composition are considered to be key parameters that determine the nutritive quality of phytoplankton diets for zooplanktonic herbivores. The fitness, reproduction and physiology of the grazers are influenced by these factors. The trophic transfer of lipids and fatty acids from algal cells has been typically studied by using simple extraction and quantification approaches, which, as we argue here, do not reflect the actual situation in the plankton. We show that cell disruption, as it occurs during a predator's grazing on diatoms can drastically change the lipid and fatty acid content of the food. In some algae, a rapid depletion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is observed within the first minutes after cell disruption. This fatty acid depletion is directly linked to the production of PUFA-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA); these are molecules that are thought to be involved in the chemical defence of the algae. PUA-releasing diatoms are even capable of transforming lipids from other sources if these are available in the vicinity of the wounded cells. Fluorescent staining reveals that the enzymes involved in lipid transformation are active in the foregut of copepods, and therefore link the depletion processes directly to food uptake. Incubation experiments with the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis showed that PUFA depletion in PUA-producing diatoms is correlated to reduced hatching success, and can be compensated for by externally added single fatty acids. PMID:17541989

  8. Triiodothyronine Activates Lactate Oxidation Without Impairing Fatty Acid Oxidation and Improves Weaning From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G; Portman, Michael A

    2014-10-28

    Background:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. It has previously been shown that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury.Methods?and?Results:Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 h) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C); transient coronary occlusion (10 min) for ischemia-reperfusion (IR) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon ((13)C)-labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs, was infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution (FC) to the citric acid cycle was analyzed by(13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance. ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% of the baseline at 4 h and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [adenosine triphosphate]/[adenosine diphosphate] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR.Conclusions:T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following IR injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning. PMID:25354460

  9. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. We previously showed that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study was focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. Methods: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 hours) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C);transient coronary occlusion (10 minutes) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution to the citric acid cycle (FC) was analyzed by 13-Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% baseline at 4 hours and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [ATP]/[ADP] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. Conclusions: T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following ischemia-reperfusion injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  10. Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed. PMID:23200809

  11. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rino; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Yamada, Yuko; Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover, bezafibrate treatment suppressed postprandial lipidemia after oral administration of olive oil to the mice. These findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia through enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes, suggesting that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activity is a novel target of PPAR{alpha} agonist for decreasing circulating levels of lipids under postprandial conditions.

  12. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A second generation of carbamate-based fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors with improved activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Clapper, Jason R.; Vacondio, Federica; King, Alvin R.; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Silva, Claudia; Sanchini, Silvano; Tarzia, Giorgio; Mor, Marco; Piomelli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid ethanolamides are a class of signaling lipids that include agonists at cannabinoid and type-? peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. In the brain, these compounds are primarily hydrolyzed by the intracellular serine enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). O-aryl carbamate FAAH inhibitors such as URB597 are being evaluated clinically for the treatment of pain and anxiety, but interactions with carboxylesterases in liver might limit their usefulness. Here we explore two strategies aimed at overcoming this limitation. Lipophilic N-terminal substitutions, which enhance FAAH recognition, yield potent inhibitors but render such compounds both susceptible to attack by broad-spectrum hydrolases and inactive in vivo. By contrast, polar electron-donating O-aryl substituents, which decrease carbamate reactivity, yield compounds, such as URB694, that are highly potent FAAH inhibitors in vivo and less reactive with off-target carboxylesterases. The results suggest that an approach balancing inhibitor reactivity with target recognition produces FAAH inhibitors that display significantly improved drug-likeness. PMID:19637155

  14. Human FABP1 T94A variant impacts fatty acid metabolism and PPAR-? activation in cultured human female hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Storey, Stephen M.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Landrock, Danilo; Petrescu, Anca D.; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2014-01-01

    Although human liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1) T94A variant has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduced ability of fenofibrate to lower serum triglycerides (TG) to target levels, molecular events leading to this phenotype are poorly understood. Cultured primary hepatocytes from female human subjects expressing the FABP1 T94A variant exhibited increased neutral lipid (TG, cholesteryl ester) accumulation associated with 1) upregulation of total FABP1, a key protein stimulating mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM), the rate-limiting enzyme in lipogenesis; 2) increased mRNA expression of key enzymes in lipogenesis (GPAM, LPIN2) in heterozygotes; 3) decreased mRNA expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein; 4) increased secretion of ApoB100 but not TG; 5) decreased long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) ?-oxidation. TG accumulation was not due to any increase in LCFA uptake, de novo lipogenesis, or the alternate monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase pathway in lipogenesis. Despite increased expression of total FABP1 mRNA and protein, fenofibrate-mediated FABP1 redistribution to nuclei and ligand-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-?) transcription of LCFA ?-oxidative enzymes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl) were attenuated in FABP1 T94A hepatocytes. Although the phenotype of FABP1 T94A variant human hepatocytes exhibits some similarities to that of FABP1-null or PPAR-?-null hepatocytes and mice, expression of FABP1 T94A variant did not abolish or reduce ligand binding. Thus the FABP1 T94A variant represents an altered/reduced function mutation resulting in TG accumulation. PMID:24875102

  15. Human FABP1 T94A variant impacts fatty acid metabolism and PPAR-? activation in cultured human female hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Storey, Stephen M; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Petrescu, Anca D; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-07-15

    Although human liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1) T94A variant has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduced ability of fenofibrate to lower serum triglycerides (TG) to target levels, molecular events leading to this phenotype are poorly understood. Cultured primary hepatocytes from female human subjects expressing the FABP1 T94A variant exhibited increased neutral lipid (TG, cholesteryl ester) accumulation associated with (1) upregulation of total FABP1, a key protein stimulating mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM), the rate-limiting enzyme in lipogenesis; (2) increased mRNA expression of key enzymes in lipogenesis (GPAM, LPIN2) in heterozygotes; (3) decreased mRNA expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein; (4) increased secretion of ApoB100 but not TG; (5) decreased long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) ?-oxidation. TG accumulation was not due to any increase in LCFA uptake, de novo lipogenesis, or the alternate monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase pathway in lipogenesis. Despite increased expression of total FABP1 mRNA and protein, fenofibrate-mediated FABP1 redistribution to nuclei and ligand-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-?) transcription of LCFA ?-oxidative enzymes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl) were attenuated in FABP1 T94A hepatocytes. Although the phenotype of FABP1 T94A variant human hepatocytes exhibits some similarities to that of FABP1-null or PPAR-?-null hepatocytes and mice, expression of FABP1 T94A variant did not abolish or reduce ligand binding. Thus the FABP1 T94A variant represents an altered/reduced function mutation resulting in TG accumulation. PMID:24875102

  16. Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Chiara; Piazzi, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Prossomariti, Anna; Milazzo, Maddalena; D’Angelo, Leonarda; Napolitano, Manuela; Chieco, Pasquale; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA. PMID:26864323

  17. Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Chiara; Piazzi, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Prossomariti, Anna; Milazzo, Maddalena; D'Angelo, Leonarda; Napolitano, Manuela; Chieco, Pasquale; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA. PMID:26864323

  18. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  19. Cardiac lipoprotein lipase activity in the hypertrophied heart may be regulated by fatty acid flux.

    PubMed

    Hauton, David; Caldwell, Germaine M

    2012-04-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterised by an imbalance between lipid uptake and fatty acid ?-oxidation leading to an accumulation of lipids, particularly triacylglycerol (TAG). It is unclear whether uptake mechanisms such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL) can be attenuated to diminish this uptake. Rats were cold acclimated to induce cardiac hypertrophy and increase cardiac LPL. Lipid uptake and metabolism were altered by feeding a 'Western-style' high fat diet (WSD) or feeding oxfenicine (2g/L) in the drinking water. Diastolic stiffness (increased volume change/unit pressure change) was induced in hypertrophied hearts for rats fed WSD (P<0.05) or WSD+oxfenicine (P<0.01), although absolute performance of cardiac muscle, estimated from stress-strain calculations was unchanged. Cold acclimation increased cardiac endothelial LPL (P<0.05) but this was diminished following oxfenicine. Following WSD LPL was further decreased below WSD-fed control hearts (P<0.05) with no further decrease by oxfenicine supplementation. A negative correlation was noted between plasma TAG and endothelial LPL (correlation coefficient=-0.654; P<0.001) but not cardiac TAG concentration. Transcript levels of angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL4) were increased 6-fold by WSD (P<0.05) and increased 15-fold following WSD+oxfenicine (P<0.001). For CA-hearts fed WSD or WSD+oxfenicine ANGPTL4 mRNA levels were preserved at chow-fed levels. VLDLR protein levels were increased 10-fold (P<0.01) by CA. ANGPTL4 protein levels were increased 2-fold (P<0.05) by WSD, but restored following oxfenicine. For CA-hearts WSD increased ANGPTL4 protein levels 3-fold (P<0.01) with WSD+oxfenicine increasing ANGPTL4 protein 4-fold (P<0.01). These data suggest that endothelial LPL levels in the heart are altered to maintain FA flux and may exploit ANGPTL4. PMID:22226882

  20. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    O'Quin, Jami B; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

    2009-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared toward the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically expressed enzymes. Here, we show that the addition of an N-terminal epitope tag sequence (either Myc or hemagglutinin) to oleate desaturase (FAD2) or omega-3 linoleate desaturase (FAD3) enzymes from plants, which catalyze consecutive reactions in the production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids, significantly increases their activity up to fourfold when expressed in yeast cells. Quantitative protein blotting using an antibody specific for native FAD2 revealed that the steady-state amount of the epitope-tagged FAD2 protein was also approximately fourfold higher than that of its untagged counterpart, demonstrating a direct relationship between the epitope tag-induced increase in enzyme amount and fatty acid product formation. Protein half-life and RNA blotting experiments indicated that the half-lives and mRNA content of the tagged and untagged FAD2 proteins were essentially the same, suggesting that the epitope tags increased protein abundance by improving translational efficiency. Taken together, these results indicate that the addition of an epitope tag sequence to a plant fatty acid desaturase (FAD) not only provides a useful means for protein immunodetection using highly specific, commercially available antibodies, but that it also significantly increases FAD activity and the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in yeast cells. PMID:19137289

  1. Specific variations of fatty acid composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 induced by quaternary ammonium compounds and relation with resistance to bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Gurin-Mchin, L; Dubois-Brissonnet, F; Heyd, B; Leveau, J Y

    1999-11-01

    The role of membrane fatty acid composition in the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 to the bactericidal activity of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) was investigated. The strain was grown in a medium with increasing concentrations of a QAC, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14) and two non-QACs, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and tri-sodium phosphate. In the presence of C14 only, the strain was able to grow in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration. As the strain adapted to C14, resistance to bactericidal activity of the same biocide increased. For the non-QACs, no change was noted when cells were grown in the presence of biocides. The C14-adapted cells showed variations in membrane fatty acid composition. A hierarchical clustering analysis was used to compare all fatty acid compositions of cultures in the presence, or not, of the three biocides used here and another QAC studied previously. The clusters obtained underlined specific variations of membrane fatty acids in response to the presence of QACs. Furthermore, with a simple linear regression analysis, a relationship was shown between the membrane fatty acids and the resistance developed by the strain against the bactericidal activity of C14. PMID:10594715

  2. Protective Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Palmitic Acid-Induced Toxicity in Skeletal Muscle Cells is not Mediated by PPAR? Activation.

    PubMed

    Tumova, Jana; Malisova, Lucia; Andel, Michal; Trnka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) are able to prevent deleterious effects of saturated FFA in skeletal muscle cells although the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. FFA act as endogenous ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of PPAR?, the most common PPAR subtype in skeletal muscle, plays a role in mediating the protective effect of unsaturated FFA on saturated FFA-induced damage in skeletal muscle cells and to examine an impact on mitochondrial respiration. Mouse C2C12 myotubes were treated for 24h with different concentrations of saturated FFA (palmitic acid), unsaturated FFA (oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acid), and their combinations. PPAR? agonist GW501516 and antagonist GSK0660 were also used. Both mono- and polyunsaturated FFA, but not GW501516, prevented palmitic acid-induced cell death. Mono- and polyunsaturated FFA proved to be effective activators of PPAR? compared to saturated palmitic acid; however, in combination with palmitic acid their effect on PPAR? activation was blocked and stayed at the levels observed for palmitic acid alone. Unsaturated FFA at moderate physiological concentrations as well as GW501516, but not palmitic acid, mildly uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. Our results indicate that although unsaturated FFA are effective activators of PPAR?, their protective effect on palmitic acid-induced toxicity is not mediated by PPAR? activation and subsequent induction of lipid regulatory genes in skeletal muscle cells. Other mechanisms, such as mitochondrial uncoupling, may underlie their effect. PMID:26255030

  3. Fatty acid hydration activity of a recombinant Escherichia coli-based biocatalyst is improved through targeting the oleate hydratase into the periplasm.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Min; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Hoo; Park, Jin-Byung; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Whole-cell biotransformation of fatty acids can be influenced by the activities of catalytic enzymes and by the efficiency of substrate transport into host cells. Here, we improved fatty acid hydration activity of the recombinant Escherichia coli expressing an oleate hydratase of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by targeting the catalytic enzyme into the periplasm instead of the cytoplasm. Recombinant E. coli producing OhyA in the periplasm under guidance of the PelB signal sequence (E. coli OhyA_PP) exhibited significantly greater hydration activity with oleic acid and linoleic acid compared to a recombinant E. coli producing OhyA in the cytoplasm (E. coli OhyA_CS). For example, the oleate double bond hydration rate of E. coli OhyA_PP was >400 μmol/g dry cells/min (400 U/g dry cells), which is >10-fold higher than that of E. coli OhyA_CS. As the specific activities of the enzymes targeted into the cytoplasm and periplasm were comparable, we assumed that targeting OhyA into the periplasm could accelerate fatty acid transport to the catalytic enzymes by skipping the major mass transport barrier of the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results will contribute to the development of whole-cell biocatalysts for fatty acid biotransformation. PMID:26429801

  4. Increased long chain acyl-Coa synthetase activity and fatty acid import is linked to membrane synthesis for development of picornavirus replication organelles.

    PubMed

    Nchoutmboube, Jules A; Viktorova, Ekaterina G; Scott, Alison J; Ford, Lauren A; Pei, Zhengtong; Watkins, Paul A; Ernst, Robert K; Belov, George A

    2013-01-01

    All positive strand (+RNA) viruses of eukaryotes replicate their genomes in association with membranes. The mechanisms of membrane remodeling in infected cells represent attractive targets for designing future therapeutics, but our understanding of this process is very limited. Elements of autophagy and/or the secretory pathway were proposed to be hijacked for building of picornavirus replication organelles. However, even closely related viruses differ significantly in their requirements for components of these pathways. We demonstrate here that infection with diverse picornaviruses rapidly activates import of long chain fatty acids. While in non-infected cells the imported fatty acids are channeled to lipid droplets, in infected cells the synthesis of neutral lipids is shut down and the fatty acids are utilized in highly up-regulated phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Thus the replication organelles are likely built from de novo synthesized membrane material, rather than from the remodeled pre-existing membranes. We show that activation of fatty acid import is linked to the up-regulation of cellular long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity and identify the long chain acyl-CoA syntheatse3 (Acsl3) as a novel host factor required for polio replication. Poliovirus protein 2A is required to trigger the activation of import of fatty acids independent of its protease activity. Shift in fatty acid import preferences by infected cells results in synthesis of phosphatidylcholines different from those in uninfected cells, arguing that the viral replication organelles possess unique properties compared to the pre-existing membranes. Our data show how poliovirus can change the overall cellular membrane homeostasis by targeting one critical process. They explain earlier observations of increased phospholipid synthesis in infected cells and suggest a simple model of the structural development of the membranous scaffold of replication complexes of picorna-like viruses, that may be relevant for other (+)RNA viruses as well. PMID:23762027

  5. [Changes in amino acid and fatty acid contents as well as activity of some related enzymes in apple fruit during aroma production].

    PubMed

    Nie, Lan-Chun; Sun, Jian-She; Di, Bao

    2005-12-01

    Aroma volatiles from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. var. Starkrimson) fruit at different stages of maturity were collected by solid adsorbent-Tenax-GC and determined by thermodesorption and GC-MS. Production of propyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate and total ester volatiles and changes in concentration of the precursors of aroma biosynthsis--free amino acids and fatty acids and activities of lipoxygenases (LOX) and alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT) in apple fruits during ripening were studied. The results showed that propyl acetate and total esters were very low when the endogenous ethylene formation of the fruit was very low. At the stage of the increase in ethylene production, the rate of formation of propyl acetate and total esters increased. Butyl acetate appeared at the beginning of ethylene rise and increased thereafter. Ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate was produced at the beginning of climacteric stage and then increased sharply (Figs.1). These facts suggest that the aroma production is closely related to ethylene production. Among the 14 free amino acids detected in fruit, isoleucine which is considered to be the biosynthetic precursor of some branched chain esters showed a great increase during fruit ripening while the others decreased or remained stable (Table 1). The accumulation of isoleucine suggested that isoleucine supply in fruit may not limit the biosynthesis of esters with branched chain alkyl groups. Concentrations of free fatty acids such as palmitic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, stearic acids increased before the increase of aroma production, decreased with the increase of aroma production and showed an increase at postclimacteric stages (Fig.2). LOX activity increased at climacteric stages and declined rapidly thereafter. AAT activity increased sharply at the early stage of fruit maturity when the aroma was very low and remained at a stable high level during fruit ripening (Fig.3) indicating that the AAT activity is not the limiting factor for aroma formation in apple fruit. PMID:16361796

  6. Activities of liver microsomal fatty acid desaturases in zinc-deficient rats force-fed diets with a coconut oil/safflower oil mixture of linseed oil.

    PubMed

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M

    1995-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc deficiency on fatty acid desaturation in rats fed two different types of dietary fat, a mixture of coconut oil and safflower oil (7:1, w/w, "coconut oil diet") or linseed oil ("linseed oil diet"). In order to ensure an adequate food intake, all rats were force-fed by gastric tube. Zinc deficiency caused statistical significant reduction of delta 9-desaturase activity in liver microsomes of rats fed coconut oil diet and tendencial reduction (p < 0.15) in rats fed linseed oil diet compared with control rats fed diets with the same type of fat. In agreement with this effect, zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat increased the ratio between total saturated and total monounsaturated fatty in liver phospholipids and liver microsomes. Zinc deficient rats on the coconut oil diet had unchanged delta 6-desaturase activity with linoleic acid as substrate and lowered activity with alpha-linolenic acid as substrate. In contrast, zinc deficient rats on the linseed oil diet had increased delta 6-desaturase activity with linoleic acid as substrate and unchanged activity with alpha-linolenic acid. Because linoleic acid is the main substrate for delta 6-desaturase in the rats fed coconut oil diet, and alpha-linolenic acid is the main substrate in the rats fed linseed oil diet, it is concluded that in vivo delta 6-desaturation was not changed by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat. Activity of delta 5-desaturase was also not changed by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both dietary fats. Levels of fatty acids in liver phospholipids and microsomes derived by delta 4-, delta 5-, and delta 6-desaturation were not consistently changed by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat. Thus, the enzyme studies and also fatty acid composition data of liver phospholipids and microsomes indicate that zinc deficiency does not considerably disturb desaturation of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid. Therefore, it is suggested that similarities between deficiencies of zinc and essential fatty acids described in literature are not due to disturbed desaturation of linoleic acid in zinc deficiency. The present study also indicates that zinc deficiency enhances incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid into phosphatidylcholine of rats fed diets with large amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:9398942

  7. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi. PMID:24752690

  8. Dietary trans fatty acids and their impact on plasma lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Katan, M B; Mensink, R; Van Tol, A; Zock, P L

    1995-10-01

    Foods contain isomers of unsaturated fatty acids that have double bonds in unusual configurations (trans instead of cis) or unusual positions, or both. Such fatty acids arise through biohydrogenation in the rumen of cows and sheep or catalytic hydrogenation in industrial hardening of oils. The effects of transmonounsaturates on lipoproteins in man are opposite to those of their cis-isomer, oleic acid: trans fatty acids raise low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and lipoprotein Lp(a) and lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, all in a dose-dependent fashion. Trans fatty acids raised serum cholesteryl ester transfer activity in 52 of 55 volunteers (mean change 18%, P < 0.02), and lowered the ratio of cholesteryl esters to triglycerides in HDL. Lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase was unchanged. The effects of trans fatty acids on HDL and LDL may thus be mediated through cholesterol ester transfer protein. PMID:7585291

  9. Cross-sectional associations of food consumption with plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Venlinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; gren, Jyrki; de Mello, Vanessa; Lindi, Virpi; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-05-01

    Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 68 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 6080 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children. PMID:24659110

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Limits Lipotoxicity by Promoting Hepatic Fatty Acid Activation in Mice on Methionine and Choline-deficient Diets

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, ffolliott M.; Chui, Patricia C.; Nasser, Imad A.; Popov, Yury; Cunniff, Jeremy C.; Lundasen, Thomas; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Schuppan, Detlef; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common consequence of human and rodent obesity. Disruptions in lipid metabolism lead to accumulation of triglycerides and fatty acids, which can promote inflammation and fibrosis and lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 increase in patients with NAFLD or NASH, so we assessed the role of FGF21 in the progression of murine fatty liver disease, independent of obesity, caused by methionine and choline deficiency. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type and FGF21-knockout (FGF21-KO) mice were placed on methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD), high-fat, or control diets for 816 weeks. Mice were weighed; serum and liver tissues were collected and analyzed for histology, levels of malondialdehyde and liver enzymes, gene expression, and lipid content. Results The MCD diet increased hepatic levels of FGF21 mRNA more than 50-fold and serum levels 16-fold, compared with the control diet. FGF21-KO mice had more severe steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and peroxidative damage than wild-type C57BL/6 mice. FGF21-KO mice had reduced hepatic fatty acid activation and ? oxidation, resulting in increased levels of free fatty acid. FGF21-KO mice given continuous subcutaneous infusions of FGF21 for 4 weeks while on MCD diets had reduced steatosis and peroxidative damage, compared with mice not receiving FGF21. The expression of genes that regulate inflammation and fibrosis were reduced in FGF21-KO mice given FGF21, similar to those of wild-type mice. Conclusions FGF21 regulates fatty acid activation and oxidation in livers of mice. In the absence of FGF21, accumulation of inactivated fatty acids results in lipotoxic damage and increased steatosis. PMID:25083607

  11. ?-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of fatty acids purified from the internal organ of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T H; Kim, S M

    2015-04-01

    ?-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of the various solvent fractions (n-hexane, CHCl3 , EtOAc, BuOH, and water) of sea cucumber internal organ were investigated. 1,3-Dipalmitolein (1) and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (2) with potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity were purified from the n-hexane fraction of sea cucumber internal organ. IC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 4.45 and 14.87 ?M against Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-glucosidase. These compounds mildly inhibited rat-intestinal ?-glucosidase. In addition, both compounds showed a mixed competitive inhibition against S. cerevisiae ?-glucosidase and were very stable at pH 2 up to 60 min. The KI values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.48 and 1.24 ?M, respectively. Therefore, the internal organ of sea cucumber might be a potential new source of ?-glucosidase inhibitors suitably used for prevention of obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:25735900

  12. Relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Native Cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jea-Young; Ha, Jae-Jung; Park, Yong-Soo; Yi, Jun-Koo; Lee, Seunguk; Mun, Seyoung; Han, Kyudong; Kim, J-J; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Oh, Dong-Yep

    2016-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) gene plays an important role in the biosynthesis process controlled by a number of fatty acid transcription factors. This study investigates the relationships between 130 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PPAR? gene and the fatty acid composition of muscle fat in the commercial population of Korean native cattle. We identified 38 SNPs and verified relationships between 3 SNPs (g.1159-71208 A>G, g.42555-29812 G>A, and g.72362 G>T) and the fatty acid composition of commercial Korean native cattle (n = 513). Cattle with the AA genotype of g.1159-71208 A>G and the GG genotype of g.42555-29812 G>A and g.72362 G>T had higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and carcass traits (p<0.05). The results revealed that the 3 identified SNPs in the PPAR? gene affected fatty acid composition and carcass traits, suggesting that these 3 SNPs may improve the flavor and quality of beef in commercial Korean native cattle. PMID:26732443

  13. Genistein stimulates fatty acid oxidation in a leptin receptor-independent manner through the JAK2-mediated phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Gonzlez, Berenice; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Flores-Galicia, Isabel; Noriega, Lilia G; Alemn-Escondrillas, Gabriela; Zarian, Teresa; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to the development of insulin resistance, which is associated with an excessive accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle tissue. There is evidence that soy protein can decrease the ectopic accumulation of lipids and improves insulin sensitivity; however, it is unknown whether soy isoflavones, particularly genistein, can stimulate fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle. Thus, we studied the mechanism by which genistein stimulates fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle. We showed that genistein induced the expression of genes of fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle of Zucker fa/fa rats and in leptin receptor (ObR)-silenced C2C12 myotubes through AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, the genistein-mediated AMPK phosphorylation occurred via JAK2, which was possibly activated through a mechanism that involved cAMP. Additionally, the genistein-mediated induction of fatty acid oxidation genes involved PGC1? and PPAR?. As a result, we observed that genistein increased fatty acid oxidation in both the control and silenced C2C12 myotubes, as well as a decrease in the RER in mice, suggesting that genistein can be used in strategies to decrease lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscle. PMID:24013029

  14. Relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Native Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jea-young; Ha, Jae-jung; Park, Yong-soo; Yi, Jun-koo; Lee, Seunguk; Mun, Seyoung; Han, Kyudong; Kim, J.-J.; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Oh, Dong-yep

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) gene plays an important role in the biosynthesis process controlled by a number of fatty acid transcription factors. This study investigates the relationships between 130 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PPARγ gene and the fatty acid composition of muscle fat in the commercial population of Korean native cattle. We identified 38 SNPs and verified relationships between 3 SNPs (g.1159-71208 A>G, g.42555-29812 G>A, and g.72362 G>T) and the fatty acid composition of commercial Korean native cattle (n = 513). Cattle with the AA genotype of g.1159-71208 A>G and the GG genotype of g.42555-29812 G>A and g.72362 G>T had higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and carcass traits (p<0.05). The results revealed that the 3 identified SNPs in the PPARγ gene affected fatty acid composition and carcass traits, suggesting that these 3 SNPs may improve the flavor and quality of beef in commercial Korean native cattle. PMID:26732443

  15. Differential involvement of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta in fibrate and fatty-acid-mediated inductions of the gene encoding liver fatty-acid-binding protein in the liver and the small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, H; Niot, I; Monnot, M C; Braissant, O; Meunier-Durmort, C; Costet, P; Pineau, T; Wahli, W; Willson, T M; Besnard, P

    2001-01-01

    Liver fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is a cytoplasmic polypeptide that binds with strong affinity especially to long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). It is highly expressed in both the liver and small intestine, where it is thought to have an essential role in the control of the cellular fatty acid (FA) flux. Because expression of the gene encoding L-FABP is increased by both fibrate hypolipidaemic drugs and LCFAs, it seems to be under the control of transcription factors, termed peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), activated by fibrate or FAs. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which these regulations take place remain to be fully substantiated. Using transfection assays, we found that the different PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta) are able to mediate the up-regulation by FAs of the gene encoding L-FABP in vitro. Through analysis of LCFA- and fibrate-mediated effects on L-FABP mRNA levels in wild-type and PPARalpha-null mice, we have found that PPARalpha in the intestine does not constitute a dominant regulator of L-FABP gene expression, in contrast with what is known in the liver. Only the PPARdelta/alpha agonist GW2433 is able to up-regulate the gene encoding L-FABP in the intestine of PPARalpha-null mice. These findings demonstrate that PPARdelta can act as a fibrate/FA-activated receptor in tissues in which it is highly expressed and that L-FABP is a PPARdelta target gene in the small intestine. We propose that PPARdelta contributes to metabolic adaptation of the small intestine to changes in the lipid content of the diet. PMID:11284737

  16. Synaptic lipid signaling: significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids and platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Nicolas G

    2003-12-01

    Neuronal cellular and intracellular membranes are rich in specialized phospholipids that are reservoirs of lipid messengers released by specific phospholipases and stimulated by neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, cytokines, membrane depolarization, ion channel activation, etc. Secretory phospholipases A2 may be both intercellular messengers and generators of lipid messengers. The highly networked nervous system includes cells (e.g., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, endothelial microvascular cells) that extensively interact with neurons; several lipid messengers participate in these interactions. This review highlights modulation of postsynaptic membrane excitability and long-term synaptic plasticity by cyclooxygenase-2-generated prostaglandin E2, arachidonoyldiacylcylglycerol, and arachidonic acid-containing endocannabinoids. The peroxidation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a critical component of excitable membranes in brain and retina, is promoted by oxidative stress. DHA is also the precursor of enzyme-derived, neuroprotective docosanoids. The phospholipid platelet-activating factor is a retrograde messenger of long-term potentiation, a modulator of glutamate release, and an upregulator of memory formation. Lipid messengers modulate signaling cascades and contribute to cellular differentiation, function, protection, and repair in the nervous system. Lipidomic neurobiology will advance our knowledge of the brain, spinal cord, retina, and peripheral nerve function and diseases that affect them, and new discoveries on networks of signaling in health and disease will likely lead to novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:13130128

  17. Modulation of Nitro-fatty Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vitturi, Dario A.; Chen, Chen-Shan; Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Koenitzer, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Nicolas A.; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation, characterized by the activation of both resident and infiltrated immune cells, is accompanied by increased production of oxidizing and nitrating species. Nitrogen dioxide, the proximal nitrating species formed under these conditions, reacts with unsaturated fatty acids to yield nitroalkene derivatives. These electrophilic products modulate protein function via post-translational modification of susceptible nucleophilic amino acids. Nitroalkenes react with Keap1 to instigate Nrf2 signaling, activate heat shock response gene expression, and inhibit NF-?B-mediated signaling, inducing net anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective metabolic responses. We report the purification and characterization of a NADPH-dependent liver enzyme that reduces the nitroalkene moiety of nitro-oleic acid, yielding the inactive product nitro-stearic acid. Prostaglandin reductase-1 (PtGR-1) was identified as a nitroalkene reductase by protein purification and proteomic studies. Kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, immunological and molecular biology approaches as well as clinical analyses confirmed this identification. Overexpression of PtGR-1 in HEK293T cells promoted nitroalkene metabolism to inactive nitroalkanes, an effect that abrogated the Nrf2-dependent induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression by nitro-oleic acid. These results situate PtGR-1 as a critical modulator of both the steady state levels and signaling activities of fatty acid nitroalkenes in vivo. PMID:23878198

  18. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  19. The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid on Vitamin D Activation in Hemodialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Mi; Son, Young Ki; Kim, Seong Eun; An, Won Suk

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of cardiovascular disease and vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease patients is well known. Vitamin D activation by omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation may explain the cardioprotective effects exerted by omega-3 FA. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) supplementation may increase 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels compared to 25(OH)D supplementation alone in hemodialysis (HD) patients that have insufficient or deficient 25(OH)D levels. We enrolled patients that were treated for at least six months with 25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL (NCT01596842). Patients were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with cholecalciferol supplemented with omega-3 FA or a placebo. Levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane FA contents were also measured. Levels of 25(OH)D were increased in both groups at 12 weeks compared to baseline. The 1,25(OH)2D levels at 12 weeks compared to baseline showed a tendency to increase in the omega-3 FA group. The oleic acid and monounsaturated FA content decreased, while the omega-3 index increased in the omega-3 FA group. Omega-3 FA supplementation may be partly associated with vitamin D activation, although increased 25(OH)D levels caused by short-term cholecalciferol supplementation were not associated with vitamin D activation in HD patients. PMID:25636157

  20. [About effect of habitat and motor activity of molluscs on fatty acid composition of triglycerides and phospholipids].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S; Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinski?, S A; Ivanova, V P

    2009-01-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acids (FA) in neutral and phospholipids of digestive gland and pedal muscle has been performed in molluscs from various ecological groups differing by belonging to sea or fresh water, trophic types or the associated motor activity. In freshwater pulmonary gastropods Lymnaea stagnalis and Limnaea ovalis and marine prosobranchial molluscs Buccinum undatum and Littorina littorea the total content of omega3-acids in phospholipids of the studied tissues differed more than twice, predominantly due to the combined effect of temperature and salinity of the habitat. The lower viscosity of cell membranes in marine species (omega3/omega6 < 1) is determined to the greatest degree by the presence of eicosapentaenoic acid that accounts for 22-25 % of the FA sum in marine species. Comparison of the molluscs by their trophic belonging has revealed the presence of linoleic acid in triglycerides in digestive glands of phytophages (8-12 %), but the practically complete absence of this acid in the predator B. undulatum (<0.8 %. By mobility, L. littorea inhabiting the high-low tide littoral was inferior to freshwater pulmonary gastropods and to marine predator, as it stops moving twice a day during the low tide. In phospholipids of pedal muscle of this mollusc the amount of long-chain polyunsaturated C:22 FA was 3-6 times lower than that in other studied species, which might possibly indicate the role of these acids in functioning of the pedal muscle contractile tissue. On the whole, use of the FA characteristics as parameters determining belonging to certain ecological group requires a certain caution due to a complex action of biotic and abiotic factors on the animal metabolism. The exception is the omega3/omega6 ratio in total phospholipids of freshwater and marine gastropods. PMID:19370988

  1. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content. PMID:15277087

  2. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  3. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  4. Parallel activation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism with increased cardiac energy expenditure is not dependent on fatty acid oxidation in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lufang; Cabrera, Marco E; Huang, Hazel; Yuan, Celvie L; Monika, Duda K; Sharma, Naveen; Bian, Fang; Stanley, William C

    2007-01-01

    Steady state concentrations of ATP and ADP in vivo are similar at low and high cardiac workloads; however, the mechanisms that regulate the activation of substrate metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation that supports this stability are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that (1) there is parallel activation of mitochondrial and cytosolic dehydrogenases in the transition from low to high workload, which increases NADH/NAD+ ratio in both compartments, and (2) this response does not require an increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Anaesthetized pigs were subjected to either sham treatment, or an abrupt increase in cardiac workload for 5 min with dobutamine infusion and aortic constriction. Myocardial oxygen consumption and FAO were increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively, but ATP and ADP concentrations did not change. NADH-generating pathways were rapidly activated in both the cytosol and mitochondria, as seen in a 40% depletion in glycogen stores, a 3.6-fold activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, and a 50% increase in tissue NADH/NAD+. Simulations from a multicompartmental computational model of cardiac energy metabolism predicted that parallel activation of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism results in an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio in both cytosol and mitochondria. FAO was blocked by 75% in a third group of pigs, and a similar increase in and the NAHD/NAD+ ratio was observed. In conclusion, in the transition to a high cardiac workload there is rapid parallel activation of substrate oxidation that results in an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio. PMID:17185335

  5. Studies of effects of trans fatty acids in the diet on lipid metabolism in essential fatty acid deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Privett, O S; Phillips, F; Shimasaki, H; Nozawa, T; Nickell, E C

    1977-07-01

    Effects of diets containing mixtures of safflower oil, hydrogenated coconut oil with elaidate of linolelaidate on growth, fatty acid composition, serum lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) and postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activities in essential fatty acid (EFA) deficient rats were determined. Addition of trans fatty acids to the diet lowered the growth response to linoleic acid. Both elaidate and linolelaidate accumulated in the serum and liver, imparied the conversion of oleic acid to eicosatrienoic acid and linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, and the incorporation of eicosatrienoic acid into cholesteryl esters. Trans fatty acids also influenced the fatty acid composition of testicular lipids, but much lower amounts of these acids accumlated in tests than in liver or serum. Serum lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase activity was elevated by an EFA deficiency, was unaffected by dietary elaidate, but was significantly decreased by linolelaidate. These effects were nullified by the addition of safflower oil to the diet. Postheparin plasma extrahepatic and hepatic lipase activities were also affected by an EFA deficiency, and by the addition of elaidate or linolelaidate alone or in combination with safflower oil to the diets of EFA deficient rats. It is suggested that trans fatty acids exhibit particular effects on the metabolism of lipids in addition to aggravation of an EFA deficiency. PMID:879068

  6. Fatty acids, alcohol and fatty acid ethyl esters: toxic Ca2+ signal generation and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, O H; Tepikin, A V; Gerasimenko, Julia V; Gerasimenko, O V; Sutton, R; Criddle, D N

    2009-06-01

    Pancreatitis, a potentially fatal disease in which the pancreas digests itself as well as its surroundings, is a well recognized complication of hyperlipidemia. Fatty acids have toxic effects on pancreatic acinar cells and these are mediated by large sustained elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. An important component of the effect of fatty acids is due to inhibition of mitochondrial function and subsequent ATP depletion, which reduces the operation of Ca(2+)-activated ATPases in both the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. One of the main causes of pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Whereas the effects of even high alcohol concentrations on isolated pancreatic acinar cells are variable and often small, fatty acid ethyl esters--synthesized by combination of alcohol and fatty acids--consistently evoke major Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, subsequently opening Ca(2+) entry channels in the plasma membrane. The crucial trigger for pancreatic autodigestion is intracellular trypsin activation. Although there is still uncertainty about the exact molecular mechanism by which this Ca(2+)-dependent process occurs, progress has been made in identifying a subcellular compartment--namely acid post-exocytotic endocytic vacuoles--in which this activation takes place. PMID:19327825

  7. Activation of Stat5 and induction of a pregnancy-like mammary gland differentiation by eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiliang E; Pu, Weiping; Wang, Jingdong; Kang, Jing X; Shi, Y Eric

    2007-07-01

    The protective effect of early pregnancy against breast cancer can be attributed to the transition from undifferentiated cells in the nulliparous to the differentiated mature cells during pregnancy. Considerable evidence suggests strongly that the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of adipose breast tissue is inversely associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Here, we report that there was a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and a significant increase in concentration of n-3 PUFA docosapentaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the pregnant gland. The functional role of n-3 PUFAs on differentiation was supported by the studies in the fat-1 transgenic mouse, which converts endogenous n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. Alternation of the n-6/n-3 ratio in favor of n-3 PUFA, and particularly docosapentaenoic acid, in the mammary gland of fat-1 mouse resulted in development of lobulo-alveolar-like structure and milk protein beta-casein expression, mimicking the differentiated state of the pregnant gland. Docosapentaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid activated the Jak2/Stat5 signaling pathway and induced a functional differentiation with production of beta-casein. Expression of brain type fatty acid binding protein brain type fatty acid binding protein in virgin transgenic mice also resulted in a reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA, a robust increase in docosapentaenoic acid accumulation, and mammary differentiation. These data indicate a role of mammary derived growth inhibitor related gene for preferential accumulation of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the differentiated gland during pregnancy. Thus, alternation of n-6/n-3 fatty acid compositional ratio in favor of n-3 PUFA, and particularly docosapentaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, is one of the underlying mechanisms of pregnancy-induced mammary differentiation. PMID:17547694

  8. Virucidal activities of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols, fatty acids and monoglycerides against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: comparison at different pH levels.

    PubMed

    Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Kristmundsdttir, Thrds; Thormar, Halldor

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that certain lipids and fatty alcohols have microbicidal activities against a number of pathogens. In this study, virucidal activities of fatty alcohols and lipids were tested against HSV types 1 and 2 at various concentrations, times, and pH levels. The aim was first, to determine which compounds are most virucidal against HSV and could possibly be used as active ingredients in topical drug formulations and second, to attempt to throw light on the mode of action of virucidal lipids. Good agreement was found between the activities for HSV-1 and HSV-2. The activity of a compound depends on the concentration and time of contact and most of the compounds are more active at pH 4.2 than at pH 7. This information may be helpful in the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms for treatment of herpes lesions in skin and mucosa. The difference between the polar groups of alcohols and fatty acids, i.e. hydroxyl group versus carboxyl group, and the corresponding difference in their hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) may explain their different virucidal activities against HSV. However, in most cases HLB numbers cannot explain the different virucidal activities of fatty alcohols and lipids, particularly not their increased activity at low pH. It is more likely that the acidic environment makes HSV more sensitive, possibly by ionic changes in the envelope proteins. PMID:15676016

  9. Fatty acid supplementation and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K L

    1990-11-01

    The importance of dietary fatty acids to the health of the skin was recognized more than 60 years ago. Fatty acids are important in providing membrane fluidity and maintaining the cutaneous water permeability barrier. Fatty acids function as precursors of eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, which include prostaglandins and leukotrienes, influence cellular interactions, cellular proliferation, and inflammation. Certain diseases, such as atopy and hypothyroidism, are characterized by abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism. Dietary manipulations may be useful in the treatment of diseases mediated by eicosanoids. PMID:2251737

  10. Trans fatty acids, lipoproteins, and coronary risk.

    PubMed

    Zock, P L; Katan, M B

    1997-03-01

    Most dietary fatty acids contain at least one double bond, which is usually in the cis configuration. However, biohydrogenation in the rumen of cows and sheep, or catalytic hydrogenation of vegetable oils in the food industries, will convert some of the cis double bonds to the trans configuration. Trans fatty acid intake in western Europe and North America probably ranges from 5 to 15 g/day. Major dietary sources are frying fats used in industrial food preparation, margarines, and other spreads. In the past, margarines contained up to 50% trans fatty acids; however, these are now being phased out. Trans fatty acids raise serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in humans when substituted for cis unsaturated fatty acids in the diet. These effects may be mediated by the cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Trans fatty acids also increase lipoprotein (a) levels relative to other fatty acids. The effects of trans fatty acids on the risk profile for coronary heart disease are thus unfavorable, and labels of food products should state the trans fatty acid content. PMID:9164704

  11. The Burkholderia cenocepacia BDSF Quorum Sensing Fatty Acid is Synthesized by a Bifunctional Crotonase Homologue Having Both Dehydratase and Thioesterase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hongkai; Christensen, Quin H.; Feng, Youjun; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Signal molecules of the Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) family have been shown recently to be involved in regulation of pathogenesis and biofilm formation in diverse Gram-negative bacteria. DSF signals are reported to be active not only on their cognate bacteria, but also on unrelated bacteria and the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. DSFs are monounsaturated fatty acids of medium chain length containing an unusual cis-2 double bond. Although genetic analyses had identified genes involved in DSF synthesis, the pathway of DSF synthesis was unknown. The DSF of the important human pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia (called BDSF) is cis-2-dodecenoic acid. We report that BDSF is synthesized from a fatty acid synthetic intermediate, the acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioester of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid. This intermediate is intercepted by protein Bcam0581 and converted to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP. Bcam0581 is annotated as a homologue of crotonase, the first enzyme of the fatty acid degradation pathway. We demonstrated Bcam0581to be a bifunctional protein that not only catalyzed dehydration of 3-hydroxydodecanoyl-ACP to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP, but also cleaved the thioester bond to give the free acid. Both activities required the same set of active site residues. Although dehydratase and thioesterase activities are known activities of the crotonase superfamily, Bcam0581 is the first protein shown to have both activities. PMID:22221091

  12. The Burkholderia cenocepacia BDSF quorum sensing fatty acid is synthesized by a bifunctional crotonase homologue having both dehydratase and thioesterase activities.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hongkai; Christensen, Quin H; Feng, Youjun; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E

    2012-02-01

    Signal molecules of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family have been shown recently to be involved in regulation of pathogenesis and biofilm formation in diverse Gram-negative bacteria. DSF signals are reported to be active not only on their cognate bacteria, but also on unrelated bacteria and the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. DSFs are monounsaturated fatty acids of medium chain length containing an unusual cis-2 double bond. Although genetic analyses had identified genes involved in DSF synthesis, the pathway of DSF synthesis was unknown. The DSF of the important human pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia (called BDSF) is cis-2-dodecenoic acid. We report that BDSF is synthesized from a fatty acid synthetic intermediate, the acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioester of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid. This intermediate is intercepted by protein Bcam0581 and converted to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP. Bcam0581 is annotated as a homologue of crotonase, the first enzyme of the fatty acid degradation pathway. We demonstrated Bcam0581to be a bifunctional protein that not only catalysed dehydration of 3-hydroxydodecanoyl-ACP to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP, but also cleaved the thioester bond to give the free acid. Both activities required the same set of active-site residues. Although dehydratase and thioesterase activities are known activities of the crotonase superfamily, Bcam0581 is the first protein shown to have both activities. PMID:22221091

  13. Water-deficit impact on fatty acid and essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Iness; Knioua, Sana; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-01-12

    This study is designed to examine the effect of water deficit on growth, fatty acid and essential oil composition, and antioxidant activities of Cuminum cyminum aerial part extracts. Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control (C), moderate water deficit (MWD), and severe water deficit (SWD). Plant growth (height, fresh and dry matter weights) as well as yield components were significantly increased under moderate water deficit and conversely reduced at severe level. Total fatty acid content decreased significantly with severity of constraint. Drought reduced considerably the proportions of major fatty acids and the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The essential oil yield was 0.14% (based on the dry weight); it increased by 2.21-fold at MWD but decreased by 42.8% under SWD in comparison to the control. Drought results in the modification of the essential oil chemotype from 1-phenyl-1-butanol to 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol. Antioxidant activities of the acetone extracts were determined by two complementary test systems, namely, DPPH and ?-carotene/linoleic acid. The highest activity was exhibited by moderately stressed plants and was reduced significantly under SWD. In control plants, the total phenolic amount was 10.23 mg GAE/g DW, which increased by 1.5-fold under MWD and decreased by 42% under SWD. PMID:21141890

  14. De novo fatty acid synthesis and elongation of fatty acids by subcellular fractions of lung.

    PubMed

    Schiller, H; Bensch, K

    1971-03-01

    Fatty acid synthesis by subcellular fractions of rabbit lung was studied by measuring the incorporation of either radioactive acetyl coenzyme A or malonyl coenzyme A into long-chain fatty acids. Evidence is presented to support the conclusions that the 95,000 g-supernatant fraction contains the enzymes, i.e., fatty acid synthetase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, necessary for de novo fatty acid synthesis and is capable of synthesizing long-chain fatty acids, probably palmitic acid, under the appropriate conditions. The mitochondrial fraction incorporates the short-chain coenzyme A derivatives into fatty acids predominantly by the elongation pathway. It is suggested that the palmitic acid synthesized in vivo by the de novo fatty acid synthetic pathway, demonstrated in vitro in rabbit lung, may be a source of the lecithin palmitic acid utilized in the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant. PMID:4396563

  15. Hypothalamic GPR40 signaling activated by free long chain fatty acids suppresses CFA-induced inflammatory chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Nishinaka, Takashi; Sato, Naoya; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Koyama, Yutaka; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently increased at day 7, but not at days 1, 3 and 14, after CFA injection. GPR40 was co-localized with NeuN, a neuron marker, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker. At day 1 after CFA injection, GFAP protein expression was markedly increased in the hypothalamus. These increases were significantly inhibited by the intracerebroventricular injection of flavopiridol (15 nmol), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, depending on the decreases in both the increment of GPR40 protein expression and the induction of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7 after CFA injection. Furthermore, the level of DHA in the hypothalamus tissue was significantly increased in a flavopiridol reversible manner at day 1, but not at day 7, after CFA injection. The intracerebroventricular injection of DHA (50 g) and GW9508 (1.0 g), a GPR40-selective agonist, significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7, but not at day 1, after CFA injection. These effects were inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with GW1100 (10 g), a GPR40 antagonist. The protein expression of GPR40 was colocalized with that of ?-endorphin and proopiomelanocortin, and a single intracerebroventricular injection of GW9508 (1.0 g) significantly increased the number of neurons double-stained for c-Fos and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings suggest that hypothalamic GPR40 activated by free long chain fatty acids might have an important role in this pain control system. PMID:24349089

  16. The Fatty Acid Signaling Molecule cis-2-Decenoic Acid Increases Metabolic Activity and Reverts Persister Cells to an Antimicrobial-Susceptible State

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Aleksey; Planzos, Penny; Zelaya, Hector M.

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells, which are tolerant to antimicrobials, contribute to biofilm recalcitrance to therapeutic agents. In turn, the ability to kill persister cells is believed to significantly improve efforts in eradicating biofilm-related, chronic infections. While much research has focused on elucidating the mechanism(s) by which persister cells form, little is known about the mechanism or factors that enable persister cells to revert to an active and susceptible state. Here, we demonstrate that cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-DA), a fatty acid signaling molecule, is able to change the status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli persister cells from a dormant to a metabolically active state without an increase in cell number. This cell awakening is supported by an increase of the persister cells' respiratory activity together with changes in protein abundance and increases of the transcript expression levels of several metabolic markers, including acpP, 16S rRNA, atpH, and ppx. Given that most antimicrobials target actively growing cells, we also explored the effect of cis-DA on enhancing antibiotic efficacy in killing persister cells due to their inability to keep a persister cell state. Compared to antimicrobial treatment alone, combinational treatments of persister cell subpopulations with antimicrobials and cis-DA resulted in a significantly greater decrease in cell viability. In addition, the presence of cis-DA led to a decrease in the number of persister cells isolated. We thus demonstrate the ability of a fatty acid signaling molecule to revert bacterial cells from a tolerant phenotype to a metabolically active, antimicrobial-sensitive state. PMID:25192989

  17. Fatty acid oxidation and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Auvin, Stphane

    2012-07-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat and low carbohydrate diet with an established efficacy to treat refractory epilepsy. Lipids, particularly fatty acids, are nutrients which provide the most important part of the caloric intake under the KD. It has been suggested that the 'high-fat' component of the KD plays a role in its anticonvulsant properties. It has been shown experimentally that polyunsaturated fatty acids alone (PUFA) exhibit anticonvulsant properties. But clinical trials in epilepsy using PUFA have failed to show any effect. This discrepancy can be explained by recent experimental data. Several experimental studies have suggested that PUFA may support the efficacy of the KD. PUFA may exhibit anticonvulsant properties via various mechanisms such as a modification of the composition of the CNS cell membranes, stimulation of nuclear receptor such as PPAR and by attenuating inflammation. Most of these hypotheses have evolved from experimental studies. However, it remains necessary to prove the role of PUFA in the KD, and therefore, further studies on this subject are needed. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may lead to the design new dietary treatment such as more liberal rules for KD or KD formula with a higher efficacy. PMID:21856124

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berquin, Isabelle M.; Edwards, Iris J.; Kridel, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play important roles in the normal physiology and in pathological states including inflammation and cancer. While much is known about the biosynthesis and biological activities of eicosanoids derived from ?6 PUFA, our understanding of the corresponding ?3 series lipid mediators is still rudimentary. The purpose of this review is not to offer a comprehensive summary of the literature on fatty acids in prostate cancer but rather to highlight some of the areas where key questions remain to be addressed. These include substrate preference and polymorphic variants of enzymes involved in the metabolism of PUFA, the relationship between de novo lipid synthesis and dietary lipid metabolism pathways, the contribution of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases as well as terminal synthases and prostanoid receptors in prostate cancer, and the potential role of PUFA in angiogenesis and cell surface receptor signaling. PMID:22015690

  19. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  20. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  1. Fatty acid transport across the cell membrane: regulation by fatty acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Robert W; Holloway, Graham P; Luiken, Joost J F P; Bonen, Arend; Glatz, Jan F C

    2010-01-01

    Transport of long-chain fatty acids across the cell membrane has long been thought to occur by passive diffusion. However, in recent years there has been a fundamental shift in understanding, and it is now generally recognized that fatty acids cross the cell membrane via a protein-mediated mechanism. Membrane-associated fatty acid-binding proteins ('fatty acid transporters') not only facilitate but also regulate cellular fatty acid uptake, for instance through their inducible rapid (and reversible) translocation from intracellular storage pools to the cell membrane. A number of fatty acid transporters have been identified, including CD36, plasma membrane-associated fatty acid-binding protein (FABP(pm)), and a family of fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1-6). Fatty acid transporters are also implicated in metabolic disease, such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. In this report we briefly review current understanding of the mechanism of transmembrane fatty acid transport, and the function of fatty acid transporters in healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle, and in insulin resistance/type-2 diabetes. Fatty acid transporters hold promise as a future target to rectify lipid fluxes in the body and regain metabolic homeostasis. PMID:20206486

  2. Development of a cell-based antioxidant activity assay using dietary fatty acid as oxidative stressor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Xie, Liyang; Wei, Ying; Liu, Yixiang; Jia, Gang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2013-11-01

    The existing cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays always use chemical stressors [e.g. 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)] to initiate oxidative stress (OS), which is not accordance with the pathology of OS-related diseases. In contrast to previous cell models, an oleic acid (OA)-induced OS model of the HepG2 cells was developed in the current work. The antioxidant activities (AAs) of the 16 flavonoid standards in the CAAOA assay were significantly different from the results of the CAAAAPH and peroxyl radical-scavenging assays (PRSA). The AAs of these flavonoids in the PRSA were significantly associated with those of the CAAAAPH assay (r=0.848, P<0.01). On the other hand, isoflavones and epicatechin could significantly attenuate the OS in the CAAOA assay. However, the three flavonoids had no quantifiable AA in CAAAAPH and PRSA. The aforementioned results suggest that the CAAOA assay can probably better reflect the AAs of samples in biological systems. PMID:23768367

  3. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  4. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  5. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  6. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  8. Dietary Fatty Acids and the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Greg M.; Ma, Qiu-Lan; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aging contributes to physiological decline and vulnerability to disease. In the brain, even with minimal neuron loss, aging increases oxidative damage, inflammation, demyelination, impaired processing and metabolic deficits, particularly during pathological brain aging. We discuss the possible role of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in prevention of age related disruption of brain function. High-fat diabetogenic diets, cholesterol and the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonate and its prostaglandin metabolites have all been implicated in promoting AD pathogenesis. We argue that DHA acts to oppose this pathogenesis, exerting a plethora of pleiotropic activities to protect against AD pathogenesis. PMID:21091943

  9. Saturated Fatty Acids Engage an IRE1α-Dependent Pathway to Activate the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Myeloid Cells.

    PubMed

    Robblee, Megan M; Kim, Charles C; Porter Abate, Jess; Valdearcos, Martin; Sandlund, Karin L M; Shenoy, Meera K; Volmer, Romain; Iwawaki, Takao; Koliwad, Suneil K

    2016-03-22

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) produce a form of tissue inflammation driven by "metabolically activated" macrophages. We show that SFAs, when in excess, induce a unique transcriptional signature in both mouse and human macrophages that is enriched by a subset of ER stress markers, particularly IRE1α and many adaptive downstream target genes. SFAs also activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, resulting in IL-1β secretion. We found that IRE1α mediates SFA-induced IL-1β secretion by macrophages and that its activation by SFAs does not rely on unfolded protein sensing. We show instead that the ability of SFAs to stimulate either IRE1α activation or IL-1β secretion can be specifically reduced by preventing their flux into phosphatidylcholine (PC) or by increasing unsaturated PC levels. Thus, IRE1α is an unrecognized intracellular PC sensor critical to the process by which SFAs stimulate macrophages to secrete IL-1β, a driver of diet-induced tissue inflammation. PMID:26971994

  10. [The fatty acid composition of ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivated in Georgia and its byological activity].

    PubMed

    Kakilashvili, B Iu; Zurabashvili, D Z; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A; Parulava, G K

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was individual quantitatively and qualitatively determination of fatty acids in ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.), cultivated in Georgia. The neutral lipids extracts were fractionated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (PTC-1, Waters) with refractory detector R-401. Analitical column (150,0x3,0 mm) was filled with reversphase Bondopak C18). Software OASIS-740 is used. The correction retention times of each fatty acids is compared with comformity standard. The investigation showed that in flax seed oil linoleic (31,3±2,1 mg%) and linolenic (40,2±2,9 mg%) acids were predominant and together constitute principal basic of research composition. The flax seed oil contained also palmitic and stearic acids in less quantitaty. PMID:24632654

  11. [Innovations in the medical treatment of gallstones and fatty liver: FABACs (Fatty Acid Bile Acid Conjugates)].

    PubMed

    Keizman, Daniel; Goldiner, Ilana; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia; Konikoff, Fred M

    2008-04-01

    Gallstones and fatty liver are common disorders in the Western world, largely due to dietary and life style factors. Currently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main treatment option for gallbladder stones. Surgery is, however, expensive and may cause morbidity and even mortality. An effective medical treatment would be desirable, especially in patients with mild to moderate symptoms or high surgical risk. Currently, the bile acid UDCA (Ursodeoxycholic acid) is used for oral dissolution treatment and for the prevention of cholelithiasis in selected cases. However, the major limitations of this treatment are its low efficacy, slow action and stone recurrence. Recently, phospholipids rather than bile salts were realized to be the major natural cholesterol solubilizers in bile. They also possess anti-crystallizing activity. The sn-2 fatty acid of the phospholipids molecule was found to be particularly important. This was the background for the development of FABACs (Fatty Acid and Bile Acid Conjugates), which are novel synthetic lipid molecules. These molecules are composed of fatty acids (with chain lengths from C-14 to C-22), that are linked to cholic acid, by an amide bond at position 3. In vitro and in vivo studies (in mice) have shown that FABACs can prevent the formation of cholesterol crystals and dissolve existing ones. C20-FABAC, when given orally, is absorbed and secreted into bile. It was also found to have a series of beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism. The main treatment for patients with fatty liver consists of lifestyle and diet modifications, which are associated with low compliance. Currently there is no effective medical treatment for this disease. In the FABAC studies on the prevention and dissolution of gallstones in laboratory animals, it was observed that this treatment also prevents the formation of diet induced fatty liver. Further prospective studies found that FABACs indeed prevent/decrease the formation of fatty liver induced by high fat diet. This influence was observed in all the fatty liver parameters (histology as well as chemical analysis), and in different animal strains. Based on these findings, FABACs seem to be good candidates for the medical treatment of hepatobiliary disorders, in particular gallstones and fatty liver disease. PMID:18686819

  12. Activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) promotes fatty acid oxidation through the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xuqin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiaodong

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •TC, a CB2R specific agonist, stimulates SIRT1 activity by PKA/CREB pathway. •TC promotes PGC-1α transcriptional activity by increasing its deacetylation. •TC increases the expression of genes linked to FAO and promotes the rate of FAO. •The effects of TC in FAO are dependent on CB2R. •Suggesting CB2R as a target to treat diseases with lipid dysregulation. -- Abstract: Abnormal fatty acid oxidation has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. At the transcriptional level, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) has been reported to strongly increase the ability of hormone nuclear receptors PPARα and ERRα to drive transcription of fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In this study, we report that a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) can lead to fatty acid oxidation through the PGC-1α pathway. We have found that CB2R is expressed in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, and that use of the specific agonist trans-caryophyllene (TC) stimulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity by increasing the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), thus leading to increased levels of PGC-1α deacetylation. This use of TC treatment increases the expression of genes linked to the fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1/PGC-1α-dependent mechanism and also drastically accelerates the rate of complete fatty acid oxidation in C2C12 myotubes, neither of which occur when CB2R mRNA is knocked down using siRNA. These results reveal that activation of CB2R by a selective agonist promotes lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Our findings imply that pharmacological manipulation of CB2R may provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

  13. [Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids].

    PubMed

    Caramia, G

    2012-01-01

    In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as precursors of "lipid mediator" molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body's inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA) were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxye-icosatetraenoic acids (EETR) and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE), whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE). For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as hashish and marijuana (-)-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. They act as true 'endogenous cannabinoids' by binding and functionally activating one or both cannabinoid receptor present on nervous and peripheral cell membranes. Enzymes that carry out anandamide oxidation are the same fatty acid oxygenases that are known to act on endogenous arachidonic acid namely, the members of the COX, LOX, and P450 families of enzymes. Recent advances in the biochemistry and pharmacology of the endocannabinoid system, also for its central and peripheral roles in regulating food intake, will offer the development of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:22730630

  14. Antioxidant activity of resveratrol and alcohol-free wine polyphenols related to LDL oxidation and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Frémont, L; Belguendouz, L; Delpal, S

    1999-01-01

    Wine polyphenols were examined for their capacity to protect the lipid and protein moieties of porcine low density lipoproteins (LDL) during oxidation. The efficiency of resveratrol (3, 4', 5, trihydroxystilbene) and defined flavonoids was compared to that of a wine extract (WE) containing 0.5 g/g proanthocyanidols. The efficiency of resveratrol for protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was higher than that of flavonoids in copper-induced oxidation and lower in AAPH (radical initiator)-induced oxidation. The LDL receptor activity was evaluated by flow cytometry using LDL labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). The incubation of CHO-K1 with FITC-LDL oxidized for 16 h reduced the proportion of fluorescent cells from 97% to 4%. At a concentration of 40 microM, resveratrol and flavonoids completely restored the uptake of copper-oxidized LDL and AAPH-oxidized LDL respectively. Total fluorescence could also be obtained with 20 mg/L of WE with both oxidation systems. These data are consistent with previous findings relative to the formation of degradative products from PUFA. They confirm that resveratrol was more effective than flavonoids as a chelator of copper and less effective as a free-radical scavenger. Moreover, they show that WE, which contained monomeric and oligomeric forms of flavonoids and phenolic acids, protected LDL by both mechanisms. PMID:10403511

  15. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  16. Postpartum ovarian activity in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Carriquiry, M; Dahlen, C R; Weber, W J; Lamb, G C; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    Multiparous cows (n = 59) were blocked by expected calving date and previous 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield and assigned randomly to a 2 x 2 factorial design to determine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST; Posilac, Monsanto Animal Agricultural Group, St. Louis, MO) and dietary fat on ovarian activity during the first 90 d in milk (DIM). Diets that included whole, high-oil sunflower seeds [SS; 10% of dietary dry matter; rich in linoleic acid (18:2)] or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro [AF; Alifet USA, Cincinnati, OH; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary dry matter, respectively; protected source of linolenic (18:3), eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids] were provided from calving. Diets were isocaloric at equal intakes, but AF provided more net energy for lactation at actual intakes (1.54 vs. 1.66 Mcal/kg of dry matter). Cows received 0 or 500 mg of bST (N, Y) every 10 d from 12 to 70 DIM and at 14-d intervals from 70 to 280 DIM. Breeding was initiated after 90 DIM. Follicular dynamics, luteal growth and development (15 to 90 DIM), and plasma progesterone concentrations (1 to 90 DIM) were evaluated (3 times per week). Days to first ovulation (33.6 +/- 1.4) and incidence of anovulation at 45 or 70 DIM did not differ among treatments. Interovulatory intervals were similar among treatments (22.1 +/- 0.9 d). Incidence of estrous cycles with 2 follicular waves was greater for SSY (71.0%) and AFN (80.0%) than for other groups, but more 3-wave cycles occurred with AFY (83.3%). Growth rate of the ovulatory follicle was greater for AF than SS (1.9 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.11 mm/d) and diameter of ovulatory follicles was larger for AFN than the other treatments (17.9 vs. 15.7 +/- 0.7 mm). Area under the progesterone curve was reduced for SSY (63.2, 48.1, 55.5, and 61.4 +/- 5.1 ng.d/mL for SSN, SSY, AFN, and AFY, respectively). The number of class 1 (3 to 5 mm) follicles was decreased and the number of class 2 (6 to 9 mm) follicles was increased by bST. The number of class 2 follicles was reduced by AF. Initiation of bST administration at 12 DIM and dietary n-3 fatty acids altered ovarian activity during the first 90 DIM and could benefit reproductive performance. Dietary n-3 fatty acids interacted with bST administration in early lactation to increase the incidence of estrous cycles with 3 follicular waves. Although these changes could benefit reproductive performance, evaluation with a larger number of cows is needed to determine if these alterations improve fertility. PMID:19762803

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reviewed results from published studies regarding the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake on insulin resistance (IR) in human subjects. Evidence has been gathered from epidemiological, cross-sectional and interventions studies. Increased intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) inc...

  18. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  19. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids....

  20. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  1. Alkyl polyglucose enhancing propionic acid enriched short-chain fatty acids production during anaerobic treatment of waste activated sludge and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Sun, Han; Shen, Qiuting; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong

    2015-04-15

    Adding alkyl polyglucose (APG) into an anaerobic treatment system of waste activated sludge (WAS) was reported to remarkably improve the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid via simultaneously accelerating solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancing acidification, inhibiting methanogenesis and balancing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of substrate. Not only the production of SCFAs, especially propionic acid, was significantly improved by APG, but also the feasible operation time was shortened. The SCFAs yield at 0.3 g APG per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) within 4 d was 2988 60 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter, much higher than that those from sole WAS or sole WAS plus sole APG. The corresponding yield of propionic acid was 1312 25 mg COD/L, 7.9-fold of sole WAS. Mechanism investigation showed that during anaerobic treatment of WAS in the presence of APG both the solubilization and hydrolysis were accelerated and the acidification was enhanced, while the methanogenesis was inhibited. Moreover, the activities of key enzymes involved in WAS hydrolysis and acidification were improved through the adjustment of C/N ratio of substrates with APG. The abundance of microorganisms responsible for organic compounds hydrolysis and SCFAs production was also observed to be greatly enhanced with APG via 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis. PMID:25697695

  2. Regulating effect of β-ketoacyl synthase domain of fatty acid synthase on fatty acyl chain length in de novo fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Liang, Yan; Tian, Weixi; Ji, Mingjuan; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a multifunctional homodimeric protein, and is the key enzyme required for the anabolic conversion of dietary carbohydrates to fatty acids. FAS synthesizes long-chain fatty acids from three substrates: acetyl-CoA as a primer, malonyl-CoA as a 2 carbon donor, and NADPH for reduction. The entire reaction is composed of numerous sequential steps, each catalyzed by a specific functional domain of the enzyme. FAS comprises seven different functional domains, among which the β-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain carries out the key condensation reaction to elongate the length of fatty acid chain. Acyl tail length controlled fatty acid synthesis in eukaryotes is a classic example of how a chain building multienzyme works. Different hypotheses have been put forward to explain how those sub-units of FAS are orchestrated to produce fatty acids with proper molecular weight. In the present study, molecular dynamic simulation based binding free energy calculation and access tunnels analysis showed that the C16 acyl tail fatty acid, the major product of FAS, fits to the active site on KS domain better than any other substrates. These simulations supported a new hypothesis about the mechanism of fatty acid production ratio: the geometric shape of active site on KS domain might play a determinate role. PMID:26680361

  3. Volatile Fatty Acid Requirement of a Strain of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Larson, A. D.; Hattier, L. V.; McCleskey, C. S.

    1965-01-01

    Larson, A. D. (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge), L. V. Hattier, and C. S. McCleskey. Volatile fatty acid requirement of a strain of Listeria monocytogenes. J. Bacteriol. 89:819–824. 1965.—Listeria monocytogenes strain 2 requires either isobutyric or 2-methylbutyric acid for growth. Elucidation of this requirement began with characterization of the growth-enhancing substance in culture filtrates of Aerobacter aerogenes. A. aerogenes required tryptose, glucose, and aerobic conditions for excretion of active fatty acids into the medium. Commercial preparations of isobutyric, 2-methylbutyric, isovaleric, 3-methylvaleric, and n-valeric acid supported the growth of strain 2. Purification of these fatty acids by gas chromatography demonstrated that strain 2 responded significantly only to isobutyric and 2-methylbutyric acid. Amines, alcohols, and hydroxy fatty acids, which were structurally related to the active acids, did not satisfy the fatty acid requirement of L. monocytogenes strain 2. Only one isolate (strain 2) of 128 cultures of L. monocytogenes required volatile fatty acid for growth. Images PMID:14273667

  4. In vitro percutaneous absorption studies and in vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential fatty acids (EFA) from fish oil extracts.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Tropea, Salvatore; Rizza, Luisa; Santagati, Natale Alfredo; Bonina, Francesco

    2005-08-11

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro percutaneous absorption and the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of EPA and DHA fatty acids from three oily extracts, obtained by acetonic extractions from the entrails of different varieties of Mediterranean fishes such as mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus). In the first part of our research, we focused our attention on the characterization of the oily extracts to determine their omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, then, we evaluated the in vitro percutaneous absorption through excised human skin (stratum corneum/epidermis membranes; SCE) of EPA and DHA contained in the extracts. In the second part, the fish oil which guaranteed the best in vitro permeation profile of these omega-3 fatty acids was studied in order to evaluate its inhibiting ability towards the in vivo UVB-induced skin erythema. From the results obtained, all the fish oils tested in this study presented significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, and particularly sardine oil extract showed higher concentrations of these substances compared to the other two fish oils. The in vitro experiments revealed interesting fluxes of these compounds from sardine extract through the stratum corneum/epidermis membranes and an appreciable anti-inflammatory activity against UVB-induced erythema in human volunteers was also observed. PMID:15979259

  5. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy. PMID:23112921

  6. The postmortal accumulation of brain N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) is dependent upon fatty acid amide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin; Carrier, Erica J; Ho, W-S Vanessa; Rademacher, David J; Cunningham, Sonya; Reddy, D Sudarshan; Falck, J R; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2005-02-01

    N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) accumulates during brain injury and postmortem. Because fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates brain AEA content, the purpose of this study was to determine its role in the postmortal accumulation of AEA using FAAH null mice. As expected, AEA content in immediately frozen brain tissue was significantly greater in FAAH-deficient (FAAH-/-) than in wild-type mice. However, AEA content was significantly lower in brains from FAAH-/- mice at 5 and 24 h postmortem. Similarly, wild-type mice treated in vivo with a FAAH inhibitor (URB532) had significantly lower brain AEA content 24 h postmortem compared with controls. These data indicate that FAAH contributes significantly to the postmortal accumulation of AEA. In contrast, the accumulations of two other N-acylethanolamines, N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), were not reduced at 24 h postmortem in either the FAAH-/- mice or mice treated with URB532. FAAH-/- mice accumulated significantly less ethanolamine at 24 h postmortem compared with wild-type mice, suggesting that FAAH activity plays a role in the accumulation of ethanolamine postmortem. These data demonstrate that FAAH activity differentially affects AEA and OEA/PEA contents postmortem and suggest that AEA formation specifically occurs via an ethanolamine-dependent route postmortem. PMID:15576840

  7. Liver X receptor agonists augment human islet function through activation of anaplerotic pathways and glycerolipid/free fatty acid cycling.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Takeshi; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Vestermark, George L; Garmey, James C; Ketchum, Robert J; Huang, Xiaolun; Brayman, Kenneth L; Thorner, Michael O; Repa, Joyce J; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2010-02-19

    Recent studies in rodent models suggest that liver X receptors (LXRs) may play an important role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and islet function. To date, however, no studies have comprehensively examined the role of LXRs in human islet biology. Human islets were isolated from non-diabetic donors and incubated in the presence or absence of two synthetic LXR agonists, TO-901317 and GW3965, under conditions of low and high glucose. LXR agonist treatment enhanced both basal and stimulated insulin secretion, which corresponded to an increase in the expression of genes involved in anaplerosis and reverse cholesterol transport. Furthermore, enzyme activity of pyruvate carboxylase, a key regulator of pyruvate cycling and anaplerotic flux, was also increased. Whereas LXR agonist treatment up-regulated known downstream targets involved in lipogenesis, we observed no increase in the accumulation of intra-islet triglyceride at the dose of agonist used in our study. Moreover, LXR activation increased expression of the genes encoding hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, two enzymes involved in lipolysis and glycerolipid/free fatty acid cycling. Chronically, insulin gene expression was increased after treatment with TO-901317, and this was accompanied by increased Pdx-1 nuclear protein levels and enhanced Pdx-1 binding to the insulin promoter. In conclusion, our data suggest that LXR agonists have a direct effect on the islet to augment insulin secretion and expression, actions that should be considered either as therapeutic or unintended side effects, as these agents are developed for clinical use. PMID:20007976

  8. Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyan, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

  9. Tissue fatty acid composition and estimated ? desaturase activity after castration in chicken broilers fed with linseed or sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Maek, T; Star?evi?, K; Filipovi?, N; Stojevi?, Z; Brozi?, D; Gottstein, Z; Severin, K

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of the short-term addition of sunflower and linseed oil and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation indexes in chicken broilers. Forty-eight male Ross 308 chicken broilers were supplemented with 5% of sunflower or linseed oil. The four experimental groups were linseed oil supplementation and castration (LC), linseed oil without castration (LN), sunflower oil and castration (SC) and sunflower oil without castration (SN). There was no significant influence of castration or oil supplement on live weights, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Castration resulted in an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total n3, n6, measured desaturation indexes and a decrease in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content of abdominal fat. In breast muscle, castration increased PUFA and 18:3n3 values, while in the liver tissue, castration did not influence the parameters measured. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased 18:3n3, n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), total n3 and decreased total n6, n6/n3 ratio, and 20:4n6 content. Values for 20:4n6 were the highest in SC and the lowest in the LC group. Linseed oil also significantly decreased ?5 and ?4 desaturation indexes in the thighs and ?5 and ?5, 6 in abdominal fat and the liver. These results suggest that short-term supplementation of basal diet with 5% of linseed oil could significantly increase n3 LC PUFA and decrease n6/n3 ratio content in the edible tissues of chicken broilers, without adverse effects on growth performance. Meanwhile, castration only improved fatty acid profile in abdominal fat, which is not nutritionally important. The interactions observed between basal diet, supplemented oil, sex hormones and other non-nutritional factors must be elucidated in future trials in order to correctly predict the nutritional value of linseed-fed poultry. PMID:23905627

  10. Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Kodani, Sean; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), which are lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases from polyunsaturated fatty acids, are important signaling molecules known to regulate various biological processes including inflammation, pain and angiogenesis. The EpFAs are further metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form fatty acid diols which are usually less-active. Pharmacological inhibitors of sEH that stabilize endogenous EpFAs are being considered for human clinical uses. Here we review the biology of ω-3 and ω-6 EpFAs on inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:24345640

  11. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    PubMed

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-01-01

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (Δ6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients. PMID:26400353

  12. Concurrent Physical Activity Modifies the Association between n3 Long-Chain Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Risk in Midlife Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, Matthew F.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Jakicic, John M.; Conklin, Sarah M.; Sekikawa, Akira; Yao, Jeffrey K.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Greater consumption of n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce risk for cardiovascular disease events, yet their effects on metabolic risk factors and diabetes remain unclear. This cross-sectional study used a community volunteer sample to test whether the associations between n3 fatty acids and cardiometabolic risk vary as a function of physical activity. Participants were 344 generally healthy adults, 30–54 y of age, not taking fish oil supplements or confounding medications. Serum phospholipid EPA and DHA were used together (EPA+DHA) as a biomarker of n3 fatty acid exposure. Cardiometabolic risk was calculated as a continuous measure based on standardized distributions of blood pressure, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and a simple count of risk factors. Insulin resistance was estimated from the homeostatic model assessment. Physical activity was found to predict cardiometabolic risk (P ≤ 0.02) and insulin resistance (P ≤ 0.02) and to moderate the association between EPA+DHA and both cardiometabolic risk (P-interaction ≤ 0.02) and insulin resistance (P-interaction ≤ 0.02). Specifically, higher EPA+DHA was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance in persons engaged in regular physical activity but not in relatively inactive individuals. These findings were noted in several components of cardiometabolic risk, in men and women separately, and in models adjusted for overall diet quality. In midlife adults, habitual physical activity may be necessary to unmask the salutary effects of n3 fatty acids on cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance. PMID:23884386

  13. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPAR ? -Regulated Fatty Acid ? -Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Petrescu, Anca D; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- ? (PPAR ? ) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity while binding C75 and C75-CoA with lower affinity. Binding of TOFA and C75-CoA significantly altered L-FABP secondary structure. High (20?mM) but not physiological (6?mM) glucose conferred on both TOFA and C75 the ability to induce PPAR ? transcription of the fatty acid ? -oxidative enzymes CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1 in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) mice. However, L-FABP gene ablation abolished the effects of TOFA and C75 in the context of high glucose. These effects were not associated with an increased cellular level of unesterified fatty acids but rather by increased intracellular glucose. These findings suggested that L-FABP may function as an intracellular fatty acid synthesis inhibitor binding protein facilitating TOFA and C75-mediated induction of PPAR ? in the context of high glucose at levels similar to those in uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:23533380

  14. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  15. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  16. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase activates Nrf2 signalling and induces heme oxygenase 1 transcription in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, H; Wood, J T; Whitten, K M; Vadivel, S K; Seng, S; Makriyannis, A; Avraham, H K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endocannabinoids such as anandamide (AEA) are important lipid ligands regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Their levels are regulated by hydrolase enzymes, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). Here, we investigated whether FAAH or AEA are involved in NF (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant responsive element (ARE) pathway. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of AEA or FAAH inhibition by the URB597 inhibitor or FAAH/siRNA on the activation of Nrf2-ARE signalling pathway and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction and transcription. KEY RESULTS Endogenous AEA was detected in the immortalized human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells (0.034 ng per 106 cells) but not in MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Because breast tumour cells express FAAH abundantly, we examined the effects of FAAH on Nrf2/antioxidant pathway. We found that inhibition of FAAH by the URB597 inhibitor induced antioxidant HO-1 in breast cancer cells and MCF-10A cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of FAAH or treatment with AEA-activated ARE-containing reporter induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, independent of the cannabinoid receptors, CB1, CB2 or TRPV1. Furthermore, URB597, AEA and siRNA-FAAH treatments induced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, while siRNA-Nrf2 treatment and Keap1 expression blocked AEA, URB597 and si-FAAH from activation of ARE reporter and HO-1 induction. siRNA-HO-1 treatment decreased the viability of breast cancer cells and MCF-10A cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data uncovered a novel mechanism by which inhibition of FAAH or exposure to AEA induced HO-1 transcripts and implicating AEA and FAAH as direct modifiers in signalling mediated activation of Nrf2-HO-1 pathway, independent of cannabinoid receptors. PMID:23347118

  17. Resistance of callose synthase activity to free fatty acid inhibition as an indicator of Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Dorothea; Sode, Björn; Falter, Christian; Voigt, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB); a devastating crop disease resulting in heavy yield losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins. We recently showed that the secreted lipase FGL1, a virulence factor of F. graminearum, targets plant defense-related callose biosynthesis during wheat head infection. This effector-like function is based on a FGL1-mediated release of polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) that can inhibit callose synthase activity. The importance of FGL1 in successful wheat head colonization was demonstrated in FGL1 disruption mutants (Δfgl1), where infection was restricted to directly inoculated spikelets and accompanied by strong callose deposition in the spikelet’s phloem. The application of polyunsaturated FFA to Δfgl1-infected spikelets prevented callose deposition in the phloem and partially restored wheat head colonization.   The comparative analysis of 3 wheat cultivars revealed that the level of resistance to FHB correlated with resistance to FFA-dependent inhibition of callose biosynthesis. Therefore, resistance of callose biosynthesis to FFA inhibition might be used as marker and/or direct target in the breeding of FHB-resistant wheat cultivars. PMID:25763484

  18. Effect of manipulation of incubation temperature on fatty acid profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities in meat-type chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Yalin, S; Ba?datlio?lu, N; Yenisey, ; Siegel, P B; zkan, S; Ak?it, M

    2012-12-01

    Eggs (n = 1,800) obtained from Ross broiler breeders at 32 and 48 wk of age were incubated at either a constant temperature of 37.6C throughout (T1), or the temperature was reduced for 6 h to 36.6C each day during embryonic age (EA) 10 to 18 (T2). Yolk sac, liver, and brain fatty acid profiles and oxidant and antioxidant status of liver and brain were measured at EA 14, 19, and day of hatch (DOH). Fatty acid profiles of yolk sac, liver, and brain were influenced by age of breeder with significant breeder hen age incubation temperature interactions. At EA 14, higher levels of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 had been transferred from the yolk sac to T2 embryos from younger than older breeders, whereas for T1 and T2 embryos, yolk sac 20:4n-6 and 22.6n-3 values were similar for older breeders. Accumulation of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids in the liver of T1 and T2 embryos from younger breeders was similar; however, T2 embryos from older breeders had higher liver levels of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 than T1 embryos. At EA 19, liver nitric oxide levels were higher for T2 embryos from younger breeders than those from breeders incubated at T1. Brain catalase levels of T2 embryos from younger breeders were higher than those from older breeders at DOH. Thus, changes in fatty acid profiles and catalase and nitric oxide production of brain and liver tissues resulting from 1C lower incubation temperature from EA 10 to 18 reflect adaptive changes. PMID:23155039

  19. Effect of a seaweed extract on fatty acid accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    He, M L; Wang, Y; You, J S; Mir, P S; McAllister, T A

    2009-02-01

    This study was to determine the effect of a seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum extract (SE) containing 220 mg g(-1) phlorotannins on differentiation and fatty acid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells (2 x 10(4) mL(-1)) were seeded to 24-well plates and proliferated to reach confluence and then were treated with media containing 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mug mL(-1) SE for 8 days. Dexamethasone, methyl-isobutylxanthine and insulin (DMI) were added to the media in the first 2 days to induce cell differentiation. On day 8 the adipocytes were harvested for measuring cellular fatty acid concentration and the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). It was found that treatment with SE increased (P < 0.01, n = 6) cellular myristoleic acid (C14:1), palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and oleic acid (C18:1) and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) without significantly affecting the cell number and saturated fatty acid (SFA). Ratios of MUFA/SFA, C14:1/C14:0, C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0 in cellular lipids increased (P < 0.05, n = 6) with the SE treatment in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.001). Treatment with 75 microg mL(-1) SE depressed (P < 0.05) cellular GPDH activity. The results indicate that the biological factors in the SE may be involved in differentiation and MUFA accumulation in adipocytes. PMID:18982374

  20. Induction of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 by unsaturated fatty acids, retinoic acid, and carotenoids in preadipocytes obtained from bovine white adipose tissue1,2.

    PubMed

    Garca-Rojas, P; Antaramian, A; Gonzlez-Dvalos, L; Villarroya, F; Shimada, A; Varela-Echavarra, A; Mora, O

    2010-05-01

    The importance of dietary fat components, such as fatty acids, in the expression of multiple genes is clear. In the case of beef cattle, fat in the form of fatty acids (saturated or unsaturated), vitamin A (mainly retinoic acid), or carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein) is obtained from dietary feed or pasture. The aim of this work was to study the effect of fatty acids (phytanic and pristanic acids), vitamin A (all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid), and carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein) on the expression of PPARgamma and its coactivator PGC-1alpha during differentiation of bovine white adipose tissue. Samples were collected at slaughter from subcutaneous adipose tissue and processed in a solution containing type II collagenase for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were resuspended in basal medium, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum, plated on 24-well culture plates at a density of 1 x 10(4) cells/cm(2), and incubated at 37 degrees C in a 5% CO(2) atmosphere. Preadipocyte differentiation after reaching confluence was induced by various treatments: rosiglitazone (20 microM); unsaturated fatty acids: phytanic acid (25, 50, 100 microM) and pristanic acid (25, 50, 100 microM); retinoids: 9-cis retinoic acid (0.5, 0.75, 1 microM) and all-trans retinoic acid (0.5, 0.75, 1 microM); and carotenoids: beta-carotene (10, 20, 30 microM) and lutein (10, 20, 30 microM). Expression of PPARgamma and PGC-1alpha was measured in differentiated cells. Phytanic acid, all-trans retinoic acid, and 9-cis retinoic acid were the best activators of PPARgamma expression, and the combination of 9-cis and all-trans retinoic acid was the best activator of PGC-1alpha expression (P < 0.05). Therefore, these are powerful agents for the promotion of bovine adipogenesis and constitute promising compounds to be used in bovine fattening. PMID:20154154

  1. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  2. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:25720716

  4. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation. PMID:26363316

  5. Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Richard; Awouafack, Maurice D; Steenkamp, Paul; Jooste, Piet J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48 h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48 h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts had a much higher antifungal activity than antifungal compounds isolated from the growth medium by many other authors. This indicates that probiotics may also release antifungal compounds in their cells that could contribute to a therapeutic effect. Lactic acid (1) and 6-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,6-di-O-pentadecanoyl-?-D-glucopyranose a novel fatty acid derivative (2) were isolated from methanol probiotic extracts and the structure of these compounds were elucidated using NMR (1 and 2D) and mass spectrometry (MS). PMID:24996359

  6. Inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Pleite, Rafael; Martnez-Force, Enrique; Garcs, Rafael

    2006-09-01

    During de novo fatty acid synthesis in sunflower seeds, saturated fatty acid production is influenced by the competition between the enzymes of the principal pathways and the saturated acyl-ACP thioesterases. Genetic backgrounds with more efficient saturated acyl-ACP thioesterase alleles only express their phenotypic effects when the alleles for the enzymes in the main pathway are less efficient. For this reason, we studied the incorporation of [2-(14)C]acetate into the lipids of developing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.) from several mutant lines in vivo. The labelling of different triacylglycerol fatty acids in different oilseed mutants reflects the fatty acid composition of the seed and supports the channelling theory of fatty acid biosynthesis. Incubation with methyl viologen diminished the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyl-ACP in vivo through a decrease in the available reductant power. In turn, this led to the accumulation of stearoyl-ACP to the levels detected in seeds from high stearic acid mutants. The concomitant reduction of oleoyl-ACP content inside the plastid allowed us to study the activity of acyl-ACP thioesterases on saturated fatty acids. In these mutants, we verified that the accumulation of saturated fatty acids requires efficient thioesterase activity on saturated-ACPs. By studying the effects of cerulenin on the in vivo incorporation of [2-(14)C]acetate into lipids and on the in vitro activity of beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, we found that elongation to very long chain fatty acids can occur both inside and outside of the plastid in sunflower seeds. PMID:16500723

  7. Correlation of inhibitor effects on enzyme activity and thermal stability for the integral membrane protein fatty acid amide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Slaymaker, Ian; Bracey, Michael; Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Cravatt, Benjamin; Boger, Dale; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    The melting curves of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the presence of 29 reversible inhibitors were measured using a thiol-reactive fluorophore. The thermal stability (Tm) of the FAAH/inhibitor complex varied significantly depending on the chemical characteristics of the inhibitors, notably variations in the head group. Two separate distributions were observed when Tm was plotted againt Ki. The majority of the inhibitors showed a positive correlation between binding affinity and Tm, however inhibitors with a pyridine carboxylic acid moiety in the head group fell in a distinct and uncorrelated distribution when tail groups were varied. PMID:18644727

  8. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-10-24

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation. PMID:18682402

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fetal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question I have learned that one of the manufacturers of prenatal vitamins has added omega-3 fatty acids and claims that they help support fetal cognitive health and brain function. Is this based on evidence? Answer The claim that polyunsaturated fatty acids help improve fetal brain and eye development has been made for more than a decade. Unfortunately it is not supported by evidence-based science. Long-term studies have failed to show such effects. Implying to women that using these products will improve the brain development of their children is unwarranted and misleading. Health Canada should clarify the contradictions in its statements about omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:25756142

  10. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty...

  11. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848...

  12. CYP4 Enzymes as potential drug targets: focus on enzyme multiplicity, inducers and inhibitors, and therapeutic modulation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthase and fatty acid ω-hydroxylase activities

    PubMed Central

    Edson, Katheryne Z.; Rettie, Allan E.

    2014-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 4 (CYP4) family of enzymes in humans is comprised of thirteen isozymes that typically catalyze the ω-oxidation of endogenous fatty acids and eicosanoids. Several CYP4 enzymes can biosynthesize 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid or 20-HETE, an important signaling eicosanoid involved in regulation of vascular tone and kidney reabsorption. Additionally, accumulation of certain fatty acids is a hallmark of the rare genetic disorders, Refsum disease and X-ALD. Therefore, modulation of CYP4 enzyme activity, either by inhibition or induction, is a potential strategy for drug discovery. Here we review the substrate specificities, sites of expression, genetic regulation, and inhibition by exogenous chemicals of the human CYP4 enzymes, and discuss the targeting of CYP4 enzymes in the development of new treatments for hypertension, stroke, certain cancers and the fatty acid-linked orphan diseases. PMID:23688133

  13. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty...

  14. [Dietary fatty acids and experimental carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Bougnoux, Philippe; Menanteau, Jean

    2005-07-01

    Experiments in animal models of mammary carcinogenesis suggest that fatty acids promote mammary tumors development. This effect depends first on the amount then on the type of fatty acids available. n-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid generally stimulates mammary tumor growth, while n-3 fatty acids oppose this effect. Conjugated diene fatty acids (CLA) inhibit mammary carcinogenesis when brought at elevated amount. There are limitations in using an animal model in the analysis between nutrition and colorectal cancers. This is ascribable to the following: firstly, the digestive tract of rodents if different from that of humans and secondly, the induction of colon cancer in these animals (chemical carcinogenesis, injection of cancerous cells or transgenesis) does not mimic human colon carcinogenesis. However, on the basis of numerous published data, some important correlations have arisen that could generate hypotheses and guide new epidemiological/interventional and experimental studies. In these animal models it appears that an adequate supply of n-3 PUFAs and oleic acid in food may exert a protective effect at all stages of colon carcinogenesis. On the other hand, an excessive consumption of n-6 PUFAs and of saturated fatty acids could promote colon cancers. PMID:16123007

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum microenvironment and conserved histidines govern ELOVL4 fatty acid elongase activity.

    PubMed

    Logan, Sreemathi; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Chan, Michael D; Brush, Richard S; Anderson, Robert E

    2014-04-01

    Autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) in humans results from mutations in elongation of very long chain FAs-like 4 (ELOVL4), which leads to vision loss in young adults. ELOVL4 is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that mediates the elongation of very long chain (VLC) FAs. Mutations in ELOVL4 lead to truncation and mislocalization of the translated protein from the ER, the site of FA elongation. Little is known about the enzymatic elongation of VLC-FAs by ELOVL4. We over-expressed full-length mouse ELOVL4, an N-glycosylation-deficient mutant, an ER-retention mutant, and mutants of active site histidines to parse their individual roles in VLC-FA elongation. ELOVL4 elongated appropriate precursors to the corresponding VLC-FA species ? 28 carbons. Active site histidine mutants of ELOVL4 did not elongate appropriate precursors, establishing ELOVL4 as the elongase. Displacing ELOVL4 from the ER was sufficient to cause loss of condensation activity, while absence of N-glycosylation was irrelevant for enzyme function. This study shows that ELOVL4 enzymatic activity is governed by individual histidines in its active site and the ER microenvironment, both of which are essential for elongation of VLC-FAs. PMID:24569140

  16. Maternal micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids, and placental PPAR? expression.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya P; Joshi, Asmita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2014-07-01

    An altered one-carbon cycle is known to influence placental and fetal development. We hypothesize that deficiency of maternal micronutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 will lead to increased oxidative stress, reduced long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and altered expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR?) in the placenta, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to these diets will increase the expression of PPAR?. Female rats were divided into 5 groups: control, folic acid deficient, vitamin B12 deficient, folic acid deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented, and vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented. Dams were dissected on gestational day 20. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to lower (p < 0.05) levels of placental docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, PPAR? expression and higher (p < 0.05) levels of plasma malonidialdehyde, placental IL-6, and TNF-?. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalized the expression of PPAR? and lowered the levels of placental TNF-?. In the case of supplementation to a folic acid deficient diet it lowered the levels of malonidialdehyde and placental IL-6 and TNF-?. This study has implications for fetal growth as oxidative stress, inflammation, and PPAR? are known to play a key role in the placental development. PMID:24749811

  17. [Metabolism of fatty acids in the healthy myocardium and in ischemia].

    PubMed

    Matiushin, I F; Boiarinov, G A; Bogdarin, Iu A

    1984-01-01

    Data on absorption and consumption in heart tissue of free and ester-bound fatty acids from blood lipids are discussed. Preferential utilization of individual fatty acids in heart tissue from blood lipids is considered. Dependence of fatty acid metabolism on the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle, interrelationship between metabolism of endogenous and exogenous fatty acids in heart muscle are considered. The data are analyzed on pathways of exogenous fatty acids turnover in tissues, their conversion into endogenous fatty acids, specific for individual tissue, cells and their organelles. Development of syndrome of unsaturated fatty acids deficiency, induced by incomplete fatty diet, is discussed. Metabolism of fatty acids in heart under conditions of oxygen deficiency is considered. The data are reviewed on the effects of hypoxia on metabolism of fatty acids in myocardium. Carbohydrate and fatty acid consumption in heart muscle, typical alterations in fatty acid incorporation into heart lipids, effect of fatty acids excess on functioning of sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial membranes are discussed. PMID:6396941

  18. Mutations in Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Reveal That Catalytic Activity Influences Growth but Not Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid or Pathogens*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Chul; Kang, Li; Nagaraj, Satish; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Chapman, Kent D.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) terminates the endocannabinoid signaling pathway that regulates numerous neurobehavioral processes in animals by hydrolyzing N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Recently, an Arabidopsis FAAH homologue (AtFAAH) was identified, and several studies, especially those using AtFAAH overexpressing and knock-out lines, have suggested an in vivo role for FAAH in the catabolism of NAEs in plants. We previously reported that overexpression of AtFAAH in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seedling growth, and in seedlings that were insensitive to exogenous NAEs but hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and hypersusceptible to nonhost pathogens. Here we show that whereas the enhanced growth and NAE tolerance of the AtFAAH overexpressing seedlings depend on the catalytic activity of AtFAAH, hypersensitivity to ABA and hypersusceptibility to nonhost pathogens are independent of its enzymatic activity. Five amino acids known to be critical for rat FAAH activity are also conserved in AtFAAH (Lys-205, Ser-281, Ser-282, Ser-305, and Arg-307). Site-directed mutation of each of these conserved residues in AtFAAH abolished its hydrolytic activity when expressed in Escherichia coli, supporting a common catalytic mechanism in animal and plant FAAH enzymes. Overexpression of these inactive AtFAAH mutants in Arabidopsis showed no growth enhancement and no NAE tolerance, but still rendered the seedlings hypersensitive to ABA and hypersusceptible to nonhost pathogens to a degree similar to the overexpression of the native AtFAAH. Taken together, our findings suggest that the AtFAAH influences plant growth and interacts with ABA signaling and plant defense through distinctly different mechanisms. PMID:19801664

  19. Statin induction of liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene expression is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-dependent.

    PubMed

    Landrier, Jean-Franois; Thomas, Charles; Grober, Jacques; Duez, Hlne; Percevault, Frdric; Souidi, Mamar; Linard, Christine; Staels, Bart; Besnard, Philippe

    2004-10-29

    Statins are drugs widely used in humans to treat hypercholesterolemia. Statins act by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis resulting in the activation of the transcription factor sterol-responsive element-binding protein-2 that controls the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Statin therapy also decreases plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels, but the mechanism behind this effect remains more elusive. Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) plays a role in the influx of long-chain fatty acids into hepatocytes. Here we show that L-FABP is a target for statins. In rat hepatocytes, simvastatin treatment induced L-FABP mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, L-FABP promoter activity was induced by statin treatment. Progressive 5'-deletion analysis revealed that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-responsive element located at position -67/-55 was responsible for the statin-mediated transactivation of the rat L-FABP promoter. Moreover, treatment with simvastatin and the PPARalpha agonist Wy14,649 resulted in a synergistic induction of L-FABP expression (mRNA and protein) in rat Fao hepatoma cells. This effect was also observed in vivo in wild-type mice but not in PPARalpha-null animals demonstrating the direct implication of PPARalpha in L-FABP regulation by statin treatment. Statin treatment resulted in a rise in PPARalpha mRNA levels both in vitro and in vivo and activated the mouse PPARalpha promoter in a reporter assay. Altogether, these data demonstrate that L-FABP expression is up-regulated by statins through a mechanism involving PPARalpha. Moreover, PPARalpha might be a statin target gene. These effects might contribute to the triglyceride/non-esterified fatty acid-lowering properties of statins. PMID:15337740

  20. Oxygenases for aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenases catalyzing the insertion of oxygen into either aliphatic hydrocarbons or fatty acids have great similarity. There are two classes of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Dioxygenase inserts both atoms of molecular oxygen into a substrate, whereas monooxygenase incorporates one a...

  1. Fatty acid analysis of triacylglycerols: Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Kohsaka, Chihiro; Tomari, Naohiro; Kiyono, Tamami; Wada, Jun; Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-15

    A method to prepare fatty acid methyl esters was developed for fatty acid analysis of triacylglycerols by gas chromatography (GC). Triacylglycerols were mixed with methanolic CH3ONa in hexane containing a mid-polar solvent for 10s at room temperature. Under these conditions, trioleoylglycerol was converted to methyl oleate with an average yield of 99.3%. This procedure gave reliable and reproducible data on fatty acid compositions determined by GC. PMID:26656926

  2. [Fatty acid composition of the lipids in human blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes during simulation of extravehicular activities of cosmonauts].

    PubMed

    Skedina, M A; Katuntsev, V P; Buravkova, L B; Na?dina, V P

    1998-01-01

    Dynamics of the lipoacidic content of total plasma lipids and erythtocyte membranes was studied in 32 experiments with ten apparently healthy male subjects aged 27 to 41 years who were exposed to repeated decompression from the normal ground down to 40-35 kPa. For two hours of exposure to lowered pressure the subjects were breathing pure oxygen in mask and performing incremental physical work mimicking loading of the upper extremities of cosmonauts doing extravehicular activities (EVA) at the energy cost of 3 kcal/min. Decompression sessions were repeated with intervals from 3 to 5 days. In seven experiments, the subjects developed symptoms of the decompression sickness (DCS). Penetration of gas bubbles (GB) into the pulmonary artery was registered in 27 cases (84.4%). In 24 cases maximal intensity of the US signals from GB reached 3 to 4 Spencer's points. No changes in the lipidoacidic content of blood plasma or erythrocyte membranes were determined following the first exposure to decompression. BY the onset of repeated decompression, total number of lipids in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 to 40.4 mg% in the group of subjects who had not displayed DCS symptoms (n = 5) and from 51.2 to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) in the group of subjects with DCS symptoms (n = 5). In the subjects with DCS, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2) tended to decrease against the upward trend of saturated fatty acids (16:0, 18:0). In these subjects, arachidonic acid in erythrocyte membranes (20:4) decreased following each decompression exposure and significantly increased (p < 0.05) in-between. In both groups, blood plasma showed slight fluctuations in the lipoacidic contents. These data suggest that exposure to the variety of the EVA-simulating factors may entail quite distinct but reversible modifications in the lipid metabolism in blood and the structural/functional state of erythrocyte membranes. The most marked alterations were observed in the subjects with the DCS symptoms during high intensity of US signals from GB in the venous blood flow. PMID:9883330

  3. Cox-dependent fatty acid metabolites cause pain through activation of the irritant receptor TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Materazzi, Serena; Nassini, Romina; Andr, Eunice; Campi, Barbara; Amadesi, Silvia; Trevisani, Marcello; Bunnett, Nigel W; Patacchini, Riccardo; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    2008-08-19

    Prostaglandins (PG) are known to induce pain perception indirectly by sensitizing nociceptors. Accordingly, the analgesic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) results from inhibition of cyclooxygenases and blockade of PG biosynthesis. Cyclopentenone PGs, 15-d-PGJ(2), PGA(2), and PGA(1), formed by dehydration of their respective parent PGs, PGD(2), PGE(2), and PGE(1), possess a highly reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group that has been proposed to gate the irritant transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel. Here, by using TRPA1 wild-type (TRPA1(+/+)) or deficient (TRPA1(-/-)) mice, we show that cyclopentenone PGs produce pain by direct stimulation of nociceptors via TRPA1 activation. Cyclopentenone PGs caused a robust calcium response in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of TRPA1(+/+), but not of TRPA1(-/-) mice, and a calcium-dependent release of sensory neuropeptides from the rat dorsal spinal cord. Intraplantar injection of cyclopentenone PGs stimulated c-fos expression in spinal neurons of the dorsal horn and evoked an instantaneous, robust, and transient nociceptive response in TRPA1(+/+) but not in TRPA1(-/-) mice. The classical proalgesic PG, PGE(2), caused a slight calcium response in DRG neurons, increased c-fos expression in spinal neurons, and induced a delayed and sustained nociceptive response in both TRPA1(+/+) and TRPA1(-/-) mice. These results expand the mechanism of NSAID analgesia from blockade of indirect nociceptor sensitization by classical PGs to inhibition of direct TRPA1-dependent nociceptor activation by cyclopentenone PGs. Thus, TRPA1 antagonism may contribute to suppress pain evoked by PG metabolites without the adverse effects of inhibiting cyclooxygenases. PMID:18687886

  4. Nrf2 affects the efficiency of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Angelova, Plamena R; Zhang, Ying; Abramov, Andrey Y; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2014-02-01

    Transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2) regulates the cellular redox homoeostasis and cytoprotective responses, allowing adaptation and survival under conditions of stress. The significance of Nrf2in intermediary metabolism is also beginning to be recognized. Thus this transcription factor negatively affects fatty acid synthesis. However, the effect of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation is currently unknown. In the present paper, we report that the mitochondrial oxidation of long-chain (palmitic) and short-chain (hexanoic) fatty acids is depressed in the absence of Nrf2 and accelerated when Nrf2 is constitutively active. Addition of fatty acids stimulates respiration in heart and liver mitochondria isolated from wild-type mice. This effect is significantly weaker when Nrf2 is deleted, whereas it is stronger when Nrf2 activity is constitutively high. In the absence of glucose, addition of fatty acids differentially affects the production of ATP in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type, Nrf2-knockout and Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)-knockout mice. In acute tissue slices, the rate of regeneration of FADH2 is reduced when Nrf2 is absent. This metabolic role of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation has implications for chronic disease conditions including cancer, metabolic syndrome and neurodegeneration. PMID:24206218

  5. Dysregulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kyubok; Norris, Keith; Vaziri, Nosratola D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in hypertriglyceridemia which is largely due to impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins occasioned by downregulation of lipoprotein lipase and very low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and of hepatic lipase and LDL receptor-related protein in the liver. However, data on the effect of CKD on fatty acid metabolism in the liver is limited and was investigated here. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo 5/6 nephrectomy (CRF) or sham operation (control) and observed for 12 weeks. The animals were then euthanized and their liver tissue tested for nuclear translocation (activation) of carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol-responsive element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) which independently regulate the expression of key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, i.e. fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) as well as nuclear Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) which regulates the expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and transport, i.e. L-FABP and CPT1A. In addition, the expression of ATP synthase ?, ATP synthase ?, glycogen synthase and diglyceride acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and DGAT2 were determined. Results Compared with controls, the CKD rats exhibited hypertriglyceridemia, elevated plasma and liver tissue free fatty acids, increased nuclear ChREBP and reduced nuclear SREBP-1 and PPAR?, upregulation of ACC and FAS and downregulation of L-FABP, CPT1A, ATP synthase ?, glycogen synthase and DGAT in the liver tissue. Conclusion Liver in animals with advanced CKD exhibits ChREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis, downregulation of PPAR?-regulated fatty acid oxidation system and reduction of DGAT resulting in reduced fatty acid incorporation in triglyceride. PMID:23045433

  6. Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Derived from Sophorolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting from 17-hydroxyoleic acid, which is readily available from acid alcoholysis of sophorolipids, several new polyhydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized. These compounds contain from 2 to 5 hydroxy groups, in some instances combined with other functional groups. The added hydroxy groups ca...

  7. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-,...

  8. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  9. Fatty acids, inflammation and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Zurier, R B

    1993-01-01

    Evidence obtained from experiments in vitro and in vivo suggests that certain unsaturated fatty acids (FA) may be safe and effective antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agents. Generation of a unique eicosanoid profile with different biological effects by administration of FA precursors other than arachidonic acid is one approach under investigation. In addition to their role as eicosanoid precursors, FA are of major importance in maintaining cell membrane structure, are key determinants of membrane bound enzyme activity and receptor expression. FA can exert these functions directly and therefore may themselves be important regulators of immune responses. For example, certain FA influence cytokine production and proliferation of human T lymphocytes in a manner that is direct and not due to their conversion to eicosanoids. The observations indicate that FA can modulate immune responses by acting directly on T-cells and suggest that alteration of cellular FA may be a worthwhile approach to control of inflammation. PMID:8424124

  10. Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jennifer L; Lee, Soo Hee; Paul, Kimberly S; Englund, Paul T

    2007-02-16

    Whereas other organisms utilize type I or type II synthases to make fatty acids, trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei are unique in their use of a microsomal elongase pathway (ELO) for de novo fatty acid synthesis (FAS). Because of the unusual lipid metabolism of the trypanosome, it was important to study a second FAS pathway predicted by the genome to be a type II synthase. We localized this pathway to the mitochondrion, and RNA interference (RNAi) or genomic deletion of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase indicated that this pathway is likely essential for bloodstream and procyclic life cycle stages of the parasite. In vitro assays show that the largest major fatty acid product of the pathway is C16, whereas the ELO pathway, utilizing ELOs 1, 2, and 3, synthesizes up to C18. To demonstrate mitochondrial FAS in vivo, we radio-labeled fatty acids in cultured procyclic parasites with [(14)C]pyruvate or [(14)C]threonine, either of which is catabolized to [(14)C]acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. Although some of the [(14)C]acetyl-CoA may be utilized by the ELO pathway, a striking reduction in radiolabeled fatty acids following ACP RNAi confirmed that it is also consumed by mitochondrial FAS. ACP depletion by RNAi or gene knockout also reduces lipoic acid levels and drastically decreases protein lipoylation. Thus, octanoate (C8), the precursor for lipoic acid synthesis, must also be a product of mitochondrial FAS. Trypanosomes employ two FAS systems: the unconventional ELO pathway that synthesizes bulk fatty acids and a mitochondrial pathway that synthesizes specialized fatty acids that are likely utilized intramitochondrially. PMID:17166831

  11. Stereoselective oxidation of regioisomeric octadecenoic acids by fatty acid dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Oliw, Ernst H.; Wennman, Anneli; Hoffmann, Inga; Garscha, Ulrike; Hamberg, Mats; Jernern, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Seven Z-octadecenoic acids having the double bond located in positions 6Z to 13Z were photooxidized. The resulting hydroperoxy-E-octadecenoic acids [HpOME(E)] were resolved by chiral phase-HPLC-MS, and the absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by gas chromatographic analysis of diastereoisomeric derivatives. The MS/MS/MS spectra showed characteristic fragments, which were influenced by the distance between the hydroperoxide and carboxyl groups. These fatty acids were then investigated as substrates of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), manganese lipoxygenase (MnLOX), and the (8R)-dioxygenase (8R-DOX) activities of two linoleate diol synthases (LDS) and 10R-DOX. COX-1 and MnLOX abstracted hydrogen at C-11 of (12Z)-18:1 and C-12 of (13Z)-18:1. (11Z)-18:1 was subject to hydrogen abstraction at C-10 by MnLOX and at both allylic positions by COX-1. Both allylic hydrogens of (8Z)-18:1 were also abstracted by 8R-DOX activities of LDS and 10R-DOX, but only the allylic hydrogens close to the carboxyl groups of (11Z)-18:1 and (12Z)-18:1. 8R-DOX also oxidized monoenoic C14-C20 fatty acids with double bonds at the (9Z) position, suggesting that the length of the omega end has little influence on positioning for oxygenation. We conclude that COX-1 and MnLOX can readily abstract allylic hydrogens of octadecenoic fatty acids from C-10 to C-12 and 8R-DOX from C-7 and C-12. PMID:21852690

  12. Functional characterization of flax fatty acid desaturase FAD2 and FAD3 isoforms expressed in yeast reveals a broad diversity in activity.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Natasa; Thambugala, Dinushika; Duguid, Scott; Loewen, Evelyn; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-07-01

    With 45 % or more oil content that contains more than 55 % alpha linolenic (LIN) acid, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the richest plant sources of this essential fatty acid. Fatty acid desaturases 2 (FAD2) and 3 (FAD3) are the main enzymes responsible for the ?12 and ?15 desaturation in planta. In linseed, the oilseed morphotype of flax, two paralogous copies, and several alleles exist for each gene. Here, we cloned three alleles of FAD2A, four of FAD2B, six of FAD3A, and seven of FAD3B into a pYES vector and transformed all 20 constructs and an empty construct in yeast. The transformants were induced in the presence of oleic (OLE) acid substrate for FAD2 constructs and linoleic (LIO) acid for FAD3. Conversion rates of OLE acid into LIO acid and LIO acid into LIN acid were measured by gas chromatography. Conversion rate of FAD2 exceeded that of FAD3 enzymes with FAD2B having a conversion rate approximately 10 % higher than FAD2A. All FAD2 isoforms were active, but significant differences existed between isoforms of both FAD2 enzymes. Two FAD3A and three FAD3B isoforms were not functional. Some nonfunctional enzymes resulted from the presence of nonsense mutations causing premature stop codons, but FAD3B-C and FAD3B-F seem to be associated with single amino acid changes. The activity of FAD3A-C was more than fivefold greater than the most common isoform FAD3A-A, while FAD3A-F was fourfold greater. Such isoforms could be incorporated into breeding lines to possibly further increase the proportion of LIN acid in linseed. PMID:24522837

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids attenuate constitutive and insulin-induced CD36 expression through a suppression of PPAR α/γ activity in microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Salerni, Sara; Schiavone, Deborah; Glatz, Jan F; Geng, Yong-Jian; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2011-09-01

    Microvascular dysfunction occurs in insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinaemia. Enhanced uptake of free fatty acids (FFA) and oxidised low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) may lead to oxidative stress and microvascular dysfunction interacting with CD36, a PPARα/γ-regulated scavenger receptor and long-chain FFA transporter. We investigated CD36 expression and CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake before and after insulin treatment in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), ± different types of fatty acids (FA), including palmitic, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Insulin (10(-8) and 10(-7) M) time-dependently increased DiI-oxLDL uptake and CD36 surface expression (by 30 ± 13%, p<0.05 vs. untreated control after 24 hours incubation), as assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry, an effect that was potentiated by the PI3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin and reverted by the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 and the PPARα/γ antagonist GW9662. A ≥ 24 hour exposure to 50 μM DHA or EPA, but not other FA, blunted both the constitutive (by 23 ± 3% and 29 ± 2%, respectively, p<0.05 for both) and insulin-induced CD36 expressions (by 45 ± 27 % and 12 ± 3 %, respectively, p<0.05 for both), along with insulin-induced uptake of DiI-oxLDL and the downregulation of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (P-eNOS). At gel shift assays, DHA reverted insulin-induced basal and oxLDL-stimulated transactivation of PPRE and DNA binding of PPARα/γ and NF-κB. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids blunt the increased CD36 expression and activity promoted by high concentrations of insulin. Such mechanisms may be the basis for the use of omega-3 fatty acids in diabetic microvasculopathy. PMID:21727988

  14. Oxidation of fatty aldehydes to fatty acids by Escherichia coli cells expressing the Vibrio harveyi fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH).

    PubMed

    Buchhaupt, Markus; Guder, Jan; Sporleder, Fenja; Paetzold, Melanie; Schrader, Jens

    2013-03-01

    Fatty acids represent an important renewable feedstock for the chemical industry. To enable biotechnological one carbon truncations of fatty acids, the enzymes α-dioxygenase and fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) have to be combined in a two-step process. We expressed an FALDH from V. harveyi in E. coli and characterized its substrate spectrum with a focus on the number and position of double bonds in the fatty aldehyde molecules. Synthesis of the expected fatty acid products was proven by analysis of whole cell biotransformation products. Coexpression of a H(2)O-forming NADPH oxidase (NOX) from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis led to the implementation of a cofactor regeneration cycle in in vitro oxidation experiments. The presence of NOX in whole cell biotransformations improved reaction velocity but did not result in higher product yields. We could further demonstrate that at least part of the endogenous NAD(P)(+) regeneration capacity in the resting cells results from the respiratory chain. The whole cell catalyst with the high broad range FALDH activity described here is an important biotechnological module for lipid biotransformation processes, especially the shortening of fatty acids. PMID:23180547

  15. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  16. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  17. Effect of dietary saturated fatty acids on hormone-sensitive lipolysis in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Awad, A B; Chattopadhyay, J P

    1986-06-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the mechanism by which dietary saturated fatty acids, as compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids, lower hormone-sensitive lipolysis in rat adipocytes. Rats were fed a purified diet containing 14% of a fat with a high concentration of either saturated fatty acids (coconut oil or beef fat) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (safflower oil) as a control. In addition, each diet contained 2% corn oil. The animals were fed these diets for 4 wk. Norepinephrine-stimulated lipolysis was 50% lower when diets rich in saturated fatty acids, regardless of their chain length, were fed than when a diet containing a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was fed. The specific activities of adenylate cyclase, 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide (cAMP) phosphodiesterase and hormone-sensitive lipase were lower when saturated fatty acids were fed than when polyunsaturated fatty acids were fed. Accumulation of cAMP upon stimulation with 10(-5) M norepinephrine was lower when saturated fatty acids were fed than when polyunsaturated fatty acids were fed. Moreover, adipocytes were larger when saturated fatty acids were fed than when polyunsaturated fatty acids were fed. The data obtained suggest that dietary saturated fats exert their inhibitory effect on hormone-stimulated lipolysis by influencing several points in the lipolytic cascade. PMID:3014093

  18. Lipid metabolism. Evidence of a ?-oxidation pathway for saturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Dimick, P. S.; Walker, N. J.; Patton, Stuart

    1969-01-01

    1. Specific radioactivities of milk triglyceride fatty acids and ?- and ?-hydroxy fatty acids were measured after the intramammary infusion of [1-14C]acetate, ?-hydroxy[1-14C]laurate and [1-14C]laurate as their sodium salts into fed lactating goats. 2. Net incorporations of the radioactive tracer into the total milk lipids were comparable, being 16, 17 and 21% of the label infused respectively. 3. The specific radioactivities of the C4C8 fatty acids after [1-14C]acetate infusion were lower than those of the C10C14 fatty acids. 4. After ?-hydroxy[1-14C]laurate administration the milk triglyceride fatty acids were labelled and their specific radioactivities were characterized by decreasing values with increasing chain length of the fatty acids, implicating C4 unit incorporation. 5. The ?- and ?-hydroxy fatty acids isolated after [1-14C]laurate infusion were highly labelled and the milk triglyceride fatty acids, other than laurate, exhibited a labelling pattern similar to that of the fatty acids derived from the radioactive ?-hydroxy fatty acid. 6. Evidence is presented for the existence of saturated fatty acid ?-oxidation in the mammary gland, in which the ?- and ?-hydroxy fatty acids are active intermediates. PMID:5774468

  19. The relationship between fatty acid profiles in milk identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and onset of luteal activity in Norwegian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Martin, A D; Afseth, N K; Kohler, A; Randby, Å; Eknæs, M; Waldmann, A; Dørum, G; Måge, I; Reksen, O

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of milk fatty acids as predictors of onset of luteal activity (OLA), 87 lactations taken from 73 healthy Norwegian Red cattle were surveyed over 2 winter housing seasons. The feasibility of using frozen milk samples for dry-film Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) determination of milk samples was also tested. Morning milk samples were collected thrice weekly (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) for the first 10 wk in milk (WIM). These samples had bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol) added to them before being frozen at -20°C, thawed, and analyzed by ELISA to determine progesterone concentration and the concentrations of the milk fatty acids C4:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, and cis-9 C18:1 as a proportion of total milk fatty acid content using dry-film FTIR, and averaged by WIM. Onset of luteal activity was defined as the first day that milk progesterone concentrations were >3 ng/mL for 2 successive measurements; the study population was categorized as early (n=47) or late (n=40) OLA, using the median value of 21 DIM as the cutoff. Further milk samples were collected 6 times weekly, from morning and afternoon milkings, these were pooled by WIM, and one proportional sample was analyzed fresh for fat, protein, and lactose content by the dairy company Tine SA, using traditional FTIR spectrography in the wet phase of milk. Daily energy-balance calculations were performed in 42 lactations and averaged by WIM. Animals experiencing late OLA had a more negative energy balance in WIM 1, 3, 4, and 5, with the greatest differences been seen in WIM 3 and 4. A higher proportion of the fatty acids were medium chained, C14:0 and C16:0, in the early than in the late OLA group from WIM 1. In WIM 4, the proportion of total fatty acid content that was C16:0 predicted late OLA, with 74% sensitivity and 80% specificity. The long-chain proportion of the fatty acids C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 were lower in the early than in the late OLA group. Differences were greatest in WIM 4 and 5. Differences in concentrations of cis-9 C18:1 were seen between the groups from WIM 1. No relationship was seen between OLA and milk concentrations of either protein or fat, or between OLA and the milk fat:protein ratio. The differences in milk fatty acid proportions between the 2 groups are most likely related to differences in energy balance. The study shows that frozen milk samples can be tested for fatty acids by FTIR spectroscopy and that FTIR spectroscopy of milk can be used to provide real-time information about cow reproductive function. PMID:26004832

  20. Acute regulation of 5?-AMP-activated protein kinase by long-chain fatty acid, glucose and insulin in rat primary adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hebbachi, Abdel; Saggerson, David

    2012-01-01

    Palmitate increased AMPK (5?-AMP-activated protein kinase) activity, glucose utilization and 2-DOG (2-deoxyglucose) transport in rat adipocytes. All three effects were blocked by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, leading to the conclusion that in response to an increase in long-chain NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid) concentration AMPK mediated an enhancement of adipocyte glucose transport, thereby providing increased glycerol 3-phosphate for FA (fatty acid) esterification to TAG (triacylglycerol). Activation of AMPK in response to palmitate was not due to an increase in the adipocyte AMP:ATP ratio. Glucose decreased AMPK activity and effects of palmitate and glucose on AMPK activity were antagonistic. While insulin had no effect on basal AMPK activity insulin did decrease AMPK activity in the presence of palmitate and also decreased the percentage effectiveness of palmitate to increase the transport of 2-DOG. It is suggested that activation of adipocyte AMPK by NEFA, as well as decreasing the activity of hormone-sensitive lipase, could modulate adipose tissue dynamics by increasing FA esterification and, under certain circumstances, FA synthesis. PMID:23095119

  1. An Immunomodulating Fatty Acid Analogue Targeting Mitochondria Exerts Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect beyond Plasma Cholesterol-Lowering Activity in apoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Cinzia; Bjrndal, Bodil; Holm, Sverre; Bohov, Pavol; Halvorsen, Bente; Brattelid, Trond; Manzini, Stefano; Ganzetti, Giulia S.; Dellera, Federica; Nygrd, Ottar K.; Aukrust, Pl; Sirtori, Cesare R.; Chiesa, Giulia; Berge, Rolf K.

    2013-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a hypolipidemic antioxidant with immunomodulating properties involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and proliferation of mitochondria. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of TTA on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein (apo)-E-/- mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.3% TTA for 12 weeks. These mice displayed a significantly less atherosclerotic development vs control. Plasma cholesterol was increased by TTA administration and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in plasma and liver were decreased by TTA supplementation, the latter, probably due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipogenesis. TTA administration also changed the fatty acid composition in the heart, and the amount of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was reduced and increased, respectively. The heart mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxidase (NOS)-2 was decreased in TTA-treated mice, whereas the mRNA level of catalase was increased. Finally, reduced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators as IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-? and IFN-? were detected in TTA-treated mice. These data show that TTA reduces atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice and modulates risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders. TTA probably acts at both systemic and vascular levels in a manner independent of changes in plasma cholesterol, and triggers TAG catabolism through improved mitochondrial function. PMID:24324736

  2. Synergistic effect of natural compounds on the fatty acid-induced autophagy of activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan-Wei; Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Sie, Huei-Wun; Cheng, Ming-Fan; Tsai, May-Jywan; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-09-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal pathway to maintain cellular homeostasis, is mediated via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathways. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), previously termed fat- or vitamin A-storing cells, can transdifferentiate into myofibroblast-like cells and are the most relevant cell type for overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) and development of liver fibrosis during injury. However, the role of autophagy in fat metabolism of HSCs remains unclear. This study investigates the regulatory effect of natural compounds on fatty acid-induced autophagy pathways of nonchemical-induced HSC (NHSC) and thioacetamide-induced HSC. Oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA) have shown a significant effect on cell proliferation with oil red O staining and Western blot confirming that OA and PA induce fat storage ability and autophagy protein expression in NHSC. Natural compounds rutin, curcumin, antroquinonol and benzyl cinnamate treatment have shown no effect on the autophagy protein expression. Nevertheless, cells pretreated with OA and PA then treated with rutin, curcumin, antroquinonol and benzyl cinnamate could significantly induce the light chain I/II (LC3 I/II) protein expression. In mTOR-dependent pathway, the PI3K-Class I, Akt, and p-mTOR proteins were decreased with PA treatment. However, there were no significant changes in PI3K-Class III and Beclin-1 protein expressions found to imply that this autophagy is unrelated to the mTOR-independent pathway. Taken together, the present study unveils rutin and curcumin as a possible effective stimulation for fatty acid-induced autophagy via mTOR-dependent pathways in NHSC. We further suggest the benefits of these natural compounds for alleviating liver fibrosis. PMID:24857031

  3. Evaluation of chemical constitute, fatty acids and antioxidant activity of the fruit and seed of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) grown wild in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Keramatollah; Alirezalu, Abolfazl; Akbari, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    In this investigation, the chemical compositions of berries from sea buckthorn were studied. The amount of ascorbic acid and ?-carotene determined by HPLC was 170mg/100g FW and 0.20mg/g FW, respectively. Total phenols, anthocyanins, acidity and total soluble solids (TSS) contents were 247mgGAE/100gFW, 3mg/L (cyanidin-3-glucoside), 5.32% and 13.8%, respectively. Fruit antioxidant activity determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method was 24.85mMFe/100gFW. Results confirmed the presence of six dominant fatty acids (determined by GC) in fruit including linoleic (34.2%), palmitoleic (21.37%), palmitic (17.2%), oleic (12.8%), linolenic (5.37%) and stearic acid (1.67%). Five dominant fatty acids of the seeds were linoleic (42.36%), linolenic (21.27%), oleic (21.34%), palmitic (6.54%) and stearic acid (2.54%). The nitrogen content was 3.96%. The P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cl contents of fruit were 491, 1674, 1290, 990, 291, 29.77, 108.37, 17.87, 0.021 and 2.18mg/kgDW, respectively. PMID:26214249

  4. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and immune regulation in heat-stressed sheep after supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, M; Ciliberti, M G; Annicchiarico, G; Albenzio, M; Muscio, A; Sevi, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids from different sources on immune regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in heat-stressed sheep. The experiment was carried out during the summer 2012. Thirty-two Comisana ewes were divided into 4 groups (8 sheep/group): (1) supplemented with whole flaxseed (FS); (2) supplemented with Ascophyllum nodosum (AG); (3) supplemented with a combination of flaxseed and A. nodosum (FS+AG); and (4) control (C; no supplementation). On d 22 of the experiment, cortisol concentrations in sheep blood were measured after an injection of ACTH. Cellular immune response was evaluated by intradermic injection of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 0, 15, and 30 d of the trial. Humoral response to ovalbumin (OVA) was measured at 0, 15, and 30 d. At 0, 15, and 30 d of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each ewe to determine production of T-helper (Th)1 cytokines (IL-12 and IFN-γ), and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13), and concentrations of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and 90. Ewes supplemented with flaxseed alone had greater cortisol concentrations and a longer-lasting cell-mediated immune response compared with ewes in the control and other groups. Anti-OVA IgG concentrations increased in all groups throughout the trial, even though ewes in the FS+AG group had the lowest anti-OVA IgG concentrations at 15 d. The level of IL-10 increased in all groups throughout the experiment; the FS+AG group had the lowest IL-13 concentration at 15 and 30 d. The concentration of HSP 70 increased in AG ewes at the end of the experiment and decreased in FS ewes, whereas that of HSP 90 increased in FS ewes compared with FS+AG ewes. Flaxseed supplementation was found to influence in vivo HPA activation in heat-stressed sheep, resulting in increased cortisol concentrations, probably to meet increased energy demand for thermoregulation. Flaxseed supplementation also supported Th1 response via a complex cross-talk between IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ production. PMID:24792803

  5. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2ARE pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by AREluciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamatecysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

  6. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

  7. Short-chain fatty acids stimulate angiopoietin-like 4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ.

    PubMed

    Alex, Sheril; Lange, Katja; Amolo, Tom; Grinstead, Jeffrey S; Haakonsson, Anders K; Szalowska, Ewa; Koppen, Arjen; Mudde, Karin; Haenen, Daniëlle; Al-Lahham, Sa'ad; Roelofsen, Han; Houtman, René; van der Burg, Bart; Mandrup, Susanne; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Kalkhoven, Eric; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J; Kersten, Sander

    2013-04-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4/FIAF) has been proposed as a circulating mediator between the gut microbiota and fat storage. Here, we show that transcription and secretion of ANGPTL4 in human T84 and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells is highly induced by physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA induce ANGPTL4 by activating the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), as demonstrated using PPARγ antagonist, PPARγ knockdown, and transactivation assays, which show activation of PPARγ but not PPARα and PPARδ by SCFA. At concentrations required for PPARγ activation and ANGPTL4 induction in colon adenocarcinoma cells, SCFA do not stimulate PPARγ in mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes, suggesting that SCFA act as selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARM), which is supported by coactivator peptide recruitment assay and structural modeling. Consistent with the notion that fermentation leads to PPAR activation in vivo, feeding mice a diet rich in inulin induced PPAR target genes and pathways in the colon. We conclude that (i) SCFA potently stimulate ANGPTL4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and (ii) SCFA transactivate and bind to PPARγ. Our data point to activation of PPARs as a novel mechanism of gene regulation by SCFA in the colon, in addition to other mechanisms of action of SCFA. PMID:23339868

  8. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Stimulate Angiopoietin-Like 4 Synthesis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells by Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Sheril; Lange, Katja; Amolo, Tom; Grinstead, Jeffrey S.; Haakonsson, Anders K.; Szalowska, Ewa; Koppen, Arjen; Mudde, Karin; Haenen, Daniëlle; Al-Lahham, Sa'ad; Roelofsen, Han; Houtman, René; van der Burg, Bart; Mandrup, Susanne; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J.

    2013-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4/FIAF) has been proposed as a circulating mediator between the gut microbiota and fat storage. Here, we show that transcription and secretion of ANGPTL4 in human T84 and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells is highly induced by physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA induce ANGPTL4 by activating the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), as demonstrated using PPARγ antagonist, PPARγ knockdown, and transactivation assays, which show activation of PPARγ but not PPARα and PPARδ by SCFA. At concentrations required for PPARγ activation and ANGPTL4 induction in colon adenocarcinoma cells, SCFA do not stimulate PPARγ in mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes, suggesting that SCFA act as selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARM), which is supported by coactivator peptide recruitment assay and structural modeling. Consistent with the notion that fermentation leads to PPAR activation in vivo, feeding mice a diet rich in inulin induced PPAR target genes and pathways in the colon. We conclude that (i) SCFA potently stimulate ANGPTL4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and (ii) SCFA transactivate and bind to PPARγ. Our data point to activation of PPARs as a novel mechanism of gene regulation by SCFA in the colon, in addition to other mechanisms of action of SCFA. PMID:23339868

  9. Soil bacterial biomass, activity, phospholipid fatty acid pattern, and pH tolerance in an area polluted with alkaline dust deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baath, E.; Frostegaard, A. ); Fritze, H. )

    1992-12-01

    In a study of response of soil microbes to emissions from an iron and steel works, microbial biomass in the humus horizon of the forest was similar in polluted sites (soil pH of 6.6) and unpolluted areas (soil pH of 4.1). However, drastic changes in the microfungal species composition in polluted areas was also found in an earlier study. The extend of changes in the bacterial community is more difficult to study. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) patterns of a soil can overcome this since different groups of bacteria are characterized by specific PFLA profiles. A changed tolerance pattern of the bacteria, examined through the thymidine incorporation technique, can also be used. This study investigates the effect of increased pH on the biomass, growth rate, PLFA pattern, and pH tolerance of the soil bacterial community. The effects of alkaline pollution are very similar to the effects found after liming a forest soil including the following: increased bacterial activity; decreased turnover time; increase in gram-negative bacterial fatty acids and decrease in gram-positive bacterial fatty acids; altered pH tolerance.

  10. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  11. Free nitrous acid serving as a pretreatment method for alkaline fermentation to enhance short-chain fatty acid production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-07-01

    Alkaline condition (especially pH 10) has been demonstrated to be a promising method for short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation, because it can effectively inhibit the activities of methanogens. However, due to the limit of sludge solubilization rate, long fermentation time is required but SCFA yield is still limited. This paper reports a new pretreatment method for alkaline fermentation, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge for 2 d, by which the fermentation time is remarkably shortened and meanwhile the SCFA production is significantly enhanced. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production of 370.1 mg COD/g VSS (volatile suspended solids) was achieved at 1.54 mg FNA/L pretreatment integration with 2 d of pH 10 fermentation, which was 4.7- and 1.5-fold of that in the blank (uncontrolled) and sole pH 10 systems, respectively. The total time of this integration system was only 4 d, whereas the corresponding time was 15 d in the blank and 8 d in the sole pH 10 systems. The mechanism study showed that compared with pH 10, FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. After FNA pretreatment, pH 10 treatment (1 d) caused 38.0% higher substrate solubilization than the sole FNA, which indicated that FNA integration with pH 10 could cause positive synergy on sludge solubilization. It was also observed that this integration method benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes. Therefore, more SCFA was produced, but less fermentation time was required in the integrated system. PMID:25935366

  12. 7 Things to Know about Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... X Y Z 7 Things To Know About Omega-3 Fatty Acids Share: Omega-3 fatty acids are a group of polyunsaturated fatty ... a number of functions in the body. The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in ...

  13. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  14. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  15. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  16. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  17. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid. 1. Fatty acid modification of yolks and neonatal fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Latour, M A; Devitt, A A; Meunier, R A; Stewart, J J; Watkins, B A

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on neonatal fatty acid metabolism. In this study, layer hens (n = 40) were divided into four equal groups and subjected to the following treatments. Group A served as the control group, Group B received 1 g CLA every other day, Group C received 1 g CLA every 4th d, and Group D was sham-supplemented with 1 g safflower oil every other day. After 4 mo of feeding, Group B hens exhibited an increase in BW and egg size; however, there were no differences noted in feed consumption among the various treatment groups. At the same time, hens were inseminated with a constant dose of pooled rooster semen to evaluate changes in chick liver and yolk fatty acid metabolism during neonatal growth. At hatch and through 6 d of age, there were no significant differences in breakout data (fertility and numbers of early-, mid-, or late-dead chicks) or chick BW, respectively. However, Group B chicks exhibited an increase in liver 18:3n3 and 22:1n9 and a decrease in 20:3n6 and 22:5n3 fatty acids when compared with chicks from Groups A and D. Also noted for Group B chicks, yolk 18:0 fatty acid was higher than that for Group A and D chicks. These results suggest that CLA alters lipid metabolism in growing chicks. PMID:10875761

  18. 2-Alkynoic fatty acids inhibit topoisomerase IB from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, Nstor M; Cartagena, Michelle; Sanabria, David; Tasdemir, Deniz; Prada, Christopher F; Reguera, Rosa M; Balaa-Fouce, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    2-Alkynoic fatty acids display antimycobacterial, antifungal, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention. In this work we synthesized the 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA), 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA), and 2-tetradecynoic acid (2-TDA) and show that 2-ODA is the best inhibitor of the Leishmania donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an EC(50)=5.30.7?M. The potency of LdTopIB inhibition follows the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA, indicating that the effectiveness of inhibition depends on the fatty acid carbon chain length. All of the studied 2-alkynoic fatty acids were less potent inhibitors of the human topoisomerase IB enzyme (hTopIB) as compared to LdTopIB. 2-ODA also displayed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani (IC(50)=11.0?M), but it was less effective against other protozoa, Trypanosoma cruzi (IC(50)=48.1?M) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50)=64.5?M). The antiprotozoal activity of the 2-alkynoic fatty acids, in general, followed the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA. The experimental information gathered so far indicates that 2-ODA is a promising antileishmanial compound. PMID:22932312

  19. Modulation of fatty acid oxidation alters contact hypersensitivity to urushiols: role of aliphatic chain beta-oxidation in processing and activation of urushiols.

    PubMed

    Kalergis, A M; Lpez, C B; Becker, M I; Daz, M I; Sein, J; Garbarino, J A; De Ioannes, A E

    1997-01-01

    Lithraea caustica, or litre, a tree of the Anacardiaceae family that is endemic to the central region of Chile, induces a severe contact dermatitis in susceptible human beings. The allergen was previously isolated and characterized as a 3-(pentadecyl-10-enyl) catechol, a molecule belonging to the urushiol group of allergens isolated from poison ivy and poison oak plants. Because urushiols are pro-electrophilic haptens, it is believed that the reactive species are generated intracellularly by skin keratinocytes and Langerhans cells. The active species are presumed to modify self proteins which, after proteolytic processing, would generate immunogenic peptides carrying the hapten. The presence of a 15-carbon-length hydrophobic chain should impair antigen presentation of self-modified peptides by class I MHC molecules, either by steric hindrance or by limiting their sorting to the ER lumen. We have proposed that the shortening of the aliphatic chain by beta-oxidation within peroxisomes and/or mitochondria should be a requirement for the antigen presentation process. To test this hypothesis we investigated the effect of drugs that modify the fatty acid metabolism on urushiol-induced contact dermatitis in mice. Clofibrate, a peroxisomal proliferator in mice, increased the immune response to the urushiols from litre by 50%. Conversely, tetradecyl glycidic acid, an inhibitor of the uptake of fatty acids by mitochondria, decreased the hypersensitivity to the hapten. An increase in the level in glutathione by treatment of the animals with 2-oxotiazolidin-4-carboxilic acid lowered the response. Those findings strongly support a role for the fatty acid oxidative metabolism in the processing and activation of urushiols in vivo. PMID:8980288

  20. [The fatty acids in blood plasma and erythrocytes in test of glucose tolerance].

    PubMed

    Ameliushkina, V A; Aripovski?, A V; Titov, V N; Kaba, S I; Kotkina, T I; Parkhimovich, R M

    2014-04-01

    The sample of 26 patients with ischemic heart disease and syndrome of insulin resistance was subjected to standard test of glucose tolerance. The content of individual fatty acids was detected using technique of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In blood plasma, after 2 hours of post-prandial hyperglycemia, reliably decreased content of C 16:1 of palmitoleic mono fatty acid, C 18:1 oleic mono fatty acid and in a lesser degree C 18:2 linoleic unsaturated fatty acid (p < 0.05). The level C 14:0 of myristic unsaturated fatty acid, C 16:0 of palmitic unsaturated fatty acid and with 18:0 of stearic unsaturated fatty acid, ratio C 16:0/C 16:1 and C 18:0/C 18:1 had no changes: content of both (omega-6 C 20:3 digomo-gamma-linoleic unsaturated fatty acid and essential polyenoic fatty acids remained the same. The significant differences between initial content in blood plasma of palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic monoenic fatty acid was noted. The alteration in content of fatty acids in membranes of erythrocytes is the most expressed. In erythrocytes reliable (p < or = 0.05) decrease of content of C 16:0 palmitic fatty acid, C 18:0 stearic fatty acid and C 18:1 oleic fatty acid is established. The reliable decrease is noted in content of linoleic unsaturated fatty acid. In erythrocytes, moderate decrease is detected in levels of C 20:4 arachidonic polyenoic fatty acid, C 20:5 eicosapentaenoic polyenoic fatty acid. It is assumed that under post-prandial hyperglycemia insulin regulates metabolism of fatty acids, blocks lipolysis, decreases in cytosol of cells content of oleic and palmitic fatty acids inform of acetyl-KoA and forces mitochondrions intensively oxidate acetyl-KoA formed from pyruvate, from GLU. On surface of membrane, insulin increases number of glucose carriers GLUT4. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin is mediated by regulation first of all of metabolism of fatty acids. Hyperglycemia and insulin are two phylogenetically different humoral regulators. Insulin initiates blockade of lipolysis in adipocytes and positioning on membrane GLUT4. Hyperglycemia passively (activated) increases absorption by cells GLU on gradient of concentration inter-cellular medium--cytosol and synthesis of glycogen. PMID:25080793

  1. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  2. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  3. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854...

  4. Association of serum fatty acid and estimated desaturase activity with hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yan, Jing; Ye, Xiong-Wei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acid (FA) and related Δ-desaturase with hypertension among 2,447 community-dwellers aged 35–79 years living in Zhejiang Province, China. Individual FA was determined in serum, Δ5-desaturase (D5D) and Δ6-desaturase (D6D) activities were indirectly estimated by FA product/precursor ratios. Participants in the highest quartile of D5D component scores (20:4n–6, 20:5n–3, 22:6n–3 and D5D) have significantly lower odds of hypertension compared with individuals in the lowest (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46–0.98). When further stratified by gender, high D5D component scores were significantly associated with lower odds of hypertension in women (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35–0.80), but not in men (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.52-1.18). Multivariate-adjusted prevalent OR for an interquartile increment of individual FA and estimated desaturase was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.08–1.50) for 16:0, 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01–1.30) for 16:1n–7, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80–0.99) for 22:6n–3, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.01–1.72) for D6D (18:3n–6/18:2n–6), and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.98) for D5D (20:4n–6/20:3n–6). Present findings suggested that high serum 22:6n–3 and D5D as well as low 16:0, 16:1n–7 and D6D were associated with a low prevalence of hypertension in this Chinese population. PMID:27006169

  5. Distinctive roles of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in hyperlipidemic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Chang, Ming-Chu; Tung, Chien-Chih; Wei, Shu-Chen; Wong, Jau-Min

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate how the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition influences the susceptibility of developing acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Primary pancreatic acinar cells were treated with low and high concentrations of different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and changes in the cytosolic Ca2+ signal and the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) were measured after treatment. RESULTS: Unsaturated fatty acids at high concentrations, including oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid, induced a persistent rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in acinar cells. Unsaturated fatty acids at low concentrations and saturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, stearic acid, and triglycerides, at low and high concentrations were unable to induce a rise in Ca2+ concentrations in acinar cells. Unsaturated fatty acids at high concentrations but not saturated fatty acids induced intra-acinar cell trypsin activation and cell damage and increased PKC expression. CONCLUSION: At sufficiently high concentrations, unsaturated fatty acids were able to induce acinar cells injury and promote the development of pancreatitis. Unsaturated fatty acids may play a distinctive role in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis through the activation of PKC family members. PMID:26327761

  6. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  7. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE. PMID:25842314

  8. Development of Escherichia coli MG1655 strains to produce long chain fatty acids by engineering fatty acid synthesis (FAS) metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eunyoung; Lee, Sunhee; Won, Jong-In; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Jihyeon; Lee, Jinwon

    2011-06-10

    The goal of this research was to develop recombinant Escherichia coli to improve fatty acid synthesis (FAS). Genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase (accA, accB, accC), malonyl-CoA-[acyl-carrier-protein] transacylase (fabD), and acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14 gene), which are all enzymes that catalyze key steps in the synthesis of fatty acids, were cloned and over-expressed in E. coli MG1655. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzyme catalyzes the addition of CO(2) to acetyl-CoA to generate malonyl-CoA. The enzyme encoded by the fabD gene converts malonyl-CoA to malonyl-[acp], and the EC 3.1.2.14 gene converts fatty acyl-ACP chains to long chain fatty acids. All the genes except for the EC 3.1.2.14 gene were homologous to E. coli genes and were used to improve the enzymatic activities to over-express components of the FAS pathway through metabolic engineering. All recombinant E. coli MG1655 strains containing various gene combinations were developed using the pTrc99A expression vector. To observe changes in metabolism, the in vitro metabolites and fatty acids produced by the recombinants were analyzed. The fatty acids (C16) from recombinant strains were produced 1.23-2.41 times higher than that from the wild type. PMID:22112270

  9. The nitrite-oxidizing community in activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant determined by fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Myriam; Zumbrgel, Sabine; Bakker, Evert; Spieck, Eva; Eggers, Till; Lipski, Andr

    2013-10-01

    Metabolically-active autotrophic nitrite oxidizers from activated sludge were labeled with (13)C-bicarbonate under exposure to different temperatures and nitrite concentrations. The labeled samples were characterized by FAME-SIP (fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing). The compound cis-11-palmitoleic acid, which is the major lipid of the most abundant nitrite oxidizer in activated sludge, Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii, showed (13)C-incorporation in all samples exposed to 3 mM nitrite. Subsequently, the lipid cis-7-palmitoleic acid was labeled, and it indicated the activity of a nitrite oxidizer that was different from the known Nitrospira taxa in activated sludge. The highest incorporation of cis-7-palmitoleic acid label was found after incubation with a nitrite concentration of 0.3 mM at 17 and 22C. While activity of Nitrobacter populations could not be detected by the FAME-SIP approach, an unknown nitrite oxidizer with the major lipid cis-9 isomer of palmitoleic acid exhibited (13)C-incorporation at 28C with 30 mM nitrite. These results indicated flexibility of nitrite-oxidizing guilds in a complex community responding to different conditions. Labeled lipids so far not described for activated sludge-associated nitrifiers indicated the presence of unknown nitrite oxidizers in this habitat. The FAME-SIP-based information can be used to define appropriate conditions for the enrichment of nitrite-oxidizing guilds from complex samples. PMID:23921154

  10. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Gn Ergnl, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergnl, Blent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18?:?2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  11. Is There a Fatty Acid Taste?

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Taste is a chemical sense that aids in the detection of nutrients and guides food choice. A limited number of primary qualities comprise taste. Accumulating evidence has raised a question about whether fat should be among them. Most evidence indicates triacylglycerol is not an effective taste stimulus, though it clearly contributes sensory properties to foods by carrying flavor compounds and altering texture. However, there is increasing anatomical, electrophysiological, animal behavior, imaging, metabolic, and psychophysical evidence that free fatty acids are detectable when non-taste cues are minimized. Free fatty acids varying in saturation and chain length are detectable, suggesting the presence of multiple transduction mechanisms and/or a nonspecific mechanism in the oral cavity. However, confirmation of “fatty” as a taste primary will require additional studies that verify these observations are taste specific. Oral exposure to free fatty acids likely serves as a warning signal to discourage intake and influences lipid metabolism. PMID:19400700

  12. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Charles; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of “metabolic hijacking” by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor. PMID:26684003

  13. CD4(+) T-cell activation is differentially modulated by bacteria-primed dendritic cells, but is generally down-regulated by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Brix, Susanne; Lund, Pia; Kjaer, Tanja M R; Straarup, Ellen M; Hellgren, Lars I; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2010-03-01

    Appropriate activation of CD4(+) T cells is fundamental for efficient initiation and progression of acquired immune responses. Here, we showed that CD4(+) T-cell activation is dependent on changes in membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and is dynamically regulated by the type of signals provided by dendritic cells (DCs). Upon interaction with DCs primed by different concentrations and species of gut bacteria, CD4(+) T cells were activated according to the type of DC stimulus. The levels of CD80 were found to correlate to the levels of expression of CD28 and to the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, while the presence of CD40 and CD86 on DCs inversely affected inducible costimulator (ICOS) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) levels in CD4(+) T cells. For all DC stimuli, cells high in n-3 PUFAs showed reduced ability to respond to CD28 stimulation, to proliferate, and to express ICOS and CTLA-4. Diminished T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 signalling was found to be responsible for n-3 PUFA effects. Thus, the dietary fatty acid composition influences the overall level of CD4(+) T-cell activation induced by DCs, while the priming effect of the DC stimuli modulates CD80, CD86 and CD40 levels, thereby affecting and shaping activation of acquired immunity by differential regulation of proliferation and costimulatory molecule expression in CD4(+) T cells. PMID:19909377

  14. Covalent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma adduction by nitro-fatty acids: selective ligand activity and anti-diabetic signaling actions.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Francisco J; Cole, Marsha P; Groeger, Alison L; Chen, Chen-Shan; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Motanya, U Nkiru; Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T; Rudolph, Tanja K; Rudolph, Volker; Bonacci, Gustavo; Baker, Paul R S; Xu, H Eric; Batthyany, Carlos I; Chen, Y Eugene; Hallis, Tina M; Freeman, Bruce A

    2010-04-16

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) binds diverse ligands to transcriptionally regulate metabolism and inflammation. Activators of PPARgamma include lipids and anti-hyperglycemic drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Recently, TZDs have raised concern after being linked with increased risk of peripheral edema, weight gain, and adverse cardiovascular events. Most reported endogenous PPARgamma ligands are intermediates of lipid metabolism and oxidation that bind PPARgamma with very low affinity. In contrast, nitro derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids (NO(2)-FA) are endogenous products of nitric oxide ((*)NO) and nitrite (NO(2)(-))-mediated redox reactions that activate PPARgamma at nanomolar concentrations. We report that NO(2)-FA act as partial agonists of PPARgamma and covalently bind PPARgamma at Cys-285 via Michael addition. NO(2)-FA show selective PPARgamma modulator characteristics by inducing coregulator protein interactions, PPARgamma-dependent expression of key target genes, and lipid accumulation is distinctively different from responses induced by the TZD rosiglitazone. Administration of this class of signaling mediators to ob/ob mice revealed that NO(2)-FA lower insulin and glucose levels without inducing adverse side effects such as the increased weight gain induced by TZDs. PMID:20097754

  15. Capacity of omega-3 fatty acids or eicosapentaenoic acid to counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation: from cells to bed rest to astronauts.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish; Gonda, Steve; Smith, Scott M

    2010-05-01

    NF-kappaB is a transcriptional activator of many genes, including some that lead to muscle atrophy and bone resorption-significant concerns for astronauts. NF-kappaB activation is inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but the influence of this omega-3 fatty acid on the effects of weightlessness are unknown. We report here cellular, ground analogue, and spaceflight findings. We investigated the effects of EPA on differentiation of RAW264.7 monocyte/macrophage cells induced by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and on activation of NF-kappaB by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or exposure to modeled weightlessness. EPA (50 microM for 24 hours) inhibited RANKL-induced differentiation and decreased activation of NF-kappaB induced by 0.2 microg/mL of TNF-alpha for 30 minutes or by modeled weightlessness for 24 hours (p < .05). In human studies, we evaluated whether NF-kappaB activation was altered after short-duration spaceflight and determined the relationship between intake of omega-3 fatty acids and markers of bone resorption during bed rest and the relationship between fish intake and bone mineral density after long-duration spaceflight. NF-kappaB was elevated in crew members after short-duration spaceflight, and higher consumption of fish (a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids) was associated with reduced loss of bone mineral density after flight (p < .05). Also supporting the cell study findings, a higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion during bed rest (Pearson r = -0.62, p < .05). Together these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for EPA to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. PMID:19874203

  16. Fatty acid induced remodeling within the human liver fatty acid-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-09-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against LFABP. PMID:21757748

  17. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids. PMID:26978518

  18. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sren; hrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

  19. The combined effects on neuronal activation and blood-brain barrier permeability of time and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice, as measured in vivo using MEMRI.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ting; So, Po-Wah; Parkinson, James R; Yu, Wei Sheng; Hankir, Mohammad; Herlihy, Amy H; Goldstone, Anthony P; Frost, Gary S; Wasserfall, Clive; Bell, Jimmy D

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are known to have cardiovascular and neuroprotective properties in both humans and rodents. Here, we use manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to compare the effects of these polyunsaturated fatty acids on the combined effects of neuronal activity and integrity of blood-brain barrier integrity with saturated fatty acids from buttermilk. C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were fed isocaloric diets containing 3% fish oil (3% FO, n=5), 12% fish oil (FO, n=6), 3% buttermilk (3% BM, n=6) or 12% buttermilk (12% BM, n=6) for 6 months. Following metabolic cage analysis these mice were scanned using a standard MEMRI protocol at 28-32 weeks of age. Adult mice aged 28-32 weeks old (RM3, n=5) and 15-16 weeks old (YRM3, n=4) maintained on standard rodent chow were also studied to assess age-related changes in brain barrier systems and neuronal activity. Signal intensity (SI) in the anterior pituitary (AP), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARC), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) was significantly reduced in young compared to older mice fed standard chow. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation led to a decrease in SI within the ARC and PVN, reaching significance in the VMH in age-matched controls. Interestingly, both fish oil and buttermilk supplementation resulted in a significant increase in SI within the AP, a structure outside the BBB. We conclude that MEMRI is able to detect the combined effects of the integrity of neuronal activity and blood-brain barrier permeability in the hypothalamus associated with dietary manipulation and aging. PMID:20097292

  20. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  1. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  2. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  3. Frictional response of fatty acids on steel.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Rashmi R; Biswas, S K

    2009-05-15

    Self-assembled monolayers of fatty acids were formed on stainless steel by room-temperature solution deposition. The acids are covalently bound to the surface as carboxylate in a bidentate manner. To explore the effect of saturation in the carbon backbone on friction in sliding tribology, we study the response of saturated stearic acid (SA) and unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) as self-assembled monolayers using lateral force microscopy and nanotribometry and when the molecules are dispersed in hexadecane, using pin-on-disc tribometry. Over a very wide range (10 MPa-2.5 GPa) of contact pressures it is consistently demonstrated that the unsaturated linoleic acid molecules yield friction which is significantly lower than that of the saturated stearic acid. It is argued, using density functional theory predictions and XPS of slid track, that when the molecular backbone of unsaturated fatty acids are tilted and pressed strongly by a probe, in tribological contact, the high charge density of the double bond region of the backbone allows coupling with the steel substrate. The interaction yields a low friction carboxylate soap film on the substrate. The saturated fatty acid does not show this effect. PMID:19232636

  4. The science of fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Kevin L

    2015-05-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central role in many of the chronic diseases that characterize modern society. In the past decade, our understanding of how dietary fats affect our immune system and subsequently our inflammatory status has grown considerably. There are compelling data showing that high-fat meals promote endotoxin [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] translocation into the bloodstream, stimulating innate immune cells and leading to a transient postprandial inflammatory response. The nature of this effect is influenced by the amount and type of fat consumed. The role of various dietary constituents, including fats, on gut microflora and subsequent health outcomes in the host is another exciting and novel area of inquiry. The impact of specific fatty acids on inflammation may be central to how dietary fats affect health. Three key fatty acid-inflammation interactions are briefly described. First, the evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids induce inflammation in part by mimicking the actions of LPS. Second, the often-repeated claim that dietary linoleic acid promotes inflammation was not supported in a recent systematic review of the evidence. Third, an explanation is offered for why omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are so much less anti-inflammatory in humans than in mice. The article closes with a cautionary tale from the genomic literature that illustrates why extrapolating the results from inflammation studies in mice to humans is problematic. PMID:25979502

  5. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; Kłos, Marlena

    2015-01-01

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained. PMID:26633342

  6. Fatty acids enhance membrane permeabilization by pro-apoptotic Bax.

    PubMed Central

    Epand, Raquel F; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Montessuit, Sylvie; Epand, Richard M

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acids are known promoters of apoptosis. In the present study, the direct role of fatty acids with regard to their ability to cause membrane permeabilization by Bax was explored. Addition of fatty acids to liposomes in the presence of cations greatly enhanced the permeabilizing activity of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. This provides a putative mechanism for the role of fatty acids in apoptosis. It is not a result of detergent-like properties of fatty acids, since a different micelle-forming amphiphile, dilysocardiolipin, was strongly inhibitory. We also demonstrate that there is a synergistic effect on Bax-induced permeabilization between Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), both on the binding of Bax to liposomes as well as on the induction of the leakage of liposomal contents. Micromolar concentrations of Ca(2+) added externally or submicromolar concentrations of free Ca(2+) present in the medium were sufficient to promote Bax-induced permeabilization synergistically with externally added Mg(2+). These results indicate that Bax can induce leakage from liposomes at ion concentrations resembling those found physiologically. The synergistic effects of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were observed with liposomes with different lipid compositions. Thus the action of Bax is strongly modulated by the presence of bivalent cations that can act synergistically, as well as by micelle-forming lipid components that can be either stimulatory or inhibitory. PMID:14535847

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J.; Galloway, Stuart D. R.; Hamilton, D. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  9. Activation of vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase-1 expression by electrophilic nitro-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Nicholas K H; Rudolph, Volker; Cole, Marsha P; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Schopfer, Francisco J; Woodcock, Steven R; Batthyany, Carlos; Freeman, Bruce A

    2010-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species mediate a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction, with secondary oxidized and nitrated by-products of these reactions contributing to the pathogenesis of numerous vascular diseases. While oxidized lipids and lipoproteins exacerbate inflammatory reactions in the vasculature, in stark contrast the nitration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and complex lipids yields electrophilic products that exhibit pluripotent anti-inflammatory signaling capabilities acting via both cGMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Herein we report that nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO(2)) treatment increases expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the vasculature, thus transducing vascular protective effects associated with enhanced NO production. Administration of OA-NO(2) via osmotic pump results in a significant increase in eNOS and HO-1 mRNA in mouse aortas. Moreover, HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that NO(2)-FAs are rapidly metabolized in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and treatment with NO(2)-FAs stimulated the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(1179). These posttranslational modifications of eNOS, in concert with elevated eNOS gene expression, contributed to an increase in endothelial NO production. In aggregate, OA-NO(2)-induced eNOS and HO-1 expression by vascular cells can induce beneficial effects on endothelial function and provide a new strategy for treating various vascular inflammatory and hypertensive disorders. PMID:19857569

  10. ACTIVATION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND HEME OXYGENASE-1 EXPRESSION BY ELECTROPHILIC NITRO-FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Nicholas K.H.; Rudolph, Volker; Cole, Marsha P.; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Batthyany, Carlos; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species mediate a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction, with secondary oxidized and nitrated byproducts of these reactions contributing to the pathogenesis of numerous vascular diseases. While oxidized lipids and lipoproteins exacerbate inflammatory reactions in the vasculature, in stark contrast the nitration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and complex lipids yield electrophilic products that exhibit pluripotent anti-inflammatory signaling capabilities acting via both cGMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Herein we report that nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) treatment increases expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the vasculature, thus transducing vascular protective effects associated with enhanced NO production. Administration of OA-NO2 via osmotic pump results in a significant increase in eNOS and HO-1 mRNA in mouse aortas. Moreover, HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that NO2-FAs are rapidly metabolized in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and treatment with NO2-FAs stimulated the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179. These post-translational modifications of eNOS, in concert with elevated eNOS gene expression, contributed to an increase in endothelial NO production. In aggregate, OA-NO2-induced eNOS and HO-1 expression by vascular cells can induce beneficial effects on endothelial function and provide a new strategy for treating various vascular inflammatory and hypertensive disorders. PMID:19857569

  11. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 ?g km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from Russian forest and peat fires. Fatty acids were commonly observed on the surface layer of these particles. The chain length composition was characteristic to each emission source. In our previous work (Tervahattu et al., 2002), fatty acids on sea-salt particles were originated from dead sea plankton organisms with major peaks ranging from C14 to C18 and maximum at C16 (palmitic acid). Major peaks on the surface of forest fire particles ranged from C16 to C30 with the maximum at C24. This composition indicates the involvement of the smoke from both conifer trees and peat (Oros and Simoneit, 2000; 2001b). On the other hand, TOF-SIMS analysis of the surface of field fire particles showed major peaks from C14 to C30 with two maximums at C16 (highest intensity) and C22. It was concluded that the results indicate emissions from both grass burning and fossil fuels (Simoneit, 2002; Oros and Simoneit, 2000). The presence of surface film on aerosol particles may have an impact on their chemical, physical and optical properties and change their role in light scattering and as cloud condensation nuclei as well as interactions with human tissue.

  12. Bioactivity-guided isolation of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids as active compounds in the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hernández, Eva; Rosas-Acevedo, Hortensia; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Martínez, Ana Laura; Moreno, Julia; González-Trujano, Ma Eva

    2007-09-01

    Tilia species have been used as anxiolytics for many years. In a previous study anxiolytic-like effects of a hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana inflorescences were observed in experimental models in mice. To get additional insights into the neuroactive actions of this particular Tilia species, in this study we report a bioactivity guided-fractionation of the extract and separation by column chromatographic methods to isolate three fatty acids and a triterpene identified as beta-sitosterol as major constituents. Our results revealed that the crude extract at 10 and 30 mg/kg I. P. and some pooled fractions at the same dosages potentiated sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and caused a significant increase in the time spent at the open-arm sides in the plus-maze test. A reduction in the exploratory behavioral pattern manifested as ambulatory activity, as well as head dipping and rearing tests was also observed. Further fractionation and purification yielded four major fractions containing fatty acids and beta-sitosterol as the active compounds. A dose-response curve of beta-sitosterol in the range 1 to 30 mg/kg doses indicated that this compound produced an anxiolytic-like action from 1 to 10 mg/kg and a sedative response when the dose was increased to 30 mg/kg, these effects resemble those produced by diazepam (0.1 mg/kg). Our results suggest that hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana produces depressant actions on the central nervous system, at least in part, because of the presence of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids that remain to be identified. PMID:17823876

  13. Prolonged feeding of mice with conjugated linoleic acid increases hepatic fatty acid synthesis relative to oxidation.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Marjan; Beynen, Anton C; Hovenier, Robert; Lankhorst, Aegidius; Lemmens, Arnoldina G; Terpstra, Antonius H M; Geelen, Math J H

    2004-11-01

    Feeding mice conjugated linoleic acid (9 cis,11 trans/9 trans,11 cis-and 10 trans,12 cis-CLA in equal amounts) resulted in triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver. The objective of this study was to examine whether this steatosis is associated with changes in hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. Therefore, we measured the activities of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, i.e., acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase and of fatty acid oxidation, i.e., 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase in livers of mice fed a diet with 0.5% (w/w) CLA. CLA (a 1:1 mixture of the 10 trans, 12 cis and 9 cis, 11 trans isomers of octadecadenoic acid) was administered for 3 and 12 weeks with high-oleic sunflower oil fed as control. The proportion of body fat was significantly lower on the CLA than on the control diet and this effect was already significant after 3 weeks. The specific activites of 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were unaffected by CLA both after 3 and 12 weeks. The specific activity of fatty acid synthase was nonsignificantly raised (by 12%) after 3 weeks on the CLA diet but had increased significantly (by 34%) after 12 weeks of feeding. The specific activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase had also increased both after 3 weeks (by 53%) and 12 weeks (by 23%) on the CLA diet, but this effect did not reach statistical significance. Due to CLA-induced hepatomegaly, the overall capacity for both fatty acid oxidation and synthesis-as evidenced by the total hepatic activities of 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase-was significantly greater in the CLA-fed group after 12 weeks, although the overall capacity for fatty acid synthesis had increased more than that for fatty acid oxidation. Thus, this study indicates that prolonged, but not short-term, feeding mice with CLA increased hepatic fatty acid synthesis relative to oxidation, despite the decrease in body fat and the increase in liver weight seen earlier. It is concluded that the observed CLA-induced changes in hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are the result, rather than the cause, of the lowering of body fat. PMID:15590272

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha stimulates both differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes[S

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Joo-Young; Teraminami, Aki; Kim, Yong-Il; Hirai, Shizuka; Uemura, Taku; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a dietary lipid sensor, whose activation results in hypolipidemic effects. In this study, we investigated whether PPAR? activation affects energy metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). Activation of PPAR? by its agonist (bezafibrate) markedly reduced adiposity in KK mice fed a high-fat diet. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, addition of GW7647, a highly specific PPAR? agonist, during adipocyte differentiation enhanced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and adipogenic gene expression. However, triglyceride accumulation was not increased by PPAR? activation. PPAR? activation induced expression of target genes involved in FA oxidation and stimulated FA oxidation. In WAT of KK mice treated with bezafibrate, both adipogenic and FA oxidation-related genes were significantly upregulated. These changes in mRNA expression were not observed in PPAR?-deficient mice. Bezafibrate treatment enhanced FA oxidation in isolated adipocytes, suppressing adipocyte hypertrophy. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that PPAR? was recruited to promoter regions of both adipogenic and FA oxidation-related genes in the presence of GW7647 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings indicate that the activation of PPAR? affects energy metabolism in adipocytes, and PPAR? activation in WAT may contribute to the clinical effects of fibrate drugs. PMID:21324916

  15. Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hopeman, Margaret M; Riley, Joan K; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Jungheim, Emily S

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds, and they are classified by the location of the last double bond. Omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) PUFAs are obtained through food sources including fatty fish and seed/vegetable oils, respectively, and they are important to a number of physiologic processes including inflammation. Previous work demonstrates suppressive effects of n-3 PUFAs on endometriotic lesions in animal models and decreased risk of endometriosis among women with high n-3 PUFA intake. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating levels of PUFAs and endometriosis in women. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional study of serum PUFAs and clinical data from 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Serum PUFAs were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy and included n-3 PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships between specific and total serum PUFAs and patient history of endometriosis. Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78). PMID:25539770

  16. Essential fatty acids and human brain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Ke, Der-Shin; Chen, Jen-Yin

    2009-12-01

    The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Clinical observation studies has related imbalance dietary intake of fatty acids to impaired brain performance and diseases. Most of the brain growth is completed by 5-6 years of age. The EFAs, particularly the omega-3 fatty acids, are important for brain development during both the fetal and postnatal period. Dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is needed for the optimum functional maturation of the retina and visual cortex, with visual acuity and mental development seemingly improved by extra DHA. Beyond their important role in building the brain structure, EFAs, as messengers, are involved in the synthesis and functions of brain neurotransmitters, and in the molecules of the immune system. Neuronal membranes contain phospholipid pools that are the reservoirs for the synthesis of specific lipid messengers on neuronal stimulation or injury. These messengers in turn participate in signaling cascades that can either promote neuronal injury or neuroprotection. The goal of this review is to give a new understanding of how EFAs determine our brain's integrity and performance, and to recall the neuropsychiatric disorders that may be influenced by them. As we further unlock the mystery of how fatty acids affect the brain and better understand the brain's critical dependence on specific EFAs, correct intake of the appropriate diet or supplements becomes one of the tasks we undertake in pursuit of optimal wellness. PMID:20329590

  17. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    2011-05-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for CFA accumulation via heterologous expression in production plants.

  18. THREE MICROSOMAL OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE GENES CONTRIBUTE TO SOYBEAN LINOLENIC ACID LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three independent genetic loci have been shown to contribute to soybean (Glycine max L.) seed linolenic acid levels, including the well-characterized Fan locus. Linolenic acid is the product of omega-3-fatty acid desaturase enzyme activity. The objective of this study was to identify and character...

  19. Adding value to plant oils and fatty acids: Biological transformation of fatty acids into ?-hydroxycarboxylic, ?,?-dicarboxylic, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Mee; Lee, Jinwon; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-12-20

    Not only short chain ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, ?,?-dicarboxylic acids, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids but also medium to long chain carboxylic acids are widely used as building blocks and intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Thereby, recent achievements in biological production of medium to long chain carboxylic acids are addressed here. ?-Hydroxycarboxylic and ?,?-dicarboxylic acids were synthesized via terminal CH bond oxygenation of fatty acids and/or internal oxidative cleavage of the fatty acid carbon skeletons. ?-Aminocarboxylic acids were enzymatically produced from ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids via ?-oxocarboxylic acids. Productivities and product yields of some of the products are getting close to the industrial requirements for large scale production. PMID:26546054

  20. Changes in the physiological parameters, fatty acid metabolism, and SCD activity and expression in juvenile GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared at three different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ma, X Y; Qiang, J; He, J; Gabriel, N N; Xu, P

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of rearing temperature on the composition of fatty acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and gene expression in GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) tilapia. Three triplicate groups of fish were reared for 40days at 22, 28, or 34C. At the end of the trial, the final body weight of juveniles reared at 28C was higher than that of fish reared at 22 or 34C. Feed intake, feed efficiency, and the protein efficiency ratio were also higher at 28C. The fatty acid composition of muscle tissue differed significantly (P<0.05) among the treatment groups. The content of SFA decreased with decreasing temperature, whereas the UFA content increased. We observed high levels of PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFAs, in fish reared at the lower temperature. Rearing at low temperature significantly (P<0.05) increased the expression and activity of the SCD gene. Increased SCD activity and gene expression can increase the biosynthesis of MUFAs in GIFT tilapia muscle. Additionally, cold acclimation can decrease the content of TC and TG in GIFT tilapia, which can help increase cold tolerance. PMID:25939714

  1. The mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFASII) pathway is capable of mediating nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk through the PPAR system of transcriptional activation

    SciTech Connect

    Parl, Angelika; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Clay, Hayley B.; Reiss, Sara; Li, Zhen; Murdock, Deborah G.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The function of the mitochondria fatty acid synthesis pathway is partially unknown. •Overexpression of the pathway causes transcriptional activation through PPARs. •Knock down of the pathway attenuates that activation. •The last enzyme in the pathway regulates its own transcription. •Products of the mtFASII pathway are able to drive nuclear transcription. -- Abstract: Mammalian cells contain two fatty acid synthesis pathways, the cytosolic FASI pathway, and the mitochondrial FASII pathway. The selection behind the conservation of the mitochondrial pathway is not completely understood, given the presence of the cytosolic FAS pathway. In this study, we show through heterologous gene reporter systems and PCR-based arrays that overexpression of MECR, the last step in the mtFASII pathway, causes modulation of gene expression through the PPAR pathway. Electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrate that overexpression of MECR causes increased binding of PPARs to DNA, while cell fractionation and imaging studies show that MECR remains localized to the mitochondria. Interestingly, knock down of the mtFASII pathway lessens the effect of MECR on this transcriptional modulation. Our data are most consistent with MECR-mediated transcriptional activation through products of the mtFASII pathway, although we cannot rule out MECR acting as a coactivator. Further investigation into the physiological relevance of this communication will be necessary to better understand some of the phenotypic consequences of deficits in this pathway observed in animal models and human disease.

  2. Lipid and fatty acid requirements of tilapias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tilapia have been shown to have a dietary requirement for linoleic (n-6) series fatty acids (18:2n-6 or 20:4n-6). The optimum dietary levels of n-6 reported were 0.5 and 1% for redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), respectively. Tilapia have been suggested to al...

  3. Lipid and Fatty Acid Requirements of Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary lipids are an important source of highly digestible energy and are the only source of essential fatty acids required for normal growth and development. They are also carriers and assist in the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, such as sterols and fat-soluble vitamins, serve as a source of...

  4. [THE FATTY ACIDS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Catalán, Julio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo

    2015-01-01

    The functionality of the eukaryotic cell depends on the cell membrane, the genetic information and action of different organelles with or without the presence of membranes. The functionality of the cell membrane and organelles containing it depends primarily on the type and location of fatty acids in the phospholipids and the type of enzymes associated with them, this allows the fatty acids to be metabolized to new species that exert various functions. From this perspective, some essential fatty acids (EFAs) that produce metabolites that exert health benefits are identified, (for example antiinflammatory, neuroprotection, etc) and exert negative effects metabolites (eg inflammation, necrosis promoters, atheroma, etc.) are also generated. In general, these adverse or beneficial effects depend on the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 obtained in the diet. Thus, the higher this ratio is more negative effect; therefore the challenge of the current supply is obtained through food consumption, lower ratios in these fatty acids. The present review aims to present recent evidence on the effects of some AGEs, and the role of diet in maintaining health. PMID:26319861

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review. This review focuses on the effect(s) of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on gene transcription as determined from data generated using cDNA microarrays. Introduced within the past decade, this methodology allows detection of the expression of thousands of genes simultaneo...

  6. Dietary fatty acids and predementia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Frisardi, Vincenza; Capurso, Cristiano; D'Introno, Alessia; Colacicco, Anna M; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA) could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD). Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3 PUFA. However, recent findings from clinical trials with n-3 PUFA supplementation showed efficacy on depressive symptoms in non-apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 carriers, and on cognitive symptoms only in very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) subgroups, MCI patients, and cognitively unimpaired non-APOE epsilon4 carriers. These data, together with epidemiological evidence, support the idea that n-3 PUFA may play a role in maintaining adequate cognitive functioning in predementia syndromes, but not when the AD process has already taken over. Therefore, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations on fish and unsaturated fatty acids consumption, or lower intake of saturated fat, in relation to the risk for dementia and cognitive decline are possible. PMID:19705039

  7. PLANT FATTY ACID (ETHANOL) AMIDE HYDROLASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays a central role in modulating endogenous N-acylethanolamine (NAE) levels in vertebrates, and, in part, constitutes an “endocannabinoid” signaling pathway that regulates diverse physiological and behavioral processes in animals. Recently, an Arabidopsis FAAH hom...

  8. Antiproliferative activity, mechanism of action and oral antitumor activity of CP-4126, a fatty acid derivative of gemcitabine, in in vitro and in vivo tumor models.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Andries M; Adema, Auke D; Balzarini, Jan; Bruheim, Skjalg; Fichtner, Iduna; Noordhuis, Paul; Fodstad, Oystein; Myhren, Finn; Sandvold, Marit L; Hendriks, Hans R; Peters, Godefridus J

    2011-06-01

    Gemcitabine is a deoxycytidine (dCyd) analog with activity in leukemia and solid tumors, which requires phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Decreased membrane transport is a mechanism of resistance to gemcitabine. In order to facilitate gemcitabine uptake and prolong retention in the cell, a lipophilic pro-drug was synthesized (CP-4126), with an elaidic fatty acid esterified at the 5'position. CP-4126 was tested in cell lines resistant to cytarabine, another dCyd analog or gemcitabine. Activity of gemcitabine and the derivative was comparable in the parent cell lines, while in dCK deficient cells all compounds were inactive. However, inhibition of nucleoside transport increased the IC(50) for gemcitabine up to 200-fold, but not for CP-4126, underlining the independence of a nucleoside transporter. For in vivo evaluation, nude mice bearing a human xenograft were treated intraperitoneally every third day for five doses at the maximal tolerated dose. In melanoma, sarcoma, lung, prostate, pancreatic and breast cancer xenografts, gemcitabine and CP-4126 were equally and highly effective; in four other xenografts moderately but equally active. In contrast to gemcitabine, CP-4126 could be administered orally, with a schedule and dose dependent toxicity and antitumor activity. In a colon cancer xenograft, antitumor activity of orally administered CP-4126 was equal to the intraperitoneally administered drug. In conclusion, CP-4126 is membrane transporter independent. Intraperitoneally administered CP-4126 was as effective as gemcitabine in several xenografts and CP-4126 is tolerated when orally administered. CP-4126 seems to be a promising new anticancer drug. PMID:20066470

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Play Role in Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Play Role in Bipolar Disorder: Study Researchers hope to learn whether they can ... between levels of omega-3 fatty acids and bipolar disorder. Researchers compared 27 people with bipolar disorder and ...

  10. Detection and quantification of protein adduction by electrophilic fatty acids: mitochondrial generation of fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, F J; Batthyany, C; Baker, P R S; Bonacci, G; Cole, M P; Rudolph, V; Groeger, A L; Rudolph, T K; Nadtochiy, S; Brookes, P S; Freeman, B A

    2009-05-01

    Nitroalkene fatty acid derivatives manifest a strong electrophilic nature, are clinically detectable, and induce multiple transcriptionally regulated anti-inflammatory responses. At present, the characterization and quantification of endogenous electrophilic lipids are compromised by their Michael addition with protein and small-molecule nucleophilic targets. Herein, we report a trans-nitroalkylation reaction of nitro-fatty acids with beta-mercaptoethanol (BME) and apply this reaction to the unbiased identification and quantification of reaction with nucleophilic targets. Trans-nitroalkylation yields are maximal at pH 7 to 8 and occur with physiological concentrations of target nucleophiles. This reaction is also amenable to sensitive mass spectrometry-based quantification of electrophilic fatty acid-protein adducts upon electrophoretic resolution of proteins. In-gel trans-nitroalkylation reactions also permit the identification of protein targets without the bias and lack of sensitivity of current proteomic approaches. Using this approach, it was observed that fatty acid nitroalkenes are rapidly metabolized in vivo by a nitroalkene reductase activity and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, yielding a variety of electrophilic and nonelectrophilic products that could be structurally characterized upon BME-based trans-nitroalkylation reaction. This strategy was applied to the detection and quantification of fatty acid nitration in mitochondria in response to oxidative inflammatory conditions induced by myocardial ischemia-reoxygenation. PMID:19353781

  11. Detection and Quantification of Protein Adduction by Electrophilic Fatty Acids: Mitochondrial Generation of Fatty Acid Nitroalkene Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, F.J.; Batthyany, C.; Baker, P.R.S.; Bonacci, G.; Cole, M.P.; Rudolph, V.; Groeger, A.; Rudolph, T.K.; Nadtochiy, S.; Brookes, P.S.; Freeman, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nitroalkene fatty acid derivatives manifest a strong electrophilic nature, are clinically detectable and induce multiple transcriptionally-regulated anti-inflammatory responses. At present, the characterization and quantification of endogenous electrophilic lipids is compromised by their Michael addition with protein and small molecule nucleophilic targets. Herein, we report a trans-nitroalkylation reaction of nitro-fatty acids with ?-mercaptoethanol (BME) and apply this reaction to the unbiased identification and quantification of reaction with nucleophilic targets. Trans-nitroalkylation yields are maximal at pH 7 to 8, and occur with physiological concentrations of target nucleophiles. This reaction also amenable to sensitive mass spectrometry-based quantification of electrophilic fatty acid-protein adducts upon electrophoretic resolution of proteins. In-gel trans-nitroalkylation reactions also permit the identification of protein targets without the bias and lack of sensitivity of current proteomic approaches. Using this approach, it was observed that fatty acid nitroalkenes are rapidly metabolized in vivo by a nitroalkene reductase activity and mitochondrial ?-oxidation, yielding a variety of electrophilic and non-electrophilic products that could be structurally characterized upon BME-based transnitroalkylation reaction. This strategy was applied to the detection and quantification of fatty acid nitration in mitochondria in response to oxidative inflammatory conditions induced by myocardial ischemia-reoxygenation. PMID:19353781

  12. Identification and structural characterization of two peroxisome proliferator activated receptors and their transcriptional changes at different developmental stages and after feeding with different fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Zhao, Yuntong; Li, Yang; Gao, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors beta1 (PPARβ1) and beta2 (PPARβ2) were investigated in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). The PPARβ1 and PPARβ2 were widely distributed in loach tissues. Multiple alignments of deduced amino acid sequences revealed homologous characteristics of the two subtypes of PPARβ with 88% identity. PPARβ1 was markedly expressed in the liver, about 100-fold higher than liver PPARβ2. The two subtypes in unfertilized ovum (UO) showed the highest transcriptions in early life stages, and there were great divergences in expression between unfertilized and fertilized stages. The regulation of PPARβ1 and PPARβ2 in response to dietary fatty acids was studied in liver of loach fed with diets containing fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) or soybean oil (SO, rich in 18:2n-6) for 75days. Results showed that hepatic transcription of PPARβ1 in the SO group was higher than in the FO group. However, PPARβ2 expression was similar. The differences of molecular characterization, tissue expressions in early life stages, and transcriptional regulation by lipid resources indicated that PPARβ1 and PPARβ2 were functionally different. This is the first report of differential expression of PPARβ1 and PPARβ2 in various tissues and early life stages of loach are regulated by lipid resources. These results will stimulate further studies to better understand the functional characterization of PPARβ1 and PPARβ2. PMID:26654955

  13. The Two Carboxylases of Corynebacterium glutamicum Essential for Fatty Acid and Mycolic Acid Synthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Gande, Roland; Dover, Lynn G.; Krumbach, Karin; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Sahm, Hermann; Oikawa, Tadao; Eggeling, Lothar

    2007-01-01

    The suborder Corynebacterianeae comprises bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, and these bacteria contain in addition to the linear fatty acids, unique ?-branched ?-hydroxy fatty acids, called mycolic acids. Whereas acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase activity is required to provide malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis, a new type of carboxylase is apparently additionally present in these bacteria. It activates the ?-carbon of a linear fatty acid by carboxylation, thus enabling its decarboxylative condensation with a second fatty acid to afford mycolic acid synthesis. We now show that the acetyl-CoA carboxylase of C. glutamicum consists of the biotinylated ?-subunit AccBC, the ?-subunit AccD1, and the small peptide AccE of 8.9 kDa, forming an active complex of approximately 812,000 Da. The carboxylase involved in mycolic acid synthesis is made up of the two highly similar ?-subunits AccD2 and AccD3 and of AccBC and AccE, the latter two identical to the subunits of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase complex. Since AccD2 and AccD3 orthologues are present in all Corynebacterianeae, these polypeptides are vital for mycolic acid synthesis forming the unique hydrophobic outer layer of these bacteria, and we speculate that the two ?-subunits present serve to lend specificity to this unique large multienzyme complex. PMID:17483212

  14. Effects of in vitro UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment on membrane fatty acids and activities of antioxidant enzymes in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Punnonen, K.; Jansen, C.T.; Puntala, A.; Ahotupa, M. )

    1991-02-01

    Human Keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were exposed to either plain ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation or to 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment. Lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid in various cellular lipid subclasses and in the culture medium were measured. Both UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induced significant changes in the distribution of arachidonic acid and increased the liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. At 24 h after either UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive material was significantly increased, whereas the amount of conjugated dienes was unaffected. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, were already significantly decreased at 0.5 h after UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment. The enzyme activities were partially restored during the following 24 h incubation. From the present study, we suggest that in keratinocytes both plain UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induce changes in the distribution of membrane fatty acids and cause an impairment in the enzymic defense system against oxidative stress.

  15. Modulatory effect of fatty acids on fungicidal activity, respiratory burst and TNF-? and IL-6 production in J774 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Martins de Lima-Salgado, Thais; Coccuzzo Sampaio, Sandra; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Curi, Rui

    2011-04-01

    The reported effects of different families of fatty acids (FA; SFA, MUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA) on human health and the importance of macrophage respiratory burst and cytokine release to immune defence led us to examine the influence of palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA on macrophage function. We determined fungicidal activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine production after the treatment of J774 cells with non-toxic concentrations of the FA. PA had a late and discrete stimulating effect on ROS production, which may be associated with the reduced fungicidal activity of the cells after treatment with this FA. OA presented a sustained stimulatory effect on ROS production and increased fungicidal activity of the cells, suggesting that enrichment of diets with OA may be beneficial for pathogen elimination. The effects of PUFA on ROS production were time- and dose-dependently regulated, with no evident differences between n-3 and n-6 PUFA. It was worth noting that most changes induced after stimulation of the cells with lipopolysaccharide were suppressed by the FA. The present results suggest that supplementation of the diet with specific FA, not classes of FA, might enable an improvement in host defence mechanisms or a reduction in adverse immunological reactions. PMID:21232170

  16. Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lower eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Uttaro, Antonio D

    2006-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have important structural roles in cell membranes. They are also intermediates in the synthesis of biologically active molecules such as eicosanoids, which mediate fever, inflammation, blood pressure and neurotransmission. Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are essential components of brain tissues and, through their involvement in the development of neural and retinal functions, important dietary nutrients for neonatal babies. Lower eukaryotes are particularly rich in C20-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fungi and marine microalgae are currently used to produce nutraceutic oils. Other protists and algae are being studied because of the variability in their enzymes involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Such enzymes could be used as source for the production of transgenic organisms able to synthesize designed oils for human diet or, in the case of parasitic protozoa, they might be identified as putative chemotherapeutic targets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by two different pathways: an anaerobic one, by using polyketide synthase related enzymes, and an aerobic one, which involves the action of elongases and oxygen dependent desaturases. Desaturases can be classified into three main types, depending on which of the consecutive steps of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis they are involved with. The enzymes may be specialized to act on: saturated substrates (type I); mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids by introducing additional double bonds at the methyl-end site of the existing double bonds (type II); or the carboxy half ('front-end') of polyunsaturated ones (type III). Type III desaturases require the alternating action of elongases. A description of the enzymes that have been isolated and functionally characterized is provided, in order to highlight the different pathways found in lower eukaryotes. PMID:17028087

  17. The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C

    2007-09-01

    n-6 Fatty acids, like n-3 fatty acids, play essential roles in many biological functions. Because n-6 fatty acids are the precursors of proinflammatory eicosanoids, higher intakes have been suggested to be detrimental, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids has been suggested by some to be particularly important. However, this hypothesis is based on minimal evidence, and in humans higher intakes of n-6 fatty acids have not been associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers. n-6 Fatty acids have long been known to reduce serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increases in polyunsaturated fat intake, mostly as n-6 fatty acids, were a cornerstone of dietary advice during the 1960s and 1970s. In the United States, for example, intake of n-6 fatty acids doubled and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality fell by 50% over a period of several decades. In a series of relatively small, older randomized trials, in which intakes of polyunsaturated fat were increased (even up to 20% of calories), rates of CHD were generally reduced. In a more recent detailed examination of fatty acid intake within the Nurses' Health Study, greater intake of linoleic acid, up to about 8% of energy, has been strongly related to lower incidence of myocardial infarction or CHD death. Because n-3 fatty acids were also related inversely to risk of CHD, the ratio was unrelated to risk. n-6 Fatty acids reduce insulin resistance, probably by acting as a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma, and intakes have been inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. Adequate intakes of both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are essential for good health and low rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, but the ratio of these fatty acids is not useful. Reductions of linoleic acid to "improve" this ratio would likely increase rates of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. PMID:17876199

  18. Accumulation of Oxygenated Fatty Acids in Oat Lipids During Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids were identified in oat grain by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. We hypothesized that most of these were the results of lipoxygenase activity. This hypothesis was tested by measuring concentrations of these compounds after hydrothermal treatments and storage of oat groa...

  19. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  20. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  1. Fatty acid composition of chicken breast meat is dependent on genotype-related variation of FADS1 and FADS2 gene expression and desaturating activity.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, E; Bordoni, A; Meluzzi, A; Castellini, C; Dal Bosco, A; Sirri, F

    2016-04-01

    In Western countries the dietary guidance emphasizes the need to decrease the intake of saturated fatty acids and to replace them with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly long chain n-3 PUFA (LC-PUFA). The production of poultry meat having a lower fat content and healthier fatty acid (FA) profile is a hot topic for the poultry industry, and the possibility to identify genotypes able to produce meat with a higher LC-PUFA content deserves attention. The aims of the present study were to evidence in chicken (i) a genotype-related different expression of the desaturating enzymes delta-6 (Δ6, EC 1.14.99.25), delta-5 (Δ5, EC 1.14.19.) and delta-9 (Δ9, EC 1.14.19.1); (ii) the impact of the hypothesized different expression on the meat FA composition; (iii) the distribution of desaturase products in the different lipid classes. Slow (SG), medium (MG) and fast (FG) growing chickens fed the same diet were evaluated either for the relative expression of FADS1, FADS2 and SCD1 genes in liver (by q-PCR), or for the FA composition of breast meat. MG and particularly SG birds showed a greater expression of FADS2 and FADS1 genes, a higher Δ6 and Δ5 activity (estimated using desaturase indices), and consequently a higher LC-PUFA content in the breast meat than FG birds. The relationship between genotype and desaturating ability was demonstrated, with a significant impact on the PUFA content of breast meat. Due to the high consumption rate of avian meat, the identification of the best genotypes for meat production could represent an important goal not only for the food industry, but also for the improvement of human nutrition. PMID:26670346

  2. Current Progress and Future Research on the Production of Oxygenated Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated (hydroxy-, epoxy-) fatty acids such as ricinoleic, vernolic and /or sebacic acids are high value chemicals and can be used to produce polymers and specialty chemicals. Oxygenated fatty acids also have many bioactive properties, such as antimicrobial activity against Salmonella, Staphyloc...

  3. Biochemical characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Schizochytrium: release of the products as free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Metz, James G; Kuner, Jerry; Rosenzweig, Bradley; Lippmeier, James C; Roessler, Paul; Zirkle, Ross

    2009-06-01

    In marine bacteria and some thraustochytrids (marine stramenopiles) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are produced de novo by PUFA synthases. These large, multi-domain enzymes carry out the multitude of individual reactions required for conversion of malonyl-CoA to the final LC-PUFA products. Here we report on the release of fatty acids from the PUFA synthase found in Schizochytrium, a thraustochytrid that has been developed as a commercial source for DHA-enriched biomass and oil. Data from in vitro activity assays indicate that the PUFAs are released from the enzyme as free fatty acids (FFAs). Addition of ATP and Mg(2+) to in vitro assays facilitates appearance of radiolabel from (14)C-malonyl-CoA in a triacylglycerol fraction, suggesting the involvement of acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS). Furthermore, addition of triascin C, an inhibitor of ACSs, to the assays blocks this conversion. When the Schizochytrium PUFA synthase is expressed in Escherichia coli, the products of the enzyme accumulate as FFAs, suggesting that the thioesterase activity required for fatty acid release is an integral part of the PUFA synthase. PMID:19272783

  4. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely... conditions: (a) The additive consists of one or any mixture of two or more of the aluminum, calcium... derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10687 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10687 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-201, P-13-203, P-13-204, P-13-205, P-13-206, P-13-207,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10691 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10691... Substances 721.10691 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-13-267) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10686 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10686... Substances 721.10686 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMNs...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10680 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10680... Substances 721.10680 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMNs...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...<