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1

Effect of Fatty Acid Conjugation on Antimicrobial Peptide Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two peptides, YGAAKKAAKAA2 (AKK), and YGAKAKAAKA2 (KAK) were conjugated to fatty acids and tested for the effect on their structure, antibacterial activity, and eukaryotic cell toxicity. In the presence of bacteria-mimicking phospholipid vesicles fatty ac...

A. F. Chu-Kung K. N. Bozzelli R. Nguyen M. V. Tirrell

2004-01-01

2

Cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein sensing fatty acids for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translation of nutrient stimuli through intracellular signaling is important for adaption and regulation of metabolic processes, while deregulation by either genetic or environmental factors predisposes towards the development of metabolic disorders. Besides providing energy, fatty acids act as prominent signaling molecules by altering cell membrane struc- tures, affecting the lipid modification status of pro- teins, and by modulating ligand-activated nuclear

C. Wolfrum

3

Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC,

Angel Sandoval; Peter Fraisl; Elsa Arias-Barrau; Concetta C. DiRusso; Diane Singer; Whitney Sealls; Paul N. Black

2008-01-01

4

The ketogenic diet; fatty acids, fatty acid-activated receptors and neurological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review outlines the molecular sensors that reprogram cellular metabolism in response to the ketogenic diet (KD). Special emphasis is placed on the fasting-, fatty acid- and drug-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?). The KD causes a switch to ketogenesis that is coordinated with an array of changes in cellular lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate and inflammatory pathways. The

Tim E Cullingford

2004-01-01

5

Inhibition of hypothalamic fatty acid synthase triggers rapid activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Malonyl-CoA functions as a mediator in the hypothalamic sensing of energy balance and regulates the neural physiology that governs feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The central administration of C75, a potent inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase (FAS), increases malonyl-CoA concentration in the hypothalamus and suppresses food intake while activating fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Closely correlated with the increase in muscle fatty acid oxidation is the phosphorylation/inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which leads to reduced malonyl-CoA concentration. Lowering muscle malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine/palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1 (CPT1), releases CPT1 from inhibitory constraint, facilitating the entry of fatty acids into mitochondria for ? oxidation. Also correlated with these events are C75-induced increases in the expression of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a transcriptional activator of fatty acid oxidizing enzymes, and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), a thermogenic mitochondrial uncoupling protein. Phentolamine, an ?-adrenergic blocking agent, prevents the C75-induced increases of skeletal muscle UCP3 and whole body fatty acid oxidation and C75-induced decrease of skeletal muscle malonyl-CoA. Thus, the sympathetic nervous system is implicated in the transmission of the “malonyl-CoA signal” from brain to skeletal muscle. Consistent with the up-regulation of UCP3 and PPAR? is the concomitant increase in the expression of PGC1?, transcriptional coactivator of the UCP3 and PPAR?-activated genes. These findings clarify the mechanism by which the hypothalamic malonyl-CoA signal is communicated to metabolic systems in skeletal muscle that regulate fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure.

Cha, Seung Hun; Hu, Zhiyuan; Chohnan, Shigeru; Lane, M. Daniel

2005-01-01

6

Influence of Unsaturation on Fibrinolytic Activity of Fatty Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-chain saturated fatty acids are known to accelerate blood clotting and artificial thrombus formation in vitro, and to produce massive thrombosis and death in dogs and mice. We have found that some long-chain fatty acids induce fibrinolytic activity o...

M. J. Surgalla E. D. Beesley R. R. Brubaker

1967-01-01

7

Elevated expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid synthetic activity in colorectal neoplasia.  

PubMed Central

Expression of the primary enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of fatty acids, ie, fatty acid synthase (FAS), and ex vivo fatty acid synthetic activity were examined in colorectal epithelium and neoplasms, including the relationship to tumor progression and prognosis. Immunohistochemistry for FAS showed only faint staining of native colorectal mucosa, but increased expression was found in all sporadic adenomas (n = 18), adenomas associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7), hyperplastic polyps (n = 3), dysplasias arising in ulcerative colitis (n = 17), and colorectal carcinomas (n = 130) including 11 with contiguous adenomas. The intensity of staining was strong in 53% of carcinomas, intermediate in 38%, and weak in 9%. Activity of the fatty acid synthetic pathway measured by labeling of six surgical specimens with [U-14C]acetate was 2- to 7-fold higher in colorectal carcinomas than adjacent native mucosa (P = 0.006) and 6- to 16-fold higher than serosal fat (P = 0.01). Activity correlated with immunohistochemical expression (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.85; P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant association between patient survival and FAS staining intensity of carcinomas. Our study shows that FAS is expressed in all colorectal neoplasms and there is a concomitant increase in fatty acid synthesis. FAS may therefore represent a potential therapeutic target. Images Figure 1

Rashid, A.; Pizer, E. S.; Moga, M.; Milgraum, L. Z.; Zahurak, M.; Pasternack, G. R.; Kuhajda, F. P.; Hamilton, S. R.

1997-01-01

8

Investigation of fatty acids and derivatives for carcinogenic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Twenty-nine fatty acids and esters, lactones, and epoxy and peroxy compounds were tested for carcinogenic activity by repeated s.c. injections in mice. Sarcomas at the site of injection were elicited with 12-hydroxystearic acid , methyl 12-hydroxystearate, 4-ketostearic acid, stearohydroxamic acid , glycidyl laurate, glycidyl oleate, and p-nitroperoxybenzoic acid. Sarcomas were also elicited in mice given injections of lower doses

D. Swern; R. Wieder; M M Donough; D. R. Meranze; M. B. Shimkin

1970-01-01

9

Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803  

PubMed Central

Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS), have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

2012-01-01

10

Electrophilic fatty acids regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and expression.  

PubMed

Nitro-fatty acids (NO(2)-FA) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed by reactions of nitric oxide and nitrite. NO(2)-FA exert anti-inflammatory signaling actions through post-translational protein modifications. We report that nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO(2)) stimulates proMMP-7 and proMMP-9 proteolytic activity via adduction of the conserved cysteine switch domain thiolate. Biotin-labeled OA-NO(2) showed this adduction occurs preferentially with latent forms of MMP, confirming a role for thiol alkylation by OA-NO(2) in MMP activation. In addition to regulating pro-MMP activation, MMP expression was modulated by OA-NO(2) via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. MMP-9 transcription was decreased in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated THP-1 macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist Rosiglitazone. This was affirmed using a murine model of atherosclerosis, ApoE(-/-) mice, where in vivo OA-NO(2) administration suppressed MMP expression in atherosclerotic lesions. These findings reveal that electrophilic fatty acid derivatives can serve as effectors during inflammation, first by activating pro-MMP proteolytic activity via alkylation of the cysteine switch domain, and then by transcriptionally inhibiting MMP expression, thereby limiting the further progression of inflammatory processes. PMID:21454668

Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J; Batthyany, Carlos I; Rudolph, Tanja K; Rudolph, Volker; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Kelley, Eric E; Freeman, Bruce A

2011-05-01

11

Temporal changes in mouse brain fatty acid amide hydrolase activity  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity is known to mediate the tone of endogenous fatty acid amides including the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). FAAH is a potential therapeutic target becuase genetic or pharmacological ablation of FAAH promotes analgesia and anxiolytic effects without disrupting motor coordination. Little is known about the endogenous temporal fluctuations of brain FAAH activity. This is the first comprehensive study examining temporal fluctuations in mouse brain FAAH activity. Regional mouse brain homogenates were generated at the midpoint of the light (“noon”) and dark (“midnight”) cycles. While immunoblots revealed no significant change (P>0.05) in regional activity between these two time points, in vitro activity assays detected a subtle 10% reduction (P<0.05) in cerebellar FAAH activity at midnight. A novel ex vivo autoradiography technique permitted the study of eleven different brain regions, many of which cannot be studied using traditional in vitro methods. The cerebellum and the PAG both exhibited significant (P<0.05) reductions in regional FAAH activity in ‘midnight’ brains. These data confirm the need to account for temporal changes in FAAH activity when therapeutically targeting FAAH.

Glaser, Sherrye T.; Kaczocha, Martin

2009-01-01

12

Fatty Acid-Elongating Activity in Rapidly Expanding Leek Epidermis.  

PubMed Central

A microsomal fatty acid elongase activity measured in epidermis of rapidly expanding leek (Allium porrum L.) was 10-fold higher in specific activity than preparations from store-bought leek. These preparations elongated acyl chains effectively using endogenous or supplied primers. Elongation of C20:0 was specifically inhibited by 2 [mu]M cerulenin, and labeling experiments with [3H]cerulenin labeled two polypeptides (65 and 88 kD). ATP was required for maximal elongase activity in expanding leaves but was lost in nonexpanding tissues. Both [14C]stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and [14C]stearate were maximally elongated in the presence of ATP. Addition of fully reduced CoA, however, inhibited [14C]stearate elongation, suggesting that stearoyl-CoA synthesis was not a prerequisite for elongation. Furthermore, microsomes preincubated with [14C]stearoyl-CoA plus ATP resulted in loss of radiolabel from the acyl-CoA pool without a corresponding loss in elongating activity. The lack of correlation between elongating activity and the label retained in the putative acyl-CoA substrate pool suggests that acyl-CoAs may not be the immediate precursors for elongation and that ATP plays a critical, yet undefined, role in the elongation process. We propose that an ATP-dependent elongating activity may generate the long-chain fatty acids required for wax biosynthesis.

Evenson, K. J.; Post-Beittenmiller, D.

1995-01-01

13

Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of naturally occurring furan fatty acids.  

PubMed

As a part of our work on the antioxidant properties of naturally occurring furan fatty acids (F acids), we evaluated their hydroxyl radical (HO.) scavenging activity by an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping technique with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). The additions of F acids to the incubation mixture of Fe2(+)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex, H2O2 and DMPO decreased the intensity of the DMPO-OH adduct signal in a dose-dependent way. This decrease was not attributed to the destruction of DMPO-OH adduct by F acids. Kinetic competition studies indicated that the decrease in DMPO-OH signal intensity was mainly due to the competition of F acids with DMPO for HO., and not to the inhibition of the HO. generation system itself. F acids were found to react rapidly with HO. at approximately a diffusion-controlled rate (1.7 x 10(10)M-1 s-1). Comparison with the common HO. scavengers indicated that the rate constant of F acids is higher than those of mannitol and ethanol, and is compatible with those of histidine and dimethylsulfoxide, demonstrating that F acids are a potent HO. scavenger. It is suggested that F acids may serve as antioxidants in biological systems through their ability to scavenge HO.. PMID:8996648

Okada, Y; Kaneko, M; Okajima, H

1996-12-01

14

Coronary vasodilatation by fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fatty acids increase the coronary flow rate of rat hearts, perfused according to theLangendorff technique. Long-chain and medium-chain fatty acids are more effective vasodilators than short-chain fatty acids. The vasodilatation by fatty acids does not proceed through the intermediate formation of the vasodilator adenosine, nor by stimulation of adenylcyclase activity. Since at low Ca2+ concentrations fatty acids not only

W. C. Hülsmann

1976-01-01

15

Human fatty acid synthase: Assembling recombinant halves of the fatty acid synthase subunit protein reconstitutes enzyme activity  

PubMed Central

Our model of the native fatty acid synthase (FAS) depicts it as a dimer of two identical multifunctional proteins (Mr ? 272,000) arranged in an antiparallel configuration so that the active Cys-SH of the ?-ketoacyl synthase of one subunit (where the acyl group is attached) is juxtaposed within 2 ? of the pantetheinyl-SH of the second subunit (where the malonyl group is bound). This arrangement generates two active centers for fatty acid synthesis and predicts that if we have two appropriate halves of the monomer, we should be able to reconstitute an active fatty acid-synthesizing site. We cloned, expressed, and purified catalytically active thioredoxin (TRX) fusion proteins of the NH2-terminal half of the human FAS subunit protein (TRX-hFAS-dI; residues 1–1,297; Mr ? 166) and of the C-terminal half (TRX-hFAS-dII-III; residues 1,296–2,504; Mr ? 155). Adding equivalent amounts of TRX-hFAS-dI and TRX-hFAS-dII-III to a reaction mixture containing acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and NADPH resulted in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. The rate of synthesis was dependent upon the presence of both recombinant proteins and reached a constant level when they were present in equivalent amounts, indicating that the reconstitution of an active fatty acid-synthesizing site required the presence of every partial activity associated with the subunit protein. Analyses of the product acids revealed myristate to be the most abundant with small amounts of palmitate and stearate, possibly because of the way the fused recombinant proteins interacted with each other so that the thioesterase hydrolyzed the acyl group in its myristoyl state. The successful reconstitution of the human FAS activity from its domain I and domains II and III fully supports our model for the structure–function relationship of FAS in animal tissues.

Jayakumar, Arumugam; Chirala, Subrahmanyam S.; Wakil, Salih J.

1997-01-01

16

Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase is up-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acid via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and suppresses polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

PubMed

Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH; also known as ALDH3A2 or ALDH10) oxidizes medium- or long-chain aliphatic aldehydes. FALDH deficiency in humans is known to be the cause of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, in which individuals display neurological symptoms and cutaneous abnormality. FALDH-V, a splice isoform of FALDH, is localized in the peroxisome and contributes to the oxidization of pristanal, an intermediate of the alpha-oxidation pathway. FALDH-N, another splice isoform of FALDH, is induced by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligands, although its activation mechanism has not been clarified. In the present study, we show that transcriptional activation of FALDH is directly regulated by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha through a direct repeat-1 site located in the FALDH promoter. In addition, FALDH is efficiently induced by linoleic acid in rat hepatoma Fao cells through transcriptional activation by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Furthermore, ectopic expression of endoplasmic reticulum-localizing FALDH-N, but not peroxisome-localizing FALDH-V, suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by linoleic acid in HEK293 cells. These results suggest the autocatalytic nature of the FALDH-N system against endoplasmic reticulum stress that is induced by polyunsaturated fatty acid; polyunsaturated fatty acid binds to peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha to activate the expression of FALDH-N, which then detoxifies polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived fatty aldehydes and protects cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:19860831

Ashibe, Bunichiro; Motojima, Kiyoto

2009-12-01

17

Arachidonic Acid and Other Fatty Acids Directly Activate Potassium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arachidonic acid, as well as fatty acids that are not substrates for cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes, activated a specific type of potassium channel in freshly dissociated smooth muscle cells. Activation occurred in excised membrane patches in the absence of calcium and all nucleotides. Therefore signal transduction pathways that require such soluble factors, including the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 pathway, do not mediate the response. Thus, fatty acids directly activate potassium channels and so may constitute a class of signal molecules that regulate ion channels.

Ordway, Richard W.; Walsh, John V.; Singer, Joshua J.

1989-06-01

18

Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation  

SciTech Connect

The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. /sup 14/C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell.

Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

1987-05-01

19

Anti-cancer activities of ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

The ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are two major families of PUFAs present as essential cellular components which possess diverse bioactivities. The ?-3s, mainly found in seafood, are associated with many beneficial effects on human health, while the ?-6s are more abundant in our daily diet and could be implicated in many pathological processes including cancer development. Increasing evidence suggests that the adverse effects of ?-6s may be largely attributed to arachidonic acid (AA, a downstream ?-6) and the metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that stems from its cyclooxygenase (COX)-catalyzed lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, two of AA's upstream ?-6s, ?-linolenic acid (GLA) and dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA), are shown to possess certain anti-cancer activities, including inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. In this paper, we review the documented anti-cancer activities of ?-6 PUFAs, including the recent findings regarding the anti-cancer effects of free radical-mediated DGLA peroxidation. The possible mechanisms and applications of DGLA (and other ?-6s) in inducing anti-cancer activity are also discussed. Considering the wide availability of ?-6s in our daily diet, the study of the potential beneficial effect of ?-6 PUFAs may guide us to develop an ?-6-based diet care strategy for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:24923568

Xu, Yi; Qian, Steven Y

2014-01-01

20

Antinociceptive activity of the endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitylethanolamide.  

PubMed

The endogenous fatty acid ethanolamide, palmitylethanolamide, alleviated, in a dose-dependent manner, pain behaviors elicited in mice by injections of formalin (5%, intraplantar), acetic acid (0.6%, 0.5 ml per animal, intraperitoneal, i.p.), kaolin (2.5 mg per animal, i.p.), and magnesium sulfate (120 mg per kg, i.p.). The antinociceptive effects of palmitylethanolamide were prevented by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 [N-([1s]-endo-1.3.3-trimethylbicyclo[2.3.1]heptan-2-yl)-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide], not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide x HCl]. By contrast, palmitylethanolamide had no effect on capsaicin-evoked pain behavior or thermal nociception. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide), alleviated nociception in all tests (formalin, acetic acid, kaolin, magnesium sulfate, capsaicin and hot plate). These effects were prevented by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, not the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR141716A. Additional fatty acid ethanolamides (oleylethanolamide, myristylethanolamide, palmitoleylethanolamide, palmitelaidylethanolamide) had little or no effect on formalin-evoked pain behavior, and were not investigated in other pain models. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous palmitylethanolamide participates in the intrinsic control of pain initiation. They also suggest that the putative receptor site activated by palmitylethanolamide may provide a novel target for peripherally acting analgesic drugs. PMID:11426841

Calignano, A; La Rana, G; Piomelli, D

2001-05-11

21

Soraphen A, an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase activity, interferes with fatty acid elongation.  

PubMed

Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC1 and ACC2) generates malonyl CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation (FAO). Malonyl CoA is also a substrate for microsomal fatty acid elongation, an important pathway for saturated (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis. Despite the interest in ACC as a target for obesity and cancer therapy, little attention has been given to the role ACC plays in long chain fatty acid synthesis. This report examines the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ACC on DNL and palmitate (16:0) and linoleate (18:2, n-6) metabolism in HepG2 and LnCap cells. The ACC inhibitor, soraphen A, lowers cellular malonyl CoA, attenuates DNL and the formation of fatty acid elongation products derived from exogenous fatty acids, i.e., 16:0 and 18:2, n-6; IC(50)?5nM. Elevated expression of fatty acid elongases (Elovl5, Elovl6) or desaturases (FADS1, FADS2) failed to override the soraphen A effect on SFA, MUFA or PUFA synthesis. Inhibition of fatty acid elongation leads to the accumulation of 16- and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids derived from 16:0 and 18:2, n-6, respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC activity will not only attenuate DNL and induce FAO, but will also attenuate the synthesis of very long chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21184748

Jump, Donald B; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Olson, L Karl

2011-03-01

22

Soraphen A, an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase activity, interferes with fatty acid elongation  

PubMed Central

Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC1 & ACC2) generates malonyl CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation (FAO). Malonyl CoA is also a substrate for microsomal fatty acid elongation, an important pathway for saturated (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis. Despite the interest in ACC as a target for obesity and cancer therapy, little attention has been given to the role ACC plays in long chain fatty acid synthesis. This report examines the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ACC on DNL & palmitate (16:0) and linoleate (18:2,n-6) metabolism in HepG2 and LnCap cells. The ACC inhibitor, soraphen A, lowers cellular malonyl CoA, attenuates DNL and the formation of fatty acid elongation products derived from exogenous fatty acids, i.e., 16:0 & 18:2,n-6; IC50 ~ 5 nM. Elevated expression of fatty acid elongases (Elovl5, Elovl6) or desaturases (FADS1, FADS2) failed to override the soraphen A effect on SFA, MUFA or PUFA synthesis. Inhibition of fatty acid elongation leads to the accumulation of 16- and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids derived from 16:0 and 18:2,n-6, respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC activity will not only attenuate DNL and induce FAO, but will also attenuate the synthesis of very long chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Jump, Donald B.; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Olson, L. Karl

2010-01-01

23

Larvicidal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of Vitex species against Culex quinquefasciatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal activity of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts of Vitex altissima, Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia was studied against early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The fatty composition was analysed by gas chromatography. The highest percentage of lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic\\u000a acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid were recorded in V. negundo. The highest percentage of linolenic

Krishnan Kannathasan; Annadurai Senthilkumar; Venugopalan Venkatesalu; Manivachagam Chandrasekaran

2008-01-01

24

Effect of cis-unsaturated fatty acids on aortic protein kinase C activity.  

PubMed Central

Long-chain cis-unsaturated fatty acids could substitute for phosphatidylserine and activate bovine aortic protein kinase C in assays with histone as substrate. The optimal concentration was 24-40 microM for oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids. With arachidonic acid, the Ka for Ca2+ was 130 microM and kinase activity was maximal at 0.5 mM-Ca2+. Diolein only slightly activated the oleic acid-stimulated enzyme at low physiological Ca2+ concentrations (0.1 and 10 microM). Oleic acid also stimulated kinase C activity, determined with a Triton X-100 mixed-micellar assay. Under these conditions, the fatty acid activation was absolutely dependent on the presence of diolein, but a Ca2+ concentration of 0.5 mM was still required for maximum kinase C activity. The effect of fatty acids on protein kinase C activity was also investigated with the platelet protein P47 as a substrate, since the properties of kinase C can be influenced by the choice of substrate. In contrast with the results with histone, fatty acids did not stimulate the phosphorylation of P47 by the aortic protein kinase C. Activation of protein kinase C by fatty acids may allow the selective phosphorylation of substrates, but the physiological significance of fatty acid activation is questionable because of the requirement for high concentrations of Ca2+.

Dell, K R; Severson, D L

1989-01-01

25

Fatty acid metabolism in marine fish: Low activity of fatty acyl ?5 desaturation in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine fish have an absolute dietary requirement for C20 and C22 highly unsaturated fatty acids. Previous studies using cultured cell lines indicated that underlying this requirement in\\u000a marine fish was either a deficiency in fatty acyl ?5 desaturase or C18–20 elongase activity. Recent research in turbot cells found low C18–20 elongase but high ?5 desaturase activity. In the present study,

Douglas R. Tocher; Cristina Ghioni

1999-01-01

26

Bactericidal Activity of the Human Skin Fatty Acid cis-6-Hexadecanoic Acid on Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Human skin fatty acids are a potent aspect of our innate defenses, giving surface protection against potentially invasive organisms. They provide an important parameter in determining the ecology of the skin microflora, and alterations can lead to increased colonization by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Harnessing skin fatty acids may also give a new avenue of exploration in the generation of control measures against drug-resistant organisms. Despite their importance, the mechanism(s) whereby skin fatty acids kill bacteria has remained largely elusive. Here, we describe an analysis of the bactericidal effects of the major human skin fatty acid cis-6-hexadecenoic acid (C6H) on the human commensal and pathogen S. aureus. Several C6H concentration-dependent mechanisms were found. At high concentrations, C6H swiftly kills cells associated with a general loss of membrane integrity. However, C6H still kills at lower concentrations, acting through disruption of the proton motive force, an increase in membrane fluidity, and its effects on electron transfer. The design of analogues with altered bactericidal effects has begun to determine the structural constraints on activity and paves the way for the rational design of new antistaphylococcal agents.

Cartron, Michael L.; England, Simon R.; Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Josten, Michaele; Turner, Robert; Rauter, Yvonne; Hurd, Alexander; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Jones, Simon

2014-01-01

27

Long-chain fatty acids activate calcium channels in ventricular myocytes.  

PubMed Central

Nonesterified fatty acids accumulate at sites of tissue injury and necrosis. In cardiac tissue the concentrations of oleic acid, arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, and other fatty acids increase greatly during ischemia due to receptor or nonreceptor-mediated activation of phospholipases and/or diminished reacylation. In ischemic myocardium, the time course of increase in fatty acids and tissue calcium closely parallels irreversible cardiac damage. We postulated that fatty acids released from membrane phospholipids may be involved in the increase of intracellular calcium. We report here that low concentrations (3-30 microM) of each long-chain unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic) and saturated (palmitic, stearic, and arachidic) fatty acid tested induced multifold increases in voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) in cardiac myocytes. In contrast, neither short-chain fatty acids (less than 12 carbons) or fatty acid esters (oleic and palmitic methyl esters) had any effect on ICa, indicating that activation of calcium channels depended on chain length and required a free carboxyl group. Inhibition of protein kinases C and A, G proteins, eicosanoid production, or nonenzymatic oxidation did not block the fatty acid-induced increase in ICa. Thus, long-chain fatty acids appear to directly activate ICa, possibly by acting at some lipid sites near the channels or directly on the channel protein itself. We suggest that the combined effects of fatty acids released during ischemia on ICa may contribute to ischemia-induced pathogenic events on the heart that involve calcium, such as arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and myocardial damage due to cytotoxic calcium overload.

Huang, J M; Xian, H; Bacaner, M

1992-01-01

28

Long-Chain Fatty Acids Activate Calcium Channels in Ventricular Myocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonesterified fatty acids accumulate at sites of tissue injury and necrosis. In cardiac tissue the concentrations of oleic acid, arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, and other fatty acids increase greatly during ischemia due to receptor or nonreceptor-mediated activation of phospholipases and/or diminished reacylation. In ischemic myocardium, the time course of increase in fatty acids and tissue calcium closely parallels irreversible cardiac damage. We postulated that fatty acids released from membrane phospholipids may be involved in the increase of intracellular calcium. We report here that low concentrations (3-30 ?M) of each long-chain unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic) and saturated (palmitic, stearic, and arachidic) fatty acid tested induced multifold increases in voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) in cardiac myocytes. In contrast, neither short-chain fatty acids (<12 carbons) or fatty acid esters (oleic and palmitic methyl esters) had any effect on ICa, indicating that activation of calcium channels depended on chain length and required a free carboxyl group. Inhibition of protein kinases C and A, G proteins, eicosanoid production, or nonenzymatic oxidation did not block the fatty acid-induced increase in ICa. Thus, long-chain fatty acids appear to directly activate ICa, possibly by acting at some lipid sites near the channels or directly on the channel protein itself. We suggest that the combined effects of fatty acids released during ischemia on ICa may contribute to ischemia-induced pathogenic events on the heart that involve calcium, such as arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and myocardial damage due to cytotoxic calcium overload.

Huang, James Min-Che; Xian, Hu; Bacaner, Marvin

1992-07-01

29

Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ?6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

2013-01-01

30

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPAR{alpha} activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR{gamma} agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2011-04-22

31

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

32

Elevated hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 activity affects multiple pathways controlling hepatic lipid and carbohydrate composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 (Elovl-5) plays an important role in long chain monounsaturated and polyun- saturated fatty acid synthesis. Elovl-5 activity is regulated during development, by diet, hormones, and drugs, and in chronic disease. This report examines the impact of ele- vated Elovl-5 activity on hepatic function. Adenovirus- mediated induction of Elovl5 activity in livers of C57BL\\/6 mice increased hepatic

Yun Wang; Moises Torres-Gonzalez; Sasmita Tripathy; Daniela Botolin; Barbara Christian; Donald B. Jump

2008-01-01

33

Fatty acid-binding protein activities in bovine muscle, liver and adipose tissue  

SciTech Connect

Subcutaneous adipose tissue, sternomandibularis muscle and liver were obtained from steers immediately postmortem. Muscle strips and adipose tissue snips were incubated with 0.75 mM (1- UC)palmitate and 5 mM glucose. Muscle strips esterified palmitate at the rate of 2.5 nmol/min per gram tissue, which was 30% of the rate observed for adipose tissue. Fatty acid-binding protein activity was measured in 104,000 x g supernatant fractions of liver, muscle and adipose tissue homogenates. Muscle and adipose tissue fractions bound 840 and 140 pmol (1- UC)palmitoyl-CoA per gram tissue, respectively. Fatty acid-binding protein activity was greater in adipose tissue than in muscle when data were expressed per milligram protein. Fatty acid binding-protein activity was correlated with the rate of palmitate esterification within each tissue. Liver contained the highest fatty acid-binding protein activity.

Smith, S.B.; Ekeren, P.A.; Sanders, J.O.

1985-11-01

34

Fatty Acids and Brain Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yehuda, S., S. Rabinovitz., R. L. Carasso and D. I. Mostofsky. Fatty acids and brain peptides. Peptides 19(2) 407–419, 1998.—The role of fatty acids (FA) as a mediator and modulator of central nervous system activity in general, and peptides in particular, is only recently becoming understood. This paper reviews numerous findings concerned with the activity of fatty acids, particularly with

Shlomo Yehuda; Sharon Rabinovitz; Ralph L Carasso; David I Mostofsky

1998-01-01

35

Active role of fatty acid amino acid conjugates in nitrogen metabolism in Spodoptera litura larvae  

PubMed Central

Since the first fatty acid amino acid conjugate (FAC) was isolated from regurgitant of Spodoptera exigua larvae in 1997 [volicitin: N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-l-glutamine], their role as elicitors of induced responses in plants has been well documented. However, studies of the biosyntheses and the physiological role of FACs in the insect have been minimal. By using 14C-labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, and linolenic acid in feeding studies of Spodoptera litura larvae, combined with tissue analyses, we found glutamine in the midgut cells to be a major source for biosynthesis of FACs. Furthermore, 20% of the glutamine moiety of FACs was derived from glutamic acid and ammonia through enzymatic reaction of glutamine synthetase (GS). To determine whether FACs improve GS productivity, we studied nitrogen assimilation efficiency of S. litura larvae fed on artificial diets containing 15NH4Cl and glutamic acid. When the diet was enriched with linolenic acid, the nitrogen assimilation efficiency improved from 40% to >60%. In the lumen, the biosynthesized FACs are hydrolyzed to fatty acids and glutamine, which are reabsorbed into tissues and hemolymph. These results strongly suggested that FACs play an active role in nitrogen assimilation in Lepidoptera larva and that glutamine containing FACs in the gut lumen may function as a form of storage of glutamine, a key compound of nitrogen metabolism.

Yoshinaga, Naoko; Aboshi, Takako; Abe, Hiroaki; Nishida, Ritsuo; Alborn, Hans T.; Tumlinson, James H.; Mori, Naoki

2008-01-01

36

Prostatic and Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Progression during Active Surveillance.  

PubMed

The association between omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids and prostate cancer has been widely studied. However, little is known about the impact of prostate tissue fatty acid content on prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that compared with the estimated dietary ?-3 fatty acids intake and the ?-3 fatty acids levels measured in red blood cells (RBC), the prostate tissue ?-3 fatty acid content is more strongly related to prostate cancer progression. We present the initial observations from baseline data of a phase II clinical trial conducted in a cohort of 48 untreated men affected with low-risk prostate cancer, managed under active surveillance. These men underwent a first repeat biopsy session within 6 months after the initial diagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer, at which time 29% of the men had progressed from a Gleason score of 6 to a Gleason score of 7. At the first repeat biopsy session, fatty acid levels were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, and determined in the RBC and in the prostate tissue biopsy. We found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer progression when measured directly in the prostate tissue. Thus, this initial interim study analysis suggests that prostate tissue ?-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be protective against prostate cancer progression in men with low-risk prostate cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 7(7); 766-76. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24824038

Moreel, Xavier; Allaire, Janie; Léger, Caroline; Caron, André; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Lamarche, Benoît; Julien, Pierre; Desmeules, Patrice; Têtu, Bernard; Fradet, Vincent

2014-07-01

37

Free fatty acids and protein kinase C activation induce GPR120 (free fatty acid receptor 4) phosphorylation.  

PubMed

GPR120, free fatty acid receptor 4, is a recently deorphanized G protein-coupled receptor that seems to play cardinal roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and metabolic disorders. In the present work a GPR120-Venus fusion protein was expressed in HEK293 Flp-In T-REx cells and its function (increase in intracellular calcium) and phosphorylation were studied. It was observed that the fusion protein migrated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels as a band with a mass of ?70-75kDa, although other bands of higher apparent weight (>130kDa) were also detected. Cell stimulation with docosahexaenoic acid or ?-linolenic acid induced concentration-dependent increases in intracellular calcium and GPR120 phosphorylation. Activation of protein kinase C with phorbol esters also induced a marked receptor phosphorylation but did not alter the ability of 1µM docosahexaenoic acid to increase the intracellular calcium concentration. Phorbol ester-induced GPR120 phosphorylation, but not that induced with docosahexaenoic acid, was blocked by protein kinase C inhibitors (bis-indolyl-maleimide I and Gö 6976) suggesting that conventional kinase isoforms mediate this action. The absence of effect of protein kinase C inhibitors on agonist-induced GPR120 phosphorylation indicates that this kinase does not play a major role in agonist-induced receptor phosphorylation. Docosahexaenoic acid action was associated with marked GPR120 internalization whereas that induced with phorbol esters was smaller at early times. PMID:24239485

Sánchez-Reyes, Omar B; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Castillo-Badillo, Jean A; Takei, Yoshinori; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

2014-01-15

38

Endogenous Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Augments Fatty Acid Uptake in Oxidative Muscle  

PubMed Central

In the setting of insulin resistance, agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? restore insulin action in muscle and promote lipid redistribution. Mice with muscle-specific knockout of PPAR? (MuPPAR?KO) develop excess adiposity, despite reduced food intake and normal glucose disposal in muscle. To understand the relation between muscle PPAR? and lipid accumulation, we studied the fuel energetics of MuPPAR?KO mice. Compared with controls, MuPPAR?KO mice exhibited significantly increased ambulatory activity, muscle mitochondrial uncoupling, and respiratory quotient. Fitting with this latter finding, MuPPAR?KO animals compared with control siblings exhibited a 25% reduction in the uptake of the fatty acid tracer 2-bromo-palmitate (P < 0.05) and a 13% increase in serum nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.05). These abnormalities were associated with no change in AMP kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, AMPK activity, or phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in muscle and occurred despite increased expression of fatty acid transport protein 1. Palmitate oxidation was not significantly altered in MuPPAR?KO mice despite the increased expression of several genes promoting lipid oxidation. These data demonstrate that PPAR?, even in the absence of exogenous activators, is required for normal rates of fatty acid uptake in oxidative skeletal muscle via mechanisms independent of AMPK and fatty acid transport protein 1. Thus, when PPAR? activity in muscle is absent or reduced, there will be decreased fatty acid disposal leading to diminished energy utilization and ultimately adiposity.

Norris, Andrew W.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Yao, Jianrong; Jessen, Niels; Musi, Nicolas; Chen, Lihong; Sivitz, William I.; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Kahn, C. Ronald

2008-01-01

39

The effects of nutritional polyunsaturated fatty acids on locomotor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of nutritional omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on locomotor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), which are used as an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). For 6 weeks, two groups of randomly assigned SHRs received food either enriched with or deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 G/AIN93G). Using an open field, locomotor activity was subsequently assessed for 6 days. A marked difference in locomotor activity as assessed by the distance travelled in the open field was found between the two groups of rats. In comparison with rats fed with omega-3 fatty acid-enriched food, the animals on the omega-3 fatty acid-deficient diet showed a significantly higher locomotor activity. The present findings demonstrated that nutritional enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids was associated with reduced motor activity in an established animal model of ADHD and support the notion that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. PMID:24415401

Hauser, Joachim; Makulska-Gertruda, Ewelina; Reissmann, Andreas; Sontag, Thomas-A; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W

2014-06-01

40

Omega-3 fatty acids  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care.

Schwalfenberg, Gerry

2006-01-01

41

Fatty acid analogs  

DOEpatents

In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

1985-01-01

42

Retinal pigment epithelial acid lipase activity and lipoprotein receptors: effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipase in situ, in vitro, and after challenge with phagocytic stimuli. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of fluorescently labeled native, aceto-acetylated, and oxidized LDL was studied in vitro and in vivo. LDL effects on RPE lysosomal enzymes were assessed. Lysosomal enzyme activity was compared in RPE cells from monkeys fed diets rich in fish oil to those from control animals and in cultured RPE cells exposed to sera from these monkeys. RESULTS: RPE acid lipase activity was substantial and comparable to that of mononuclear phagocytes. Acid lipase activity increased significantly following phagocytic challenge with photoreceptor outer segment (POS) membranes. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of labeled lipoproteins was determined in vitro. Distinctive uptake of labeled lipoproteins occurred in RPE cells and mononuclear phagocytes in vivo. Native LDL enhanced RPE lysosomal enzyme activity. RPE lysosomal enzymes increased significantly in RPE cells from monkeys fed fish oil-rich diets and in cultured RPE cells exposed to their sera. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cells contain substantial acid lipase for efficient metabolism of lipids imbibed by POS phagocytosis and LDL uptake. Diets rich in fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acids, by enhancing acid lipase, may reduce RPE lipofuscin accumulation, RPE oxidative damage, and the development of ARMD.

Elner, Victor M

2002-01-01

43

[The spermicidal activity of fish oil, polyunsaturated fatty acids and their sodium salts].  

PubMed

The chief polyunsaturated fatty acids and unsaturated acids known to exist in fish oil are: docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and docosenoic acid. They have been made into emulsions of pluronic F68-physiological saline and sodium salts physiological saline solutions. Following that, the action of their spermicidal activities in vitro occurred. Emulsion and sodium salt solutions of docosahexaenoic acid had the strongest spermicidal activity observed. The most efficient concentration was 0.001 mM, similar to that of propranolol. In line for most efficient after that were eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, oleic acid, and docosenoic acid. The experimental results indicated that the spermicidal activity of fatty acid was intensified with the increase of the unsaturated bond. Besides, the most efficient concentration of either morrhuic acid or sodium morrhuate was 0.1%. Therefore, they contained more docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid and were ideal spermicides in vitro. The spermicidal mechanism of fatty acids may be related to the potential action of the carboxyl group. (author's modified) PMID:12315170

Wang, J Z; Lou, Y B; Zhu, R L; Chen, P D

1987-08-01

44

ASP enhances in situ lipoprotein lipase activity by increasing fatty acid trapping in adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) increases tri- glyceride (TG) storage (fatty acid trapping) in adipose tis- sue and plays an important role in postprandial TG clear- ance. We examined the capacity of ASP and insulin to stimulate the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the trapping of LPL-derived nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Although insulin increased total LPL ac- tivity

May Faraj; Allan D. Sniderman; Katherine Cianflone

2004-01-01

45

Fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors - and -mediated gene expression via liver fatty acid binding protein: A signaling path to the nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes and target for fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs. How these signaling molecules reach the nuclear receptor is not known; however, similarities in ligand specificity suggest the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) as a possible candidate. In localization studies using laser-scanning microscopy, we show that L-FABP and

Christian Wolfrum; Carola M. Borrmann; Torsten Börchers; Friedrich Spener

2001-01-01

46

Evidence for Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Placenta, and the Relationship of Fatty Acid Oxidation Enzyme Activities with Gestational Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation have recently been associated with obstetric complications including pre-eclampsia, Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelets (HELLP) syndrome, placental floor infarct, and Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (AFLP). These diseases occur in about a third of the mothers who are heterozygous for a defect in long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) enzyme and who bear

D. Rakheja; M. J. Bennett; B. M. Foster; R. Domiati-Saad; B. B. Rogers

2002-01-01

47

AMP-Activated Kinase Restricts Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection by Inhibiting Fatty Acid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

The cell intrinsic innate immune responses provide a first line of defense against viral infection, and often function by targeting cellular pathways usurped by the virus during infection. In particular, many viruses manipulate cellular lipids to form complex structures required for viral replication, many of which are dependent on de novo fatty acid synthesis. We found that the energy regulator AMPK, which potently inhibits fatty acid synthesis, restricts infection of the Bunyavirus, Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), an important re-emerging arthropod-borne human pathogen for which there are no effective vaccines or therapeutics. We show restriction of RVFV both by AMPK and its upstream activator LKB1, indicating an antiviral role for this signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found that AMPK is activated during RVFV infection, leading to the phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the first rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Activating AMPK pharmacologically both restricted infection and reduced lipid levels. This restriction could be bypassed by treatment with the fatty acid palmitate, demonstrating that AMPK restricts RVFV infection through its inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis. Lastly, we found that this pathway plays a broad role in antiviral defense since additional viruses from disparate families were also restricted by AMPK and LKB1. Therefore, AMPK is an important component of the cell intrinsic immune response that restricts infection through a novel mechanism involving the inhibition of fatty acid metabolism.

Moser, Theresa S.; Schieffer, Daniel; Cherry, Sara

2012-01-01

48

Bioactive amides of fatty acids.  

PubMed

Amides of fatty acids are lipid bioregulators formed from long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids via amidation by the corresponding amines. Ethanolamides of fatty acids are the most well-studied species of this group; an alternative pathway for their biosynthesis includes hydrolysis of N-acylated phosphatidylethanolamines by phospholipase D. Ethanolamides of fatty acids bind to the cannabinoid receptors of the central nervous system (CB1) or peripheral tissues (CB2) and can be considered as endogenous ligands of these receptors. Their pharmacological properties are similar to that of cannabimimetics. Simple amides of fatty acids are also endogenous bioregulators acting like sleep-inducing (oleamide) or angiogenic factors (erucamide). A new group of bioregulators comprise the amides of fatty acids and biologically active amines (vanillinamine, dopamine, and serotonin). PMID:9526091

Bezuglov, V V; Bobrov MYu; Archakov, A V

1998-01-01

49

Structural basis for the activation of PPAR? by oxidized fatty acids  

PubMed Central

The nuclear receptor PPAR? plays important roles in adipogenesis, immune response and in both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Although synthetic agonists for PPAR? are widely used as insulin sensitizers, the identity of the natural ligand(s) for PPAR? is still not clear. Suggested natural ligands include 15-deoxy-?12,14-PGJ2 and oxidized fatty acids such as 9-HODE and 13-HODE. Crystal structures of PPAR? have revealed the mode of recognition for synthetic compounds. Here we report structures of PPAR? bound to oxidized fatty acids which are likely natural ligands for this receptor. These structures reveal that the receptor can (i) simultaneously bind two fatty acids and (ii) couple covalently with conjugated oxo fatty acids. Thermal stability and gene expression analyses suggest that such covalent ligands are particularly effective activators of PPAR? and thus may serve as potent and biologically relevant ligands.

Itoh, Toshimasa; Fairall, Louise; Amin, Kush; Inaba, Yuka; Szanto, Attila; Balint, Balint L.; Nagy, Laszlo; Yamamoto, Keiko; Schwabe, John W.R.

2009-01-01

50

Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22024496

Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

2011-09-01

51

Fatty acids and glucose increase neutral endopeptidase activity in human microvascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a membrane-bound metallopeptidase enzyme that degrades neuropeptides, bradykinin, atrial natriuretic factor, enkephalins, and endothelin may regulate response to injury. We have previously demonstrated increased NEP localization and enzyme activity in diabetic wounds and skin compared with normal controls. We hypothesized that hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus may induce excessive NEP activity and thereby diminish normal response to injury. Human microvascular endothelial cells were treated with five different fatty acids (40 microM) with varying degrees of saturation, including oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and linolenic acid and/or glucose (40 mM) for 48 h. The effect of the antioxidative agents vitamin E and C on NEP enzyme activation was determined by treating the cultured cells with alpha-tocopherol succinate and/or L-ascorbic acid. Cell membrane preparations were assayed for NEP activity by incubation with glutaryl-Ala-Ala-Phe-4-methoxy-beta naphthylamide to generate a fluorescent degradation product methoxy 2 naphthylamine. High glucose or fatty acid concentration upregulated NEP activity. The highest NEP activity was observed with combined elevated glucose, linoleic acid, and oleic acid (P < 0.05). Antioxidant vitamin E and C treatment significantly reduced NEP enzyme activity after fatty acid exposure (P < 0.05). Thus, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus may increase endothelial cell NEP activity and thereby decrease early pro-inflammatory responses. The modulator effect of vitamin E and C on NEP membrane enzyme activity after exposure to fatty acid stimulation suggests that lipid oxidation may activate NEP. PMID:12785004

Muangman, Pornprom; Spenny, Michelle L; Tamura, Richard N; Gibran, Nicole S

2003-06-01

52

Quantitative structure-activity relationships of antimicrobial fatty acids and derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Fatty acids and derivatives (FADs) are resources for natural antimicrobials. In order to screen for additional potent antimicrobial agents, the antimicrobial activities of FADs against Staphylococcus aureus were examined using a microplate assay. Monoglycerides of fatty acids were the most potent class of fatty acids, among which monotridecanoin possessed the most potent antimicrobial activity. The conventional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) were performed to establish two statistically reliable models (conventional QSAR: R(2)=0.942, Q(2)(LOO)=0.910; CoMFA: R(2)=0.979, Q(2)=0.588, respectively). Improved forecasting can be achieved by the combination of these two models that provide a good insight into the structure-activity relationships of the FADs and that may be useful to design new FADs as antimicrobial agents. PMID:22302421

Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lu; Peng, Li-juan; Dong, Xiao-wu; Wu, Di; Wu, Vivian Chi-Hua; Feng, Feng-Qin

2012-02-01

53

High saturated fatty acids proportion in Escherichia coli enhances the activity of ice-nucleation protein from Pantoea ananatis.  

PubMed

The ice-nucleation protein (INP) from Pantoea ananatis was expressed in Escherichia coli. INP expression increased the freezing point of the E. coli culture by a few degrees. Deletion of FabH, an important enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, significantly inhibited the ice-nucleation activity. Increased unsaturated fatty acids in the fabH mutant cells decreased the ice-nucleation activity. Adding exogenous saturated fatty acids increased both E. coli fatty acid saturation and the ice-nucleation activity. In contrast, adding unsaturated fatty acids exhibited the opposite effects. Furthermore, an E. coli MG1655-fadR strain with high saturated fatty acids content was constructed, in which the INP activity was enhanced by about 17% compared with its activity in the wild-type MG1655 strain. PMID:23763336

Yu, Feifei; Liu, Xiping; Tao, Yong; Zhu, Kun

2013-08-01

54

Fatty acids as modulators of membrane functions: catecholamine-activated adenylate cyclase of the turkey erythrocyte.  

PubMed Central

Activation of the adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1[ from turkey erythrocytes by isoproterenol decreased precipitously below 26 degrees. Certain unsaturated fatty acids enhanced the activation by isoproterenol up to 25-fold at reduced temperatures. The fatty acid also enhanced the formation of a persistent active state of the enzyme which was produced by preincubation with guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imino)triphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]. Once the enzyme had been activated by Gpp(NH)p plus isoproterenol the reaction rate was no longer as temperature sensitive and the fatty acid had little effect. The synthetic Gpp(NH)p apparently substituted for the natural GTP, which is known to play a regulatory role in the adenylate cyclase system. The findings suggest that the function of GTP which is mediated by the hormone is the temperature-sensitive event which is enhanced by the fatty acid. The use of free fatty acid to probe membrane-associated reactions in intact cells and in isolated membrane preparations is proposed.

Orly, J; Schramm, M

1975-01-01

55

Molecular Recognition of Fatty Acids by Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors for fatty acids (FAs) that regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. We report the crystal structure of the PPAR? ligand-binding domain (LBD) bound to either the FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or the synthetic fibrate GW2433. The carboxylic acids of EPA and GW2433 interact directly with the activation function 2 (AF-2) helix. The hydrophobic

H. Eric Xu; Millard H Lambert; Valerie G Montana; Derek J Parks; Steven G Blanchard; Peter J Brown; Daniel D Sternbach; Jürgen M Lehmann; G. Bruce Wisely; Timothy M Willson; Steven A Kliewer; Michael V Milburn

1999-01-01

56

Omega-3 fatty acids moderate effects of physical activity on cognitive function.  

PubMed

Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I

2014-07-01

57

Long-chain fatty acids decrease lipoprotein lipase activity of cultured rat adipocyte precursors.  

PubMed

The effect of fatty acids on rat adipocyte precursor lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was examined. Cellular LPL activity in cultured perirenal precursors reached a maximum after 6 days. At day 6, addition of 10(-8) mol/L oleic acid to the culture medium for 6 hours resulted in a significant reduction of LPL activity. Exposing cultured precursors to 10(-4) mol/L oleic acid caused more than a 50% decrease of intracellular LPL activity measured in either acetone-ether or detergent extracts and more than a 60% decrease of heparin-releasable LPL activity. These reductions were evident within 2.5 hours of exposure to oleic acid, and exposure to oleic acid for as little as 15 minutes caused a subsequent decrease in LPL activity. LPL activity recovered 48 hours after removal of oleic acid from culture medium. Decreased LPL activity after oleic acid exposure was also noted in epididymal cells and in differentiated adipocyte precursors. The extent of decrease of LPL activity upon fatty acid exposure was dependent on the presence of the carboxyl group and was affected by acyl chain length. Although oleic acid did not affect protein synthesis estimated by [3H]-leucine incorporation, LPL mRNA levels were decreased following exposure of cells to oleic acid. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD) activity and mRNA levels were not affected by oleic acid exposure. Hence, fatty acids cause a dose-, acyl chain-, and carboxyl group-dependent specific decrease of heparin-releasable and intracellular LPL activities in cultured rat adipocyte precursors; this effect is associated with and is likely caused at least in part by a decrease in LPL mRNA levels. PMID:8121293

Kirkland, J L; Hollenberg, C H; Kindler, S; Roncari, D A

1994-02-01

58

Integrin-Dependent Akt1 Activation Regulates PGC-1 Expression and Fatty Acid Oxidation  

PubMed Central

Background Poly-N-acetyl glucosamine nanofibers derived from a marine diatom have been used to increase cutaneous wound healing. These nanofibers exert their activity by specifically activating integrins, which makes them a useful tool for dissecting integrin-mediated pathways. We have shown that short-fiber poly-N-acetyl glucosamine nanofiber (sNAG) treatment of endothelial cells results in increased cell motility and metabolic rate in the absence of increased cell proliferation. Results Using a Seahorse Bioanalyzer to measure oxygen consumption in real time, we show that sNAG treatment increases oxygen consumption rates, correlated with an integrin-dependent activation of Akt1. Akt1 activation leads to an increase in the expression of the transcriptional coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?). This is not due to increased mitochondrial biogenesis, but is associated with an increase in the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), suggesting regulation of fatty acid oxidation. Blockade of fatty acid oxidation with etomoxir, an O-carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor, blocks the sNAG-dependent increased oxygen consumption. 3H-palmitate uptake experiments indicate a PDK4-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation, which is required for nanofiber-induced cell motility. Conclusions Our findings imply a linear pathway whereby an integrin-dependent activation of Akt1 leads to increased PGC-1? and PDK4 expression resulting in increased energy production by fatty acid oxidation.

Beeson, Craig C.; Beeson, Gyda C.; Buff, Haley; Eldridge, Juanita; Zhang, Aiguo; Seth, Arun; Demcheva, Marina; Vournakis, John N.; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C.

2012-01-01

59

Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver

R. E. Burrier; C. R. Manson; P. Brecher

1987-01-01

60

Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits  

PubMed Central

The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 ?g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies.

Serce, Sedat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Gunduz, Kazim; Orhan, Emine

2010-01-01

61

VASP Increases Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation by Activating AMPK in Mice  

PubMed Central

Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling reduces hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance; however, its regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we sought to determine whether vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) signaling improves lipid metabolism in the liver and, if so, whether VASP’s effects are mediated by AMPK. We show that disruption of VASP results in significant hepatic steatosis as a result of significant impairment of fatty acid oxidation, VLDL-triglyceride (TG) secretion, and AMPK signaling. Overexpression of VASP in hepatocytes increased AMPK phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation and reduced hepatocyte TG accumulation; however, these responses were suppressed in the presence of an AMPK inhibitor. Restoration of AMPK phosphorylation by administration of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside in Vasp?/? mice reduced hepatic steatosis and normalized fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG secretion. Activation of VASP by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, in db/db mice reduced hepatic steatosis and increased phosphorylated (p-)AMPK and p-acetyl CoA carboxylase. In Vasp?/? mice, however, sildendafil treatment did not increase p-AMPK or reduce hepatic TG content. These studies identify a role of VASP to enhance hepatic fatty acid oxidation by activating AMPK and to promote VLDL-TG secretion from the liver.

Tateya, Sanshiro; Rizzo-De Leon, Norma; Handa, Priya; Cheng, Andrew M.; Morgan-Stevenson, Vicki; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Kanter, Jenny E.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; Daum, Guenter; Clowes, Alexander W.; Chait, Alan; Kim, Francis

2013-01-01

62

Use of vegetable oils and fatty acid methyl esters in the production of spherical activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using vegetable oils, i.e., rapeseed oil, soybean oil, linseed oil, tung oil, castor oil and dehydroxylated castor oil, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from them, for the agglomeration of bituminous coals was investigated. Both vegetable oils and FAMEs were found to be suitable bridging liquids for the production of spherical agglomerates-precursor of spherical activated

S Gryglewicz; K Grabas; G Gryglewicz

2000-01-01

63

Characterization of fatty acid modifying enzyme activity in staphylococcal mastitis isolates and other bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Fatty acid modifying enzyme (FAME) has been shown to modify free fatty acids to alleviate their bactericidal effect by esterifying fatty acids to cholesterol or alcohols. Although it has been shown in previous studies that FAME is required for Staphylococcus aureus survival in skin abscesses, FAME is poorly studied compared to other virulence factors. FAME activity had also been detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). However, FAME activity was only surveyed after a bacterial culture was grown for 24?h. Therefore if FAME activity was earlier in the growth phase, it would not have been detected by the assay and those strains would have been labeled as FAME negative. Results Fifty CNS bovine mastitis isolates and several S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus uberis strains were assayed for FAME activity over 24?h. FAME activity was detected in 54% of CNS and 80%?S. aureus strains surveyed but none in E. coli or S. uberis. While some CNS strains produced FAME activity comparable to the lab strain of S. aureus, the pattern of FAME activity varied among strains and across species of staphylococci. All CNS that produced FAME activity also exhibited lipase activity. Lipase activity relative to colony forming units of these CNS decreased over the 24?h growth period. No relationship was observed between somatic cell count in the milk and FAME activity in CNS. Conclusions Some staphylococcal species surveyed produced FAME activity, but E. coli and S. uberis strains did not. All FAME producing CNS exhibited lipase activity which may indicate that both these enzymes work in concert to alter fatty acids in the bacterial environment.

2012-01-01

64

A Potent Plant-Derived Antifungal Acetylenic Acid Mediates Its Activity by Interfering with Fatty Acid Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses were conducted using the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate its mechanism of action. 6-NDA elicited a transcriptome response indicative of fatty acid stress, altering the expression of genes that are required for yeast growth in the presence of oleate. Mutants of S. cerevisiae lacking transcription factors that regulate fatty acid ?-oxidation showed increased sensitivity to 6-NDA. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated that 6-NDA inhibited the formation of fatty acids longer than 14 carbons in length. In addition, the growth inhibitory effect of 6-NDA was rescued in the presence of exogenously supplied oleate. To investigate the response of a pathogenic fungal species to 6-NDA, transcriptional profiling and biochemical analyses were also conducted in C. albicans. The transcriptional response and fatty acid profile of C. albicans were comparable to those obtained in S. cerevisiae, and the rescue of growth inhibition with exogenous oleate was also observed in C. albicans. In a fluconazole-resistant clinical isolate of C. albicans, a fungicidal effect was produced when fluconazole was combined with 6-NDA. In hyphal growth assays, 6-NDA inhibited the formation of long hyphal filaments in C. albicans. Collectively, our results indicate that the antifungal activity of 6-NDA is mediated by a disruption in fatty acid homeostasis and that 6-NDA has potential utility in the treatment of superficial Candida infections.

Xu, Tao; Tripathi, Siddharth K.; Feng, Qin; Lorenz, Michael C.; Wright, Marsha A.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Mask, Melanie M.; Baerson, Scott R.; Li, Xing-Cong; Clark, Alice M.

2012-01-01

65

Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and fatty acid components of flower, leaf, stem and seed of Hypericum scabrum.  

PubMed

The hexane extracts of flower, leaf, stem, and seed of Hypericum scabrum, which were collected from northwestern Iran, were obtained by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were converted to methyl esters and determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) systems. The hexane extract from the flower, leaf, stem, and seed contained 39.1%, 43.2%, 29.0%, and 37.6% of omega-3 fatty acids, respectively. The other main components of the flower extract were tetracosane (12.2%) and palmitic acid (9.3%), and that of the leaf extract was palmitic acid (7.4%). The stem and seed extracts contained bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (18.7% and 35.7%), nonacosane (11.7% and 3.9%) and linoleic acid (6.5% and 6.9%) as major components. The hexane extracts of different parts from H. scabrum represent an important source of omega-3 fatty acids in several Hypericum species. The antioxidant activity of all hexane extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The results indicate that hexane extracts from different parts of H. scabrum possess considerable antioxidant activity. The highest radical scavenging activity was detected in seed, which had an IC50 = 165 microg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of those samples were determined against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae), as well as three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger). The bioassay showed that the oil exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity. This study reveals that the all parts of this plant are attractive sources of fatty acid components, especially the essential ones, as well as of effective natural antioxidants. PMID:22224301

Shafaghat, Ali

2011-11-01

66

Thia fatty acids, metabolism and metabolic effects.  

PubMed

(1) The chemical properties of thia fatty acids are similar to normal fatty acids, but their metabolism (see below: points 2-6) and metabolic effects (see below: points 7-15) differ greatly from these and are dependent upon the position of the sulfur atom. (2) Long-chain thia fatty acids and alkylthioacrylic acids are activated to their CoA esters in endoplasmatic reticulum. (3) 3-Thia fatty acids cannot be beta-oxidized. They are metabolized by extramitochondrial omega-oxidation and sulfur oxidation in the endoplasmatic reticulum followed by peroxisomal beta-oxidation to short sulfoxy dicarboxylic acids. (4) 4-Thia fatty acids are beta-oxidized mainly in mitochondria to alkylthioacryloyl-CoA esters which accumulate and are slowly converted to 2-hydroxy-4-thia acyl-CoA which splits spontaneously to an alkylthiol and malonic acid semialdehyde-CoA ester. The latter presumably is hydrolyzed and metabolized to acetyl-CoA and CO2. (5) Both 3- and 4-thiastearic acid are desaturated to the corresponding thia oleic acids. (6) Long-chain 3- and 4-thia fatty acids are incorporated into phospholipids in vivo, particularly in heart, and in hepatocytes and other cells in culture. (7) Long-chain 3-thia fatty acids change the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids: in heart, the content of n-3 fatty acids increases and n-6 fatty acids decreases. (8) 3-Thia fatty acids increase fatty acid oxidation in liver through inhibition of malonyl-CoA synthesis, activation of CPT I, and induction of CPT-II and enzymes of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Activation of fatty acid oxidation is the key to the hypolipidemic effect of 3-thia fatty acids. Also other lipid metabolizing enzymes are induced. (9) Fatty acid- and cholesterol synthesis is inhibited in hepatocytes. (10) The nuclear receptors PPAR alpha and RXR alpha are induced by 3-thia fatty acids. (11) The induction of enzymes and of PPAR alpha and RXR alpha are increased by dexamethasone and counteracted by insulin. (12) 4-Thia fatty acids inhibit fatty acid oxidation and induce fatty liver in vivo. The inhibition presumably is explained by accumulation of alkylthioacryloyl-CoA in the mitochondria. This metabolite is a strong inhibitor of CPT-II. (13) Alkylthioacrylic acids inhibits both fatty acid oxidation and esterification. Inhibition of esterification presumably follows accumulation of extramitochondrial alkylthioacryloyl-CoA, an inhibitor of microsomal glycerophosphate acyltransferase. (14) 9-Thia stearate is a strong inhibitor of the delta 9-desaturase in liver and 10-thia stearate of dihydrosterculic acid synthesis in trypanosomes. (15) Some attempts to develop thia fatty acids as drugs are also reviewed. PMID:9030189

Skrede, S; Sørensen, H N; Larsen, L N; Steineger, H H; Høvik, K; Spydevold, O S; Horn, R; Bremer, J

1997-01-21

67

Hypotonic shocks activate rat TRPV4 in Yeast in the Absence of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

Transient-receptor-potential channels (TRPs) underlie the sensing of chemicals, heat, and mechanical force. We expressed the rat TRPV1 and TRPV4 subtypes in yeast and monitored their activities in vivo as Ca2+ rise using transgenic aequorin. Heat and capsaicin activate TRPV1 but not TRPV4 in yeast. Hypotonic shocks activate TRPV4 but not TRPV1. Osmotic swelling is modeled to activate enzyme(s), producing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to open TRPV4 in mammalian cells. This model relegates mechanosensitivity to the enzyme and not the channel. Yeast has only a single ?9 fatty-acid monodesaturase and cannot make PUFAs suggesting an alternative mechanism for TRPV4 activation. We discuss possible explanations of this difference.

Loukin, Stephen H.; Su, Zhenwei; Kung, Ching

2010-01-01

68

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) by nitroalkene fatty acids: importance of nitration position and degree of unsaturation  

PubMed Central

Nitroalkene fatty acids are potent endogenous ligand activators of PPAR?-dependent transcription. Previous studies with the naturally occurring regioisomers of nitrolinoleic acid revealed that the isomers are not equivalent with respect to PPAR? activation. To gain further insight into the structure-activity relationships between nitroalkenes and PPAR?, we examined additional naturally occurring nitroalkenes derived from oleic acid, 9-nitrooleic acid (E-9-NO2-18:1 [1]) and 10-nitrooleic acid (E-10-NO2-18:1 [2]), and several synthetic nitrated enoic fatty acids of variable carbon chain length, double bonds, and nitration site. At submicromolar concentrations, E-12-NO2 derivatives were considerably more potent than isomers nitrated at carbons 5, 6, 9, 10 or 13; and, chain length (16 versus 18) or number of double bonds (one versus two) was of little consequence for PPAR? activation. Interestingly, at higher concentrations (> 2 ?M) the nitrated enoic fatty acids (E-9-NO2-18:1 [1], E-9-NO2-16:1 [3], E-10-NO2-18:1 [2], and E-12-NO2-18:1 [7]) deviated significantly from the saturable pattern of PPAR? activation observed for nitrated 1,4-dienoic fatty acids (E-9-NO2-18:2, E-10-NO2-18:2, E-12-NO2-18:2, and E-13-NO2-18:2).

Gorczynski, Michael J.; Smitherman, Pamela K.; Akiyama, Taro E.; Wood, Harold B.; Berger, Joel P.; King, S. Bruce; Morrow, Charles S.

2009-01-01

69

Trans Fatty Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

Doyle, Ellin

1997-09-01

70

Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L.) growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%). This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Results: Linolenic acid (45.83%) and oleic acid (47.54%) were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 ±0.011 mg GAE per dry matter) was the potent antioxidant in the assays. Results obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis). Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

Mohadjerani, Maryam; Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

2014-01-01

71

Analysis of long-chain fatty acid binding activity in vesicles of the outer membrane generated from Escherchia coli  

SciTech Connect

Escherichia coli transports long-chain fatty acids across the dual membrane by a high affinity, saturable, energy-dependent process. The fadL gene codes for an outer membrane protein which appears to act specifically as a long-chain fatty acid binding protein when fatty acid utilization is blocked by mutation. In an effort to understand the function of the fadL gene product, FLP, membranes have been isolated from fadL/sup +/ and fadL/sup -/ strains following osmotic lysis. Following isolation, total membranes were separated into inner and outer membrane fractions and assayed for long-chain fatty acid binding activity. Outer membrane vesicles were incubated 2-5 min at 37/sup 0/C with /sup 3/H oleate (C/sub 18:1/), cooled to 0/sup 0/C, and centrifuged through a Lipidex 100 column for 3 min to remove the unbound fatty acid. The level of fatty acid binding was quantitated by scintillation counting of the eluate. Outer membrane vesicles generated from a fadL/sup +/ strain bind 325 pmol fatty acid/mg protein whereas vesicles generated for a mutant strain bind 175 pmol fatty acid/mg protein. These data suggest that FLP acts at least as a long-chain fatty acid binding protein on the surface of the cell.

Black, P.N.

1987-05-01

72

Glutathione peroxidase activity modulates fatty acid profiles of plasma and breast milk in Chinese women.  

PubMed

Since little is known about the effect of selenium on the fatty acid profiles (FAP) of human breast milk, the purpose of this study was to measure the effect of habitual dietary selenium (Se) intake on this profile in plasma and breast milk. Subjects were lactating women from three locations in China where habitual selenium intakes are extremely low (Xichang), adequate (Beijing), or extremely high (Enshi). Plasma and milk samples were obtained within seven days of parturition (early samples) or within eighteen months postpartum (mature samples) and analyzed for selenium concentration, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activity and FAP. Plasma and milk selenium concentrations were significantly lower in the samples from women from Xichang and significantly higher in those from Enshi when compared to those from Beijing. Plasma Gpx activity, however, was higher in samples from Beijing than Xichang or Enshi. In contrast, the early breast milk samples had similar Gpx activity regardless of location. The mature samples, however, followed the same trend as plasma with the samples obtained from the women in Beijing having the highest activity. Of the unsaturated fatty acids examined, the concentration of linoleic acid, 18:2(n-6), in both plasma and milk was greater in the samples from Beijing when compared to those from Xichang or Enshi. Thus dietary selenium appears to influence the fatty acid composition in human breast milk, but influences Gpx activity only in mature milk samples. PMID:10365375

Dodge, M L; Wander, R C; Xia, Y; Butler, J A; Whanger, P D

1999-04-01

73

Anaerobic decomposition of benzoic acid during methane fermentation: Specific activity of fatty acid intermediates and postion of radioactive label  

SciTech Connect

A study of the pathway of anaerobic decomposition of benzoic acid by a mixed methanogenic culture of bacteria was conducted. Specific activities of the possible fatty acid intermediates cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, propanoic acid, and acetic acid were determined. In the case of propanoic acid, the position of the radioactive label was also determined by isotropic trapping and Phares-Schmidt degradation of the intermediate. The specific activities of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid and propanoic acid are the same as the benzoate substrate fed to the mixed methanogenic cultures. These fatty acids must be direct breakdown products from the aromatic ring. When (4{minus}{sup 14}C) benzoate is the substrate, the propanoic acid produced is labeled exclusively in the carboxyl position. This supports the pathway proposed by Keith et al. (1978), but would be unlikely for the pathway proposed by Evans (1977). The specific activity of the acetic acid isolated from a culture fed (4{minus}{sup 14}C) benzoate is 42% of the specific activity of the substrate. This is possible only if the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway for the conversion of propanoate to acetate is not being utilized. The amount of various intermediates found indicates that at least three syntrophically linked organisms are present in the mixed methanogenic culture. One is responsible for the production of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, one for the production of acetate from propanoate, and one for the production of methane.

Bridges, R.L.

1990-01-01

74

Antimicrobial Fatty Acid Derivatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetylthio amides and esters were prepared by the free radical addition of thiolacetic acid to the terminal and nonterminal double bonds of N-substituted fatty amides and fatty esters. These new sulfur or halogen-containing compounds were found to have an...

R. R. Mod J. A. Harris F. C. Magne G. Sumrell A. F. Novak

1978-01-01

75

Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

1978-01-01

76

Activities of liver mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rats fed trans fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect oftrans fat on the activities of liver mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes was examined in various strains\\u000a of rats. When Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 30 days diets containing either olive oil or partially hydrogenated\\u000a corn oil as a source ofcis-ortrans-octadecenoate, respectively, the activities of various enzymes of mitochondrial and peroxisomal ?-oxidation measured withcis-

Takashi Idea; Midori Watanabe; Michihiro Sugano; Iwahiko Yamamoto

1987-01-01

77

PPAR? Activation Induces the Expression of the Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene in Human Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand activated transcription factors, plays a key role in the anti-diabetic actions of the thiazolidinediones (TZDs). PPAR? induces the expression of many genes involved in lipid anabolism, including the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), and is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation. PPAR? is also

Patricia D. Pelton; Lubing Zhou; Keith T. Demarest; Thomas P. Burris

1999-01-01

78

bZIP67 Regulates the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content of Arabidopsis Seed Oil by Activating FATTY ACID DESATURASE3[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana seed maturation is accompanied by the deposition of storage oil, rich in the essential ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA). The synthesis of ALA is highly responsive to the level of FATTY ACID DESATURASE3 (FAD3) expression, which is strongly upregulated during embryogenesis. By screening mutants in LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1)–inducible transcription factors using fatty acid profiling, we identified two mutants (lec1-like and bzip67) with a seed lipid phenotype. Both mutants share a substantial reduction in seed ALA content. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that bZIP67 binds G-boxes in the FAD3 promoter and enhances FAD3 expression but that activation is conditional on bZIP67 association with LEC1-LIKE (L1L) and NUCLEAR FACTOR-YC2 (NF-YC2). Although FUSCA3 and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 are required for L1L and bZIP67 expression, neither protein is necessary for [bZIP67:L1L:NF-YC2] to activate FAD3. We conclude that a transcriptional complex containing L1L, NF-YC2, and bZIP67 is induced by LEC1 during embryogenesis and specifies high levels of ALA production for storage oil by activating FAD3 expression.

Mendes, Ana; Kelly, Amelie A.; van Erp, Harrie; Shaw, Eve; Powers, Stephen J.; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

2013-01-01

79

bZIP67 regulates the omega-3 fatty acid content of Arabidopsis seed oil by activating fatty acid desaturase3.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana seed maturation is accompanied by the deposition of storage oil, rich in the essential ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA). The synthesis of ALA is highly responsive to the level of fatty acid desaturase3 (FAD3) expression, which is strongly upregulated during embryogenesis. By screening mutants in leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1)-inducible transcription factors using fatty acid profiling, we identified two mutants (lec1-like and bzip67) with a seed lipid phenotype. Both mutants share a substantial reduction in seed ALA content. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that bZIP67 binds G-boxes in the FAD3 promoter and enhances FAD3 expression but that activation is conditional on bZIP67 association with LEC1-like (L1L) and nuclear factor-YC2 (NF-YC2). Although FUSCA3 and abscisic acid insensitive3 are required for L1L and bZIP67 expression, neither protein is necessary for [bZIP67:L1L:NF-YC2] to activate FAD3. We conclude that a transcriptional complex containing L1L, NF-YC2, and bZIP67 is induced by LEC1 during embryogenesis and specifies high levels of ALA production for storage oil by activating FAD3 expression. PMID:23995083

Mendes, Ana; Kelly, Amélie A; van Erp, Harrie; Shaw, Eve; Powers, Stephen J; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J

2013-08-01

80

Fatty Acids Activate a Chimera of the Clofibric Acid-Activated Receptor and the Glucocorticoid Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferators such as clofibric acid, nafenopin, and WY-14,643 have been shown to activate PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. We have cloned the cDNA from the rat that is homologous to that from the mouse [Issemann, I. & Green, S. (1990) Nature (London) 347, 645-650], which encodes a 97% similar protein with a

Martin Gottlicher; Eva Widmark; Qiao Li; Jan-Ake Gustafsson

1992-01-01

81

Enhanced antiviral activity of soybean ?-conglycinin-derived peptides by acylation with saturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

Peptide mixtures prepared from soybean ?-conglycinin (7S-peptides) were acylated with saturated fatty acids of different chain length (6C-18C) in order to improve their antiviral activity against?Feline calicivirus?(FCV) strain F9 which is a typical norovirus surrogate. Among the fatty acids varieties, it was revealed that 7S-peptides acylated with myristic and palmitic acids potently inhibited FCV replication. Myristorylation and palmitoylation of 7S-peptides kept host cells viability at 91.51% and 98.90%, respectively. The infectivity of FCV on Crandell-Reese feline kidney cells was further determined after exposure of initial titer of 10(6.47) TCID??/mL. Myristoylated and palmitoylated 7S-peptides significantly (P?< 0.006) reduced FCV infectivity as compared to native 7S-peptides. Native 7S-peptides showed 25% FCV inhibitory activity while myristoylated and palmitoylated 7S-peptides exhibited 98.59% and 99.98% reduction in FCV infectivity, respectively. Myristoylated and palmitoylated 7S-peptides demonstrated higher anti-FCV activity in a wide range of concentration with complete reduction at 25 ?g/mL. Surface hydrophobicity was significantly (P?< 0.05) increased after attachment of long hydrocarbon fatty acids to 7S-peptides as supported by changes in fluorescence intensity. Enzymatic hydrolysis together with acylation will give an insight into surface and physiological functional lipopeptides derived from soy ?-conglycinin. PMID:22417502

Matemu, Athanasia O; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kayahara, Hisataka; Murasawa, Hisashi; Katayama, Shigeru; Nakamura, Soichiro

2011-08-01

82

Activity of Bradykinin B2 Receptor Is Regulated by Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) exert their beneficial effects on cardiovascular health remain obscure. While both LCPUFA and bradykinin (BK) signaling pathway play a role in the cardiovascular system, any direct link between the two is yet to be established. Using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and a genetically engineered bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) sensor (B2K-CC), we detected LCPUFA-induced conformational responses in the B2R similar to those caused by its cognate ligand, BK. The selective B2R antagonist (HOE-140) blocked the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20?5, n-3) induced conformational response of the B2K-CC. Further analysis suggests that LCPUFA are capable of direct, B2R-dependent activation of extracellular ligand-regulated kinases (ERK). From a wide range of fatty acids studied, varying in chain length, saturation, and position of double bonds, EPA, docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22?6, n-3), docosadienoic (DDA, C22?2, n-6), and dihomo-gamma linoleic (DGLA, C20?3, n-6) fatty acids caused the highest ERK phosphorylation. EPA or DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the selective B2R antagonist. We show that LCPUFA stimulates downstream signaling by B2R such as B2R-dependent phosphorylation and expression regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). Further analysis indicated that LCPUFA also alters levels of the eNOS transcription factor, kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Moreover we show that EPA increases membrane fluidity on the same time scale as B2R conformational response, suggesting that partitioning of LCPUFA into bilayer is a primary step required for receptor activation. In summary our data show that LCPUFA activate B2R receptor at nanomolar concentrations suggesting a novel molecular mechanism by which fatty acids may affect the cardiovascular system.

Candelario, Jose; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

2013-01-01

83

Surface-Active and Performance Properties of Cationic Imidazolinium Surfactants Based on Different Fatty Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imidazoline surfactants belong to the category of cationic surfactants. Cationic surfactants are often quaternary nitrogen salts and are widely used both in nonaqueous systems and in applications such as textile softeners, dispersants, and emulsifiers. This study describes the surface-active properties of cationic imidazolinium surfactants synthesized from different fatty acids. Their laundry performance in combination with nonionic surfactants like detergency, foaming property, softening property, rewettability etc., is also emphasized.

Bajpai, Divya; Tyagi, V. K.

84

Antagonistic effect of fat on the antibotulinal activity of food preservatives and fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fat on the antibotulinal activity of 11 food preservatives, 12 free fatty acids, and nine lots of enzyme-modified cheese (EMC) was evaluated in a media system. Anhydrous milkfat or soybean oil was added to tubes of Trypticase–peptone–glucose–yeast extract medium (TPGY) supplemented with the additives (final pH adjusted to 5.9). Treatments were inoculated with 3-log10 proteolytic Clostridium botulinumspores\\/ml

Kathleen A Glass; Eric A Johnson

2004-01-01

85

Insulin Signaling Regulates Fatty Acid Catabolism at the Level of CoA Activation  

PubMed Central

The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic pathways is still lacking. Accepted knowledge suggests the key regulated step in triglyceride (TAG) catabolism is the release of fatty acids from TAG via the action of lipases. We show here that an additional, important regulated step is the activation of fatty acids for beta-oxidation via Acyl Co-A synthetases (ACS). We identify pudgy as an ACS that is transcriptionally regulated by direct FOXO action in Drosophila. Increasing or reducing pudgy expression in vivo causes a decrease or increase in organismal TAG levels respectively, indicating that pudgy expression levels are important for proper lipid homeostasis. We show that multiple ACSs are also transcriptionally regulated by insulin signaling in mammalian cells. In sum, we identify fatty acid activation onto CoA as an important, regulated step in triglyceride catabolism, and we identify a mechanistic link through which insulin regulates lipid homeostasis.

Xu, Xiaojun; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Ruskeepaa, Anna-Liisa; Aye, Cho Cho; Carson, Brian P.; Mora, Silvia; Oresic, Matej; Teleman, Aurelio A.

2012-01-01

86

Glucose regulates fatty acid binding protein interaction with lipids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?  

PubMed Central

Although the pathophysiology of diabetes is characterized by elevated levels of glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), nuclear mechanisms linking glucose and LCFA metabolism are poorly understood. As the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) shuttles LCFA to the nucleus, where L-FABP directly interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), the effect of glucose on these processes was examined. In vitro studies showed that L-FABP strongly bound glucose and glucose-1-phosphate (Kd = 103 ± 19 nM and Kd = 20 ± 3 nM, respectively), resulting in altered L-FABP conformation, increased affinity for lipid ligands, and enhanced interaction with PPAR?. In living cells, glucose stimulated cellular uptake and nuclear localization of a nonmetabolizable fluorescent fatty acid analog (BODIPY C-16), particularly in the presence of L-FABP. These data suggest for the first time a direct role of glucose in facilitating L-FABP-mediated uptake and distribution of lipidic ligands to the nucleus for regulation of PPAR? transcriptional activity.

Hostetler, Heather A.; Balanarasimha, Madhumitha; Huang, Huan; Kelzer, Matthew S.; Kaliappan, Alagammai; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2010-01-01

87

Plasma fatty acids profile and estimated elongase and desaturases activities in Tunisian patients with the metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine plasma fatty acids pattern and to estimate desaturases activities in Tunisian subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 1975 adults were randomly selected from the Great Tunis region (Tunisia). MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids levels and delta 9 desaturase activity were increased, but polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels and delta 5 desaturase activity were decreased in patients with MetS. Using multivariate analysis, MetS was found inversely associated with PUFA; compared to first quartile, multi-adjusted odd ratios (95% confidence interval) of MetS were 0.80 (0.54-1.17), 0.47 (0.27-0.81) and 0.32 (0.15-0.68) for second, third and fourth quartiles of PUFA, respectively. Altered fatty acids pattern in MetS is likely related to both dietary and metabolic changes. PMID:21782403

Sethom, M M; Fares, S; Feki, M; Hadj-Taieb, S; Elasmi, M; Omar, S; Sanhaji, H; Jemaa, R; Kaabachi, N

2011-01-01

88

Simple inhibitors of histone deacetylase activity that combine features of short-chain fatty acid and hydroxamic acid inhibitors.  

PubMed

Butyric acid and trichostatin A (TSA) are anti-cancer compounds that cause the upregulation of genes involved in differentiation and cell cycle regulation by inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In this study we have synthesized and evaluated compounds that combine the bioavailability of short-chain fatty acids, like butyric acid, with the bidentate binding ability of TSA. A series of analogs were made to examine the effects of chain length, simple aromatic cap groups, and substituted hydroxamates on the compounds' ability to inhibit rat-liver HDAC using a fluorometric assay. In keeping with previous structure-activity relationships, the most effective inhibitors consisted of longer chains and hydroxamic acid groups. It was found that 5-phenylvaleric hydroxamic acid and 4-benzoylbutyric hydroxamic acid were the most potent inhibitors with IC50's of 5 microM and 133 microM respectively. PMID:18608778

Tischler, Jessica L; Abuaita, Basel; Cuthpert, Sierra C; Fage, Christopher; Murphy, Kristi; Saxe, Andrew; Furr, Edward B; Hedrick, Jamie; Meyers, Jennifer; Snare, David; Zand, Ali R

2008-08-01

89

Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed

Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6?-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). A?/J?-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH?), which concurrently abrogated A?/J?-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A?/J? NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5?-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A?/J?-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs. PMID:21130106

Majkova, Zuzana; Layne, Joseph; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

2011-02-15

90

Fatty acid extracts from Lucilia sericata larvae promote murine cutaneous wound healing by angiogenic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: fatty acids are considered to be effective components to promote wound healing and Lucilia sericata larvae are applied clinically to treat intractable wounds. We aimed to investigat the effect of fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae on murine cutaneuous wound healing as well as angiogenesis. RESULTS: On day 7 and 10 after murine acute excision wounds creation,

Zhen Zhang; Shouyu Wang; Yunpeng Diao; Jianing Zhang; Decheng Lv

2010-01-01

91

Fatty Acids and Retinoids Control Lipid Metabolism through Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor Heterodimers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear hormone receptors called PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, beta, and gamma) regulate the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids by induction of the acyl-CoA oxidase gene that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of the pathway. Gel retardation and cotransfection assays revealed that PPARalpha heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta RXR is the receptor for 9-cis-retinoic acid) and that the

Hansjorg Keller; Christine Dreyer; Jeffrey Medin; Abderrahim Mahfoudi; Keiko Ozato; Walter Wahli

1993-01-01

92

Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Prevent the Aversive Effects of Obesity on Locomotion, Brain Activity, and Sleep Behavior  

PubMed Central

Fat and physical inactivity are the most evident factors in the pathogenesis of obesity, and fat quality seems to play a crucial role for measures of glucose homeostasis. However, the impact of dietary fat quality on brain function, behavior, and sleep is basically unknown. In this study, mice were fed a diet supplemented with either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and their impact on glucose homeostasis, locomotion, brain activity, and sleep behavior was evaluated. MUFAs and SFAs led to a significant increase in fat mass but only feeding of SFAs was accompanied by glucose intolerance in mice. Radiotelemetry revealed a significant decrease in cortical activity in SFA-mice whereas MUFAs even improved activity. SFAs decreased wakefulness and increased non–rapid eye movement sleep. An intracerebroventricular application of insulin promoted locomotor activity in MUFA-fed mice, whereas SFA-mice were resistant. In humans, SFA-enriched diet led to a decrease in hippocampal and cortical activity determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Together, dietary intake of MUFAs promoted insulin action in the brain with its beneficial effects for cortical activity, locomotion, and sleep, whereas a comparable intake of SFAs acted as a negative modulator of brain activity in mice and humans.

Sartorius, Tina; Ketterer, Caroline; Kullmann, Stephanie; Balzer, Michelle; Rotermund, Carola; Binder, Sonja; Hallschmid, Manfred; Machann, Jurgen; Schick, Fritz; Somoza, Veronika; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Haring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M.

2012-01-01

93

Stable isotope liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for fatty acid amide hydrolase activity.  

PubMed

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the main enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide, AEA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and ethanolamine (EA). Published FAAH activity assays mostly employ radiolabeled anandamide or synthetic fluorogenic substrates. We report a stable isotope liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for specific, sensitive, and high-throughput capable FAAH activity measurements. The assay uses AEA labeled with deuterium on the EA moiety (d?-AEA) as substrate and measures the specific reaction product tetradeutero-EA (d?-EA) and the internal standard ¹³C?-EA. Selected reaction monitoring of m/z 66?m/z 48 (d?-EA) and m/z 64?m/z 46 (¹³C?-EA) in the positive electrospray ionization mode after liquid chromatographic separation on a HILIC (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) column is performed. The assay was developed and thoroughly validated using recombinant human FAAH (rhFAAH) and then was applied to human blood and dog liver samples. rhFAAH-catalyzed d?-AEA hydrolysis obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(M)=12.3 ?M, V(max)=27.6 nmol/min mg). Oleoyl oxazolopyridine (oloxa) was a potent, partial noncompetitive inhibitor of rhFAAH (IC??=24.3 nM). Substrate specificity of other fatty acid ethanolamides decreased with decreasing length, number of double bonds, and lipophilicity of the fatty acid skeleton. In human whole blood, we detected FAAH activity that was inhibited by oloxa. PMID:22146559

Rakers, Christin; Zoerner, Alexander A; Engeli, Stefan; Batkai, Sandor; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

2012-02-15

94

Nonoxidative ethanol metabolism in human leukocytes: detection of fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity.  

PubMed

Oxidative pathways of alcohol metabolism such as alcohol dehydrogenase usually are not present in human blood and therefore clinical studies correlating ethanol metabolism with alcohol abuse syndromes have not been performed. To assess the activity of nonoxidative ethanol metabolism in blood, we assayed for the activity of fatty acid ethyl ester synthase, a pathway recently described as abundant in the human organs most commonly damaged by alcohol. Indeed, peripheral human leukocytes contain detectable fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity: 1.2 X 10(6) leukocytes from 10 ml blood catalyze the synthesis of ethyl oleate at 1.4 nmol/4 hr. The reaction is linear with respect to cell number and expended time; Km oleate = 600 microM, Km ethanol = 600 mM. DEAE cellulose chromatography partially purifies synthase activity into a minor and major form (activity ratio = 10/1). Thus, gene products exist in human blood that recognize ethanol and whose biological activity is conveniently assayable for clinical investigations of alcohol metabolism and abuse. PMID:3827909

Wright, M; Bieser, K J; Kinnunen, P M; Lange, L G

1987-02-13

95

Evaluation of gastro protective activity of Fish Oil (Omega 3 Fatty Acids) against experimentally induced acute gastric ulceration in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish oils contain the omega-3-fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid precursors of certain eicosanoids that are known to have a wide range of clinical use. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti ulcer activity of fish oil in HCl-ethanol induced acute ulcer model. The animals were divided into five groups with six rats in each group. Ranitidine

Divakar. V; Sylvia Shanthakumar; Sarath Babu; Karpaga Vinayaga; Raja Muthiah

2012-01-01

96

Omega-3 fatty acids (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

97

Morphological alterations and ganglioside sialyltransferase activity induced by small fatty acids in HeLa cells  

PubMed Central

Incubation of HeLa cells in the presence of millimolar concentrations of propionate, butyrate, or pentanoate increases the specific activity of CMP-sialic acid:lactosylceramide sialyltransferase 7-20-fold within 24 h. Longer-chain saturated fatty acids or acetate are much less effective, decanoate showing no induction. Unsaturated fatty acid analogs of butyrate and other compounds are ineffective. Only the three most effective compounds also produce characteristic smooth extended cell processes in HeLa cells. Butyrate (5 mM) induces the sialyltransferase after a 4-h lag, producing maximum specific activity by 24 h. The amount of sialyl-lactosylceramide, the glycolipid product of the enzyme, increases during that time 3.5 times more than in control cultures. No other glycosphingolipid enzyme is significantly altered by butyrate exposure. The cellular shape changes occur 2-3 h later than the increase of sialyltransferase activity, and both processes require the continuous presence of inducer and the synthesis of RNA and protein but not the synthesis of DNA or the presence of serum.

1975-01-01

98

Differential Activation of Nuclear Receptors by Perfluorinated Fatty Acid Analogs and Natural Fatty Acids: A Comparison of Human, Mouse, and Rat Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor , - , and - , Liver X Receptor , and Retinoid X Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of ammonium salts of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to rats results in peroxisome proliferation and benign liver tumors, events associated with activation of the nuclear receptor (NR) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a (PPARa). Due to its fatty acid structure, PFOA may activate other NRs, such as PPARb ,P PARg, liver X receptor (LXR), or retinoid X receptor (RXR). In this study, the activation

John P. Vanden Heuvel; Jerry T. Thompson; Steven R. Frame; Peter J. Gillies

2006-01-01

99

Regulatory Activity of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in T-Cell Signaling  

PubMed Central

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are considered to be authentic immunosuppressors and appear to exert beneficial effects with respect to certain immune-mediated diseases. In addition to promoting T-helper 1 (Th1) cell to T-helper 2 (Th2) cell effector T-cell differentiation, n-3 PUFA may also exert anti-inflammatory actions by inducing apoptosis in Th1 cells. With respect to mechanisms of action, effects range from the modulation of membrane receptors to gene transcription via perturbation of a number of second messenger cascades. In this review, the putative targets of anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFA, activated during early and late events of T-cell activation will be discussed. Studies have demonstrated that these fatty acids alter plasma membrane micro-organization (lipid rafts) at the immunological synapse, the site where T-cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) form a physical contact for antigen initiated T-cell signaling. In addition, the production of diacylglycerol and the activation of different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), calcium signaling, and nuclear translocation/activation of transcriptional factors, can be modulated by n-3 PUFA. Advantages and limitations of diverse methodologies to study the membrane lipid raft hypothesis, as well as apparent contradictions regarding the effect of n-3 PUFA on lipid rafts will be critically presented.

Kim, Wooki; Khan, Naim A.; McMurray, David N.; Prior, Ian A.; Wang, Naisyin; Chapkin, Robert S.

2010-01-01

100

Fatty acid signaling in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have\\u000a established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly\\u000a derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a vital role in the discovery of fatty acid-derived signal

Edward E. Farmer; Hans Weber; Sabine Vollenweider

1998-01-01

101

Fatty Acids of Mycobacterium kansasii  

PubMed Central

The cellular fatty acids of 35 strains of Mycobacterium kansasii isolated from clinical material were analyzed to establish properties by which we could identify and characterize these acid-fast microorganisms. The fatty acids were extracted from cells grown in liquid synthetic media, and they were analyzed as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The fatty acid profiles of all strains were similar. They differed from fatty acid profiles of other mycobacteria by their content of a saturated fatty acid with a methyl group at C2. Images

Thoen, Charles O.; Karlson, Alfred G.; Ellefson, Ralph D.

1971-01-01

102

Transcription of the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid Synthesis Operon fabHDG Is Directly Activated by FadR and Inhibited by ppGpp  

PubMed Central

In Escherichia coli, FadR and FabR are transcriptional regulators that control the expression of fatty acid degradation and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis genes, depending on the availability of fatty acids. In this report, we focus on the dual transcriptional regulator FadR. In the absence of fatty acids, FadR represses the transcription of fad genes required for fatty acid degradation. However, FadR is also an activator, stimulating transcription of the products of the fabA and fabB genes responsible for unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. In this study, we show that FadR directly activates another fatty acid synthesis promoter, PfabH, which transcribes the fabHDG operon, indicating that FadR is a global regulator of both fatty acid degradation and fatty acid synthesis. We also demonstrate that ppGpp and its cofactor DksA, known primarily for their role in regulation of the synthesis of the translational machinery, directly inhibit transcription from the fabH promoter. ppGpp also inhibits the fadR promoter, thereby reducing transcription activation of fabH by FadR indirectly. Our study shows that both ppGpp and FadR have direct roles in the control of fatty acid promoters, linking expression in response to both translation activity and fatty acid availability.

My, Laetitia; Rekoske, Brian; Lemke, Justin J.; Viala, Julie P.; Gourse, Richard L.

2013-01-01

103

Transcription of the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis operon fabHDG is directly activated by FadR and inhibited by ppGpp.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli, FadR and FabR are transcriptional regulators that control the expression of fatty acid degradation and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis genes, depending on the availability of fatty acids. In this report, we focus on the dual transcriptional regulator FadR. In the absence of fatty acids, FadR represses the transcription of fad genes required for fatty acid degradation. However, FadR is also an activator, stimulating transcription of the products of the fabA and fabB genes responsible for unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. In this study, we show that FadR directly activates another fatty acid synthesis promoter, PfabH, which transcribes the fabHDG operon, indicating that FadR is a global regulator of both fatty acid degradation and fatty acid synthesis. We also demonstrate that ppGpp and its cofactor DksA, known primarily for their role in regulation of the synthesis of the translational machinery, directly inhibit transcription from the fabH promoter. ppGpp also inhibits the fadR promoter, thereby reducing transcription activation of fabH by FadR indirectly. Our study shows that both ppGpp and FadR have direct roles in the control of fatty acid promoters, linking expression in response to both translation activity and fatty acid availability. PMID:23772072

My, Laetitia; Rekoske, Brian; Lemke, Justin J; Viala, Julie P; Gourse, Richard L; Bouveret, Emmanuelle

2013-08-01

104

High-Affinity Fatty Acid-Binding Activity in Epidermis and Cultured Keratinocytes Is Attributable to High-Molecular-Weight and Not Low-Molecular-Weight Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are abundant low-molecular-weight cytosolic proteins in tissues involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Because epidermis is also an active lipogenic tissue, we examined cytosols from murine and porcine epidermis and cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts for FABPs. High-affinity FA-binding activity was present in both epidermis and differentiated keratinocytes, whereas no high-affinity FA-binding activity was found in

Nanna Y. Schurer; Nathan M. Bass; Shan Jin; Joan A. Manning; Sreekumar Pillai; Mary L. Williams

1993-01-01

105

The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency on the adrenergic activation of glycogenolysis in rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The fatty acid composition of total lipids and the adrenoceptor-mediated activation of glycogenolysis were studied in isolated hepatocytes from rats maintained on a control diet or on an essential fatty acid (EFA)-free diet. In cells from rats on the EFA-free diet there was a marked reduction in linoleic and arachidonic acid (AA) contents and an increase in eicosatrienoic, oleic, and palmitoleic acid contents compared to controls. In freshly isolated cells from both groups, phosphorylase a activity was increased by phenylephrine or epinephrine but not by isoproterenol, and the effect of epinephrine was inhibited by phenoxybenzamine but not by propranolol. When control cells were preincubated in a serum-free buffer for 4 h before testing, the effect of phenylephrine on phosphorylase a activity was reduced, isoproterenol became a potent agonist and the effect of epinephrine was partially inhibited either by phenoxybenzamine or by propranolol. The emerging beta-adrenergic response in 4-h cells was associated with a marked potentiation of isoproterenol-induced cAMP accumulation. A similar 4-h preincubation of EFA-deficient cells resulted in a reduced response to phenylephrine while isoproterenol remained ineffective for increasing either phosphorylase a activity or cAMP production. The response of these 4-h cells to isoproterenol could be restored by in vivo replacement of the EFA-deficient diet with control diet for the last 4 weeks prior to the experiment, but not by the in vitro exposure of the EFA-deficient cells to 10 microM AA throughout the 4-h incubation period. Extending previous observations (Refs. (6-8)), the present results suggest that the time-dependent emergence of beta-adrenergic glycogenolysis, but not the parallel reduction of the alpha-adrenergic response, is mediated by AA or its metabolite(s), which probably act by facilitating the G-protein-dependent coupling of beta-receptors. PMID:2173490

Grojec, M S; Ishac, E J; Kapocsi, J; Kunos, G

1990-11-15

106

Relationship of lipogenic enzyme activities to the rate of rat liver fatty acid synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism by which diet regulates liver lipogenesis is unclear. Here the authors report how dietary alterations effect the activities of key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 400-500 g, were fasted for 48h and then refed a fat-free, high carbohydrate (HC) diet (75% cal. from sucrose) for 0,3,9,24 and 48h, or refed a HC diet for 48h, then fed a high-fat (HF) diet (44% cal. from corn oil) for 3,9,24 and 48h. The FA synthesis rate and the activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase (AC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP citrate lyase (CL), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were determined in the livers. FA synthesis was assayed with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically except for AC which was assayed with /sup 14/C-bicarbonate. There was no change in the activity of AC during fasting or on the HC diet. Fasting decreased the rate of FA synthesis by 25% and the activities of FAS and CL by 50%; refeeding the HC diet induced parallel changes in FA synthesis and the activities of FAS, CL, and G6PDH. After 9h on the HF diet, FA synthesis had decreased sharply, AC activity increased significantly while no changes were detected in the other activities. Subsequently FA synthesis did not change while the activities of the enzymes decreased slowly. These enzymes did not appear to regulate FA synthesis during inhibition of lipogenesis, but FAS, CL or G6PDH may be rate limiting in the induction phase. Other key factors may regulate FA synthesis during dietary alterations.

Nelson, G.; Kelley, D.; Schmidt, P.; Virk, S.; Serrato, C.

1986-05-01

107

Type I and type II fatty acid biosynthesis in Eimeria tenella : enoyl reductase activity and structure  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria are the major causative agent of avian coccidiosis, leading to high economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent results show that Eimeria tenella harbours an apicoplast organelle, and that a key biosynthetic enzyme, enoyl reductase, is located in this organelle. In related parasites, enoyl reductase is one component of a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) and has proven to be an attractive target for antimicrobial compounds. We cloned and expressed the mature form of E. tenella enoyl reductase (EtENR) for biochemical and structural studies. Recombinant EtENR exhibits NADH-dependent enoyl reductase activity and is inhibited by triclosan with an IC50 value of 60 nM. The crystal structure of EtENR reveals overall similarity with other ENR enzymes; however, the active site of EtENR is unoccupied, a state rarely observed in other ENR structures. Furthermore, the position of the central beta-sheet appears to block NADH binding and would require significant movement to allow NADH binding, a feature not previously seen in the ENR family. We analysed the E. tenella genomic database for orthologues of well-characterized bacterial and apicomplexan FAS enzymes and identified 6 additional genes, suggesting that E. tenella contains a type II FAS capable of synthesizing saturated, but not unsaturated, fatty acids. Interestingly, we also identified sequences that appear to encode multifunctional type I FAS enzymes, a feature also observed in Toxoplasma gondii, highlighting the similarity between these apicomplexan parasites.

Lu, J. Z.; Muench, S. P.; Allary, M.; Campbell, S.; Roberts, C. W.; Mui, E.; McLeod, R. L.; Rice, D. W.; Prigge, S. T.

2009-01-01

108

Fatty Acid Composition, Oxidative Stability, and Radical Scavenging Activity of Vegetable Oil Blends with Coconut Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) contains 55–65% oil, having C12:0 as the major fatty acid. Coconut oil has >90% saturates and is deficient in monounsaturates\\u000a (6%), polyunsaturates (1%), and total tocopherols (29 mg\\/kg). However, coconut oil contains medium chain fatty acids (58%),\\u000a which are easily absorbed into the body. Therefore, blends of coconut oil (20–80% incorporation of coconut oil) with other\\u000a vegetable oils

A. S. Bhatnagar; P. K. Prasanth Kumar; J. Hemavathy; A. G. Gopala Krishna

2009-01-01

109

(Radioiodinated free fatty acids)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1987-12-11

110

Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls  

PubMed Central

Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6?-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). A4/J4-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH.. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH4), which concurrently abrogated A4/J4-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A4/J4NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5?-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A4/J4-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

Majkova, Zuzana; Layne, Joseph; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

2011-01-01

111

Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6{omega}-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), which concurrently abrogated A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A{sub 4}/J{sub 4} NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5{omega}-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

Majkova, Zuzana [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Layne, Joseph [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0509 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: bhennig@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

2011-02-15

112

Fatty acids regulate the expression of lipoprotein lipase gene and activity in preadipose and adipose cells.  

PubMed Central

During fasting, a reduction in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity has been observed in rat fat pad with no change in enzyme mass, whereas LPL mRNA and synthesis are increased, suggesting that insulin and/or fatty acids (FA) regulate LPL activity post-translationaly [Doolittle, Ben-Zeev, Elovson, Martin and Kirchgessner (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 4570-4577]. To examine the role of FA, either preadipose Ob1771 cells or Ob1771 and 3T3-F442A adipose cells were exposed to long-chain FA and to 2-bromopalmitate, a non-metabolized FA. A rapid (2-8 h) and dose-dependent increase (up to 6-fold) in LPL mRNA occurred, primarily due to increased transcription, which is accompanied by a decrease (down to 4-fold) in LPL cellular activity. Under these conditions, secretion of active LPL was nearly abolished. Removal of FA led to full recovery of LPL activity. LPL gene expression in 3T3-C2 fibroblasts was not affected by FA treatment. However fatty acid-activated receptor transfected-3T3-C2 cells, which show FA responsiveness, had increased LPL gene expression upon FA addition. LPL synthesis and cellular content appeared unaffected by FA treatment, whereas secretion of LPL was inhibited. These results indicate that FA regulate the post-translational processing of LPL. It is proposed that the regulation of LPL activity by FA is important with regard to the fine-tuning of FA entry into adipocytes during fasting/feeding periods.

Amri, E Z; Teboul, L; Vannier, C; Grimaldi, P A; Ailhaud, G

1996-01-01

113

Development of Cyclobutene- and Cyclobutane-Functionalized Fatty Acids with Inhibitory Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Eleven fatty acid analogues incorporating four-membered carbocycles (cyclobutenes, cyclobutanes, cyclobutanones, and cyclobutanols) were investigated for the ability to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). A number of the analogues displayed inhibitory activity against both mycobacterial species in minimal media. Several of the molecules displayed potent levels of inhibition against Mtb, with MIC values equal to or below those observed with the anti-tuberculosis drugs D-cycloserine and isoniazid. In contrast, two of the analogues that display the greatest activity against Mtb failed to inhibit E.?coli growth under either set of conditions. Thus, the active molecules identified herein may provide the basis for the development of anti-mycobacterial agents against Mtb. PMID:24902951

Sittiwong, Wantanee; Zinniel, Denise K; Fenton, Robert J; Marshall, Darrell D; Story, Courtney B; Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Powers, Robert; Barletta, Raúl G; Dussault, Patrick H

2014-08-01

114

Regulatory Mechanisms for Fatty Acid Biosynthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent findings are reported concerning the regulatory mechanisms for the quantity and activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which plays the role of the key enzyme in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis. When the speed of fatty acid synthesis must be ...

S. Numa T. Hashimoto S. Nakanishi

1972-01-01

115

Investigations into tumor accumulation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding by F-18 and C-11 fatty acids.  

PubMed

[11C]Acetate, a myocardial PET imaging agent for analysis of oxidative metabolism, has potential use in tumor imaging. Aromatic fatty acids display antitumor effects with phenylacetate currently in clinical trial. Tumor differentiation and cytostasis resulting from phenylacetate treatment may involve the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). To examine whether aromatic fatty acids are potential imaging agents for PPARalpha or tumors in general, [11C]phenylacetic acid (PAA) and [18F]fluorophenyl-acetic acid (FPAA) were synthesized and evaluated in EMT-6 tumor bearing mice and 9L-Glioma tumor bearing rats and compared to [11C]acetate. [11C]Acetate showed better tumor accumulation than PAA or FPAA. The aromatic fatty acids did not directly bind PPARalpha as confirmed by a biodistribution study of PAA in PPARalpha -/- mice. PMID:11823126

Jonson, Stephanie D; Welch, Michael J

2002-02-01

116

Are fish oil omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists?  

PubMed Central

Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR?, PPAR?, and PPAR?) are physiological sensors for glucose and lipid homeostasis. They are also the targets of synthetic drugs; such as fibrates as PPAR? agonists which lower lipid level, and glitazones as PPAR? agonists which lower glucose level. As diabetes and metabolic diseases are often associated with high blood glucose and lipid levels, drugs that activate both PPAR?/? would be a logical approach. But synthetically developed PPAR?/? dual agonists and glitazones are showing side effects such as weight gain and edema. Therefore, natural compounds and their close derivatives are focused as future drugs against metabolic diseases. Presentation of hypothesis Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, which are the fatty acids abundant in fish oil, are traditionally used against metabolic diseases. These fatty acids act as PPAR agonists that transcript the genes involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Present hypothesis suggests that the derivatives of these fatty acids are stronger PPAR agonists than the parent compounds. X-ray structures of PPARs indicate that ? or ? derivatives of fatty acids would fit into PPAR?/? binding cavity. Therefore, the derivatives will exhibit stronger affinities and activities than the parent compounds. Testing of the hypothesis Ligand binding assays and gene transactivation assays should be performed to test the hypothesis. Fluorescence-based methods are advantageous in binding assays, because they were found more suitable for fatty acid binding assays. In transactivation assays, care should be taken to remove contaminants from recombinant proteins. Implications of the hypothesis Present hypothesis is framed on the basis of molecular structure of natural PPAR agonists. Small structural changes in the molecular structure of fatty acids have a great influence on activating different PPARs. Therefore, this hypothesis bridges the concept of natural PPAR agonists and the use of structural information in designing new drugs against diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The derivatives may also be used as anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents.

Gani, Osman ABSM

2008-01-01

117

Alteration of seed fatty acid composition by an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana affecting diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.  

PubMed Central

In characterizing the enzymes involved in the formation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the Brassicaceae, we have generated a series of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that have reduced VLCFA content. Here we report the characterization of a seed lipid mutant, AS11, which, in comparison to wild type (WT), has reduced levels of 20:1 and 18:1 and accumulates 18:3 as the major fatty acid in triacylglycerols. Proportions of 18:2 remain similar to WT. Genetic analyses indicate that the fatty acid phenotype is caused by a semidominant mutation in a single nuclear gene, designated TAG1, located on chromosome 2. Biochemical analyses have shown that the AS11 phenotype is not due to a deficiency in the capacity to elongate 18:1 or to an increase in the relative delta 15 or delta 12 desaturase activities. Indeed, the ratio of desaturase/elongase activities measured in vitro is virtually identical in developing WT and AS11 seed homogenates. Rather, the fatty acid phenotype of AS11 is the result of reduced diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity throughout development, such that triacylglycerol biosynthesis is reduced. This leads to a reduction in 20:1 biosynthesis during seed development, leaving more 18:1 available for desaturation. Thus, we have demonstrated that changes to triacylglycerol biosynthesis can result in dramatic changes in fatty acid composition and, in particular, in the accumulation of VLCFAs in seed storage lipids.

Katavic, V; Reed, D W; Taylor, D C; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; Zou, J; Mackenzie, S L; Covello, P S; Kunst, L

1995-01-01

118

Activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) promotes fatty acid oxidation through the SIRT1/PGC-1? pathway.  

PubMed

Abnormal fatty acid oxidation has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. At the transcriptional level, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) has been reported to strongly increase the ability of hormone nuclear receptors PPAR? and ERR? to drive transcription of fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In this study, we report that a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) can lead to fatty acid oxidation through the PGC-1? pathway. We have found that CB2R is expressed in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, and that use of the specific agonist trans-caryophyllene (TC) stimulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity by increasing the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), thus leading to increased levels of PGC-1? deacetylation. This use of TC treatment increases the expression of genes linked to the fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1/PGC-1?-dependent mechanism and also drastically accelerates the rate of complete fatty acid oxidation in C2C12 myotubes, neither of which occur when CB2R mRNA is knocked down using siRNA. These results reveal that activation of CB2R by a selective agonist promotes lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Our findings imply that pharmacological manipulation of CB2R may provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation. PMID:23747418

Zheng, Xuqin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiaodong

2013-07-01

119

Fatty acids in bovine milk fat  

PubMed Central

Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fatty acids in milk are mono-unsaturated and 2.3% are poly-unsaturated with omega-6/omega-3 ratio around 2.3. Approximately 2.7% are trans fatty acids.

Mansson, Helena Lindmark

2008-01-01

120

Endogenous fatty acid ethanolamides suppress nicotine-induced activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons through nuclear receptors.  

PubMed

Nicotine stimulates the activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, which is believed to mediate the rewarding and addictive properties of tobacco use. Accumulating evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system might play a major role in neuronal mechanisms underlying the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, including nicotine. Here, we investigated the modulation of nicotine effects by the endocannabinoid system on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area with electrophysiological techniques in vivo and in vitro. We discovered that pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme that catabolizes fatty acid ethanolamides, among which the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is the best known, suppressed nicotine-induced excitation of dopamine cells. Importantly, this effect was mimicked by the administration of the FAAH substrates oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), but not methanandamide, the hydrolysis resistant analog of AEA. OEA and PEA are naturally occurring lipid signaling molecules structurally related to AEA, but devoid of affinity for cannabinoid receptors. They blocked the effects of nicotine by activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), a nuclear receptor transcription factor involved in several aspects of lipid metabolism and energy balance. Activation of PPAR-alpha triggered a nongenomic stimulation of tyrosine kinases, which might lead to phosphorylation and negative regulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These data indicate for the first time that the anorexic lipids OEA and PEA possess neuromodulatory properties as endogenous ligands of PPAR-alpha in the brain and provide a potential new target for the treatment of nicotine addiction. PMID:19091987

Melis, Miriam; Pillolla, Giuliano; Luchicchi, Antonio; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Yasar, Sevil; Goldberg, Steven R; Pistis, Marco

2008-12-17

121

Mangiferin Decreases Plasma Free Fatty Acids through Promoting Its Catabolism in Liver by Activation of AMPK  

PubMed Central

Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW) decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG) levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the ?-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L) to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism.

Niu, Yucun; Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

2012-01-01

122

Hypolipidemic Drugs, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, and Eicosanoids are Ligands for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors alpha and delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids (FAs) and their derivatives are essential cellular metabolites whose concentrations must be closely regulated. This implies that regulatory circuits exist which can sense changes in FA levels. Indeed, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha ) regulates lipid homeostasis and is transcriptionally activated by a variety of lipid-like compounds. It remains unclear as to how these structurally diverse compounds

Barry Marc Forman; Jasmine Chen; Ronald M. Evans

1997-01-01

123

Imidazopyridine-Based Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors That Show Anti-HCV Activity and in Vivo Target Modulation  

PubMed Central

Potent imidazopyridine-based inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FASN) are described. The compounds are shown to have antiviral (HCV replicon) activities that track with their biochemical activities. The most potent analogue (compound 19) also inhibits rat FASN and inhibits de novo palmitate synthesis in vitro (cell-based) as well as in vivo.

2012-01-01

124

Baicalein 5,6,7-trimethyl ether activates peroxisomal but not mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported that baicalein 5,6,7-trimethyl ether (BTM), a flavonoid, is capable of activating fatty acid beta-oxidation in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) fibroblasts (FEBS Lett. 2005; 579: 409-414). The objective of this study was to clarify whether BTM activates peroxisomal and/or mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. We first analysed the effect of BTM on fatty acid beta-oxidation in fibroblasts derived from healthy controls as well as patients with X-ALD, mitochondrial carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency, and peroxisome biogenesis disorder, Zellweger syndrome. Lignoceric acid (C(24:0)) beta-oxidation in the fibroblasts was stimulated by treatment with BTM, except for Zellweger fibroblasts. In contrasts, palmitic acid (C(16:0)) beta-oxidation was increased (2.8-fold) only in CACT-deficient fibroblasts. In U87 glioblastoma cells, C(24:0) beta-oxidation was also activated by treatment with BTM but C(16:0) beta-oxidation was not. The C(16:0) beta-oxidation was, however, significantly increased in the presence of 2-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA), a carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor. These results indicate that BTM activates peroxisomal but not mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. In addition, we found that BTM did not upregulate the expression of ABCD2/ALDR, ABCD3/PMP70, ACOX1 and FATP4 genes but slightly increased ACSVL1 gene expression. PMID:18470630

Morita, M; Kanai, M; Mizuno, S; Iwashima, M; Hayashi, T; Shimozawa, N; Suzuki, Y; Imanaka, T

2008-06-01

125

Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly  

PubMed Central

Degradation of unusual fatty acids through ?-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid.

Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

2014-01-01

126

Fatty Acid Requirements of Mycoplasma laidlawii  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Several strains of i7lycoplasma laidlazerii were grown in a partially defined medium which contained bovine plasma albumin as the only undefined constituent. Lipid extraction of the albumin abolished its growth-promoting activity. Growth was restored by adding the extracted lipid fraction or by long-chain fatty acids. Of the fatty acids tested oleic acid was the most active in growth promotion;

S. Razin; S. Rottem

1963-01-01

127

Role of ?-3 fatty acid desaturases in the regulation of the level of trienoic fatty acids during leaf cell maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trienoic fatty acids, namely ?-linolenic acid and hexadecatrienoic acid, present in leaf lipids are produced by ?-3 fatty acid desaturases located in the endoplasmic reticulum and plastid membranes. The changes in the level of trienoic fatty acids during leaf maturation were investigated in wild-type plants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and in the fad7 mutant deficient in the activity of

Gorou Horiguchi; Hiroaki Kodama; Mitsuo Nishimura; Koh Iba

1996-01-01

128

Novel surface-active oligofructose fatty acid mono-esters by enzymatic esterification.  

PubMed

This article describes the synthesis of a series of oligofructose monoesters with fatty acids of different chain length (C8, C12, C16 and C18) to obtain food-grade surfactants with a range of amphiphilicity. Reactions were performed in a mixture of DMSO/Bu(t)OH (10/90 v/v) at 60°C and catalysed by immobilised Candida antarctica lipase B. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the crude reaction products were mixtures of unmodified oligofructose and mostly mono-esters. The conversion into mono-esters increased with the length of the fatty acid chain, reflecting the specificity of the lipase towards more lipophilic substrates. Reverse phase solid phase extraction was used to fractionate the products, which lead to sufficient purity (>93%) of the fatty acid esters for functionality testing. It was shown that derivatives of longer (C16 and C18) fatty acids were more efficient in lowering surface tension and gave a much higher dilatational modulus than derivatives of the shorter (C8 and C12) fatty acids. PMID:23411321

van Kempen, Silvia E H J; Boeriu, Carmen G; Schols, Henk A; de Waard, Pieter; van der Linden, Erik; Sagis, Leonard M C

2013-06-01

129

Isolation and identification of C-19 fatty acids with anti-tumor activity from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom).  

PubMed

We previously showed that ethanolic extracts of spores of Ganoderma lucidum inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells. The active constituents appeared to be long-chain fatty acids, particularly carbon-19 (C-19) fatty acids which have not been reported in spores of Ganoderma lucidum. In the present study, two of these C-19 fatty acids which are key compounds in the activities, were identified as their 2-naphthyl ester derivatives after esterification of a mixture of fatty acids obtained from the spores. The active compounds were determines as nonadecanoic acid and cis-9-nonadecenoic acid. The location of the double bond of cis-9-nonadecenoic acid was demonstrated by GC-MS analysis, based on the fragmentation pattern of the adduct prepared from the fatty acid and dimethyl disulfide. PMID:22230194

Gao, Pei; Hirano, Tomoya; Chen, Zhiqing; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Sugimoto, Akiko

2012-04-01

130

Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaf and fruit extracts.  

PubMed

This study was conceived to evaluate the essential fatty acids, secondary metabolites, antiradical and antimicrobial activities of unexploited Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. The obtained results indicated that the major components of fatty acids were oleic acid (88.12%) and elaidic acid (7.88%). Leaves contained higher amount of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins than fruits, although both methanolic extracts had significant antioxidant activities. Significant correlations were observed between the total phenol or flavonoid contents in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activity estimated by using both 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic radical-scavenging methods. In addition, both methanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibition zone diameters and the minimal inhibition concentration values were in the range of 10-17 mm and 3.1-50 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24805194

Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Riahi, Leila; Maaroufi, Abderrazak; Hasnaoui, Brahim

2014-07-01

131

Fatty Acid Elongation Is Independent of Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Activities in Leek and Brassica napus1  

PubMed Central

In both animal and plant acyl elongation systems, it has been proposed that fatty acids are first activated to acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) before their elongation, and that the ATP dependence of fatty acid elongation is evidence of acyl-CoA synthetase involvement. However, because CoA is not supplied in standard fatty acid elongation assays, it is not clear if CoA-dependent acyl-CoA synthetase activity can provide levels of acyl-CoAs necessary to support typical rates of fatty acid elongation. Therefore, we examined the role of acyl-CoA synthetase in providing the primer for acyl elongation in leek (Allium porrum L.) epidermal microsomes and Brassica napus L. cv Reston oil bodies. As presented here, fatty acid elongation was independent of CoA and proceeded at maximum rates with CoA-free preparations of malonyl-CoA. We also showed that stearic acid ([1-14C]18:0)-CoA was synthesized from [1-14C]18:0 in the presence of CoA-free malonyl-CoA or acetyl-CoA, and that [1-14C]18:0-CoA synthesis under these conditions was ATP dependent. Furthermore, the appearance of [1-14C]18:0 in the acyl-CoA fraction was simultaneous with its appearance in phosphatidylcholine. These data, together with the s of a previous study (A. Hlousek-Radojcic, H. Imai, J.G. Jaworski [1995] Plant J 8: 803–809) showing that exogenous [14C]acyl-CoAs are diluted by a relatively large endogenous pool before they are elongated, strongly indicated that acyl-CoA synthetase did not play a direct role in fatty acid elongation, and that phosphatidylcholine or another glycerolipid was a more likely source of elongation primers than acyl-CoAs.

Hlousek-Radojcic, Alenka; Evenson, Kimberly J.; Jaworski, Jan G.; Post-Beittenmiller, Dusty

1998-01-01

132

Omega-3 free fatty acids suppress macrophage inflammasome activation by inhibiting NF-?B activation and enhancing autophagy.  

PubMed

The omega-3 (?3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1? production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1? production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1? production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR) 4 (also known as GPR120), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein ?-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. DHA also reduced IL-1? levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity. PMID:24911523

Williams-Bey, Yolanda; Boularan, Cedric; Vural, Ali; Huang, Ning-Na; Hwang, Il-Young; Shan-Shi, Chong; Kehrl, John H

2014-01-01

133

Omega-3 Free Fatty Acids Suppress Macrophage Inflammasome Activation by Inhibiting NF-?B Activation and Enhancing Autophagy  

PubMed Central

The omega-3 (?3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1? production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1? production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1? production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR) 4 (also known as GPR120), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein ?-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. DHA also reduced IL-1? levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity.

Williams-Bey, Yolanda; Boularan, Cedric; Vural, Ali; Huang, Ning-Na; Hwang, Il-Young; Shan-Shi, Chong; Kehrl, John H.

2014-01-01

134

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

DOEpatents

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

135

Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32–1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15–30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically.

Desbois, Andrew P.; Lawlor, Keelan C.

2013-01-01

136

Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

2009-01-01

137

LXR-mediated activation of macrophage stearoyl-CoA desaturase generates unsaturated fatty acids that destabilize ABCA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal HDL metabolism among patients with diabetes and insulin resistance may contribute to their in- creased risk of atherosclerosis. ATP binding cassette trans- porter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the transport of cholesterol and phospholipids from cells to HDL apolipoproteins and thus modulates HDL levels and atherogenesis. Because fatty acids are increased in diabetes, we examined their ef- fects on ABCA1 activity

Yutong Wang; Buran Kurdi-Haidar; John F. Oram

2004-01-01

138

Effects of free fatty acids on glucose transport and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity  

PubMed Central

To examine the mechanism by which free fatty acids (FFA) induce insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate, and intracellular glucose concentrations were measured using carbon-13 and phosphorous-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in seven healthy subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp following a five-hour infusion of either lipid/heparin or glycerol/heparin. IRS-1–associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity was also measured in muscle biopsy samples obtained from seven additional subjects before and after an identical protocol. Rates of insulin stimulated whole-body glucose uptake. Glucose oxidation and muscle glycogen synthesis were 50%–60% lower following the lipid infusion compared with the glycerol infusion and were associated with a ?90% decrease in the increment in intramuscular glucose-6-phosphate concentration, implying diminished glucose transport or phosphorylation activity. To distinguish between these two possibilities, intracellular glucose concentration was measured and found to be significantly lower in the lipid infusion studies, implying that glucose transport is the rate-controlling step. Insulin stimulation, during the glycerol infusion, resulted in a fourfold increase in PI 3-kinase activity over basal that was abolished during the lipid infusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increased concentrations of plasma FFA induce insulin resistance in humans through inhibition of glucose transport activity; this may be a consequence of decreased IRS-1–associated PI 3-kinase activity.

Dresner, Alan; Laurent, Didier; Marcucci, Melissa; Griffin, Margaret E.; Dufour, Sylvie; Cline, Gary W.; Slezak, Lori A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Hundal, Ripudaman S.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I.

1999-01-01

139

Impact of fatty acids on human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 activity and its expression in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia  

PubMed Central

While breast milk has been known as a cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, the underlying mechanism of breast milk-induced jaundice has not been clarified. Here, the impact of fatty acids on human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 – the sole enzyme that can metabolize bilirubin – were examined. Oleic acid, linoleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) strongly inhibited UGT1A1 activity. Forty-eight hours after a treatment with a lower concentration of DHA (10?mg/kg), total bilirubin significantly increased in neonatal hUGT1 mice, which are human neonatal jaundice models. In contrast, treatments with higher concentrations of fatty acids (0.1–10?g/kg) resulted in a decrease in serum bilirubin in hUGT1 mice. It was further demonstrated that the treatment with higher concentrations of fatty acids induced UGT1A1, possibly by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Our data indicates that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors would increase UGT1A1 expression, resulting in reduction of serum bilirubin levels in human infants.

Shibuya, Ayako; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H.; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

2013-01-01

140

Glycerol Glycoside Esters of Fatty Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to compositions of matter containing esters of glycosides and 6 to 24 carbon atom fatty acids, which compositions are useful as surface-active agents. More particularly, this invention relates to compositions of matter obtai...

R. O. Feuge J. L. White M. L. Brown

1974-01-01

141

Increased physical activity decreases hepatic free fatty acid uptake: a study in human monozygotic twins  

PubMed Central

Exercise is considered to be beneficial for free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, although reports of the effects of increased physical activity on FFA uptake and oxidation in different tissues in vivo in humans have been inconsistent. To investigate the heredity-independent effects of physical activity and fitness on FFA uptake in skeletal muscle, the myocardium, and liver we used positron emission tomography (PET) in nine healthy young male monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity and fitness. The cotwins with higher physical activity constituting the more active group had a similar body mass index but less body fat and 18 ± 10% higher V?O2,max (P < 0.001) compared to the less active brothers with lower physical activity. Low-intensity knee-extension exercise increased skeletal muscle FFA and oxygen uptake six to 10 times compared to resting values but no differences were observed between the groups at rest or during exercise. At rest the more active group had lower hepatic FFA uptake compared to the less active group (5.5 ± 4.3 versus 9.0 ± 6.1 ?mol (100 ml)?1 min?1, P = 0.04). Hepatic FFA uptake associated significantly with body fat percentage (P = 0.05). Myocardial FFA uptake was similar between the groups. In conclusion, in the absence of the confounding effects of genetic factors, moderately increased physical activity and aerobic fitness decrease body adiposity even in normal-weighted healthy young adult men. Further, increased physical activity together with decreased intra-abdominal adiposity seems to decrease hepatic FFA uptake but has no effects on skeletal muscle or myocardial FFA uptake.

Hannukainen, Jarna C; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ronald, Borra; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Janatuinen, Tuula; Heinonen, Olli J; Kapanen, Jukka; Viljanen, Tapio; Haaparanta, Merja; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Parkkola, Riitta; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

2007-01-01

142

A fatty acid desaturase modulates the activation of defense signaling pathways in plants.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in activating various plant defense responses, including expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and systemic acquired resistance. A critical positive regulator of the SA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis is encoded by the NPR1 gene. However, there is growing evidence that NPR1-independent pathways can also activate PR expression and disease resistance. To elucidate the components associated with NPR1-independent defense signaling, we isolated a suppressor of the npr1-5 allele, designated ssi2. The recessive ssi2 mutation confers constitutive PR gene expression, spontaneous lesion formation, and enhanced resistance to Peronospora parasitica. In contrast, a subset of defense responses regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, including expression of the defensin gene PDF1.2 and resistance to Botrytis cinerea, is impaired in ssi2 plants. With the use of a map-based approach, the SSI2 gene was cloned and shown to encode a stearoyl-ACP desaturase (S-ACP DES). S-ACP DES is an archetypical member of a family of soluble fatty acid (FA) desaturases; these enzymes play an important role in regulating the overall level of desaturated FAs in the cell. The activity of mutant S-ACP DES enzyme was reduced 10-fold, resulting in elevation of the 18:0 FA content in ssi2 plants. Because reduced S-ACP DES activity leads to the induction of certain defense responses and the inhibition of others, we propose that a FA-derived signal modulates crosstalk between different defense signaling pathways. PMID:11481500

Kachroo, P; Shanklin, J; Shah, J; Whittle, E J; Klessig, D F

2001-07-31

143

Influence of spontaneous hypertension on n-3 delta-6-desaturase activity and fatty acid composition of rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The first rate limiting step in the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid is catalyzed by the delta-6-desaturase enzyme. The activity of such an enzyme was studied in order to investigate the n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid biogenesis during hypertension. Rat isolated hepatocyte n-3 delta-6-desaturase activity was higher in 1 month old Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats -- prehypertensive period-as compared to normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, whereas there was no significant differences at 12 months -- hypertensive period-. Our data indicate no correlation between the directly measured enzyme activity and the changes in hepatocyte n-3 fatty acid compositions. The loss of hepatocyte n-3 delta-6-desaturase activity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat may be a key factor in the evolution of hypertension related to aging through altering the eicosanoid balance. PMID:8609913

Narce, M; Asdrubal, P; Delachambre, M C; Gresti, J; Poisson, J P

1995-11-01

144

Cannabinoid receptor antagonists and fatty acids alter endocannabinoid system gene expression and COX activity.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase (COX) possesses substrate affinity for the endocannabinoids (EC) anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG). We hypothesized that selective antagonism/activation of the cannabinoid receptors will increase COX activity and the availability of EC as substrates will lead to higher COX activity. Since the relationship between EC signaling of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the COX pathway in muscle has not been investigated, we examined agonist, antagonists and polyunsaturated fatty acid effects on ECS genes in myoblasts. At 50% confluency, C2C12 myoblasts were pretreated with 5 ?M of the cannabinoid receptor (CB)2 inverse agonist AM630 for 2 h and one with both AM630 and 1 ?M of the CB1 antagonist NESS0327. Cell cultures pretreated with AM630 were then administered with 25 ?M of either arachidonic acid (20:4n6), eicosapentaenoate (EPA) (20:5n3), docosahexaenoate (DHA) (22:6n3), AEA or bovine serum albumin (vehicle control) for 24 h. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed looking at ECS and prostaglandin genes. Total COX activity and COX-1 protein were greater in the AM630+AEA-treated cells compared to all other cell cultures. The mRNA for the AEA synthesis enzyme N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D and the 2-AG synthesis enzymes diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)? and DAGL? were higher in AM630+EPA-treated cells compared to the other groups. The mRNA levels of CB1 and CB2 were both highest in the AM630+EPA group. The mRNA for interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? was higher with AEA but lower with DHA and docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHEA), supporting previous findings that the EC AEA supports activation of the COX system. These findings suggest that COX activity and protein levels are influenced by the ECS, specifically by the ligand AEA for CB1 and by inverse agonism of CB2. PMID:24854955

Kim, Jeffrey; Watkins, Bruce A

2014-08-01

145

Fatty Acids and Atherosclerotic Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research concerning the effects of dietary fatty acids on atherosclerotic risk has focused on their effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, it is known that fatty acids also influence a number of other relevant mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis such as lipid peroxidation, inflammation and haemostasis. The most favourable distribution of cholesterol over the various lipoproteins is achieved when

M. A. Thijssen; R. P. Mensink

146

Kinase inhibitory, haemolytic and cytotoxic activity of three deep-water sponges from North Western Australia and their fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

The c-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibition, haemolytic activity, and cytoxicity of 21 extracts obtained from North Western Australian sponges collected from depths of 84-135 m were investigated. Hexane extracts from Ircinia/Sarcotragus sp. and Geodia sp. displayed PKA inhibitory activities of 100 and 97% respectively (at 100 microg/mL), while aq. methanol extracts from Haliclona sp. exhibited potent haemolytic activity (75%) and hexane extracts from Geodia sp. were highly toxic (88%) to the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. As the non-polar extracts gave the greatest PKA inhibition, these were further analysed by GC-MS and 29 fatty acids were identified in the highest proportions in Ircinia/Sarcotragus sp. > Haliclona sp. > Geodia sp. In contrast to shallow-water sponges that are dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of long chain fatty acids, LCFAs (C24-C30), the deep-sea sponges investigated herein were all found to be rich in saturated fatty acids, in particular C14-C20 fatty acids, including odd and branched chain fatty acids, with only low levels (0-10%) of LCFAs. Screening of the PKA inhibitory activity of a series of commercially available fatty acids identified C14-C18 fatty acids as possessing significant PKA inhibitory activity that may contribute to the activity observed in the sponges studied. PMID:22312740

Zivanovic, Ana; Pastro, Natalie J; Fromont, Jane; Thomson, Murray; Skropeta, Danielle

2011-12-01

147

Activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) promotes fatty acid oxidation through the SIRT1/PGC-1? pathway  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •TC, a CB2R specific agonist, stimulates SIRT1 activity by PKA/CREB pathway. •TC promotes PGC-1? transcriptional activity by increasing its deacetylation. •TC increases the expression of genes linked to FAO and promotes the rate of FAO. •The effects of TC in FAO are dependent on CB2R. •Suggesting CB2R as a target to treat diseases with lipid dysregulation. -- Abstract: Abnormal fatty acid oxidation has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. At the transcriptional level, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) has been reported to strongly increase the ability of hormone nuclear receptors PPAR? and ERR? to drive transcription of fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In this study, we report that a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) can lead to fatty acid oxidation through the PGC-1? pathway. We have found that CB2R is expressed in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, and that use of the specific agonist trans-caryophyllene (TC) stimulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity by increasing the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), thus leading to increased levels of PGC-1? deacetylation. This use of TC treatment increases the expression of genes linked to the fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1/PGC-1?-dependent mechanism and also drastically accelerates the rate of complete fatty acid oxidation in C2C12 myotubes, neither of which occur when CB2R mRNA is knocked down using siRNA. These results reveal that activation of CB2R by a selective agonist promotes lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Our findings imply that pharmacological manipulation of CB2R may provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

Zheng, Xuqin [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China); Sun, Tao [Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China)] [Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdwang666@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China)

2013-07-05

148

Cellular fatty acid analysis as a potential tool for predicting mosquitocidal activity of Bacillus sphaericus strains.  

PubMed Central

Gas-liquid chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters and numerical analysis were carried out with 114 Bacillus sphaericus strains. Since only two clusters harbored mosquitocidal strains, this technique could be developed in screening programs to limit bioassays on mosquito larvae. It also allows differentiation of highly homologous strains.

Frachon, E; Hamon, S; Nicolas, L; de Barjac, H

1991-01-01

149

AMP-Activated Kinase Restricts Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection by Inhibiting Fatty Acid Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell intrinsic innate immune responses provide a first line of defense against viral infection, and often function by targeting cellular pathways usurped by the virus during infection. In particular, many viruses manipulate cellular lipids to form complex structures required for viral replication, many of which are dependent on de novo fatty acid synthesis. We found that the energy regulator

Theresa S. Moser; Daniel Schieffer; Sara Cherry

2012-01-01

150

Synergistic Action of Diacylglycerol and Unsaturated Fatty Acid for Protein Kinase C Activation: Its Possible Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic properties of the purified alpha, beta, and gamma subspecies of protein kinase C (PKC) to respond to diacylglycerol, phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), and Ca2+ were reinvestigated in the presence of several fatty acids. Although responses of these enzyme subspecies to the lipids slightly differed from one another, the reaction velocity of these subspecies was significantly enhanced by synergistic action of diacylglycerol

Tetsutaro Shinomura; Yoshinori Asaoka; Masahiro Oka; Kimishisa Yoshida; Yasutomi Nishizuka

1991-01-01

151

Nonlinear fatty acid terminated polyanhydrides.  

PubMed

A systemic study on the synthesis, characterization, degradation, drug release, and stability of nonlinear fatty acid terminated poly(sebacic anhydride) (PSA) is reported. Ricinoleic acid was transformed into a nonlinear fatty acid by esterification with fatty acid chlorides of C8-C18 chain length in the presence of pyridine. Pure nonlinear fatty acids were obtained by purification of the reaction product using column chromatography. Poly(sebacic acid)s terminated with 30 wt % of various nonlinear fatty acids were synthesized by melt condensation to yield waxy off-white materials with molecular weights in the range of 5000-9000. The terminated polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and melt at temperatures between 70 and 79 degrees C, which allow their fabrication into microspheres and implants. These polymers degrade into their counterparts during a period of a few weeks while constantly releasing an incorporated drug. The incorporation of nonlinear fatty acid terminals to poly(sebacic anhydride) increased the polymer hydrophobicity and decreased polymer crystallinity when compared to PSA or to linear fatty acid terminated PSA. The hydrophobic nonlinear side chains retard water from penetrating into the polymer mass, which resulted in higher stability and surface erosion front mechanism of polymer degradation and drug release. PMID:11749153

Teomim, D; Domb, A J

2001-01-01

152

Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids Regulate Gene Expression through Direct Interactions with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors alpha and gamma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha and gamma are key regulators of lipid homeostasis and are activated by a structurally diverse group of compounds including fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones. While thiazolidinediones and 15-deoxy-Delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 have been shown to bind to PPARgamma , it has remained unclear whether other activators mediate their effects through

Steven A. Kliewer; Scott S. Sundseth; Stacey A. Jones; Peter J. Brown; G. Bruce Wisely; Cecilia S. Koble; Pallavi Devchand; Walter Wahli; Timothy M. Willson; James M. Lenhard; Jurgen M. Lehmann

1997-01-01

153

Structural Basis for Activation of Fatty Acid-binding Protein 4  

SciTech Connect

Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) delivers ligands from the cytosol to the nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma} in the nucleus, thereby enhancing the transcriptional activity of the receptor. Notably, FABP4 binds multiple ligands with a similar affinity but its nuclear translocation is activated only by specific compounds. To gain insight into the structural features that underlie the ligand-specificity in activation of the nuclear import of FABP4, we solved the crystal structures of the protein complexed with two compounds that induce its nuclear translocation, and compared these to the apo-protein and to FABP4 structures bound to non-activating ligands. Examination of these structures indicates that activation coincides with closure of a portal loop phenylalanine side-chain, contraction of the binding pocket, a subtle shift in a helical domain containing the nuclear localization signal of the protein, and a resultant change in oligomeric state that exposes the nuclear localization signal to the solution. Comparisons of backbone displacements induced by activating ligands with a measure of mobility derived from translation, libration, screw (TLS) refinement, and with a composite of slowest normal modes of the apo state suggest that the helical motion associated with the activation of the protein is part of the repertoire of the equilibrium motions of the apo-protein, i.e. that ligand binding does not induce the activated configuration but serves to stabilize it. Nuclear import of FABP4 can thus be understood in terms of the pre-existing equilibrium hypothesis of ligand binding.

Gillilan,R.; Ayers, S.; Noy, N.

2007-01-01

154

Effect of the maturation process on the phenolic fractions, fatty acids, and antioxidant activity of the Chétoui olive fruit cultivar.  

PubMed

Maturity is one of the most important factors associated with the quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables. This work aims to investigate the effect of the maturation process of the olive fruit on the phenolic fraction and fatty acid of irrigated Chétoui cultivar. The phenolic composition was studied by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by LC-MS and GC-MS analyses and fatty acids by GC. Oleuropein was the major phenolic compound at all stages of ripeness. Unexpectedly, both phenolic compounds hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein exhibited the same trends during maturation. Indeed, the oleuropein levels decreased during the ripening process and were not inversely correlated with the concentrations of hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of olive extracts was evaluated by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the beta-carotene linoleate model system. The IC 50 and AAC values of the olive extracts decreased from 3.68 to 1.61 microg/mL and from 645 to 431, respectively. There was a correlation between the antioxidant activity and the oleuropein concentration. The fatty acid composition was quantified in olive fruit during maturation and showed that fatty acids were characterized by the highest level of oleic acid, which reached 65.2%. PMID:18257524

Damak, Nahla; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ayadi, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Damak, Mohamed

2008-03-12

155

Role of fatty acid transporters in epidermis  

PubMed Central

Skin epidermis is an active site of lipid synthesis. The intercellular lipids of human stratum corneum (SC) are unique in composition and quite different from the lipids found in most biological membranes. The three major lipids in the SC are free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides. Fatty acids can be synthesized by keratinocytes de novo and, in addition, need to be taken up from the circulation. The latter process has been shown to be protein mediated, and several fatty acid transporters are expressed in skin. Recent studies of transgenic and knockout animal models for fatty acid transporters and the identification of fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 or SLC27A4) mutations as causative for Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome highlight the vital roles of fatty acid transport and metabolism in skin homeostasis. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the role of fatty acids and their transporters in cutaneous biology, including their involvement in epidermal barrier generation and skin inflammation.

Miner, Jeffrey H; Jahnsen, Frode

2011-01-01

156

Enzymatic preparation of polyethylene glycol esters of castor oil fatty acids and their surface-active properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the preparation and evaluation of nonionic surfactants prepared from polyethylene glycol (PEG) esters\\u000a of castor oil fatty acid, a source of hydroxy fatty acid. A lipase-catalyzed esterification reaction has been employed to\\u000a prepare PEG esters of hydroxy acid to overcome problems associated with chemical processes. Castor oil fatty acid (85% ricinoleic\\u000a acid) was mixed with PEG of

M. Ghosh; D. K. Bhattacharyya

1998-01-01

157

75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the active ingredient ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C ...requiring a tolerance for ammonium salts of fatty acids (C 8 -C...is established for Ammonium salts of fatty acids (C 8 -C...approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA),...

2010-03-24

158

Quantitation of lysolipids, fatty acids, and phospholipase A2 activity and correlation with membrane polarity.  

PubMed

Acrylodan-labeled rat-intestinal fatty acid binding protein, ADIFAB, binds both of lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) and FA. Binding displaces Acrylodan and its fluorescence peak shifts from 432 to 505 nm. A fluorescence assay that relies on this shift is presented for quantitating LPC, FA, and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in phospholipid bilayers in absolute units of ?M/min/mg of enzyme. This is a development over an earlier assay that took into account only FA binding. Activities of bee venom PLA(2) on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers were measured. Standard pH-Stat assays validated the present assay. Products increase linearly with time for about one minute in DOPC and five minutes in DPPC corresponding to completion of 5 to 8% hydrolysis in DOPC and 20% in DPPC. Membrane polarity and microviscosity measured using electron spin resonance (ESR) exhibited discontinuities at compositions that mimicked similar percentages of hydrolysis products in the respective bilayers. The observed hydrolysis rate decrease following the initial linear period thus correlates to changes in membrane polarity. The ability of the assay to yield actual product concentrations, reveal structure in the reaction progress curves, and interpretation in light of the ESR data bring insight into the shape of the reaction curve. PMID:22773689

Singh, Jasmeet; Ranganathan, Radha

2012-09-01

159

Fatty acids regulate perilipin5 in muscle by activating PPAR?[S  

PubMed Central

The surface of lipid droplets (LDs) in various cell types is coated with perilipin proteins encoded by the Plin genes. Perilipins regulate LD metabolism by selectively recruiting lipases and other proteins to LDs. We have studied the expression of perilipins in mouse muscle. The glycolytic fiber-enriched gastrocnemius muscle expresses predominantly Plin2-4. The oxidative fiber-enriched soleus muscle expresses Plin2-5. Expression of Plin2 and Plin4-5 is elevated in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from mice fed a high-fat diet. This effect is preserved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?-deficient mice. Mouse muscle derived C2C12 cells differentiated into glycolytic fibers increase transcription of these Plins when exposed to various long chain fatty acids (FAs). To understand how FAs regulate Plin genes, we used specific activators and antagonists against PPARs, Plin promoter reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, siRNA, and animal models. Our analyses demonstrate that FAs require PPAR? to induce transcription of Plin4 and Plin5. We further identify a functional PPAR binding site in the Plin5 gene and establish Plin5 as a novel direct PPAR? target in muscle. Our study reveals that muscle cells respond to elevated FAs by increasing transcription of several perilipin LD-coating proteins. This induction renders the muscle better equipped to sequester incoming FAs into cytosolic LDs.

Bindesb?ll, Christian; Berg, Ole; Arntsen, Borghild; Nebb, Hilde I.; Dalen, Knut Tomas

2013-01-01

160

Inhibition of carboxylesterase activity of THP1 monocytes/macrophages and recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 by oxysterols and fatty acids  

PubMed Central

Summary Two major isoforms of human carboxylesterases (CEs) are found in metabolically active tissues, CES1 and CES2. These hydrolytic enzymes are involved in xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. CES1 is abundantly expressed in human liver and monocytes/macrophages, including the THP1 cell line; CES2 is expressed in liver but not in monocytes/macrophages. The cholesteryl ester hydrolysis activity in human macrophages has been attributed to CES1. Here, we report the direct inhibitory effects of several endogenous oxysterols and fatty acids on the CE activity of THP1 monocytes/macrophages and recombinant human CES1 and CES2. Using THP1 whole-cell lysates we found: (1) 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-HC) is a potent inhibitor of carboxylesterase activity (IC50=33 nM); (2) 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol had moderate inhibitory activity (IC50=8.1 ?M); and (3) cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol each had little inhibitory activity. 27-HC was a partially noncompetitive inhibitor of recombinant CES1 (Kiapp=10 nM) and impaired intracellular CES1 activity following treatment of intact THP1 cells. In contrast, recombinant CES2 activity was not inhibited by 27-HC, suggesting isoform-selective inhibition by 27-HC. Furthermore, unsaturated fatty acids were better inhibitors of CES1 activity than saturated fatty acids, while CES2 activity was unaffected by any fatty acid. Arachidonic acid (AA) was the most potent fatty acid inhibitor of recombinant CES1 and acted by a noncompetitive mechanism (Kiapp=1.7 ?M); when not complexed to albumin, exogenous AA penetrated intact THP1 cells and inhibited CES1. Inhibition results are discussed in light of recent structural models for CES1 that describe ligand binding sites separate from the active site. In addition, oxysterol-mediated inhibition of CES1 activity was demonstrated by pretreatment of human liver homogenates or intact THP1 cells with exogenous 27-HC, which resulted in significantly reduced hydrolysis of the pyrethroid insecticide bioresmethrin, a CES1-specific xenobiotic substrate. Collectively, these findings suggest that CE activity of recombinant CES1, cell lysates, and intact cells can be impaired by naturally occurring lipids, which may compromise the ability of CES1 to both detoxify environmental pollutants and metabolize endogenous compounds in vivo.

Crow, J. Allen; Herring, Katye L.; Xie, Shuqi; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

2009-01-01

161

Mammalian Fatty Acid Synthase Activity From Crude Tissue Lysates Tracing [13C]-Substrates Using GC Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN, FAS; EC 2.3.1.85) is the sole mammalian enzyme to synthesize fatty acids de novo from acetyl and malonyl coenzyme A esters. A new method is described that directly quantifies uniformly labeled [13C]16-palmitate by tracing [13C]2-acetyl-CoA and [13C]3-malonyl-CoA using an in vitro FASN assay. This method used GC-MS to detect [13C]16-palmitate carboxylate anions (m/z 271) of pentafluorobenzyl derivatives and was highly sensitive at femtomole quantities. Uniformly incorporated [13C]16-palmitate was the primary product of both recombinant and crude tissue lysate FASN. Quantification of FASN protein within crude tissue lysates assured equal FASN amounts, preserved steady state kinetics, and enabled calculation of FASN specific activity. FASN activity determined by [13C]16-palmitate synthesis was consistent with values obtained from NADPH oxidation assays. Analysis of FASN activity from tissue extracts was not hampered by contaminating enzymes or pre-existing fatty acids. Crude mammary gland and liver lysates had significantly different activities at 82 and 65 nmoles minute?1 mg?1 respectively, suggesting tissue specific activity levels differ in a manner unrelated to FASN amount. GC-MS quantification of [13C]16-palmitate synthesis permits sensitive evaluation of FASN activity from tissues of varied physiologic states, and of purified FASN activity in the presence of modifying proteins, enzymes, or drugs.

Rudolph, Michael C.; Maluf, N. Karl; Wellberg, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Chris A.; Murphy, Robert C.; Anderson, Steve M.

2012-01-01

162

Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

2003-01-01

163

Elevated hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 activity affects multiple pathways controlling hepatic lipid and carbohydrate composition*s?  

PubMed Central

Hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 (Elovl-5) plays an important role in long chain monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. Elovl-5 activity is regulated during development, by diet, hormones, and drugs, and in chronic disease. This report examines the impact of elevated Elovl-5 activity on hepatic function. Adenovirus-mediated induction of Elovl5 activity in livers of C57BL/6 mice increased hepatic and plasma levels of dihomo-?-linolenic acid (20:3,n-6) while suppressing hepatic arachidonic acid (20:4,n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6,n-3) content. The fasting-refeeding response of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-regulated genes was attenuated in mice with elevated Elovl5 activity. In contrast, the fasting-refeeding response of hepatic sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1)-regulated and carbohydrate-regulatory element binding protein/Max-like factor X-regulated genes, Akt and glycogen synthase kinase (Gsk)-3? phosphorylation, and the accumulation of hepatic glycogen content and nuclear SREBP-1 were not impaired by elevated Elovl5 activity. Hepatic triglyceride content and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase ? and Jun kinase 1/2 were reduced by elevated Elovl5 activity. Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was suppressed, while hepatic glycogen content and phosphorylated Gsk-3? were significantly increased, in livers of fasted mice with increased Elovl5 activity. As such, hepatic Elovl5 activity may affect hepatic glucose production during fasting. In summary, Elovl5-induced changes in hepatic fatty acid content affect multiple pathways regulating hepatic lipid and carbohydrate composition.

Wang, Yun; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Tripathy, Sasmita; Botolin, Daniela; Christian, Barbara; Jump, Donald B.

2008-01-01

164

Concurrent physical activity modifies the association between n3 long-chain fatty acids and cardiometabolic risk in midlife adults.  

PubMed

Greater consumption of n3 (?3) polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce risk for cardiovascular disease events, yet their effects on metabolic risk factors and diabetes remain unclear. This cross-sectional study used a community volunteer sample to test whether the associations between n3 fatty acids and cardiometabolic risk vary as a function of physical activity. Participants were 344 generally healthy adults, 30-54 y of age, not taking fish oil supplements or confounding medications. Serum phospholipid EPA and DHA were used together (EPA+DHA) as a biomarker of n3 fatty acid exposure. Cardiometabolic risk was calculated as a continuous measure based on standardized distributions of blood pressure, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and a simple count of risk factors. Insulin resistance was estimated from the homeostatic model assessment. Physical activity was found to predict cardiometabolic risk (P ? 0.02) and insulin resistance (P ? 0.02) and to moderate the association between EPA+DHA and both cardiometabolic risk (P-interaction ? 0.02) and insulin resistance (P-interaction ? 0.02). Specifically, higher EPA+DHA was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance in persons engaged in regular physical activity but not in relatively inactive individuals. These findings were noted in several components of cardiometabolic risk, in men and women separately, and in models adjusted for overall diet quality. In midlife adults, habitual physical activity may be necessary to unmask the salutary effects of n3 fatty acids on cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance. PMID:23884386

Muldoon, Matthew F; Erickson, Kirk I; Goodpaster, Bret H; Jakicic, John M; Conklin, Sarah M; Sekikawa, Akira; Yao, Jeffrey K; Manuck, Stephen B

2013-09-01

165

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors  

PubMed Central

Results reported in this work suggest a potential therapeutic value of polyunsaturated fatty acids for cerebral pathologies as previously proposed by others for cardiac diseases. We show that the polyunsaturated fatty acid linolenic acid prevents neuronal death in an animal model of transient global ischemia even when administered after the insult. Linolenic acid also protects animals treated with kainate against seizures and hippocampal lesions. The same effects have been observed in an in vitro model of seizure-like activity using glutamatergic neurons and they have been shown to be associated with blockade of glutamatergic transmission by low concentrations of distinct polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data suggest that the opening of background K+ channels, like TREK-1 and TRAAK, which are activated by arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid and linolenic acid, is a significant factor in this neuroprotective effect. These channels are abundant in the brain where they are located both pre- and post-synaptically, and are insensitive to saturated fatty acids, which offer no neuroprotection.

Lauritzen, Inger; Blondeau, Nicolas; Heurteaux, Catherine; Widmann, Catherine; Romey, Georges; Lazdunski, Michel

2000-01-01

166

Structure-Activity Relationships of ?-Keto Oxazole Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

A systematic study of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of 2b (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the C2 acyl side chain. A series of aryl replacements or substituents for the terminal phenyl group provided effective inhibitors (e.g., 5c, aryl = 1-napthyl, Ki = 2.6 nM) with 5hh (aryl = 3-Cl-Ph, Ki = 900 pM) being 5-fold more potent than 2b. Conformationally-restricted C2 side chains were examined and many provided exceptionally potent inhibitors of which 11j (ethylbiphenyl side chain) was established to be a 750 pM inhibitor. A systematic series of heteroatoms (O, NMe, S), electron-withdrawing groups (SO, SO2), and amides positioned within and hydroxyl substitutions on the linking side chain were investigated which typically led to a loss in potency. The most tolerant positions provided effective inhibitors (12p, 6-position S, Ki = 3 nM or 13d, 2-position OH, Ki = 8 nM) comparable in potency to 2b. Proteomic-wide screening of selected inhibitors from the systematic series of >100 candidates prepared revealed that they are selective for FAAH over all other mammalian serine proteases.

Hardouin, Christophe; Kelso, Michael J.; Romero, F. Anthony; Rayl, Thomas J.; Leung, Donmienne; Hwang, Inkyu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.

2008-01-01

167

Structure-activity relationships of alpha-ketooxazole inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.  

PubMed

A systematic study of the structure-activity relationships of 2b (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the C2 acyl side chain. A series of aryl replacements or substituents for the terminal phenyl group provided effective inhibitors (e.g., 5c, aryl = 1-napthyl, Ki = 2.6 nM), with 5hh (aryl = 3-ClPh, Ki = 900 pM) being 5-fold more potent than 2b. Conformationally restricted C2 side chains were examined, and many provided exceptionally potent inhibitors, of which 11j (ethylbiphenyl side chain) was established to be a 750 pM inhibitor. A systematic series of heteroatoms (O, NMe, S), electron-withdrawing groups (SO, SO2), and amides positioned within and hydroxyl substitutions on the linking side chain were investigated, which typically led to a loss in potency. The most tolerant positions provided effective inhibitors (12p, 6-position S, Ki = 3 nM, or 13d, 2-position OH, Ki = 8 nM) comparable in potency to 2b. Proteome-wide screening of selected inhibitors from the systematic series of >100 candidates prepared revealed that they are selective for FAAH over all other mammalian serine proteases. PMID:17559203

Hardouin, Christophe; Kelso, Michael J; Romero, F Anthony; Rayl, Thomas J; Leung, Donmienne; Hwang, Inkyu; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Boger, Dale L

2007-07-12

168

Fat-Soluble Bioactives, Fatty Acid Profile and Radical Scavenging Activity of Semecarpus anacardium Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semecarpus anacardium (family Anacardiaceae) has many applications in the Ayurvedic and Siddha systems of medicine in India. Detailed knowledge on the composition of S. anacardium oil, in consideration of potential utilization, is of major importance. In this investigation, column chromatography, gas\\u000a chromatography, thin layer chromatography and liquid chromatography techniques were performed to analyze lipid classes, fatty\\u000a acids and fat-soluble bioactives

Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; S. G. Kinni; M. Seshagiri; Jörg-Thomas Mörsel

2010-01-01

169

Identification and functional characterization of genes encoding omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic activities from unicellular microalgae.  

PubMed

In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. The search led to the identification of two putative "front-end" desaturases (?6 and ?4) from Ostreococcus RCC809 and one ?6-elongase from F. cylindrus. Heterologous expression of putative open reading frames (ORFs) in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme activities efficiently convert their respective substrates: 54.1% conversion of ?-linolenic acid for ?6-desaturase, 15.1% conversion of 22:5n-3 for ?4-desaturase and 38.1% conversion of ?-linolenic acid for ?6-elongase. The ?6-desaturase from Ostreococcus RCC809 displays a very strong substrate preference resulting in the predominant synthesis of stearidonic acid (C18:4?6,9,12,15). These data confirm the functional characterization of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic genes from these two species which have until now not been investigated for such activities. The identification of these new genes will also serve to expand the repertoire of activities available for metabolically engineering the omega-3 trait in heterologous hosts as well as providing better insights into the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine microalgae. PMID:24351909

Vaezi, Royah; Napier, Johnathan A; Sayanova, Olga

2013-12-01

170

Neonatal polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of n?6 and n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neonatal development, particularly with respect to the\\u000a developing brain and retina, is well known. This review combines recent information from basic science and clinical studies\\u000a to highlight recent advances in knowledge on PUFA metabolism and areas where research is still needed on infant n?6 and n?3\\u000a fatty acid requirements.

Sheila M. Innis; Howard Sprecher; David Hachey; John Edmond; Robert E. Anderson

1999-01-01

171

Microglial cell activation increases saturated and decreases monounsaturated fatty acid content, but both lipid species are proinflammatory.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation is a component of age-related neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. Saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids are bioactive molecules that may play different extrinsic and intrinsic roles in neuroinflammation, serving as exogenous ligands for cellular receptors, or endogenous components of cell structural, energetic and signaling pathways. We determined the fatty acyl profile of BV2 microglial cells before and after acute activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also investigated the effect of SFA and MUFA pretreatment on the production of an invasive, neurotoxic phenotype in BV2 cells. Acute activation of BV2 microglia resulted in an increase in the relative content of SFA (12:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 increased significantly), and a relative decrease in the content of MUFA (16:1n7, 18:1n7, 18:1n9, 20:1n9, 24:1n9 decreased significantly). In agreement, the major stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) isoform in BV2 cells, SCD2, was significantly down-regulated by LPS. We next treated cells with SFA (16:0 or 18:0) or MUFA (16:1n7 or 18:1n9), and found that levels of secreted IL6 were increased, as was secreted MMP9-mediated proteolytic activity. To test the functional significance, we treated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells with conditioned medium from BV2 cells pretreated with fatty acids, and found a small but significant induction of cell death. Our findings suggest differential intrinsic roles for SFA and MUFA in activated microglial cells, but similar extrinsic roles for these fatty acid species in inducing activation. Expansion of SFA is important during microglial cell activation, but either supplemental SFA or MUFA may contribute to chronic low-grade neuroinflammation. PMID:24473753

Button, Emily B; Mitchell, Andrew S; Domingos, Marcia M; Chung, Jessica H-J; Bradley, Ryan M; Hashemi, Ashkan; Marvyn, Phillip M; Patterson, Ashley C; Stark, Ken D; Quadrilatero, Joe; Duncan, Robin E

2014-04-01

172

Microsomal electron-transport reductase activities and fatty acid elongation in rat brain. Developmental changes, regional distribution and comparison with liver activity.  

PubMed Central

Gestational and postnatal changes of microsomal NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase and NADPH:cytochrome c reductase activities were examined in rat brain. The specific activity of NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase was high at 18-19 days of gestational age, decreased to a minimum at 4 to 6 days after birth and increased thereafter. An essentially similar developmental pattern was observed for the specific activity of NADPH:cytochrome c reductase. In contrast, the specific activities of these reductases in liver microsomes were low, did not display a peak during gestation and increased steadily to a maximum at 40-50 days after birth. The rate of incorporation of [2-14C]malonyl-CoA into palmitoyl-CoA in brain microsomes was found to be high in the foetus, sharply decreased to a minimum at the time of birth and increased thereafter. The activity of fatty acid elongation in liver microsomes was much less than that in brain during gestation and increased rapidly after birth to values at 50-60 days 20-fold greater than the foetal activity. NADH and NADPH were equally effective for brain microsomal fatty acid elongation. Regional distribution of cytochrome reductase activities and the activity of fatty acid elongation showed the lowest specific activity in cerebellum. These results suggest that brain microsomal electron transport may be correlated with the developmental alteration in fatty acid elongation.

Takeshita, M; Tamura, M; Yubisui, T

1983-01-01

173

The fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the effect of long-term ezetimibe therapy on these levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) and estimated desaturase activity and the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study also assessed the effect of ezetimibe on CE levels.

Goji Hasegawa; Toshihide Shima; Michiaki Fukui; Naoto Nakamura; Kanji Yamaguchi; Hironori Mitsuyoshi; Masahito Minami; Kohichiroh Yasui; Yoshito Itoh; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Jo Kitawaki; Mitsumiro Ohta; Hiroshi Obayashi; Takeshi Okanoue

2010-01-01

174

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

175

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a marine vertebrate: ontogenetic and nutritional regulation of a fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity.  

PubMed

Solea senegalensis is an unusual marine teleost as it has very low dietary requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during early development. Aquaculture is rapidly becoming the main source of health-beneficial fish products for human consumption. This, associated with limited supply of LC-PUFA-rich ingredients for fish feeds, render S. senegalensis a highly interesting species in which to study the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway. We have cloned and functionally characterized fatty acyl desaturase and elongase cDNAs corresponding to ?4fad (with some ?5 activity for the n-3 series) and elovl5 with the potential to catalyze docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Changes in expression of both transcripts were determined during embryonic and early larval development, and transcriptional regulation in response to higher or lower dietary n-3 LC-PUFA was assessed during larval and post-larval stages. There was a marked pattern of regulation during early ontogenesis, with both transcripts showing peak expression coinciding with the start of exogenous feeding. Although elovl5 transcripts were present in fertilized eggs, ?4fad only appeared at hatching. However, eggs have high proportions of DHA (~20%) and high DHA/EPA ratio (~11) to meet the high demands for early embryonic development. The fatty acid profile of larvae after the start of exogenous feeding closely reflected dietary composition. Nonetheless, ?4fad was significantly up-regulated in response to LC-PUFA-poor diets, which may suggest biological relevance of this pathway in reducing LC-PUFA dietary requirements in this species, compared to other marine teleosts. These results indicate that sole is capable of synthesizing DHA from EPA through a Sprecher-independent pathway. PMID:22245719

Morais, Sofia; Castanheira, Filipa; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Conceição, Luis E C; Tocher, Douglas R

2012-04-01

176

Comparison of the reactivity of tetradecenoic acids, a triacsin, and unsaturated oximes with four purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid activation proteins.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains at least five acyl-CoA synthetases (fatty acid activation proteins, or Faaps). Four FAA genes have been recovered to date. Recent genetic studies indicate that Faa1p and Faa4p are involved in the activation of imported fatty acids, while Faa2p activates endogenous pools of fatty acids. We have now purified Faa4p from S. cerevisiae and compared its fatty acid substrate specificity in vitro with the specificities of purified Faa1p, Faa2p, and Faa3p. Among C8-C18 saturated fatty acids, Faa4p and Faa1p both prefer C14:0. Surveys of C14 fatty acids with single cis-double bonds at C2-C12 indicated that Faa4p and Faa1p prefer Z9-tetradecenoic acid, although Faa4p's preference is much greater and also evident in C16 and C18 fatty acids. Faa4p's selectivity for fatty acids with a C9-C10 cis-double bond is a feature it shares with Faa3p and is notable since in yeast Ole1p, a microsomal cis-delta 9 desaturase, accounts for de novo production of monoenoic acyl-CoAs from saturated acyl-CoA substrates. Faa4p has no detectable acyl-CoA synthetase activity when incubated with tetradecenoic acids having a trans-double bond at C2-3, C4-5, C5-6, C6-7, C7-8, or C9-10. Faa3p can only use E9-tetradecenoic acid as a substrate, while E4-, E6- and E9-tetradecenoic acids can be used by Faa1p and Faa2p. E2-tetradecenoic acid is an Faap inhibitor, with Faa2p exhibiting the greatest sensitivity (IC50 = 2.6 +/- 0.2 microM). Triacsin C (1-hydroxy-3-(E,E,E,2',4',7'- undecatrienylidine)-1,2,3-triazene) has trans-double bonds at positions that correspond to those in E2-, E5-, and E7-tetradecenoic acids. This compound is a potent inhibitor of Faa2p (Ki = 15 +/- 1 nM; competitive with fatty acid), less potent against Faa4p (Ki = 2 microM), and not active against Faa1p or Faa3p (IC50 > 500 microM). Analysis of an n-tetradecanal plus a series of oximes (tridecanal oxime, 1-azadeca-1,3,5-trienol, and 1-azaundeca-1,3,5-trienol) indicated that the combination of an azenol moiety (R-CH = N-OH) plus adjacent unsaturation are critical for triacsin C's selective inhibition of Faa2p. Triacsin C and oxime derivatives appear to be very useful for defining differences in molecular recognition among S. cerevisiae acyl-CoA synthetases. The > 25,000-fold range in the inhibitory effects of triacsin C on these four Faaps suggests that it may be possible to develop other selective inhibitors of eukaryotic acyl-CoA synthetases. PMID:7650027

Knoll, L J; Schall, O F; Suzuki, I; Gokel, G W; Gordon, J I

1995-08-25

177

Fatty Acid Composition and Trans Fatty Acids in Crisps and Cakes in Turkey's Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition of 57 crisps and 50 cakes sold in the markets in Turkey were determined. C 18:1, oleic acid, was the major fatty acid in all crisps and cake samples. The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ranged between 27.98–46.57, 35.73–47.57, and

Yavuz S. Cakmak; Gokalp O. Guler; Sakir Yigit; Gokhan Caglav; Abdurrahman Aktumsek

2011-01-01

178

Biodegradation of C5-C 8 fatty acids and production of aroma volatiles by Myroides sp. ZB35 isolated from activated sludge.  

PubMed

In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain. However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries. PMID:24810320

Xiao, Zijun; Zhu, Xiankun; Xi, Lijun; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Li; Lu, Jian R

2014-05-01

179

Fatty Acid Synthesis and Pyruvate Metabolism Pathways Remain Active in Dihydroartemisinin-Induced Dormant Ring Stages of Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment. PMID:24913167

Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

2014-08-01

180

The adjuvant activity of fatty acid esters. The role of acyl chain length and degree of saturation.  

PubMed Central

Water-in-oil emulsions of metabolizable fatty acid esters, with the non-toxic surfactant Pluronic L122 as emulsifying agent, potentiated the humoral response to bovine serum albumin and staphylococcal toxoid in the mouse. Adjuvant activity was increased by changing the chemical nature of the esters as follows: (i) using a series of ethyl esters, adjuvant activity appeared when the acyl chain length of the fatty acid component was 16 or greater; (ii) isobutyl and isopropyl esters of palmitic acid (C16:0) were superior to ethyl; (iii) the ethyl esters of oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids were better than stearic (C18:0). Since emulsions prepared with longer chain saturated esters are very viscous or solid at room temperature, and unsaturated esters are chemically reactive, emulsions were prepared with differing proportions of ethyl caprate (C10:0) and butyl stearate. At a ratio of 9:1 the emulsions possessed the low viscosity of ethyl caprate, but gained the adjuvant activity of butyl stearate. 125I-labelled BSA was retained in the footpad to a significantly greater extent than with a caprate emulsion, but reasons are given for believing that slow release of antigen is not the only mechanism of adjuvant activity. The ester emulsions caused more acute but less chronic local inflammation (footpad swelling) than Freund's incomplete adjuvant.

Bomford, R

1981-01-01

181

The adjuvant activity of fatty acid esters. The role of acyl chain length and degree of saturation.  

PubMed

Water-in-oil emulsions of metabolizable fatty acid esters, with the non-toxic surfactant Pluronic L122 as emulsifying agent, potentiated the humoral response to bovine serum albumin and staphylococcal toxoid in the mouse. Adjuvant activity was increased by changing the chemical nature of the esters as follows: (i) using a series of ethyl esters, adjuvant activity appeared when the acyl chain length of the fatty acid component was 16 or greater; (ii) isobutyl and isopropyl esters of palmitic acid (C16:0) were superior to ethyl; (iii) the ethyl esters of oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids were better than stearic (C18:0). Since emulsions prepared with longer chain saturated esters are very viscous or solid at room temperature, and unsaturated esters are chemically reactive, emulsions were prepared with differing proportions of ethyl caprate (C10:0) and butyl stearate. At a ratio of 9:1 the emulsions possessed the low viscosity of ethyl caprate, but gained the adjuvant activity of butyl stearate. 125I-labelled BSA was retained in the footpad to a significantly greater extent than with a caprate emulsion, but reasons are given for believing that slow release of antigen is not the only mechanism of adjuvant activity. The ester emulsions caused more acute but less chronic local inflammation (footpad swelling) than Freund's incomplete adjuvant. PMID:7275184

Bomford, R

1981-09-01

182

Abundance and distribution of fatty acids within the walls of an active deep-sea sulfide chimney  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abundance and distribution of total fatty acids (TFAs) were examined along the physicochemical gradient within an active hydrothermal chimney collected from the Main Endeavour segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Approximately 27 fatty acids are identified with a chain-length ranging from C12 to C22. From the exterior to the interior of the chimney walls, the total concentrations of TFAs (? TFAs) show a trend of evident decrease. The observed compositions of TFAs are rich in bacterial biomarkers especially monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and minor branched and cyclopropyl FAs. On the basis of the species-specific FAs and bacterial 16SrRNA gene analysis (Li et al., unpublished data), sulfur-based metabolism appears to be the essential metabolic process in the chimney. Furthermore, the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are identified as a basic component of microbial communities at the exterior of the hydrothermal chimney, and its proportion shows an inward decrease while the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have an inverse distribution.

Li, Jiwei; Zhou, Huaiyang; Peng, Xiaotong; Fu, Meiyan; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yao, Huiqiang

2011-04-01

183

Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes  

PubMed Central

All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties.

Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

2011-01-01

184

Variation of Photosynthesis, Fatty Acid Composition, ATPase and Acid Phosphatase Activities, and Anatomical Structure of Two Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) Cultivars in Response to Fluoride  

PubMed Central

The changes of photosynthetic parameters, water use efficiency (WUE), fatty acid composition, chlorophyll (Chl) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, fluoride (F) content, and leaf anatomical structure of two tea cultivars, “Pingyangtezao” (PY) and “Fudingdabai” (FD), after F treatments were investigated. The results show that net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) significantly decreased in both cultivars after 0.3?mM F treatment, but FD had higher Pn, gs, and WUE and lower E than PY. Chl content in PY significantly decreased after 0.2 and 0.3?mM F treatments, while no significant changes were observed in FD. The proportions of shorter chain and saturated fatty acids increased and those of longer chain and unsaturated fatty acids decreased in both cultivars under F treatments. The contents of MDA increased after F treatments but were higher in PY than in FD. In addition, F treatments decreased the activities of ATPase and acid phosphatase and increased F content in both cultivars; however, compared with PY, FD showed higher enzymatic activities and lower F content in roots and leaves. Leaf anatomical structure in FD indicated that cells in leaf midrib region were less injured by F than in PY.

Wang, L. X.; Tang, J. H.; Xiao, B.; Yang, Y. J.; Liu, J.

2013-01-01

185

Indices of fatty acid desaturase activity in healthy human subjects: effects of different types of dietary fat.  

PubMed

?9-Desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD-1) regulates the desaturation of SFA, mainly stearic and palmitic, to MUFA. ?6-Desaturase (D6D) and ?5-desaturase (D5D) are involved in the metabolism of linoleic and ?-linolenic acid to polyunsaturated metabolites. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different types of dietary fat on indices of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) activity (evaluated as product:precursor ratios) in plasma and skeletal muscle in human subjects. A high SCD-1 index has been related to obesity and metabolic disorders, while the D5D index is associated with insulin sensitivity. Fatty acid composition of serum and skeletal muscle lipids was analysed by GLC during a randomised, controlled, 3-month dietary intervention in healthy subjects. A comparison of the effects of a diet containing butter fat (SFA, n 17) with a diet containing monounsaturated fat (MUFA, n 17), keeping all other dietary components constant, showed a reduced SCD-1 activity index by 20% on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet assessed in serum cholesteryl esters. The D6D and D5D indices remained unaffected. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduced the SCD-1 index by a similar magnitude while the D6D index decreased and the D5D index increased. It is concluded that changes in the type of fat in the diet affect the indices of FADS activity in serum and skeletal muscle in human subjects. The desaturase activity indices estimated from the serum lipid ester composition are significantly related to corresponding indices studied in skeletal muscle phospholipids. PMID:23414551

Vessby, Bengt; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt; Tengblad, Siv; Berglund, Lars

2013-09-14

186

Antibacterial Activity of Sphingoid Bases and Fatty Acids against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity—the sphingoid bases d-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid—against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. d-Sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 ?g/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 ?g/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 ?g/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 ?g/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 ?g/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 ?g/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 ?g/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 ?g/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection.

Fischer, Carol L.; Drake, David R.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Brogden, Kim A.

2012-01-01

187

Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity--the sphingoid bases D-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid--against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. D-sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 ?g/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 ?g/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 ?g/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 ?g/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 ?g/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 ?g/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 ?g/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 ?g/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection. PMID:22155833

Fischer, Carol L; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

2012-03-01

188

Abnormal fatty acid composition and human atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Eighty patients with aorto-iliac / femoro-popliteal atherosclerosis were collected to examine in detail their plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acid compositions and to compare them with the incidence of ischaemic heart disease through a 4-year follow-up. Various other biochemical and rheological parameters were also measured to see if these might explain any association between the abnormal fatty acid pattern and ischaemic heart disease. The abnormal fatty acid pattern was specifically and generally similar to that found in essential fatty acid (EFA) deficient animals and children as shown by the increase of the specific trienoic acid (C.20: 3?9) by reduced linoleic acid concentrations, and by an increase of C.18 and C.16 monoenoic acids (oleic and palmitoleic), but not of their corresponding saturated forms, stearic and palmitic. The results suggest that the abnormal fatty acid composition resulted from an increased synthesis of monoenoic acids and monounsaturase activity, coupled with a relative inadequacy of linoleic acid. The patients with a reduced concentration of linoleic acid (<35%) subsequently had a higher incidence of myocardial infarction. No significant correlations were found between the fatty acid concentration and various other biochemical or rheological parameters except marginally between linoleic acid and platelet adhesiveness. Only the linoleic acid concentration distinguished between the patients with and without myocardial infarction. A marked inverse correlation was found, however, between the monoenoic and linoleic acid concentration, without parallel changes in other fatty acids. It seems that as in animals, a balance exists between EFA and monoenoic pathways which are known to compete for the same desaturase systems and acyl sites. It appears that human EFA requirements and effects need to be considered not only by their intake and metabolism, but also through individual factors which vary the monoenoic concentrations and monounsaturase activity. Since these factors include several currently associated with human atherosclerosis the question arises of whether the EFA-monoenoic balance is one link between them and the pathology of the arterial occlusions and myocardial infarction.

Kingsbury, K. J.; Brett, C.; Stovold, R.; Chapman, A.; Anderson, J.; Morgan, D. M.

1974-01-01

189

Activating transcription factor 3 constitutes a negative feedback mechanism that attenuates saturated Fatty acid/toll-like receptor 4 signaling and macrophage activation in obese adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Obese adipose tissue is markedly infiltrated by macrophages, suggesting that they may participate in the inflammatory pathways that are activated in obese adipose tissue. Evidence has suggested that saturated fatty acids released via adipocyte lipolysis serve as a naturally occurring ligand that stimulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling, thereby inducing the inflammatory responses in macrophages in obese adipose tissue. Through a combination of cDNA microarray analyses of saturated fatty acid-stimulated macrophages in vitro and obese adipose tissue in vivo, here we identified activating transcription factor (ATF)3, a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein family of basic leucine zipper-type transcription factors, as a target gene of saturated fatty acids/TLR4 signaling in macrophages in obese adipose tissue. Importantly, ATF3, when induced by saturated fatty acids, can transcriptionally repress tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in macrophages in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that ATF3 is recruited to the region containing the activator protein-1 site of the endogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter. Furthermore, transgenic overexpression of ATF3 specifically in macrophages results in the marked attenuation of proinflammatory M1 macrophage activation in the adipose tissue from genetically obese KKA(y) mice fed high-fat diet. This study provides evidence that ATF3, which is induced in obese adipose tissue, acts as a transcriptional repressor of saturated fatty acids/TLR4 signaling, thereby revealing the negative feedback mechanism that attenuates obesity-induced macrophage activation. Our data also suggest that activation of ATF3 in macrophages offers a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or treat obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. PMID:19478204

Suganami, Takayoshi; Yuan, Xunmei; Shimoda, Yuri; Uchio-Yamada, Kozue; Nakagawa, Nobutaka; Shirakawa, Ibuki; Usami, Takako; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakayama, Keizo; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Kazuki; Matsuda, Junichiro; Kamei, Yasutomi; Kitajima, Shigetaka; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

2009-07-01

190

Nitro-fatty acids: novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators  

PubMed Central

Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, redirecting arachidonic acid metabolism and signaling. We also analyze in vivo data supporting nitro-fatty acids as promising pharmacological tools to prevent inflammatory diseases.

Rubbo, H.

2013-01-01

191

Nitro-fatty acids: novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators.  

PubMed

Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, redirecting arachidonic acid metabolism and signaling. We also analyze in vivo data supporting nitro-fatty acids as promising pharmacological tools to prevent inflammatory diseases. PMID:24068188

Rubbo, H

2013-09-01

192

One-step production of a biologically active novel furan fatty acid from 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid.  

PubMed

Furan fatty acids (F-acids) gain special attention because they are known to play important roles in biological systems including humans. Specifically, F-acids are known to have strong antioxidant activitis such as radical scavenging activity. Although widely distributed in most biological systems, F-acids are trace components and their biosynthesis is complicated and quite different by sources. On the basis of biochemical study, they are considered to be an essential nutritional factor for mammals and should be provided through the diet. Hence, several studies reported the chemical synthesis of F-acids using chemical catalysts. However, chemical synthesis required complicated multiple steps. In this study was developed a simple one-step synthesis of a novel F-acid, 7,10-epoxyoctadeca-7,9-dienoic acid (EODA), from a dihydroxyl fatty acid, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD), by heat treatment. The structure of EODA was confirmed by GC-MS, NMR, and FTIR analyses, and maximum production yield under the reaction conditions of 90 °C and 24 h reached 80%. PMID:21711016

Ellamar, Joel B; Song, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Hak-Ryul

2011-08-10

193

Effect of detergents, trypsin and unsaturated fatty acids on latent loquat fruit polyphenol oxidase: basis for the enzyme's activity regulation.  

PubMed

The effects of detergents, trypsin and fatty acids on structural and functional properties of a pure loquat fruit latent polyphenol oxidase have been studied in relation to its regulation. Anionic detergents activated PPO at pH 6.0 below critical micelle concentration (cmc), but inhibited at pH 4.5 well above cmc. This behavior is due to a detergent-induced pH profile alkaline shift, accompanied by changes of intrinsic fluorescence of the protein. Gel filtration experiments demonstrate the formation of PPO-SDS mixed micelles. Partial PPO proteolysis suggest that latent PPO losses an SDS micelle-interacting region but conserves an SDS monomer-interacting site. Unsaturated fatty acids inhibit PPO at pH 4.5, the strongest being linolenic acid while the weakest was gamma-linolenic acid for both, the native and the trypsin-treated PPO. Down-regulation of PPO activity by anionic amphiphiles is discussed based on both, the pH profile shift induced upon anionic amphiphile binding and the PPO interaction with negatively charged membranes. PMID:17537396

Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Casado-Vela, Juan; Bru-Martínez, Roque

2007-08-15

194

Genetic variation in fatty acid-binding protein-4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? interactively influence insulin sensitivity and body composition in males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are closely related, multifactorial metabolic conditions characterized by alterations in energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis, respectively. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates genes involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis, including the adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4). In turn, FABP4 binds fatty acids and transports them to the nucleus where

Coleen M Damcott; Susan P Moffett; Eleanor Feingold; M. Michael Barmada; Julie A Marshall; Richard F Hamman; Robert E Ferrell

2004-01-01

195

Fatty Acid Transfer between Multilamellar Liposomes and Fatty Acid binding Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple experimental system was developed for studying the movement of long-chain fatty acids be- tween multilamellar liposomes and soluble proteins ca- pable of binding fatty acids. Oleic acid was incorpo- rated into multilamellar liposomes containing choles- terol and egg yolk lecithin and incubated with albumin or hepatic fatty acid-binding protein. It was found that the fatty acid transferred from

Peter Brecher; Rola Saouaf; Jacqueline M. Sugarman; Dan Eisenberg; Karen LaRosa

196

Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional influence on unsaturated fatty acid metabolism and platelet aggregation in patients with PKU was detected.

Mutze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

2012-01-01

197

Possible involvement of long chain fatty acids in the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its anti-tumor activity.  

PubMed

During our isolation of biologically active substances from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi, G. lucidum) guided by the inhibitory activity on HL-60 cell proliferation, NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data indicate the substance contains a mixture of several long chain fatty acids. Hence, in this study, we have examined the inhibitory effects of an ethanolic extract of the spores of G. lucidum as the spore extract, on the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines by comparison with several authentic long chain fatty acids. Of the fatty acids we examined nonadecanoic acid (C19:0) showed the highest inhibitory activity for HL-60 cell proliferation with IC(50) values of 68+/-7 microM followed by heptadecanoic acid (C17:0, 120+/-23 microM), octa- (C18:0, 127+/-4 microM) and hexadecanoic acids (C16:0, 132+/-25 microM), respectively. The corresponding unsaturated fatty acids containing one double bond such as cis-10-nonadecenoic acid (C19:1), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (C18:1), cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1) and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) were less effective. The ethanolic extract of spores of G. lucidum were shown by annexin-V FITC/PI double staining to induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells in a similar way to cis-10-nonadecenoic acid (C19:1). These unsaturated fatty acids probably inhibit tumor necrosis factor production induced by lipopolysaccharide in a mouse macrophage preparation. Our results suggest the spores of G. lucidum contain 19-carbon fatty acids as one of the components for characteristics of its physiological effects. PMID:18827358

Fukuzawa, Masataka; Yamaguchi, Rie; Hide, Izumi; Chen, Zhiqing; Hirai, Yuko; Sugimoto, Akiko; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Nakata, Yoshihiro

2008-10-01

198

Association of Fatty Acids With Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental studies have shown that omega-6 fatty acids enhance and omega-3 fatty acids suppress oncogenesis. Correlational studies also indicate that breast cancer incidence is positively linked to omega-6 consumption but is negatively related to intake...

J. L. Stanford

1995-01-01

199

Importance of fatty acid substituents of chemically synthesized lipid A-subunit analogs in the expression of immunopharmacological activity.  

PubMed Central

The immunopharmacological activities of chemically synthesized lipid A-subunit analogs, 4-O-phosphono-D-glucosamine derivatives carrying different N- and 3-O-linked acyl groups, were investigated. None of the synthetic compounds tested exhibited any detectable pyrogenicity at a dose of 10 micrograms/kg. Weaker lethal toxicity in galactosamine-sensitized mice was detected at 1 microgram per mouse for all the synthetic compounds except GLA-58. Among (RS) stereoisomers of 4-O-phosphono-D-glucosamine derivatives carrying a 3-O-tetradecanoyl (C14) group with different N-linked acyloxyacyl groups, i.e., 3-dodecanoyloxytetradecanoyl [C14-O-(C12)], 3-tetradecanoyloxytetradecanoyl [C14-O-(C14)], and 3-hexadecanoyloxytetradecanoyl [C14-O-(C16)] groups (termed GLA-57, GLA-27, and GLA-58, respectively), GLA-27 exhibited significant colony-stimulating factor-inducing and tumor necrosis factor-inducing activities, mitogenicity, polyclonal B-cell activation activity, macrophage activation, and adjuvanticity. The activities of GLA-57, which had an N-linked C14-O-(C12) group, were equivalent to or somewhat weaker than those of GLA-27 with a C14-O-(C14) group. Significant immunopharmacological activities were not observed for GLA-58, carrying a C14-O-(C16) group bound to the amino group. GLA-59, carrying 3-O-linked 3-hydroxytetradecanoyl (C14OH) and N-linked C14-O-(C14) groups, showed much higher activities than GLA-27, GLA-60, a compound which possesses the same fatty acid substituents as GLA-59 but with reversed binding sites, showed the strongest B-cell activation and adjuvant activities among the synthetic compounds. Among stereoisomers of GLA-59 and GLA-60 composed of fatty acid substituents with the (RR) and (SS) configuration, compounds with the (RR) configuration elicited stronger activities than the (SS) stereoisomers. The importance of fatty acid substituents, including stereospecificity for the expression of immunopharmacological activities of 4-O-phosphono-D-glucosamine derivatives, was demonstrated.

Kumazawa, Y; Nakatsuka, M; Takimoto, H; Furuya, T; Nagumo, T; Yamamoto, A; Homma, Y; Inada, K; Yoshida, M; Kiso, M

1988-01-01

200

Polyene Fatty Acid Interactions with Recombinant Intestinal and Liver Fatty Acid-binding Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binding and proximity relationships of fatty acids with recombinant rat liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I- FABP) were studied with absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Protein aromatic amino acids were ex- amined in the absence and presence of bound fatty acid. Second derivative absorbance spectroscopy of the apo- and holoproteins suggested that fatty acid binding al-

Gyorgy Nemecz; John R. Jefferson; Friedhelm Schroederg

201

Plastid Metabolic Pathways for Fatty Acid Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid metabolism is important for storage oil synthesis as well as membrane biogenesis in plant cells. In the past few\\u000a decades, attention has been paid to the pathways, mechanisms, regulation and genetic manipulation of fatty acid metabolism\\u000a in oil-accumulating tissues, because plant oil provides nutritious fatty acids and even renewable feedstock for industry.\\u000a The fatty acid synthesis in plant

Ikuo Nishida

202

Prolonged exposure to palmitate impairs fatty acid oxidation despite activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of palmitate on fatty acid (FA) oxidation, AMPK/ACC phosphorylation/activation, intracellular lipid accumulation, and the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes in skeletal muscle cells. Exposure of L6 myotubes for 8 h to 200, 400, 600, and 800 microM of palmitate did not affect cell viability but significantly reduced FA oxidation by approximately 26.5%, approximately 43.5%, approximately 50%, and approximately 47%, respectively. Interestingly, this occurred despite significant increases in AMPK ( approximately 2.5-fold) and ACC ( approximately 3-fold) phosphorylation and in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity ( approximately 38-60%). Low concentrations of palmitate (50-100 microM) caused an increase ( approximately 30%) in CPT-1 activity. However, as the concentration of palmitate increased, CPT-1 activity decreased by approximately 32% after exposure for 8 h to 800 microM of palmitate. Although FA uptake was reduced ( approximately 35%) in cells exposed to increasing palmitate concentrations, intracellular lipid accumulation increased in a dose-dependent manner, reaching values approximately 2.3-, approximately 3-, and 4-fold higher than control in muscle cells exposed to 400, 600, and 800 microM palmitate, respectively. Interestingly, myotubes exposed to 400 microM of palmitate for 1 h increased basal glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis by approximately 40%. However, as time of incubation in the presence of palmitate progressed from 1 to 8 h, these increases were abolished and a time-dependent inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake ( approximately 65%) and glycogen synthesis ( approximately 30%) was observed in myotubes. These findings may help explain the dysfunctional adaptations that occur in glucose and FA metabolism in skeletal muscle under conditions of chronically elevated circulating levels of non-esterified FAs, such as in obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. PMID:18561258

Pimenta, A S; Gaidhu, M P; Habib, S; So, M; Fediuc, S; Mirpourian, M; Musheev, M; Curi, R; Ceddia, R B

2008-11-01

203

Algicidal activity of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from Ulva fasciata and U. pertusa (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) on phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of algicidal compounds from Ulva fasciata revealed that the algicidal substances were the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid\\u000a (HDTA) C16:4 n-3, octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoic acid (ODTA) C18:4 n-3, ?-linolenic acid (ALA) C18:3 n-3 and linoleic acid\\u000a (LA) C18:2 n-6. The fatty acid composition of four species of Ulvaceae (U. fasciata, U. pertusa, U. arasakii and U. conglobota) was analyzed

Mochammad Amin Alamsjah; Shotaro Hirao; Fumito Ishibashi; Tatsuya Oda; Yuji Fujita

204

Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.  

PubMed

Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID. PMID:24128547

Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Fu, Caili; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan; Li, Tianhu; Huang, Dejian

2014-02-15

205

Human serum-derived hydroxy long-chain fatty acids exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activity  

PubMed Central

Background Circulating levels of novel long-chain hydroxy fatty acids (called GTAs) were recently discovered in the serum of healthy subjects which were shown to be reduced in subjects with colorectal cancer (CRC), independent of tumor burden or disease stage. The levels of GTAs were subsequently observed to exhibit an inverse association with age in the general population. The current work investigates the biological activity of these fatty acids by evaluating the effects of enriched human serum extracts on cell growth and inflammation. Methods GTAs were extracted from commercially available bulk human serum and then chromatographically separated into enriched (GTA-positive) and depleted (GTA-negative) fractions. SW620, MCF7 and LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of the GTA-positive and GTA-negative extracts, and the effects on cell growth and inflammation determined. Results Enriched fractions resulted in poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, suppression of NF?B, induction of I?B?, and reduction in NOS2 mRNA transcript levels. In RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells, incubation with enriched fractions prior to treatment with LPS blocked the induction of several pro-inflammatory markers including nitric oxide, TNF?, IL-1?, NOS2 and COX2. Conclusions Our results show that human serum extracts enriched with endogenous long-chain hydroxy fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activity. These findings support a hypothesis that the reduction of these metabolites with age may result in a compromised ability to defend against uncontrolled cell growth and inflammation, and could therefore represent a significant risk for the development of CRC.

2011-01-01

206

21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various disorders of lipid metabolism....

2013-04-01

207

Intestinal fatty acid binding protein may favor differential apical fatty acid binding in the intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal mucosa metabolizes fatty acids differently when presented to the lumenal or basolateral membrane. Expression of both liver and intestinal fatty acid binding proteins (L- and I-FABPs) uniquely in the enterocyte offers a possible explanation of this phenomenon. An organ explant system was used to analyze the relative binding of fatty acids to each protein. More fatty acid was

D. H. Alpers; N. M. Bass; M. J. Engle; K. DeSchryver-Kecskemeti

2000-01-01

208

Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries.Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fatty acids and total fat in adults and\\/or the total population using the

K. F. A. M. Hulshof; MA van Erp-Baart; M. Antttolainen; W. Becker; S. M. Church; C. Couet; E Hermann-Kunz; H Kesteloot; T Leth; I Martins; O Moreiras; J Moschandreas; L Pizzoferrato; AH Rimestad; H Thorgeirsdottir; JMN van Amelsvoort; A Aro; AG Kafatos; D Lanzmann-Petithory; G van Poppel; KFAM Hulshof

1999-01-01

209

Essential Fatty Acids and the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the role of essential fatty acids in brain membrane function and in the genesis of psychi- atric disease. Results: The fatty acid composition of neuronal cell membrane phospholipids reflects their intake in the diet. The degree of a fatty acid's desaturation determines its 3-dimensional structure and, thus, membrane fluidity and function. The ratio between omega-3 and omega-6

Marianne Haag

2003-01-01

210

Fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and synergistic contribution to antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Understanding the profile of lipophilic phytochemicals in lentils is necessary to better understand the health benefits of lentils. The fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions and antioxidant activities of the lipophilic extracts of 20 lentil cultivars (10 red and 10 green) were therefore examined. Lentils contained 1.52-2.95% lipids, of which 77.5-81.7% were unsaturated essential fatty acids. Total tocopherols ranged from 37 to 64?g/g DW, predominantly ?-tocopherol (96-98% of the tocopherol content), followed by ?- and ?-tocopherol. trans-Lutein was the primary and major carotenoid (64-78%) followed by trans-zeaxanthin (5-13%). Carotenoids and tocopherols showed weak correlation with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity (r=0.4893 and 0.3259, respectively), but good correlation when combined (r=0.6688), suggesting they may act synergistically. Carotenoids were found to contribute the most to the strong antioxidant activity measured by photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. Results from this study contribute to the development of lentil cultivars and related functional foods with increased health benefits. PMID:24837953

Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

2014-10-15

211

Structure-activity analysis of harmful algae inhibition by congeneric compounds: case studies of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones.  

PubMed

The occurrence of harmful algal blooms has been increasing significantly around the world. In order to ensure the safety of drinking water, procedures to screen potential materials as effective algicides are needed, and predictive methods which save both the labor and time compared with traditional experimental approaches, are particularly desirable. In this study, data from previous studies on the algal-growth inhibitory action of two kinds of compounds, namely, the action of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones on the harmful algae Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella marina, were modeled using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). The models were shown to have highly predictive ability and stability, and provided insight into the inhibitory mechanisms of congeneric compounds. The main descriptors in the fatty-acid models were the Connolly accessible area and the number of rotatable bonds, illustrating that molecular surface area and shape are important in their algicidal actions. In the thiazolidinedione models, the critical volume, octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP), and Connolly solvent-excluded volume were found to be significant, indicating that hydrophobicity, substituent group size, and mode of action are mechanistically important. Our results showed the algicidal activity of a series of compounds on different algae could be modeled, and each model is efficacious for compounds that fall into the application domain of the QSAR model. This work demonstrates how reliable predictions of the algicidal activity of novel compounds and explanations of their inhibitory mechanisms can be obtained. PMID:24562453

Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Shi, Jiyan; Chen, Yingxu

2014-06-01

212

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation by AICAR Increases Both Muscle Fatty Acid and Glucose Uptake in White Muscle of Insulin-Resistant Rats In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is increased in white but not red muscle of insulin-resistant high-fat-fed (HF) rats after administration of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4- carboxamide-1--D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). To investi- gate whether a lesser AICAR effect on glucose uptake in red muscle was offset by a greater effect on fatty acid (FA) uptake, we examined acute effects of AICAR on

Miguel A. Iglesias; Stuart M. Furler; Gregory J. Cooney; Edward W. Kraegen; Ji-Ming Ye

2004-01-01

213

Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of alkylcarbamic acid aryl esters, a new class of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an intracellular serine hydrolase enzyme, participates in the deactivation of fatty acid ethanolamides such as the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, the intestinal satiety factor oleoylethanolamide, and the peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory factor palmitoylethanolamide. In the present study, we report on the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a novel class of potent, selective, and systemically active inhibitors of FAAH activity, which we have recently shown to exert potent anxiolytic-like effects in rats. These compounds are characterized by a carbamic template substituted with alkyl or aryl groups at their O- and N-termini. Most compounds inhibit FAAH, but not several other serine hydrolases, with potencies that depend on the size and shape of the substituents. Initial SAR investigations suggested that the requirements for optimal potency are a lipophilic N-alkyl substituent (such as n-butyl or cyclohexyl) and a bent O-aryl substituent. Furthermore, the carbamic group is essential for activity. A 3D-QSAR analysis on the alkylcarbamic acid aryl esters showed that the size and shape of the O-aryl moiety are correlated with FAAH inhibitory potency. A CoMSIA model was constructed, indicating that whereas the steric occupation of an area corresponding to the meta position of an O-phenyl ring improves potency, a region of low steric tolerance on the enzyme active site exists corresponding to the para position of the same ring. The bent shape of the O-aryl moieties that best fit the enzyme surface closely resembles the folded conformations observed in the complexes of unsaturated fatty acids with different proteins. URB524 (N-cyclohexylcarbamic acid biphenyl-3-yl ester, 9g) is the most potent compound of the series (IC(50) = 63 nM) and was therefore selected for further optimization. PMID:12773040

Tarzia, Giorgio; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Piersanti, Giovanni; Mor, Marco; Rivara, Silvia; Plazzi, Pier Vincenzo; Park, Chris; Kathuria, Satish; Piomelli, Daniele

2003-06-01

214

The condensing activities of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis type II fatty acid synthase are differentially regulated by phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Phosphorylation of proteins by Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPKs) has recently become of major physiological importance because of its possible involvement in virulence of bacterial pathogens. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis has eleven STPKs, the nature and function of the substrates of these enzymes remain largely unknown. In this work, we have identified for the first time STPK substrates in M. tuberculosis forming part of the type II fatty acid synthase (FAS-II) system involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis: the malonyl-CoA::AcpM transacylase mtFabD, and the beta-ketoacyl AcpM synthases KasA and KasB. All three enzymes were phosphorylated in vitro by different kinases, suggesting a complex network of interactions between STPKs and these substrates. In addition, both KasA and KasB were efficiently phosphorylated in M. bovis BCG each at different sites and could be dephosphorylated by the M. tuberculosis Ser/Thr phosphatase PstP. Enzymatic studies revealed that, whereas phosphorylation decreases the activity of KasA in the elongation process of long chain fatty acids synthesis, this modification enhances that of KasB. Such a differential effect of phosphorylation may represent an unusual mechanism of FAS-II system regulation, allowing pathogenic mycobacteria to produce full-length mycolates, which are required for adaptation and intracellular survival in macrophages. PMID:16873379

Molle, Virginie; Brown, Alistair K; Besra, Gurdyal S; Cozzone, Alain J; Kremer, Laurent

2006-10-01

215

Histidine-41 of the Cytochrome b5 Domain of the Borage ?6 Fatty Acid Desaturase Is Essential for Enzyme Activity1  

PubMed Central

Unlike most other plant microsomal desaturases, the ?6-fatty acid desaturase from borage (Borago officinalis) contains an N-terminal extension that shows homology to the small hemoprotein cytochrome (Cyt) b5. To determine if this domain serves as a functional electron donor for the ?6-fatty acid desaturase, mutagenesis and functional analysis by expression in transgenic Arabidopsis was carried out. Although expression of the wild-type borage ?6-fatty acid desaturase resulted in the synthesis and accumulation of ?6-unsaturated fatty acids, this was not observed in plants transformed with N-terminally deleted forms of the desaturase. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt one of the axial heme-binding residues (histidine-41) of the Cyt b5 domain; expression of this mutant form of the ?6-desaturase in transgenic plants failed to produce ?6-unsaturated fatty acids. These data indicate that the Cyt b5 domain of the borage ?6-fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzymatic activity.

Sayanova, Olga; Shewry, Peter R.; Napier, Johnathan A.

1999-01-01

216

Histidine-41 of the cytochrome b5 domain of the borage delta6 fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Unlike most other plant microsomal desaturases, the Delta6-fatty acid desaturase from borage (Borago officinalis) contains an N-terminal extension that shows homology to the small hemoprotein cytochrome (Cyt) b5. To determine if this domain serves as a functional electron donor for the Delta6-fatty acid desaturase, mutagenesis and functional analysis by expression in transgenic Arabidopsis was carried out. Although expression of the wild-type borage Delta6-fatty acid desaturase resulted in the synthesis and accumulation of Delta6-unsaturated fatty acids, this was not observed in plants transformed with N-terminally deleted forms of the desaturase. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt one of the axial heme-binding residues (histidine-41) of the Cyt b5 domain; expression of this mutant form of the Delta6-desaturase in transgenic plants failed to produce Delta6-unsaturated fatty acids. These data indicate that the Cyt b5 domain of the borage Delta6-fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzymatic activity. PMID:10517856

Sayanova, O; Shewry, P R; Napier, J A

1999-10-01

217

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation by Fatty Acids12  

PubMed Central

Consumption of specific dietary fatty acids has been shown to influence risk and progression of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and arthritis. In recent years, insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of fatty acids have improved considerably and have provided the foundation for the emerging concept of fatty acid sensing, which can be interpreted as the property of fatty acids to influence biological processes by serving as signaling molecules. An important mechanism of fatty acid sensing is via stimulation or inhibition of DNA transcription. Here, we focus on fatty acid sensing via regulation of gene transcription and address the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, Toll-like receptor 4, G protein–coupled receptors, and other putative mediators.

Georgiadi, Anastasia; Kersten, Sander

2012-01-01

218

PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid ?-Hydroxylase (CYP4) Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis), due to a decrease in mitochondria ?-oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal ?-oxidation, and microsomal ?-oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). How steatosis increases PPAR? activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation and ?-oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), or saturated (SFA) may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4? with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the ?-oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR?. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid ?-hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) CYP4F?-hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis.

Hardwick, James P.; Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; Wiland, Homer; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

2009-01-01

219

Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of fatty acids against phytopathogenic fungi. Two pot experiments were conducted by mixing palmitic and oleic acids in the soil in which poor plant growth was observed. In addition, the antifungal activities of nine fatty acids (butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) against four phytopathogenic fungi: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, were assessed by measuring mycelial growth and spore germination via Petri dish assay. The results of the pot experiments showed that the mixture of palmitic and oleic acids enhanced the growth of the seedlings of continuous-tomato and continuous-cucumber. Except for oleic acid, in the Petri dish assay, the fatty acids tested were observed to inhibit the mycelial growth of one or more tested fungi. In addition to the suppression of mycelial growth, butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, and palmitic acid showed an inhibitory effect against spore germination and the extent of inhibition varied with both the type of fatty acids, and the fungi. In particular, capric acid displayed strong inhibitory effect against C. lagenarium on the mycelial growth and spore germination. The saturated fatty acids, i.e. palmitic acids, showed stronger antifungal activity than the unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic acid. It suggests that fatty acids might be applicable to exploring for alternative approaches to integrated control of phytopathogens. PMID:18443921

Liu, Siyun; Ruan, Weibin; Li, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jingan; Gao, Yubao; Wang, Jingguo

2008-08-01

220

Fatty acid regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To discuss transcriptional mechanisms regulating hepatic lipid metabolism. Recent findings Humans who are obese or have diabetes (NIDDM) or metabolic syndrome (MetS) have low blood and tissue levels of C20–22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although the impact of low C20–22 PUFAs on disease progression in humans is not fully understood, studies with mice have provided clues suggesting that impaired PUFA metabolism may contribute to the severity of risk factors associated with NIDDM and MetS. High fat diets promote hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and fatty liver in C57BL/6J mice, an effect that correlates with suppressed expression of enzymes involved in PUFA synthesis and decreased hepatic C20–22 PUFA content. A/J mice, in contrast, are resistant to diet-induced obesity and diabetes; these mice have elevated expression of hepatic enzymes involved in PUFA synthesis and C20–22 PUFA content. Moreover, loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies have identified fatty acid elongase (Elovl5), a key enzyme involved in PUFA synthesis, as a regulator of hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Elovl5 activity regulates hepatic C20–22 PUFA content, signaling pathways (Akt and PP2A) and transcription factors (SREBP-1, PPAR?, FoxO1 and PGC1?) that control fatty acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis. Summary These studies may help define novel strategies to control fatty liver and hyperglycemia associated with NIDDM and MetS.

Jump, Donald B.

2012-01-01

221

Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

2011-01-01

222

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Decouples Fatty Acid Uptake from Lipid Inhibition of Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is expressed at low levels in skeletal muscle, where it protects against adiposity and insulin resistance via unclear mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that PPAR? directly modulates skeletal muscle metabolism, we created two models that isolate direct PPAR? actions on skeletal myocytes. PPAR? was overexpressed in murine myotubes by adenotransfection and in mouse skeletal muscle by plasmid electroporation. In cultured myotubes, PPAR? action increased fatty acid uptake and incorporation into myocellular lipids, dependent upon a 154 ± 20-fold up-regulation of CD36 expression. PPAR? overexpression more than doubled insulin-stimulated thymoma viral proto-oncogene (AKT) phosphorylation during low lipid availability. Furthermore, in myotubes exposed to palmitate levels that inhibit insulin signaling, PPAR? overexpression increased insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis over 3-fold despite simultaneously increasing myocellular palmitate uptake. The insulin signaling enhancement was associated with an increase in activating phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 and a normalized expression of palmitate-induced genes that antagonize AKT phosphorylation. In vivo, PPAR? overexpression more than doubled insulin-dependent AKT phosphorylation in lipid-treated mice but did not augment insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We conclude that direct PPAR? action promotes myocellular storage of energy by increasing fatty acid uptake and esterification while simultaneously enhancing insulin signaling and glycogen formation. However, direct PPAR? action in skeletal muscle is not sufficient to account for the hypoglycemic actions of PPAR? agonists during lipotoxicity.

Hu, Shanming; Yao, Jianrong; Howe, Alexander A.; Menke, Brandon M.; Sivitz, William I.; Spector, Arthur A.

2012-01-01

223

Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect the Brain against Ischemic Injury by Activating Nrf2 and Upregulating Heme Oxygenase 1  

PubMed Central

Ischemic stroke is a debilitating clinical disorder that affects millions of people, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. Fish oil is known to exert beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying protective mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) attenuate ischemic neuronal injury by activating nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in both in vitro and in vivo models. We observed that pretreatment of rat primary neurons with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly reduced neuronal death following oxygen-glucose deprivation. This protection was associated with increased Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation. Inhibition of HO-1 activity with tin protoporphyrin IX attenuated the protective effects of DHA. Further studies showed that 4-hydroxy-2E-hexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of peroxidation of n-3 PUFAs, was a more potent Nrf2 inducer than 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal derived from n-6 PUFAs. In an in vivo setting, transgenic mice overexpressing fatty acid metabolism-1, an enzyme that converts n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs, were remarkably resistant to focal cerebral ischemia compared with their wild-type littermates. Regular mice fed with a fish oil-enhanced diet also demonstrated significant resistance to ischemia compared with mice fed with a regular diet. As expected, the protection was associated with HO-1 upregulation, Nrf2 activation, and 4-HHE generation. Together, our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs are highly effective in protecting the brain, and that the protective mechanisms involve Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation by 4-HHE. Further investigation of n-3 PUFA neuroprotective mechanisms may accelerate the development of stroke therapies.

Zhang, Meijuan; Wang, Suping; Mao, Leilei; Leak, Rehana K.; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Wenting; Hu, Xiaoming; Sun, Baoliang; Cao, Guodong; Gao, Yanqin; Xu, Yun

2014-01-01

224

Evaluating the Biological Activity and Effects on Human Health of Fish Oil and Its Omega3 Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews the background, chemistry and specific efficacy of fish oils, specifically ?-3 fatty acids in the treatment\\u000a and prevention of disease. Epidemiologic evidence appears strong showing its protective effects, although clinical trials\\u000a with definitive data are still deficient. The mechanism by which ?-3 fatty acids may work on the nervous system and its anti-inflammatory\\u000a effects are presented. Efforts

Adrian S. Dobs; Daniel Edelstein

225

Behavior of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in the Thiobarbituric Acid Test after Radiolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Irradiation of linolenic acid and arachidonic acid results in production of several chromatographically distinguishable thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-active compounds. The ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidation of the fatty acids is also characterized by inc...

L. D. Saslaw V. S. Waravdekar

1964-01-01

226

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover, bezafibrate treatment suppressed postprandial lipidemia after oral administration of olive oil to the mice. These findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia through enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes, suggesting that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activity is a novel target of PPAR{alpha} agonist for decreasing circulating levels of lipids under postprandial conditions.

Kimura, Rino [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nobu@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murota, Kaeko [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan)] [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan); Yamada, Yuko [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Moriyama, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2011-06-24

227

Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement  

PubMed Central

Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed.

Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

2012-01-01

228

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

2000-02-22

229

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01

230

Novel anti-fatty acid synthase compounds with anti-cancer activity in HER2+ breast cancer.  

PubMed

Fatty acid synthase (FASN) expression and activity has emerged as a common phenotype in most human carcinomas, including breast cancer, and its expression is tightly linked to HER2 signaling pathways. The development of inhibitors of FASN activity has consequently appeared as a novel antitarget modality for treating cancer. However, the clinical use of FASN inhibitors, such as cerulenin, C75, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), is limited by anorexia and induced body weight loss or by its low in vivo potency and stability. Here, we summarize the design and development of G28UCM, the lead-compound of a novel family of synthetic FASN inhibitors, with both in vitro and in vivo activity in a human breast cancer model of FASN(+) and HER2(+) . PMID:20973802

Oliveras, G; Blancafort, A; Urruticoechea, A; Campuzano, O; Gómez-Cabello, D; Brugada, R; López-Rodríguez, M L; Colomer, R; Puig, T

2010-10-01

231

Activation of the omega-3 fatty acid receptor GPR120 mediates anti-inflammatory actions in immortalized hypothalamic neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Overnutrition and the ensuing hypothalamic inflammation is a major perpetuating factor in the development of metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Inflamed neurons of the CNS fail to properly regulate energy homeostasis leading to pathogenic changes in glucose handling, feeding, and body weight. Hypothalamic neurons are particularly sensitive to pro-inflammatory signals derived locally and peripherally, and it is these neurons that become inflamed first upon high fat feeding. Given the prevalence of metabolic disease, efforts are underway to identify therapeutic targets for this inflammatory state. At least in the periphery, omega-3 fatty acids and their receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), have emerged as putative targets. The role for GPR120 in the hypothalamus or CNS in general is poorly understood. Methods Here we introduce a novel, immortalized cell model derived from the rat hypothalamus, rHypoE-7, to study GPR120 activation at the level of the individual neuron. Gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were studied by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) upon exposure to tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) treatment in the presence or absence of the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Signal transduction pathway involvement was also studied using phospho-specific antibodies to key proteins by western blot analysis. Results Importantly, rHypoE-7 cells exhibit a transcriptional and translational inflammatory response upon exposure to TNF? and express abundant levels of GPR120, which is functionally responsive to DHA. DHA pretreatment prevents the inflammatory state and this effect was inhibited by the reduction of endogenous GPR120 levels. GPR120 activates both AKT (protein kinase b) and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase); however, the anti-inflammatory action of this omega-3 fatty acid (FA) receptor is AKT- and ERK-independent and likely involves the GPR120-transforming growth factor-?-activated kinase 1 binding protein (TAB1) interaction as identified in the periphery. Conclusions Taken together, GPR120 is functionally active in the hypothalamic neuronal line, rHypoE-7, wherein it mediates the anti-inflammatory actions of DHA to reduce the inflammatory response to TNF?.

2014-01-01

232

New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids  

SciTech Connect

Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

1987-01-01

233

Hypothalamic GPR40 Signaling Activated by Free Long Chain Fatty Acids Suppresses CFA-Induced Inflammatory Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently increased at day 7, but not at days 1, 3 and 14, after CFA injection. GPR40 was co-localized with NeuN, a neuron marker, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker. At day 1 after CFA injection, GFAP protein expression was markedly increased in the hypothalamus. These increases were significantly inhibited by the intracerebroventricular injection of flavopiridol (15 nmol), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, depending on the decreases in both the increment of GPR40 protein expression and the induction of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7 after CFA injection. Furthermore, the level of DHA in the hypothalamus tissue was significantly increased in a flavopiridol reversible manner at day 1, but not at day 7, after CFA injection. The intracerebroventricular injection of DHA (50 µg) and GW9508 (1.0 µg), a GPR40-selective agonist, significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7, but not at day 1, after CFA injection. These effects were inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with GW1100 (10 µg), a GPR40 antagonist. The protein expression of GPR40 was colocalized with that of ?-endorphin and proopiomelanocortin, and a single intracerebroventricular injection of GW9508 (1.0 µg) significantly increased the number of neurons double-stained for c-Fos and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings suggest that hypothalamic GPR40 activated by free long chain fatty acids might have an important role in this pain control system.

Nakamoto, Kazuo; Nishinaka, Takashi; Sato, Naoya; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Koyama, Yutaka; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

2013-01-01

234

Quantification of fatty acid activation of the uncoupling protein in brown adipocytes and mitochondria from the guinea-pig.  

PubMed

Brown adipocytes from cold-adapted guinea-pigs (C-cells) are more sensitive to uncoupling by exogenous palmitate than are cells from warm-adapted animals (W-cells) with much less uncoupling protein. Half-maximal respiratory stimulation of C-cells requires 80 nM free palmitate. Noradrenaline-stimulated lipolysis is not rate-limiting for the respiration of either C-cells or W-cells. Half-maximal stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by mitochondria from warm-adapted guinea-pigs (W-mitochondria) and cold-adapted guinea-pigs (C-mitochondria) both require 12 nM free palmitate. Palmitate uncouples C-mitochondria much more readily than M-mitochondria, paralleling its action on the adipocytes. The uncoupling is partially saturable, about 100 nM free palmitate being required for half-maximal response of C-mitochondria. W- and C-mitochondria show identical binding characteristics for palmitate. The respiratory increase of mitochondria is calculated as a function of bound palmitate. After correcting for the residual uncoupling protein present in W-mitochondria, palmitate is estimated to be almost ineffective as an uncoupler of brown fat mitochondria in the absence of the protein. It is concluded that fatty acids display characteristics required of a necessary and sufficient physiological activator of the uncoupling protein. PMID:3709541

Cunningham, S A; Wiesinger, H; Nicholls, D G

1986-06-01

235

A second generation of carbamate-based fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors with improved activity in vivo.  

PubMed

The fatty acid ethanolamides are a class of signaling lipids that include agonists at cannabinoid and alpha type peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARalpha). In the brain, these compounds are primarily hydrolyzed by the intracellular serine enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). O-aryl carbamate FAAH inhibitors such as URB597 are being evaluated clinically for the treatment of pain and anxiety, but interactions with carboxylesterases in liver might limit their usefulness. Here we explore two strategies aimed at overcoming this limitation. Lipophilic N-terminal substitutions, which enhance FAAH recognition, yield potent inhibitors but render such compounds susceptible to attack by broad-spectrum hydrolases and inactive in vivo. By contrast, polar electron-donating O-aryl substituents, which decrease carbamate reactivity, yield compounds, such as URB694, that are highly potent FAAH inhibitors in vivo and less reactive with off-target carboxylesterases. The results suggest that an approach balancing inhibitor reactivity with target recognition produces FAAH inhibitors that display significantly improved drug-likeness. PMID:19637155

Clapper, Jason R; Vacondio, Federica; King, Alvin R; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Silva, Claudia; Sanchini, Silvano; Tarzia, Giorgio; Mor, Marco; Piomelli, Daniele

2009-09-01

236

Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium  

SciTech Connect

Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 {plus minus} 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 {plus minus} 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells.

Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R. (University of Bochum (West Germany))

1991-09-01

237

ON EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR VENOM ACTIVATORS OF THE BLOOD, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO LECITHIN AND FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS  

PubMed Central

In normal serums of the majority of mammalian and avian blood there exists certain substances capable of activating venom hæmolysin. They are extractable from serum by means of ether, and are capable of conferring upon the originally non-activating serum a power to activate venom, when mixed with the latter. The ethereal extract consists of fatty acids, neutral fats and possibly also some ether soluble organic soaps. The fatty acids and soaps, especially of the oleinic series, acquire certain characteristics of complements in general, when they are mixed with serum. They are inactive without the venom in the mixture; they are inactivable with calcium chloride; they exhibit a tendency to go off in activity with age; they are inactive or only weakly active at 0° C., and they are extractable by ether. In testing the serum from which the ether soluble substances are removed, it is found that no venom activating property is left. Warm alcoholic extraction of such serum yields, however, a large quantity of lecithin. In the case of non-activating serums no venom activating fats appear in the ethereal extract. Lecithin exists in such serum in no less quantity than in the activating kind. The addition of oleinic acid or its soluble soaps to a non-activating serum, in a ratio which corresponds to the percentage of fatty acids or soaps contained in some of the easily activating serums, will make the serum highly active in regard to venom. In normal serum of dog there exists, besides the group of activators already mentioned, another kind of venom activators which has been identified as a lecithin compound acting in the manner of free lecithin. A very sharp differentiation of the hæmolysis produced by this activator and by the other groups of activators is obtained by means of calcium chloride, which is powerless against lecithin or lecithin compounds, but effective in removing the action of the latter. This lecithin containing proteid can be precipitated by half saturation with ammonium sulphate, but is perfectly soluble in water, and is not coagulated in neutral alkaline salt solutions upon boiling. Alcohol precipitates a proteid-like coagulum and extracts lecithin from it; ether does not extract lecithin from this compound. Non-activating serums do not contain any such lecithin compound. Lecithin contained in other serum proteids, mainly as lecithalbumin, and perhaps as contained in globulin, is not able to activate venom. This is true of all the serums with which I worked; it matters not whether these fractions (obtained with ammonium sulphate) belong to the most activating serum (dog) or to the non-activating serum (ox). The non-coagulable portion of all heated serum contains a venom activator of the nature of lecithin. This activator is contained in a non-coagulable proteid described by Howell which is identical with Chabrie's albumon. As there is no ether-extractable lecithin in this portion of the serum, the activating property of heated serum must be due to this proteid compound of lecithin. That this lecithin proteid does not pre-exist in normal serum but is produced by the action of high temperature is true of all serums except that of the dog. In venom activation we know now that lecithin becomes reactive with venom when it is transformed from other proteid compounds into the non-coagulable form, the albumon. Howell's view of the non-existence of the non-coagulable proteid in normal serum seems to receive a biological support from venom hæmolysis. Ovovitellin derived from hen's egg is one of the best venom activators of the lecithin proteid type. The cause of venom susceptibility of various kinds of blood corpuscles does not depend upon the existence of lecithin in the corpuscles, but solely upon the amount of fatty acids, and perhaps, also, soaps and fats, contained in the corpuscles. The protection which calcium chloride gives against venom haemolysis is proof of the absence of lecithin activation. From the stroma of susceptible corpuscles fatty acids or some fats can be extracted with ether. After

Noguchi, Hideyo

1907-01-01

238

Human FABP1 T94A variant impacts fatty acid metabolism and PPAR-? activation in cultured human female hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Although human liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1) T94A variant has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduced ability of fenofibrate to lower serum triglycerides (TG) to target levels, molecular events leading to this phenotype are poorly understood. Cultured primary hepatocytes from female human subjects expressing the FABP1 T94A variant exhibited increased neutral lipid (TG, cholesteryl ester) accumulation associated with 1) upregulation of total FABP1, a key protein stimulating mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM), the rate-limiting enzyme in lipogenesis; 2) increased mRNA expression of key enzymes in lipogenesis (GPAM, LPIN2) in heterozygotes; 3) decreased mRNA expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein; 4) increased secretion of ApoB100 but not TG; 5) decreased long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) ?-oxidation. TG accumulation was not due to any increase in LCFA uptake, de novo lipogenesis, or the alternate monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase pathway in lipogenesis. Despite increased expression of total FABP1 mRNA and protein, fenofibrate-mediated FABP1 redistribution to nuclei and ligand-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-?) transcription of LCFA ?-oxidative enzymes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl) were attenuated in FABP1 T94A hepatocytes. Although the phenotype of FABP1 T94A variant human hepatocytes exhibits some similarities to that of FABP1-null or PPAR-?-null hepatocytes and mice, expression of FABP1 T94A variant did not abolish or reduce ligand binding. Thus the FABP1 T94A variant represents an altered/reduced function mutation resulting in TG accumulation. PMID:24875102

McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Storey, Stephen M; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Petrescu, Anca D; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2014-07-15

239

Specific variations of fatty acid composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 induced by quaternary ammonium compounds and relation with resistance to bactericidal activity.  

PubMed

The role of membrane fatty acid composition in the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 to the bactericidal activity of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) was investigated. The strain was grown in a medium with increasing concentrations of a QAC, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14) and two non-QACs, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and tri-sodium phosphate. In the presence of C14 only, the strain was able to grow in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration. As the strain adapted to C14, resistance to bactericidal activity of the same biocide increased. For the non-QACs, no change was noted when cells were grown in the presence of biocides. The C14-adapted cells showed variations in membrane fatty acid composition. A hierarchical clustering analysis was used to compare all fatty acid compositions of cultures in the presence, or not, of the three biocides used here and another QAC studied previously. The clusters obtained underlined specific variations of membrane fatty acids in response to the presence of QACs. Furthermore, with a simple linear regression analysis, a relationship was shown between the membrane fatty acids and the resistance developed by the strain against the bactericidal activity of C14. PMID:10594715

Guérin-Méchin, L; Dubois-Brissonnet, F; Heyd, B; Leveau, J Y

1999-11-01

240

Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared toward the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically expressed enzymes. Here, we show that the addition of an N-terminal epitope tag sequence (either Myc or hemagglutinin) to oleate desaturase (FAD2) or omega-3 linoleate desaturase (FAD3) enzymes from plants, which catalyze consecutive reactions in the production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids, significantly increases their activity up to fourfold when expressed in yeast cells. Quantitative protein blotting using an antibody specific for native FAD2 revealed that the steady-state amount of the epitope-tagged FAD2 protein was also approximately fourfold higher than that of its untagged counterpart, demonstrating a direct relationship between the epitope tag-induced increase in enzyme amount and fatty acid product formation. Protein half-life and RNA blotting experiments indicated that the half-lives and mRNA content of the tagged and untagged FAD2 proteins were essentially the same, suggesting that the epitope tags increased protein abundance by improving translational efficiency. Taken together, these results indicate that the addition of an epitope tag sequence to a plant fatty acid desaturase (FAD) not only provides a useful means for protein immunodetection using highly specific, commercially available antibodies, but that it also significantly increases FAD activity and the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in yeast cells. PMID:19137289

O'Quin, Jami B; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

2009-05-01

241

Non-esterified fatty acid metabolism and postprandial lipaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, or free fatty acids) are an important metabolic fuel. Both the concentration of NEFA and their flux through the circulation vary widely from hour to hour, reflecting nutritional state and physical activity. Inappropriately elevated plasma NEFA concentrations may have a number of adverse effects on both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These adverse effects are likely to

Keith N. Frayn

1998-01-01

242

CTRP1 Protein Enhances Fatty Acid Oxidation via AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation and Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) Inhibition*  

PubMed Central

We previously described the adipokine CTRP1, which has up-regulated expression following exposure to the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone and increased circulating levels in adiponectin-null mice (Wong, G. W., Krawczyk, S. A., Kitidis-Mitrokostas, C., Revett, T., Gimeno, R., and Lodish, H. F. (2008) Biochem. J. 416, 161–177). Although recombinant CTRP1 lowers blood glucose in mice, its physiological function, mechanisms of action, and roles in metabolic stress remain unknown. Here, we show that circulating levels of CTRP1 are strikingly reduced in diet-induced obese mice. Overexpressing CTRP1 in transgenic mice improved insulin sensitivity and decreased high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Reduced adiposity resulted from enhanced fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure, effects mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In skeletal muscle of transgenic mice, AMPK? and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), were hyperphosphorylated, indicative of AMPK activation and ACC inhibition. Inactivation of ACC promotes mitochondrial fat oxidation. Consistent with the direct effect of CTRP1 on AMPK signaling, recombinant CTRP1 administration acutely stimulated muscle AMPK? and ACC phosphorylation in vivo. In isolated soleus muscle, recombinant CTRP1 activated AMPK signaling to increase fatty acid oxidation ex vivo, an effect abrogated by an AMPK inhibitor. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that CTRP1 is a novel regulator of fatty acid metabolism.

Peterson, Jonathan M.; Aja, Susan; Wei, Zhikui; Wong, G. William

2012-01-01

243

CTRP1 protein enhances fatty acid oxidation via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibition.  

PubMed

We previously described the adipokine CTRP1, which has up-regulated expression following exposure to the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone and increased circulating levels in adiponectin-null mice (Wong, G. W., Krawczyk, S. A., Kitidis-Mitrokostas, C., Revett, T., Gimeno, R., and Lodish, H. F. (2008) Biochem. J. 416, 161-177). Although recombinant CTRP1 lowers blood glucose in mice, its physiological function, mechanisms of action, and roles in metabolic stress remain unknown. Here, we show that circulating levels of CTRP1 are strikingly reduced in diet-induced obese mice. Overexpressing CTRP1 in transgenic mice improved insulin sensitivity and decreased high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Reduced adiposity resulted from enhanced fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure, effects mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In skeletal muscle of transgenic mice, AMPK? and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), were hyperphosphorylated, indicative of AMPK activation and ACC inhibition. Inactivation of ACC promotes mitochondrial fat oxidation. Consistent with the direct effect of CTRP1 on AMPK signaling, recombinant CTRP1 administration acutely stimulated muscle AMPK? and ACC phosphorylation in vivo. In isolated soleus muscle, recombinant CTRP1 activated AMPK signaling to increase fatty acid oxidation ex vivo, an effect abrogated by an AMPK inhibitor. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that CTRP1 is a novel regulator of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22086915

Peterson, Jonathan M; Aja, Susan; Wei, Zhikui; Wong, G William

2012-01-01

244

Liver fatty acid-binding protein expression in transfected fibroblasts stimulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cytosolic liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in fatty acid uptake and metabolism was examined using cultured L-cell fibroblasts transfected with the cDNA encoding for L-FABP. [3H]Oleic acid was used to determine the effects of intracellular esterification on fatty acid uptake and to determine esterified fatty acid localization to specific lipid classes. cis-Parinaric acid, a poorly esterified

Eric J. Murphy; Daniel R. Prows; John R. Jefferson; Friedhelm Schroeder

1996-01-01

245

Regulation of Triacylglucose Fatty Acid Composition (Uridine Diphosphate Glucose:Fatty Acid Glucosyltransferases with Overlapping Chain-Length Specificity).  

PubMed Central

UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc):fatty acid glucosyltransferases catalyze the UDP-Glc-dependent activation of fatty acids as 1-O-acyl-[beta]-glucoses. 1-O-Acyl-[beta]-glucoses act as acyl donors in the biosynthesis of 2,3,4-tri-O-acylglucoses secreted by wild tomato (Lycopersicon pennellii) glandular trichomes. The acyl composition of L. pennellii 2,3,4-tri-O-acylglucoses is dominated by branched short-chain acids (4:0 and 5:0; approximately 65%) and straight and branched medium-chain-length fatty acids (10:0 and 12:0; approximately 35%). Two operationally soluble UDP-Glc:fatty acid glucosyltransferases (I and II) were separated and partially purified from L. pennellii (LA1376) leaves by polyethylene glycol precipitation followed by DEAE-Sepharose and Cibacron Blue 3GA-agarose chromatography. Whereas both transferases possessed similar affinity for UDP-Glc, glucosyltransferase I showed higher specificity toward short-chain fatty acids (4:0) and glucosyltransferase II showed higher specificity toward medium-chain fatty acids (8:0 and 12:0). The overlapping specificity of UDP-Glc:fatty acid glucosyltransferases for 4:0 to 12:0 fatty acid chain lengths suggests that the mechanism of 6:0 to 9:0 exclusion from acyl substituents of 2,3,4-tri-O-acylglucoses is unlikely to be controlled at the level of fatty acid activation. UDP-Glc:fatty acid glucosyltransferases are also present in cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and activities toward 4:0, 8:0, and 12:0 fatty acids do not appear to be primarily epidermal when assayed in interspecific periclinal chimeras.

Kuai, J. P.; Ghangas, G. S.; Steffens, J. C.

1997-01-01

246

Cardiac lipoprotein lipase activity in the hypertrophied heart may be regulated by fatty acid flux  

PubMed Central

Cardiac hypertrophy is characterised by an imbalance between lipid uptake and fatty acid ?-oxidation leading to an accumulation of lipids, particularly triacylglycerol (TAG). It is unclear whether uptake mechanisms such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL) can be attenuated to diminish this uptake. Rats were cold acclimated to induce cardiac hypertrophy and increase cardiac LPL. Lipid uptake and metabolism were altered by feeding a ‘Western-style’ high fat diet (WSD) or feeding oxfenicine (2 g/L) in the drinking water. Diastolic stiffness (increased volume change/unit pressure change) was induced in hypertrophied hearts for rats fed WSD (P < 0.05) or WSD + oxfenicine (P < 0.01), although absolute performance of cardiac muscle, estimated from stress–strain calculations was unchanged. Cold acclimation increased cardiac endothelial LPL (P < 0.05) but this was diminished following oxfenicine. Following WSD LPL was further decreased below WSD-fed control hearts (P < 0.05) with no further decrease by oxfenicine supplementation. A negative correlation was noted between plasma TAG and endothelial LPL (correlation coefficient = ? 0.654; P < 0.001) but not cardiac TAG concentration. Transcript levels of angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL4) were increased 6-fold by WSD (P < 0.05) and increased 15-fold following WSD + oxfenicine (P < 0.001). For CA-hearts fed WSD or WSD + oxfenicine ANGPTL4 mRNA levels were preserved at chow-fed levels. VLDLR protein levels were increased 10-fold (P < 0.01) by CA. ANGPTL4 protein levels were increased 2-fold (P < 0.05) by WSD, but restored following oxfenicine. For CA-hearts WSD increased ANGPTL4 protein levels 3-fold (P < 0.01) with WSD + oxfenicine increasing ANGPTL4 protein 4-fold (P < 0.01). These data suggest that endothelial LPL levels in the heart are altered to maintain FA flux and may exploit ANGPTL4.

Hauton, David; Caldwell, Germaine M.

2012-01-01

247

The activity of fatty acid synthase of epidermal keratinocytes is regulated in the lower stratum spinousum and the stratum basale by local inflammation rather than by circulating hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermal keratinocytes produce and secrete lipids to maintain the water barrier of the epidermis. To clarify the regulation of epidermal lipid synthesis, we investigated the hormonal effect on the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) of the keratinocytes, and the expression of FAS in the human skin. In cultured keratinocytes, the FAS activity, assayed by measuring the oxidation of

Naoki Uchiyama; Ayako Yamamoto; Kensuke Kameda; Hideo Yamaguchi; Masaaki Ito

2000-01-01

248

Increased Long Chain acyl-Coa Synthetase Activity and Fatty Acid Import Is Linked to Membrane Synthesis for Development of Picornavirus Replication Organelles  

PubMed Central

All positive strand (+RNA) viruses of eukaryotes replicate their genomes in association with membranes. The mechanisms of membrane remodeling in infected cells represent attractive targets for designing future therapeutics, but our understanding of this process is very limited. Elements of autophagy and/or the secretory pathway were proposed to be hijacked for building of picornavirus replication organelles. However, even closely related viruses differ significantly in their requirements for components of these pathways. We demonstrate here that infection with diverse picornaviruses rapidly activates import of long chain fatty acids. While in non-infected cells the imported fatty acids are channeled to lipid droplets, in infected cells the synthesis of neutral lipids is shut down and the fatty acids are utilized in highly up-regulated phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Thus the replication organelles are likely built from de novo synthesized membrane material, rather than from the remodeled pre-existing membranes. We show that activation of fatty acid import is linked to the up-regulation of cellular long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity and identify the long chain acyl-CoA syntheatse3 (Acsl3) as a novel host factor required for polio replication. Poliovirus protein 2A is required to trigger the activation of import of fatty acids independent of its protease activity. Shift in fatty acid import preferences by infected cells results in synthesis of phosphatidylcholines different from those in uninfected cells, arguing that the viral replication organelles possess unique properties compared to the pre-existing membranes. Our data show how poliovirus can change the overall cellular membrane homeostasis by targeting one critical process. They explain earlier observations of increased phospholipid synthesis in infected cells and suggest a simple model of the structural development of the membranous scaffold of replication complexes of picorna-like viruses, that may be relevant for other (+)RNA viruses as well.

Scott, Alison J.; Ford, Lauren A.; Pei, Zhengtong; Watkins, Paul A.; Ernst, Robert K.; Belov, George A.

2013-01-01

249

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of inflammatory and immune cells is sensitive to change according to the fatty acid composition\\u000a of the diet. In particular, the proportion of different types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in these cells is readily\\u000a changed, and this provides a link between dietary PUFA intake, inflammation, and immunity. The n?6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA)\\u000a is the

Philip C. Calder

2001-01-01

250

Enhancement of Neutrophil-Mediated Killing of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Blood Forms by Fatty Acids: Importance of Fatty Acid Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of fatty acids on human neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms were investigated by using a quantitative radiometric assay. The results showed that the antiparasitic activity of neutrophils can be greatly increased (>threefold) by short-term treatment with fatty acids with 20 to 24 carbon atoms and at least three double bonds. In particular, the n-3 polyenoic fatty

L. M. KUMARATILAKE; A. FERRANTE; B. S. ROBINSON; T. JAEGER; A. POULOS

1997-01-01

251

Volatile fatty acids productivity by anaerobic co-digesting waste activated sludge and corn straw: effect of feedstock proportion.  

PubMed

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are the most suitable and biodegradable carbon substrates for many bioprocesses. This study explored a new approach to improve the VFAs production from anaerobic co-digesting waste activated sludge (WAS) with corn straw (CS). The effect of feedstock proportion on the acidification efficiency was investigated. The maximum VFAs yield (corresponding fermentation time) was substantially increased 69% (96 h), 45% (72 h), 13% (120 h) and 12% (120 h) with 50%, 35%, 25% and 20% CS proportion of feedstock, respectively. HAc (acetic acid) was consistently the most abundant, followed by HPr (propionic acid) and n-HBu (butyric acid) in the co-digesting tests. The increase of CS in feedstock led to more production of HAc and HPr. Moreover, the consumption of protein and carbohydrate were also improved remarkably from 2955 and 249 mg COD/L (individual WAS fermentation) to 6575 and 815 mg COD/L (50%WAS:50%CS co-digestion) from 120 onward, respectively. The highest contribution of CS to additional VFAs production was1113 mg VFAs (as COD)/g CS/L in the 65%WAS:35%CS co-digesting test. Our study indicated a valuable method to improve VFAs production from anaerobic co-digesting WAS and CS. PMID:23751505

Zhou, Aijuan; Guo, Zechong; Yang, Chunxue; Kong, Fanying; Liu, Wenzong; Wang, Aijie

2013-10-20

252

First total synthesis and antileishmanial activity of (Z)-16-methyl-11-heptadecenoic acid, a new marine fatty acid from the sponge Dragmaxia undata  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis for the (Z)-16-methyl-11-heptadecenoic acid, a novel fatty acid from the sponge Dragmaxia undata, was accomplished in seven steps and in a 44% overall yield. The use of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene was key in the synthesis. Based on a previous developed strategy in our laboratory the best synthetic route towards the title compound was first acetylide coupling of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene to the long-chain protected 10-bromo-1-decanol followed by a second acetylide coupling to the short-chain 1-bromo-4-methylpentane, which resulted in higher yields. Complete spectral data is also presented for the first time for this recently discovered fatty acid and the cis double bond stereochemistry of the natural acid was established. The title compound displayed antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania donovani (IC50 = 165.5 ± 23.4 µM) and inhibited the leishmania DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an IC50 = 62.3 ± 0.7 µM.

Carballeira, Nestor M.; Montano, Nashbly; Cintron, Gabriel A.; Marquez, Carmary; Rubio, Celia Fernandez; Prada, Christopher Fernandez; Balana-Fouce, Rafael

2010-01-01

253

Do trans Fatty Acids Impair Linoleic Acid Metabolism in Children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans isomeric fatty acids disturb themetabolism of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in animals and in premature infants. We assessed whether similar effects may also occur in healthy children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition was analysed in 53 apparently healthy children aged 1-15 years (mean 7.5 years). Trans fatty acids were found in all samples and contributed 1.78 ± 0.10% (w\\/w,

Tamås Decsi; Berthold Koletzko

1995-01-01

254

Genistein stimulates fatty acid oxidation in a leptin receptor-independent manner through the JAK2-mediated phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to the development of insulin resistance, which is associated with an excessive accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle tissue. There is evidence that soy protein can decrease the ectopic accumulation of lipids and improves insulin sensitivity; however, it is unknown whether soy isoflavones, particularly genistein, can stimulate fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle. Thus, we studied the mechanism by which genistein stimulates fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle. We showed that genistein induced the expression of genes of fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle of Zucker fa/fa rats and in leptin receptor (ObR)-silenced C2C12 myotubes through AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, the genistein-mediated AMPK phosphorylation occurred via JAK2, which was possibly activated through a mechanism that involved cAMP. Additionally, the genistein-mediated induction of fatty acid oxidation genes involved PGC1? and PPAR?. As a result, we observed that genistein increased fatty acid oxidation in both the control and silenced C2C12 myotubes, as well as a decrease in the RER in mice, suggesting that genistein can be used in strategies to decrease lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscle. PMID:24013029

Palacios-González, Berenice; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Flores-Galicia, Isabel; Noriega, Lilia G; Alemán-Escondrillas, Gabriela; Zariñan, Teresa; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

2014-01-01

255

Cross-sectional associations of food consumption with plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities in Finnish children.  

PubMed

Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 6–8 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 60–80 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children. PMID:24659110

Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Ågren, Jyrki; de Mello, Vanessa; Lindi, Virpi; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

2014-05-01

256

Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

1973-01-01

257

Essential fatty acid metabolism in the feline: relationship between liver and brain production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison was made between the liver and brain conversion of linoleic acid, 18:2n-6, and linolenic acid, 18:3n-3, to long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in domestic felines. This report demonstrates that 6-desaturase activity does exist in the feline. The liver produced deuterium-labeled polyunsatu- rated fatty acids up to 22:4n-6 and 2T5n-3. The brain was found to accumulate the deuterium-labeled polyunsaturated

Robert Pawlosky; Andrea Barnes; Norman Salem

258

Water-deficit impact on fatty acid and essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) aerial parts.  

PubMed

This study is designed to examine the effect of water deficit on growth, fatty acid and essential oil composition, and antioxidant activities of Cuminum cyminum aerial part extracts. Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control (C), moderate water deficit (MWD), and severe water deficit (SWD). Plant growth (height, fresh and dry matter weights) as well as yield components were significantly increased under moderate water deficit and conversely reduced at severe level. Total fatty acid content decreased significantly with severity of constraint. Drought reduced considerably the proportions of major fatty acids and the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The essential oil yield was 0.14% (based on the dry weight); it increased by 2.21-fold at MWD but decreased by 42.8% under SWD in comparison to the control. Drought results in the modification of the essential oil chemotype from 1-phenyl-1-butanol to 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol. Antioxidant activities of the acetone extracts were determined by two complementary test systems, namely, DPPH and ?-carotene/linoleic acid. The highest activity was exhibited by moderately stressed plants and was reduced significantly under SWD. In control plants, the total phenolic amount was 10.23 mg GAE/g DW, which increased by 1.5-fold under MWD and decreased by 42% under SWD. PMID:21141890

Bettaieb, Iness; Knioua, Sana; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim

2011-01-12

259

The Burkholderia cenocepacia BDSF Quorum Sensing Fatty Acid is Synthesized by a Bifunctional Crotonase Homologue Having Both Dehydratase and Thioesterase Activities  

PubMed Central

Summary Signal molecules of the Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) family have been shown recently to be involved in regulation of pathogenesis and biofilm formation in diverse Gram-negative bacteria. DSF signals are reported to be active not only on their cognate bacteria, but also on unrelated bacteria and the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. DSFs are monounsaturated fatty acids of medium chain length containing an unusual cis-2 double bond. Although genetic analyses had identified genes involved in DSF synthesis, the pathway of DSF synthesis was unknown. The DSF of the important human pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia (called BDSF) is cis-2-dodecenoic acid. We report that BDSF is synthesized from a fatty acid synthetic intermediate, the acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioester of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid. This intermediate is intercepted by protein Bcam0581 and converted to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP. Bcam0581 is annotated as a homologue of crotonase, the first enzyme of the fatty acid degradation pathway. We demonstrated Bcam0581to be a bifunctional protein that not only catalyzed dehydration of 3-hydroxydodecanoyl-ACP to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP, but also cleaved the thioester bond to give the free acid. Both activities required the same set of active site residues. Although dehydratase and thioesterase activities are known activities of the crotonase superfamily, Bcam0581 is the first protein shown to have both activities.

Bi, Hongkai; Christensen, Quin H.; Feng, Youjun; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E.

2012-01-01

260

Fatty acid binding proteins and fatty acid catabolism in marine invertebrates: Peroxisomal ?-oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined adult representatives of marine echinoderms, molluscs, and crustaceans for the presence of fatty acid binding protein and enzymes of fatty acid catabolism. In all cases there was no evidence for an intracellular fatty acid binding protein or for enzymes involved in the mitochondrial import of long-chain fatty acids (carnitine palmitoyltransferase). In all cases, regardless of phyletic relationship, 3-L-hydroxyacyl

J. M. STEWART; R. C. CARLIN; J. A. MacDONALD; S. VAN IDERSTINE

1994-01-01

261

Fatty acid binding and conformational stability of mutants of human muscle fatty acid-binding protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human muscle fatty acid-binding protein (M-FABP) is a 15 kDa cytosolic protein which may be involved in fatty acid transfer and modulation of non-esterified fatty acid concentration in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and many other tissues. Crystal- lographic studies have suggested the importance of the amino acids Thr-40, Arg-106, Arg-126 and Tyr-128 for the hydrogen bonding network of the fatty

Clemens F. M. PRINSEN; Jacques H. VEERKAMP

1996-01-01

262

Fatty acid metabolism in freshwater fish with particular reference to polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids in fish can arise from two sources: synthesis de novo from non?lipid carbon sources within the animal, or directly from dietary lipid. Acetyl?CoA derived mainly from protein can be converted to saturated fatty acids via the combined action of acetyl?CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase. The actual rate of fatty acid synthesis de novo is inversely related to

R. J. Henderson

1996-01-01

263

Applying a multitarget rational drug design strategy: the first set of modulators with potent and balanced activity toward dopamine D3 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase.  

PubMed

Combining computer-assisted drug design and synthetic efforts, we generated compounds with potent and balanced activities toward both D3 dopamine receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme. By concurrently modulating these targets, our compounds hold great potential toward exerting a disease-modifying effect on nicotine addiction and other forms of compulsive behavior. PMID:24691497

De Simone, Alessio; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Albani, Clara; Tarozzo, Glauco; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele; Cavalli, Andrea; Bottegoni, Giovanni

2014-05-18

264

Fatty acids and the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a burgeoning public health concernin westernized nations. The obesity-related disorder is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and liver failure. Although the underlying pathogenesis of NAFLD is unclear, increasing evidence suggests that excess saturated fatty acids presented to or stored within the liver may play a role in both the development and progression of the disorder. Aputative mechanism linking saturated fatty acids to NAFLD may been doplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, excess saturated fatty acids may induce an ER stress response that, if left unabated, can activate stress signaling pathways, cause hepatocyte cell death, and eventually lead to liver dysfunction. In the current review we discuss the involvement of saturated fatty acids in the pathogenesis of NAFLD with particular emphasis on the role of ER stress.

Gentile, Christopher L.; Frye, Melinda A.; Pagliassotti, Michael J.

2011-01-01

265

Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play important roles in the normal physiology and in pathological states including inflammation and cancer. While much is known about the biosynthesis and biological activities of eicosanoids derived from ?6 PUFA, our understanding of the corresponding ?3 series lipid mediators is still rudimentary. The purpose of this review is not to offer a comprehensive summary of the literature on fatty acids in prostate cancer but rather to highlight some of the areas where key questions remain to be addressed. These include substrate preference and polymorphic variants of enzymes involved in the metabolism of PUFA, the relationship between de novo lipid synthesis and dietary lipid metabolism pathways, the contribution of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases as well as terminal synthases and prostanoid receptors in prostate cancer, and the potential role of PUFA in angiogenesis and cell surface receptor signaling.

Berquin, Isabelle M.; Edwards, Iris J.; Kridel, Steven J.

2013-01-01

266

Hypothalamic GPR40 signaling activated by free long chain fatty acids suppresses CFA-induced inflammatory chronic pain.  

PubMed

GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently increased at day 7, but not at days 1, 3 and 14, after CFA injection. GPR40 was co-localized with NeuN, a neuron marker, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker. At day 1 after CFA injection, GFAP protein expression was markedly increased in the hypothalamus. These increases were significantly inhibited by the intracerebroventricular injection of flavopiridol (15 nmol), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, depending on the decreases in both the increment of GPR40 protein expression and the induction of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7 after CFA injection. Furthermore, the level of DHA in the hypothalamus tissue was significantly increased in a flavopiridol reversible manner at day 1, but not at day 7, after CFA injection. The intracerebroventricular injection of DHA (50 µg) and GW9508 (1.0 µg), a GPR40-selective agonist, significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7, but not at day 1, after CFA injection. These effects were inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with GW1100 (10 µg), a GPR40 antagonist. The protein expression of GPR40 was colocalized with that of ?-endorphin and proopiomelanocortin, and a single intracerebroventricular injection of GW9508 (1.0 µg) significantly increased the number of neurons double-stained for c-Fos and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings suggest that hypothalamic GPR40 activated by free long chain fatty acids might have an important role in this pain control system. PMID:24349089

Nakamoto, Kazuo; Nishinaka, Takashi; Sato, Naoya; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Koyama, Yutaka; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

2013-01-01

267

Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.  

PubMed

Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity. PMID:19336899

Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

2009-04-01

268

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Bile Acid-Activated Farnesoid X Receptor as an Emerging Treatment Target  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently evolving as the most common liver disease worldwide. It may progress to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer and is poised to represent the most common indication for liver transplantation in the near future. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is multifactorial and not fully understood, but it represents an insulin resistance state characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. Importantly, NAFLD also has evolved as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately thus far no established treatment does exist for NAFLD. The bile acid-activated nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been shown to play a role not only in bile acid but also in lipid and glucose homeostasis. Specific targeting of FXR may be an elegant and very effective way to readjust dysregulated nuclear receptor-mediated metabolic pathways. This review discusses the body's complex response to the activation of FXR with its beneficial actions but also potential undesirable side effects.

Fuchs, Michael

2012-01-01

269

Fatty acid-binding protein and its relation to fatty acid oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relation between fatty acid oxidation capacity and cytosolic FABP content was found in heart and various muscles of the rat. Other tissues do not show such a relation, since they are involved in more or other pathways of fatty acid metabolism. At postnatal development FABP content and fatty acid oxidation capacity rise concomitantly in heart and quadriceps muscle in

J. H. Veerkamp; H. T. B. van Moerkerk

1993-01-01

270

Role of fatty acid-binding protein in cardiac fatty acid oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although abundant in most biological tissues and chemically well characterized, the fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was until recently in search of a function. Because of its strong affinity for long chain fatty acids and its cytoplasmic origin, this protein was repeatedly claimed in the literature to be the transcytoplasmic fatty acid carrier. However, techniques to visualize and quantify the movements

N. C. Fournier; M. A. Richard

1990-01-01

271

Fatty acid binding protein removes fatty acids but not phospholipids from microsomes liposomes and sonicated vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is provided in this paper that indicates that fatty acids but not phospholipids are removed from microsomes or artificial membranes (liposomes, unilamellar vesicles) by mouse liver cytosolic preparations enriched with fatty acid binding protein (FABP). The cytosolic proteins can act as acceptors for fatty acids but not for phospholipids of microsomal origin. Direct evidence came when liposomes made of

Rosana Zanetti; Angel Catalfi

1991-01-01

272

Stimulation of fatty acid biosynthesis by dietary cholesterol and of cholesterol synthesis by dietary fatty acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported previously that dietary cholesterol produces hypertriglyceridemia in the rat, accompanied by reduced oxidation and increased incorporation of exogenous fatty acid into hepatic triglyceride and increased secretion of very low density lipoprotein. We now report that dietary cholesterol also increases net hepatic fatty acid synthesis and the incorporation of newly synthesized fatty acid into hepatic triglyceride in vivo. Male

Thomas V. Fungwe; James E. Fox; Lauren M. Cagen; Henry G. Wilcox; Murray Heimberg

273

Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Stimulation of Microsomal Phosphatidic Acid Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) on two key steps of microsomal phosphatidic acid formation was examined. Rat liver microsomes were purified by size-exclusion chromatography to remove endogenous cytosolic fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins while recombinant FABPs were used to avoid cross-contamination with such proteins from native tissue. Neither rat liver (L-FABP) nor rat intestinal fatty

Christopher A. Jolly; Timothy Hubbell; William D. Behnke; Friedhelm Schroeder

1997-01-01

274

International Union of Pharmacology. LXXI. Free Fatty Acid Receptors FFA1, -2, and -3: Pharmacology and Pathophysiological Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of G protein-coupled re- ceptors that are activated by free fatty acids has led to considerable interest in their pharmacology and func- tion because of the wide range of normal physiology and disease states in which fatty acids have been im- plicated. Free fatty acid receptor (FFA) 1 is activated by medium- to long-chain fatty acids and is expressed

LEIGH A. STODDART; NICOLA J. SMITH; GRAEME MILLIGAN

2008-01-01

275

Influence of fatty alcohol and other fatty acid derivatives on fatty acid uptake into rat intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of various substrates on the uptake of long-chain fatty acid into IEC-6, rat intestinal epithelial\\u000a cell line. The uptake of [3H]oleic acid into IEC-6 cells was a saturable function of the oleic acid concentration. Long-chain fatty acids significantly\\u000a inhibited the oleic acid uptake into IEC-6 cells and shorter-chain fatty acids had little or no effect. Various

Kaeko Murota; Noriko Matsui; Teruo Kawada; Nobuyuki Takahashi; Takafumi Shintani; Kahori Sasaki; Tohru Fushiki

2001-01-01

276

Dietary Fatty Acids and the Aging Brain  

PubMed Central

Summary Aging contributes to physiological decline and vulnerability to disease. In the brain, even with minimal neuron loss, aging increases oxidative damage, inflammation, demyelination, impaired processing and metabolic deficits, particularly during pathological brain aging. We discuss the possible role of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in prevention of age related disruption of brain function. High-fat diabetogenic diets, cholesterol and the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonate and its prostaglandin metabolites have all been implicated in promoting AD pathogenesis. We argue that DHA acts to oppose this pathogenesis, exerting a plethora of pleiotropic activities to protect against AD pathogenesis.

Cole, Greg M.; Ma, Qiu-Lan; Frautschy, Sally A.

2014-01-01

277

Antioxidant activity of resveratrol and alcohol-free wine polyphenols related to LDL oxidation and polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wine polyphenols were examined for their capacity to protect the lipid and protein moieties of porcine low density lipoproteins (LDL) during oxidation. The efficiency of resveratrol (3, 4?, 5, trihydroxystilbene) and defined flavonoids was compared to that of a wine extract (WE) containing 0.5 gg proanthocyanidols. The efficiency of resveratrol for protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was higher than that

Lucie Frémont; Leila Belguendouz; Serge Delpal

1999-01-01

278

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) control of fatty acid and glucose metabolism in the ischemic heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial ischemia is the leading cause of all cardiovascular deaths in North America. Myocardial ischemia is accompanied by profound changes in metabolism including alterations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism, increased uncoupling of glucose oxidation from glycolysis and accumulation of protons within the myocardium. These changes can contribute to a poor functional recovery of the heart. One key player in

Nandakumar Sambandam; Gary D. Lopaschuk

2003-01-01

279

?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the cardiovascular system  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and decosahexaenoic acids) are classified with\\u000a essential fatty acids and are structural components of the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes. ?-3 PUFAs incorporated\\u000a into the phospholipid domain of cell membranes are metabolized to prostaglandins and thromboxanes (PGI\\u000a 3, PGE\\u000a 3, TxA, etc.), which significantly differ in biological activity from those formed in the

S. A. Kryzhanovskii; M. B. Vititnova

2009-01-01

280

Liver fatty acid binding protein expression enhances branched-chain fatty acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is known to enhance uptake and esterification of straight-chain fatty acids such as palmitic acid and oleic acid, its effects on oxidation and further metabolism of branched-chain fatty acids such as phytanic acid are not completely understood. The present data demonstrate for the first time that expression of L-FABP enhanced initial rate and

Barbara P. Atshaves; Stephen M. Storey; Huan Huang; Friedhelm Schroeder

2004-01-01

281

First total synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of (Z)-17-methyl-13-octadecenoic acid, a new marine fatty acid from the sponge Polymastia penicillus  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis for the (Z)-17-methyl-13-octadecenoic acid was accomplished in seven steps and in a 45% overall yield. The use of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene was key in the synthesis. Based on a previous developed strategy in our laboratory the best synthetic route towards the title compound was first acetylide coupling of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene to the long-chain protected 12-bromo-1-dodecanol followed by a second acetylide coupling to the short-chain 3-methyl-1-bromobutane, which resulted in higher yields. Complete spectral data is also presented for the first time for this recently discovered fatty acid. The title compound displayed antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania donovani (EC50 = 19.8 ?g/ml) and inhibited the leishmania DNA topoisomerase IB at concentrations of 50 ?M.

Carballeira, Nestor M.; Montano, Nashbly; Balana-Fouce, Rafael; Prada, Christopher Fernandez

2009-01-01

282

Incidence of Ripening and Chilling Injury on the Oxidative Activities and Fatty Acid Compositions of the Mitochondria from Mango Fruits  

PubMed Central

The succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria isolated from mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) stored at 4, 8, 12, and 20 C were investigated during storage. In normally ripening fruits (at 12 and 20 C) the oxidative capacities increased during the first 10 days and then decreased slowly. At lower temperatures (4 and 8 C), the fruits showed chilling injury symptoms, after about 10 days of storage and the succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria decreased progressively. Plots of succinate oxidation capacities as against storage temperature showed a marked discontinuity between 12 and 8 C, only when chilling injury was observed on fruits stored at low temperature. The variations of mitochondrial fatty acid composition during the storage of fruits at different temperatures were also investigated. A marked decrease of the molar ratio palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid, the predominant fatty acids in mitochondrial lipids, was observed to accompany both the succinate oxidation decrease and the induction of chilling injury.

Kane, Ousmane; Marcellin, Pierre; Mazliak, Paul

1978-01-01

283

[The fatty acid composition of ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivated in Georgia and its byological activity].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was individual quantitatively and qualitatively determination of fatty acids in ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.), cultivated in Georgia. The neutral lipids extracts were fractionated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (PTC-1, Waters) with refractory detector R-401. Analitical column (150,0x3,0 mm) was filled with reversphase Bondopak C18). Software OASIS-740 is used. The correction retention times of each fatty acids is compared with comformity standard. The investigation showed that in flax seed oil linoleic (31,3±2,1 mg%) and linolenic (40,2±2,9 mg%) acids were predominant and together constitute principal basic of research composition. The flax seed oil contained also palmitic and stearic acids in less quantitaty. PMID:24632654

2014-02-01

284

Fatty acid metabolism and thyroid hormones  

PubMed Central

The importance of thyroid hormone signaling in the acute regulation of metabolic activity has been recognized for decades. Slowly, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this activity are being elucidated. A prominent characteristic of thyroid signaling is rapid increases in oxygen consumption and ATP production. This discovery implicated a non-genomic regulation of mitochondrial metabolism by thyroid hormones. Another important clue came from the discovery that thyroid hormones stimulated fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in a variety of tissues in a receptor-dependent, but transcriptional-independent manner. Recently, key linkages between thyroid hormone signaling and specific mitochondrial-targeted pathways have been discovered. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which mitochondrial FAO can be increased through thyroid hormone signaling. The roles of both the full-length and shortened mitochondrial isoforms of thyroid hormone receptor will be discussed. Additionally, the impact of thyroid hormone signaling on dyslipidemias such as obesity, type II diabetes, and fatty liver disease will be considered.

Sayre, Naomi L.; Lechleiter, James D.

2013-01-01

285

Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi  

SciTech Connect

Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated (18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)) fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

de Lema, M.G.; Aeberhard, E.E.

1986-11-01

286

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-08

287

Relationship between glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase and fatty acid binding proteins in developing human placenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of the enzymes glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase are inhibited by palmitoyl-coenzyme\\u000a A and oleate. The two isoforms of fatty acid binding proteins (PI 6.9 and PI 5.4) enhance the activities of glycerol-3-phosphate\\u000a dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase in the absence of palmitoyl-coenzyme A or oleate and also protect them against palmitoyl-coenzyme\\u000a A or oleate inhibition. Levels

Anup K Bandyopadhyay; Tanya Das; Gouri Sankar Sa; Manju Mukherjea

1995-01-01

288

Volatile Fatty Acid Requirement of a Strain of Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Larson, A. D. (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge), L. V. Hattier, and C. S. McCleskey. Volatile fatty acid requirement of a strain of Listeria monocytogenes. J. Bacteriol. 89:819–824. 1965.—Listeria monocytogenes strain 2 requires either isobutyric or 2-methylbutyric acid for growth. Elucidation of this requirement began with characterization of the growth-enhancing substance in culture filtrates of Aerobacter aerogenes. A. aerogenes required tryptose, glucose, and aerobic conditions for excretion of active fatty acids into the medium. Commercial preparations of isobutyric, 2-methylbutyric, isovaleric, 3-methylvaleric, and n-valeric acid supported the growth of strain 2. Purification of these fatty acids by gas chromatography demonstrated that strain 2 responded significantly only to isobutyric and 2-methylbutyric acid. Amines, alcohols, and hydroxy fatty acids, which were structurally related to the active acids, did not satisfy the fatty acid requirement of L. monocytogenes strain 2. Only one isolate (strain 2) of 128 cultures of L. monocytogenes required volatile fatty acid for growth. Images

Larson, A. D.; Hattier, L. V.; McCleskey, C. S.

1965-01-01

289

Cellular fatty acid uptake is acutely regulated by membrane-associated fatty acid-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular long-chain fatty acid uptake is believed to occur largely by protein-mediated transmembrane transport of fatty acids, and also by passive diffusional uptake. It is postulated that the membrane proteins function in trapping of fatty acids from extracellular sources, whereafter their transmembrane translocation occurs by passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer. The key membrane-associated proteins involved are plasma membrane fatty

J. J. F. P. Luiken; A. Bonen; J. F. C. Glatz

2002-01-01

290

Fatty Acid Metabolism and Pulmonary Insufficiency Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reproducible free fatty acid analysis was carried out with a total of 1407 studies being performed. The results of correlating this to respiratory distress in trauma patients revealed a trend correlating elevated free fatty acid levels with PO2-FiO2 rat...

J. A. Moylan

1979-01-01

291

Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism.  

PubMed

While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analysing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type ?-oxidation of fatty acids [acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase] with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three ?-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyse biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

Dibrova, Daria V; Galperin, Michael Y; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

2014-04-01

292

Postpartum ovarian activity in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation.  

PubMed

Multiparous cows (n = 59) were blocked by expected calving date and previous 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield and assigned randomly to a 2 x 2 factorial design to determine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST; Posilac, Monsanto Animal Agricultural Group, St. Louis, MO) and dietary fat on ovarian activity during the first 90 d in milk (DIM). Diets that included whole, high-oil sunflower seeds [SS; 10% of dietary dry matter; rich in linoleic acid (18:2)] or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro [AF; Alifet USA, Cincinnati, OH; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary dry matter, respectively; protected source of linolenic (18:3), eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids] were provided from calving. Diets were isocaloric at equal intakes, but AF provided more net energy for lactation at actual intakes (1.54 vs. 1.66 Mcal/kg of dry matter). Cows received 0 or 500 mg of bST (N, Y) every 10 d from 12 to 70 DIM and at 14-d intervals from 70 to 280 DIM. Breeding was initiated after 90 DIM. Follicular dynamics, luteal growth and development (15 to 90 DIM), and plasma progesterone concentrations (1 to 90 DIM) were evaluated (3 times per week). Days to first ovulation (33.6 +/- 1.4) and incidence of anovulation at 45 or 70 DIM did not differ among treatments. Interovulatory intervals were similar among treatments (22.1 +/- 0.9 d). Incidence of estrous cycles with 2 follicular waves was greater for SSY (71.0%) and AFN (80.0%) than for other groups, but more 3-wave cycles occurred with AFY (83.3%). Growth rate of the ovulatory follicle was greater for AF than SS (1.9 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.11 mm/d) and diameter of ovulatory follicles was larger for AFN than the other treatments (17.9 vs. 15.7 +/- 0.7 mm). Area under the progesterone curve was reduced for SSY (63.2, 48.1, 55.5, and 61.4 +/- 5.1 ng.d/mL for SSN, SSY, AFN, and AFY, respectively). The number of class 1 (3 to 5 mm) follicles was decreased and the number of class 2 (6 to 9 mm) follicles was increased by bST. The number of class 2 follicles was reduced by AF. Initiation of bST administration at 12 DIM and dietary n-3 fatty acids altered ovarian activity during the first 90 DIM and could benefit reproductive performance. Dietary n-3 fatty acids interacted with bST administration in early lactation to increase the incidence of estrous cycles with 3 follicular waves. Although these changes could benefit reproductive performance, evaluation with a larger number of cows is needed to determine if these alterations improve fertility. PMID:19762803

Carriquiry, M; Dahlen, C R; Weber, W J; Lamb, G C; Crooker, B A

2009-10-01

293

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids selectively inhibit growth in neoplastic oral keratinocytes by differentially activating ERK1/2  

PubMed Central

The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs)—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and its metabolite docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—inhibit cancer formation in vivo, but their mechanism of action is unclear. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation and inhibition have both been associated with the induction of tumour cell apoptosis by n-3 PUFAs. We show here that low doses of EPA, in particular, inhibited the growth of premalignant and malignant keratinocytes more than the growth of normal counterparts by a combination of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The growth inhibition of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lines, but not normal keratinocytes, by both n-3 PUFAs was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) autophosphorylation, a sustained phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and its downstream target p90RSK but not with phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase target Akt. Inhibition of EGFR with either the EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 or an EGFR-blocking antibody inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the blocking antibody partially antagonized growth inhibition by EPA but not by DHA. DHA generated more reactive oxygen species and activated more c-jun N-terminal kinase than EPA, potentially explaining its increased toxicity to normal keratinocytes. Our results show that, in part, EPA specifically inhibits SCC growth and development by creating a sustained signalling imbalance to amplify the EGFR/ERK/p90RSK pathway in neoplastic keratinocytes to a supraoptimal level, supporting the chemopreventive potential of EPA, whose toxicity to normal cells might be reduced further by blocking its metabolism to DHA. Furthermore, ERK1/2 phosphorylation may have potential as a biomarker of n-3 PUFA function in vivo.

Parkinson, Eric Kenneth

2013-01-01

294

40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. 721.3629 Section...Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances...identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty acids (PMN Nos....

2012-07-01

295

40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a...identified generically as acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN...

2013-07-01

296

40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). 721.3710 Section...721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as a Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is...

2013-07-01

297

40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721.3627 Section 721.3627...721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid (PMN P-94-422) is...

2013-07-01

298

Fatty acid alterations and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific fatty acid alterations have been described in the blood and tissues of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The two most consistent alterations include decreased levels of linoleic acid (LA) and decreased levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Increased arachidonic acid (AA) release from membrane phospholipids, as well as changes in levels of AA and other monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

M. Rabie Al-Turkmani; Steven D. Freedman; Michael Laposata

2007-01-01

299

Omega3 fatty acids and inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have a variety of anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects that may be of relevance\\u000a to atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations of myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. The n-3 fatty acids\\u000a that appear to be most potent in this respect are the long-chain polyunsaturates derived from marine oils, namely eicosapentaenoic\\u000a acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA),

Trevor A. Mori; Lawrence J. Beilin

2004-01-01

300

Dietary fat and the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some characteristics of the fatty acid composition of animal tissue lipids are described and the origins of tissue fatty acids\\u000a are discussed briefly. The effect of dietary fat on composition of tissue lipids is discussed. Types of dietary fatty acids\\u000a for which experimental work is described include polyunsaturated fatty acids, short-chain fatty acids, fatty acids with chain\\u000a length greater than

K. K. Carroll

1965-01-01

301

Biosynthesis, degradation, and pharmacological importance of the fatty acid amides  

PubMed Central

The identification of two biologically active fatty acid amides, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and oleamide, has generated a great deal of excitement and stimulated considerable research. However, anandamide and oleamide are merely the best-known and best-understood members of a much larger family of biologically-occurring fatty acid amides. In this review, we will outline which fatty acid amides have been isolated from mammalian sources, detail what is known about how these molecules are made and degraded in vivo, and highlight their potential for the development of novel therapeutics.

Farrell, Emma K.; Merkler, David J.

2008-01-01

302

Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and cancer.  

PubMed

Epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), which are lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases from polyunsaturated fatty acids, are important signaling molecules known to regulate various biological processes including inflammation, pain and angiogenesis. The EpFAs are further metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form fatty acid diols which are usually less-active. Pharmacological inhibitors of sEH that stabilize endogenous EpFAs are being considered for human clinical uses. Here we review the biology of ?-3 and ?-6 EpFAs on inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:24345640

Zhang, Guodong; Kodani, Sean; Hammock, Bruce D

2014-01-01

303

Rational design of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors that act by covalently bonding to two active site residues.  

PubMed

The design and characterization of ?-ketoheterocycle fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are disclosed that additionally and irreversibly target a cysteine (Cys269) found in the enzyme cytosolic port while maintaining the reversible covalent Ser241 attachment responsible for their rapid and initially reversible enzyme inhibition. Two ?-ketooxazoles (3 and 4) containing strategically placed electrophiles at the C5 position of the pyridyl substituent of 2 (OL-135) were prepared and examined as inhibitors of FAAH. Consistent with the observed time-dependent noncompetitive inhibition, the cocrystal X-ray structure of 3 bound to a humanized variant of rat FAAH revealed that 3 was not only covalently bound to the active site catalytic nucleophile Ser241 as a deprotonated hemiketal, but also to Cys269 through the pyridyl C5-substituent, thus providing an inhibitor with dual covalent attachment in the enzyme active site. In vivo characterization of the prototypical inhibitors in mice demonstrates that they raise endogenous brain levels of FAAH substrates to a greater extent and for a much longer duration (>6 h) than the reversible inhibitor 2, indicating that the inhibitors accumulate and persist in the brain to completely inhibit FAAH for a prolonged period. Consistent with this behavior and the targeted irreversible enzyme inhibition, 3 reversed cold allodynia in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in mice for a sustained period (>6 h) beyond that observed with the reversible inhibitor 2, providing effects that were unchanged over the 1-6 h time course monitored. PMID:23581831

Otrubova, Katerina; Brown, Monica; McCormick, Michael S; Han, Gye W; O'Neal, Scott T; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Stevens, Raymond C; Lichtman, Aron H; Boger, Dale L

2013-04-24

304

Rational Design of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors that Act by Covalently Bonding to Two Active Site Residues  

PubMed Central

The design and characterization of ?-ketoheterocycle fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are disclosed that additionally and irreversibly target a cysteine (Cys269) found in the enzyme cytosolic port while maintaining the reversible covalent Ser241 attachment responsible for their rapid and initially reversible enzyme inhibition. Two ?-ketooxazoles (3 and 4) containing strategically placed electrophiles at the C5 position of the pyridyl substituent of 2 (OL-135) were prepared and examined as inhibitors of FAAH. Consistent with the observed time-dependent non-competitive inhibition, the co-crystal X-ray structure of 3 bound to a humanized variant of rat FAAH revealed that 3 was not only covalently bound to the active site catalytic nucleophile Ser241 as a deprotonated hemiketal, but also to Cys269 through the pyridyl C5-substituent, thus providing an inhibitor with dual covalent attachment in the enzyme active site. In vivo characterization of the prototypical inhibitors in mice demonstrate that they raise endogenous brain levels of FAAH substrates to a greater extent and for a much longer duration (>6 h) than the reversible inhibitor 2, indicating that the inhibitors accumulate and persist in the brain to completely inhibit FAAH for a prolonged period. Consistent with this behavior and the targeted irreversible enzyme inhibition, 3 reversed cold allodynia in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in mice for a sustained period (>6 h) beyond that observed with the reversible inhibitor 2, providing effects that were unchanged over the 1–6 h time course monitored.

Otrubova, Katerina; Brown, Monica; McCormick, Michael S.; Han, Gye W.; O'Neal, Scott T.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Boger, Dale L.

2013-01-01

305

Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.  

PubMed

The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated. PMID:24410166

Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

2014-01-29

306

Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging  

SciTech Connect

Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

Ruyan, M.K.

1993-01-01

307

Fatty acid ethanolamides modulate CD36-mRNA through dietary fatty acid manipulation in Syrian Golden hamsters.  

PubMed

Fatty acids convert to fatty acid ethanolamides which associate with lipid signalling, fat oxidation, and energy balance; however, the extent to which dietary fatty acids manipulation can impact such control processes through fatty acid ethanolamides-related mechanisms remains understudied. The objective was to examine the impact of diets containing 6% corn oil, high oleic canola oil, docosahexaenoic acid + high oleic canola oil, and fish oil on plasma and organ levels of fatty acid ethanolamides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? regulatory targets, and lipid metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters. After 29 days, in plasma, animals that were fed fish oil showed greater (p < 0.05) oleoylethanolamide and lower (p < 0.05) arachidonoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide levels compared with other groups, while animals fed canola oil showed higher (p < 0.05) oleoylethanolamide levels in proximal intestine and liver than groups that were fed coin oil and fish oil. The canola oil group showed elevated (p < 0.01) fat oxidation (%) and over 3.0-fold higher (p < 0.05) hepatic-CD36 expression compared with the corn oil group. Hepatic-lipogenesis was lower (p < 0.05) in hamsters that were fed DHA-canola oil compared with the corn oil group. To conclude, dietary fatty acids produced shifts in plasma and organ levels of arachidonoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide, and palmitoylethanolamid, which were accompanied by changes in gene expression, lipogenesis, and energy expenditure, suggesting mechanisms through which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. PMID:23855275

Lin, Lin; Rideout, Todd; Yurkova, Natalia; Yang, Haifeng; Eck, Peter; Jones, Peter J H

2013-08-01

308

Identification of novel protein domains required for the expression of an active dehydratase fragment from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase  

PubMed Central

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are made in some strains of deep-sea bacteria by multidomain proteins that catalyze condensation, ketoreduction, dehydration, and enoyl-reduction. In this work, we have used the Udwary-Merski Algorithm sequence analysis tool to define the boundaries that enclose the dehydratase (DH) domains in a PUFA multienzyme. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of four areas of high structure in a region that was previously thought to contain only two DH domains as defined by FabA-homology. The expression of the protein fragment containing all four protein domains resulted in an active enzyme, while shorter protein fragments were not soluble. The tetradomain fragment was capable of catalyzing the conversion of crotonyl-CoA to ?-hydroxybutyryl-CoA efficiently, as shown by UV absorbance change as well as by chromatographic retention of reaction products. Sequence alignments showed that the two novel domains contain as much sequence conservation as the FabA-homology domains, suggesting that they too may play a functional role in the overall reaction. Structure predictions revealed that all domains belong to the hotdog protein family: two of them contain the active site His70 residue present in FabA-like DHs, while the remaining two do not. Replacing the active site His residues in both FabA domains for Ala abolished the activity of the tetradomain fragment, indicating that the DH activity is contained within the FabA-homology regions. Taken together, these results provide a first glimpse into a rare arrangement of DH domains which constitute a defining feature of the PUFA synthases.

Oyola-Robles, Delise; Gay, Darren C; Trujillo, Uldaeliz; Sanchez-Pares, John M; Bermudez, Mei-Ling; Rivera-Diaz, Monica; Carballeira, Nestor M; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

2013-01-01

309

Amino acid sequence of the serine active-site region of the medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thioester hydrolase from rat mammary gland.  

PubMed

Medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thioester hydrolase (thioesterase II), a discrete monomeric enzyme of 29 kDa, regulates the product specificity of the de novo lipogenic systems in certain specialized mammalian and avian tissues, such as mammary and uropygial glands. The amino acid sequence of a 57-residue region containing the active site of the rat mammary gland enzyme has been established by a combination of amino acid and cDNA sequencing. Thioesterase II was radiolabeled with the serine esterase inhibitor [1,3-14C]diisopropyl-fluorophosphate and digested sequentially with cyanogen bromide, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and trypsin. A radiolabeled tryptic peptide was isolated and sequenced by automated Edman degradation and the location of the active-site residue established. The amino acid sequence was confirmed by sequencing an overlapping, unlabeled peptide, obtained by V8 digestion of the whole enzyme, and by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of a thioesterase II cDNA clone isolated from a lambda gt11 expression library. The active center contains the motif Gly-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly, characteristic of the serine esterase family of enzymes. A seven-residue region around the essential serine of the rat mammary thioesterase II, Phe-Gly-Met-Ser-Phe-Gly-Ser, is completely homologous with a region of the mallard uropygial thioesterase, recently analyzed by cDNA sequencing, indicating that this is likely to be the active site of the avian enzyme. Overall homology between the mammalian and avian enzymes for the 57-amino-acid residue region is 47% and suggests that the two enzymes may share a common evolutionary origin. PMID:3104035

Randhawa, Z I; Naggert, J; Blacher, R W; Smith, S

1987-02-01

310

Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLong-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 levels are decreased in the hepatic tissue of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are negative regulators of hepatic lipogenesis and attenuate the inflammatory response in mice.

L. Spadaro; O. Magliocco; D. Spampinato; S. Piro; C. Oliveri; C. Alagona; G. Papa; A. M. Rabuazzo; F. Purrello

2008-01-01

311

Noradrenaline stimulates glucose transport in rat brown adipocytes by activating thermogenesis. Evidence that fatty acid activation of mitochondrial respiration enhances glucose transport.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which noradrenaline, lipolytic agents and long-chain fatty acids stimulate glucose transport were investigated in rat brown adipocytes. Glucose transport was evaluated with tracer D-[U-14C]glucose and cell respiration was measured polarographically. Noradrenaline increased basal oxygen consumption (8-10-fold) and glucose transport (4-5-fold) in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal stimulation at 100 nM. The stimulatory effects of noradrenaline on respiration and glucose transport were selectively mimicked by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, cholera toxin and physiological concentrations of palmitic acid. Cytochalasin B completely blocked the effects of these agents on glucose transport. The beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol inhibited noradrenaline-induced glucose transport, but did not affect the action of DBcAMP, palmitic acid or cholera toxin on this process. The specific inhibitor of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase, 2-tetradecylglycidic acid (McN 3802) (50 microM), inhibited the stimulatory effects of noradrenaline (100 nM) and palmitic acid (0.5 mM) on both glucose transport and mitochondrial respiration. Significantly, McN 3802 failed to affect insulin (1 nM) action under identical experimental conditions. These results demonstrate that (a) the stimulatory effects of noradrenaline on brown-adipocyte respiration and glucose transport can be dissociated from those induced by insulin, and (b) noradrenaline increases glucose transport indirectly, by activating adenylate cyclase via beta-adrenergic pathways and by stimulating mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids.

Marette, A; Bukowiecki, L J

1991-01-01

312

Effect of a seaweed extract on fatty acid accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

This study was to determine the effect of a seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum extract (SE) containing 220 mg g(-1) phlorotannins on differentiation and fatty acid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells (2 x 10(4) mL(-1)) were seeded to 24-well plates and proliferated to reach confluence and then were treated with media containing 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mug mL(-1) SE for 8 days. Dexamethasone, methyl-isobutylxanthine and insulin (DMI) were added to the media in the first 2 days to induce cell differentiation. On day 8 the adipocytes were harvested for measuring cellular fatty acid concentration and the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). It was found that treatment with SE increased (P < 0.01, n = 6) cellular myristoleic acid (C14:1), palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and oleic acid (C18:1) and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) without significantly affecting the cell number and saturated fatty acid (SFA). Ratios of MUFA/SFA, C14:1/C14:0, C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0 in cellular lipids increased (P < 0.05, n = 6) with the SE treatment in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.001). Treatment with 75 microg mL(-1) SE depressed (P < 0.05) cellular GPDH activity. The results indicate that the biological factors in the SE may be involved in differentiation and MUFA accumulation in adipocytes. PMID:18982374

He, M L; Wang, Y; You, J S; Mir, P S; McAllister, T A

2009-02-01

313

Cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins catalyze two distinct steps in intracellular transport of their ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosolic long-chain fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are found in tissues that metabolize fatty acids. Like most lipid binding proteins, their specific functions remain unclear. Two classes have been described. Membrane-active FABPs interact directly with membranes during exchange of fatty acids between the protein binding site and the membrane, while membrane-inactive FABPs bind only to fatty acids that are already

Richard A. Weisiger

2002-01-01

314

Inhibition by cyclopropene fatty acids of the desaturation of stearic acid in hen liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the hardening of body fats of animals by dietary lipids which contain cyclopropene fatty acids has been studied.\\u000a Dietary methyl sterculate increased the stearic acid content of egg yolk lipid and decreased the activity of the stearic acid\\u000a desaturase system of hen liver. The cyclopropene fatty acids were specific inhibitors of the stearic acid desaturase system\\u000a of

E. Allen; A. R. Johnson; A. C. Fogerty; Judith A. Pearson; F. S. Shenstone

1967-01-01

315

Insulin resistance reduces arterial prostacyclin synthase and eNOS activities by increasing endothelial fatty acid oxidation  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance markedly increases cardiovascular disease risk in people with normal glucose tolerance, even after adjustment for known risk factors such as LDL, triglycerides, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. In this report, we show that increased oxidation of FFAs in aortic endothelial cells without added insulin causes increased production of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. FFA-induced overproduction of superoxide activated a variety of proinflammatory signals previously implicated in hyperglycemia-induced vascular damage and inactivated 2 important antiatherogenic enzymes, prostacyclin synthase and eNOS. In 2 nondiabetic rodent models — insulin-resistant, obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats and high-fat diet–induced insulin-resistant mice — inactivation of prostacyclin synthase and eNOS was prevented by inhibition of FFA release from adipose tissue; by inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I; and by reduction of superoxide levels. These studies identify what we believe to be a novel mechanism contributing to the accelerated atherogenesis and increased cardiovascular disease risk occurring in people with insulin resistance.

Du, Xueliang; Edelstein, Diane; Obici, Silvana; Higham, Ninon; Zou, Ming-Hui; Brownlee, Michael

2006-01-01

316

Glucose regulates hypothalamic long-chain fatty acid metabolism via AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in neurons and astrocytes.  

PubMed

Hypothalamic controls of energy balance rely on the detection of circulating nutrients such as glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) by the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). LCFA metabolism in the MBH plays a key role in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis, yet it is not known if glucose regulates LCFA oxidation and esterification in the MBH and, if so, which hypothalamic cell type(s) and intracellular signaling mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of glucose on LCFA metabolism, assess the role of AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK), and to establish if changes in LCFA metabolism and its regulation by glucose vary as a function of the kind of LCFA, cell type, and brain region. We show that glucose inhibits palmitate oxidation via AMPK in hypothalamic neuronal cell lines, primary hypothalamic astrocyte cultures, and MBH slices ex vivo but not in cortical astrocytes and slice preparations. In contrast, oleate oxidation was not affected by glucose or AMPK inhibition in MBH slices. In addition, our results show that glucose increases palmitate, but not oleate, esterification into neutral lipids in neurons and MBH slices but not in hypothalamic astrocytes. These findings reveal for the first time the metabolic fate of different LCFA in the MBH, demonstrate AMPK-dependent glucose regulation of LCFA oxidation in both astrocytes and neurons, and establish metabolic coupling of glucose and LCFA as a distinguishing feature of hypothalamic nuclei critical for the control of energy balance. PMID:24240094

Taïb, Bouchra; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Rodaros, Demetra; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

2013-12-27

317

Influence of moderate amounts of trans fatty acids on the formation of polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated soybean oil and butterfat on the formation of polyunsaturated fatty acids was investigated.\\u000a Five groups of rats were fed diets that contained 20 wt% fat. The content of linoleic acid was adjusted to 10 wt% of the dietary\\u000a fats in all diets, whereas the amount of trans fatty acids from partially

Anette Bysted; Gunhild Hølmer; Pia Lund

1998-01-01

318

Biochemical characterization and in vitro activity of AZ513, a noncovalent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) hydrolyzes several bioactive lipids including the endocannabinoid anandamide. Synthetic FAAH inhibitors are being generated to help define the biological role(s) of this enzyme, the lipids it degrades in vivo, and the disease states that might benefit from its pharmacological modulation. AZ513 inhibits human FAAH (IC50=551nM), is 20-fold more potent against rat FAAH (IC50=27 nM), and

Clay W Scott; Gaochao Tian; Xiao Hong Yu; Kathy A. Paschetto; Dee E. Wilkins; Luc Meury; Chang Qing Cao; Jeffrey Varnes; Philip D. Edwards

2011-01-01

319

Plasma Acylcarnitine Profiles Suggest Incomplete Long-Chain Fatty Acid ?-Oxidation and Altered Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Activity in Type 2 Diabetic African-American Women1–3  

PubMed Central

Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflective of muscle fat catabolism when comparing individuals bearing a missense G304A uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 g/a) polymorphism to controls, because UCP3 is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and g/a individuals have reduced whole-body fat oxidation. MS analyses of 42 carnitine moieties in plasma samples from fasting type 2 diabetics (n = 44) and nondiabetics (n = 12) with or without the UCP3 g/a polymorphism (n = 28/genotype: 22 diabetic, 6 nondiabetic/genotype) were conducted. Contrary to our hypothesis, genotype had a negligible impact on plasma metabolite patterns. However, a comparison of nondiabetics vs. type 2 diabetics revealed a striking increase in the concentrations of fatty acylcarnitines reflective of incomplete LCFA ?-oxidation in the latter (i.e. summed C10- to C14-carnitine concentrations were ?300% of controls; P = 0.004). Across all volunteers (n = 56), acetylcarnitine rose and propionylcarnitine decreased with increasing hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.544, P < 0.0001; and r = ?0.308, P < 0.05, respectively) and with increasing total plasma acylcarnitine concentration. In proof-of-concept studies, we made the novel observation that C12-C14 acylcarnitines significantly stimulated nuclear factor ?-B activity (up to 200% of controls) in RAW264.7 cells. These results are consistent with the working hypothesis that inefficient tissue LCFA ?-oxidation, due in part to a relatively low tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity, increases tissue accumulation of acetyl-CoA and generates chain-shortened acylcarnitine molecules that activate proinflammatory pathways implicated in insulin resistance.

Adams, Sean H.; Hoppel, Charles L.; Lok, Kerry H.; Zhao, Ling; Wong, Scott W.; Minkler, Paul E.; Hwang, Daniel H.; Newman, John W.; Garvey, W. Timothy

2009-01-01

320

Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by flavonoids is associated with their ability to inhibit fatty acid synthase activity.  

PubMed

The consumption of food products containing high amounts of flavonoids has been reported to lower the risk of various cancers. The mechanisms underlying the cancer-protective effects of these naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds, however, remain elusive. Based on our previous finding that the cytotoxic effect of the flavanol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on prostate cancer cells correlates with its ability to inhibit fatty acid synthase (FAS, a key lipogenic enzyme overexpressed in many human cancers), we examined the anti-lipogenic effects of a panel of 18 naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds. In addition to epigallocatechin-3-gallate, five other flavonoids, more particularly luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, and taxifolin, also markedly inhibited cancer cell lipogenesis. Interestingly, in both prostate and breast cancer cells, a remarkable dose-response parallelism was observed between flavonoid-induced inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, inhibition of cell growth, and induction of apoptosis. In support for a role of fatty acid synthesis in these effects, the addition of exogenous palmitate, the end product of FAS, markedly suppressed the cytotoxic effects of flavonoids. Taken together, these findings indicate that the potential of flavonoids to induce apoptosis in cancer cells is strongly associated with their FAS inhibitory properties, thereby providing a new mechanism by which polyphenolic compounds may exert their cancer-preventive and antineoplastic effects. PMID:15533929

Brusselmans, Koen; Vrolix, Ruth; Verhoeven, Guido; Swinnen, Johannes V

2005-02-18

321

Membrane fatty acids, glutathione-peroxidase activity, and cation transport systems of erythrocytes and malondialdehyde production by platelets in Laurence Moon Barter Biedl syndrome.  

PubMed

The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane, the glutathione-peroxidase activity of erythrocytes and platelets, the production of malondialdehyde by platelets and the activity of the main systems of transmembrane cation transport have been studied in 5 members of a family, 2 of whom affected by Laurence-Moon-Barter-Biedl Syndrome. A remarkable increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids (particularly arachidonic acid) and of cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio has been noted. This pattern of membrane lipids was associated to an increment of malondialdehyde production and an increase activity of glutathione-peroxidase. Serum retinol and a-tocopherol were in the normal range, whereas serum selenium was low in 3 out of 5 members. Moreover, the alteration of membrane lipids was associated to a decrease of the maximal velocity of Li-Na countertransport. We speculate that the enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cell membranes may represent a condition favoring the lipoperoxidation and therefore the development of the retinitis pigmentosa characteristic feature of Laurence-Moon-Barter-Biedl Syndrome. PMID:2794372

Corrocher, R; Guadagnin, L; de Gironcoli, M; Girelli, D; Guarini, P; Olivieri, O; Caffi, S; Stanzial, A M; Ferrari, S; Grigolini, L

1989-01-01

322

Seasonal Variations in Fatty Acid Composition and the N-6\\/N-3 Fatty Acid Ratio of Pikeperch (Sander LUCIOPERCA) Muscle Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total lipid, fatty acid composition and the N-6\\/N-3 fatty acid ratios of muscle of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) was determined once every two months. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) was higher than half of the total fatty acid content, and the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) was higher than the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. The n-3 fatty acids were

Kazim Uysal; M. Yasar Aksoylar

2005-01-01

323

Biosynthesis of fatty acids by Trypanosoma cruzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of [1-14C] acetate into fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes ofTrypanosoma cruzi was studied. After 8, 24, and 48 hr incubation with labeled precursor, up to 2.8% of the initial radioactivity added to the\\u000a medium was found in theT. cruzi long chain fatty acids. Saturated (16?0 and 18?0), monounsaturated (18?1?9), and diunsaturated (18?2?6) fatty acids were\\u000a synthesized. Both the

Ernesto E. Aeberhard; Mirta G. de Lema; Delia I. H. Bronia

1981-01-01

324

Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.  

PubMed

This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts had a much higher antifungal activity than antifungal compounds isolated from the growth medium by many other authors. This indicates that probiotics may also release antifungal compounds in their cells that could contribute to a therapeutic effect. Lactic acid (1) and 6-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,6-di-O-pentadecanoyl-?-D-glucopyranose a novel fatty acid derivative (2) were isolated from methanol probiotic extracts and the structure of these compounds were elucidated using NMR (1 and 2D) and mass spectrometry (MS). PMID:24996359

Nyanzi, Richard; Awouafack, Maurice D; Steenkamp, Paul; Jooste, Piet J; Eloff, Jacobus N

2014-12-01

325

Correlation of inhibitor effects on enzyme activity and thermal stability for the integral membrane protein fatty acid amide hydrolase  

PubMed Central

The melting curves of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the presence of 29 reversible inhibitors were measured using a thiol-reactive fluorophore. The thermal stability (Tm) of the FAAH/inhibitor complex varied significantly depending on the chemical characteristics of the inhibitors, notably variations in the head group. Two separate distributions were observed when Tm was plotted againt Ki. The majority of the inhibitors showed a positive correlation between binding affinity and Tm, however inhibitors with a pyridine carboxylic acid moiety in the head group fell in a distinct and uncorrelated distribution when tail groups were varied.

Slaymaker, Ian; Bracey, Michael; Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Cravatt, Benjamin; Boger, Dale; Stevens, Raymond C.

2009-01-01

326

Maternal micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids, and placental PPAR? expression.  

PubMed

An altered one-carbon cycle is known to influence placental and fetal development. We hypothesize that deficiency of maternal micronutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 will lead to increased oxidative stress, reduced long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and altered expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR?) in the placenta, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to these diets will increase the expression of PPAR?. Female rats were divided into 5 groups: control, folic acid deficient, vitamin B12 deficient, folic acid deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented, and vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented. Dams were dissected on gestational day 20. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to lower (p < 0.05) levels of placental docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, PPAR? expression and higher (p < 0.05) levels of plasma malonidialdehyde, placental IL-6, and TNF-?. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalized the expression of PPAR? and lowered the levels of placental TNF-?. In the case of supplementation to a folic acid deficient diet it lowered the levels of malonidialdehyde and placental IL-6 and TNF-?. This study has implications for fetal growth as oxidative stress, inflammation, and PPAR? are known to play a key role in the placental development. PMID:24749811

Meher, Akshaya P; Joshi, Asmita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

2014-07-01

327

The activity of fatty acid synthase of epidermal keratinocytes is regulated in the lower stratum spinousum and the stratum basale by local inflammation rather than by circulating hormones.  

PubMed

The epidermal keratinocytes produce and secrete lipids to maintain the water barrier of the epidermis. To clarify the regulation of epidermal lipid synthesis, we investigated the hormonal effect on the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) of the keratinocytes, and the expression of FAS in the human skin. In cultured keratinocytes, the FAS activity, assayed by measuring the oxidation of NADPH, was slightly increased by hydrocortisone or testosterone, but not influenced by thyroid hormone, estrogen, progesterone or insulin. In immunohistochemical study of normal human epidermis, FAS was expressed strongly in the stratum granulosum and moderately in the uppermost layer of the stratum spinousum (SS), suggesting that fatty acid synthesis may increase during normal epidermal differentiation. In inflammatory disorders, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, and atopic dermatitis, FAS was also expressed in the lower SS and the stratum basale (SB), resulting in strong staining in the whole layers of the epidermis. Remarkable increase of FAS expression was only observed in the lower SS and the SB. Therefore, the activity of FAS in the epidermis may be regulated in the lower SS and the SB by local inflammation rather than by circulating hormones. In other components of the skin, FAS was strongly expressed not only in adipose tissue and sebaceous glands, which are known as active sites of lipid synthesis, but also in sweat glands, suggesting that the sweat glands can synthesize abundant fatty acids de novo. PMID:11064249

Uchiyama, N; Yamamoto, A; Kameda, K; Yamaguchi, H; Ito, M

2000-11-01

328

Antitumor effect of orlistat, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, is via activation of caspase-3 on human colorectal carcinoma-bearing animal.  

PubMed

We established a HT-29/tk-luc human colorectal carcinoma-bearing animal model for the study of the inhibition effect and mechanism of orlistat, a fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitor. The results showed that orlistat caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and triggered apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. The tumor inhibition effect of orlistat may also due to the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis without altering FASN activity. The tumor size of orlistat-treated mice in vivo was significantly smaller than that of the controls with 55% inhibition. The therapeutic efficacy was further confirmed with the bioluminescent imaging and nuclear molecular imaging with ¹³¹I-FIAU/gamma scintigraphy and ¹¹C-acetate/microPET. We suggest that FASN is a potential target for the treatment of human colorectal carcinoma. PMID:21723078

Chuang, Hui-Yen; Chang, Ya-Fang; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

2011-07-01

329

Role of membrane-associated and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins in cellular fatty acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of membrane-associated and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are now being implicated in the cellular uptake and intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids (FA). These proteins each have the capacity of non-covalent binding of FA, are present in tissues actively involved in FA metabolism, and are upregulated in conditions of increased cellular FA metabolism. To date, five distinct

J. F. C. Glatz; F. A. van Nieuwenhoven; J. J. F. P. Luiken; F. G. Schaap; G. J. van der Vusse

1997-01-01

330

The effect of bio-converted polyunsaturated fatty acids on the oxidation of TAG containing highly unsaturated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial modification of vegetable fatty acids can often lead to special changes in their structure and in biological function.\\u000a A bacterial strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3, is known to carry out multiple hydroxylations on polyunsaturated fatty acids containing 1,4-cis, cis diene structural units, resulting in antibacterial activity. In this paper, in an effort to understand the overall mechanism\\u000a involved in the

Young-Mi Kim; Geon-Ho Lee; Young-Geun Yeo; In-Hwan Kim; Kazuo Miyashita; Ching T. Hou; Sun-Chul Kang; Hak-Ryul Kim

2006-01-01

331

Co-fermentation of waste activated sludge with food waste for short-chain fatty acids production: effect of pH at ambient temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of pH ranging from 4.0 to 11.0 on cofermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) with food waste for short-chain fatty\\u000a acids (SCFAs) production at ambient temperature was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the addition\\u000a of food waste significantly improved the performance of WAS fermentation system, which resulted in the increases of SCFAs\\u000a production and substrate reduction.

Leiyu Feng; Yuanyuan Yan; Yinguang Chen

332

The effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids and\\/or l-carnitine on ovarian activity of Rahmani ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids with or without of l-carnitine on ovarian activity using 24 Rahmani ewes randomly allocated to four treatments. Control animals (n=6) were fed a basal diet of hay (64.2%) and barley grain (35.0%) plus minerals and vitamins (0.8%). Ewes on the three treatments received the

K. H. El-Shahat; Amal M. Abo-El maaty

2010-01-01

333

Synergistic interaction and the role of C-terminus in the activation of TRAAK K + channels by pressure, free fatty acids and alkali  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRAAK is a member of the tandem-pore K+ channel family, and is expressed mainly in the brain. Using rat TRAAK (rTRAAK), we studied its single-channel kinetics, interactive modes of activation, and the role of the C-terminus on its pressure-, fatty-acid- and pH-sensitivity. When expressed in COS-7 cells, rTRAAK showed a mildly inwardly rectifying single-channel current\\/voltage relationship in symmetrical 140 mM

Yangmi Kim; Hyoweon Bang; Carmen Gnatenco; Donghee Kim

2001-01-01

334

Biochemical characterization and in vitro activity of AZ513, a noncovalent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase.  

PubMed

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) hydrolyzes several bioactive lipids including the endocannabinoid anandamide. Synthetic FAAH inhibitors are being generated to help define the biological role(s) of this enzyme, the lipids it degrades in vivo, and the disease states that might benefit from its pharmacological modulation. AZ513 inhibits human FAAH (IC(50)=551 nM), is 20-fold more potent against rat FAAH (IC(50)=27 nM), and is inactive at 10 ?M against the serine hydrolases acetylcholinesterase, thrombin, and trypsin. In contrast to most other potent FAAH inhibitors, AZ513 showed no evidence of covalently modifying the enzyme and displayed reversible inhibition. In an enzyme cross-competition assay, AZ513 did not compete with OL-135, an inhibitor that binds to the catalytic site in FAAH, which indicates that AZ513 does not bind to the catalytic site and is therefore noncompetitive with respect to substrate. AZ513 has good cell penetration as demonstrated by inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis in human FAAH-transfected HEK293 cells (IC(50)=360 nM). AZ513 was tested in a rat spinal cord slice preparation where CB(1) activation reduces excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs). In this native tissue assay of synaptic activity, AZ513 reduced EPSCs, which is consistent with inhibiting endogenous FAAH and augmenting endocannabinoid tone. AZ513 has a unique biochemical profile compared with other published FAAH inhibitors and will be a useful tool compound to further explore the role of FAAH in various biological processes. PMID:21645511

Scott, Clay W; Tian, Gaochao; Yu, Xiao Hong; Paschetto, Kathy A; Wilkins, Dee E; Meury, Luc; Cao, Chang Qing; Varnes, Jeffrey; Edwards, Philip D

2011-09-30

335

Endoplasmic reticulum microenvironment and conserved histidines govern ELOVL4 fatty acid elongase activity.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) in humans results from mutations in elongation of very long chain FAs-like 4 (ELOVL4), which leads to vision loss in young adults. ELOVL4 is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that mediates the elongation of very long chain (VLC) FAs. Mutations in ELOVL4 lead to truncation and mislocalization of the translated protein from the ER, the site of FA elongation. Little is known about the enzymatic elongation of VLC-FAs by ELOVL4. We over-expressed full-length mouse ELOVL4, an N-glycosylation-deficient mutant, an ER-retention mutant, and mutants of active site histidines to parse their individual roles in VLC-FA elongation. ELOVL4 elongated appropriate precursors to the corresponding VLC-FA species ? 28 carbons. Active site histidine mutants of ELOVL4 did not elongate appropriate precursors, establishing ELOVL4 as the elongase. Displacing ELOVL4 from the ER was sufficient to cause loss of condensation activity, while absence of N-glycosylation was irrelevant for enzyme function. This study shows that ELOVL4 enzymatic activity is governed by individual histidines in its active site and the ER microenvironment, both of which are essential for elongation of VLC-FAs. PMID:24569140

Logan, Sreemathi; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Chan, Michael D; Brush, Richard S; Anderson, Robert E

2014-04-01

336

The fatty acid transport function of fatty acid-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) comprise a family of 14–15 kDa proteins which bind long-chain fatty acids. A role for FABPs in fatty acid transport has been hypothesized for several decades, and the accumulated indirect and correlative evidence is largely supportive of this proposed function. In recent years, a number of experimental approaches which more directly examine the transport

Judith Storch; Alfred E. A Thumser

2000-01-01

337

Requirement for the heart-type fatty acid binding protein in cardiac fatty acid utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonenzymatic cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are abundantly expressed in many animal tissues with high rates of fatty acid metabolism. No physiological role has been demon- strated for any FABP, although these proteins have been implicated in transport of free long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and protection against LCFA toxicity. We report here that mice lacking heart-type FABP (H-FABP) exhibit

BERT BINAS; HEIKE DANNEBERG; LINDA MULLINS; A. JOHN CLARK

338

Does fatty acid-binding protein play a role in fatty acid transport?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible property of fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) to transport fatty acid was investigated in various model systems with FABP preparations from liver and heart. An effect of FABP, however, was not detectable with a combination of oleic acid-loaded mitochondria and vesicles or liposomes due to the rapid spontaneous transfer. Therefore, the mitochondria were separated from the vesicles in an

Roger A. Peeters; Jacques H. Veerkamp

1989-01-01

339

Fatty Acids in Certain Plankton Organisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of fatty acids by four dinoflagellates, two diatoms, and three unidentified unicellular blue-green algae in a synthetic culture medium were studied. Analyses of the Gulf weed (Sargassum), two ctenophores, and a small fish (Fundulus grandis)...

A. Collier

1967-01-01

340

Orlistat Is a Novel Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Synthase with Antitumor Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental principles of pharmacology is that most drugs have side effects. Although considerable attention is paid to detrimental side effects, drugs can also have beneficial side effects. Given the time and expense of drug development, it would be particularly exciting if a sys- tematic method could be applied to reveal all of the activities, including the unappreciated

Steven J. Kridel; Fumiko Axelrod; Natasha Rozenkrantz; Jeffrey W. Smith

2004-01-01

341

Presence, formation and putative biological activities of N-acyl serotonins, a novel class of fatty-acid derived mediators, in the intestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the discovery of the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) and other N-acyl-ethanolamines, several other compounds have been found in which amino acids or neurotransmitters rather than ethanolamide are linked to fatty acids. Studies have shown that the local availability of fatty acid precursors, which in turn is modulated by dietary intake of lipids, determines the pattern of conjugates formed. Less

Kitty C. M. Verhoeckx; Trudy Voortman; Michiel G. J. Balvers; Henk F. J. Hendriks; Heleen M. Wortelboer; Renger F. Witkamp

2011-01-01

342

Palm oil fatty acid as an activator in carbon black filled natural rubber compounds: dynamic properties, curing characteristics, reversion and fatigue studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of palm oil fatty acid and carbon black concentration on dynamic properties, curing characteristics, reversion and fatigue life in natural rubber compounds were studied. The scorch time, t2 and cure time, t90 were found to increase with increasing palm oil fatty acid concentration. For dynamic properties, the maximum elastic torque, increased with increasing acid concentration, whereas the minimum

Hanafi Ismail; H Anuar

2000-01-01

343

Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ? 9-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA\\/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of

Madhu Suman Rana; A. Tyagi; Sk Asraf Hossain

344

Liver fatty acid binding protein expression in colorectal neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver fatty acid binding protein is a member of the fatty acid binding group of proteins that are involved in the intracellular transport of bioactive fatty acids and participate in intracellular signalling pathways, cell growth and differentiation. In this study we have used proteomics and immunohistochemistry to determine the changes in liver fatty acid binding protein in colorectal neoplasia. Comparative

L C Lawrie; S R Dundas; S Curran; G I Murray

2004-01-01

345

Individual free fatty acids in patients with liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total free fatty acids, blood glucose, and individual free fatty acids were studied in 8 patients with viral hepatitis and 13 with cirrhosis. The results were compared with those obtained in 9 normal control subjects. Free fatty acids were significantly elevated in liver patients as compared with normal controls. A fall in free fatty acids following ingestion of amino

Ólafur Gunnlaugsson; Donald Berkowitz

1977-01-01

346

Crystallization Behavior of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel from most agricultural feedstocks has flow properties that are prone to startup and operability problems during\\u000a cold weather. Biodiesel from soybean oil is generally a mixture of long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters composed of 0.15–0.20\\u000a mass fraction saturated esters (melting point [MP] ? 0 °C) mixed with unsaturated esters (MP < 0 °C). This work investigates\\u000a the crystallization properties of two saturated fatty acid methyl

Robert O. Dunn

2008-01-01

347

Zinc and Fatty Acids in Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyunsaturated Fatty acids (PUFAs) seem to be helpful in the therapy of depression. Zinc (Zn) may be one co-factor contributing\\u000a to their antidepressive effect. Zn acts lipid protective and is a constituent of fatty acid metabolism enzymes. In animals,\\u000a an antidepressive effect of Zn was already demonstrated. Therefore, if and how Zn and PUFAs correlate in depressive patients\\u000a or in

Gisela Irmisch; Detlef Schlaefke; Joerg Richter

2010-01-01

348

Component fatty acids of some cruciferae oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The oils from yellow mustard seed (Brassica alba), black mustard seed (Brassica nigra) of Indian origin, and rapeseed (Brassica Compestris) of unknown origin have been analyzed for their fatty acid composition without preliminary resolution of fatty acids by lead-salt-alcohol\\u000a or fractional crystallization methods. The results compare very favorably with those determined by other recently developed\\u000a methods. It may be concluded

S. L. Kapur; B. F. Daubert

1949-01-01

349

Pollution control in the fatty acid industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operations of the fatty acid industry create waste-waters, emissions to the air, and solid wastes which have the potential\\u000a of insulting the quality of the environment in a number of wasy. Some of the controversy and the problems that are current\\u000a in the national environmental effort are discussed. As to the fatty acid industry prospects, some attention may come to

G. N. McDermott

1979-01-01

350

Fatty acid methodology for heated oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criticisms have been voiced concerning the methods employed for determining the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils used\\u000a in processing of fried foods. In the present study seveveral different vegetable oils were heated under standardized conditions,\\u000a at frying temperatures and under air, for various periods of time, and then subjected to analyses for fatty acid composition.\\u000a The methods employed were:

Arthur E. Waltking; Helen Zmachinski

1970-01-01

351

Dietary essential fatty acids, prostaglandins (PG) production and cellular cytotoxic activity in Balb\\/c mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several investigators have implicated PG as natural feedback inhibitors of cellular cytotoxic activity. It was of interest to determine if dietarily modulated PG synthesis alters cytotoxic response to a varial challenge. Weanling Balb\\/c mice were fed ad libitum semi-purified diets with 10% by weight corn oil or linseed oil, providing a 1:42 or 2:1 ratio of 18:3n-3 to 18:2n-6, respectively

K. L. Fritsche; P. V. Johnston

1986-01-01

352

Effect of extracellular fatty acids on lipid metabolism in cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes  

SciTech Connect

Rabbit articular chondrocytes were cultured for 8 h in the presence of various concentrations (5-500 microM) of {sup 14}C oleic, {sup 14}C linoleic, and {sup 3H} arachidonic acids. The radioactive unsaturated fatty acids were incorporated into triacylglycerol (TG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a concentration-dependent manner; more fatty acids were incorporated into TG than into PC, at higher concentrations of extracellular fatty acids. Among these fatty acids, arachidonic acid was incorporated into TG much more than into PC, in spite of a very low concentration of arachidonic acid in TG. After transfer of the labeled cells to maintenance medium, the radioactivity in TG declined rapidly and {sup 3}H arachidonic acid radioactivity in PC increased continuously during the chase time periods. Palmitoyl-unsaturated species were mainly formed in PC when cultured at a concentration of 5 microM of each fatty acid. However, when cultured at 500 microM, unsaturated-unsaturated species, specific for each unsaturated fatty acid were actively formed. These findings indicate that (1) fatty acid composition of TG and PC in articular chondrocytes is influenced by the degree of fatty acid supply, (2) formation and turnover of TG plays a role in fatty acid metabolism of cells, and (3) fatty acid pairing in PC is modulated by extracellular fatty acid concentrations.

Nagao, M.; Ishii, S.; Murata, Y.; Akino, T. (Sapporo Medical College (Japan))

1991-05-01

353

Cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac societies recommend the intake of 1 g\\/day of the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for cardiovascular disease prevention, treatment after a myocardial infarction, prevention of sudden death, and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. These recommendations are based on a body of scientific evidence that encompasses literally thousands of publications. Of four large scale

Clemens von Schacky; William S. Harris

2007-01-01

354

Dietary fatty acids and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable amount of evidence has accumulated to support the view that the very long chain omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have beneficial cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory properties and that levels of their consumption are insufficient in most Western diets. More recently, attention has been given to the possibility that the precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha

Christine M. Williams

2000-01-01

355

Composition and antimicrobial activity of fatty acids detected in the hygroscopic secretion collected from the secretory setae of larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).  

PubMed

The hygroscopic secretion produced by the secretory setae of terrestrial larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The viscous secretion is stored at the top of each seta and absorbs water from moist air. GC-MS analyses (four independent tests) showed that the secretion contained 12 free fatty acids, the most abundant of which were oleic (18:1), palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and linoleic (18:2). Other acids identified were valeric (5:0), enanthic (7:0), caprylic (8:0), pelargonic (9:0), capric (10:0), lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0) and stearic (18:0). Two other compounds, glycerol and pyroglutamic acid, were also found. The antibacterial activity of the fatty acids and pyroglutamic acid was tested using the agar disc diffusion method and targeted Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative bacterial strains (Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens). The antifungal activity was tested by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of examined compounds. Fatty acids were tested against enthomopathogenic fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana (Tve-N39), Beauveria bassiana (Dv-1/07)). The most effective acids against bacterial and fungal growth were C(9:0), C(10:0) and C(16:1), whereas C(14:0), C(16:0,) C(18:0) and C(18:1) demonstrated rather poor antifungal activity and did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial assay investigated mixtures of fatty and pyroglutamic acids (corresponding to the results of each GC-MS test): they were found to be active against almost all the bacteria except P. fluorescens and also demonstrated certain fungistatic activity against enthomopathogenic fungi. The hygroscopic secretion facilitates cuticular respiration and plays an important role in the antimicrobial protection of F. nigra larvae living in moist terrestrial habitats. PMID:22781366

Urbanek, Aleksandra; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Stepnowski, Piotr; Boros-Majewska, Joanna; Gabriel, Iwona; Dawgul, Ma?gorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Sosnowska, Danuta; Go??biowski, Marek

2012-09-01

356

Fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence. PMID:22623494

Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

2012-05-01

357

Is There a Fatty Acid Taste?  

PubMed Central

Taste is a chemical sense that aids in the detection of nutrients and guides food choice. A limited number of primary qualities comprise taste. Accumulating evidence has raised a question about whether fat should be among them. Most evidence indicates triacylglycerol is not an effective taste stimulus, though it clearly contributes sensory properties to foods by carrying flavor compounds and altering texture. However, there is increasing anatomical, electrophysiological, animal behavior, imaging, metabolic, and psychophysical evidence that free fatty acids are detectable when non-taste cues are minimized. Free fatty acids varying in saturation and chain length are detectable, suggesting the presence of multiple transduction mechanisms and/or a nonspecific mechanism in the oral cavity. However, confirmation of “fatty” as a taste primary will require additional studies that verify these observations are taste specific. Oral exposure to free fatty acids likely serves as a warning signal to discourage intake and influences lipid metabolism.

Mattes, Richard D.

2010-01-01

358

Membrane-associated and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of cellular fatty acid-binding proteins are being implicated in the uptake and intracellular transport of long-chain\\u000a fatty acids by parenchymal cells. Having been a topic of research for more than 20 years, cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins\\u000a now are assigned various pivotal functions in intracellular fatty acid transport and metabolism. More recently several membrane-associated\\u000a fatty acid-binding proteins have been

F. A. Van Nieuwenhoven; G. J. Van der Vusse; J. F. C. Glatz

1996-01-01

359

Functional Characterization of Flax Fatty Acid Desaturase FAD2 and FAD3 Isoforms Expressed in Yeast Reveals a Broad Diversity in Activity.  

PubMed

With 45 % or more oil content that contains more than 55 % alpha linolenic (LIN) acid, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the richest plant sources of this essential fatty acid. Fatty acid desaturases 2 (FAD2) and 3 (FAD3) are the main enzymes responsible for the ?12 and ?15 desaturation in planta. In linseed, the oilseed morphotype of flax, two paralogous copies, and several alleles exist for each gene. Here, we cloned three alleles of FAD2A, four of FAD2B, six of FAD3A, and seven of FAD3B into a pYES vector and transformed all 20 constructs and an empty construct in yeast. The transformants were induced in the presence of oleic (OLE) acid substrate for FAD2 constructs and linoleic (LIO) acid for FAD3. Conversion rates of OLE acid into LIO acid and LIO acid into LIN acid were measured by gas chromatography. Conversion rate of FAD2 exceeded that of FAD3 enzymes with FAD2B having a conversion rate approximately 10 % higher than FAD2A. All FAD2 isoforms were active, but significant differences existed between isoforms of both FAD2 enzymes. Two FAD3A and three FAD3B isoforms were not functional. Some nonfunctional enzymes resulted from the presence of nonsense mutations causing premature stop codons, but FAD3B-C and FAD3B-F seem to be associated with single amino acid changes. The activity of FAD3A-C was more than fivefold greater than the most common isoform FAD3A-A, while FAD3A-F was fourfold greater. Such isoforms could be incorporated into breeding lines to possibly further increase the proportion of LIN acid in linseed. PMID:24522837

Radovanovic, Natasa; Thambugala, Dinushika; Duguid, Scott; Loewen, Evelyn; Cloutier, Sylvie

2014-07-01

360

FadD Is Required for Utilization of Endogenous Fatty Acids Released from Membrane Lipids ? †  

PubMed Central

FadD is an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase responsible for the activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into acyl-CoAs. Mutation of fadD in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti promotes swarming motility and leads to defects in nodulation of alfalfa plants. In this study, we found that S. meliloti fadD mutants accumulated a mixture of free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. The composition of the free fatty acid pool and the results obtained after specific labeling of esterified fatty acids with a ?5-desaturase (?5-Des) were in agreement with membrane phospholipids being the origin of the released fatty acids. Escherichia coli fadD mutants also accumulated free fatty acids released from membrane lipids in the stationary phase. This phenomenon did not occur in a mutant of E. coli with a deficient FadL fatty acid transporter, suggesting that the accumulation of fatty acids in fadD mutants occurs inside the cell. Our results indicate that, besides the activation of exogenous LCFA, in bacteria FadD plays a major role in the activation of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids. Furthermore, expression analysis performed with S. meliloti revealed that a functional FadD is required for the upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid degradation and suggested that in the wild-type strain, the fatty acids released from membrane lipids are degraded by ?-oxidation in the stationary phase of growth.

Pech-Canul, Angel; Nogales, Joaquina; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Alvarez, Laura; Geiger, Otto; Soto, Maria Jose; Lopez-Lara, Isabel M.

2011-01-01

361

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and FFAR4  

PubMed Central

The beneficial roles of omega-3 fatty acids (?3-FAs) on obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases are well known. Most of these effects can be explained by their anti-inflammatory effects triggered through their receptor, free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4) activation. Although the whole mechanism of action is not fully described yet, it has been shown that stimulation of ?3-FA to FFAR4 is followed by receptor phosphorylation. This makes FFAR4 to be capable of interacting with ?-arrestin-2, which in turn, results in association of ?-arrestin-2 with TAB1. This stealing of an important partaker of the inflammatory cascade leads to interruption of the pathway, resulting in reduced inflammation. Besides this regulation of the anti-inflammatory response, FFAR4 signaling also has been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis, adiposity, gastrointestinal peptide secretion, and taste preference. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the interaction of ?3-FAs with FFAR4 and the consequent opportunities for the application of ?3-FAs and possible FFAR4 targets.

Oh, Da Young; Walenta, Evelyn

2014-01-01

362

Regulation of sphingosine-activated protein kinases: selectivity of activation by sphingoid bases and inhibition by non-esterified fatty acids.  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine has been shown to activate protein kinases in Jurkat T cell cytosol [Pushkareva, Khan, Alessenko, Sahyoun and Hannun (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 15246-15251]. In this study, two sphingosine-activated protein kinases were distinguished by their substrate specificity, their dose-response to sphingosine and the specificity of their activation by sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine stereoisomers. A p32-sphingosine-activated protein kinase responded to low concentrations of D-erythrosphingosine with an initial activation observed at 2.5 microM and a peak activity at 10-20 microM. This kinase showed a modest specificity for D-erythro-sphingosine over other sphingosine stereoisomers, and a preference for sphingosines over dihydrosphingosines. Phosphorylation of a p18 substrate required higher concentrations of sphingosine (20-100 microM) and showed a significant preference for the erythro isomers of sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine over the threo isomers. The ability of other lipids to modulate sphingosine activation of these kinases was also examined. Oleic acid, but not oleic alcohol or the methyl ester, induced the phosphorylation of a distinct set of substrates (probably through the activation of protein kinase C), and inhibited sphingosine-induced phosphorylation with an IC50 of approximately 20 microM. Oleic anhydride failed to induce changes in basal protein phosphorylation but inhibited sphingosine-activated protein kinases, thus distinguishing the effects of fatty acids on protein kinase C from the inhibition of sphingosine-induced phosphorylation. These studies define two distinct sphingosine-activated protein kinases and reveal an important interaction between two classes of putative lipid second messengers. Images Figure 1 Figure 4

Pushkareva MYu; Bielawska, A; Menaldiv, D; Liotta, D; Hannun, Y A

1993-01-01

363

Stereoselective oxidation of regioisomeric octadecenoic acids by fatty acid dioxygenases  

PubMed Central

Seven Z-octadecenoic acids having the double bond located in positions 6Z to 13Z were photooxidized. The resulting hydroperoxy-E-octadecenoic acids [HpOME(E)] were resolved by chiral phase-HPLC-MS, and the absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by gas chromatographic analysis of diastereoisomeric derivatives. The MS/MS/MS spectra showed characteristic fragments, which were influenced by the distance between the hydroperoxide and carboxyl groups. These fatty acids were then investigated as substrates of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), manganese lipoxygenase (MnLOX), and the (8R)-dioxygenase (8R-DOX) activities of two linoleate diol synthases (LDS) and 10R-DOX. COX-1 and MnLOX abstracted hydrogen at C-11 of (12Z)-18:1 and C-12 of (13Z)-18:1. (11Z)-18:1 was subject to hydrogen abstraction at C-10 by MnLOX and at both allylic positions by COX-1. Both allylic hydrogens of (8Z)-18:1 were also abstracted by 8R-DOX activities of LDS and 10R-DOX, but only the allylic hydrogens close to the carboxyl groups of (11Z)-18:1 and (12Z)-18:1. 8R-DOX also oxidized monoenoic C14-C20 fatty acids with double bonds at the (9Z) position, suggesting that the length of the omega end has little influence on positioning for oxygenation. We conclude that COX-1 and MnLOX can readily abstract allylic hydrogens of octadecenoic fatty acids from C-10 to C-12 and 8R-DOX from C-7 and C-12.

Oliw, Ernst H.; Wennman, Anneli; Hoffmann, Inga; Garscha, Ulrike; Hamberg, Mats; Jerneren, Fredrik

2011-01-01

364

Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

1986-09-01

365

Inhibition of interferon gamma-induced macrophage microbicidal activity against Leishmania major by liposomes: inhibition is dependent upon composition of phospholipid headgroups and fatty acids.  

PubMed

Multilamellar liposomes of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine at a 7:3 molar ratio significantly inhibited activation of murine resident peritoneal macrophages by recombinant murine interferon-gamma for cytotoxicity against amastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major; other macrophage effector functions, such as particle phagocytosis or tumoricidal activity, were unaffected. This inhibition was not due to direct toxic effects of liposomes against parasite or macrophage, was fully reversible, and was directed at one or more early events in macrophage-LK interactions which ultimately induce microbicidal activity. Liposomes containing some natural phospholipids (phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid or diphosphatidyl glycerol), but not phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, or several synthetic saturated phospholipids, prevented the induction of macrophage microbicidal activity. Inhibition by liposomes of various composition was not related to the efficiency with which these vesicles were ingested by macrophages. Inhibitory activity was directly influenced by changes in the phospholipid head group, as well as by the number of unsaturated bonds in phospholipid fatty acids: for a given phospholipid in liposomes, inhibition was directly related to the number of unsaturated bonds among the fatty acids. These data support a role for phospholipids in postbinding regulation of macrophage activation and add to our understanding of how liposome delivery systems can be designed to avoid potential microbicidal suppressive effects. PMID:2495252

Gilbreath, M J; Fogler, W E; Swartz, G M; Alving, C R; Meltzer, M S

1989-01-01

366

Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Kidney of Normotensive and Genetically Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Fatty acid binding protein was purified from renal medulla, and its binding activity and fatty acid composition were determined in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as controls. Fatty acid binding activity was higher in 5- week-old prehypertensive SHRSP than in control WKY (0.155 ± 0.006 vs 0.030 ± 0.001 mol palmitic acid\\/mol protein). However,

SATOSHI FUJII; HIDEAKI KAWAGUCHI; HISAKAZU YASUDA

367

Acute regulation of 5?-AMP-activated protein kinase by long-chain fatty acid, glucose and insulin in rat primary adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Palmitate increased AMPK (5?-AMP-activated protein kinase) activity, glucose utilization and 2-DOG (2-deoxyglucose) transport in rat adipocytes. All three effects were blocked by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, leading to the conclusion that in response to an increase in long-chain NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid) concentration AMPK mediated an enhancement of adipocyte glucose transport, thereby providing increased glycerol 3-phosphate for FA (fatty acid) esterification to TAG (triacylglycerol). Activation of AMPK in response to palmitate was not due to an increase in the adipocyte AMP:ATP ratio. Glucose decreased AMPK activity and effects of palmitate and glucose on AMPK activity were antagonistic. While insulin had no effect on basal AMPK activity insulin did decrease AMPK activity in the presence of palmitate and also decreased the percentage effectiveness of palmitate to increase the transport of 2-DOG. It is suggested that activation of adipocyte AMPK by NEFA, as well as decreasing the activity of hormone-sensitive lipase, could modulate adipose tissue dynamics by increasing FA esterification and, under certain circumstances, FA synthesis.

Hebbachi, Abdel; Saggerson, David

2012-01-01

368

Acute regulation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase by long-chain fatty acid, glucose and insulin in rat primary adipocytes.  

PubMed

Palmitate increased AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase) activity, glucose utilization and 2-DOG (2-deoxyglucose) transport in rat adipocytes. All three effects were blocked by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, leading to the conclusion that in response to an increase in long-chain NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid) concentration AMPK mediated an enhancement of adipocyte glucose transport, thereby providing increased glycerol 3-phosphate for FA (fatty acid) esterification to TAG (triacylglycerol). Activation of AMPK in response to palmitate was not due to an increase in the adipocyte AMP:ATP ratio. Glucose decreased AMPK activity and effects of palmitate and glucose on AMPK activity were antagonistic. While insulin had no effect on basal AMPK activity insulin did decrease AMPK activity in the presence of palmitate and also decreased the percentage effectiveness of palmitate to increase the transport of 2-DOG. It is suggested that activation of adipocyte AMPK by NEFA, as well as decreasing the activity of hormone-sensitive lipase, could modulate adipose tissue dynamics by increasing FA esterification and, under certain circumstances, FA synthesis. PMID:23095119

Hebbachi, Abdel; Saggerson, David

2013-01-01

369

Dengue virus nonstructural protein 3 redistributes fatty acid synthase to sites of viral replication and increases cellular fatty acid synthesis.  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) modifies cellular membranes to establish its sites of replication. Although the 3D architecture of these structures has recently been described, little is known about the cellular pathways required for their formation and expansion. In this report, we examine the host requirements for DENV replication using a focused RNAi analysis combined with validation studies using pharmacological inhibitors. This approach identified three cellular pathways required for DENV replication: autophagy, actin polymerization, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Further characterization of the viral modulation of fatty acid biosynthesis revealed that a key enzyme in this pathway, fatty acid synthase (FASN), is relocalized to sites of DENV replication. DENV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is responsible for FASN recruitment, inasmuch as (i) NS3 expressed in the absence of other viral proteins colocalizes with FASN and (ii) NS3 interacts with FASN in a two-hybrid assay. There is an associated increase in the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis in DENV-infected cells, and de novo synthesized lipids preferentially cofractionate with DENV RNA. Finally, purified recombinant NS3 stimulates the activity of FASN in vitro. Taken together, these experiments suggest that DENV co-opts the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway to establish its replication complexes. This study provides mechanistic insight into DENV membrane remodeling and highlights the potential for the development of therapeutics that inhibit DENV replication by targeting the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. PMID:20855599

Heaton, Nicholas S; Perera, Rushika; Berger, Kristi L; Khadka, Sudip; Lacount, Douglas J; Kuhn, Richard J; Randall, Glenn

2010-10-01

370

An Immunomodulating Fatty Acid Analogue Targeting Mitochondria Exerts Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect beyond Plasma Cholesterol-Lowering Activity in apoE-/- Mice  

PubMed Central

Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a hypolipidemic antioxidant with immunomodulating properties involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and proliferation of mitochondria. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of TTA on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein (apo)-E-/- mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.3% TTA for 12 weeks. These mice displayed a significantly less atherosclerotic development vs control. Plasma cholesterol was increased by TTA administration and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in plasma and liver were decreased by TTA supplementation, the latter, probably due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipogenesis. TTA administration also changed the fatty acid composition in the heart, and the amount of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was reduced and increased, respectively. The heart mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxidase (NOS)-2 was decreased in TTA-treated mice, whereas the mRNA level of catalase was increased. Finally, reduced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators as IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-? and IFN-? were detected in TTA-treated mice. These data show that TTA reduces atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice and modulates risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders. TTA probably acts at both systemic and vascular levels in a manner independent of changes in plasma cholesterol, and triggers TAG catabolism through improved mitochondrial function.

Parolini, Cinzia; Bj?rndal, Bodil; Holm, Sverre; Bohov, Pavol; Halvorsen, Bente; Brattelid, Trond; Manzini, Stefano; Ganzetti, Giulia S.; Dellera, Federica; Nygard, Ottar K.; Aukrust, Pal; Sirtori, Cesare R.; Chiesa, Giulia; Berge, Rolf K.

2013-01-01

371

Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.  

PubMed

Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

2013-04-01

372

Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway  

PubMed Central

Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE–luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate–cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids.