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Sample records for activated fatty acids

  1. Saturated Fatty Acid Activates but Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Inhibits Toll-like Receptor 2 Dimerized with

    E-print Network

    Lee, Won-Ha

    Saturated Fatty Acid Activates but Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Inhibits Toll-like Receptor 2 Dimerized with Toll-like Receptor 6 or 1* Received for publication, November 30, 2003, and in revised form, Massachusetts 01605 Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 agonists from bacterial origin require acylated

  2. Physiological activities of hydroxyl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the search of value-added products from surplus soybean oil, we produced many new hydroxy fatty acids through microbial bioconversion. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial products, such as resins, waxes, nylons plastics, lubricants, cosmetics, and additives in coatings and...

  3. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. PMID:25510639

  4. Reconciling Ligase Ribozyme Activity with Fatty Acid Vesicle Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anella, Fabrizio; Danelon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The “RNA world” and the “Lipid world” theories for the origin of cellular life are often considered incompatible due to the differences in the environmental conditions at which they can emerge. One obstacle resides in the conflicting requirements for divalent metal ions, in particular Mg2+, with respect to optimal ribozyme activity, fatty acid vesicle stability and protection against RNA strand cleavage. Here, we report on the activity of a short L1 ligase ribozyme in the presence of myristoleic acid (MA) vesicles at varying concentrations of Mg2+. The ligation rate is significantly lower at low-Mg2+ conditions. However, the loss of activity is overcompensated by the increased stability of RNA leading to a larger amount of intact ligated substrate after long reaction periods. Combining RNA ligation assays with fatty acid vesicles we found that MA vesicles made of 5 mM amphiphile are stable and do not impair ligase ribozyme activity in the presence of approximately 2 mM Mg2+. These results provide a scenario in which catalytic RNA and primordial membrane assembly can coexist in the same environment. PMID:25513761

  5. A FAD2 homologue from Lesquerella lindheimeri has predominantly fatty acid hydroxylase activity,

    E-print Network

    Kunst, Ljerka

    indicated that hydroxy fatty acids are formed by the hydroxylation of oleic acid to form ricinoleic acid [2A FAD2 homologue from Lesquerella lindheimeri has predominantly fatty acid hydroxylase activity of the gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the synthesis of ricinoleic acid and very low

  6. Fatty acid extracts from Lucilia sericata larvae promote murine cutaneous wound healing by angiogenic activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background fatty acids are considered to be effective components to promote wound healing and Lucilia sericata larvae are applied clinically to treat intractable wounds. We aimed to investigat the effect of fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae on murine cutaneuous wound healing as well as angiogenesis. Results On day 7 and 10 after murine acute excision wounds creation, the percent wound contraction of fatty acid extracts group was higher than that of vaseline group. On day 3, 7 and 10 after wounds creation, the wound healing quality of fatty acid extracts group was better than that of vaseline group on terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. On day 3 after wounds creation, the micro vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression of fatty acid extracts group were higher than that of vaseline group. Component analysis of the fatty acid extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed there were 10 kinds of fatty acids in total and the ratio of saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was: 20.57%:60.32%:19.11%. Conclusions Fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae, four fifths of which are unsaturated fatty acids, can promote murine cutaneous wound healing probably resulting from the powerful angiogenic activity of the extracts. PMID:20211009

  7. Epoxide hydrolase activities and epoxy fatty acids in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Epoxide hydrolase activities and epoxy fatty acids in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Jiawen Xu Available online 14 February 2015 Keywords: Mosquito Epoxide hydrolase Epoxy fatty acid Eicosanoid Inhibitor forms of epoxide hydrolases were present. We found EH activities on epoxy eicosatrienoic acids (EETs

  8. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  9. Fatty acids and neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Belkind-Gerson, J; Carreón-Rodríguez, A; Contreras-Ochoa, C O; Estrada-Mondaca, S; Parra-Cabrera, M S

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the importance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in neurodevelopment was originally obtained from animal studies. These fatty acids are rapidly accreted in brain during the first postnatal year in animal and human infants, and they are found in high concentrations in breast milk. Reports of enhanced intellectual development in breast-fed children, and reports linking LCPUFA deficiency with neurodevelopmental disorders have stressed the physiological importance of DHA in visual and neural systems. In addition to high concentrations of fatty acids in breast milk, they are also present in fish and algae oil and have recently been added to infant formulas. Esterified poplyunsaturated fatty acids act in cellular membranes, in signal transduction, in neurotransmission, and in the formation of lipid rafts. Nonesterified polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate gene expression and ion channel activities, thus becoming neuroprotective agents. The conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid into ARA and DHA have led to randomized clinical trials that have studied whether infant formulas supplemented with DHA or both DHA and ARA would enhance visual and cognitive development. This review gives an overview of fatty acids and neurodevelopment, focusing on the findings from these studies. PMID:18667917

  10. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  11. Bactericidal Activity of the Human Skin Fatty Acid cis-6-Hexadecanoic Acid on Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, Michaël L.; England, Simon R.; Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Josten, Michaele; Turner, Robert; Rauter, Yvonne; Hurd, Alexander; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Human skin fatty acids are a potent aspect of our innate defenses, giving surface protection against potentially invasive organisms. They provide an important parameter in determining the ecology of the skin microflora, and alterations can lead to increased colonization by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Harnessing skin fatty acids may also give a new avenue of exploration in the generation of control measures against drug-resistant organisms. Despite their importance, the mechanism(s) whereby skin fatty acids kill bacteria has remained largely elusive. Here, we describe an analysis of the bactericidal effects of the major human skin fatty acid cis-6-hexadecenoic acid (C6H) on the human commensal and pathogen S. aureus. Several C6H concentration-dependent mechanisms were found. At high concentrations, C6H swiftly kills cells associated with a general loss of membrane integrity. However, C6H still kills at lower concentrations, acting through disruption of the proton motive force, an increase in membrane fluidity, and its effects on electron transfer. The design of analogues with altered bactericidal effects has begun to determine the structural constraints on activity and paves the way for the rational design of new antistaphylococcal agents. PMID:24709265

  12. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Activate Calcium Channels in Ventricular Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, James Min-Che; Xian, Hu; Bacaner, Marvin

    1992-07-01

    Nonesterified fatty acids accumulate at sites of tissue injury and necrosis. In cardiac tissue the concentrations of oleic acid, arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, and other fatty acids increase greatly during ischemia due to receptor or nonreceptor-mediated activation of phospholipases and/or diminished reacylation. In ischemic myocardium, the time course of increase in fatty acids and tissue calcium closely parallels irreversible cardiac damage. We postulated that fatty acids released from membrane phospholipids may be involved in the increase of intracellular calcium. We report here that low concentrations (3-30 ?M) of each long-chain unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic) and saturated (palmitic, stearic, and arachidic) fatty acid tested induced multifold increases in voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) in cardiac myocytes. In contrast, neither short-chain fatty acids (<12 carbons) or fatty acid esters (oleic and palmitic methyl esters) had any effect on ICa, indicating that activation of calcium channels depended on chain length and required a free carboxyl group. Inhibition of protein kinases C and A, G proteins, eicosanoid production, or nonenzymatic oxidation did not block the fatty acid-induced increase in ICa. Thus, long-chain fatty acids appear to directly activate ICa, possibly by acting at some lipid sites near the channels or directly on the channel protein itself. We suggest that the combined effects of fatty acids released during ischemia on ICa may contribute to ischemia-induced pathogenic events on the heart that involve calcium, such as arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and myocardial damage due to cytotoxic calcium overload.

  13. Expression and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae with high activity on epoxy fatty acids

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    on epoxy fatty acids Jiawen Xu, Christophe Morisseau, Bruce D. Hammock* Department of Entomology hydrolase Anopheles gambiae Epoxy fatty acids a b s t r a c t In insects, epoxide hydrolases (EHs) playEH had the greatest activity on long chain epoxy fatty acids such as 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14

  14. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  15. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPAR{alpha} activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR{gamma} agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

  16. Phosphatidate Phosphatase Activity Plays Key Role in Protection against Fatty Acid-induced Toxicity in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Fakas, Stylianos; Qiu, Yixuan; Dixon, Joseph L.; Han, Gil-Soo; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Sturley, Stephen L.; Carman, George M.

    2011-01-01

    The PAH1-encoded phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pivotal enzyme that produces diacylglycerol for the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and simultaneously controls the level of PA used for phospholipid synthesis. Quantitative lipid analysis showed that the pah1? mutation caused a reduction in TAG mass and an elevation in the mass of phospholipids and free fatty acids, changes that were more pronounced in the stationary phase. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the pah1? mutant were unaltered, although the ratio of palmitoleic acid to oleic acid was increased with a similar change in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The pah1? mutant exhibited classic hallmarks of apoptosis in stationary phase and a marked reduction in the quantity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Cells lacking PA phosphatase were sensitive to exogenous fatty acids in the order of toxicity palmitoleic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid. In contrast, the growth of wild type cells was not inhibited by fatty acid supplementation. In addition, wild type cells supplemented with palmitoleic acid exhibited an induction in PA phosphatase activity and an increase in TAG synthesis. Deletion of the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which counteracts PA phosphatase in controlling PA content, suppressed the defect in lipid droplet formation in the pah1? mutant. However, the sensitivity of the pah1? mutant to palmitoleic acid was not rescued by the dgk1? mutation. Overall, these findings indicate a key role of PA phosphatase in TAG synthesis for protection against fatty acid-induced toxicity. PMID:21708942

  17. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Duncan, Robin E.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Archer, Michael C.

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare utilization of fatty acids produced by FASN to those derived exogenously. • Cancer cells do not have a specific requirement for fatty acids produced by FASN. • Fatty acids produced by FASN are in excess of cell requirements and are excreted. • Increased FASN activity is not required to sustain elevations in glycolysis.

  18. Brain microsomal fatty acid elongation is increased in abcd1-deficient mouse during active myelination phase.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masashi; Kawamichi, Misato; Shimura, Yusuke; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Watanabe, Shiro; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2015-12-01

    The dysfunction of ABCD1, a peroxisomal ABC protein, leads to the perturbation of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism and is the cause of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Abcd1-deficient mice exhibit an accumulation of saturated VLCFAs, such as C26:0, in all tissues, especially the brain. The present study sought to measure microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain of wild-type (WT) and abcd1-deficient mice during the course of development. The fatty acid elongation activity in the microsomal fraction was measured by the incorporation of [2-(14)C]malonyl-CoA into fatty acids in the presence of C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA. Cytosolic fatty acid synthesis activity was completely inhibited by the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain was significantly high at 3 weeks after birth and decreased substantially at 3 months after birth. Furthermore, we detected two different types of microsomal fatty acid elongation activity by using C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA as the substrate and found the activity toward C20:0-CoA in abcd1-deficient mice was higher than the WT 3-week-old animals. These results suggest that during the active myelination phase the microsomal fatty acid elongation activity is stimulated in abcd1-deficient mice, which in turn perturbs the lipid composition in myelin. PMID:26108493

  19. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  20. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

  1. The biological activities of protein/oleic acid complexes reside in the fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Angelo; Spolaore, Barbara; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia

    2013-06-01

    A complex formed by human ?-lactalbumin (?-LA) and oleic acid (OA), named HAMLET, has been shown to have an apoptotic activity leading to the selective death of tumor cells. In numerous publications it has been reported that in the complex ?-LA is monomeric and adopts a partly folded or "molten globule" state, leading to the idea that partly folded proteins can have "beneficial effects". The protein/OA molar ratio initially has been reported to be 1:1, while recent data have indicated that the OA-complex is given by an oligomeric protein capable of binding numerous OA molecules per protein monomer. Proteolytic fragments of ?-LA, as well as other proteins unrelated to ?-LA, can form OA-complexes with biological activities similar to those of HAMLET, thus indicating that a generic protein can form a cytotoxic complex under suitable experimental conditions. Moreover, even the selective tumoricidal activity of HAMLET-like complexes has been questioned. There is recent evidence that the biological activity of long chain unsaturated fatty acids, including OA, can be ascribed to their effect of perturbing the structure of biological membranes and consequently the function of membrane-bound proteins. In general, it has been observed that the cytotoxic effects exerted by HAMLET-like complexes are similar to those reported for OA alone. Overall, these findings can be interpreted by considering that the protein moiety does not have a toxic effect on its own, but merely acts as a solubilising agent for the inherently toxic fatty acid. PMID:23499846

  2. Influence of ethylenediamine-n,n’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) concentration on the bactericidal activity of fatty acids in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethylenediamine-N,N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and antibacterial fatty acids (FA) was examined using the agar diffusion assay. Solutions of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids dissolved in potassium hydroxide (KOH) were supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM ...

  3. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  4. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity.

    PubMed

    Mofford, David M; Adams, Spencer T; Reddy, G S Kiran Kumar; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Miller, Stephen C

    2015-07-15

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain. PMID:26120870

  5. Activation of Exogenous Fatty Acids to Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Cannot Bypass FabI Inhibition in Neisseria.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Bruhn, David F; Frank, Matthew W; Lee, Richard E; Rock, Charles O

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria is a Gram-negative pathogen with phospholipids composed of straight chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides that are not essential. The FabI inhibitor, AFN-1252, was deployed as a chemical biology tool to determine whether Neisseria can bypass the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by incorporating exogenous fatty acids. Neisseria encodes a functional FabI that was potently inhibited by AFN-1252. AFN-1252 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in growing Neisseria, a delayed inhibition of growth phenotype, and minimal inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, showing that its mode of action is through inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. Isotopic fatty acid labeling experiments showed that Neisseria encodes the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipids by an acyl-acyl carrier protein-dependent pathway. However, AFN-1252 remained an effective antibacterial when Neisseria were supplemented with exogenous fatty acids. These results demonstrate that extracellular fatty acids are activated by an acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasN) and validate type II fatty acid synthesis (FabI) as a therapeutic target against Neisseria. PMID:26567338

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Moderate Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Leckie, Regina L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Bhattacharee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Flory, Janine M.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2014-01-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age = 44.42 years, SD = 6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

  7. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  8. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  9. Active role of fatty acid amino acid conjugates in nitrogen metabolidm by Spodoptera litura larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first fatty acid amino acid conjugate (FAC) was isolated from regurgitant of Spodoptera exigua larvae in 1997 [volicitin: N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)- L-glutamine], their role as elicitors of induced responses in plants has been well documented. However, studies of the biosyntheses as well as...

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  11. COPI Activity Coupled with Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Is Required for Viral Replication

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    COPI Activity Coupled with Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Is Required for Viral Replication Sara Cherry1 replication occurs on the surface of virally induced cytoplasmic membranes of cellular origin. How the Golgi apparatus and forms a novel vesicular compartment, on the surface of which viral RNA replication

  12. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  13. Production of Biologically Active Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids have gained industrial attention because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. The bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from ...

  14. Production of Biologically Active Hydroxy Fatty Acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) have gained important attentions because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from different unsatu...

  15. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  16. The antifungal activity of fatty acids of all stages of Sarcophaga carnaria L. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Go??biowski, Marek; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Oleszczak, Alma; Dawgul, Ma?gorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Bogu?, Mieczys?awa I; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    Fatty acids as components of cuticular lipids of insects play a significant role in antifungal in protection against fungal infection. The chemical composition of cuticular and internal extracts obtained from all developmental stages of flesh flies Sarcophaga carnaria was identified. The fatty acids were detected using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and the most abundant for all examined stages were: 18:1 > 16:0 > 16:1 > 18:0 > 18:2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) C20 were found in both, cuticular and internal extracts. GC-MS analysis showed higher relative content of PUFA in adults than in preimaginal stages. Fatty acids alone as well as their cuticular and internal extracts obtained from larvae, pupae male and female of S. carnaria were tested according to their potential antimicrobial activity against entomopathogenic fungi: Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana (Tve-N39) and B. bassiana (Dv-1/07). FA presented diverse antimicrobial activity depending on the length of the chain and the presence of unsaturated bonds. Short chain and unsaturated FA (6:0, 11:0, 13:0) have shown significantly stronger activity against fungi but they were detected in lower concentrations. PUFA inhibit fungal growth more effectively than unsaturated long chain fatty acids. Cuticular and internal extracts of all living forms of S. carnaria exhibited approximately equal activity against tested entomopathogenic fungi. We presumed that the most abundant saturated long chain FA and additionally PUFA founded in our analysis are involved in protecting the flies against fungal infection. PMID:23969191

  17. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping 

    E-print Network

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    measured. The brisket was significantly lower in palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acid than the other seven sampling sites (P = 0.001). The brisket demonstrated the highest values of MUFA (P = 0.001) with the exception of possessing the lowest value... their own fatty acid composition makeup. The primary SFA are palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), whereas the main MUFA is oleic acid (18:1) (Rule, Smith & Romans, 1995). Fatty acid composition is tested and observed regularly because...

  18. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L.) growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%). This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Results: Linolenic acid (45.83%) and oleic acid (47.54%) were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 ±0.011 mg GAE per dry matter) was the potent antioxidant in the assays. Results obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis). Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25050298

  19. In vitro biological activities and fatty acid profiles of Pistacia terebinthus fruits and Pistacia khinjuk seeds.

    PubMed

    Hac?bekiro?lu, I?il; Y?lmaz, Pelin Köseo?lu; Ha?imi, Nesrin; K?l?nç, Ersin; Tolan, Veysel; Kolak, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports in vitro anticholinesterase, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethanol-water extracts prepared from Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits and Pistacia khinjuk Stocks seeds as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and fatty acid compositions. Ethanol and ethanol-water extracts of both species exhibited higher anticholinesterase activity than galanthamine. Among ABTS, DPPH and CUPRAC assays, the highest antioxidant capacity of the extracts was found in the last one. P. terebinthus ethanol extract being rich in flavonoid content showed the best cupric reducing effect. All extracts possessed no antimicrobial activity. The main fatty acid in P. terebinthus fruits (52.52%) and P. khinjuk seeds (59.44%) was found to be oleic acid. Our results indicate that P. terebinthus fruits and P. khinjuk seeds could be a good source of anticholinesterase compounds, and could be phytochemically investigated. PMID:25115646

  20. bZIP67 Regulates the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content of Arabidopsis Seed Oil by Activating FATTY ACID DESATURASE3[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Ana; Kelly, Amélie A.; van Erp, Harrie; Shaw, Eve; Powers, Stephen J.; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seed maturation is accompanied by the deposition of storage oil, rich in the essential ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA). The synthesis of ALA is highly responsive to the level of FATTY ACID DESATURASE3 (FAD3) expression, which is strongly upregulated during embryogenesis. By screening mutants in LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1)–inducible transcription factors using fatty acid profiling, we identified two mutants (lec1-like and bzip67) with a seed lipid phenotype. Both mutants share a substantial reduction in seed ALA content. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that bZIP67 binds G-boxes in the FAD3 promoter and enhances FAD3 expression but that activation is conditional on bZIP67 association with LEC1-LIKE (L1L) and NUCLEAR FACTOR-YC2 (NF-YC2). Although FUSCA3 and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 are required for L1L and bZIP67 expression, neither protein is necessary for [bZIP67:L1L:NF-YC2] to activate FAD3. We conclude that a transcriptional complex containing L1L, NF-YC2, and bZIP67 is induced by LEC1 during embryogenesis and specifies high levels of ALA production for storage oil by activating FAD3 expression. PMID:23995083

  1. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  2. Do fish oil omega-3 fatty acids enhance antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in human atrial myocardium via PPAR? activation?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ethan J; Thayne, Kathleen A; Harris, Mitchel; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Darden, Timothy M; Lark, Daniel S; Williams, John Mark; Chitwood, W Randolph; Kypson, Alan P; Rodriguez, Evelio

    2014-09-10

    Abstract Studies in experimental models suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve metabolic and anti-inflammatory/antioxidant capacity of the heart, although the mechanisms are unclear and translational evidence is lacking. In this study, patients ingested a moderately high dose of n-3 PUFAs (3.4 g/day eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl-esters) for a period of 2-3 weeks before having elective cardiac surgery. Blood was obtained before treatment and at the time of surgery, and myocardial tissue from the right atrium was also dissected during surgery. Blood EPA levels increased and myocardial tissue EPA and DHA levels were significantly higher in n-3 PUFA-treated patients compared with untreated, standard-of-care control patients. Interestingly, n-3 PUFA patients had greater nuclear transactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), fatty acid metabolic gene expression, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration supported by palmitoyl-carnitine in the atrial myocardium, despite no difference in mitochondrial content. Myocardial tissue from n-3 PUFA patients also displayed greater expression and activity of key antioxidant/anti-inflammatory enzymes. These findings lead to our hypothesis that PPAR? activation is a mechanism by which fish oil n-3 PUFAs enhance mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and antioxidant capacity in human atrial myocardium, and that this preoperative therapeutic regimen may be optimal for mitigating oxidative/inflammatory stress associated with cardiac surgery. PMID:24597798

  3. Antifungal hydroxy fatty acids produced during sourdough fermentation: microbial and enzymatic pathways, and antifungal activity in bread.

    PubMed

    Black, Brenna A; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter(-1). Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter(-1). L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter(-1) (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  4. Antifungal Hydroxy Fatty Acids Produced during Sourdough Fermentation: Microbial and Enzymatic Pathways, and Antifungal Activity in Bread

    PubMed Central

    Black, Brenna A.; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter?1. Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter?1. L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter?1 (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  5. Apolipoprotein D Transgenic Mice Develop Hepatic Steatosis through Activation of PPAR? and Fatty Acid Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Marilyne; Lalonde, Simon; Najyb, Ouafa; Thiery, Maxime; Daneault, Caroline; Des Rosiers, Chrisitne; Rassart, Eric; Mounier, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing human apolipoprotein D (H-apoD) in the brain are resistant to neurodegeneration. Despite the use of a neuron-specific promoter to generate the Tg mice, they expressed significant levels of H-apoD in both plasma and liver and they slowly develop hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We show here that hepatic PPAR? expression in Tg mice is increased by 2-fold compared to wild type (WT) mice. Consequently, PPAR? target genes Plin2 and Cide A/C are overexpressed, leading to increased lipid droplets formation. Expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36, another PPARgamma target, is also increased in Tg mice associated with elevated fatty acid uptake as measured in primary hepatocytes. Elevated expression of AMPK in the liver of Tg leads to phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase, indicating a decreased activity of the enzyme. Fatty acid synthase expression is also induced but the hepatic lipogenesis measured in vivo is not significantly different between WT and Tg mice. In addition, expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation, is slightly upregulated. Finally, we show that overexpressing H-apoD in HepG2 cells in presence of arachidonic acid (AA), the main apoD ligand, increases the transcriptional activity of PPAR?. Supporting the role of apoD in AA transport, we observed enrichment in hepatic AA and a decrease in plasmatic AA concentration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the hepatic steatosis observed in apoD Tg mice is a consequence of increased PPAR? transcriptional activity by AA leading to increased fatty acid uptake by the liver. PMID:26083030

  6. Structure-activity relationships of fatty acid amide ligands in activating and desensitizing G protein-coupled receptor 119.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pritesh; Kumar, Akhilesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2014-01-15

    The purpose of the current study was to apply a high throughput assay to investigate the structure-activity relationships of fatty acid amides for activating and desensitizing G protein-coupled receptor 119, a promising therapeutic target for both type 2 diabetes and obesity. A cell-based, homogenous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) method for measuring G protein-coupled receptor 119-mediated increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels was validated and applied in this study. Using novel fatty acid amides and detailed potency and efficacy analyses, we have demonstrated that degree of saturation in acyl chain and charged head groups of fatty acid amides have profound effects on the ability of these compounds to activate G protein-coupled receptor 119. In addition, we have demonstrated for the first time that pretreatments with G protein-coupled receptor 119 agonists desensitize the receptor and the degrees of desensitization caused by fatty acid amides correlate well with their structure-activity relationships in activating the receptor. PMID:24184668

  7. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  8. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  9. Glucose regulates fatty acid binding protein interaction with lipids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Heather A.; Balanarasimha, Madhumitha; Huang, Huan; Kelzer, Matthew S.; Kaliappan, Alagammai; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Although the pathophysiology of diabetes is characterized by elevated levels of glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), nuclear mechanisms linking glucose and LCFA metabolism are poorly understood. As the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) shuttles LCFA to the nucleus, where L-FABP directly interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), the effect of glucose on these processes was examined. In vitro studies showed that L-FABP strongly bound glucose and glucose-1-phosphate (Kd = 103 ± 19 nM and Kd = 20 ± 3 nM, respectively), resulting in altered L-FABP conformation, increased affinity for lipid ligands, and enhanced interaction with PPAR?. In living cells, glucose stimulated cellular uptake and nuclear localization of a nonmetabolizable fluorescent fatty acid analog (BODIPY C-16), particularly in the presence of L-FABP. These data suggest for the first time a direct role of glucose in facilitating L-FABP-mediated uptake and distribution of lipidic ligands to the nucleus for regulation of PPAR? transcriptional activity. PMID:20628144

  10. Fatty acid composition of frequently consumed foods in Turkey with special emphasis on trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Ihsan

    2007-12-01

    Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty acids, arising as a result of ruminant activity, with an average content of 1.45 g/100 g fatty acids. The conjugated linoleic acid content of meat and chicken doner kebabs were found higher than other meat products. Chocolate samples contained trans fatty acids less than 0.17 g/100 g fatty acids, with the exceptional national product of chocolate bars and hazelnut cocoa cream (2.03 and 3.68 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Bakery products have the highest trans fatty acid contents and ranged from 0.99 to 17.77 g/100 g fatty acids. The average trans fatty acid contents of infant formula and ice-cream, which are milk-based products, were 0.79 and 1.50 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively. Among the analyzed foods, it was found that coffee whitener and powdered whipped topping had the highest saturated fatty acid contents, with an average content of 98.71 g/100 g fatty acids. PMID:17852509

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  12. Linking autotrophic activity in environmental samples with specific bacterial taxa by detection of 13C-labelled fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Knief, Claudia; Altendorf, Karlheinz; Lipski, André

    2003-11-01

    A method for the detection of physiologically active autotrophic bacteria in complex microbial communities was developed based on labelling with the stable isotope 13C. Labelling of autotrophic nitrifying, sulphur-oxidizing and iron-oxidizing populations was performed in situ by incubation with NaH[13C]O3. Incorporated label into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) was detected and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Before the analyses of different environmental samples, the protocol was evaluated in pure culture experiments. In different environmental samples a selective labelling of fatty acids demonstrated which microbial taxa were responsible for the respective chemolithoautotrophic activity. The most strongly labelled fatty acids of a sample from a sulphide treating biofilter from an animal rendering plant were cis-7-hexadecenoic acid (16:1 cis7) and 11-methyl hexadecanoic acid (16:0 11methyl), which are as-yet not known for any sulphide-oxidizing autotroph. The fatty acid labelling pattern of an experimental biotrickling filter sample supplied with dimethyl disulphide clearly indicated the presence and activity of sulphide-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus. For a third environmental sample from an acid mining lake sediment, the assignment of autotrophic activity to bacteria of the genus Leptospirillum but not to Acidithiobacillus could be made by this method, as the fatty acid patterns of these bacteria show clear differences. PMID:14641595

  13. Electrophilic Nitro-fatty Acids Activate NRF2 by a KEAP1 Cysteine 151-independent Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Kansanen, Emilia; Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Kuosmanen, Suvi M.; Tong, Kit I.; Leinonen, Hanna; Woodcock, Steven R.; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Carlberg, Carsten; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Freeman, Bruce A.; Levonen, Anna-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed in vivo via nitric oxide (NO)- and nitrite (NO2?)-dependent reactions. Nitro-fatty acids modulate signaling cascades via reversible covalent post-translational modification of nucleophilic amino acids in regulatory proteins and enzymes, thus altering downstream signaling events, such as Keap1-Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated gene expression. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which 9- and 10-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid (OA-NO2) activate the transcription factor Nrf2, focusing on the post-translational modifications of cysteines in the Nrf2 inhibitor Keap1 by nitroalkylation and its downstream responses. Of the two regioisomers, 9-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid was a more potent ARE inducer than 10-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid. The most OA-NO2-reactive Cys residues in Keap1 were Cys38, Cys226, Cys257, Cys273, Cys288, and Cys489. Of these, Cys273 and Cys288 accounted for ?50% of OA-NO2 reactions in a cellular milieu. Notably, Cys151 was among the least OA-NO2-reactive of the Keap1 Cys residues, with mutation of Cys151 having no effect on net OA-NO2 reaction with Keap1 or on ARE activation. Unlike many other Nrf2-activating electrophiles, OA-NO2 enhanced rather than diminished the binding between Keap1 and the Cul3 subunit of the E3 ligase for Nrf2. OA-NO2 can therefore be categorized as a Cys151-independent Nrf2 activator, which in turn can influence the pattern of gene expression and therapeutic actions of nitroalkenes. PMID:21357422

  14. Inhibitory Activities of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Traditional African Remedies on Keloid Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Olaitan, Peter B.; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E.C.; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M.; Reichenberger, Ernst J.

    2012-01-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies—boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter—leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world. PMID:24489452

  15. Relationship of lipogenic enzyme activities to the rate of rat liver fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.; Kelley, D.; Schmidt, P.; Virk, S.; Serrato, C.

    1986-05-01

    The mechanism by which diet regulates liver lipogenesis is unclear. Here the authors report how dietary alterations effect the activities of key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 400-500 g, were fasted for 48h and then refed a fat-free, high carbohydrate (HC) diet (75% cal. from sucrose) for 0,3,9,24 and 48h, or refed a HC diet for 48h, then fed a high-fat (HF) diet (44% cal. from corn oil) for 3,9,24 and 48h. The FA synthesis rate and the activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase (AC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP citrate lyase (CL), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were determined in the livers. FA synthesis was assayed with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically except for AC which was assayed with /sup 14/C-bicarbonate. There was no change in the activity of AC during fasting or on the HC diet. Fasting decreased the rate of FA synthesis by 25% and the activities of FAS and CL by 50%; refeeding the HC diet induced parallel changes in FA synthesis and the activities of FAS, CL, and G6PDH. After 9h on the HF diet, FA synthesis had decreased sharply, AC activity increased significantly while no changes were detected in the other activities. Subsequently FA synthesis did not change while the activities of the enzymes decreased slowly. These enzymes did not appear to regulate FA synthesis during inhibition of lipogenesis, but FAS, CL or G6PDH may be rate limiting in the induction phase. Other key factors may regulate FA synthesis during dietary alterations.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Majkova, Zuzana; Layne, Joseph; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2011-02-15

    Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6{omega}-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), which concurrently abrogated A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A{sub 4}/J{sub 4} NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5{omega}-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

  17. Development of cyclobutene- and cyclobutane-functionalized fatty acids with inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sittiwong, Wantanee; Zinniel, Denise K.; Fenton, Robert J.; Marshall, Darrel; Story, Courtney B.; Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Powers, Robert; Barletta, Raúl G.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven fatty acid analogs incorporating four-membered carbocycles (cyclobutenes, cyclobutanes, cyclobutanones, and cyclobutanols) were investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). A number of the analogs displayed inhibitory activity against both mycobacterial species in minimal media. Several of the molecules displayed potent levels of inhibition against Mtb with MIC values equal to or below those obtained with the anti-tuberculosis drugs D-cycloserine and isoniazid. In contrast, two of the analogs displaying the greatest activity against Mtb failed to inhibit E. coli growth under either set of conditions. Thus, the active molecules identified here (1, 2, 6, and 8) may provide the basis for development of anti-mycobacterial agents against Mtb. PMID:24902951

  18. Epoxide hydrolase activities and epoxy fatty acids in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Mamatha, Dadala M; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-04-01

    Culex mosquitoes have emerged as important model organisms for mosquito biology, and are disease vectors for multiple mosquito-borne pathogens, including West Nile virus. We characterized epoxide hydrolase activities in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, which suggested multiple forms of epoxide hydrolases were present. We found EH activities on epoxy eicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs and other eicosanoids are well-established lipid signaling molecules in vertebrates. We showed EETs can be synthesized in vitro from arachidonic acids by mosquito lysate, and EETs were also detected in vivo both in larvae and adult mosquitoes by LC-MS/MS. The EH activities on EETs can be induced by blood feeding, and the highest activity was observed in the midgut of female mosquitoes. The enzyme activities on EETs can be inhibited by urea-based inhibitors designed for mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH). The sEH inhibitors have been shown to play diverse biological roles in mammalian systems, and they can be useful tools to study the function of EETs in mosquitoes. Besides juvenile hormone metabolism and detoxification, insect epoxide hydrolases may also play a role in regulating lipid signaling molecules, such as EETs and other epoxy fatty acids, synthesized in vivo or obtained from blood feeding by female mosquitoes. PMID:25686802

  19. The influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the phospholipase D isoforms trafficking and activity in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Basiouni, Shereen; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Schumann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The impact of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation on phospholipase D (PLD) trafficking and activity in mast cells was investigated. The enrichment of mast cells with different PUFA including ?-linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid (LA) or arachidonic acid (AA) revealed a PUFA-mediated modulation of the mastoparan-stimulated PLD trafficking and activity. All PUFA examined, except AA, prevented the migration of the PLD1 to the plasma membrane. For PLD2 no PUFA effects on trafficking could be observed. Moreover, PUFA supplementation resulted in an increase of mastoparan-stimulated total PLD activity, which correlated with the number of double bonds of the supplemented fatty acids. To investigate, which PLD isoform was affected by PUFA, stimulated mast cells were supplemented with DHA or AA in the presence of specific PLD-isoform inhibitors. It was found that both DHA and AA diminished the inhibition of PLD activity in the presence of a PLD1 inhibitor. By contrast, only AA diminished the inhibition of PLD activity in the presence of a PLD2 inhibitor. Thus, PUFA modulate the trafficking and activity of PLD isoforms in mast cells differently. This may, in part, account for the immunomodulatory effect of unsaturated fatty acids and contributes to our understanding of the modulation of mast cell activity by PUFA. PMID:23698760

  20. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through ?-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

  1. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF1?). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1? knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1? as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  2. AMPK activation promotes lipid droplet dispersion on detyrosinated microtubules to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Herms, Albert; Bosch, Marta; Reddy, Babu J.N.; Schieber, Nicole L.; Fajardo, Alba; Rupérez, Celia; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Ferguson, Charles; Rentero, Carles; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Parton, Robert G.; Gross, Steven P.; Pol, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that provide fatty acids (FAs) to cellular processes including synthesis of membranes and production of metabolic energy. While known to move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs), the role of LD motion and whether it facilitates interaction with other organelles are unclear. Here we show that during nutrient starvation, LDs and mitochondria relocate on detyrosinated MT from the cell centre to adopt a dispersed distribution. In the cell periphery, LD–mitochondria interactions increase and LDs efficiently supply FAs for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. This cellular adaptation requires the activation of the energy sensor AMPK, which in response to starvation simultaneously increases LD motion, reorganizes the network of detyrosinated MTs and activates mitochondria. In conclusion, we describe the existence of a specialized cellular network connecting the cellular energetic status and MT dynamics to coordinate the functioning of LDs and mitochondria during nutrient scarcity. PMID:26013497

  3. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit Fc ? receptor I-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Ma, David W L; Kang, Jing X; Kulka, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    In vivo models show that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit some of the processes associated with allergic inflammation but the direct effect of n-3 PUFA on mast cells, the major effector cells in allergy, is poorly understood. We sought to determine the effect and mechanism of n-3 PUFA on Fc ? receptor I (Fc?RI)-mediated signal transduction and mast cell activation. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) were differentiated from bone marrow obtained from C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice. The fat-1 mice express fatty acid n-3 desaturase and produce endogenous n-3 PUFA. For comparison, exogenous n-3 PUFA were supplemented to WT BMMC and human mast cell (LAD2) cultures. Fat-1 BMMC released less ?-hexosaminidase (?-hex) and cysteinyl leukotrienes and produced less tumor necrosis factor and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. n-3 PUFA supplementation reduced LAD2 and BMMC degranulation (?-hex release) following Fc?RI activation. Fat-1 BMMC expressed less constitutive Lyn and linker of activated T cells (LAT), and Fc?RI-mediated phosphorylation of Lyn, spleen tyrosine kinase and LAT were reduced in fat-1 BMMC. Although the expression of surface and whole cell Fc?RI was similar in WT and fat-1 BMMC, unstimulated fat-1 BMMC showed reduced Fc?RI localization to lipid rafts, and stimulation with antigen resulted in aberrant Fc?RI shuttling to the rafts. Our results show that n-3 PUFA suppress Fc?RI-mediated activation of mast cells, which results in reduced mediator release. This effect is associated with a decrease in LAT and Lyn expression as well as abnormal shuttling of Fc?RI to lipid rafts. PMID:26363927

  4. Synergistic activation by cis-fatty acid and diacylglycerol of protein kinase C and protein phosphorylation in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Chen, S G; Murakami, K

    1995-10-01

    cis-Unsaturated fatty acid, which activates protein kinase C in vitro, stimulates protein phosphorylation in intact hippocampal slices. Two protein bands (44,000 and 47,000 mol. wt) are particularly sensitive to cis-fatty acid and are phosphorylated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cis-fatty acid-stimulated protein phosphorylation can be further potentiated with diacylglycerol or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. Several lines of evidence indicate that the cis-fatty acid-stimulated phosphorylation of these proteins is mediated by protein kinase C. First, the cis-fatty acid effect is mimicked by other protein kinase C activators such as diacylglycerol. Second, the stimulation of the phosphorylation by these activators can be blocked by staurosporine, which potently inhibits protein kinase C. Third, a concomitant application of cis-fatty acid and diacylglycerol or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate enhances the 44,000 and 47,000 mol. wt phosphorylation in a synergistic manner, which is a novel activation mode for protein kinase C. Fourth, they can be phosphorylated by purified protein kinase C (type III: alpha). Moreover, the synergistic activation of purified protein kinase C by cis-fatty acid and diacylglycerol leads to a drastic increase in the phosphorylation of these two protein bands. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis revealed that they are both acidic proteins. The 47,000 mol. wt band consists of two protein components; one is found to be F1/growth-associated protein-43 (pI = 4.5), and the other 47,000 mol, wt protein has broad pI ranging from 4.6 to 4.9. The 44,000 mol. wt component is a major phosphoprotein with pI of 4.8-5.1. Our results strongly indicate that cis-fatty acid can act as a regulator of endogenous protein kinase C in concert with diacylglycerol, and stimulate protein phosphorylation of its substrates such as F1/growth-associated protein-43 in the hippocampus. PMID:8544978

  5. Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaf and fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Riahi, Leila; Maaroufi, Abderrazak; Hasnaoui, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conceived to evaluate the essential fatty acids, secondary metabolites, antiradical and antimicrobial activities of unexploited Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. The obtained results indicated that the major components of fatty acids were oleic acid (88.12%) and elaidic acid (7.88%). Leaves contained higher amount of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins than fruits, although both methanolic extracts had significant antioxidant activities. Significant correlations were observed between the total phenol or flavonoid contents in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activity estimated by using both 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic radical-scavenging methods. In addition, both methanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibition zone diameters and the minimal inhibition concentration values were in the range of 10-17 mm and 3.1-50 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24805194

  6. Reduced Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity in Adult Patients With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Di Santo, Serena; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by intra-hepatic fat accumulation and mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not fully explained. Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. We investigated its activity in patients with fatty liver. LAL activity (nmol/spot/h) was measured in 100 adult healthy subjects (HS) and in 240 NAFLD patients. A sub-analysis on 35 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was performed. Median LAL activity was 1.15 (0.95–1.72) in HS. It was significantly reduced in NAFLD [0.78 (0.61–1.01), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. A further reduction was observed in the subgroup of NASH [0.67 (0.51–0.77), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. Patients with LAL activity below median had higher values of serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-c (p < 0.05), and increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, p < 0.001; AST, p < 0.01; GGT, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with LAL activity below median were ALT (OR: 1.018, 95% CI 1.004–1.032, p = 0.011) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.551, 95% CI 1.241–5.245, p = 0.011), whilst statin use predicted a better LAL function (OR: 0.464, 95% CI 0.248–0.866, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest a strong association between impaired LAL activity and NAFLD. A better knowledge of the role of LAL may provide new insights in NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:26288848

  7. Biol 458 Lecture 6 & 7 Fatty Acids 1 A. Introduction to acyl lipids (fatty acids)

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Biol 458 Lecture 6 & 7 Fatty Acids 1 A. Introduction to acyl lipids (fatty acids): Why study plant fatty acids? - energy storage in seeds, important make unique fatty acids (green technology) Topic Outline: 1. Structure

  8. Design, synthesis and biological activity of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives as novel free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Xuekun; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianyong; Xia, Wenting; Zhou, Xianhao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-11-15

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) is a novel antidiabetic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes based on particular mechanism in amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We have previously identified a series of phenoxyacetic acid derivatives. Herein, we describe the further chemical modification of this series directed by ligand efficiency and ligand lipophilicity efficiency. All of these efforts lead to the discovery of the promising candidate 16, an excellent FFA1 agonist with robust agonistic activity (43.6nM), desired LE and LLE values. Moreover, compound 16 revealed a great potential for improving the hyperglycemia levels in both normal and type 2 diabetic mice without the risk of hypoglycemia even at the high dose of 40mg/kg. PMID:26482570

  9. Synthesis of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides and their effects on fatty acid amide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Faure, Lionel; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Hwang, Hyeondo; Montgomery, Christa L; Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; John, George; Koulen, Peter; Blancaflor, Elison B; Chapman, Kent D

    2014-03-28

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are involved in numerous biological activities in plant and animal systems. The metabolism of these lipids by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a key regulatory point in NAE signaling activity. Several active site-directed inhibitors of FAAH have been identified, but few compounds have been described that enhance FAAH activity. Here we synthesized two sets of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides from natural products, 3-n-pentadecylphenolethanolamide and cardanolethanolamide, with structural similarity to NAEs and characterized their effects on the hydrolytic activity of FAAH. Both compounds increased the apparent Vmax of recombinant FAAH proteins from both plant (Arabidopsis) and mammalian (Rattus) sources. These NAE-like compounds appeared to act by reducing the negative feedback regulation of FAAH activity by free ethanolamine. Both compounds added to seedlings relieved, in part, the negative growth effects of exogenous NAE12:0. Cardanolethanolamide reduced neuronal viability and exacerbated oxidative stress-mediated cell death in primary cultured neurons at nanomolar concentrations. This was reversed by FAAH inhibitors or exogenous NAE substrate. Collectively, our data suggest that these phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides act to enhance the activity of FAAH and may stimulate the turnover of NAEs in vivo. Hence, these compounds might be useful pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH-mediated regulation of NAE signaling in plants or animals. PMID:24558037

  10. Synthesis of Phenoxyacyl-Ethanolamides and Their Effects on Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Lionel; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Hwang, Hyeondo; Montgomery, Christa L.; Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; John, George; Koulen, Peter; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Chapman, Kent D.

    2014-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are involved in numerous biological activities in plant and animal systems. The metabolism of these lipids by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a key regulatory point in NAE signaling activity. Several active site-directed inhibitors of FAAH have been identified, but few compounds have been described that enhance FAAH activity. Here we synthesized two sets of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides from natural products, 3-n-pentadecylphenolethanolamide and cardanolethanolamide, with structural similarity to NAEs and characterized their effects on the hydrolytic activity of FAAH. Both compounds increased the apparent Vmax of recombinant FAAH proteins from both plant (Arabidopsis) and mammalian (Rattus) sources. These NAE-like compounds appeared to act by reducing the negative feedback regulation of FAAH activity by free ethanolamine. Both compounds added to seedlings relieved, in part, the negative growth effects of exogenous NAE12:0. Cardanolethanolamide reduced neuronal viability and exacerbated oxidative stress-mediated cell death in primary cultured neurons at nanomolar concentrations. This was reversed by FAAH inhibitors or exogenous NAE substrate. Collectively, our data suggest that these phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides act to enhance the activity of FAAH and may stimulate the turnover of NAEs in vivo. Hence, these compounds might be useful pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH-mediated regulation of NAE signaling in plants or animals. PMID:24558037

  11. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  12. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism ameliorates disease activity in an animal model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shriver, Leah P.; Manchester, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and a leading cause of neurological disability. The complex immunopathology and variable disease course of multiple sclerosis have limited effective treatment of all patients. Altering the metabolism of immune cells may be an attractive strategy to modify their function during autoimmunity. We examined the effect of inhibiting fatty acid metabolism in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Mice treated with an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, showed a reduction in disease severity as well as less inflammation and demyelination. Inhibition of CPT-1 in encephalitogenic T-cells resulted in increased apoptosis and reduced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggest that disruption of fatty acid metabolism promotes downregulation of inflammation in the CNS and that this metabolic pathway is a potential therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis. PMID:22355598

  13. Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    E-print Network

    McClelland, Grant B.

    Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor Polyunsaturated fatty acids Rainbow trout Dietary fatty acid composition, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, can affect both genetic and non- genetic regulatory

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Desbois, Andrew P.; Lawlor, Keelan C.

    2013-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32–1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15–30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. PMID:24232668

  15. Antibacterial activity of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Andrew P; Lawlor, Keelan C

    2013-11-01

    New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32-1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15-30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. PMID:24232668

  16. Omega-3 Free Fatty Acids Suppress Macrophage Inflammasome Activation by Inhibiting NF-?B Activation and Enhancing Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Bey, Yolanda; Boularan, Cedric; Vural, Ali; Huang, Ning-Na; Hwang, Il-Young; Shan-Shi, Chong; Kehrl, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The omega-3 (?3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1? production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1? production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1? production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR) 4 (also known as GPR120), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein ?-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. DHA also reduced IL-1? levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity. PMID:24911523

  17. Ligand determinants of fatty acid activation of the pronociceptive ion channel TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Liuqiong; Camo, Maxime; McIntyre, Peter; Connor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose. Arachidonic acid (AA) and its derivatives are important modulators of cellular signalling. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) is a cation channel with important functions in mediating cellular responses to noxious stimuli and inflammation. There is limited information about the interactions between AA itself and TRPA1, so we investigated the effects of AA and key ethanolamide and amino acid/neurotransmitter derivatives of AA on hTRPA1. Experimental approach. HEK 293 cells expressing hTRPA1 were studied by measuring changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca]i) with a fluorescent dye and by standard whole cell patch clamp recordings. Key results. AA (30 ?M) increased fluorescence in hTRPA1 expressing cells by 370% (notional EC50 13 ?M). The covalent TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (300 ?M) increased fluorescence by 430% (EC50, 11 ?M). Anandamide (230%) and N-arachidonoyl tyrosine (170%) substantially activated hTRPA1 at 30 ?M, however, N-arachidonoyl conjugates of glycine and taurine were less effective while N-acyl conjugates of 5-HT did not affect hTRPA1. Changing the acyl chain length or the number and position of double bonds reduced fatty acid efficacy at hTRPA1. Mutant hTRPA1 (Cys621, Cys641 and Cys665 changed to Ser) could be activated by AA (100 ?M, 40% of wild type) but not by cinnamaldehyde (300 ?M). Conclusions and implications. AA is a more potent activator of TRPA1 than its ethanolamide or amino acid/neurotransmitter derivatives and acts via a mechanism distinct from that of cinnamaldehyde, further underscoring the likelyhood of multiple pharmacologically exploitable sites on hTRPA1. PMID:24516781

  18. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  19. Activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) promotes fatty acid oxidation through the SIRT1/PGC-1? pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xuqin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiaodong

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •TC, a CB2R specific agonist, stimulates SIRT1 activity by PKA/CREB pathway. •TC promotes PGC-1? transcriptional activity by increasing its deacetylation. •TC increases the expression of genes linked to FAO and promotes the rate of FAO. •The effects of TC in FAO are dependent on CB2R. •Suggesting CB2R as a target to treat diseases with lipid dysregulation. -- Abstract: Abnormal fatty acid oxidation has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. At the transcriptional level, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) has been reported to strongly increase the ability of hormone nuclear receptors PPAR? and ERR? to drive transcription of fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In this study, we report that a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) can lead to fatty acid oxidation through the PGC-1? pathway. We have found that CB2R is expressed in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, and that use of the specific agonist trans-caryophyllene (TC) stimulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity by increasing the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), thus leading to increased levels of PGC-1? deacetylation. This use of TC treatment increases the expression of genes linked to the fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1/PGC-1?-dependent mechanism and also drastically accelerates the rate of complete fatty acid oxidation in C2C12 myotubes, neither of which occur when CB2R mRNA is knocked down using siRNA. These results reveal that activation of CB2R by a selective agonist promotes lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Our findings imply that pharmacological manipulation of CB2R may provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

  20. Inhibition of tumor growth by a newly-identified activator for epidermal fatty acid binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Enyu; Singh, Puja; Zhai, Xiuhong; Li, Yan; Zhu, Ganqian; Zhang, Yuwen; Hao, Jiaqing; Chi, Young-In; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Cleary, Margot P.; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that expression of epidermal fatty acid binding protein (E-FABP) in tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) promotes macrophage anti-tumor activity by enhancing IFN? responses in tumor models. Thus, E-FABP represents a new protective factor in enhancing tumor immune surveillance against tumor development. Herein, we report the compound 5-(benzylamino)-2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,3-oxazole-4-carbonitrile (designated EI-05) as a novel E-FABP activator for inhibition of mammary tumor growth. EI-05 was selected from the ZINC compound library using molecular docking analysis based on the crystal structure of E-FABP. Although EI-05 is unable to bind E-FABP directly, it significantly increases E-FABP expression in macrophages during inflammation. Stimulation of macrophages with EI-05 remarkably enhances lipid droplet formation and IFN? production, which further promotes the anti-tumor activity of macrophages. Importantly, administering EI-05 in vivo significantly inhibits mammary tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse model. Altogether, these results suggest that EI-05 may represent a promising drug candidate for anti-tumor treatment through enhancing E-FABP activity and IFN? responses in macrophages. PMID:25796556

  1. Capsaicin, nonivamide and trans-pellitorine decrease free fatty acid uptake without TRPV1 activation and increase acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rohm, Barbara; Riedel, Annett; Ley, Jakob P; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Red pepper and its major pungent component, capsaicin, have been associated with hypolipidemic effects in rats, although mechanistic studies on the effects of capsaicin and/or structurally related compounds on lipid metabolism are scarce. In this work, the effects of capsaicin and its structural analog nonivamide, the aliphatic alkamide trans-pellitorine and vanillin as the basic structural element of all vanilloids on the mechanisms of intestinal fatty acid uptake in differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells were studied. Capsaicin and nonivamide were found to reduce fatty acid uptake, with IC?? values of 0.49 ?M and 1.08 ?M, respectively. trans-Pellitorine was shown to reduce fatty acid uptake by 14.0±2.14% at 100 ?M, whereas vanillin was not effective, indicating a pivotal role of the alkyl chain with the acid amide group in fatty acid uptake by Caco-2 cells. This effect was associated neither with the activation of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) nor with effects on paracellular transport or glucose uptake. However, acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity increased (p<0.05) in the presence of 10 ?M capsaicin, nonivamide or trans-pellitorine, pointing to an increased fatty acid biosynthesis that might counteract the decreased fatty acid uptake. PMID:25422952

  2. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  3. Directed tagging of the Arabidopsis FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene with the maize transposon activator.

    PubMed Central

    James, D W; Lim, E; Keller, J; Plooy, I; Ralston, E; Dooner, H K

    1995-01-01

    The FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene of Arabidopsis is required for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids in the seed. The product of the FAE1 gene is presumed to be a condensing enzyme that extends the chain length of fatty acids from C18 to C20 and C22. We report here the cloning of FAE1 by directed transposon tagging with the maize element Activator (Ac). An unstable fae1 mutant was isolated in a line carrying Ac linked to the FAE1 locus on chromosome 4. Cosegregation and reversion analyses established that the new mutant was tagged by Ac. A DNA fragment flanking Ac was cloned by inverse polymerase chain reaction and used to isolate FAE1 genomic clones and a cDNA clone from a library made from immature siliques. The predicted amino acid sequence of the FAE1 protein shares homology with those of other condensing enzymes (chalcone synthase, stilbene synthases, and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III), supporting the notion that FAE1 is the structural gene for a synthase or condensing enzyme. FAE1 is expressed in developing seed, but not in leaves, as expected from the effect of the fae1 mutation on the fatty acid compositions of those tissues. PMID:7734965

  4. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p < 0.05). The oil yield was 6.58-7.17% which contained predominantly unsaturated fatty acids (89.42%). The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid was ca. 6/1. The total tocopherol content ranged from 37.49 to 59.82 ?g/g and mainly consisted of ?-tocopherol. Trace amount of ?- and ?-tocotrienols was also found. Black quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols. PMID:25529712

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hull, Mark A

    2011-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are naturally occurring omega (?)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in highest quantities in oily fish such as sardines and mackerel. Epidemiological studies of the association between fish intake, ?-3 PUFA intake or blood ?-3 PUFA levels and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk have not consistently suggested beneficial effects of ?-3 PUFAs on CRC (and other gastrointestinal cancer) risk. However, dietary administration of one or both of the main ?-3 PUFAs in rodent models of colorectal carcinogenesis has been demonstrated to reduce colorectal tumour size and multiplicity, compatible with CRC chemopreventative activity. EPA has now been demonstrated to reduce rectal polyp number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. A randomized polyp prevention trial of EPA is underway in order to test chemopreventative efficacy against 'sporadic' colorectal neoplasia. PMID:22122770

  6. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  7. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR-/- mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of ?5- and ?6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:25448610

  9. Enhancement of E. coli acyl-CoA synthetase FadD activity on medium chain fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Way, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    FadD catalyses the first step in E. coli beta-oxidation, the activation of free fatty acids into acyl-CoA thioesters. This activation makes fatty acids competent for catabolism and reduction into derivatives like alcohols and alkanes. Alcohols and alkanes derived from medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 6–12 carbons) are potential biofuels; however, FadD has low activity on MCFAs. Herein, we generate mutations in fadD that enhance its acyl-CoA synthetase activity on MCFAs. Homology modeling reveals that these mutations cluster on a face of FadD from which the co-product, AMP, is expected to exit. Using FadD homology models, we design additional FadD mutations that enhance E. coli growth rate on octanoate and provide evidence for a model wherein FadD activity on octanoate can be enhanced by aiding product exit. These studies provide FadD mutants useful for producing MCFA derivatives and a rationale to alter the substrate specificity of adenylating enzymes. PMID:26157619

  10. Structure–Activity Relationships of ?-Keto Oxazole Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Christophe; Kelso, Michael J.; Romero, F. Anthony; Rayl, Thomas J.; Leung, Donmienne; Hwang, Inkyu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of 2b (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the C2 acyl side chain. A series of aryl replacements or substituents for the terminal phenyl group provided effective inhibitors (e.g., 5c, aryl = 1-napthyl, Ki = 2.6 nM) with 5hh (aryl = 3-Cl-Ph, Ki = 900 pM) being 5-fold more potent than 2b. Conformationally-restricted C2 side chains were examined and many provided exceptionally potent inhibitors of which 11j (ethylbiphenyl side chain) was established to be a 750 pM inhibitor. A systematic series of heteroatoms (O, NMe, S), electron-withdrawing groups (SO, SO2), and amides positioned within and hydroxyl substitutions on the linking side chain were investigated which typically led to a loss in potency. The most tolerant positions provided effective inhibitors (12p, 6-position S, Ki = 3 nM or 13d, 2-position OH, Ki = 8 nM) comparable in potency to 2b. Proteomic-wide screening of selected inhibitors from the systematic series of >100 candidates prepared revealed that they are selective for FAAH over all other mammalian serine proteases. PMID:17559203

  11. Fatty acids, inflammation, and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wendell, Stacy Gelhaus; Baffi, Cindy; Holguin, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids and consequently diet play an essential role in the formation of inflammatory mediators involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Because intake variations of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids ultimately determine cell membrane incorporation, changes in diet have the potential to modify downstream production of inflammatory mediators derived from these compounds. It has long been hypothesized that decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio could reduce the production of more proinflammatory mediators while increasing the formation of downstream metabolites that can serve to limit or resolve inflammation. In turn, these changes would result in improved asthma outcomes or would lower the risk for asthma incidence. This review will focus on the role of fatty acid inflammatory and resolving mediators and will summarize the clinical and epidemiologic data on how diet and obesity alter fatty acid profiles that can contribute to asthma. PMID:24613565

  12. Fatty Acids Homeostasis; the search for

    E-print Network

    Knyazev, Andrew

    Fatty Acids Homeostasis; the search for the key regulatory factors. --Andrew Knyazev, Math CUStargardt''ss--like macular degenerationlike macular degeneration FA metabolic proteins in diseases #12;FA Homeostasis of the Fatty Acids moleculesFatty Acids molecules !! The mechanism of Fatty Acid homeostasis is not understood

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? promotes very low-density lipoprotein-derived fatty acid catabolism in the macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Hao; Kang, Kihwa; Mehl, Isaac R.; Nofsinger, Russell; Alaynick, William A.; Chong, Ling-Wa; Rosenfeld, John M.; Evans, Ronald M.

    2006-01-01

    Significant attention has focused on the role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, recent advances have identified triglyceride-rich lipoproteins [e.g., very LDL (VLDL)] as independent risk predictors for this disease. We have previously demonstrated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?, but not PPAR?, is the major nuclear VLDL sensor in the macrophage, which is a crucial component of the atherosclerotic lesion. Here, we show that, in addition to ?-oxidation and energy dissipation, activation of PPAR? by VLDL particles induces key genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis and lipid mobilization mediated by a recently identified TG lipase, transport secretion protein 2 (also named desnutrin, iPLA2?, and adipose triglyceride lipase), resulting in increased fatty acid catabolism. Unexpectedly, deletion of PPAR? results in derepression of target gene expression, a phenotype similar to that of ligand activation, suggesting that unliganded PPAR? suppresses fatty acid utilization through active repression, which is reversed upon ligand binding. This unique transcriptional mechanism assures a tight control of the homeostasis of VLDL-derived fatty acid and provides a therapeutic target for other lipid-related disorders, including dyslipidemia and diabetes, in addition to coronary artery disease. PMID:16467150

  14. The liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is nutritionally regulated and activated by fatty acids and PPAR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Danno, Hirosuke; Ishii, Kiyo-aki; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Mikami, Motoki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yabe, Sachiko; Furusawa, Mika; Kumadaki, Shin; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2010-01-08

    To elucidate the physiological role of CREBH, the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of CREBH were estimated in various feeding states of wild and obesity mice. In the fast state, the expression of CREBH mRNA and nuclear protein were high and profoundly suppressed by refeeding in the wild-type mice. In ob/ob mice, the refeeding suppression was impaired. The diet studies suggested that CREBH expression was activated by fatty acids. CREBH mRNA levels in the mouse primary hepatocytes were elevated by addition of the palmitate, oleate and eicosapenonate. It was also induced by PPAR{alpha} agonist and repressed by PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that the CREBH promoter activity was induced by fatty acids and co-expression of PPAR{alpha}. Deletion studies identified the PPRE for PPAR{alpha} activation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that PPAR{alpha} directly binds to the PPRE. Activation of CREBH at fasting through fatty acids and PPAR{alpha} suggest that CREBH is involved in nutritional regulation.

  15. Inhibition of the Thioesterase Activity of Human Fatty Acid Synthase by 1,4- and 9,10-Diones

    PubMed Central

    Odens, Herman; Lowther, Todd; Kridel, Steven; Watts, Laura; Filipponi, Lauren; Schmitt, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the enzyme that synthesizes fatty acids de novo in human cells. Although FASN is generally expressed at low levels in most normal tissues, its expression is highly upregulated in many cancers. Consistent with this notion, inhibition of FASN activity has demonstrated potential to halt proliferation and induce cell death in vitro and to block tumor growth in vivo. Consequently, FASN is widely recognized as a valuable therapeutic target. In this report, we describe a variety of 1,4-quinones and 9,10-anthraquinones, including several natural compounds and some newly synthesized compounds, that potently inhibit the thioesterase (TE) domain of FASN. Inhibition of recombinant TE activity, inhibition of cellular FASN, and cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer cell lines and normal fibroblasts, is shown for the most potent inhibitors. Collectively, the data illustrate the novel inhibitory capacity of the 1,4-quinone and 9,10-anthraquinone pharmacophores against FASN. PMID:25177021

  16. Biol 458 Lecture 6 & 7 Fatty Acids 1 A. Introduction to acyl lipids (fatty acids)

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Biol 458 Lecture 6 & 7 Fatty Acids 1 A. Introduction to acyl lipids (fatty acids): Why study plant fatty acids Outline: 1. Structure and diversity of acyl lipids and fatty acids 2. Biosynthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerol (brief) 3. Modification of seed oils via plant biotechnology Definitions

  17. Modeling fatty acid delivery from intestinal fatty acid binding protein to a membrane

    E-print Network

    Lazaridis, Themis

    Modeling fatty acid delivery from intestinal fatty acid binding protein to a membrane MAJA Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) interacts with biological membranes and delivers fatty acid (FA via both pathways. Although the domains can widen enough to allow the passage of palmitate, fatty acid

  18. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  19. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Giroud, Sylvain; Frare, Carla; Strijkstra, Arjen; Boerema, Ate; Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b)) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+-)ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6) in SR phospholipids (PL) should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b) in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3). SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b) during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b) tolerated by hibernators. PMID:23650545

  20. Fasciola hepatica Fatty Acid Binding Protein Induces the Alternative Activation of Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Santiago, Olgary

    2014-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a highly evolved parasite that uses sophisticated mechanisms to evade the host immune response. The immunosuppressive capabilities of the parasite have been associated with antigens secreted through the parasite's tegument, called excretory-secretory products (ESPs). Proteomic studies have identified the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as one of molecules present in the parasite ESPs. Although FABP has been investigated for potential use in the development of vaccines against fascioliasis, its direct interaction with cells of immune system has not been studied. In this study, FABP was purified in native form from soluble extracts of F. hepatica adult flukes using a combination of molecular sieving chromatography and preparative isoelectric focusing. The immunological effect of the purified protein, termed Fh12, was assayed in vitro using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) obtained from healthy human donors. Results from the assay indicate that Fh12 produced a significantly increased arginase expression and activity and induced the expression of chitinase-3-like protein (CHI3L1). The assay also showed that Fh12 downregulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). This indicates that Fh12 induced the production of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?). The results also demonstrated the ability of Fh12 to downregulate the secretion of the proinflammatory and inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-1?B, even after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as its ability to stimulate the overexpression of IL-10. These results suggest a potent anti-inflammatory role for Fh12, which could occur via targeting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). PMID:25225247

  1. [6]-Gingerol inhibits de novo fatty acid synthesis and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity which triggers apoptosis in HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Impheng, Hathaichanok; Richert, Lysiane; Pekthong, Dumrongsak; Scholfield, C Norman; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Pungpetchara, Ittipon; Srisawang, Piyarat

    2015-01-01

    The de novo fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by key lipogenic enzymes, including fatty acid synthase (FASN) has emerged as one of the novel targets of anti-cancer approaches. The present study explored the possible inhibitory efficacy of [6]-gingerol on de novo fatty acid synthesis associated with mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction in HepG2 cells. We observed a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential accompanied by a reduction of fatty acid levels. [6]-gingerol administration manifested inhibition of FASN expression, indicating FASN is a major target of [6]-gingerol inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Indeed, we found that increased ROS generation could likely be a mediator of the anti-cancer effect of [6]-gingerol. A reduction of fatty acid levels and induction of apoptosis were restored by inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity, suggesting an accumulation of malonyl-CoA level could be the major cause of apoptotic induction of [6]-gingerol in HepG2 cells. The present study also showed that depletion of fatty acid following [6]-gingerol treatment caused an inhibitory effect on carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity (CPT-1), whereas C75 augmented CPT-1 activity, indicating that [6]-gingerol exhibits the therapeutic benefit on suppression of fatty acid ?-oxidation. PMID:26101700

  2. Biodegradation of C5-C 8 fatty acids and production of aroma volatiles by Myroides sp. ZB35 isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zijun; Zhu, Xiankun; Xi, Lijun; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Li; Lu, Jian R

    2014-05-01

    In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain. However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries. PMID:24810320

  3. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  4. Effect of media compositions on ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, growth and fatty acid content in mycelium extracts of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 from Taxus Sumatrana (Miq.) de Laub.

    PubMed

    Artanti, Nina; Tachibana, Sanro; Kardono, Leonardus B S

    2014-07-01

    The active ?-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 were found to be the unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids). These compounds have potential as antidiabetic agents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of various media composition on growth (mycelium dry weight) and the fatty acids content (?g mg(-1) mycelium DW) of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, the experiments were set up by varying the carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions and desaturase and fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the media. Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 grown on potato dextrose broth (PDB) was used as control. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities were (range from 43.9 ± 2.5 to 88.6 ± 5.2%) at 10 ?g mL(-1). This activity seemed to correlate with the unsaturated fatty acids content of the samples. Different sugars as carbon source experiment showed that xylose gave the highest growth (938.7 ± 141.6 mg). However, the highest fatty acids content was obtained from fructose medium which containing linoleic acid (38.8 ± 4.9 ? g mg(-1) DW). Soluble starch gave better growth (672.5 ± 62.3 mg) but very low fatty acids content (2.8 ± 0.1 ?g mg(-1) DW) was obtained. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source. Fatty acids production was better as compared to beef extract and soytone. This is the first report of various media compositions on fatty acids content in Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:26035936

  5. Adipocyte Accumulation of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Obesity is Multifactorial, Resulting from Increased Fatty Acid Uptake and Decreased Activity of Genes Involved in Fat Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Gagner, Michel; Inabnet, William B.; Pomp, Alfons; Branch, Andrea D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic causes significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of cellular function and gene expression in obese adipose tissue will yield insights into obesity pathogenesis and suggest therapeutic targets. The aim of this work is to study the processes determining fat accumulation in adipose tissue from obese patients. Methods Omental fat was collected from two cohorts of obese bariatric surgery patients and sex-matched normal-weight donors. Isolated adipocytes were compared for cell size, volume, and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. Omental fat RNAs were screened by 10K microarray (cohort 1: three obese, three normal) or Whole Genome microarray (cohort 2: seven obese, four normal). Statistical differences in gene and pathway expression were identified in cohort 1 using the GeneSifter Software (Geospiza) with key results confirmed in cohort 2 samples by microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and pathway analysis. Results Obese omental adipocytes had increased surface area, volume, and Vmax for saturable LCFA uptake. Dodecenoyl-coenzyme A delta isomerase, central to LCFA metabolism, was approximately 1.6-fold underexpressed in obese fat in cohorts 1 and 2. Additionally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics pathway analysis identified oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism pathways as having coordinate, nonrandom down-regulation of gene expression in both cohorts. Conclusions In obese omental fat, saturable adipocyte LCFA uptake was greater than in controls, and expression of key genes involved in lipolysis, ?-oxidation, and metabolism of fatty acids was reduced. Thus, both increased uptake and reduced metabolism of LCFAs contribute to the accumulation of LCFAs in obese adipocytes. PMID:19866242

  6. Palmitate activation by fatty acid transport protein 4 as a model system for hepatocellular apoptosis and steatosis.

    PubMed

    Seeßle, Jessica; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Chamulitrat, Walee

    2015-05-01

    Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 is a minor FATP in the liver but it has some activity towards palmitate 16:0 (Pal). We here chose FATP4 as a representative model enzyme for acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), and FATPs to determine whether Pal activation would lead to apoptosis and alteration in lipid metabolism. By using FATP4 overexpressed (FATP4) Huh-7 cells, we showed that FATP4 was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria of FATP4 cells. FATP4 cells were more responsive to Pal than the control GFP cells in increasing palmitoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA activities as well as apoptosis by ~2-3 folds. The lipoapoptosis susceptibility by FATP4 was coupled with the increased JNK, PUMA, caspase3, PARP-1 activation as well as Rac-1-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization, and decreased insulin sensitivity. This was associated with increased contents of neutral lipids and significant alteration in composition of phospholipids and sphingolipids including increased lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), ceramide, and hexosylceramide, as well as an increase of saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in LPC and PC, but a decrease of this ratio in phosphatidylethanolamine pool. By use of ceramide synthase inhibitors, our results showed that FATP4-sensitized lipoapoptosis was not mediated by ceramides. Moreover, FATP4 expression was increased in fatty livers in vivo. Thus, our model system has provided a clue that Pal activation FATP4 triggers hepatocellular apoptosis via altered phospholipid composition and steatosis by acylation into complex lipids. This may be a redundant mechanism for other ER-localizing ACSs and FATPs in the liver, and hence their involvement in the development of fatty liver disease. PMID:25603556

  7. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases mediated metabolic engineering for enhanced fatty acids production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Aouida, Mustapha; Li, Lixin; Mahjoub, Ali; Alshareef, Sahar; Ali, Zahir; Piatek, Agnieszka; Mahfouz, Magdy M

    2015-10-01

    Targeted engineering of microbial genomes holds much promise for diverse biotechnological applications. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 systems are capable of efficiently editing microbial genomes, including that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we demonstrate the use of TALENs to edit the genome of S. cerevisiae with the aim of inducing the overproduction of fatty acids. Heterodimeric TALENs were designed to simultaneously edit the FAA1 and FAA4 genes encoding acyl-CoA synthetases in S. cerevisiae. Functional yeast double knockouts generated using these TALENs over-produce large amounts of free fatty acids into the cell. This study demonstrates the use of TALENs for targeted engineering of yeast and demonstrates that this technology can be used to stimulate the enhanced production of free fatty acids, which are potential substrates for biofuel production. This proof-of-principle study extends the utility of TALENs as excellent genome editing tools and highlights their potential use for metabolic engineering of yeast and other organisms, such as microalgae and plants, for biofuel production. PMID:25907574

  8. Dietary ?-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ?-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  9. Fatty Acids from Plasmodium falciparum Down-Regulate the Toxic Activity of Malaria Glycosylphosphatidylinositols

    PubMed Central

    Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Schofield, Louis; Azzouz, Nahid; Schmidt, Jörg; Santos de Macedo, Cristiana; Ferguson, Michael A. J.; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills roughly 2.5 million people, mainly children, annually. Much of this mortality is thought to arise from the actions of a malarial toxin. This toxin, identified as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), is a major pathogenicity determinant in malaria. A malarial molecule, Pfj, labeled by [3H]glucosamine like the GPIs, was identified as a non-GPI molecule. Here we show that Pfj is able to down-regulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production induced by the GPI of P. falciparum. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that Pfj was not a single molecule but represented a number of molecules. Separation methods, such as cation-exchange chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, were used to isolate and identify the following four main fatty acids responsible for the inhibitory effect on TNF-? production: myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, and palmitoleic acids. This regulatory effect on cytokine production suggests that there is balanced bioactivity for the different categories of malarial lipids. PMID:16988223

  10. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  11. Fatty Acid and Essential Oil Compositions of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium with Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Erta?, Abdulselam; Bo?a, Mehmet; Ha?imi, Nesrin; Y?lmaz, Mustafa Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    This study represents the first report on the chemical composition and biological activity of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium. The major components of the essential oil were identified as hexatriacontene (23.0%), arachidic acid (15.5%) and ?-selinene (10.0%). The main constituents of the fatty acid obtained from the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic acid (29.8%), linoleic acid (18.6%) and oleic acid (10.5%). In particular, the water extract exhibited higher activity than ?-tocopherol and BHT, which were used as standards in the ABTS cation radical scavenging assay and indicated higher inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase enzyme than the reference compound, galanthamine but exhibited weak activity in ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH-free radical scavenging, and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity assays. The petroleum ether extract exhibited higher activity than ?-tocopherol which was used as standard in the ?-carotene bleaching method at concentration 100 ?g/mL. The acetone extract exhibited higher activity than ?-tocopherol which was used as standard cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method at 100 ?g/mL concentration. The acetone and methanol extracts were active on all microorganisms tested with a small zone diameter indicating weak activity. PMID:25561929

  12. Yhhu981, a novel compound, stimulates fatty acid oxidation via the activation of AMPK and ameliorates lipid metabolism disorder in ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-liang; Huang, Su-ling; Xie, Fu-chun; Zeng, Li-min; Hu, You-hong; Leng, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Defects in fatty acid metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity. In this study, we investigated the effects of a novel compound yhhu981 on fatty acid metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The capacity to stimulate fatty acid oxidation was assessed in C2C12 myotubes. The fatty acid synthesis was studied in HepG2 cells using isotope tracing. The phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was examined with Western blot analysis. For in vivo experiments, ob/ob mice were orally treated with yhhu981 acutely (300 mg/kg) or chronically (150 or 300 mg·kg?1·d?1 for 22 d). On the last day of treatment, serum and tissue samples were collected for analysis. Results: Yhhu981 (12.5–25 ?mol/L) significantly increased fatty acid oxidation and the expression of related genes (Sirt1, Pgc1? and Mcad) in C2C12 myotubes, and inhibited fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, yhhu981 dose-dependently increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in both C2C12 myotubes and HepG2 cells. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, blocked fatty acid oxidation in yhhu981-treated C2C12 myotubes and fatty acid synthesis decrease in yhhu981-treated HepG2 cells. Acute administration of yhhu981 decreased the respiratory exchange ratio in ob/ob mice, whereas chronic treatment with yhhu981 ameliorated the lipid abnormalities and ectopic lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and liver of ob/ob mice. Conclusion: Yhhu981 is a potent compound that stimulates fatty acid oxidation, and exerts pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism by activating AMPK. PMID:25732571

  13. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  14. Fenofibrate, a PPAR? agonist, protect proximal tubular cells from albumin-bound fatty acids induced apoptosis via the activation of NF-kB

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Nan; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hanzhe; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Albumin-bound fatty acids is the main cause of renal damage, PPAR? is responsible in the metabolism of fatty acids. Previous study found that PPAR? played a protective role in fatty acids overload associated tubular injury. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether fenofibrate, a PPAR? ligands, could contribute to the renoprotective action in fatty acids overload proximal tubule epithelial cells. We observed in HK-2 cells that fenofibrate significantly inhibited fatty acids bound albumin (FA-BSA) induced up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8. Treatment with fenofibrate attenuated renal oxidative stress induced by FA-BSA as evidenced by decreased MDA level, increased SOD activity and catalase, GPx-1 expression. FA-BSA induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells were also obviously prevented by fenofibrate. Furthermore, fenofibrate significantly increased the expression of PPAR? mRNA and protein in FA-BSA treated cells. Finally, the activation of NF-kB induced by FA-BSA was markedly suppressed by fenofibrate. Taken together, our study describes a renoprotective role of fenofibrate in fatty acids associated tubular toxicity, and the transcriptional activation of PPAR? and suppression of NF-kB were at least partially involved. PMID:26617775

  15. Medium Chain Fatty Acids Are Selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) ? Activators and Pan-PPAR Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Steven D.; Lin, Jean Z.; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A.; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Skaf, Munir S.; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8–C10) bind the PPAR? LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPAR? LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPAR? and exhibit full blockade of PPAR? phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPAR? also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/?-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPAR? modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  16. Dietary fatty acids and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence in animals and humans shows that dietary fatty acids influence the absorption and utilization of certain mineral elements. Fat intake exceeding 10% of energy intake reduces calcium uptake and use by the body, and this effect is more pronounced with saturated compared to unsatu...

  17. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production, Illinois 61801, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids

  18. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, Marina; Finkernagel, Florian; Cavalcante, Marcela Frota; Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra; Müller, Rolf; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPAR? in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPK?1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPAR? agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPAR? increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPK?1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPAR?- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload. PMID:26098914

  19. Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyun; Ruan, Weibin; Li, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jingan; Gao, Yubao; Wang, Jingguo

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of fatty acids against phytopathogenic fungi. Two pot experiments were conducted by mixing palmitic and oleic acids in the soil in which poor plant growth was observed. In addition, the antifungal activities of nine fatty acids (butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) against four phytopathogenic fungi: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, were assessed by measuring mycelial growth and spore germination via Petri dish assay. The results of the pot experiments showed that the mixture of palmitic and oleic acids enhanced the growth of the seedlings of continuous-tomato and continuous-cucumber. Except for oleic acid, in the Petri dish assay, the fatty acids tested were observed to inhibit the mycelial growth of one or more tested fungi. In addition to the suppression of mycelial growth, butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, and palmitic acid showed an inhibitory effect against spore germination and the extent of inhibition varied with both the type of fatty acids, and the fungi. In particular, capric acid displayed strong inhibitory effect against C. lagenarium on the mycelial growth and spore germination. The saturated fatty acids, i.e. palmitic acids, showed stronger antifungal activity than the unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic acid. It suggests that fatty acids might be applicable to exploring for alternative approaches to integrated control of phytopathogens. PMID:18443921

  20. Impairment of benthic diatom adhesion and photosynthetic activity by allelopathic compounds from a green alga: involvement of free fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Allen, Joey L; Ten-Hage, Loïc; Leflaive, Joséphine

    2015-09-01

    The role of chemical interactions in shaping microbial communities has raised increasing interest over the last decade. Many benthic microorganisms are known to develop chemical strategies to overcome competitors, but the real importance of chemical interactions within freshwater biofilm remains unknown. This study focused on the biological and chemical mechanisms of an interaction involving two benthic microorganisms, an allelopathic filamentous green alga, Uronema confervicolum, and a common diatom, Fistulifera saprophila. Our results showed that functions critical for benthic phototrophic microorganisms were inhibited by U. confervicolum extracts. Growth, cell motility, adhesion, and photosynthetic activity were impaired at extract concentrations ranging between 5 and 20 ?g ml(-1). The adhesion inhibition was mediated by intracellular nitric oxide (NO) induction. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract with HPLC helped to identify two C18 fatty acids present in the growth-inhibiting fractions: linoleic (LA) and ?-linolenic (LNA) acids. These compounds represented 77% of the total free fatty acids of U. confervicolum and were present in the culture medium (1.45 ?g l(-1) in total). Both could inhibit the diatom growth at concentrations higher than 0.25 ?g ml(-1), but had no effect on cell adhesion. The discrepancy between the effective concentrations of fatty acids and the concentration found in culture medium may be explained by the presence of high-concentration microenvironments. The compounds involved in adhesion inhibition remain to be identified. Though further experiments with complex biofilms are needed, our results suggest that U. confervicolum may participate to the control of biofilm composition by inhibiting diatom adhesion. PMID:25430012

  1. In vitro antibacterial activities and mechanism of sugar fatty acid esters against five food-related bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Heyan; Hao, Tianyang; Li, Siran

    2015-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of sugar fatty acid esters, with different fatty acid and saccharide moieties, against five food-related bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Sucrose monocaprate showed the strongest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, especially Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were 2.5 and 10 mM, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for Gram-positive bacteria were 10 mM. Time-kill assay also showed that sucrose monocaprate significantly inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. The permeability of the cell membrane and intracellular proteins were both changed by sucrose monocaprate according to cell constituents' leakage, SDS-PAGE and scanning electron microscope assays. It is suggested that sucrose monocaprate, with both emulsifying and antibacterial activities, have a potential to serve as a safe multifunctional food additive in food industries. PMID:25977039

  2. Expression and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae with high activity on epoxy fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    In insects, epoxide hydrolases (EHs) play critical roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic epoxides from the food resources and in the regulation of endogenous chemical mediators, such as juvenile hormones. Using the baculovirus expression system, we expressed and characterized an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae (AgEH) that is distinct in evolutionary history from insect juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases (JHEHs). We partially purified the enzyme by ion exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The experimentally determined molecular weight and pI were estimated to be 35kD and 6.3 respectively, different than the theoretical ones. The AgEH had the greatest activity on long chain epoxy fatty acids such as 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-EET) and 9,10-epoxy-12Z-octadecenoic acids (9,10-EpOME or leukotoxin) among the substrates evaluated. Juvenile hormone III, a terpenoid insect growth regulator, was the next best substrate tested. The AgEH showed kinetics comparable to the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases, and the activity could be inhibited by AUDA [12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid], a urea-based inhibitor designed to inhibit the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases. The rabbit serum generated against the soluble epoxide hydrolase of Mus musculus can both cross-react with natural and denatured forms of the AgEH, suggesting immunologically they are similar. The study suggests there are mammalian sEH homologs in insects, and epoxy fatty acids may be important chemical mediators in insects. PMID:25173592

  3. Expression and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae with high activity on epoxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-11-01

    In insects, epoxide hydrolases (EHs) play critical roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic epoxides from the food resources and in the regulation of endogenous chemical mediators, such as juvenile hormones. Using the baculovirus expression system, we expressed and characterized an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae (AgEH) that is distinct in evolutionary history from insect juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases (JHEHs). We partially purified the enzyme by ion exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The experimentally determined molecular weight and pI were estimated to be 35 kD and 6.3 respectively, different than the theoretical ones. The AgEH had the greatest activity on long chain epoxy fatty acids such as 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-EET) and 9,10-epoxy-12Z-octadecenoic acids (9,10-EpOME or leukotoxin) among the substrates evaluated. Juvenile hormone III, a terpenoid insect growth regulator, was the next best substrate tested. The AgEH showed kinetics comparable to the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases, and the activity could be inhibited by AUDA [12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid], a urea-based inhibitor designed to inhibit the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases. The rabbit serum generated against the soluble epoxide hydrolase of Mus musculus can both cross-react with natural and denatured forms of the AgEH, suggesting immunologically they are similar. The study suggests there are mammalian sEH homologs in insects, and epoxy fatty acids may be important chemical mediators in insects. PMID:25173592

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? decouples fatty acid uptake from lipid inhibition of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanming; Yao, Jianrong; Howe, Alexander A; Menke, Brandon M; Sivitz, William I; Spector, Arthur A; Norris, Andrew W

    2012-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is expressed at low levels in skeletal muscle, where it protects against adiposity and insulin resistance via unclear mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that PPAR? directly modulates skeletal muscle metabolism, we created two models that isolate direct PPAR? actions on skeletal myocytes. PPAR? was overexpressed in murine myotubes by adenotransfection and in mouse skeletal muscle by plasmid electroporation. In cultured myotubes, PPAR? action increased fatty acid uptake and incorporation into myocellular lipids, dependent upon a 154 ± 20-fold up-regulation of CD36 expression. PPAR? overexpression more than doubled insulin-stimulated thymoma viral proto-oncogene (AKT) phosphorylation during low lipid availability. Furthermore, in myotubes exposed to palmitate levels that inhibit insulin signaling, PPAR? overexpression increased insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis over 3-fold despite simultaneously increasing myocellular palmitate uptake. The insulin signaling enhancement was associated with an increase in activating phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 and a normalized expression of palmitate-induced genes that antagonize AKT phosphorylation. In vivo, PPAR? overexpression more than doubled insulin-dependent AKT phosphorylation in lipid-treated mice but did not augment insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We conclude that direct PPAR? action promotes myocellular storage of energy by increasing fatty acid uptake and esterification while simultaneously enhancing insulin signaling and glycogen formation. However, direct PPAR? action in skeletal muscle is not sufficient to account for the hypoglycemic actions of PPAR? agonists during lipotoxicity. PMID:22474127

  5. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  6. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rino; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Yamada, Yuko; Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover, bezafibrate treatment suppressed postprandial lipidemia after oral administration of olive oil to the mice. These findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia through enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes, suggesting that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activity is a novel target of PPAR{alpha} agonist for decreasing circulating levels of lipids under postprandial conditions.

  7. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  8. Fatty acid synthesis: a potential selective target for antineoplastic therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, F P; Jenner, K; Wood, F D; Hennigar, R A; Jacobs, L B; Dick, J D; Pasternack, G R

    1994-01-01

    OA-519 is a prognostic molecule found in tumor cells from breast cancer patients with markedly worsened prognosis. We purified OA-519 from human breast carcinoma cells, obtained its peptide sequence, and unambiguously identified it as fatty acid synthase through sequence homology and enzymology. Tumor fatty acid synthase is an approximately 270-kDa polypeptide which specifically abolished immunostaining of human breast cancers by anti-OA-519 antibodies. Tumor fatty acid synthase oxidized NADPH in a malonyl-CoA-dependent fashion and synthesized fatty acids composed of 80% palmitate, 10% myristate, and 10% stearate from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and NADPH with a specific activity of 624 nmol of NADPH oxidized per min per mg. Tumor cell lines with elevated fatty acid synthase showed commensurate increases in incorporation of [U-14C]acetate into acylglycerols demonstrating that fatty acid synthase increases occur in the context of overall increases in endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Cerulenin inhibited acylglycerol synthesis in tumor cells and fibroblast controls in a dose-dependent fashion and also caused a growth inhibition which generally paralleled the level of endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Supraphysiologic levels of palmitate, 14 microM in dimethyl sulfoxide, significantly reversed the growth inhibition caused by cerulenin at concentrations of up to 5 micrograms/ml, indicating that cerulenin-mediated growth inhibition was due to fatty acid synthase inhibition. Images PMID:8022791

  9. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    O'Quin, Jami B; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

    2009-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared toward the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically expressed enzymes. Here, we show that the addition of an N-terminal epitope tag sequence (either Myc or hemagglutinin) to oleate desaturase (FAD2) or omega-3 linoleate desaturase (FAD3) enzymes from plants, which catalyze consecutive reactions in the production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids, significantly increases their activity up to fourfold when expressed in yeast cells. Quantitative protein blotting using an antibody specific for native FAD2 revealed that the steady-state amount of the epitope-tagged FAD2 protein was also approximately fourfold higher than that of its untagged counterpart, demonstrating a direct relationship between the epitope tag-induced increase in enzyme amount and fatty acid product formation. Protein half-life and RNA blotting experiments indicated that the half-lives and mRNA content of the tagged and untagged FAD2 proteins were essentially the same, suggesting that the epitope tags increased protein abundance by improving translational efficiency. Taken together, these results indicate that the addition of an epitope tag sequence to a plant fatty acid desaturase (FAD) not only provides a useful means for protein immunodetection using highly specific, commercially available antibodies, but that it also significantly increases FAD activity and the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in yeast cells. PMID:19137289

  10. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. We previously showed that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study was focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. Methods: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 hours) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C);transient coronary occlusion (10 minutes) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution to the citric acid cycle (FC) was analyzed by 13-Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% baseline at 4 hours and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [ATP]/[ADP] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. Conclusions: T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following ischemia-reperfusion injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  11. c-AMP dependent protein kinase A inhibitory activity of six algal extracts from southeastern Australia and their fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Ana; Skropeta, Danielle

    2012-07-01

    c-AMP dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) is an important enzyme involved in the regulation of an increasing number of physiological processes including immune function, cardiovascular disease, memory disorders and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PKA inhibitory activity of a range of algal extracts, along with their fatty acid composition. Six algal species were investigated including two Chlorophyta (Codium dimorphum and Ulva lactuca), two Phaeophyta (Phyllospora comosa and Sargassum sp.) and two Rhodophyta (Prionitis linearis and Corallina vancouveriensis), with the order of PKA inhibitory activity of their extracts identified as follows: brown seaweeds > red seaweeds > green seaweeds with the brown alga Sargassum sp. exhibiting the highest PKA inhibitory activity (84% at 100 microg/mL). GC/MS analysis identified a total of 18 fatty acids in the six algal extracts accounting for 72-87% of each extract, with hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid as the dominant components. The most active extract (Sargassum sp.) also contained the highest percentage of the saturated C14:0 fatty acid (12.8% of the total extract), which is a known to inhibit PKA. These results provide the first description of the PKA inhibitory activity of marine algae along with the first description of the fatty acid composition of these six algal species from South Eastern Australian waters. Importantly, this study reveals that abundant and readily available marine algae are a new and relatively unexplored source of PKA inhibitory compounds. PMID:22908583

  12. Human FABP1 T94A variant impacts fatty acid metabolism and PPAR-? activation in cultured human female hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Storey, Stephen M.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Landrock, Danilo; Petrescu, Anca D.; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2014-01-01

    Although human liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1) T94A variant has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduced ability of fenofibrate to lower serum triglycerides (TG) to target levels, molecular events leading to this phenotype are poorly understood. Cultured primary hepatocytes from female human subjects expressing the FABP1 T94A variant exhibited increased neutral lipid (TG, cholesteryl ester) accumulation associated with 1) upregulation of total FABP1, a key protein stimulating mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM), the rate-limiting enzyme in lipogenesis; 2) increased mRNA expression of key enzymes in lipogenesis (GPAM, LPIN2) in heterozygotes; 3) decreased mRNA expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein; 4) increased secretion of ApoB100 but not TG; 5) decreased long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) ?-oxidation. TG accumulation was not due to any increase in LCFA uptake, de novo lipogenesis, or the alternate monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase pathway in lipogenesis. Despite increased expression of total FABP1 mRNA and protein, fenofibrate-mediated FABP1 redistribution to nuclei and ligand-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-?) transcription of LCFA ?-oxidative enzymes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl) were attenuated in FABP1 T94A hepatocytes. Although the phenotype of FABP1 T94A variant human hepatocytes exhibits some similarities to that of FABP1-null or PPAR-?-null hepatocytes and mice, expression of FABP1 T94A variant did not abolish or reduce ligand binding. Thus the FABP1 T94A variant represents an altered/reduced function mutation resulting in TG accumulation. PMID:24875102

  13. Identification and characterization of new ?-17 fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhixiong; He, Hongxian; Hollerbach, Dieter; Macool, Daniel J; Yadav, Narendra S; Zhang, Hongxiang; Szostek, Bogdan; Zhu, Quinn

    2013-03-01

    ?-3 fatty acid desaturase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids via the oxidative desaturase/elongase pathways. Here we report the identification of three ?-3 desaturases from oomycetes, Pythium aphanidermatum, Phytophthora sojae, and Phytophthora ramorum. These new ?-3 desaturases share 55 % identity at the amino acid level with the known ?-17 desaturase of Saprolegnia diclina, and about 31 % identity with the bifunctional ?-12/?-15 desaturase of Fusarium monoliforme. The three enzymes were expressed in either wild-type or codon optimized form in an engineered arachidonic acid producing strain of Yarrowia lipolytica to study their activity and substrate specificity. All three were able to convert the ?-6 arachidonic acid to the ?-3 eicosapentanoic acid, with a substrate conversion efficiency of 54-65 %. These enzymes have a broad ?-6 fatty acid substrate spectrum, including both C18 and C20 ?-6 fatty acids although they prefer the C20 substrates, and have strong ?-17 desaturase activity but weaker ?-15 desaturase activity. Thus, they belong to the ?-17 desaturase class. Unlike the previously identified bifunctional ?-12/?-15 desaturase from F. monoliforme, they lack ?-12 desaturase activity. The newly identified ?-17 desaturases could use fatty acids in both acyl-CoA and phospholipid fraction as substrates. The identification of these ?-17 desaturases provides a set of powerful new tools for genetic engineering of microbes and plants to produce ?-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid, at high levels. PMID:22639141

  14. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi. PMID:24752690

  15. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  16. Dietary fatty acid intake is associated with paraoxonase 1 activity in a cohort-based analysis of 1,548 subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a cardioprotective, HDL-associated glycoprotein enzyme with broad substrate specificity. Our previous work found associations between dietary cholesterol and vitamin C with PON1 activity. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of specific dietary fatty acid (DFA) intake on PON1 activity. Methods 1,548 participants with paraoxonase activity measures completed the Harvard Standardized Food Frequency Questionnaire to determine their daily nutrient intake over the past year. Eight saturated, 3 monounsaturated, and 6 polyunsaturated DFAs were measured by the questionnaire. To reduce the number of observations tested, only specific fatty acids that were not highly correlated (r?acid (14 carbon atoms, no double bonds – 14:0), oleic acid (18:1), gadoleic acid (20:1), ?-linolenic acid (18:3), arachidonic acid (20:4), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) – were carried forward to stepwise linear regression, which evaluated the effect of each specific DFA on covariate-adjusted PON1 enzyme activity. Results Four of the 6 tested DFA intakes – myristic acid (p?=?0.038), gadoleic acid (p?=?6.68 × 10-7), arachidonic acid (p?=?0.0007), and eicosapentaenoic acid (p?=?0.013) - were independently associated with covariate-adjusted PON1 enzyme activity. Myristic acid, a saturated fat, and gadoleic acid, a monounsaturated fat, were both positively associated with PON1 activity. Both of the tested polyunsaturated fats, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, were negatively associated with PON1 activity. Conclusions This study presents the largest cohort-based analysis of the relationship between dietary lipids and PON1 enzyme activity. Further research is necessary to elucidate and understand the specific biological mechanisms, whether direct or regulatory, through which DFAs affect PON1 activity. PMID:24330840

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Limits Lipotoxicity by Promoting Hepatic Fatty Acid Activation in Mice on Methionine and Choline-deficient Diets

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, ffolliott M.; Chui, Patricia C.; Nasser, Imad A.; Popov, Yury; Cunniff, Jeremy C.; Lundasen, Thomas; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Schuppan, Detlef; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common consequence of human and rodent obesity. Disruptions in lipid metabolism lead to accumulation of triglycerides and fatty acids, which can promote inflammation and fibrosis and lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 increase in patients with NAFLD or NASH, so we assessed the role of FGF21 in the progression of murine fatty liver disease, independent of obesity, caused by methionine and choline deficiency. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type and FGF21-knockout (FGF21-KO) mice were placed on methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD), high-fat, or control diets for 8–16 weeks. Mice were weighed; serum and liver tissues were collected and analyzed for histology, levels of malondialdehyde and liver enzymes, gene expression, and lipid content. Results The MCD diet increased hepatic levels of FGF21 mRNA more than 50-fold and serum levels 16-fold, compared with the control diet. FGF21-KO mice had more severe steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and peroxidative damage than wild-type C57BL/6 mice. FGF21-KO mice had reduced hepatic fatty acid activation and ? oxidation, resulting in increased levels of free fatty acid. FGF21-KO mice given continuous subcutaneous infusions of FGF21 for 4 weeks while on MCD diets had reduced steatosis and peroxidative damage, compared with mice not receiving FGF21. The expression of genes that regulate inflammation and fibrosis were reduced in FGF21-KO mice given FGF21, similar to those of wild-type mice. Conclusions FGF21 regulates fatty acid activation and oxidation in livers of mice. In the absence of FGF21, accumulation of inactivated fatty acids results in lipotoxic damage and increased steatosis. PMID:25083607

  18. Genistein stimulates fatty acid oxidation in a leptin receptor-independent manner through the JAK2-mediated phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Palacios-González, Berenice; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Flores-Galicia, Isabel; Noriega, Lilia G; Alemán-Escondrillas, Gabriela; Zariñan, Teresa; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to the development of insulin resistance, which is associated with an excessive accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle tissue. There is evidence that soy protein can decrease the ectopic accumulation of lipids and improves insulin sensitivity; however, it is unknown whether soy isoflavones, particularly genistein, can stimulate fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle. Thus, we studied the mechanism by which genistein stimulates fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle. We showed that genistein induced the expression of genes of fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle of Zucker fa/fa rats and in leptin receptor (ObR)-silenced C2C12 myotubes through AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, the genistein-mediated AMPK phosphorylation occurred via JAK2, which was possibly activated through a mechanism that involved cAMP. Additionally, the genistein-mediated induction of fatty acid oxidation genes involved PGC1? and PPAR?. As a result, we observed that genistein increased fatty acid oxidation in both the control and silenced C2C12 myotubes, as well as a decrease in the RER in mice, suggesting that genistein can be used in strategies to decrease lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscle. PMID:24013029

  19. Relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Native Cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jea-Young; Ha, Jae-Jung; Park, Yong-Soo; Yi, Jun-Koo; Lee, Seunguk; Mun, Seyoung; Han, Kyudong; Kim, J-J; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Oh, Dong-Yep

    2016-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) gene plays an important role in the biosynthesis process controlled by a number of fatty acid transcription factors. This study investigates the relationships between 130 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PPAR? gene and the fatty acid composition of muscle fat in the commercial population of Korean native cattle. We identified 38 SNPs and verified relationships between 3 SNPs (g.1159-71208 A>G, g.42555-29812 G>A, and g.72362 G>T) and the fatty acid composition of commercial Korean native cattle (n = 513). Cattle with the AA genotype of g.1159-71208 A>G and the GG genotype of g.42555-29812 G>A and g.72362 G>T had higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and carcass traits (p<0.05). The results revealed that the 3 identified SNPs in the PPAR? gene affected fatty acid composition and carcass traits, suggesting that these 3 SNPs may improve the flavor and quality of beef in commercial Korean native cattle. PMID:26732443

  20. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with...prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements...

  1. Targeting the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP) to understand the mechanisms linking fatty acid transport to metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Black, Paul N.; Sandoval, Angel; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2014-01-01

    One principal process driving fatty acid transport is vectorial acylation, where fatty acids traverse the membrane concomitant with activation to CoA thioesters. Current evidence is consistent with the proposal that specific fatty acid transport (FATP) isoforms alone or in concert with specific long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) isoforms function to drive this energy-dependent process. Understanding the details of vectorial acylation is of particular importance as disturbances in lipid metabolism many times leads to elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids, which in turn increases fatty acid internalization and ectopic accumulation of triglycerides. This is associated with changes in fatty acid oxidation rates, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, the synthesis of ceramide and ER stress. The correlation between chronically elevated plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides with the development of obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease has led to the hypothesis that decreases in pancreatic insulin production, cardiac failure, arrhythmias, and hypertrophy are due to aberrant accumulation of lipids in these tissues. To this end, a detailed understanding of how fatty acids traverse the plasma membrane, become activated and trafficked into downstream metabolic pools and the precise roles provided by the different FATP and Acsl isoforms are especially important questions. We review our current understanding of vectorial acylation and the contributions by specific FATP and Acsl isoforms and the identification of small molecule inhibitors from high throughput screens that inhibit this process and thus provide new insights into the underlying mechanistic basis of this process.

  2. Cross-sectional associations of food consumption with plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Ågren, Jyrki; de Mello, Vanessa; Lindi, Virpi; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-05-01

    Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 6–8 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 60–80 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children. PMID:24659110

  3. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does not exceed 2...

  4. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does not exceed 2...

  5. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does not exceed 2...

  6. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does not exceed 2...

  7. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  8. Virucidal activities of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols, fatty acids and monoglycerides against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: comparison at different pH levels.

    PubMed

    Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Kristmundsdóttir, Thórdís; Thormar, Halldor

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that certain lipids and fatty alcohols have microbicidal activities against a number of pathogens. In this study, virucidal activities of fatty alcohols and lipids were tested against HSV types 1 and 2 at various concentrations, times, and pH levels. The aim was first, to determine which compounds are most virucidal against HSV and could possibly be used as active ingredients in topical drug formulations and second, to attempt to throw light on the mode of action of virucidal lipids. Good agreement was found between the activities for HSV-1 and HSV-2. The activity of a compound depends on the concentration and time of contact and most of the compounds are more active at pH 4.2 than at pH 7. This information may be helpful in the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms for treatment of herpes lesions in skin and mucosa. The difference between the polar groups of alcohols and fatty acids, i.e. hydroxyl group versus carboxyl group, and the corresponding difference in their hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) may explain their different virucidal activities against HSV. However, in most cases HLB numbers cannot explain the different virucidal activities of fatty alcohols and lipids, particularly not their increased activity at low pH. It is more likely that the acidic environment makes HSV more sensitive, possibly by ionic changes in the envelope proteins. PMID:15676016

  9. The Burkholderia cenocepacia BDSF quorum sensing fatty acid is synthesized by a bifunctional crotonase homologue having both dehydratase and thioesterase activities.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hongkai; Christensen, Quin H; Feng, Youjun; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E

    2012-02-01

    Signal molecules of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family have been shown recently to be involved in regulation of pathogenesis and biofilm formation in diverse Gram-negative bacteria. DSF signals are reported to be active not only on their cognate bacteria, but also on unrelated bacteria and the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. DSFs are monounsaturated fatty acids of medium chain length containing an unusual cis-2 double bond. Although genetic analyses had identified genes involved in DSF synthesis, the pathway of DSF synthesis was unknown. The DSF of the important human pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia (called BDSF) is cis-2-dodecenoic acid. We report that BDSF is synthesized from a fatty acid synthetic intermediate, the acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioester of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid. This intermediate is intercepted by protein Bcam0581 and converted to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP. Bcam0581 is annotated as a homologue of crotonase, the first enzyme of the fatty acid degradation pathway. We demonstrated Bcam0581to be a bifunctional protein that not only catalysed dehydration of 3-hydroxydodecanoyl-ACP to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP, but also cleaved the thioester bond to give the free acid. Both activities required the same set of active-site residues. Although dehydratase and thioesterase activities are known activities of the crotonase superfamily, Bcam0581 is the first protein shown to have both activities. PMID:22221091

  10. The Burkholderia cenocepacia BDSF Quorum Sensing Fatty Acid is Synthesized by a Bifunctional Crotonase Homologue Having Both Dehydratase and Thioesterase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hongkai; Christensen, Quin H.; Feng, Youjun; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Signal molecules of the Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) family have been shown recently to be involved in regulation of pathogenesis and biofilm formation in diverse Gram-negative bacteria. DSF signals are reported to be active not only on their cognate bacteria, but also on unrelated bacteria and the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. DSFs are monounsaturated fatty acids of medium chain length containing an unusual cis-2 double bond. Although genetic analyses had identified genes involved in DSF synthesis, the pathway of DSF synthesis was unknown. The DSF of the important human pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia (called BDSF) is cis-2-dodecenoic acid. We report that BDSF is synthesized from a fatty acid synthetic intermediate, the acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioester of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid. This intermediate is intercepted by protein Bcam0581 and converted to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP. Bcam0581 is annotated as a homologue of crotonase, the first enzyme of the fatty acid degradation pathway. We demonstrated Bcam0581to be a bifunctional protein that not only catalyzed dehydration of 3-hydroxydodecanoyl-ACP to cis-2-dodecenoyl-ACP, but also cleaved the thioester bond to give the free acid. Both activities required the same set of active site residues. Although dehydratase and thioesterase activities are known activities of the crotonase superfamily, Bcam0581 is the first protein shown to have both activities. PMID:22221091

  11. ?6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    PubMed

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-01-01

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of ?6-fatty acid desaturase (?6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients. PMID:26400353

  12. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor ? (LXR?) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (?HYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (?KetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXR? activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  13. Disulfide bonds in rat cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Odani, S; Namba, Y; Ishii, A; Ono, T; Fujii, H

    2000-09-01

    Unlike other fatty acid-binding proteins, cutaneous (epidermal) fatty acid-binding proteins contain a large number of cysteine residues. The status of the five cysteine residues in rat cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein was examined by chemical and mass-spectrometric analyses. Two disulfide bonds were identified, between Cys-67 and Cys-87, and between Cys-120 and Cys-127, though extent of formation of the first disulfide bond was rather low in another preparation. Cys-43 was free cysteine. Homology modeling study of the protein indicated the close proximity of the sulfur atoms of these cysteine pairs, supporting the presence of the disulfide bonds. These disulfide bonds appear not to be directly involved in fatty acid-binding activity, because a recombinant rat protein expressed in Escherichia coli in which all five cysteines are fully reduced showed fatty acid-binding activity as examined by displacement of a fluorescent fatty acid analog by long-chain fatty acids. However, the fact that the evolutionarily distant shark liver fatty acid-binding protein also has a disulfide bond corresponding to the one between Cys-120 and Cys-127, and that fatty acid-binding proteins play multiple roles suggests that some functions of cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein might be regulated by the cellular redox state through formation and reduction of disulfide bonds. Although we cannot completely exclude the possibility of oxidation during preparation and analysis, it is remarkable that a protein in cytosol under normally reducing conditions appears to contain disulfide bonds. PMID:10965032

  14. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  15. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  17. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  18. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  19. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  20. ?-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of fatty acids purified from the internal organ of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T H; Kim, S M

    2015-04-01

    ?-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of the various solvent fractions (n-hexane, CHCl3 , EtOAc, BuOH, and water) of sea cucumber internal organ were investigated. 1,3-Dipalmitolein (1) and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (2) with potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity were purified from the n-hexane fraction of sea cucumber internal organ. IC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 4.45 and 14.87 ?M against Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-glucosidase. These compounds mildly inhibited rat-intestinal ?-glucosidase. In addition, both compounds showed a mixed competitive inhibition against S. cerevisiae ?-glucosidase and were very stable at pH 2 up to 60 min. The KI values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.48 and 1.24 ?M, respectively. Therefore, the internal organ of sea cucumber might be a potential new source of ?-glucosidase inhibitors suitably used for prevention of obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:25735900

  1. The Fatty Acid Signaling Molecule cis-2-Decenoic Acid Increases Metabolic Activity and Reverts Persister Cells to an Antimicrobial-Susceptible State

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Aleksey; Planzos, Penny; Zelaya, Hector M.

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells, which are tolerant to antimicrobials, contribute to biofilm recalcitrance to therapeutic agents. In turn, the ability to kill persister cells is believed to significantly improve efforts in eradicating biofilm-related, chronic infections. While much research has focused on elucidating the mechanism(s) by which persister cells form, little is known about the mechanism or factors that enable persister cells to revert to an active and susceptible state. Here, we demonstrate that cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-DA), a fatty acid signaling molecule, is able to change the status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli persister cells from a dormant to a metabolically active state without an increase in cell number. This cell awakening is supported by an increase of the persister cells' respiratory activity together with changes in protein abundance and increases of the transcript expression levels of several metabolic markers, including acpP, 16S rRNA, atpH, and ppx. Given that most antimicrobials target actively growing cells, we also explored the effect of cis-DA on enhancing antibiotic efficacy in killing persister cells due to their inability to keep a persister cell state. Compared to antimicrobial treatment alone, combinational treatments of persister cell subpopulations with antimicrobials and cis-DA resulted in a significantly greater decrease in cell viability. In addition, the presence of cis-DA led to a decrease in the number of persister cells isolated. We thus demonstrate the ability of a fatty acid signaling molecule to revert bacterial cells from a tolerant phenotype to a metabolically active, antimicrobial-sensitive state. PMID:25192989

  2. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  4. Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    de Lema, M.G.; Aeberhard, E.E.

    1986-11-01

    Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated (18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)) fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

  5. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. 721.3629 Section...Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances...identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty acids (PMN Nos....

  6. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. 721.3629 Section...Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances...identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty acids (PMN Nos....

  7. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. 721.3629 Section...Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances...identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty acids (PMN Nos....

  8. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type ?-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three ?-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reviewed results from published studies regarding the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake on insulin resistance (IR) in human subjects. Evidence has been gathered from epidemiological, cross-sectional and interventions studies. Increased intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) inc...

  10. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  11. Alkyl polyglucose enhancing propionic acid enriched short-chain fatty acids production during anaerobic treatment of waste activated sludge and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Sun, Han; Shen, Qiuting; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong

    2015-04-15

    Adding alkyl polyglucose (APG) into an anaerobic treatment system of waste activated sludge (WAS) was reported to remarkably improve the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid via simultaneously accelerating solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancing acidification, inhibiting methanogenesis and balancing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of substrate. Not only the production of SCFAs, especially propionic acid, was significantly improved by APG, but also the feasible operation time was shortened. The SCFAs yield at 0.3 g APG per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) within 4 d was 2988 ± 60 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter, much higher than that those from sole WAS or sole WAS plus sole APG. The corresponding yield of propionic acid was 1312 ± 25 mg COD/L, 7.9-fold of sole WAS. Mechanism investigation showed that during anaerobic treatment of WAS in the presence of APG both the solubilization and hydrolysis were accelerated and the acidification was enhanced, while the methanogenesis was inhibited. Moreover, the activities of key enzymes involved in WAS hydrolysis and acidification were improved through the adjustment of C/N ratio of substrates with APG. The abundance of microorganisms responsible for organic compounds hydrolysis and SCFAs production was also observed to be greatly enhanced with APG via 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis. PMID:25697695

  12. Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Kodani, Sean; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), which are lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases from polyunsaturated fatty acids, are important signaling molecules known to regulate various biological processes including inflammation, pain and angiogenesis. The EpFAs are further metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form fatty acid diols which are usually less-active. Pharmacological inhibitors of sEH that stabilize endogenous EpFAs are being considered for human clinical uses. Here we review the biology of ?-3 and ?-6 EpFAs on inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:24345640

  13. Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyan, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

  14. Fatty acid ethanolamides modulate CD36-mRNA through dietary fatty acid manipulation in Syrian Golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Rideout, Todd; Yurkova, Natalia; Yang, Haifeng; Eck, Peter; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-08-01

    Fatty acids convert to fatty acid ethanolamides which associate with lipid signalling, fat oxidation, and energy balance; however, the extent to which dietary fatty acids manipulation can impact such control processes through fatty acid ethanolamides-related mechanisms remains understudied. The objective was to examine the impact of diets containing 6% corn oil, high oleic canola oil, docosahexaenoic acid + high oleic canola oil, and fish oil on plasma and organ levels of fatty acid ethanolamides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? regulatory targets, and lipid metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters. After 29 days, in plasma, animals that were fed fish oil showed greater (p < 0.05) oleoylethanolamide and lower (p < 0.05) arachidonoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide levels compared with other groups, while animals fed canola oil showed higher (p < 0.05) oleoylethanolamide levels in proximal intestine and liver than groups that were fed coin oil and fish oil. The canola oil group showed elevated (p < 0.01) fat oxidation (%) and over 3.0-fold higher (p < 0.05) hepatic-CD36 expression compared with the corn oil group. Hepatic-lipogenesis was lower (p < 0.05) in hamsters that were fed DHA-canola oil compared with the corn oil group. To conclude, dietary fatty acids produced shifts in plasma and organ levels of arachidonoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide, and palmitoylethanolamid, which were accompanied by changes in gene expression, lipogenesis, and energy expenditure, suggesting mechanisms through which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. PMID:23855275

  15. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  16. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

  17. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the manufacture of food components in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive consists of one or any mixture of..., oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following...

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:25720716

  19. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase activates Nrf2 signalling and induces heme oxygenase 1 transcription in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, H; Wood, J T; Whitten, K M; Vadivel, S K; Seng, S; Makriyannis, A; Avraham, H K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endocannabinoids such as anandamide (AEA) are important lipid ligands regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Their levels are regulated by hydrolase enzymes, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). Here, we investigated whether FAAH or AEA are involved in NF (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant responsive element (ARE) pathway. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of AEA or FAAH inhibition by the URB597 inhibitor or FAAH/siRNA on the activation of Nrf2-ARE signalling pathway and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction and transcription. KEY RESULTS Endogenous AEA was detected in the immortalized human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells (0.034 ng per 106 cells) but not in MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Because breast tumour cells express FAAH abundantly, we examined the effects of FAAH on Nrf2/antioxidant pathway. We found that inhibition of FAAH by the URB597 inhibitor induced antioxidant HO-1 in breast cancer cells and MCF-10A cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of FAAH or treatment with AEA-activated ARE-containing reporter induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, independent of the cannabinoid receptors, CB1, CB2 or TRPV1. Furthermore, URB597, AEA and siRNA-FAAH treatments induced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, while siRNA-Nrf2 treatment and Keap1 expression blocked AEA, URB597 and si-FAAH from activation of ARE reporter and HO-1 induction. siRNA-HO-1 treatment decreased the viability of breast cancer cells and MCF-10A cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data uncovered a novel mechanism by which inhibition of FAAH or exposure to AEA induced HO-1 transcripts and implicating AEA and FAAH as direct modifiers in signalling mediated activation of Nrf2-HO-1 pathway, independent of cannabinoid receptors. PMID:23347118

  20. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation. PMID:26363316

  1. Modulation of purified murine T cell subset activation by dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids 

    E-print Network

    Arrington, Jennifer L

    2000-01-01

    significantly reduced IL-2 secretion, however, only when the CD28 receptor was engaged. In the T cell subset studies, diets varied by lipid composition only containing either safflower oil (SAF), FO, or an eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic (EPA/DHA) acid...

  2. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher ?9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  3. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-10-24

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation. PMID:18682402

  4. Nrf2 affects the efficiency of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Angelova, Plamena R; Zhang, Ying; Abramov, Andrey Y; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2014-02-01

    Transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2) regulates the cellular redox homoeostasis and cytoprotective responses, allowing adaptation and survival under conditions of stress. The significance of Nrf2 in intermediary metabolism is also beginning to be recognized. Thus this transcription factor negatively affects fatty acid synthesis. However, the effect of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation is currently unknown. In the present paper, we report that the mitochondrial oxidation of long-chain (palmitic) and short-chain (hexanoic) fatty acids is depressed in the absence of Nrf2 and accelerated when Nrf2 is constitutively active. Addition of fatty acids stimulates respiration in heart and liver mitochondria isolated from wild-type mice. This effect is significantly weaker when Nrf2 is deleted, whereas it is stronger when Nrf2 activity is constitutively high. In the absence of glucose, addition of fatty acids differentially affects the production of ATP in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type, Nrf2-knockout and Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)-knockout mice. In acute tissue slices, the rate of regeneration of FADH2 is reduced when Nrf2 is absent. This metabolic role of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation has implications for chronic disease conditions including cancer, metabolic syndrome and neurodegeneration. PMID:24206218

  5. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9491192

  6. Influence of selenium supplementation on fatty acids profile and biological activity of four edible amaranth sprouts as new kind of functional food.

    PubMed

    Pasko, Pawel; Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Quilty, Brid; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Zagrodzki, Pawel

    2015-08-01

    Suitability assessment of amaranth sprouts as a new functional food was carried out. The optimisation of sprouting process and the influence of selenium supplementation, in doses 10, 15, and 30 mg/l of selenium as sodium selenite, on amaranth growth and fatty acid profile were examined. Methods such as FRAP, DPPH, polyphenols content and GPX activity were applied to characterize antioxidant potential of seeds and sprouts of four different edible amaranth genera. E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans were used to evaluate amaranth sprouts antimicrobial properties. Interaction between amaranth sprouts and biological systems was assessed by analysing antibacterial and antifungal properties with a disc diffusion test. The studies proved amaranth sprouts to be potentially attractive as functional food. As confirmed by all the data amaranth sprouts are suitable as a moderate selenium accumulator and are rich in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, which are precursors of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it opens dietary opportunities for amaranth sprouts. They can also serve as a moderate source of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the experiments revealed neither antibacterial, nor antifungal properties of sprouts. In general, amaranth sprouts biological activity under evaluation has failed to prove to be significantly impacted by selenium fertilization. PMID:26243894

  7. Fatty acid composition of common dolphin blubber 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Heather Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Sixty-five fatty acids were quantified in the blubber of two closely related species of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis, D. capensis) from the coast of southern California. Dolphins were grouped according to gender, reproductive status, method...

  8. Oxygenases for aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenases catalyzing the insertion of oxygen into either aliphatic hydrocarbons or fatty acids have great similarity. There are two classes of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Dioxygenase inserts both atoms of molecular oxygen into a substrate, whereas monooxygenase incorporates one a...

  9. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-,...

  10. The Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on their degree of unsaturation and chain length, dietary fatty acids can affect blood lipids and lipoprotein levels. Both saturated fatty acids (12:0-16:0) and dietary cholesterol increase blood cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce it. Trans fatty acids, even though are pol...

  11. Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Derived from Sophorolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting from 17-hydroxyoleic acid, which is readily available from acid alcoholysis of sophorolipids, several new polyhydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized. These compounds contain from 2 to 5 hydroxy groups, in some instances combined with other functional groups. The added hydroxy groups ca...

  12. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs. PMID:17254747

  13. Composition and antimicrobial activity of fatty acids detected in the hygroscopic secretion collected from the secretory setae of larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Stepnowski, Piotr; Boros-Majewska, Joanna; Gabriel, Iwona; Dawgul, Ma?gorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Sosnowska, Danuta; Go??biowski, Marek

    2012-09-01

    The hygroscopic secretion produced by the secretory setae of terrestrial larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The viscous secretion is stored at the top of each seta and absorbs water from moist air. GC-MS analyses (four independent tests) showed that the secretion contained 12 free fatty acids, the most abundant of which were oleic (18:1), palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and linoleic (18:2). Other acids identified were valeric (5:0), enanthic (7:0), caprylic (8:0), pelargonic (9:0), capric (10:0), lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0) and stearic (18:0). Two other compounds, glycerol and pyroglutamic acid, were also found. The antibacterial activity of the fatty acids and pyroglutamic acid was tested using the agar disc diffusion method and targeted Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative bacterial strains (Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens). The antifungal activity was tested by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of examined compounds. Fatty acids were tested against enthomopathogenic fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana (Tve-N39), Beauveria bassiana (Dv-1/07)). The most effective acids against bacterial and fungal growth were C(9:0), C(10:0) and C(16:1), whereas C(14:0), C(16:0,) C(18:0) and C(18:1) demonstrated rather poor antifungal activity and did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial assay investigated mixtures of fatty and pyroglutamic acids (corresponding to the results of each GC-MS test): they were found to be active against almost all the bacteria except P. fluorescens and also demonstrated certain fungistatic activity against enthomopathogenic fungi. The hygroscopic secretion facilitates cuticular respiration and plays an important role in the antimicrobial protection of F. nigra larvae living in moist terrestrial habitats. PMID:22781366

  14. Functional characterization of flax fatty acid desaturase FAD2 and FAD3 isoforms expressed in yeast reveals a broad diversity in activity.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Natasa; Thambugala, Dinushika; Duguid, Scott; Loewen, Evelyn; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-07-01

    With 45 % or more oil content that contains more than 55 % alpha linolenic (LIN) acid, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the richest plant sources of this essential fatty acid. Fatty acid desaturases 2 (FAD2) and 3 (FAD3) are the main enzymes responsible for the ?12 and ?15 desaturation in planta. In linseed, the oilseed morphotype of flax, two paralogous copies, and several alleles exist for each gene. Here, we cloned three alleles of FAD2A, four of FAD2B, six of FAD3A, and seven of FAD3B into a pYES vector and transformed all 20 constructs and an empty construct in yeast. The transformants were induced in the presence of oleic (OLE) acid substrate for FAD2 constructs and linoleic (LIO) acid for FAD3. Conversion rates of OLE acid into LIO acid and LIO acid into LIN acid were measured by gas chromatography. Conversion rate of FAD2 exceeded that of FAD3 enzymes with FAD2B having a conversion rate approximately 10 % higher than FAD2A. All FAD2 isoforms were active, but significant differences existed between isoforms of both FAD2 enzymes. Two FAD3A and three FAD3B isoforms were not functional. Some nonfunctional enzymes resulted from the presence of nonsense mutations causing premature stop codons, but FAD3B-C and FAD3B-F seem to be associated with single amino acid changes. The activity of FAD3A-C was more than fivefold greater than the most common isoform FAD3A-A, while FAD3A-F was fourfold greater. Such isoforms could be incorporated into breeding lines to possibly further increase the proportion of LIN acid in linseed. PMID:24522837

  15. Argania spinosa var. mutica and var. apiculata: variation of fatty-acid composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant and ?-amylase-inhibitory activities among varieties, organs, and development stages.

    PubMed

    El Adib, Saifeddine; Aissi, Oumayma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Ben Jeddi, Fayçal; Messaoud, Chokri

    2015-09-01

    Argania spinosa includes two varieties, var. apiculata and var. mutica. These argan varieties were introduced into Tunisia in ancient times and are actually cultivated in some botanic gardens. Little is known about the chemical differentiation among these argan varieties. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the fatty-acid composition, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the antioxidant and ?-amylase-inhibitory activities of leaf, seed, and pulp extracts of both argan varieties harvested during the months of January to April. The fatty-acid distribution was found to depend on the argan variety, the plant organ, and the harvest time. Significant variations in the phenolic contents were observed between the investigated varieties as well as between leaves, pulps, and seeds of each variety. As expected, phenolic compounds were found to be contributors to the antioxidant and ?-amylase-inhibitory activities of both argan varieties. The chemical differentiation observed among the two argan varieties, based mainly on the fatty-acid composition, might have some chemotaxonomic value. PMID:26363877

  16. Is There a Fatty Acid Taste?

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Taste is a chemical sense that aids in the detection of nutrients and guides food choice. A limited number of primary qualities comprise taste. Accumulating evidence has raised a question about whether fat should be among them. Most evidence indicates triacylglycerol is not an effective taste stimulus, though it clearly contributes sensory properties to foods by carrying flavor compounds and altering texture. However, there is increasing anatomical, electrophysiological, animal behavior, imaging, metabolic, and psychophysical evidence that free fatty acids are detectable when non-taste cues are minimized. Free fatty acids varying in saturation and chain length are detectable, suggesting the presence of multiple transduction mechanisms and/or a nonspecific mechanism in the oral cavity. However, confirmation of “fatty” as a taste primary will require additional studies that verify these observations are taste specific. Oral exposure to free fatty acids likely serves as a warning signal to discourage intake and influences lipid metabolism. PMID:19400700

  17. Distinctive roles of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in hyperlipidemic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Chang, Ming-Chu; Tung, Chien-Chih; Wei, Shu-Chen; Wong, Jau-Min

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate how the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition influences the susceptibility of developing acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Primary pancreatic acinar cells were treated with low and high concentrations of different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and changes in the cytosolic Ca2+ signal and the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) were measured after treatment. RESULTS: Unsaturated fatty acids at high concentrations, including oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid, induced a persistent rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in acinar cells. Unsaturated fatty acids at low concentrations and saturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, stearic acid, and triglycerides, at low and high concentrations were unable to induce a rise in Ca2+ concentrations in acinar cells. Unsaturated fatty acids at high concentrations but not saturated fatty acids induced intra-acinar cell trypsin activation and cell damage and increased PKC expression. CONCLUSION: At sufficiently high concentrations, unsaturated fatty acids were able to induce acinar cells injury and promote the development of pancreatitis. Unsaturated fatty acids may play a distinctive role in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis through the activation of PKC family members. PMID:26327761

  18. Antioxidant enzyme activities in the lymphoid organs and muscles of rats fed fatty acids-rich diets subjected to prolonged physical exercise-training.

    PubMed

    Pereira, B; Rosa, L F; Safi, D A; Guimarães, A R; Bechara, E J; Curi, R

    1994-11-01

    Rats weighing 45-50 g were fed 3 diets for 8 wk: a balanced control diet (CD) consisting of 4% fat (polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids [P/S] ratio 2.9/1) and two fat-rich diets: polyunsaturated (UD)--P/S 7.6/1 and saturated (SD) P/S 0.3/1. After 8 wk feeding on the respective diets, rats were subjected to swimming for 90 min at 30 degrees C daily, 5 d/wk for 8 wk. At the end of this period, the rats were killed and the lymphoid organs (LO--thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes) and muscles (soleus and gastrocnemius) removed for the measurement of TBARs (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactant Substances) content and of the activities of antioxidant enzymes (CuZn- and Mn-Superoxide dismutase--SOD--, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). To evaluate the changes in the sites of generation of reducing equivalents involved in the formation of free radicals, the activities of citrate synthase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were measured. The exercise-training clearly modified the enzyme activities and TBARs content of the lymphoid organs and skeletal muscles, but this effect was dependent upon the diet given to the rats. However, fatty acid rich diets had presented a more pronounced effect on the studied aspects than did physical activity. Although one could expect a summatory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich diet and exercise-training, swimming increased the activities of CuZn- and Mn-SOD in almost all tissues from the elevated level promoted by fat-rich diets. PMID:7824570

  19. MonomethylMonomethyl BranchedBranched--Chain Fatty AcidsChain Fatty Acids ... are essential for reproductive growth

    E-print Network

    Knyazev, Andrew

    MonomethylMonomethyl BranchedBranched--Chain Fatty AcidsChain Fatty Acids CH3 CH3 OH O CH3 CH3 OH O make no oocytes MonomethylMonomethyl BranchedBranched--Chain Fatty AcidsChain Fatty Acids Deficiency with sick L3, L4, ad no growth sick L3, L4, ad no growth Monomethyl Branched-Chain Fatty Acids have been

  20. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2–ARE pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE–luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate–cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

  1. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

  2. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore »and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  3. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates hydrogen.

  4. Evaluation of chemical constitute, fatty acids and antioxidant activity of the fruit and seed of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) grown wild in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Keramatollah; Alirezalu, Abolfazl; Akbari, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    In this investigation, the chemical compositions of berries from sea buckthorn were studied. The amount of ascorbic acid and ?-carotene determined by HPLC was 170 mg/100 g FW and 0.20 mg/g FW, respectively. Total phenols, anthocyanins, acidity and total soluble solids (TSS) contents were 247 mg GAE/100 g FW, 3 mg/L (cyanidin-3-glucoside), 5.32% and 13.8%, respectively. Fruit antioxidant activity determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method was 24.85 mM Fe/100 g FW. Results confirmed the presence of six dominant fatty acids (determined by GC) in fruit including linoleic (34.2%), palmitoleic (21.37%), palmitic (17.2%), oleic (12.8%), linolenic (5.37%) and stearic acid (1.67%). Five dominant fatty acids of the seeds were linoleic (42.36%), linolenic (21.27%), oleic (21.34%), palmitic (6.54%) and stearic acid (2.54%). The nitrogen content was 3.96%. The P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cl contents of fruit were 491, 1674, 1290, 990, 291, 29.77, 108.37, 17.87, 0.021 and 2.18 mg/kg DW, respectively. PMID:26214249

  5. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  6. Short-chain fatty acids stimulate angiopoietin-like 4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?.

    PubMed

    Alex, Sheril; Lange, Katja; Amolo, Tom; Grinstead, Jeffrey S; Haakonsson, Anders K; Szalowska, Ewa; Koppen, Arjen; Mudde, Karin; Haenen, Daniëlle; Al-Lahham, Sa'ad; Roelofsen, Han; Houtman, René; van der Burg, Bart; Mandrup, Susanne; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Kalkhoven, Eric; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J; Kersten, Sander

    2013-04-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4/FIAF) has been proposed as a circulating mediator between the gut microbiota and fat storage. Here, we show that transcription and secretion of ANGPTL4 in human T84 and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells is highly induced by physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA induce ANGPTL4 by activating the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?), as demonstrated using PPAR? antagonist, PPAR? knockdown, and transactivation assays, which show activation of PPAR? but not PPAR? and PPAR? by SCFA. At concentrations required for PPAR? activation and ANGPTL4 induction in colon adenocarcinoma cells, SCFA do not stimulate PPAR? in mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes, suggesting that SCFA act as selective PPAR? modulators (SPPARM), which is supported by coactivator peptide recruitment assay and structural modeling. Consistent with the notion that fermentation leads to PPAR activation in vivo, feeding mice a diet rich in inulin induced PPAR target genes and pathways in the colon. We conclude that (i) SCFA potently stimulate ANGPTL4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and (ii) SCFA transactivate and bind to PPAR?. Our data point to activation of PPARs as a novel mechanism of gene regulation by SCFA in the colon, in addition to other mechanisms of action of SCFA. PMID:23339868

  7. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Stimulate Angiopoietin-Like 4 Synthesis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells by Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Sheril; Lange, Katja; Amolo, Tom; Grinstead, Jeffrey S.; Haakonsson, Anders K.; Szalowska, Ewa; Koppen, Arjen; Mudde, Karin; Haenen, Daniëlle; Al-Lahham, Sa'ad; Roelofsen, Han; Houtman, René; van der Burg, Bart; Mandrup, Susanne; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J.

    2013-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4/FIAF) has been proposed as a circulating mediator between the gut microbiota and fat storage. Here, we show that transcription and secretion of ANGPTL4 in human T84 and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells is highly induced by physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA induce ANGPTL4 by activating the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?), as demonstrated using PPAR? antagonist, PPAR? knockdown, and transactivation assays, which show activation of PPAR? but not PPAR? and PPAR? by SCFA. At concentrations required for PPAR? activation and ANGPTL4 induction in colon adenocarcinoma cells, SCFA do not stimulate PPAR? in mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes, suggesting that SCFA act as selective PPAR? modulators (SPPARM), which is supported by coactivator peptide recruitment assay and structural modeling. Consistent with the notion that fermentation leads to PPAR activation in vivo, feeding mice a diet rich in inulin induced PPAR target genes and pathways in the colon. We conclude that (i) SCFA potently stimulate ANGPTL4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and (ii) SCFA transactivate and bind to PPAR?. Our data point to activation of PPARs as a novel mechanism of gene regulation by SCFA in the colon, in addition to other mechanisms of action of SCFA. PMID:23339868

  8. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Charles; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of “metabolic hijacking” by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor. PMID:26684003

  9. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  10. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  11. Development of Escherichia coli MG1655 strains to produce long chain fatty acids by engineering fatty acid synthesis (FAS) metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eunyoung; Lee, Sunhee; Won, Jong-In; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Jihyeon; Lee, Jinwon

    2011-06-10

    The goal of this research was to develop recombinant Escherichia coli to improve fatty acid synthesis (FAS). Genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase (accA, accB, accC), malonyl-CoA-[acyl-carrier-protein] transacylase (fabD), and acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14 gene), which are all enzymes that catalyze key steps in the synthesis of fatty acids, were cloned and over-expressed in E. coli MG1655. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzyme catalyzes the addition of CO(2) to acetyl-CoA to generate malonyl-CoA. The enzyme encoded by the fabD gene converts malonyl-CoA to malonyl-[acp], and the EC 3.1.2.14 gene converts fatty acyl-ACP chains to long chain fatty acids. All the genes except for the EC 3.1.2.14 gene were homologous to E. coli genes and were used to improve the enzymatic activities to over-express components of the FAS pathway through metabolic engineering. All recombinant E. coli MG1655 strains containing various gene combinations were developed using the pTrc99A expression vector. To observe changes in metabolism, the in vitro metabolites and fatty acids produced by the recombinants were analyzed. The fatty acids (C16) from recombinant strains were produced 1.23-2.41 times higher than that from the wild type. PMID:22112270

  12. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid. 1. Fatty acid modification of yolks and neonatal fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Latour, M A; Devitt, A A; Meunier, R A; Stewart, J J; Watkins, B A

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on neonatal fatty acid metabolism. In this study, layer hens (n = 40) were divided into four equal groups and subjected to the following treatments. Group A served as the control group, Group B received 1 g CLA every other day, Group C received 1 g CLA every 4th d, and Group D was sham-supplemented with 1 g safflower oil every other day. After 4 mo of feeding, Group B hens exhibited an increase in BW and egg size; however, there were no differences noted in feed consumption among the various treatment groups. At the same time, hens were inseminated with a constant dose of pooled rooster semen to evaluate changes in chick liver and yolk fatty acid metabolism during neonatal growth. At hatch and through 6 d of age, there were no significant differences in breakout data (fertility and numbers of early-, mid-, or late-dead chicks) or chick BW, respectively. However, Group B chicks exhibited an increase in liver 18:3n3 and 22:1n9 and a decrease in 20:3n6 and 22:5n3 fatty acids when compared with chicks from Groups A and D. Also noted for Group B chicks, yolk 18:0 fatty acid was higher than that for Group A and D chicks. These results suggest that CLA alters lipid metabolism in growing chicks. PMID:10875761

  13. Intrinsic acyl-CoA thioesterase activity of a peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporter is required for transport and metabolism of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    De Marcos Lousa, Carine; van Roermund, Carlo W T; Postis, Vincent L G; Dietrich, Daniela; Kerr, Ian D; Wanders, Ronald J A; Baldwin, Stephen A; Baker, Alison; Theodoulou, Frederica L

    2013-01-22

    Peroxisomes are organelles that perform diverse metabolic functions in different organisms, but a common function is ?-oxidation of a variety of long chain aliphatic, branched, and aromatic carboxylic acids. Import of substrates into peroxisomes for ?-oxidation is mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins of subfamily D, which includes the human adrenoleukodystropy protein (ALDP) defective in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Whether substrates are transported as CoA esters or free acids has been a matter of debate. Using COMATOSE (CTS), a plant representative of the ABCD family, we demonstrate that there is a functional and physical interaction between the ABC transporter and the peroxisomal long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACS)6 and -7. We expressed recombinant CTS in insect cells and showed that membranes from infected cells possess fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase activity, which is stimulated by ATP. A mutant, in which Serine 810 is replaced by asparagine (S810N) is defective in fatty acid degradation in vivo, retains ATPase activity but has strongly reduced thioesterase activity, providing strong evidence for the biological relevance of this activity. Thus, CTS, and most likely the other ABCD family members, represent rare examples of polytopic membrane proteins with an intrinsic additional enzymatic function that may regulate the entry of substrates into the ?-oxidation pathway. The cleavage of CoA raises questions about the side of the membrane where this occurs and this is discussed in the context of the peroxisomal coenzyme A (CoA) budget. PMID:23288899

  14. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  15. Functional Roles of Fatty Acids and Their Effects on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2015-09-01

    A variety of fatty acids exists in the diet of humans, in the bloodstream of humans, and in cells and tissues of humans. Fatty acids are energy sources and membrane constituents. They have biological activities that act to influence cell and tissue metabolism, function, and responsiveness to hormonal and other signals. The biological activities may be grouped as regulation of membrane structure and function; regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity, and gene expression; and regulation of the production of bioactive lipid mediators. Through these effects, fatty acids influence health, well-being, and disease risk. The effects of saturated, cis monounsaturated, ?-6 and ?-3 polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids are discussed. Although traditionally most interest in the health impact of fatty acids related to cardiovascular disease, it is now clear that fatty acids influence a range of other diseases, including metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Scientists, regulators, and communicators have described the biological effects and the health impacts of fatty acids according to fatty acid class. However, it is now obvious that within any fatty acid class, different members have different actions and effects. Thus, it would seem more appropriate to describe biological effects and health impacts of individual named fatty acids, although it is recognized that this would be a challenge when communicating outside of an academic environment (eg, to consumers). PMID:26177664

  16. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moyes, C D; Buck, L T; Hochachka, P W

    1990-03-01

    In heart and red muscle of dogfish (Squalus acanthias), the maximal activities of the fatty acid catabolizing enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) are less than 5% the rate in the same tissues of teleosts (carp, Cyprinus carpio; trout, Salmo gairdneri). CPT activities in these tissues of hagfish (Eptatretus stouti) are approximately 10% the rate in teleosts. However, the maximal activities of the beta-oxidation enzyme beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD) in dogfish red muscle and heart are similar to these tissues in the other species. This paradox prompted a more detailed study on the capacity of mitochondria from dogfish cardiac and red skeletal muscles to utilize fatty acids, possibly by a CPT-independent pathway. Free fatty acids were not oxidized by mitochondria from red muscle (hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate, and palmitate) or from heart (octanoate, palmitate). Neither hyposmotic incubation nor addition of 5 mM ATP could stimulate oxidation of octanoate or palmitate in either preparation, suggesting that these tissues have little capacity to oxidize fatty acids by a carnitine-independent pathway. Palmitoyl carnitine oxidation was detectable at very low rates in these mitochondria only with hyposmotic incubation. Octanoyl carnitine was oxidized at greater rates than palmitoyl carnitine, 10% the rate of pyruvate in both tissues, suggesting that medium-chain fatty acids could be physiologically relevant fuels in elasmobranchs if available to heart and red muscle. One potential source of medium-chain fatty acids is hepatic peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which occurs in dogfish liver at maximal activities similar to carp and trout liver. However, based on relative rates of oxidation, it is likely that dogfish heart and red muscle metabolism are fueled primarily by carbohydrate and ketone bodies. PMID:2316720

  17. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (?-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ?-3 FA and PSE. PMID:25842314

  18. Supercritical CO? extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Rahal, Naila; Barba, Francisco J; Barth, Danielle; Chevalot, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 ?g/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds). PMID:26172510

  19. THREE MICROSOMAL OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE GENES CONTRIBUTE TO SOYBEAN LINOLENIC ACID LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three independent genetic loci have been shown to contribute to soybean (Glycine max L.) seed linolenic acid levels, including the well-characterized Fan locus. Linolenic acid is the product of omega-3-fatty acid desaturase enzyme activity. The objective of this study was to identify and character...

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J.; Galloway, Stuart D. R.; Hamilton, D. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  2. Conjugated linoleic acids alter bone fatty acid composition and reduce ex vivo prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in rats fed n-6 or n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Watkins, B A

    1998-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on tissue fatty acid composition and ex vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in rats given diets varying in n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Four groups of rats were given a basal semipurified diet (AIN-93G) containing 70 g/kg of added fat for 42 d. The fat treatments were formulated to contain CLA (0 vs. 10 g/kg of diet) and n-6 (soybean oil having an n-6/n-3 ratio of 7.3) and n-3 fatty acids (menhaden oil + safflower oil having an n-6/n-3 ratio of 1.8) in different ratios in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Fatty acids in liver, serum, muscle, heart, brain, spleen, and bone (cortical, marrow, and periosteum) were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The various dietary lipid treatments did not affect growth; however, CLA improved feed efficiency. The CLA isomers were found in all rat tissues analyzed although their concentrations varied. Dietary CLA decreased the concentrations of 16:1n-7, 18:1, total monounsaturates and n-6 fatty acids, but increased the concentrations of n-3 fatty acids (22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3), and saturates in the tissues analyzed. Ex vivo PGE2 production in bone organ culture was decreased by n-3 fatty acids and CLA. We speculate that CLA reduced the concentration of 18:1 fatty acids by inhibiting liver delta9-desaturase activity. The fact that CLA lowered ex vivo PGE2 production in bone organ culture suggests that these conjugated fatty acids have the potential to influence bone formation and resorption. PMID:9590630

  3. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; K?os, Marlena

    2015-01-01

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained. PMID:26633342

  4. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of O-biphenyl-3-yl carbamates as peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Duranti, Andrea; Melzig, Laurin; Fiorelli, Claudio; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Colombano, Giampiero; Mestichelli, Paola; Sanchini, Silvano; Tontini, Andrea; Mor, Marco; Bandiera, Tiziano; Scarpelli, Rita; Tarzia, Giorgio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2013-07-25

    The peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB937 (3, cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) is extruded from the brain and spinal cord by the Abcg2 efflux transporter. Despite its inability to enter the central nervous system (CNS), 3 exerts profound antinociceptive effects in mice and rats, which result from the inhibition of FAAH in peripheral tissues and the consequent enhancement of anandamide signaling at CB1 cannabinoid receptors localized on sensory nerve endings. In the present study, we examined the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for the biphenyl region of compound 3, focusing on the carbamoyl and hydroxyl groups in the distal and proximal phenyl rings. Our SAR studies generated a new series of peripherally restricted FAAH inhibitors and identified compound 35 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-5-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) as the most potent brain-impermeant FAAH inhibitor disclosed to date. PMID:23822179

  5. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    2011-05-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for CFA accumulation via heterologous expression in production plants.

  6. Current Progress and Future Research on the Production of Oxygenated Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated (hydroxy-, epoxy-) fatty acids such as ricinoleic, vernolic and /or sebacic acids are high value chemicals and can be used to produce polymers and specialty chemicals. Oxygenated fatty acids also have many bioactive properties, such as antimicrobial activity against Salmonella, Staphyloc...

  7. Adding value to plant oils and fatty acids: Biological transformation of fatty acids into ?-hydroxycarboxylic, ?,?-dicarboxylic, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Mee; Lee, Jinwon; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-12-20

    Not only short chain ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, ?,?-dicarboxylic acids, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids but also medium to long chain carboxylic acids are widely used as building blocks and intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Thereby, recent achievements in biological production of medium to long chain carboxylic acids are addressed here. ?-Hydroxycarboxylic and ?,?-dicarboxylic acids were synthesized via terminal CH bond oxygenation of fatty acids and/or internal oxidative cleavage of the fatty acid carbon skeletons. ?-Aminocarboxylic acids were enzymatically produced from ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids via ?-oxocarboxylic acids. Productivities and product yields of some of the products are getting close to the industrial requirements for large scale production. PMID:26546054

  8. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins 1 and 2 Differentially Modulate the Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? in a Ligand-selective Manner.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Maria L R; Liu, Bonan; Halls, Michelle L; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Patil, Rahul; Velkov, Tony; Jans, David A; Bunnett, Nigel W; Scanlon, Martin J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2015-05-29

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) regulate the expression of proteins that control aspects of reproduction, development and metabolism, and are major therapeutic targets. However, NHRs are ubiquitous and participate in multiple physiological processes. Drugs that act at NHRs are therefore commonly restricted by toxicity, often at nontarget organs. For endogenous NHR ligands, intracellular lipid-binding proteins, including the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), can chaperone ligands to the nucleus and promote NHR activation. Drugs also bind FABPs, raising the possibility that FABPs similarly regulate drug activity at the NHRs. Here, we investigate the ability of FABP1 and FABP2 (intracellular lipid-binding proteins that are highly expressed in tissues involved in lipid metabolism, including the liver and intestine) to influence drug-mediated activation of the lipid regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?. We show by quantitative fluorescence imaging and gene reporter assays that drug binding to FABP1 and FABP2 promotes nuclear localization and PPAR? activation in a drug- and FABP-dependent manner. We further show that nuclear accumulation of FABP1 and FABP2 is dependent on the presence of PPAR?. Nuclear accumulation of FABP on drug binding is driven largely by reduced nuclear egress rather than an increased rate of nuclear entry. Importin binding assays indicate that nuclear access occurs via an importin-independent mechanism. Together, the data suggest that specific drug-FABP complexes can interact with PPAR? to effect nuclear accumulation of FABP and NHR activation. Because FABPs are expressed in a regionally selective manner, this may provide a means to tailor the patterns of NHR drug activation in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:25847235

  9. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 ?g km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from Russian forest and peat fires. Fatty acids were commonly observed on the surface layer of these particles. The chain length composition was characteristic to each emission source. In our previous work (Tervahattu et al., 2002), fatty acids on sea-salt particles were originated from dead sea plankton organisms with major peaks ranging from C14 to C18 and maximum at C16 (palmitic acid). Major peaks on the surface of forest fire particles ranged from C16 to C30 with the maximum at C24. This composition indicates the involvement of the smoke from both conifer trees and peat (Oros and Simoneit, 2000; 2001b). On the other hand, TOF-SIMS analysis of the surface of field fire particles showed major peaks from C14 to C30 with two maximums at C16 (highest intensity) and C22. It was concluded that the results indicate emissions from both grass burning and fossil fuels (Simoneit, 2002; Oros and Simoneit, 2000). The presence of surface film on aerosol particles may have an impact on their chemical, physical and optical properties and change their role in light scattering and as cloud condensation nuclei as well as interactions with human tissue.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Vinot, Nina; Jouin, Mélanie; Lhomme-Duchadeuil, Adrien; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 (?3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of brain cells membranes. ?3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ?3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ?3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ?3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ?3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ?3 PUFA (n?=?6 per group). Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ?3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05), while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ?3-supplemented animals (p<0.001), a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ?3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ?3 fatty acids may represent a valuable dietary strategy to improve behavioural and cognitive functions. PMID:21666750

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Heterologous expression of a fatty acid hydroxylase gene

    E-print Network

    Kunst, Ljerka

    present in the seed. Plants in which FAD2 (ER D12-desaturase) activity was absent showed a decrease in 18 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oleate 12-desaturases (FAD2) of higher plants (van de Loo et al. 1995). Expression of the castor hydroxylase protein in yeast indicates that this enzyme has a low level of fatty acid D12

  12. Accumulation of Oxygenated Fatty Acids in Oat Lipids During Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids were identified in oat grain by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. We hypothesized that most of these were the results of lipoxygenase activity. This hypothesis was tested by measuring concentrations of these compounds after hydrothermal treatments and storage of oat groa...

  13. Inhibition of fatty acid-supported mitochondrial respiration by cyclosporine.

    PubMed

    Lemmi, C A; Miller, R L; Rajfer, J

    1990-12-01

    We have shown that, in addition to inhibition of the succinate-supported energy pathway (5), CS inhibition of mitochondrial Complex II activity also limits fatty acid oxidation. These results are consistent with the participation of altered lipid metabolism in CS nephrotoxicity. PMID:2288768

  14. Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hopeman, Margaret M; Riley, Joan K; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Jungheim, Emily S

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds, and they are classified by the location of the last double bond. Omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) PUFAs are obtained through food sources including fatty fish and seed/vegetable oils, respectively, and they are important to a number of physiologic processes including inflammation. Previous work demonstrates suppressive effects of n-3 PUFAs on endometriotic lesions in animal models and decreased risk of endometriosis among women with high n-3 PUFA intake. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating levels of PUFAs and endometriosis in women. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional study of serum PUFAs and clinical data from 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Serum PUFAs were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy and included n-3 PUFAs such as ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships between specific and total serum PUFAs and patient history of endometriosis. Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78). PMID:25539770

  15. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, plasma and liver as well as hepatic stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity and gene expression in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shang, X G; Wang, F L; Li, D F; Yin, J D; Li, X J; Yi, G F

    2005-12-01

    A total of 216 Brown Dwarf laying hens (1.62 +/- 0.06 kg BW and 60 wk old) were fed 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic aicd (CLA) to explore its effects on the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, plasma, and liver as well as hepatic stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1) activity and its mRNA gene expression. Four hens were placed in wired-floored cages (45 x 40 x 45 cm) and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. The experimental diets were fed for 54 d, and then eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of egg yolk. Four eggs were randomly selected from the total day's production for each replicate, and the contents were pooled prior to analysis. On d 56, one randomly chosen hen from each replicate (6 hens per replicate and a total of 18 hens) was bled via heart puncture and then killed in order to collect liver samples to measure the fatty acid profile of plasma and liver tissue as well as hepatic SCD-1 activity and its mRNA abundance. Dietary supplementation of CLA resulted in a significant deposition of CLA in egg yolk, plasma, and liver lipids (P < 0.01). As the dietary level of CLA increased, the concentration of saturated fatty acids in egg yolk, plasma, and liver also increased (P < 0.05). However, the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids in these same tissues decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with the control, the activity of SCD-1 was reduced by feeding 2.5% CLA (P < 0.05) without a change in SCD-1 mRNA gene expression. However, feeding 5% CLA reduced both SCD-1 activity and mRNA abundance (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the conversion of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk, plasma, and liver might be modulated directly at hepatic mRNA gene expression levels, or may be indirectly regulated at the downstream post-transcriptional levels. PMID:16479945

  16. Changes in the physiological parameters, fatty acid metabolism, and SCD activity and expression in juvenile GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared at three different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ma, X Y; Qiang, J; He, J; Gabriel, N N; Xu, P

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of rearing temperature on the composition of fatty acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and gene expression in GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) tilapia. Three triplicate groups of fish were reared for 40 days at 22, 28, or 34 °C. At the end of the trial, the final body weight of juveniles reared at 28 °C was higher than that of fish reared at 22 or 34 °C. Feed intake, feed efficiency, and the protein efficiency ratio were also higher at 28 °C. The fatty acid composition of muscle tissue differed significantly (P < 0.05) among the treatment groups. The content of SFA decreased with decreasing temperature, whereas the UFA content increased. We observed high levels of PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFAs, in fish reared at the lower temperature. Rearing at low temperature significantly (P < 0.05) increased the expression and activity of the SCD gene. Increased SCD activity and gene expression can increase the biosynthesis of MUFAs in GIFT tilapia muscle. Additionally, cold acclimation can decrease the content of TC and TG in GIFT tilapia, which can help increase cold tolerance. PMID:25939714

  17. The mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFASII) pathway is capable of mediating nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk through the PPAR system of transcriptional activation

    SciTech Connect

    Parl, Angelika; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Clay, Hayley B.; Reiss, Sara; Li, Zhen; Murdock, Deborah G.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The function of the mitochondria fatty acid synthesis pathway is partially unknown. •Overexpression of the pathway causes transcriptional activation through PPARs. •Knock down of the pathway attenuates that activation. •The last enzyme in the pathway regulates its own transcription. •Products of the mtFASII pathway are able to drive nuclear transcription. -- Abstract: Mammalian cells contain two fatty acid synthesis pathways, the cytosolic FASI pathway, and the mitochondrial FASII pathway. The selection behind the conservation of the mitochondrial pathway is not completely understood, given the presence of the cytosolic FAS pathway. In this study, we show through heterologous gene reporter systems and PCR-based arrays that overexpression of MECR, the last step in the mtFASII pathway, causes modulation of gene expression through the PPAR pathway. Electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrate that overexpression of MECR causes increased binding of PPARs to DNA, while cell fractionation and imaging studies show that MECR remains localized to the mitochondria. Interestingly, knock down of the mtFASII pathway lessens the effect of MECR on this transcriptional modulation. Our data are most consistent with MECR-mediated transcriptional activation through products of the mtFASII pathway, although we cannot rule out MECR acting as a coactivator. Further investigation into the physiological relevance of this communication will be necessary to better understand some of the phenotypic consequences of deficits in this pathway observed in animal models and human disease.

  18. [THE FATTY ACIDS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Catalán, Julio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo

    2015-01-01

    The functionality of the eukaryotic cell depends on the cell membrane, the genetic information and action of different organelles with or without the presence of membranes. The functionality of the cell membrane and organelles containing it depends primarily on the type and location of fatty acids in the phospholipids and the type of enzymes associated with them, this allows the fatty acids to be metabolized to new species that exert various functions. From this perspective, some essential fatty acids (EFAs) that produce metabolites that exert health benefits are identified, (for example antiinflammatory, neuroprotection, etc) and exert negative effects metabolites (eg inflammation, necrosis promoters, atheroma, etc.) are also generated. In general, these adverse or beneficial effects depend on the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 obtained in the diet. Thus, the higher this ratio is more negative effect; therefore the challenge of the current supply is obtained through food consumption, lower ratios in these fatty acids. The present review aims to present recent evidence on the effects of some AGEs, and the role of diet in maintaining health. PMID:26319861

  19. Hydroxyl Fatty Acids and Hydroxyl Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is produced domestically in large supply, averaging over 20 billion pounds per year with an annual carryover of more than one billion pounds. It is important to find new uses for this surplus soybean oil. Hydroxyl fatty acids and hydroxyl oils are platform materials for specialty chemi...

  20. PLANT FATTY ACID (ETHANOL) AMIDE HYDROLASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays a central role in modulating endogenous N-acylethanolamine (NAE) levels in vertebrates, and, in part, constitutes an “endocannabinoid” signaling pathway that regulates diverse physiological and behavioral processes in animals. Recently, an Arabidopsis FAAH hom...

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review. This review focuses on the effect(s) of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on gene transcription as determined from data generated using cDNA microarrays. Introduced within the past decade, this methodology allows detection of the expression of thousands of genes simultaneo...

  2. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...aldrin (RA) between 10 and 25, using the gas chromatographic-electron capture method prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this...ibr_locations.html. (3) The gas chromatographic-electron capture method for testing fatty acids for chick-edema...

  3. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...aldrin (RA) between 10 and 25, using the gas chromatographic-electron capture method prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this...ibr_locations.html. (3) The gas chromatographic-electron capture method for testing fatty acids for chick-edema...

  4. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...aldrin (RA) between 10 and 25, using the gas chromatographic-electron capture method prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this...ibr_locations.html. (3) The gas chromatographic-electron capture method for testing fatty acids for chick-edema...

  5. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...aldrin (RA) between 10 and 25, using the gas chromatographic-electron capture method prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this...ibr_locations.html. (3) The gas chromatographic-electron capture method for testing fatty acids for chick-edema...

  6. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...aldrin (RA) between 10 and 25, using the gas chromatographic-electron capture method prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this...ibr_locations.html. (3) The gas chromatographic-electron capture method for testing fatty acids for chick-edema...

  7. Lipid and Fatty Acid Requirements of Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary lipids are an important source of highly digestible energy and are the only source of essential fatty acids required for normal growth and development. They are also carriers and assist in the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, such as sterols and fat-soluble vitamins, serve as a source of...

  8. Diversity of ?12 Fatty Acid Desaturases in Santalaceae and Their Role in Production of Seed Oil Acetylenic Fatty Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Shoko; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Damcevski, Katherine; Gibb, Nerida; Wood, Craig; Hamberg, Mats; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2013-01-01

    Plants in the Santalaceae family, including the native cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis and sweet quandong Santalum acuminatum, accumulate ximenynic acid (trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid) in their seed oil and conjugated polyacetylenic fatty acids in root tissue. Twelve full-length genes coding for microsomal ?12 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) from the two Santalaceae species were identified by degenerate PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences placed five Santalaceae FADs with ?12 FADs, which include Arabidopsis thaliana FAD2. When expressed in yeast, the major activity of these genes was ?12 desaturation of oleic acid, but unusual activities were also observed: i.e. ?15 desaturation of linoleic acid as well as trans-?12 and trans-?11 desaturations of stearolic acid (9-octadecynoic acid). The trans-12-octadecen-9-ynoic acid product was also detected in quandong seed oil. The two other FAD groups (FADX and FADY) were present in both species; in a phylogenetic tree of microsomal FAD enzymes, FADX and FADY formed a unique clade, suggesting that are highly divergent. The FADX group enzymes had no detectable ?12 FAD activity but instead catalyzed cis-?13 desaturation of stearolic acid when expressed in yeast. No products were detected for the FADY group when expressed recombinantly. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the FADY genes were expressed in leaf rather than developing seed of the native cherry. FADs with promiscuous and unique activities have been identified in Santalaceae and explain the origin of some of the unusual lipids found in this plant family. PMID:24062307

  9. Diversity of ?12 fatty acid desaturases in santalaceae and their role in production of seed oil acetylenic fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shoko; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Damcevski, Katherine; Gibb, Nerida; Wood, Craig; Hamberg, Mats; Haritos, Victoria S

    2013-11-01

    Plants in the Santalaceae family, including the native cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis and sweet quandong Santalum acuminatum, accumulate ximenynic acid (trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid) in their seed oil and conjugated polyacetylenic fatty acids in root tissue. Twelve full-length genes coding for microsomal ?12 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) from the two Santalaceae species were identified by degenerate PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences placed five Santalaceae FADs with ?12 FADs, which include Arabidopsis thaliana FAD2. When expressed in yeast, the major activity of these genes was ?12 desaturation of oleic acid, but unusual activities were also observed: i.e. ?15 desaturation of linoleic acid as well as trans-?12 and trans-?11 desaturations of stearolic acid (9-octadecynoic acid). The trans-12-octadecen-9-ynoic acid product was also detected in quandong seed oil. The two other FAD groups (FADX and FADY) were present in both species; in a phylogenetic tree of microsomal FAD enzymes, FADX and FADY formed a unique clade, suggesting that are highly divergent. The FADX group enzymes had no detectable ?12 FAD activity but instead catalyzed cis-?13 desaturation of stearolic acid when expressed in yeast. No products were detected for the FADY group when expressed recombinantly. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the FADY genes were expressed in leaf rather than developing seed of the native cherry. FADs with promiscuous and unique activities have been identified in Santalaceae and explain the origin of some of the unusual lipids found in this plant family. PMID:24062307

  10. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John (Shoreham, NY); Whittle, Edward J. (Greenport, NY)

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  11. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SATURATED AND UNSATURATED FATTY ACID DIETS ON CARDIOMYOCYTE APOPTOSIS, ADIPOSE DISTRIBUTION, AND SERUM LEPTIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are the primary fuel for the heart and are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which regulate the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism. Saturated fatty acids, particularly palmitate, can be converted to the proapoptotic lipi...

  12. The Plant Journal (1997) 12(1), 121-131 Very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis is controlled

    E-print Network

    Kunst, Ljerka

    1997-01-01

    The Plant Journal (1997) 12(1), 121-131 Very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis is controlled FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene encodes a putative seed-specific condensing enzyme. It is the first of four enzyme activities that comprise the microsomal fatty acid elongase (FAE) involved

  13. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  15. Synthesis of Commodity Chemicals from Renewable Fatty Acids

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Synthesis of Commodity Chemicals from Renewable Fatty Acids From the Resnick Chemicals from Renewable Fatty Acids Global Significance Alpha olefins represent an important class feedstocks. Fatty acids are an ideal candidate because of their abundance, low cost, and inherent

  16. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food...

  17. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food...

  18. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food...

  19. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food...

  20. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food...

  1. Developing unique fatty acid combinations through traditional sunflower breeding methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been a plethora of new fatty acid developments in a number of oilseeds that are either in research or have been introduced into the market place. There are many challenges in changing the fatty acid structure of an oilseed. Yield drag is one concern as is fatty acid consistency depending ...

  2. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance...

  3. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance...

  4. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance...

  5. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance...

  6. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely... conditions: (a) The additive consists of one or any mixture of two or more of the aluminum, calcium... derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended...

  7. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely... conditions: (a) The additive consists of one or any mixture of two or more of the aluminum, calcium... derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended...

  8. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely... conditions: (a) The additive consists of one or any mixture of two or more of the aluminum, calcium... derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended...

  9. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely... conditions: (a) The additive consists of one or any mixture of two or more of the aluminum, calcium... derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended...

  10. Saturated fatty acids regulate retinoic acid signalling and suppress tumorigenesis by targeting fatty acid-binding protein 5.

    PubMed

    Levi, Liraz; Wang, Zeneng; Doud, Mary Kathryn; Hazen, Stanley L; Noy, Noa

    2015-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) serve as energy sources, components of cell membranes and precursors for signalling molecules. Here we show that these biological compounds also regulate gene expression and that they do so by controlling the transcriptional activities of the retinoic acid (RA)-activated nuclear receptors RAR and PPAR?/?. The data indicate that these activities of LCFA are mediated by FABP5, which delivers ligands from the cytosol to nuclear PPAR?/?. Both saturated and unsaturated LCFA (SLCFA, ULCFA) bind to FABP5, thereby displacing RA and diverting it to RAR. However, while SLCFA inhibit, ULCFA activate the FABP5/PPAR?/? pathway. We show further that, by concomitantly promoting the activation of RAR and inhibiting the activation of PPAR?/?, SLCFA suppress the oncogenic properties of FABP5-expressing carcinoma cells in cultured cells and in vivo. The observations suggest that compounds that inhibit FABP5 may constitute a new class of drugs for therapy of certain types of cancer. PMID:26592976

  11. The peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE is required to prevent the dietary toxicity of medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Loizides-Mangold, Ursula; Rando, Gianpaolo; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier; Reddy, Janardan K; Wahli, Walter; Riezman, Howard; Thorens, Bernard

    2013-10-17

    Specific metabolic pathways are activated by different nutrients to adapt the organism to available resources. Although essential, these mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we report that medium-chain fatty acids contained in coconut oil, a major source of dietary fat, induce the liver ?-oxidation genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 to increase the production of dicarboxylic fatty acids. Furthermore, these activate all ?- and ?-oxidation pathways through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? and PPAR?, an activation loop normally kept under control by dicarboxylic fatty acid degradation by the peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE. Indeed, L-pbe(-/-) mice fed coconut oil overaccumulate dicarboxylic fatty acids, which activate all fatty acid oxidation pathways and lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and death. Thus, the correct homeostasis of dicarboxylic fatty acids is a means to regulate the efficient utilization of ingested medium-chain fatty acids, and its deregulation exemplifies the intricate relationship between impaired metabolism and inflammation. PMID:24075987

  12. Interleukin-6 increases insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans and glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in vitro via AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Carey, Andrew L; Steinberg, Gregory R; Macaulay, S Lance; Thomas, Walter G; Holmes, Anna G; Ramm, Georg; Prelovsek, Oja; Hohnen-Behrens, Cordula; Watt, Matthew J; James, David E; Kemp, Bruce E; Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2006-10-01

    Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been associated with insulin resistance, little is known regarding the effects of IL-6 on insulin sensitivity in humans in vivo. Here, we show that IL-6 infusion increases glucose disposal without affecting the complete suppression of endogenous glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in healthy humans. Because skeletal muscle accounts for most of the insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in vivo, we examined the mechanism(s) by which IL-6 may affect muscle metabolism using L6 myotubes. IL-6 treatment increased fatty acid oxidation, basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, IL-6 rapidly and markedly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To determine whether the activation of AMPK mediated cellular metabolic events, we conducted experiments using L6 myotubes infected with dominant-negative AMPK alpha-subunit. The effects described above were abrogated in AMPK dominant-negative-infected cells. Our results demonstrate that acute IL-6 treatment enhances insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans in vivo, while the effects of IL-6 on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in vitro appear to be mediated by AMPK. PMID:17003332

  13. Activity of dietary fatty acids on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterisation of pinolenic acid as a dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist with potential effect against metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Watterson, Kenneth R; Stocker, Claire J; Sokol, Elena; Jenkins, Laura; Simon, Katharina; Grundmann, Manuel; Petersen, Rasmus K; Wargent, Edward T; Hudson, Brian D; Kostenis, Evi; Ejsing, Christer S; Cawthorne, Michael A; Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond

    2015-06-14

    Various foods are associated with effects against metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, their mechanisms of action are mostly unclear. Fatty acids may contribute by acting as precursors of signalling molecules or by direct activity on receptors. The medium- and long-chain NEFA receptor FFA1 (free fatty acid receptor 1, previously known as GPR40) has been linked to enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas FFA4 (free fatty acid receptor 4, previously known as GPR120) has been associated with insulin-sensitising and anti-inflammatory effects, and both receptors are reported to protect pancreatic islets and promote secretion of appetite and glucose-regulating hormones. Hypothesising that FFA1 and FFA4 mediate therapeutic effects of dietary components, we screened a broad selection of NEFA on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterised active compounds in concentration-response curves. Of the screened compounds, pinolenic acid, a constituent of pine nut oil, was identified as a relatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist, and its suitability for further studies was confirmed by additional in vitro characterisation. Pine nut oil and free and esterified pure pinolenic acid were tested in an acute glucose tolerance test in mice. Pine nut oil showed a moderately but significantly improved glucose tolerance compared with maize oil. Pure pinolenic acid or ethyl ester gave robust and highly significant improvements of glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the present results indicate that pinolenic acid is a comparatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist that exerts antidiabetic effects in an acute mouse model. The compound thus deserves attention as a potential active dietary ingredient to prevent or counteract metabolic diseases. PMID:25916176

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha stimulates both differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes[S

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Joo-Young; Teraminami, Aki; Kim, Yong-Il; Hirai, Shizuka; Uemura, Taku; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a dietary lipid sensor, whose activation results in hypolipidemic effects. In this study, we investigated whether PPAR? activation affects energy metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). Activation of PPAR? by its agonist (bezafibrate) markedly reduced adiposity in KK mice fed a high-fat diet. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, addition of GW7647, a highly specific PPAR? agonist, during adipocyte differentiation enhanced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and adipogenic gene expression. However, triglyceride accumulation was not increased by PPAR? activation. PPAR? activation induced expression of target genes involved in FA oxidation and stimulated FA oxidation. In WAT of KK mice treated with bezafibrate, both adipogenic and FA oxidation-related genes were significantly upregulated. These changes in mRNA expression were not observed in PPAR?-deficient mice. Bezafibrate treatment enhanced FA oxidation in isolated adipocytes, suppressing adipocyte hypertrophy. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that PPAR? was recruited to promoter regions of both adipogenic and FA oxidation-related genes in the presence of GW7647 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings indicate that the activation of PPAR? affects energy metabolism in adipocytes, and PPAR? activation in WAT may contribute to the clinical effects of fibrate drugs. PMID:21324916

  15. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). 721.10512 Section 721.10512...for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). 721.10512 Section 721.10512...for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

  18. Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2013-01-01

    A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

  19. Palladium Catalysts for Fatty Acid Deoxygenation: Influence of the Support and Fatty Acid Chain Length on Decarboxylation Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, JP; Immer, JG; Lamb, HH

    2012-03-29

    Supported metal catalysts containing 5 wt% Pd on silica, alumina, and activated carbon were evaluated for liquid-phase deoxygenation of stearic (octadecanoic), lauric (dodecanoic), and capric (decanoic) acids under 5 % H-2 at 300 A degrees C and 15 atm. On-line quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) was used to measure CO + CO2 yield, CO2 selectivity, H-2 consumption, and initial decarboxylation rate. Post-reaction analysis of liquid products by gas chromatography was used to determine n-alkane yields. The Pd/C catalyst was highly active and selective for stearic acid (SA) decarboxylation under these conditions. In contrast, SA deoxygenation over Pd/SiO2 occurred primarily via decarbonylation and at a much slower rate. Pd/Al2O3 exhibited high initial SA decarboxylation activity but deactivated under the test conditions. Similar CO2 selectivity patterns among the catalysts were observed for deoxygenation of lauric and capric acids; however, the initial decarboxylation rates tended to be lower for these substrates. The influence of alkyl chain length on deoxygenation kinetics was investigated for a homologous series of C-10-C-18 fatty acids using the Pd/C catalyst. As fatty acid carbon number decreases, reaction time and H-2 consumption increase, and CO2 selectivity and initial decarboxylation rate decrease. The increase in initial decarboxylation rates for longer chain fatty acids is attributed to their greater propensity for adsorption on the activated carbon support.

  20. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  1. Heterologous Reconstitution of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Park, Jong-Sug; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kang, Han-Chul; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by ?6-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and ?5-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES) under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6) as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3) could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible. PMID:26339641

  2. Fatty acids, coumarins and polyphenolic compounds of Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato: variation of bioactive compounds and biological activity of aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    Leaves, bark and woody part of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato collected in different months were examined to assess their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phototoxicity on C32 human melanoma cells after UVA irradiation. The phytochemical investigation revealed different composition in the coumarin, fatty acid, polyphenol and flavonoid content. The second harvest of leaves and the first harvest of the bark possessed the highest antiradical activity with IC50 values of 64.00 ± 0.59 and 67.00 ± 1.09 ?g/mL, respectively. Harvest III of leaves showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.48 ± 0.04 ?g/mL). Leaf samples of F. carica showed also the best antiproliferative activity in comparison with bark and woody part of F. carica. PMID:24087937

  3. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris to produce ricinoleic acid, a hydroxy fatty acid of industrial importance.

    PubMed

    Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Chen, Yan; Ng, Siew Hon; Chen, Jianan; Qiu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) has many specialized uses in bioproduct industries, while castor bean is currently the only commercial source for the fatty acid. This report describes metabolic engineering of a microbial system (Pichia pastoris) to produce ricinoleic acid using a "push" (synthesis) and "pull" (assembly) strategy. CpFAH, a fatty acid hydroxylase from Claviceps purpurea, was used for synthesis of ricinoleic acid, and CpDGAT1, a diacylglycerol acyl transferase for the triacylglycerol synthesis from the same species, was used for assembly of the fatty acid. Coexpression of CpFAH and CpDGAT1 produced higher lipid contents and ricinoleic acid levels than expression of CpFAH alone. Coexpression in a mutant haploid strain defective in the ?12 desaturase activity resulted in a higher level of ricinoleic acid than that in the diploid strain. Intriguingly, the ricinoleic acid produced was mainly distributed in the neutral lipid fractions, particularly the free fatty acid form, but with little in the polar lipids. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the metabolic engineering strategy and excellent capacity of the microbial system for production of ricinoleic acid as an alternative to plant sources for industrial uses. PMID:26323290

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  5. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  7. The effects of unsaturated fatty acids on hepatic microsomal drug metabolism and cytochrome P-450

    PubMed Central

    Di Augustine, Richard P.; Fouts, James R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The effects of unsaturated fatty acids on drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro were measured by using rat and rabbit hepatic 9000g supernatant fractions. 2. Unsaturated fatty acids inhibited the hepatic microsomal metabolism of `type I' drugs with inhibition increasing with unsaturation: arachidonic acid>linolenic acid>linoleic acid>oleic acid. Inhibition was independent of lipid peroxidation. Linoleic acid competitively inhibited the microsomal O-demethylation of p-nitroanisole and the N-demethylation of (+)-benzphetamine. 3. The hepatic microsomal metabolism of `type II' substrates, aniline and (?)-amphetamine, was not affected by unsaturated fatty acids. 4. The rate of reduction of p-nitrobenzoic acid and Neoprontosil was accelerated by unsaturated fatty acids. 5. Linoleic acid up to 3·5mm did not decelerate the generation of NADPH by rat liver soluble fraction, nor the activity of NADPH–cytochrome c reductase of rat liver microsomes. Hepatic microsomal NADPH oxidase activity was slightly enhanced by added linoleic acid. 6. No measurable disappearance of exogenously added linoleic acid occurred when this fatty acid was incubated with rat liver microsomes and an NADPH source. 7. The unsaturated fatty acids used in this study produced type I spectra when added to rat liver microsomes, and affected several microsomal enzyme activities in a manner characteristic of type I ligands. PMID:4390924

  8. Increased glucose metabolism and glycerolipid formation by fatty acids and GPR40 receptor signaling underlies the fatty acid potentiation of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    El-Azzouny, Mahmoud; Evans, Charles R; Treutelaar, Mary K; Kennedy, Robert T; Burant, Charles F

    2014-05-01

    Acute fatty acid (FA) exposure potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in ? cells through metabolic and receptor-mediated effects. We assessed the effect of fatty acids on the dynamics of the metabolome in INS-1 cells following exposure to [U-(13)C]glucose to assess flux through metabolic pathways. Metabolite profiling showed a fatty acid-induced increase in long chain acyl-CoAs that were rapidly esterified with glucose-derived glycerol-3-phosphate to form lysophosphatidic acid, mono- and diacylglycerols, and other glycerolipids, some implicated in augmenting insulin secretion. Glucose utilization and glycolytic flux increased, along with a reduction in the NADH/NAD(+) ratio, presumably by an increase in conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol-3-phosphate. The fatty acid-induced increase in glycolysis also resulted in increases in tricarboxylic cycle flux and oxygen consumption. Inhibition of fatty acid activation of FFAR1/GPR40 by an antagonist decreased glycerolipid formation, attenuated fatty acid increases in glucose oxidation, and increased mitochondrial FA flux, as evidenced by increased acylcarnitine levels. Conversely, FFAR1/GPR40 activation in the presence of low FA increased flux into glycerolipids and enhanced glucose oxidation. These results suggest that, by remodeling glucose and lipid metabolism, fatty acid significantly increases the formation of both lipid- and TCA cycle-derived intermediates that augment insulin secretion, increasing our understanding of mechanisms underlying ? cell insulin secretion. PMID:24675078

  9. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel phenoxyacetamide-based free fatty acid receptor 1 agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Xuekun; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianyong; Qiu, Qianqian; Qiang, Hao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-10-15

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) has attracted extensive attention as a novel antidiabetic target in the last decade. Several FFA1 agonists reported in the literature have been suffered from relatively high molecular weight and lipophilicity. We have previously reported the FFA1 agonist 1. Based on the common amide structural characteristic of SAR1 and NIH screened compound, we here describe the continued structure-activity exploration to decrease the molecular weight and lipophilicity of the compound 1 series by converting various amide linkers. All of these efforts lead to the discovery of the preferable lead compound 18, a compound with considerable agonistic activity, high LE and LLE values, lower lipophilicity than previously reported agonists, and appreciable efficacy on glucose tolerance in both normal and type 2 diabetic mice. PMID:26420383

  10. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:24837925

  11. Neuropsychological Outcomes in Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders: 85 Cases Detected by Newborn Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waisbren, Susan E.; Landau, Yuval; Wilson, Jenna; Vockley, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders include conditions in which the transport of activated acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) into the mitochondria or utilization of these substrates is disrupted or blocked. This results in a deficit in the conversion of fat into energy. Most patients with fatty acid oxidation defects are now identified through…

  12. What do we really know about the health effects of natural sources of trans fatty acids?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the food industry remains actively engaged in the development of alternatives for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in order to reduce intake of trans fatty acids, intake of these fatty acids from natural sources remains as a small part of our diet. The question remains, are there differ...

  13. Essential Fatty Acids and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Gabis, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Essential fatty acids (EFAs), also known as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, have been claimed to have beneficial effects as a treatment for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Animal experiments have provided information about the role of EFA in the brain, and several mechanisms of EFA activity are well known. The current review…

  14. Spatial distributions of oxygenated organic compounds (dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids, and levoglucosan) in marine aerosols over the

    E-print Network

    Spatial distributions of oxygenated organic compounds (dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids 2003. [1] Aerosol sampling for major oxygenated organic compounds (dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids. Concentrations of total diacids, total fatty acids, and levoglucosan were found to be higher off the coasts

  15. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  16. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  17. Overexpression of Fatty Acid Synthase in Middle Eastern Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Activates AKT and Its Inhibition Potentiates Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shahab; Jehan, Zeenath; Ahmed, Maqbool; Alyan, Aisha; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Hussain, Azhar; Bavi, Prashant; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the enzyme responsible for de novo synthesis of fatty acids, has been shown to be deregulated in several cancers, including epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). In this study, we investigated the function of the FASN signaling pathway in a large series of Middle Eastern EOC patient samples, a panel of cell lines and nude mouse model. Using immunohistochemistry, we detected overexpression of FASN in 75.5% (114/151) of the tumor samples. Overexpression of FASN was associated significantly with tumor proliferative marker Ki-67 (P = 0.0009), activated AKT (P = 0.0117) and XIAP (P = 0.0046). Treatment of EOC cell lines with C-75, a selective inhibitor of FASN, caused inhibition of EOC cell viability via induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of FASN by C-75 led apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. FASN inhibition caused downregulation of activated AKT and its downstream targets. In addition, inhibition by FASN siRNA caused downregulation of FASN and activation of caspases, suggesting the role of FASN in C-75 mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of EOC cells with subtoxic doses of C-75 augmented the effect of cisplatin-mediated induction of apoptosis. Finally, treatment of EOC cell line xenografts with a combination of C-75 and cisplatin resulted in growth inhibition of tumors in nude mice through downregulation of FASN and activation of caspases. Altogether, our results show overexpression of FASN in Middle Eastern EOC, suggesting that FASN may be a potential therapeutic target in a subset of EOC, alone or in combination with other conventional chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:21442130

  18. Heterologous expression of a fatty acid hydroxylase gene in developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Moon, Hangsik; Chowrira, Gangamma; Kunst, Ljerka

    2003-07-01

    Expression of a cDNA encoding the castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.) oleate Delta12-hydroxylase in the developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. results in the synthesis of four novel hydroxy fatty acids. These have been previously identified as ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadec- cis-9-enoic acid: 18:1-OH), densipolic acid (12-hydroxy-octadec- cis-9,15-enoic acid: 18:2-OH), lesquerolic acid (14-hydroxy-eicos- cis-11-enoic acid: 20:1-OH) and auricolic acid (14-hydroxy-eicos- cis-11,17-enoic acid: 20:2-OH). Using mutant lines of Arabidopsis that lack the activity of the FAE1 condensing enzyme or FAD3 ER Delta-15-desaturase, we have shown that these enzymes are required for the synthesis of C20 hydroxy fatty acids and polyunsaturated hydroxy fatty acids, respectively. Analysis of the seed fatty acid composition of transformed plants demonstrated a dramatic increase in oleic acid (18:1) levels and a decrease in linoleic acid (18:2) content correlating to the levels of hydroxy fatty acid present in the seed. Plants in which FAD2 (ER Delta12-desaturase) activity was absent showed a decrease in 18:1 content and a slight increase in 18:2 levels corresponding to hydroxy fatty acid content. Expression of the castor hydroxylase protein in yeast indicates that this enzyme has a low level of fatty acid Delta12-desaturase activity. Lipase catalysed 1,3-specific lipolysis of triacylglycerol from transformed plants demonstrated that ricinoleic acid is not excluded from the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol, but is the only hydroxy fatty acid present at this position. PMID:14520576

  19. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND SLEEP

    E-print Network

    Prohaska, Jennifer A.

    2008-10-24

    ) hypertriglyceridemia (Wohl, Tien, et al, 2005) high blood pressure (Sacks, Hebert, et al, 1994) and skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis (Calder & Miles, 2000). Accordingly, the American Heart Association (AHA) has recently published a comprehensive list.... (Albert, Kyungwon, & Wang, 2004). Omega-3 fatty acids are synthesized by plants, but they are acquired by humans through the consumption of animals which have eaten plants ? especially grasses and algae ? that contain omega-3s. There are three...

  20. Anorexia nervosa, seasonality, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scolnick, Barbara; Mostofsky, David I

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious neurobehavioral disorder marked by semistarvation, extreme fear of weight gain, frequently hyperactivity, and low body temperature. The etiology remains unknown. We present a speculation that a primary causative factor is that polyunsaturated fatty acids are skewed to prevent oxidative damage in phospholipid membranes. This causes a change in the trade off of oxidation protection vs homeoviscous adaptation to lower temperatures, which sets off a metabolic cascade that leads to the rogue state of anorexia nervosa. PMID:25981875

  1. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  2. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2013-08-15

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-¹³C]palmitate (0400-0900 h) and [U-¹³C]oleate (0800-1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass?¹·min?¹) clamp (0800-1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-¹³C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ~1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P < 0.001). At the time of the second biopsy, the enrichment in oleoylcarnitine was <25% of that in imTG-oleate and was not correlated with imTG-oleate enrichment. The intramyocellular nonesterified fatty acid-palmitate-to-imTG-palmitate enrichment ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

  3. Fatty acids of Thespesia populnea: Mass spectrometry of picolinyl esters of cyclopropene fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thespesia populnea belongs to the plant family of Malvaceae which contain cyclopropane and cyclopropene fatty acids. However, previous literature reports vary regarding the content of these compounds in Thespesia populnea seed oil. In this work, the content of malvalic acid (8,9-methylene-9-heptade...

  4. The capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a carnivorous vertebrate: Functional characterisation and nutritional regulation of a Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity and an Elovl5 elongase in striped snakehead (Channa striata).

    PubMed

    Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2015-03-01

    The endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. Although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient LC-PUFA to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway from striped snakehead (Channa striata), which is a strict freshwater piscivore that shows high deposition of LC-PUFA in its flesh. We also functionally characterised a previously isolated fatty acyl desaturase cDNA from this species. Results showed that the striped snakehead desaturase is capable of ?4 and ?5 desaturation activities, while the elongase showed the characteristics of Elovl5 elongases. Collectively, these findings reveal that striped snakehead exhibits the genetic resources to synthesise docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Both genes are expressed at considerable levels in the brain and the liver. In liver, both genes were up-regulated by dietary C18 PUFA, although this increase did not correspond to a significant rise in the deposition of muscle LC-PUFA. Brain tissue of fish fed with plant oil diets showed higher expression of fads2 gene compared to fish fed with fish oil-based diet, which could ensure DHA levels remain constant under limited dietary DHA intake. This suggests the importance of DHA production from EPA via the ?4 desaturation step in order to maintain an optimal reserve of DHA in the neuronal tissues of carnivores. PMID:25542509

  5. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely...conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid, and fatty acids conforming with § 172.860...

  6. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed?

    PubMed

    Brouwer, I A; Wanders, A J; Katan, M B

    2013-05-01

    This review asks the question if further research on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health is needed. We therefore review the evidence from human studies on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health, and provide a quantitative review of effects of trans fatty acid intake on lipoproteins. The results show that the effect of industrially produced trans fatty acids on heart health seen in observational studies is larger than predicted from changes in lipoprotein concentrations. There is debate on the effect of ruminant trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Of special interest is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is produced industrially for sale as supplements. Observational studies do not show higher risks of cardiovascular disease with higher intakes of ruminant trans fatty acids. However, CLA, industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids all raise plasma low-density lipoprotein and the total to high-density lipoprotein ratio. Gram for gram, all trans fatty acids have largely the same effect on blood lipoproteins. In conclusion, the detrimental effects of industrial trans fatty acids on heart health are beyond dispute. The exact size of effect will remain hard to determine. Further research is warranted on the effects of ruminant trans fatty acids and CLA on cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. PMID:23531781

  7. Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and cancer

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Review Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and cancer450 epoxygenase Soluble epoxide hydrolase Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids Epoxydocosapentaenoic acids a b s t r a c t Epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), which are lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450

  8. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used as... As substitutes for milk or cream in beverage coffee. Frozen desserts Liquid shortening For...

  9. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the... vegetable juices Edible vegetable fat-water emulsions As substitutes for milk or cream in beverage...

  10. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used as... As substitutes for milk or cream in beverage coffee. Frozen desserts Liquid shortening For...

  11. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used as... As substitutes for milk or cream in beverage coffee. Frozen desserts Liquid shortening For...

  12. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  13. Endogenous Production of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Murff, Harvey J; Edwards, Todd L.

    2015-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important structural components of cellular membranes and are converted into eicosanoids which serve various biological roles. The most common dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are linoleic acid and ?-linoleic acid, respectively. These 18-carbon chain fatty acids undergo a series of desaturation and elongation steps to become the 20-carbon fatty acids arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, respectively. Evidence from genome wide association studies has consistently demonstrated that plasma and tissue levels of the n-6 long-chain PUFA arachidonic acid and to a lesser extent the n-3 long-chain PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid, are strongly influenced by variation in fatty acid desaturase-1,-2, and elongation of very long chain fatty acid genes. Studies of functional variants in these genes, as well as studies in which desaturase activity has been indirectly estimated by fatty acid product-to -precursor ratios, have suggested that endogenous capacity to synthesize long-chain PUFAs may be associated with metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Interventional studies are starting to tease out the complicated relationship between dietary intakes of specific fatty acids, variation in desaturase and elongase genes and tissue levels of long chain PUFAs. Thus future studies of dietary PUFA interventions designed to reduce inflammatory and metabolic diseases will need to carefully consider how an individual's genetically-determined endogenous long-chain PUFA synthesis capacity might modify therapeutic response. PMID:26392837

  14. Synthesis of medium chain length fatty acid ethyl esters in engineered Escherichia coli using endogenously produced medium chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liping; Liu, Junfeng; Nie, Kaili; Liu, Luo; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li

    2013-07-10

    Microbial biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived biofuels from renewable carbon sources has attracted significant attention in recent years. Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of micro-diesel. The expression of codon optimized two plants (Umbellularia californica and Cinnamomum camphora) medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase genes (ucFatB and ccFatB) in Escherichia coli resulted in a very high level of extractable medium-chain-specific hydrolytic activity and caused large accumulation of medium-chain free fatty acids. By heterologous co-expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, specific plant thioesterases in E. coli, with supplementation of exogenous ethanol, resulted in drastic changes in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) composition ranging from 12:0 to 18:1. Through an optimized microbial shake-flask fermentation of two modified E. coli strains, yielded FFAs and FAEEs in the concentration of approximately 500 mg L(-1)/250 mg L(-1) and 2.01 mg g(-1)/1.99 mg g(-1), respectively. The optimal ethanol level for FAEEs yield in the two recombinant strains was reached at the 3% ethanol concentration, which was about 5.4-fold and 1.93-fold higher than that of 1% ethanol concentration. PMID:23769314

  15. Structural and functional interaction of fatty acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-05-01

    The human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed using human recombinant wild-type (WT) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC and CC). The T94A substitution did not alter or only slightly altered L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, nor did it change the affinity for intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Nevertheless, the T94A substitution markedly altered the secondary structural response of L-FABP induced by binding long chain fatty acids or intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Finally, the T94A substitution markedly decreased the levels of induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-regulated proteins such as L-FABP, fatty acid transport protein 5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? itself meditated by the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Thus, although the T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for long chain fatty acids, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure and stability, as well as the conformational and functional response to these ligands. PMID:24628888

  16. Evaluation of antifungal activity of free fatty acids methyl esters fraction isolated from Algerian Linum usitatissimum L. seeds against toxigenic Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Amrouche; Houcine, Benmehdi; Halima, Dalile; Meriem, Chabane sari; Imane, Zaaboub; Eddine, Smahi Djamal; Abdallah, Moussaoui; Daoudi, Chabane sari

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the major fraction of fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) isolated from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds oil collected from Bechar department (Algeria). Methods The assessment of antifungal activity was carried out in terms of percentage of radial growth on solid medium (potatoes dextrose agar PDA) and biomass growth inhibition on liquid medium (potatoes dextrose broth PDB) against two fungi. Results The FAMEs was found to be effective in inhibiting the radial mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus more than Aspergillus ochraceus on all tested concentrations. The highest antifungal index was found to be (54.19%) compared to Aspergillus ochraceus (40.48%). The results of the antifungal activity of the FAMEs inhibition of biomass on liquid medium gave no discounted results, but this does not exclude the antifungal activity. Conclusions We can assume that the observed antifungal potency may be due to the abundance of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids in linseed oil which appears to be promising to treat fungal infections, storage fungi and food spoilage in food industry field. PMID:23730556

  17. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A. C.; de Vree, Jeroen H.; Kleinegris, Dorinde M. M.; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Lamers, Packo P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (?-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  18. Enrichment of decanoic acid in cuphea fatty acids via distillation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction of a new crop often requires the development of new products and purification techniques of either the oil or fatty acids. Most new crops enter the cosmetic market first due to their high rates of returns. However, the cosmetic market often demands high purity and colorless materi...

  19. Inhibitory activity of rabbit milk and medium-chain fatty acids against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O128.

    PubMed

    Skrivanová, Eva; Molatová, Zuzana; Skrivanová, Vera; Marounek, Milan

    2009-03-30

    Colibacillosis represents a major cause of diarrhea in young rabbits. In order to elucidate protective effect of milk, in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out. In the in vitro experiment, rabbit milk treated with lipase significantly decreased the number of viable cells in cultures of Escherichia coli, O128 serotype, from 10.3 to 6.2-7.3log(10)/(cfuml). The lipase effect was the same with heat-treated (100 degrees C/10min) and raw milk. Raw milk without lipase decreased the number of E. coli only marginally. In the in vivo experiment, weaned rabbits received feed contaminated with the same bacterium. The course of the infection was moderate, only 2 out of 36 infected rabbits died. Seven days after inoculation, caprylic acid at 5g/kg feed and triacylglycerols of caprylic and capric acid at 10g/kg feed decreased faecal output of E. coli from 10.2log(10)/(cfug) to 5.8 and 6.1log(10)/(cfug), respectively. The number of E. coli in faeces of non-infected rabbits averaged 4.0log(10)/(cfug). The growth of infected rabbits was slow for 2 weeks after infection. In the third week a compensatory growth was apparent. At the end of the experiment, average body weights of rabbits receiving caprylic acid and those of non-infected rabbits were not significantly different. It can be concluded that (i) lipids rather than proteins seem to be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of rabbit milk; and (ii) this activity was lipase-dependent. Caprylic acid or oils with high a concentration of it may be used as feed supplements for weanlings. PMID:19019572

  20. A Fall in Plasma Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Level Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Independent of Plasma Glucose: Evidence for Brain Sensing of Circulating FFA

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug

    2012-01-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels. PMID:22669895

  1. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid... substitutes for milk or cream in beverage coffee. Frozen desserts Liquid shortening For household use....

  2. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  3. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  4. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  5. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  6. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool.

  7. The Natural Diyne-Furan Fatty Acid EV-086 Is an Inhibitor of Fungal Delta-9 Fatty Acid Desaturation with Efficacy in a Model of Skin Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B. V.; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A.; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S.

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids—but not saturated fatty acids—antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086–phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses. PMID:24189258

  8. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

  9. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

  10. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

  11. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  12. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  13. Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

  14. Is acetylcarnitine a substrate for fatty acid synthesis in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G. ); Post-Beittenmiller, D.; Ohlrogge, J. ); Browse, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Long-chain fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine by chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), pea (Pisum sativum), amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus), or maize (Zea mays) occurred at less than 2% of the rate of fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetate irrespective of the maturity of the leaves or whether the plastids were purified using sucrose or Percoll medium. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was not significantly utilized by highly active chloroplasts rapidly prepared from pea and spinach using methods not involving density gradient centrifugation. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was recovered quantitatively from chloroplast incubations following 10 min in the light. Unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine (0.4 mM) did not compete with [1-[sup 14]C]acetate (0.2 mM) as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by any of the more than 70 chloroplast preparations tested in this study. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity was not detected in any chloroplast preparation and was present in whole leaf homogenates at about 0.1% of the level of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity. When supplied to detached pea shoots and detached spinach, amaranthus, and maize leaves via the transpiration stream, 1 to 4% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine and 47 to 57% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetate taken up was incorporated into lipids. Most (78--82%) of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine taken up was recovered intact. It is concluded that acetylcarnitine is not a major precursor for fatty acid synthesis in plants. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Ghrelin modulates hypothalamic fatty acid-sensing and control of food intake in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Soengas, José L

    2016-01-01

    There is no information available on fish as far as the possible effects of ghrelin on hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism and the response of fatty acid-sensing systems, which are involved in the control of food intake. Therefore, we assessed in rainbow trout the response of food intake, hypothalamic fatty acid-sensing mechanisms and expression of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake to the central treatment of ghrelin in the presence or absence of a long-chain fatty acid such as oleate. We observed that the orexigenic actions of ghrelin in rainbow trout are associated with changes in fatty acid metabolism in the hypothalamus and an inhibition of fatty acid-sensing mechanisms, which ultimately lead to changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides resulting in increased orexigenic potential and food intake. Moreover, the response to increased levels of oleate of hypothalamic fatty acid-sensing systems (activation), expression of neuropeptides (enhanced anorexigenic potential) and food intake (decrease) were counteracted by the simultaneous treatment with ghrelin. These changes provide evidence for the first time in fish of a possible modulatory role of ghrelin on the metabolic regulation by fatty acid of food intake occurring in the hypothalamus. PMID:26459641

  16. Enveloped virus inactivation by fatty acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sands, J A; Auperin, L D; Reinhardt, A

    1979-01-01

    The enveloped bacteriophage phi6 has been shown to be a valuable model system for the preliminary screening of compounds that might be expected to inactivate herpes simplex virus and other enveloped mammalian viruses. A variety of fatty acid derivatives that form fluid micelles in aqueous media have been found to be potent inactivators of phi6. The chemical nature of the polar head group, the length of the alkyl chain(s), and the extent and geometry of unsaturation are all important parameters in determining the antiviral effectiveness of this class of compounds. PMID:218498

  17. Enhancing the quantity and quality of short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge using CaO2 as an additive.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ai; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-15

    The effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2) addition on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The lab-scale experiments were conducted at 35 °C with CaO2 doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 g/g VSS. The performances of hydrolysis and acidification of WAS were significantly enhanced by CaO2 addition, whereas the production of methane was inhibited. Maximum total short-chain fatty acids (TSCFA) production (284 mg COD/g VSS) occurred at a CaO2 dose of 0.2 g/g VSS and fermentation time of 7 d, which was 3.9 times higher than the control tests. Further, CaO2 addition led to the conversion of other SCFAs to acetic acid. Acetic acid comprised 60.2% of TSCFA with the addition of 0.2 g CaO2/g VSS compared with 45.1% in the control tests. The mechanism of improved SCFAs generation was analyzed from the view of both chemical and biological effects. Chemical effect facilitated the disintegration of WAS, and improved the activities of both hydrolytic enzymes and acid-forming enzymes. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that bacteria within phylum Firmicutes increased significantly due to CaO2 addition, which played an important role in the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS. In addition, CaO2 oxidized most refractory organic contaminants, which were difficult to biodegrade under the ordinary anaerobic condition. Hydroxyl radicals were the most abundant reactive oxygen species released by CaO2, which played a key role in the removal of refractory organic compounds. We developed a promising technology to produce a valuable carbon source from WAS. PMID:26141424

  18. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the promiscuous binding and transport properties of L-FABP, we investigated structure and dynamics of human L-FABP with and without bound ligands by means of heteronuclear NMR. The overall conformation of human L-FABP shows the typical ?-clam motif. Binding of two oleic acid (OA) molecules does not alter the protein conformation substantially, but perturbs the chemical shift of certain backbone and side-chain protons that are involved in OA binding according to the structure of the human L-FABP/OA complex. Comparison of the human apo and holo L-FABP structures revealed no evidence for an “open-cap” conformation or a “swivel-back” mechanism of the K90 side chain upon ligand binding, as proposed for rat L-FABP. Instead, we postulate that the lipid binding process in L-FABP is associated with backbone dynamics. PMID:22713574

  19. Fatty acid acylation of vaccinia virus proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Franke, C A; Reynolds, P L; Hruby, D E

    1989-01-01

    Labeling of vaccinia virus-infected cells with [3H]myristic acid resulted in the incorporation of label into two viral proteins with apparent molecular weights of 35,000 and 25,000 (designated M35 and M25, respectively). M35 and M25 were expressed in infected cells after the onset of viral DNA replication, and both proteins were present in purified intracellular virus particles. Virion localization experiments determined M25 to be a constituent of the virion envelope, while M35 appeared to be peripherally associated with the virion core. M35 and M25 labeled by [3H]myristic acid were stable to treatment with neutral hydroxylamine, suggesting an amide-linked acylation of the proteins. Chromatographic identification of the protein-bound fatty acid moieties liberated after acid methanolysis of M25, isolated from infected cells labeled during a 4-h pulse, resulted in the recovery of 25% of the protein-bound fatty acid as myristate-associated label and 75% as palmitate, indicating that interconversion of myristate to palmitate had occurred during the labeling period. Similar analyses of M25 and M35, isolated from infected cells labeled during a 0.5-h pulse, determined that 46 and 43%, respectively, of the protein-bound label had been elongated to palmitate even during this brief labeling period. In contrast, M25 and M35 isolated from purified intracellular virions labeled continuously during 24 h of growth contained 75 and 70%, respectively, myristate-associated label, suggesting greater stability of these proteins or a favored interaction of the proteins containing myristate with the maturing or intracellular virion. Images PMID:2778876

  20. Protection against the Metabolic Syndrome by Guar Gum-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids Depends on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

    PubMed Central

    den Besten, Gijs; Gerding, Albert; van Dijk, Theo H.; Ciapaite, Jolita; Bleeker, Aycha; van Eunen, Karen; Havinga, Rick; Groen, Albert K.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    The dietary fiber guar gum has beneficial effects on obesity, hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in both humans and rodents. The major products of colonic fermentation of dietary fiber, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have been suggested to play an important role. Recently, we showed that SCFAs protect against the metabolic syndrome via a signaling cascade that involves peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? repression and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism via which the dietary fiber guar gum protects against the metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 0% or 10% of the fiber guar gum for 12 weeks and effects on lipid and glucose metabolism were studied. We demonstrate that, like SCFAs, also guar gum protects against high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities by PPAR? repression, subsequently increasing mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 expression and AMP/ATP ratio, leading to the activation of AMPK and culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism in both liver and adipose tissue. Moreover, guar gum markedly increased peripheral glucose clearance, possibly mediated by the SCFA-induced colonic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. Overall, this study provides novel molecular insights into the beneficial effects of guar gum on the metabolic syndrome and strengthens the potential role of guar gum as a dietary-fiber intervention. PMID:26292284

  1. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

  2. Acetylenes and fatty acids from Codonopsis pilosula

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yueping; Liu, Yufeng; Guo, Qinglan; Jiang, Zhibo; Xu, Chengbo; Zhu, Chenggen; Yang, Yongchun; Lin, Sheng; Shi, Jiangong

    2015-01-01

    Four new acetylenes (1–4) and one new unsaturated ?-hydroxy fatty acid (5), together with 5 known analogues, were isolated from an aqueous extract of Codonopsis pilosula roots. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The new acetylenes are categorized as an unusual cyclotetradecatrienynone (1), tetradecenynetriol (2), and rare octenynoic acids (3 and 4), respectively, and 3 and 4 are possibly derived from oxidative metabolic degradation of 1 and/or 2. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by comparison of the experimental circular dichroism (CD) spectrum with the calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of stereoisomers based on the quantum-mechanical time-dependent density functional theory, while the configuration of 2 was assigned by using modified Mosher?s method based on the MPA determination rule of ??RS values for diols. PMID:26579449

  3. Bezafibrate lowers very long-chain fatty acids in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts by inhibiting fatty acid elongation.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Marc; Schackmann, Martin J A; Ofman, Rob; Sanders, Robert-Jan; Dijkstra, Inge M E; Houten, Sander M; Fourcade, Stéphane; Pujol, Aurora; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Wanders, Ronald J A; Kemp, Stephan

    2012-11-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding ALDP, an ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter located in the peroxisomal membrane. ALDP deficiency results in impaired peroxisomal ?-oxidation and the subsequent accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; > C22:0) in plasma and tissues. VLCFA are primarily derived from endogenous synthesis by ELOVL1. Therefore inhibiting this enzyme might constitute a feasible therapeutic approach. In this paper we demonstrate that bezafibrate, a PPAR pan agonist used for the treatment of patients with hyperlipidaemia reduces VLCFA levels in X-ALD fibroblasts. Surprisingly, the VLCFA-lowering effect was independent of PPAR activation and not caused by the increase in either mitochondrial or peroxisomal fatty acid ?-oxidation capacity. In fact, our results show that bezafibrate reduces VLCFA synthesis by decreasing the synthesis of C26:0 through a direct inhibition of fatty acid elongation activity. Taken together, our data indicate bezafibrate as a potential pharmacotherapeutic treatment for X-ALD. A clinical trial is currently ongoing to evaluate the effect in patients with X-ALD. PMID:22447153

  4. Short-chain fatty acid activation by acyl-coenzyme A synthetases requires SIR2 protein function in Salmonella enterica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Starai, Vincent J; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Boeke, Jef D; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2003-01-01

    SIR2 proteins have NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase activity, but no metabolic role has been assigned to any of these proteins. In Salmonella enterica, SIR2 function was required for activity of the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) enzyme. A greater than two orders of magnitude increase in the specific activity of Acs enzyme synthesized by a sirtuin-deficient strain was measured after treatment with homogeneous S. enterica SIR2 protein. Human SIR2A and yeast SIR2 proteins restored growth of SIR2-deficient S. enterica on acetate and propionate, suggesting that eukaryotic cells may also use SIR2 proteins to control the synthesis of acetyl-CoA by the level of acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetases. Consistent with this idea, growth of a quintuple sir2 hst1 hst2 hst3 hst4 mutant strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on acetate or propionate was severely impaired. The data suggest that the Hst3 and Hst4 proteins are the most important for allowing growth on these short-chain fatty acids. PMID:12618394

  5. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as... conditions: (a) The additive consists of purified oleic acid separated from refined tall oil fatty acids. (b) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Specifications for oleic acid prescribed in...

  6. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as... conditions: (a) The additive consists of purified oleic acid separated from refined tall oil fatty acids. (b) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Specifications for oleic acid prescribed in...

  7. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as... conditions: (a) The additive consists of purified oleic acid separated from refined tall oil fatty acids. (b) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Specifications for oleic acid prescribed in...

  8. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as... conditions: (a) The additive consists of purified oleic acid separated from refined tall oil fatty acids. (b) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Specifications for oleic acid prescribed in...

  9. Measuring Oral Fatty Acid Thresholds, Fat Perception, Fatty Food Liking, and Papillae Density in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Haryono, Rivkeh Y.; Sprajcer, Madeline A.; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from a number of laboratories indicates that humans have the ability to identify fatty acids in the oral cavity, presumably via fatty acid receptors housed on taste cells. Previous research has shown that an individual's oral sensitivity to fatty acid, specifically oleic acid (C18:1) is associated with body mass index (BMI), dietary fat consumption, and the ability to identify fat in foods. We have developed a reliable and reproducible method to assess oral chemoreception of fatty acids, using a milk and C18:1 emulsion, together with an ascending forced choice triangle procedure. In parallel, a food matrix has been developed to assess an individual's ability to perceive fat, in addition to a simple method to assess fatty food liking. As an added measure tongue photography is used to assess papillae density, with higher density often being associated with increased taste sensitivity. PMID:24961177

  10. Functionality of Fatty Acid Chemoreception: A Potential Factor in the Development of Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lisa; Haryono, Rivkeh; Keast, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Excess dietary fat consumption is recognized as a strong contributing factor in the development of overweight and obesity. Understanding why some individuals are better than others at regulating fat intake will become increasingly important and emerging associative evidence implicates attenuated fatty acid sensing in both the oral cavity and gastrointestinal (GI) tract in the development of obesity. Functional implications of impaired fatty acid chemoreception include diminished activation of the gustatory system, the cephalic response and satiety. This review will focus on knowledge from animal and human studies supporting the existence of oral fatty acid chemoreception including putative oral detection mechanisms, and how sensitivity to fatty acids is associated with fat consumption and fatty food preference. PMID:23595136

  11. Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profile Alters the Fatty Acid Profile and Quality of Beef from Confined Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Lage, Josiane F.; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta. C.; Reis, Ricardo A.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lipid sources with different fatty acids profile on meat fatty acids profile and beef quality traits of Nellore. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial body weight of 419±11 kg (at 15±2 mo) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF), and soybean grains (SG). No effects of lipid sources were observed (p>0.05) on beef color, pH, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length. Beef from cattle fed PO had greater shear-force values (p<0.05) compared to beef from cattle fed WF. Deposition of main unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) was greater in treatments WF, SG, and LO, respectively, while the values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater when animals were fed LO. The inclusion of LO in the diet enhances the concentration of CLA in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat besides improving the atherogenicity index and elongase activity. As such, LO can be used with the aim to improve the quality of beef from confined Nellore cattle. Conversely, the use of PO is not recommended since it may increase the concentration of undesirable unsaturated fatty acids in muscle and subcutaneous fat, shear-force and the atherogenicity index. PMID:26104402

  12. 40 CFR 721.10297 - Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. 721.10297 Section 721.10297...10297 Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10297 - Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. 721.10297 Section 721.10297...10297 Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10297 - Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. 721.10297 Section 721.10297...10297 Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. (a)...

  15. PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXY FATTY ACIDES FROM PALMITOLEIC ACID BY PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids are those which contain hydroxyl groups on fatty acid backbone. They have gained important attention because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Previously it was reported that a novel bacterial strain...

  16. Fatty Acids as Therapeutic Auxiliaries for Oral and Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Michael J.; Zaro, Jennica L.; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Guley, Patrick C.; Cho, Moo J.

    2012-01-01

    Many drugs have decreased therapeutic activity due to issues with absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The co-formulation or covalent attachment of drugs with fatty acids has demonstrated some capacity to overcome these issues by improving intestinal permeability, slowing clearance and binding serum proteins for selective tissue uptake and metabolism. For orally administered drugs, albeit at low level of availability, the presence of fatty acids and triglycerides in the intestinal lumen may promote intestinal uptake of small hydrophilic molecules. Small lipophilic drugs or acylated hydrophilic drugs also show increased lymphatic uptake and enhanced passive diffusional uptake. Fatty acid conjugation of small and large proteins or peptides have exhibited protracted plasma half-lives, site-specific delivery and sustained release upon parenteral administration. These improvements are most likely due to associations with lipid-binding serum proteins, namely albumin, LDL and HDL. These molecular interactions, although not fully characterized, could provide the ability of using the endogenous carrier systems for improving therapeutic outcomes. PMID:22921839

  17. Differential regional fatty acid distribution in normotensive and preeclampsia placenta

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Alka; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Background Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are biologically active fatty acids which regulate placental angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Abnormalities in these aspects have been associated with preeclampsia (PE). Further, placenta has a heterogeneous structure with differential vascularization across different regions. We therefore hypothesize that the distribution of fatty acids in various regions of the placenta is altered in PE leading to poor fetal outcome. Methods In this cross-sectional study we recruited 69 normotensive control (NC) and 44 women with PE. PE women were further classified as those delivered preterm (PTPE, n = 24) and at term (TPE, n = 20). Fatty acid levels were analyzed from placental samples from four different regions (CF—central fetal, PF—peripheral fetal, CM—central maternal and PM—peripheral maternal). Results In the NC placenta, AA levels were lower (p < 0.05) in CM as compared with CF region. However, such differences were not seen in the TPE and PTPE. In contrast, the DHA levels varied between regions only in the PTPE placenta. Between groups, DHA levels were lower (p < 0.05 for both) in the CM and CF regions of the PTPE as compared with NC. The levels of DHA in TPE placenta were similar to NC. AA levels were lower (p < 0.05 for both) in CF region of TPE and PF region of PTPE placenta than NC. Conclusions There is differential pattern of LCPUFA distribution across various regions of the NC, TPE and PTPE placenta. This may have implications for placental growth and development as well as transfer of LCPUFA to the fetus.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various disorders of lipid metabolism. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various disorders of lipid metabolism. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  20. TRIACYLGLYCEROL AND PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS OF THE SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY, BEMISIA ARGENTIFOLII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification and composition of the fatty acids associated with the major lipid classes (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, phospholipids) within Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) nymphs were determined. Comparisons were made to the fatty acids from the interna...

  1. Interesting Functions & Features of Plant Fatty Acids I. Importance of desaturation in chilling tolerance

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Interesting Functions & Features of Plant Fatty Acids I. Importance Chain {C20-C22) and Very Long Chain (C24-C32) Fatty Acids - plants longer fatty acids for many functions - important for waxes, cutin, and suberin

  2. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section... Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions...

  3. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section... Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions...

  4. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section... Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions...

  5. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section... Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...splitting of fats to fatty acids by hydrolysis and the subsequent processing of the fatty acids (e.g., refining and hydrogenation) to produce a suitable feed material for manufacture of soap by fatty acid...

  7. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...splitting of fats to fatty acids by hydrolysis and the subsequent processing of the fatty acids (e.g., refining and hydrogenation) to produce a suitable feed material for manufacture of soap by fatty acid...

  8. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...splitting of fats to fatty acids by hydrolysis and the subsequent processing of the fatty acids (e.g., refining and hydrogenation) to produce a suitable feed material for manufacture of soap by fatty acid...

  9. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...splitting of fats to fatty acids by hydrolysis and the subsequent processing of the fatty acids (e.g., refining and hydrogenation) to produce a suitable feed material for manufacture of soap by fatty acid...

  10. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section... Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions...

  11. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  12. 2-monoacylglycerol acyl migration: Affect of fatty acid desaturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    2-Monoacylglycerols (2-MAG) are key synthetic intermediates used for the synthesis of ABA-type triacylglycerols where B is a highly unsaturated fatty acid at the glycerol sn-2 position and A are medium-chain saturated fatty acids at the glycerol sn-1,3 position. ABA-type structured lipids are an in...

  13. 75 FR 71556 - Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters; the mono-, di-, or triglyceride mixtures of C8 through C22, primarily C8 through C18 saturated and unsaturated, fatty acids containing up to 15% water by weight reacted with a minimum of three moles of either......

  14. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  20. EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE CHLOROHYDRIN ON FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male chicks weighing 700 to 900 g. received an acute or eight doses IG of 60 or 40 mg/kg ethylene chlorohydrin (ECH) respectively and were sacrificed eighteen hours after the last dose. Mitochondrial elongation of fatty acids was decreased significantly while fatty acid synthetas...

  1. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%). PMID:11014298

  2. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section...

  3. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section...

  4. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the manufacture of food components in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive... conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended for use as a binder, emulsifier,...

  5. Marketability of omega-3 fatty acid enriched shell eggs 

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Autumn Chester

    1994-01-01

    Omega-3 (N-3) fatty acid-enriched table eggs may provide an alternative source of these proposed healthful fatty acids. The overall goal of this project was to determine the marketability of this shell egg product. The specific objectives were...

  6. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters. PMID:26506263

  7. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26285134

  8. The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) Inhibits Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Liver and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sisler, Jennifer D.; Morgan, Magdalena; Raje, Vidisha; Grande, Rebecca C.; Derecka, Marta; Meier, Jeremy; Cantwell, Marc; Szczepanek, Karol; Korzun, William J.; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Harris, Thurl E.; Croniger, Colleen M.; Larner, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT1 plays a central role in orchestrating responses to various pathogens by activating the transcription of nuclear-encoded genes that mediate the antiviral, the antigrowth, and immune surveillance effects of interferons and other cytokines. In addition to regulating gene expression, we report that STAT1-/- mice display increased energy expenditure and paradoxically decreased release of triglycerides from white adipose tissue (WAT). Liver mitochondria from STAT1-/- mice show both defects in coupling of the electron transport chain (ETC) and increased numbers of mitochondria. Consistent with elevated numbers of mitochondria, STAT1-/- mice expressed increased amounts of PGC1?, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. STAT1 binds to the PGC1? promoter in fed mice but not in fasted animals, suggesting that STAT1 inhibited transcription of PGC1?. Since STAT1-/- mice utilized more lipids we examined white adipose tissue (WAT) stores. Contrary to expectations, fasted STAT1-/- mice did not lose lipid from WAT. ?-adrenergic stimulation of glycerol release from isolated STAT1-/- WAT was decreased, while activation of hormone sensitive lipase was not changed. These findings suggest that STAT1-/- adipose tissue does not release glycerol and that free fatty acids (FFA) re-esterify back to triglycerides, thus maintaining fat mass in fasted STAT1-/- mice. PMID:26689548

  9. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  10. Elongation of exogenous fatty acids by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria require myristic acid (C14:0) to produce the myristaldehyde substrate of the light-emitting luciferase reaction. Since both endogenous and exogenous C14:0 can be used for this purpose, the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids by luminescent bacteria has been investigated. Both Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri incorporated label from (1-14C)myristic acid (C14:0) into phospholipid acyl chains as well as into CO2. In contrast, Photobacterium phosphoreum did not exhibit phospholipid acylation or beta-oxidation using exogenous fatty acids. Unlike Escherichia coli, the two Vibrio species can directly elongate fatty acids such as octanoic (C8:0), lauric (C12:0), and myristic acid, as demonstrated by radio-gas liquid chromatography. The induction of bioluminescence in late exponential growth had little effect on the ability of V. harveyi to elongate fatty acids, but it did increase the amount of C14:0 relative to C16:0 labeled from (14C)C8:0. This was not observed in a dark mutant of V. harveyi that is incapable of supplying endogenous C14:0 for luminescence. Cerulenin preferentially decreased the labeling of C16:0 and of unsaturated fatty acids from all 14C-labeled fatty acid precursors as well as from (14C)acetate, suggesting that common mechanisms may be involved in elongation of fatty acids from endogenous and exogenous sources. Fatty acylation of the luminescence-related synthetase and reductase enzymes responsible for aldehyde synthesis exhibited a chain-length preference for C14:0, which also was indicated by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography of the acyl groups attached to these enzymes. The ability of V. harveyi to activate and elongate exogenous fatty acids may be related to an adaptive requirement to metabolize intracellular C14:0 generated by the luciferase reaction during luminescence development.

  11. Short branched-chain C6 carboxylic acids result in increased growth, novel 'unnatural' fatty acids and increased membrane fluidity in a Listeria monocytogenes branched-chain fatty acid-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Sen, Suranjana; Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Hantak, Michael P; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2015-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotolerant food borne pathogen, responsible for the high fatality disease listeriosis, and expensive food product recalls. Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) of the membrane play a critical role in providing appropriate membrane fluidity and optimum membrane biophysics. The fatty acid composition of a BCFA-deficient mutant is characterized by high amounts of straight-chain fatty acids and even-numbered iso fatty acids, in contrast to the parent strain where odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids predominate. The presence of 2-methylbutyrate (C5) stimulated growth of the mutant at 37°C and restored growth at 10°C along with the content of odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids. The C6 branched-chain carboxylic acids 2-ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate also stimulated growth to a similar extent as 2-methylbutyrate. However, 3-methylpentanoate was ineffective in rescuing growth. 2-Ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate led to novel major fatty acids in the lipid profile of the membrane that were identified as 12-ethyltetradecanoic acid and 12-methylpentadecanoic acid respectively. Membrane anisotropy studies indicated that growth of strain MOR401 in the presence of these precursors increased its membrane fluidity to levels of the wild type. Cells supplemented with 2-methylpentanoate or 2-ethylbutyrate at 10°C shortened the chain length of novel fatty acids, thus showing homeoviscous adaptation. These experiments use the mutant as a tool to modulate the membrane fatty acid compositions through synthetic precursor supplementation, and show how existing enzymes in L. monocytogenes adapt to exhibit non-native activity yielding unique 'unnatural' fatty acid molecules, which nevertheless possess the correct biophysical properties for proper membrane function in the BCFA-deficient mutant. PMID:26225744

  12. RNAi knockdown of fatty acid elongase1 alters fatty acid composition in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianghua; Lang, Chunxiu; Wu, Xuelong; Liu, Renhu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Dongqing; Chen, Jinqing; Wu, Guanting

    2015-10-23

    The quality and end-use of oil from oilseed crops is determined by its fatty acid composition. In particular, the relative proportions of erucic and oleic acids are key selection traits for breeders. The goal of our research is to genetically improve the nutritional quality of Brassica napus cultivar CY2, the oil of which is high in erucic acid (about 40%) and low in oleic acid (about 20%). Here, we report the use of a seed-specific napin A promoter to drive the knockdown of BnFAE1 in transgenic CY2. Southern blotting results confirmed the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of BnFAE1 were greatly decreased in BnFAE1-Ri lines compared with the CY2 cultivar. Knockdown of BnFAE1 sharply decreased the levels of erucic acid (less than 3%), largely increased the contents of oleic acid (more than 60%) and slightly increased the polyunsaturated chain fatty acids. Compared with high erucic acid parents, expression of BnFAE1 was dramatically decreased in developing F1 seeds derived from reciprocally crossed BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars. In addition, F1 seeds derived from reciprocal crosses between BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars showed significantly increased oleic acid (more than 52%) and sharply decreased erucic acid (less than 4%), demonstrating that the RNAi construct of BnFAE1 can effectively interfere with the target gene in F1 seeds. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BnFAE1 is a reliable target for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil quality promotion. PMID:26381181

  13. Measurement of long-chain fatty acid uptake into adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dubikovskaya, Elena; Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Karateev, Grigory; Park, Hyo Min; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The ability of white and brown adipose tissue to efficiently take up long-chain fatty acids is key to their physiological functions in energy storage and thermogenesis respectively. Several approaches have been taken to determine uptake rates by cultured cells as well as primary adipocytes including radio- and fluorescently labeled fatty acids. In addition, the recent description of activatable bioluminescent fatty acids has opened the possibility for expanding these in vitro approaches to real-time monitoring of fatty acid uptake kinetics by adipose depots in vivo. Here we will describe some of the most useful experimental paradigms to quantitatively determine long-chain fatty acid uptake by adipocytes in vitro and provide the reader with detailed instruction on how bioluminescent probes for in vivo imaging can be synthesized and used in living mice. PMID:24529436

  14. Human platelet aggregation and phospholipid fatty acid composition during omega-3 fatty acid enriched egg consumption: influence of nutrient intake and omega-3 fatty acid source 

    E-print Network

    Hatch, Sandra D

    1997-01-01

    The current study investigated the usefulness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enriched eggs for duplicating health benefits of consuming fish, specifically decreasing platelet aggregation via changes in plasma phospholipid (PL...

  15. Molecular analysis of a bifunctional fatty acid conjugase/desaturase from tung. Implications for the evolution of plant fatty acid diversity.

    PubMed

    Dyer, John M; Chapital, Dorselyn C; Kuan, Jui-Chang W; Mullen, Robert T; Turner, Charlotta; McKeon, Thomas A; Pepperman, Armand B

    2002-12-01

    The seed oil derived from the tung (Aleurites fordii Hemsl.) tree contains approximately 80% alpha-eleostearic acid (18:3delta(9cis,11trans,13trans)), an unusual conjugated fatty acid that imparts industrially important drying qualities to tung oil. Here, we describe the cloning and functional analysis of two closely related Delta(12) oleate desaturase-like enzymes that constitute consecutive steps in the biosynthetic pathway of eleostearic acid. Polymerase chain reaction screening of a tung seed cDNA library using degenerate oligonucleotide primers resulted in identification of two desaturases, FAD2 and FADX, that shared 73% amino acid identity. Both enzymes were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright-Yellow 2) cells, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that FADX was expressed exclusively within developing tung seeds. Expression of the cDNAs encoding these enzymes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) revealed that FAD2 converted oleic acid (18:1delta(9cis)) into linoleic acid (18:2delta(9cis,12cis)) and that FADX converted linoleic acid into alpha-eleostearic acid. Additional characterization revealed that FADX exhibited remarkable enzymatic plasticity, capable of generating a variety of alternative conjugated and delta(12)-desaturated fatty acid products in yeast cells cultured in the presence of exogenously supplied fatty acid substrates. Unlike other desaturases reported to date, the double bond introduced by FADX during fatty acid desaturation was in the trans, rather than cis, configuration. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that tung FADX is grouped with delta(12) fatty acid desaturases and hydroxylases rather than conjugases, which is consistent with its desaturase activity. Comparison of FADX and other lipid-modifying enzymes (desaturase, hydroxylase, epoxygenase, acetylenase, and conjugase) revealed several amino acid positions near the active site that may be important determinants of enzymatic activity. PMID:12481086

  16. A ROLE FOR AMPK IN THE INHIBITION OF GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as ?-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:19646964

  17. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Activity of Selected Antioxidant Enzymes, Selenium Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus L.) in Relation to the Season of the Year.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Rados?aw; Pilarczyk, Renata; Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a; Drozd, Arleta; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Bombik, Teresa; B?kowska, Ma?gorzata; Bombik, El?bieta; Jankowiak, Dorota; Wasak, Agata

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of low concentrations of selenium in the environment on the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes: Se-GSHPx, total GSHPx, SOD, CAT, and GST as well as fatty acid profile in the livers of brown hares during winter and spring. Liver tissues obtained from 20 brown hares collected in the north-eastern Poland in the winter and spring season were analyzed. In the tissue analyzed, a significantly lower level of selenium was noticeable in the spring compared to winter; however, values measured in both seasons indicated a deficiency of this element in the analyzed population of brown hares. There were no differences found that could indicate the influence of Se deficiency on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The determined activity of antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition suggest a negligible impact of the low concentration of Se on the analyzed biochemical parameters of brown hare livers. PMID:26043915

  19. Threonine 286 of fatty acid desaturase 7 is essential for ?-3 fatty acid desaturation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong-Min; Vikramathithan, Jayaraman; Hwangbo, Kwon; Ahn, Joon-Woo; Park, Youn-Il; Choi, Dong-Woog; Jeong, Won-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid desaturases catalyze the conversion of dienoic fatty acids (C18:2 and C16:2) into trienoic fatty acids (C18:3 and C16:3), accounting for more than 50% of the total fatty acids in higher plants and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here, we describe a Thr residue located in the fourth transmembrane domain of fatty acid desaturase 7 (FAD7) that is essential for the biosynthesis of ?-3 fatty acids in C. reinhardtii. The ?-3 fatty acid deficiency in strain CC-620, which contains a putative missense mutation at Thr286 of CrFAD7, was recovered by the overexpression of CC-125 CrFAD7. A Ser substitution in position 286 was able to partially complement the phenotype of the ?-3 fatty acid deficiency, but other substitution variants, such as Tyr, His, Cys, and Gly, failed to do so. Prediction of the phosphorylation target site revealed that Thr286 may be phosphorylated. Analysis of the structural conformation of CC-620 CrFAD7 via topology prediction (and bends in the helix) shows that this missense mutation may collapse the catalytic structure of CrFAD7. Taken together, this study suggests that Thr286 is essential for the maintaining the catalytic structure of CrFAD7. PMID:25699037

  20. Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyou; Monroig, Oscar; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shuqi; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dick, James R; You, Cuihong; Tocher, Douglas R

    2010-09-28

    Biosynthesis of the highly biologically active long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in vertebrates requires the introduction of up to three double bonds catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Synthesis of ARA is achieved by ?6 desaturation of 182n - 6 to produce 183n - 6 that is elongated to 203n - 6 followed by ?5 desaturation. Synthesis of EPA from 183n - 3 requires the same enzymes and pathway as for ARA, but DHA synthesis reportedly requires two further elongations, a second ?6 desaturation and a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper describes cDNAs, fad1 and fad2, isolated from the herbivorous, marine teleost fish (Siganus canaliculatus) with high similarity to mammalian Fad proteins. Functional characterization of the cDNAs by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that Fad1 was a bifunctional ?6/?5 Fad. Previously, functional dual specificity in vertebrates had been demonstrated for a zebrafish Danio rerio Fad and baboon Fad, so the present report suggests bifunctionality may be more widespread in vertebrates. However, Fad2 conferred on the yeast the ability to convert 225n - 3 to DHA indicating that this S. canaliculatus gene encoded an enzyme having ?4 Fad activity. This is a unique report of a Fad with ?4 activity in any vertebrate species and indicates that there are two possible mechanisms for DHA biosynthesis, a direct route involving elongation of EPA to 225n - 3 followed by ?4 desaturation, as well as the more complicated pathway as described above. PMID:20826444

  1. OXPHOS-Mediated Induction of NAD+ Promotes Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Minwoo; Lei, Shi; Cooper, Marcus P.

    2015-01-01

    OXPHOS is believed to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, precise mechanisms whereby OXPHOS influences lipid homeostasis are incompletely understood. We previously reported that ectopic expression of LRPPRC, a protein that increases cristae density and OXPHOS, promoted fatty acid oxidation in cultured primary hepatocytes. To determine the biological significance of that observation and define underlying mechanisms, we have ectopically expressed LRPPRC in mouse liver in the setting of NAFLD. Interestingly, ectopic expression of LRPPRC in mouse liver completely interdicted NAFLD, including inflammation. Consistent with mitigation of NAFLD, two markers of hepatic insulin resistance—ROS and PKC? activity—were both modestly reduced. As reported by others, improvement of NAFLD was associated with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Regarding hepatic lipid homeostasis, the ratio of NAD+ to NADH was dramatically increased in mouse liver replete with LRPPRC. Pharmacological activators and inhibitors of the cellular respiration respectively increased and decreased the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, indicating respiration-mediated control of the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio. Supporting a prominent role for NAD+, increasing the concentration of NAD+ stimulated complete oxidation of fatty acids. Importantly, NAD+ rescued impaired fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes deficient for either OXPHOS or SIRT3. These data are consistent with a model whereby augmented hepatic OXPHOS increases NAD+, which in turn promotes complete oxidation of fatty acids and protects against NAFLD. PMID:25933096

  2. Fatty Acid Toxicity and Methyl Ketone Production in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Harold L.; Darnall, Dennis W.

    1970-01-01

    Vegetative hyphae of Aspergillus niger rapidly converted caproic acid into 2-pentanone. More caproic acid was required for maximal ketone production at alkaline as compared to acidic pH values. Further increases in caproate concentrations at each pH value tested (4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5) resulted in inhibition of ketone production and O2 uptake. At alkaline pH values (8.5 and 7.5), oxygen uptake above the endogenous level and the production of 2-pentanone were parallel. This relationship did not hold at acidic pH values. At these pH values, ketone production continued (pH 6.5) or attained a maximum (pH 5.5 and 4.5) at caproate concentrations at which oxygen uptake was inhibited below endogenous levels. These data indicate that endogenous oxygen uptake was not inhibited by caproate at alkaline pH values at concentrations which did inhibit caproate oxidation and 2-pentanone production. Conversely, at acidic pH values, endogenous oxygen uptake was vigorously inhibited by caproate at concentrations at which exogenous fatty acid oxidation and 2-pentanone production were less affected. Simon-Beevers plots of these data showed that the undissociated acid was the permeant form of caproic acid. The fatty anion appeared to be the active or inhibitory form of caproate within the cell. Vegetative hyphae of A. niger were poorly buffered. Once the hyphae were washed and resuspended in phosphate buffer, they were well buffered towards inhibitory concentrations of caproic acid. These findings suggest that the primary mechanism(s) by which caproate inhibits oxygen uptake and ketone formation does not involve a change in the intracellular pH. PMID:5411757

  3. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  4. [Antinociceptive effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) through long fatty acid receptor G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40)].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Nishinaka, Takashi; Sato, Naoya; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Koyama, Yutaka; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, one class of essential nutrients for humans, are an important source of energy and an essential component of cell membranes. They also function as signal transduction molecules in a variety of biological phenomena. The important functional role of fatty acids in both onset and suppression of pain has become increasingly apparent in recent years. Recently, we have also demonstrated that the release of an endogenous opioid peptide, ?-endorphin, plays an important role in the induction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced antinociception. It is well known that fatty acids affect intracellular and intercellular signaling as well as the membrane fluidity of neurons. In addition to intracellular actions, unbound free fatty acids (FFAs) can also carry out extracellular signaling by stimulating the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Among these receptors, G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids such as DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid. In the peripheral area, GPR40 is preferentially expressed in pancreatic ?-cells and is known to relate to the secretion of hormone and peptides. On the other hand, even though this receptor is widely distributed in the central nervous system, reports studying the role and functions of GPR40 in the brain have not been found. In this review, we summarize the findings of our recent study about the long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR40 as a novel pain regulatory system. PMID:24584021

  5. Biochemical Studies of Mycobacterial Fatty Acid Methyltransferase: A Catalyst for the Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Petronikolou, Nektaria; Nair, Satish K

    2015-11-19

    Transesterification of fatty acids yields the essential component of biodiesel, but current processes are cost-prohibitive and generate waste. Recent efforts make use of biocatalysts that are effective in diverting products from primary metabolism to yield fatty acid methyl esters in bacteria. These biotransformations require the fatty acid O-methyltransferase (FAMT) from Mycobacterium marinum (MmFAMT). Although this activity was first reported in the literature in 1970, the FAMTs have yet to be biochemically characterized. Here, we describe several crystal structures of MmFAMT, which highlight an unexpected structural conservation with methyltransferases that are involved in plant natural product metabolism. The determinants for ligand recognition are analyzed by kinetic analysis of structure-based active-site variants. These studies reveal how an architectural fold employed in plant natural product biosynthesis is used in bacterial fatty acid O-methylation. PMID:26526103

  6. Hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids accumulation of waste activated sludge enhanced by the combined use of nitrite and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Congcong; Sun, Xiuyun; Sun, Yinglu; Li, Rui; Li, Jiansheng; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow hydrolysis and/or poor substrate availability. Increased attention has been given to enhance the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS recently. This study presented an efficient and green strategy based on the combined use of nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH to stimulate hydrolysis and VFA accumulation from WAS. Results showed that both proteins and polysaccharides increased in the presence of nitrite, indicating the enhancement of sludge solubilization and hydrolysis processes. Mechanism investigations showed that nitrite pretreatment could disintegrate the sludge particle and disperse extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Then, anaerobic digestion tests demonstrated VFA production increased with nitrite treatment. The maximal VFA accumulation was achieved with 0.1 g N/L nitrite dosage and pH 10.0 at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 7 days, which was much higher VFA production in comparison with the blank, sole nitrite pretreatment, or sole pH 10. The potential analysis suggested that the combined nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH is capable of enhancing WAS digestion with a great benefit for biological nutrient removal (BNR). PMID:26201651

  7. Inoculation and alkali coeffect in volatile fatty acids production and microbial community shift in the anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Chen, Ben; Pistolozzi, Marco; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Jufang

    2014-02-01

    Batch fermentations of waste activated sludge (WAS) at alkaline pH with different inocula were performed. Paper mill anaerobic granular sludge (PAS) and dyeing mill anaerobic sludge (DAS) were used as inocula. At pH 10 the inoculation did not increase the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production compared to the non-inoculated samples fermented in the same conditions, and the maximal VFAs yield of non-inoculated WAS was higher than inoculated WAS. However, at pH 9 the inoculation with PAS increased the sludge hydrolysis and VFAs production was 1.7-fold higher than that in non-inoculated WAS (yield 52.40mg/g of volatile solid). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that 3 bacterial species, identified as Proteocatella, Tepidibacter, and Clostridium, disappeared when inoculated with PAS at pH 9 or at pH?10. The results showed that the inoculation with PAS can be helpful to achieve a relatively high VFAs production from WAS in a moderate alkaline environment. PMID:24345567

  8. Long-chain fatty acids regulate liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I gene (L-CPT I) expression through a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Louet, J F; Chatelain, F; Decaux, J F; Park, E A; Kohl, C; Pineau, T; Girard, J; Pegorier, J P

    2001-01-01

    Liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L-CPT I) catalyses the transfer of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) for translocation across the mitochondrial membrane. Expression of the L-CPT I gene is induced by LCFAs as well as by lipid-lowering compounds such as clofibrate. Previous studies have suggested that the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a common mediator of the transcriptional effects of LCFA and clofibrate. We found that free LCFAs rather than acyl-CoA esters are the signal metabolites responsible for the stimulation of L-CPT I gene expression. Using primary culture of hepatocytes we found that LCFAs failed to stimulate L-CPT I gene expression both in wild-type and PPARalpha-null mice. These results suggest that the PPARalpha-knockout mouse does not represent a suitable model for the regulation of L-CPT I gene expression by LCFAs in the liver. Finally, we determined that clofibrate stimulates L-CPT I through a classical direct repeat 1 (DR1) motif in the promoter of the L-CPT I gene while LCFAs induce L-CPT I via elements in the first intron of the gene. Our results demonstrate that LCFAs can regulate gene expression through PPARalpha-independent pathways and suggest that the regulation of gene expression by dietary lipids is more complex than previously proposed. PMID:11171094

  9. Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-06-01

    Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment. PMID:24785789

  10. Fatty Acid Oxidation by Spores of Penicillium roqueforti

    PubMed Central

    Gehrig, R. F.; Knight, S. G.

    1963-01-01

    When 1 ?m sodium octanoate was the substrate for spores, most of the molecule was recovered as CO2 and no ketone was produced. However, when larger concentrations (20 ?m) were used as substrate, part of the molecule was converted to methyl ketone and part was completely oxidized. Optimal conditions for the production of 2-heptanone were determined because of the importance of this compound in giving aroma and flavor to mold-ripened cheeses. Optimal ketone formation was not dependent upon the temperature and length of time at which the spores were stored. The spore suspensions were stored for over 36 months at 4 C without losing their ability to convert octanoic acid to 2-heptanone. The oxidation of octanoic acid was inhibited by cyanide, carbon monoxide, mercury, 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol, and ?, ?-dipyridyl. No ketone was produced under anaerobic conditions. Although no intermediates of fatty acid oxidation were isolated, since an active cell-free preparation could not be obtained, this investigation has yielded some evidence for the beta oxidation of the fatty acids by spores of Penicillium roqueforti. PMID:13947000

  11. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Heart Dysfunction by Restoring Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats by Mitigating C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Bingdong; Liu, Lidan; Wang, Ni; Tong, Dongyi; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    Sepsis is common in intensive care units (ICU) and is associated with high mortality. Cardiac dysfunction complicating sepsis is one of the most important causes of this mortality. This dysfunction is due to myocardial inflammation and reduced production of energy by the heart. A number of studies have shown that hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) has a beneficial effect on sepsis. Therefore, we tested whether HRS prevents cardiac dysfunction by increasing cardiac energy. Four groups of rats received intraperitoneal injections of one of the following solutions: normal saline (NS), HRS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and LPS plus HRS. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography 8?h after the injections. Gene and protein expression related to fatty acid oxidation (FAO) were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. The injection of LPS compromised heart function through decreased fractional shortening (FS) and increased left ventricular diameter (LVD). The addition of HRS increased FS, palmitate triphosphate, and the ratio of phosphocreatinine (PCr) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as well as decreasing LVD. The LPS challenge reduced the expression of genes related to FAO, including perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?), perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERR?), and their downstream targets, in mRNA and protein level, which were attenuated by HRS. However, HRS had little effect on glucose metabolism. Furthermore, HRS inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the rat heart. Inhibition of JNK by HRS showed beneficial effects on LPS-challenged rats, at least in part, by restoring cardiac FAO. PMID:26565704

  12. High homogeneity of the Yersinia pestis fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, A; Guiyoule, A; El Lioui, M; Carniel, E; Decallonne, J

    2000-04-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions of 29 strains of Yersinia pestis representing the global diversity of this species have been analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography to investigate the extent of fatty acid polymorphism in this microorganism. After culture standardization, all Y. pestis strains studied displayed some major fatty acids, namely, the 12:0, 14:0, 3-OH-14:0, 16:0, 16:1omega9cis, 17:0-cyc, and 18:1omega9trans compounds. The fatty acid composition of the various isolates studied was extremely homogeneous (average Bousfield's coefficient, 0.94) and the subtle variations observed did not correlate with epidemiological and genetic characteristics of the strains. Y. pestis major fatty acid compounds were analogous to those found in other Yersinia species. However, when the ratios for the 12:0/16:0 and 14:0/16:0 fatty acids were plotted together, the genus Yersinia could be separated into three clusters corresponding to (i) nonpathogenic strains and species of Yersinia, (ii) pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates, and (iii) Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis strains. The grouping of the two latter species into the same cluster was also demonstrated by their high Bousfield's coefficients (average, 0.89). Therefore, our results indicate that the fatty acid composition of Y. pestis is highly homogeneous and very close to that of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:10747141

  13. Geometrical isomerization of fatty acids with sulfur as a catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Grompone, M.A.; Tancredi, N.A. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the kinetics of the geometrical isomerization of oleic and palmitoleic acids, both contained in U.S.P. oleic acid that were studied. Sulfur powder was used as a catalyst. The methyl esters of fatty acids were analyzed by GLC with 15% OV-275 columns. The sulfur-catalyzed isomerization at 180 and 225{degrees} C proceeds via two consecutive mechanisms. The position of equilibrium is reached by the second mechanism. For this, at any particular initial concentration of sulfur, the pseudo- first-order rate dependence on substrate for a reversible reaction holds. The full rate has been shown to be proportional to the initial sulfur concentration taken to the 1.2 power. The rate constants at both temperatures and the activation energies were calculated.

  14. Abundance and distribution of fatty acids in sediments of the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Shuai; Yin, Xuebo; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Ma, Yao; Yang, Baoju; Rong, Kunbo; Shu, Yunchao; Jiang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Sediment samples obtained from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge were studies by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for the abundance and distributions of total fatty acids (TFAs). Approximately 34 fatty acids were identified, with the chain-lengths ranging from C12 to C30. The total concentrations of TFAs (?TFA) ranged from 7.15 to 30.09 ?g g-1 dry sediment, and ?TFA was weakly correlated with bitumen content ( R 2 = 0.69). The ?TFA of samples around hydrothermal areas were significantly higher than that of samples away from hydrothermal areas, indicating intense primary production and large biomass in the hydrothermal areas, and suggesting a close relationship between hydrothermal activity and ?TFA of samples. The characteristics of the TFA composition in the present study are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and lacking in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the ratios between the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and ?TFAs in samples close to the hydrothermal areas, are about 0.8, but for samples far from the hydrothermal areas, they are only about 0.5. Several fatty acids ( e.g., a/iC15:0 and C16:1?7), which are signature biomarkers for sulfur-metabolizing bacteria, show the same distribution trend as ?TFA of samples, further highlighting the close relationship between fatty acid content and hydrothermal activity and/or hydrothermal communities. The metabolic activities of hydrothermal communities, especially those of microorganisms, are likely the main source of fatty acids in samples.

  15. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  16. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  17. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  18. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  19. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  20. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

  1. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

  2. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

  3. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food...

  4. Effects of aerosol formulation to amino acids and fatty acids contents in Haruan extract.

    PubMed

    Febriyenti; Bai-Baie, Saringat Bin; Laila, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Haruan (Channa striatus) extract was formulated to aerosol for wound and burn treatment. Haruan extract is containing amino acids and fatty acids that important for wound healing process. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of formulation and other excipients in the formula to amino acids and fatty acids content in Haruan extract before and after formulated into aerosol. Precolumn derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) method is used for amino acids analysis. Fatty acids in Haruan extract were esterified using transesterification method to form FAMEs before analyzed using GC. Boron trifluoride-methanol reagent is used for transesterification. Tyrosine and methionine concentrations were different after formulated. The concentrations were decrease. There are six fatty acids have amount that significantly different after formulated into concentrate and aerosol. Contents of these fatty acids were increase. Generally, fatty acids which had content increased after formulated were the long-chain fatty acids. This might be happen because of chain extension process. Saponification and decarboxylation would give the chain extended product. Therefore contents of long-chain fatty acids were increase. Generally, the aerosol formulation did not affect the amino acids concentrations in Haruan extract while some long-chain fatty acids concentrations were increase after formulated into concentrate and aerosol. PMID:22186302

  5. Detection of peroxisomal fatty acyl-coenzyme A oxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Inestrosa, N C; Bronfman, M; Leighton, F

    1979-01-01

    It has been postulated that the peroxisomal fatty acid-oxidizing system [Lazarow & de Duve (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 2043--2046; Lazarow (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 1522--1528] resembles that of mitochondria, except for the first oxidative reaction. In this step, O2 would be directly reduced to H2O2 by an oxidase. Two specific procedures developed to detect the activity of the characteristic enzyme fatty acyl-CoA oxidase are presented, namely polarographic detection of palmitoyl-CoA-dependent cyanide-insensitive O2 consumption and palmitoyl-CoA-dependent H2O2 generation coupled to the peroxidation of methanol in an antimycin A-insensitive reaction. Fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity is stimulated by FAD, which supports the flavoprotein nature postulated for this enzyme. Its activity increases 7-fold per g wet wt. of liver in rats treated with nafenopin, a hypolipidaemic drug. Subcellular fractionation of livers from normal and nafenopin-treated animals provides evidence for its peroxisomal localization. The stoicheiometry for palmitoyl-CoA-dependent O2 consumption, H2O2 generation and NAD+ reduction is 1 : 1 : 1. This suggests that fatty acyl-CoA oxidase is the rate-limiting enzyme of the peroxisomal fatty acid-oxidizing system. PMID:518563

  6. [Toxicological effect of a fatty acid mixture in rats].

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, H J; Bleyl, D W; Ozierenski, B; Plass, R; Macholz, R

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a fatty acids mixture containing nearly 50% odd numbered fatty acids (PC-Säure) were studied in a subchronic toxicity test in male and female rats. The animals received PC-Säure in their diet at levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% for 13 weeks. Food intake was increased at 5% PC-Säure level in males. Food efficiency was initially decreased in males and females of this group. Ingestion of PC-Säure resulted in increases of the urine volume and the urinary lactate dehydrogenase activity in both sexes. Male and female rats fed PC-Säure showed elevated serum activities of alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase and decreases in serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Dietary PC-Säure elevated the serum creatinine content in males at the two highest levels. A transitory increase in the activity of the serum alanine aminotransferase was observed in females fed 5% PC-Säure. Increased liver and kidney weights were found in both sexes. PMID:1922275

  7. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions. PMID:26391492

  8. Major fatty acids and proximate composition of dairy products.

    PubMed

    Feeley, R M; Criner, P E; Slover, H T

    1975-02-01

    Data are reported on the major fatty acids and moisture, protein, fat, lactose, and ash content of several important dairy products, including major cheeses, presently available to the consumer. Samples of milk products, cheeses, wheys produced in processing, and the original milks from which the products were made were obtained from dairy processing plants. Samples of cheeses were also obtained from retail markets in six geographic areas of the United States. Nonfat fluid whole milk contained amounts of protein, lactose, and ash similar to those found in fluid whole milk. The fatty acid distribution of milk fat was not appreciably altered by the processing employed for this study. Protein and fat values were quite constant among samples of each cheese. No lactose was detected in the ripened cheeses. Mean fatty acid patterns for the different cheeses were not appreciably different from each other. The butyric acid (4:0) in the cheeses showed the greatest sample variation. The cheeses did not contain appreciably different proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Procedures for converting data on fatty acid methyl ester to fatty acids (free acids or triglycerides) as weight percentages of the food are presented. PMID:1172781

  9. Generation and esterification of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes in triacylglycerides.

    PubMed

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas; Woodcock, Steven R; Li, Lihua; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes (NO2-FA) are products of nitric oxide and nitrite-mediated unsaturated fatty acid nitration. These electrophilic products induce pleiotropic signaling actions that modulate metabolic and inflammatory responses in cell and animal models. The metabolism of NO2-FA includes reduction of the vinyl nitro moiety by prostaglandin reductase-1, mitochondrial ?-oxidation, and Michael addition with low molecular weight nucleophilic amino acids. Complex lipid reactions of fatty acid nitroalkenes are not well defined. Herein we report the detection and characterization of NO2-FA-containing triacylglycerides (NO2-FA-TAG) via mass spectrometry-based methods. In this regard, unsaturated fatty acids of dietary triacylglycerides are targets for nitration reactions during gastric acidification, where NO2-FA-TAG can be detected in rat plasma after oral administration of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). Furthermore, the characterization and profiling of these species, including the generation of beta oxidation and dehydrogenation products, could be detected in NO2-OA-supplemented adipocytes. These data revealed that NO2-FA-TAG, formed by either the direct nitration of esterified unsaturated fatty acids or the incorporation of nitrated free fatty acids into triacylglycerides, contribute to the systemic distribution of these reactive electrophilic mediators and may serve as a depot for subsequent mobilization by lipases to in turn impact adipocyte homeostasis and tissue signaling events. PMID:26066303

  10. Selective Orthosteric Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 (FFA2) Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Johannes; Smith, Nicola J.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Grundmann, Manuel; Hudson, Brian D.; Ward, Richard J.; Drewke, Christel; Milligan, Graeme; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2; GPR43) is a G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that is implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders. The SCFA propionate has close to optimal ligand efficiency for FFA2 and can hence be considered as highly potent given its size. Propionate, however, does not discriminate between FFA2 and the closely related receptor FFA3 (GPR41). To identify FFA2-selective ligands and understand the molecular basis for FFA2 selectivity, a targeted library of small carboxylic acids was examined using holistic, label-free dynamic mass redistribution technology for primary screening and the receptor-proximal G protein [35S]guanosine 5?-(3-O-thio)triphosphate activation, inositol phosphate, and cAMP accumulation assays for hit confirmation. Structure-activity relationship analysis allowed formulation of a general rule to predict selectivity for small carboxylic acids at the orthosteric binding site where ligands with substituted sp3-hybridized ?-carbons preferentially activate FFA3, whereas ligands with sp2- or sp-hybridized ?-carbons prefer FFA2. The orthosteric binding mode was verified by site-directed mutagenesis: replacement of orthosteric site arginine residues by alanine in FFA2 prevented ligand binding, and molecular modeling predicted the detailed mode of binding. Based on this, selective mutation of three residues to their non-conserved counterparts in FFA3 was sufficient to transfer FFA3 selectivity to FFA2. Thus, selective activation of FFA2 via the orthosteric site is achievable with rather small ligands, a finding with significant implications for the rational design of therapeutic compounds selectively targeting the SCFA receptors. PMID:21220428

  11. Dietary ?-3 fatty acids protect against vasculopathy in a transgenic mouse model of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Brian T; Matte, Alessandro; Andolfo, Immacolata; Iolascon, Achille; Weinberg, Olga; Ghigo, Alessandra; Cimino, James; Siciliano, Angela; Hirsch, Emilio; Federti, Enrica; Puder, Mark; Brugnara, Carlo; De Franceschi, Lucia

    2015-07-01

    The anemia of sickle cell disease is associated with a severe inflammatory vasculopathy and endothelial dysfunction, which leads to painful and life-threatening clinical complications. Growing evidence supports the anti-inflammatory properties of ?-3 fatty acids in clinical models of endothelial dysfunction. Promising but limited studies show potential therapeutic effects of ?-3 fatty acid supplementation in sickle cell disease. Here, we treated humanized healthy and sickle cell mice for 6 weeks with ?-3 fatty acid diet (fish-oil diet). We found that a ?-3 fatty acid diet: (i) normalizes red cell membrane ?-6/?-3 ratio; (ii) reduces neutrophil count; (iii) decreases endothelial activation by targeting endothelin-1 and (iv) improves left ventricular outflow tract dimensions. In a hypoxia-reoxygenation model of acute vaso-occlusive crisis, a ?-3 fatty acid diet reduced systemic and local inflammation and protected against sickle cell-related end-organ injury. Using isolated aortas from sickle cell mice exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation, we demonstrated a direct impact of a ?-3 fatty acid diet on vascular activation, inflammation, and anti-oxidant systems. Our data provide the rationale for ?-3 dietary supplementation as a therapeutic intervention to reduce vascular dysfunction in sickle cell disease. PMID:25934765

  12. Dietary ?-3 fatty acids protect against vasculopathy in a transgenic mouse model of sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, Brian T.; Matte, Alessandro; Andolfo, Immacolata; Iolascon, Achille; Weinberg, Olga; Ghigo, Alessandra; Cimino, James; Siciliano, Angela; Hirsch, Emilio; Federti, Enrica; Puder, Mark; Brugnara, Carlo; De Franceschi, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The anemia of sickle cell disease is associated with a severe inflammatory vasculopathy and endothelial dysfunction, which leads to painful and life-threatening clinical complications. Growing evidence supports the anti-inflammatory properties of ?-3 fatty acids in clinical models of endothelial dysfunction. Promising but limited studies show potential therapeutic effects of ?-3 fatty acid supplementation in sickle cell disease. Here, we treated humanized healthy and sickle cell mice for 6 weeks with ?-3 fatty acid diet (fish-oil diet). We found that a ?-3 fatty acid diet: (i) normalizes red cell membrane ?-6/?-3 ratio; (ii) reduces neutrophil count; (iii) decreases endothelial activation by targeting endothelin-1 and (iv) improves left ventricular outflow tract dimensions. In a hypoxia-reoxygenation model of acute vaso-occlusive crisis, a ?-3 fatty acid diet reduced systemic and local inflammation and protected against sickle cell-related end-organ injury. Using isolated aortas from sickle cell mice exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation, we demonstrated a direct impact of a ?-3 fatty acid diet on vascular activation, inflammation, and anti-oxidant systems. Our data provide the rationale for ?-3 dietary supplementation as a therapeutic intervention to reduce vascular dysfunction in sickle cell disease. PMID:25934765

  13. The saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, induces anxiety-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Morgan L.; Joesting, Jennifer J.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Chiu, Gabriel S.; Blevins, Neil A.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Excess fat in the diet can impact neuropsychiatric functions by negatively affecting cognition, mood and anxiety. We sought to show that the free fatty acid (FFA), palmitic acid, can cause adverse biobehaviors in mice that lasts beyond an acute elevation in plasma FFAs. Methods Mice were administered palmitic acid or vehicle as a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Biobehaviors were profiled 2 and 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Quantification of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and their major metabolites was performed in cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. FFA concentration was determined in plasma. Relative fold change in mRNA expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes was determined in brain regions. Results In a dose-dependent fashion, palmitic acid rapidly reduced mouse locomotor activity by a mechanism that did not rely on TLR4, MyD88, IL-1, IL-6 or TNF? but was dependent on fatty acid chain length. Twenty-four hrs after palmitic acid administration mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior without impairment in locomotion, food intake, depressive-like behavior or spatial memory. Additionally, the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA was increased by 33% in the amygdala 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Conclusions Palmitic acid induces anxiety-like behavior in mice while increasing amygdala-based serotonin metabolism. These effects occur at a time point when plasma FFA levels are no longer elevated. PMID:25016520

  14. The Examination of Fatty Acid Taste with Edible Strips

    PubMed Central

    Ebba, Sahbina; Abarintos, Ray A.; Kim, Dae G.; Tiyouh, Melissa; Stull, Judith C.; Movalia, Ankur; Smutzer, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether humans could detect long-chain fatty acids when these lipid molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by edible taste strips. For suprathreshold studies, up to 1.7 umoles of stearic acid or linoleic acid were incorporated into 0.03 mm thick, one-inch square taste strips. Normalized taste intensity values for stearic acid were in the barely detectable range, with values equal to, or slightly above control strips. One-third of test subjects described the taste quality as oily/fatty/waxy. Approximately 75% of test subjects could detect the presence of linoleic acid when this fatty acid was incorporated into dissolvable strips. Normalized taste intensity values for linoleic acid were in the weak to moderate range. The most commonly reported taste quality responses for linoleic acid were fatty/oily/waxy, or bitter. When nasal airflow was obstructed, the perceived taste intensity of linoleic acid decreased by approximately 40 percent. Taste intensity values and taste quality responses for linoleic acid were then compared among tasters and non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). Individuals who could detect the bitter taste of PROP reported higher taste intensity values for linoleic acid compared with PROP non-tasters. However, taste quality responses for linoleic acid were similar among both PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters. These results indicate that humans can detect long-chain fatty acids by both olfactory and non-olfactory pathways when these hydrophobic molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by means of edible taste strips. These studies further show that genetic variation in taste sensitivity to PROP affects chemosensory responses to the cis-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid in the oral cavity. PMID:22521910

  15. Ultrasonic free fatty acids esterification in tobacco and canola oil.

    PubMed

    Boffito, D C; Galli, F; Pirola, C; Bianchi, C L; Patience, G S

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound accelerates the free fatty acids esterification rate by reducing the mass transfer resistance between methanol in the liquid phase and absorbed organic species on Amberlyst®46 catalyst. The reaction rates of canola oil is three times greater than for tobacco seed oil but half the reaction rate of pure oleic acid as measured in a batch reactor. The beneficial effects of ultrasound vs. the conventional approach are more pronounced at lower temperatures (20°C and 40°C vs. 63°C): at 20°C, the free fatty acids conversion reaches 68% vs. 23% with conventional mechanical stirring. The increased conversion is attributed to acoustic cavitation that increases mass transfer in the vicinity of the active sites. The Eley-Rideal kinetic model in which the concentration of the reacting species is expressed taking into account the mass transfer between the phases is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Ultrasound increases the mass transfer coefficient in the tobacco oil 6 and 4.1 fold at 20°C and 40°C, respectively. PMID:24534067

  16. Synthesis of fatty acid sterol esters using cholesterol esterase from Trichoderma sp. AS59.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Naoya; Maeda, Atsushi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Bunya, Masanori; Sugihara, Shigeo; Sugihara, Akio

    2011-05-01

    We recently reported the characterization of novel cholesterol esterase (EC. 3.1.1.13) from Trichoderma sp. and preliminary work on sterol ester synthesis. In the present study, we further examined the enzyme ability to synthesize cholesterol esters from cholesterol and free fatty acids of various chain lengths, and compared the fatty acid specificity in synthesis with that in hydrolysis. The enzyme catalyzed the synthesis of medium- and long-chain fatty acid cholesterol esters, but failed to synthesize short-chain fatty acid esters. The fatty acid specificities in the synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesterol esters were entirely different from each other. Unlike other lipolytic enzymes, the enzyme was largely independent of water content in the synthesis of cholesterol oleate, and it achieved near-complete esterification in the presence of an equimolar excess of oleic acid. Of additional interest is the finding that the addition of n-hexane markedly enhanced the esterification activities on all the medium- and long-chain saturated fatty acids used. Based on these findings, we attempted to synthesize stigmasterol stearate as a food additive to lower cholesterol levels in blood plasma, and found that the enzyme catalyzed effective synthesis of the ester without the need of dehydration during the reaction, indicating the potential utility of the enzyme in the food industry. PMID:22113022

  17. Functions of the Clostridium acetobutylicium FabF and FabZ proteins in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The original anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway proposed by Goldfine and Bloch was based on in vivo labeling studies in Clostridium butyricum ATCC 6015 (now C. beijerinckii) but to date no dedicated unsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme has been identified in Clostridia. C. acetobutylicium synthesizes the same species of unsaturated fatty acids as E. coli, but lacks all of the known unsaturated fatty acid synthetic genes identified in E. coli and other bacteria. A possible explanation was that two enzymes of saturated fatty acid synthesis of C. acetobutylicium, FabZ and FabF might also function in the unsaturated arm of the pathway (a FabZ homologue is known to be an unsaturated fatty acid synthetic enzyme in enterococci). Results We report that the FabF homologue located within the fatty acid biosynthetic gene cluster of C. acetobutylicium functions in synthesis of both unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids. Expression of this protein in E. coli functionally replaced both the FabB and FabF proteins of the host in vivo and replaced E. coli FabB in a defined in vitro fatty acid synthesis system. In contrast the single C. acetobutylicium FabZ homologue, although able to functionally replace E. coli FabZ in vivo and in vitro, was unable to replace FabA, the key dehydratase-isomerase of E. coli unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in vivo and lacked isomerase activity in vitro. Conclusion Thus, C. acetobutylicium introduces the double of unsaturated fatty acids by use of a novel and unknown enzyme. PMID:19493359

  18. Effect of domestic cooking on carotenoids, tocopherols, fatty acids, phenolics, and antioxidant activities of lentils (Lens culinaris).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

    2014-12-31

    The phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in lipophilic and hydrophilic (extractable and bound) fractions of lentils before and after domestic cooking were investigated. The hydrophilic fractions in lentils contributed much more to the antioxidant activity than the lipophilic fraction. The phenolic content of lentils was mainly composed of extractable compounds. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in carotenoid, tocopherol, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents of both extractable and bound phenolics fractions, as well as in antioxidant activities, were found in lentils before and after cooking. More specifically, cooking was found to favor the release of carotenoids and tocopherols and flavonols (kaempferol glycosides), but led to losses of flavanols (monomeric and condensed tannin). Whereas reduced flavanols and other phenolic compounds may have negatively affected the antioxidant activity, other components, especially the lipophilic antioxidants, were increased. The present study suggests that incorporation of cooked lentils into the diet will not cause significant loss to the phytochemical antioxidants and thus will retain the potential health benefits. PMID:25474757

  19. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (?,?-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  20. Ozone and the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; O'Rourke, L.; Larkin, E.C.

    1986-06-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine whether ozone causes significant oxidation of pulmonary polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. These involved ad libitum and pair-feeding. In the first experiment, rats were fed fat-free diets and exposed to ozone for 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Lung and liver fatty acids were analyzed to determine if the rats exposed to ozone lost essential fatty acids more rapidly than those exposed to filtered air. In the second experiment, rats were divided into four groups. Two of these groups were fed fat-free diets, and two were fed diets containing essential fatty acids. Rats from the two diet groups (one of each type) were exposed to ozone, while the remaining two groups were exposed to filtered air. In the second experiment, rats were pair-fed. The amounts of lung and liver fatty acids were relatively uninfluenced by breathing ozone. Results from these experiments demonstrate that in the lung, the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and arachidonic acids, appear to be oxidized by filtered air and ozone at essentially the same rate.

  1. Renoprotective effect of renal liver-type fatty acid binding protein and angiotensin II type 1a receptor loss in renal injury caused by RAS activation.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Katayama, Kimie; Hoshino, Seiko; Igarashi-Migitaka, Junko; Hirata, Kazuaki; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2014-03-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the renoprotective effect of renal human liver-type fatty acid binding protein (hL-FABP) and angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1A receptor (AT1a) loss in renal injury caused by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. We established hL-FABP chromosomal transgenic mice (L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+)), crossed the L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+) with AT1a knockdown homo mice (L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(-/-)), and generated L-FABP(+/-)AT1a hetero mice (L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/-)). After the back-cross of these cubs, L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(-/-) were obtained. To activate the renal RAS, wild-type mice (L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)), L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+), L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/-), L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/-), L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(-/-), and L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(-/-) were administered high-dose systemic ANG II infusion plus a high-salt diet for 28 days. In the L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+), RAS activation (L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS) caused hypertension and tubulointerstitial damage. In the L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS, tubulointerstitial damage was significantly attenuated compared with L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS. In the AT1a partial knockout (AT1a(+/-)) or complete knockout (AT1a(-/-)) mice, reduction of AT1a expression led to a significantly lower degree of renal injury compared with L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS or L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS mice. Renal injury in L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/-)RAS mice was significantly attenuated compared with L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/-)RAS mice. In both L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(-/-)RAS and L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(-/-)RAS mice, renal damage was rarely found. The degrees of renal hL-FABP expression and urinary hL-FABP levels increased by RAS activation and gradually decreased along with reduction of AT1a expression levels. In conclusion, in this mouse model, renal hL-FABP expression and a decrease in AT1a expression attenuated tubulointerstitial damage due to RAS activation. PMID:24431207

  2. Fatty acid-binding protein in liver and small intestine of the preruminant calf

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cytosol obtained from differential centrifugation of homogenates from liver and small intestine mucosa was incubated with 1-(/sup 14/C) oleic acid or 1-(/sup 14/C) palmitic acid and filtered through Sephadex G-75. Elution profiles for both tissues showed radioactivity in two main peaks, the first corresponding to binding of fatty acid to high molecular weight proteins and the second to a protein fraction with a molecular weight of approximately 12,000 daltons. The low molecular weight fraction had high fatty acid-binding activity, which was greater for oleic than palmitic acid. The findings demonstrate the presence of fatty acid-binding protein in liver and intestinal mucosa of the preruminant calf.

  3. Fatty acid ethyl esters and ethanol-induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kaphalia, B S; Ansari, G A

    2001-01-01

    Conjugation of xenobiotic alcohols with endogenous fatty acids is considered one of the mechanisms of their retention in the target organs. A number of fatty acid esters of alcohol's detected in the human tissues were found to be toxic in vivo and in vitro. Non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol resulting in the formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) appears to be one of the major pathways of ethanol disposition in the pancreas during chronic alcohol abuse, and could be associated with pancreatitis. In most cases, pancreatic damage occurs in alcoholics preceding the onset of clinical pancreatitis. Early markers of ethanol-induced pancreatitis could be important for early prevention of such injury. Although FAEEs have been implicated in the ethanol-induced pancreatitis, mechanism(s) of such injury is not well understood. Studies by others and by our own group have shown that plasma levels of FAEEs correlate well with plasma/blood alcohol concentration. FAEE synthase is known to catalyze the formation of FAEEs. The activity of FAEE synthase was found highest in the pancreas. Excessive synthesis of FAEEs during chronic alcohol abuse in the pancreas may be associated with pancreatic injury as supported by in vivo and cell culture studies. Human studies correlating plasma FAEE levels with that of markers of pancreatic injury could be important in developing markers of ethanol-induced toxicity. Although toxicity of exogenously administered FAEEs is shown in vivo and in vitro, the toxicity associated with endogenously formed FAEEs has not been studied. Therefore, studies regarding the role of endogenously formed FAEEs could be important in understanding the mechanism of ethanol-induced pancreatitis. PMID:11936865

  4. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol...The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene...specifications: Water insoluble combined lactic acid, 14-18 percent; and acid...

  5. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Polyglycerol esters of a mixture of stearic, oleic, and coconut fatty acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in... used at a level not in excess of the amount required to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic...

  6. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...fatty acids and are derived from sucrose and edible tallow or hydrogenated edible tallow or edible vegetable oils. The only solvents which may...esters are those generally recognized as safe in food or regulated for such use by an...

  7. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...fatty acids and are derived from sucrose and edible tallow or hydrogenated edible tallow or edible vegetable oils. The only solvents which may...esters are those generally recognized as safe in food or regulated for such use by an...

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of fatty acids in foods. VIII. Finfish.

    PubMed

    Exler, J; Weihrauch, J L

    1976-09-01

    Recent (since 1960) data on the lipid content and fatty acid composition of fish were surveyed as part of the continuing USDA program to provide information on the nutrient composition of foods. Tabulated values of total lipid and fatty acids in finfish are presented. The most prominent fatty acids occurring in finfish are palmitic (C16:0), C18:1 (in some species C20:1 and C22:1), and the highly polyunsaturated C20:5 and C22:6. The general nutritional value of finfish is discussed. Two measures of polyunsaturation are presented for some commercially important domestic finfish: the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA) and the relative degree of polyunsaturation (PI). PMID:947984

  9. Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Drives Heat Adaptation by Sequestering Fatty Acids

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H. Robert

    Article Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Drives Heat Adaptation by Sequestering Fatty Acids Graphical Abstract Highlights d ACDH-11 upregulation sequesters C11/12 fatty acids to drive heat adaptation d Decreased C11/12 fatty acids downregulate FAT-7 fatty acid desaturase d Reduced levels of membrane

  10. Activity and mRNA Levels of Enzymes Involved in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis in Rats Fed Naringenin.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Toru; Ide, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the physiological activity of naringenin in affecting hepatic lipogenesis and serum and liver lipid levels in rats. Rats were fed diets containing 0, 1, or 2.5 g/kg naringenin for 15 d. Naringenin at a dietary level of 2.5 g/kg significantly decreased the activities and the mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA level. The activities and the mRNA levels were also 9-22% and 12-38% lower, respectively, in rats fed a 1 g/kg naringenin diet than in the animals fed a naringenin-free diet, although the differences were not significant in many cases. Naringenin at 2.5 g/kg significantly lowered serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid and hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. This flavonoid at 1.0 g/kg also significantly lowered these parameters except for serum triacylglycerol. Naringenin levels in serum and liver dose-dependently increased, and hepatic concentrations reached levels that can affect various signaling pathways. PMID:26466635

  11. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brenda C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2003-09-01

    Although vegetarian diets are generally lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than are nonvegetarian diets, they provide comparable levels of essential fatty acids. Vegetarian, especially vegan, diets are relatively low in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) compared with linoleic acid (LA) and provide little, if any, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Clinical studies suggest that tissue levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids are depressed in vegetarians, particularly in vegans. n-3 Fatty acids have numerous physiologic benefits, including potent cardioprotective effects. These effects have been demonstrated for ALA as well as EPA and DHA, although the response is generally less for ALA than for EPA and DHA. Conversion of ALA by the body to the more active longer-chain metabolites is inefficient: < 5-10% for EPA and 2-5% for DHA. Thus, total n-3 requirements may be higher for vegetarians than for nonvegetarians, as vegetarians must rely on conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA. Because of the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids, it is recommended that vegetarians make dietary changes to optimize n-3 fatty acid status. PMID:12936959

  12. Liraglutide protects pancreatic ?-cells against free fatty acids in vitro and affects glucolipid metabolism in apolipoprotein E-/- mice by activating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Liu, Xingzhen; Chen, Yingjian; Wu, Jianying; Hu, Chengjin; Zou, Dajin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether liraglutide (LRG), a long acting glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, exerted a protective effect on free fatty acid (FFA)?treated pancreatic ??cells via activating autophagy. INS?1 insulinoma pancreatic islet cell lines were treated with FFA and the levels of cell necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy were detected using an MTT assay, flow cytometry and electron microscopy (ECM). A type 2 diabetes mellitus mouse model was established through treatment of mice with a high?fat diet for 8 weeks and injection of streptozotocin. LRG and autophagy inhibitors were used to investigate the protective effect of LRG on pancreatic ??cells in vivo. Metabolic indices were measured and pancreatic autophagy was detected. In the INS?1 cells, viability was higher in the FFA + LRG group compared with the FFA group, while the apoptotic rate was lower (P<0.05). The light chain 3B and p62 autophagy?associated proteins were upregulated by LRG, while ATG7 and Beclin1 were downregulated. Autophagy inhibitors reduced the protective effect of LRG in the FFA?treated INS?1 cells. The type 2 diabetes mouse model was successfully established, termed the HF group, in which LRG was observed to reduce body weight and decrease levels of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, serum insulin, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein?cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (P<0.05), compared with the HF group. However, chloroquine treatment abrogated these effects (P<0.05, compared with the HF + LRG group; P>0.05, compared with the HF group). Autophagosomes were also observed under ECM in the pancreatic tissues of mice in the HF + LRG group. Therefore, LRG induced autophagy and exerted protective effects on pancreatic ?-cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26080706

  13. Dual Fatty Acid Synthase and HER2 Signaling Blockade Shows Marked Antitumor Activity against Breast Cancer Models Resistant to Anti-HER2 Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Blancafort, Adriana; Giró-Perafita, Ariadna; Oliveras, Glòria; Palomeras, Sònia; Turrado, Carlos; Campuzano, Òscar; Carrión-Salip, Dolors; Massaguer, Anna; Brugada, Ramon; Palafox, Marta; Gómez-Miragaya, Jorge; González-Suárez, Eva; Puig, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Blocking the enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) leads to apoptosis of HER2-positive breast carcinoma cells. The hypothesis is that blocking FASN, in combination with anti-HER2 signaling agents, would be an effective antitumor strategy in preclinical HER2+ breast cancer models of trastuzumab and lapatinib resistance. We developed and molecularly characterized in vitro HER2+ models of resistance to trastuzumab (SKTR), lapatinib (SKLR) and both (SKLTR). The cellular interactions of combining anti-FASN polyphenolic compounds (EGCG and the synthetic G28UCM) with anti-HER2 signaling drugs (trastuzumab plus pertuzumab and temsirolimus) were analyzed. Tumor growth inhibition after treatment with EGCG, pertuzumab, temsirolimus or the combination was evaluated in two in vivo orthoxenopatients: one derived from a HER2+ patient and another from a patient who relapsed on trastuzumab and lapatinib-based therapy. SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR showed hyperactivation of EGFR and p-ERK1/2 and PI3KCA mutations. Dual-resistant cells (SKLTR) also showed hyperactivation of HER4 and recovered levels of p-AKT compared with mono-resistant cells. mTOR, p-mTOR and FASN expression remained stable in SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR. In vitro, anti-FASN compounds plus pertuzumab showed synergistic interactions in lapatinib- and dual- resistant cells and improved the results of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab co-treatment. FASN inhibitors combined with temsirolimus displayed the strongest synergistic interactions in resistant cells. In vivo, both orthoxenopatients showed strong response to the antitumor activity of the combination of EGCG with pertuzumab or temsirolimus, without signs of toxicity. We showed that the simultaneous blockade of FASN and HER2 pathways is effective in cells and in breast cancer models refractory to anti-HER2 therapies. PMID:26107737

  14. Liraglutide protects pancreatic ?-cells against free fatty acids in vitro and affects glucolipid metabolism in apolipoprotein E?/? mice by activating autophagy

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JIA; WU, JIE; WU, HONG; LIU, XINGZHEN; CHEN, YINGJIAN; WU, JIANYING; HU, CHENGJIN; ZOU, DAJIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether liraglutide (LRG), a long acting glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, exerted a protective effect on free fatty acid (FFA)-treated pancreatic ?-cells via activating autophagy. INS-1 insulinoma pancreatic islet cell lines were treated with FFA and the levels of cell necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy were detected using an MTT assay, flow cytometry and electron microscopy (ECM). A type 2 diabetes mellitus mouse model was established through treatment of mice with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks and injection of streptozotocin. LRG and autophagy inhibitors were used to investigate the protective effect of LRG on pancreatic ?-cells in vivo. Metabolic indices were measured and pancreatic autophagy was detected. In the INS-1 cells, viability was higher in the FFA + LRG group compared with the FFA group, while the apoptotic rate was lower (P<0.05). The light chain 3B and p62 autophagy-associated proteins were upregulated by LRG, while ATG7 and Beclin1 were downregulated. Autophagy inhibitors reduced the protective effect of LRG in the FFA-treated INS-1 cells. The type 2 diabetes mouse model was successfully established, termed the HF group, in which LRG was observed to reduce body weight and decrease levels of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, serum insulin, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (P<0.05), compared with the HF group. However, chloroquine treatment abrogated these effects (P<0.05, compared with the HF + LRG group; P>0.05, compared with the HF group). Autophagosomes were also observed under ECM in the pancreatic tissues of mice in the HF + LRG group. Therefore, LRG induced autophagy and exerted protective effects on pancreatic ?-cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26080706

  15. [The fat and fatty acids content in selected sea fish].

    PubMed

    Balas, J; Pawlicka, M; Jacórzy?ski, B; Filipek, A; Domina, P; Mielniczuk, E; Daniewski, M

    2001-01-01

    The fat content as well as fatty acids in baltic herring, mackerel and salmon from Norway has been determined. The fat content was 7%, 11.6% and 13.2% respectively. Both fat extracted from mackerel and salmon contained much more of polyunsaturated fatty acids in comparison to that extracted from herring. PUFA content in herring fat was 15% whereas mackerel and salmon 29% and 25% respectively. PUFA represented mostly of omega-3 family. PMID:11878009

  16. Fatty acid transport protein expression in human brain and potential role in fatty acid transport across human brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ryan W; On, Ngoc H; Del Bigio, Marc R; Miller, Donald W; Hatch, Grant M

    2011-05-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by the brain capillary endothelial cells, provides a protective barrier between the systemic blood and the extracellular environment of the CNS. Passage of fatty acids from the blood to the brain may occur either by diffusion or by proteins that facilitate their transport. Currently several protein families have been implicated in fatty acid transport. The focus of the present study was to identify the fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) expressed in the brain microvessel endothelial cells and characterize their involvement in fatty acid transport across an in vitro BBB model. The major fatty acid transport proteins expressed in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC), mouse capillaries and human grey matter were FATP-1, -4 and fatty acid binding protein 5 and fatty acid translocase/CD36. The passage of various radiolabeled fatty acids across confluent HBMEC monolayers was examined over a 30-min period in the presence of fatty acid free albumin in a 1 : 1 molar ratio. The apical to basolateral permeability of radiolabeled fatty acids was dependent upon both saturation and chain length of the fatty acid. Knockdown of various fatty acid transport proteins using siRNA significantly decreased radiolabeled fatty acid transport across the HBMEC monolayer. Our findings indicate that FATP-1 and FATP-4 are the predominant fatty acid transport proteins expressed in the BBB based on human and mouse expression studies. While transport studies in HBMEC monolayers support their involvement in fatty acid permeability, fatty acid translocase/CD36 also appears to play a prominent role in transport of fatty acids across HBMEC. PMID:21395585

  17. Enhanced antitumor activities of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate fatty acid monoester derivatives in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Kazuaki; Kaihatsu, Kunihiro; Mori, Shuichi; Cho, Han Hee; Kato, Nobuo; Hyon, Suong Hyu

    2008-12-26

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) monoesters modified with butanoyl (EGCG-C4), octanoyl (EGCG-C8), palmitoyl groups (EGCG-C16) were synthesized by a lipase-catalyzed transesterification method and their antitumor activities were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antitumor activities of EGCG-monoester derivatives increased in an alkyl chain length-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of EGCG, EGCG-C4, EGCG-C8 was mainly caused by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which was generated with their oxidation. On the other hand, EGCG-C16 was more stable than EGCG and it did not generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture medium. Furthermore, EGCG-C16 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the presence of catalase. EGCG-C16 was found to inhibit the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is related to various types of tumor growth. EGCG-C16 suppressed tumor growth in vivo in colorectal tumor bearing mice in comparison to an untreated control, vector control (DMSO) and EGCG.

  18. Conformational Changes in Guanylate Cyclase-Activating Protein 1 Induced by Ca2+ and N-Terminal Fatty Acid Acylation

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, T.; Bereta, G; Miyagi, M; Wang, B; Chance, M; Sousa, M; Palczewski, K

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal Ca{sup 2+} sensors (NCS) are high-affinity Ca{sup 2+}-binding proteins critical for regulating a vast range of physiological processes. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are members of the NCS family responsible for activating retinal guanylate cyclases (GCs) at low Ca{sup 2+} concentrations, triggering synthesis of cGMP and recovery of photoreceptor cells to the dark-adapted state. Here we use amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange and radiolytic labeling, and molecular dynamics simulations to study conformational changes induced by Ca{sup 2+} and modulated by the N-terminal myristoyl group. Our data on the conformational dynamics of GCAP1 in solution suggest that Ca{sup 2+} stabilizes the protein but induces relatively small changes in the domain structure; however, loss of Ca{sup 2+} mediates a significant global relaxation and movement of N- and C-terminal domains. This model and the previously described calcium-myristoyl switch proposed for recoverin indicate significant diversity in conformational changes among these highly homologous NCS proteins with distinct functions.

  19. Fatty AcidDerived Signals in Plant Defense

    E-print Network

    Kachroo, Pradeep

    Fatty Acid­Derived Signals in Plant Defense Aardra Kachroo and Pradeep Kachroo Department of Plant, animals, and plants. For example, 18:1 and linoleic acid (18:2) induce protein kinase C- mediated stress (49, 103). Linolenic acid (18:3) is involved in protein modifications in heat-stressed plants (151

  20. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Elaina M.; Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY ; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of FATP2 resulted in increases in all four classes of phospholipid, indicating little selectivity. In the case of C22:6, there were significant increases of this exogenous fatty acids being trafficking into PC and PI. Collectively, these data support the conclusion that FATP2 has a dual function in the pathways linking the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids. We discuss the differential roles of FATP2 and its role in both fatty acid transport and fatty acid activation in the context of lipid homeostasis.

  1. Synthesis of Bioconjugate Sesterterpenoids with Phospholipids and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mesón, Ana; Roncero, Alejandro M; Tobal, Ignacio E; Basabe, Pilar; Díez, David; Mollinedo, Faustino; Marcos, Isidro S

    2015-01-01

    A series of sesterterpenoid bioconjugates with phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been synthesized for biological activity testing as antiproliferative agents in several cancer cell lines. Different substitution analogues of the original lipidic ether edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) are obtained varying the sesterterpenoid in position 1 or 2 of the glycerol or a phosphocholine or PUFA unit in position 3. Simple bioconjugates of sesterterpenoids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been obtained too. All synthetic derivatives were tested against the human tumour cell lines HeLa (cervix) and MCF-7 (breast). Some compounds showed good IC50 (0.3 and 0.2 ?M) values against these cell lines. PMID:26729084

  2. Fatty Acid Phytyl Ester Synthesis in Chloroplasts of Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence. PMID:22623494

  3. Selective heterogeneous acid catalyzed esterification of N-terminal sulfyhdryl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our interest in thiol fatty acids lies in their antioxidative, free radical scavenging, and metal ion scavenging capabilities as applied to cosmeceutical and skin care formulations. The retail market is filled with products containing the disulfide-containing free fatty acid, lipoic acid. These pr...

  4. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  5. Synthesis of esters of androgens with unsaturated fatty acids for androgen requiring therapy.

    PubMed

    Aiello, F; Garofalo, A; Aloisi, A M; Lamponi, S; Magnani, A; Petroni, A

    2013-06-01

    Androgens' metabolism and activity are gaining a more and more important role in human physiology particularly referring to aging and to neurodegenerative diseases. Androgen treatment is often required for long-lasting disorders. In order to improve their duration and effects, androgens can be administered as esters of carboxylic acids. The novelty of our research is the use of esters of androgens with specific unsaturated fatty acids, in order to reduce possible side effects particularly related to chronic pathologies with altered lipid homeostasis such as X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and cardiovascular disorders. Thus the esters of the main androgenic substances testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and their metabolite 5?-androstan-3?,17?-diol were chemically obtained by coupling with different unsaturated fatty acids. To this aim, fatty acids with various degree of unsaturation and belonging to different series were selected. Specifically, oleic acid (18:1, n-9), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6), and the n-3 fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid (18:3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) were used obtaining corresponding esters with acceptable yields and good degree of purity. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activities in mouse NIH3T3 and human astrocyte cell lines. The esters demonstrated good tolerability and no in vitro cytotoxic effect in both cell cultures. After these promising preliminary results, the esters will be suitable for in vivo studies in order to ascertain their pharmacokinetic characteristics and their biological effects. PMID:23095310

  6. A Condensing Enzyme from the Seeds of Lesquerella fendleri That Specifically Elongates Hydroxy Fatty Acids1

    E-print Network

    Kunst, Ljerka

    Fatty Acids1 Hangsik Moon2 , Mark A. Smith, and Ljerka Kunst* Department of Botany, University to 60% hydroxy fatty acids, nearly all of which is the 20-carbon hydroxy fatty acid lesquerolic acid (d-14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic acid). Previous work suggested that lesquerolic acid in L. fendleri

  7. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  8. [Regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle during contraction].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Leonardo R; Pinheiro, Carlos Hermano da Justa; Zoppi, Claudio C; Hirabara, Sandro M; Vitzel, Kaio F; Bassit, Reinaldo A; Barbosa, Marina R; Sampaio, Igor H; Melo, Iracema H P; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Carneiro, Everardo M; Curi, Rui

    2011-06-01

    The glucose-fatty acid cycle explains the preference for fatty acid during moderate and long duration physical exercise. In contrast, there is a high glucose availability and oxidation rate in response to intense physical exercise. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during physical exercise suggests that the redox balance is important to regulate of lipids/carbohydrate metabolism. ROS reduces the activity of the Krebs cycle, and increases the activity of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. The opposite effects happen during moderate physical activity. Thus, some issues is highlighted in the present review: Why does skeletal muscle prefer lipids in the basal and during moderate physical activity? Why does glucose-fatty acid fail to carry out their effects during intense physical exercise? How skeletal muscles regulate the lipids and carbohydrate metabolism during the contraction-relaxation cycle? PMID:21881812

  9. Tailored fatty acid synthesis via dynamic control of fatty acid elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Torella, JP; Ford, TJ; Kim, SN; Chen, AM; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2013-07-09

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 4-12 carbons) are valuable as precursors to industrial chemicals and biofuels, but are not canonical products of microbial fatty acid synthesis. We engineered microbial production of the full range of even-and odd-chain-length MCFAs and found that MCFA production is limited by rapid, irreversible elongation of their acyl-ACP precursors. To address this limitation, we programmed an essential ketoacyl synthase to degrade in response to a chemical inducer, thereby slowing acyl-ACP elongation and redirecting flux from phospholipid synthesis to MCFA production. Our results show that induced protein degradation can be used to dynamically alter metabolic flux, and thereby increase the yield of a desired compound. The strategy reported herein should be widely useful in a range of metabolic engineering applications in which essential enzymes divert flux away from a desired product, as well as in the production of polyketides, bioplastics, and other recursively synthesized hydrocarbons for which chain-length control is desired.

  10. Role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid binding protein in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Motoko; Owada, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder that afflicts about 1% of the population worldwide. Despite intensive, multifaceted research, its exact etiology remains elusive. Epidemiological data shows that when pregnant mothers experienced malnutrition or famine (e.g. the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1994-1945 and the Chinese famine of 1959-1961), the risk of schizophrenia in their children increased by two fold. This fact could be considered in the context of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) or fetal programming. The concept of DOHaD is well referenced in the understanding of adult metabolic diseases, but less so in the field of mental disorders. We will attempt to show how the mechanisms of DOHaD could contribute at least in part to schizophrenia pathogenesis. Resonating with this concept, we introduce mainly our data showing increased expression of genes for fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) in the postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia and the beneficial effect conferred by the administration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during the early developmental period of rats. PMID:21355837

  11. Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli and its applications towards the production of fatty acid based biofuels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The idea of renewable and regenerative resources has inspired research for more than a hundred years. Ideally, the only spent energy will replenish itself, like plant material, sunlight, thermal energy or wind. Biodiesel or ethanol are examples, since their production relies mainly on plant material. However, it has become apparent that crop derived biofuels will not be sufficient to satisfy future energy demands. Thus, especially in the last decade a lot of research has focused on the production of next generation biofuels. A major subject of these investigations has been the microbial fatty acid biosynthesis with the aim to produce fatty acids or derivatives for substitution of diesel. As an industrially important organism and with the best studied microbial fatty acid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli has been chosen as producer in many of these studies and several reviews have been published in the fields of E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis or biofuels. However, most reviews discuss only one of these topics in detail, despite the fact, that a profound understanding of the involved enzymes and their regulation is necessary for efficient genetic engineering of the entire pathway. The first part of this review aims at summarizing the knowledge about fatty acid biosynthesis of E. coli and its regulation, and it provides the connection towards the production of fatty acids and related biofuels. The second part gives an overview about the achievements by genetic engineering of the fatty acid biosynthesis towards the production of next generation biofuels. Finally, the actual importance and potential of fatty acid-based biofuels will be discussed. PMID:24405789

  12. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids differentially modulate enzymatic anti-oxidant systems in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E P; Nachbar, R T; Levada-Pires, A C; Hirabara, S M; Lambertucci, R H

    2016-01-01

    During physical activity, increased reactive oxygen species production occurs, which can lead to cell damage and in a decline of individual's performance and health. The use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a supplement to protect the immune system has been increasing; however, their possible benefit to the anti-oxidant system is not well described. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) can be beneficial to the anti-oxidant system in cultured skeletal muscle cells. C2C12 myocytes were differentiated and treated with either eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid for 24 h. Superoxide content was quantified using the dihydroethidine oxidation method and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity, and expression was quantified. We observed that the docosahexaenoic fatty acids caused an increase in superoxide production. Eicosapentaenoic acid induced catalase activity, while docosahexaenoic acid suppressed superoxide dismutase activity. In addition, we found an increased protein expression of the total manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes when cells were treated with eicosapentaenoic acid. Taken together, these data indicate that the use of eicosapentaenoic acid may present both acute and chronic benefits; however, the treatment with DHA may not be beneficial to muscle cells. PMID:26386577

  14. Study of UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to measure free fatty acids with out fatty acid ester preparation.

    PubMed

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Isaac, G; Rainville, P; Fountain, K; Taylor, L T

    2015-08-01

    Most lipids are best characterized by their fatty acids which may differ in (a) chain length, (b) degree of unsaturation, (c) configuration and position of the double bonds, and (d) the presence of other functionalities. Thus, a fast, simple, and quantitative analytical technique to determine naturally occurring free fatty acids (FFA) in different samples is very important. Just as for saponified acylglycerols, the determination of FFA's has generally been carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The use of an open tubular capillary column coupled with a flame ionization or mass spectrometric detector provides for both high resolution and quantification of FFA's but only after conversion of all free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or pentafluorobenzyl esters. Unfortunately, volatilization of labile ester derivatives of mono- and poly-unsaturated FFA's can cause both thermal degradation and isomerization of the fatty acid during HRGC. The employment of a second generation instrument (here referred to as UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatograph, UHPSFC) with high precision for modified flow and repeated back pressure adjustment in conjunction with sub-2?m various bonded silica particles (coupled with evaporative light scattering, ELSD, and mass spectrometric, MS, detection) for separation and detection of the following mixtures is described: (a) 31 free fatty acids, (b) isomeric FFA's, and (c) lipophilic materials in two real world fish oil samples. Limits of detection for FFA's via UHPSFC/MS and UHPSFC/ELSD versus detection of FAME's via HRGC/MS are quantitatively compared. PMID:26093119

  15. Bile acid receptors and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liyun; Bambha, Kiran

    2015-12-01

    With the high prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and other features of the metabolic syndrome in United States, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has inevitably become a very prevalent chronic liver disease and is now emerging as one of the leading indications for liver transplantation. Insulin resistance and derangement of lipid metabolism, accompanied by activation of the pro-inflammatory response and fibrogenesis, are essential pathways in the development of the more clinically significant form of NAFLD, known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent advances in the functional characterization of bile acid receptors, such as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor (TGR) 5, have provided further insight in the pathophysiology of NASH and have led to the development of potential therapeutic targets for NAFLD and NASH. Beyond maintaining bile acid metabolism, FXR and TGR5 also regulate lipid metabolism, maintain glucose homeostasis, increase energy expenditure, and ameliorate hepatic inflammation. These intriguing features have been exploited to develop bile acid analogues to target pathways in NAFLD and NASH pathogenesis. This review provides a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH, and then delves into the biological functions of bile acid receptors, particularly with respect to NASH pathogenesis, with a description of the associated experimental data, and, finally, we discuss the prospects of bile acid analogues in the treatment of NAFLD and NASH. PMID:26668692

  16. Bile acid receptors and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liyun; Bambha, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    With the high prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and other features of the metabolic syndrome in United States, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has inevitably become a very prevalent chronic liver disease and is now emerging as one of the leading indications for liver transplantation. Insulin resistance and derangement of lipid metabolism, accompanied by activation of the pro-inflammatory response and fibrogenesis, are essential pathways in the development of the more clinically significant form of NAFLD, known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent advances in the functional characterization of bile acid receptors, such as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor (TGR) 5, have provided further insight in the pathophysiology of NASH and have led to the development of potential therapeutic targets for NAFLD and NASH. Beyond maintaining bile acid metabolism, FXR and TGR5 also regulate lipid metabolism, maintain glucose homeostasis, increase energy expenditure, and ameliorate hepatic inflammation. These intriguing features have been exploited to develop bile acid analogues to target pathways in NAFLD and NASH pathogenesis. This review provides a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH, and then delves into the biological functions of bile acid receptors, particularly with respect to NASH pathogenesis, with a description of the associated experimental data, and, finally, we discuss the prospects of bile acid analogues in the treatment of NAFLD and NASH. PMID:26668692

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... omega-3s. They are mostly found in fatty ?sh like salmon, sardines, and trout. Some eggs are ... and yogurt. Should I Worry About Eating Certain Fish? Because of mercury contamination of our oceans, rivers, ...

  18. Characterization of fatty amides produced by lipase-catalyzed amidation of multihydroxylated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel multi-hydroxylated primary fatty amides produced by direct amidation of 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) and 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (TOD) were characterized by GC-MS and NMR. The amidation reactions were catalyzed by immobilized Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica li...

  19. Effect of combination therapy of fatty acids, calcium, vitamin D and boron with regular physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in rat.

    PubMed

    Naghii, M R; Darvishi, P; Ebrahimpour, Y; Ghanizadeh, G; Mofid, M; Hedayati, M; Asgari, A R

    2012-01-01

    The effect of consumption of fatty acids and selected nutrients, along with regular physical activity, on cardiovascular risk factors in rats was investigated.Male rats were divided into the seven groups: Group 1: regular food and drinking water, Group 2: same as Group. 1 + physical activity (whole body vibration; WBV), Group 3: same as Group. 2 + calcium, vitamin D, boron, Group 4: same as Group. 3 + canola oil, Group 5: same as Group. 3 + sunflower oil, Group 6: same as Group. 3 + mix of sunflower oil and canola oil, Group 7: same as Group. 3 + coconut oil. Rats were treated for 8 weeks, and analysis of the frozen plasmas was performed. A- Analysis between the treatment groups and control revealed that vibration training in Group 2 increased body weight (P = 0.04), plasma creatin kinase (CK), (P = 0.02), and estradiol (E2), (P = 0.03). Rats in Group 5 consumed less food and plasma levels of cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly (P = 0.02) in Group 6 and in Group 7 (p<0.05). B- Analysis of data among Group 4 - 7 (the oil consuming groups) and Group 3 revealed significant differences in cholesterol (Chol), LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), estradiol (E2), atherogenic index (AI), and risk factor (RF), (p<0.05). In addition, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) in Group 7 had a remarkable but non-significant increase. As a result of vibration training, a similar trend was observed for vitamin D in Group 2-7. The findings show that WBV is effective in improving health status by influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Moreover, canola oil and sunflower oil, separately, showed beneficial impacts on CVD risk factors; whereas their combination had negative impacts on lipid profile. Coconut oil revealed to be efficient to provide health benefits in terms of CVD treatments. PMID:22277894

  20. FATTY ACID PROFILE OF BUCCAL CHEEK CELL PHOSPHOLIPIDS IS A NONINVASIVE MARKER OF LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID STATUS IN PIGLETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid pattern of cheek cell phospholipid has been proposed as a noninvasive marker of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. However, cheek cell phospholipid fatty acid pattern has been compared only with that of plasma and erythrocytes. The objective of the study was to assess the e...

  1. A Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid Selectively Modulates Caecum Microbiota and Inhibits ?-Glucosidase Activity, Altering Fiber and Short Chain Fatty Acids Fecal Excretion in Lean and Obese Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Larrosa, Mar; Obiol, María; García-Villalba, Rocío; González-Barrio, Rocío; Issaly, Nicolas; Flanagan, John; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A.; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Background Carnosic acid (CA) and rosemary extracts (RE) show body-weight, energy metabolism and inflammation regulatory properties in animal models but the mechanisms are not yet understood. Gut microbiota plays an important role in the host metabolism and inflammatory status and is modulated by the diet. The aim of this research was to investigate whether a RE enriched in CA affected caecum microbiota composition and activity in a rat model of genetic obesity. Methods and Principal Findings A RE (40% CA) was administered with the diet (0.5% w/w) to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats for 64 days. Changes in the microbiota composition and ?-glucosidase activity in the caecum and in the levels of macronutrients and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces were examined. The RE increased the Blautia coccoides and Bacteroides/Prevotella groups and reduced the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc/Pediococccus group in both types of animals. Clostridium leptum was significantly decreased and Bifidobacterium increased only in the lean rats. ?-Glucosidase activity was significantly reduced and fecal fiber excretion increased in the two genotypes. The RE also increased the main SCFA excreted in the feces of the obese rats but decreased them in the lean rats reflecting important differences in the uptake and metabolism of these molecules between the two genotypes. Conclusions Our results indicate that the consumption of a RE enriched in CA modifies microbiota composition and decreases ?-glucosidase activity in the caecum of female Zucker rats while it increases fiber fecal elimination. These results may contribute to explain the body weight gain reducing effects of the RE. The mutated leptin receptor of the obese animals significantly affects the microbiota composition, the SCFA fecal excretion and the host response to the RE intake. PMID:24733124

  2. Crystal structure of Spot 14, a modulator of fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, Christopher L.; Kim, Chai-Wan; Moon, Young-Ah; Henry, Lisa; Palnitkar, Maya; McKean, William B.; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Deisenhofer, Johann; Horton, Jay D.; Kwon, Hyock Joo

    2011-09-06

    Spot 14 (S14) is a protein that is abundantly expressed in lipogenic tissues and is regulated in a manner similar to other enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis. Deletion of S14 in mice decreased lipid synthesis in lactating mammary tissue, but the mechanism of S14's action is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of S14 to 2.65 {angstrom} and biochemical data showing that S14 can form heterodimers with MIG12. MIG12 modulates fatty acid synthesis by inducing the polymerization and activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the first committed enzymatic reaction in the fatty acid synthesis pathway. Coexpression of S14 and MIG12 leads to heterodimers and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase polymerization and activity. The structure of S14 suggests a mechanism whereby heterodimer formation with MIG12 attenuates the ability of MIG12 to activate ACC.

  3. Fatty acids identified in the Burmese python promote beneficial cardiac growth.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cecilia A; Magida, Jason A; Harrison, Brooke C; Wall, Christopher E; Marr, Thomas G; Secor, Stephen M; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2011-10-28

    Burmese pythons display a marked increase in heart mass after a large meal. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of this physiological heart growth with the goal of applying this knowledge to the mammalian heart. We found that heart growth in pythons is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of cell proliferation and by activation of physiological signal transduction pathways. Despite high levels of circulating lipids, the postprandial python heart does not accumulate triglycerides or fatty acids. Instead, there is robust activation of pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation combined with increased expression and activity of superoxide dismutase, a cardioprotective enzyme. We also identified a combination of fatty acids in python plasma that promotes physiological heart growth when injected into either pythons or mice. PMID:22034436

  4. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49?g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18?g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22?g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78?g/L with a high yield of 0.21?g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids. PMID:25943383

  5. Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 can compensate for Fatty Acid Transport Protein 4 in the developing mouse epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meei-Hua; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 is one of a family of six FATPs that facilitate long- and very long-chain fatty acid uptake. Mice lacking FATP4 are born with tight, thick skin and a defective barrier; they die neonatally due to dehydration and restricted movements. Mutations in SLC27A4, the gene encoding FATP4, cause ichthyosis prematurity syndrome (IPS), characterized by premature birth, respiratory distress, and edematous skin with severe ichthyotic scaling. Symptoms of surviving patients become mild, though atopic manifestations are common. We previously showed that suprabasal keratinocyte expression of a Fatp4 transgene in Fatp4 mutant skin rescues the lethality and ameliorates the skin phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that FATP1, the closest FATP4 homolog, can compensate for the lack of FATP4 in our mouse model of IPS, as it might do postnatally in IPS patients. Transgenic expression of FATP1 in suprabasal keratinocytes rescued the phenotype of Fatp4 mutants, and FATP1 sorted to the same intracellular organelles as endogenous FATP4. Thus, FATP1 and FATP4 likely have overlapping substrate specificities, enzymatic activities, and biological functions. These results suggest that increasing expression of FATP1 in suprabasal keratinocytes could normalize the skin of IPS patients and perhaps prevent the atopic manifestations. PMID:25184958

  6. Fatty acid transport protein 1 can compensate for fatty acid transport protein 4 in the developing mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meei-Hua; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 is one of a family of six FATPs that facilitate long- and very-long-chain fatty acid uptake. Mice lacking FATP4 are born with tight, thick skin and a defective barrier; they die neonatally because of dehydration and restricted movements. Mutations in SLC27A4, the gene encoding FATP4, cause ichthyosis prematurity syndrome (IPS), characterized by premature birth, respiratory distress, and edematous skin with severe ichthyotic scaling. Symptoms of surviving patients become mild, although atopic manifestations are common. We previously showed that suprabasal keratinocyte expression of a Fatp4 transgene in Fatp4 mutant skin rescues the lethality and ameliorates the skin phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that FATP1, the closest FATP4 homolog, can compensate for the lack of FATP4 in our mouse model of IPS, as it might do postnatally in IPS patients. Transgenic expression of FATP1 in suprabasal keratinocytes rescued the phenotype of Fatp4 mutants, and FATP1 sorted to the same intracellular organelles as endogenous FATP4. Thus, FATP1 and FATP4 likely have overlapping substrate specificities, enzymatic activities, and biological functions. These results suggest that increasing expression of FATP1 in suprabasal keratinocytes could normalize the skin of IPS patients and perhaps prevent the atopic manifestations. PMID:25184958

  7. Synthetic Fatty Acids Prevent Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Getino, María; Sanabria-Ríos, David J.; Fernández-López, Raúl; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, José M.; Fernández, Antonio; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial conjugation constitutes a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among human pathogens. Antibiotic resistance spread could be halted or diminished by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. In this work, synthetic 2-alkynoic fatty acids were identified as a novel class of conjugation inhibitors. Their chemical properties were investigated by using the prototype 2-hexadecynoic acid and its derivatives. Essential features of effective inhibitors were the carboxylic group, an optimal long aliphatic chain of 16 carbon atoms, and one unsaturation. Chemical modification of these groups led to inactive or less-active derivatives. Conjugation inhibitors were found to act on the donor cell, affecting a wide number of pathogenic bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter spp. Conjugation inhibitors were active in inhibiting transfer of IncF, IncW, and IncH plasmids, moderately active against IncI, IncL/M, and IncX plasmids, and inactive against IncP and IncN plasmids. Importantly, the use of 2-hexadecynoic acid avoided the spread of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient population, demonstrating the feasibility of abolishing the dissemination of antimicrobial resistances by blocking bacterial conjugation. PMID:26330514

  8. Role of the Ah Receptor in Homeostatic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Perdew, Gary H.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a role for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the attenuation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. This regulation did not require that the AHR binds to its cognate response element. Based on these observations and other reports depicting a role for AHR in lipid metabolism, we chose to investigate the involvement of the receptor in the regulation of the fatty acid synthesis pathway in mice and humans. For this purpose, C57BL/6J, liver-specific transgenic DRE-binding mutant AhR (A78D-Ahr Ttr Cre Alb Ahr fx/fx) and Cre Alb Ahr fx/fx mice were treated with an AHR ligand, and hepatic mRNA expression levels of key fatty acid genes (e.g., Acaca, Fasn, Scd1) were measured. The basal levels of those genes were also compared between C57BL6/J and hepatic AHR-deficient mice, as well as between Ah b and Ah d congenic mice. To extend these results to humans, fatty acid gene expression in human cells were compared with AHR-silenced cells. In addition, primary human hepatocytes were treated with an AHR ligand to assess alterations in gene expression and fatty acid synthesis. These studies indicated that the AHR constitutively attenuates the expression of key fatty acid synthesis genes in the absence of binding to its cognate response element. In addition, activation of AHR led to further repression of the expression of these genes and a decrease in overall fatty acid synthesis and secretion in human hepatocytes. Based on our results, we can conclude that increased AHR activity represses fatty acid synthesis, suggesting it may be a future therapeutic target. PMID:22696238

  9. Specific protein regions influence substrate specificity and product length in polyunsaturated fatty acid condensing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vrinten, Patricia L; Hoffman, Travis; Bauer, Jörg; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-05-11

    We describe a condensing enzyme from Pythium irregulare (PirELO) that shows highest activity on the 18-carbon, Delta-6 desaturated fatty acids, stearidonic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. However, this enzyme is also capable of elongating a number of other fatty acids including the 20-carbon, Delta-5 desaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid. Surprisingly, a Phytophthora infestans condensing enzyme (PinELO) with very high homology to PirELO did not show activity with 20-carbon fatty acids. A series of chimeric proteins for these two enzymes were constructed to investigate the influence of different regions on substrate and product length. The substitution of a region from near the center of PirELO into PinELO resulted in an enzyme having EPA-elongating activity similar to that of PirELO. Only eight amino acids differed between the two proteins in this region; however, substitution of the same region from PinELO into PirELO produced a protein which was almost inactive. The addition of a small region from near the N-terminus of PinELO was sufficient to restore activity with GLA, indicating that amino acids from these two regions interact to determine protein structure or function. Predicted topology models for PirELO and PinELO placed the two regions described here near the luminal-proximal ends of the first and fourth/fifth transmembrane helixes, at the opposite end of the condensing enzyme from four conserved regions thought to form a catalytic ring. Thus, protein characteristics determined by specific luminal-proximal regions of fatty acid condensing enzymes have a major influence on substrate specificity and final product length. PMID:20397628

  10. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  11. Note on the chromatographic analyses of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, D.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the effects of saponification/methylation and thin-layer chromatographic isolation on the analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using selected procedures, the qualitative and quantitative distribution of these acids in marine organisms can be determined with a high degree of accuracy. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Nrf2-dependent and -independent Responses to Nitro-fatty Acids in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kansanen, Emilia; Jyrkkänen, Henna-Kaisa; Volger, Oscar L.; Leinonen, Hanna; Kivelä, Annukka M.; Häkkinen, Sanna-Kaisa; Woodcock, Steven R.; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Horrevoets, Anton J.; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Freeman, Bruce A.; Levonen, Anna-Liisa

    2009-01-01

    Electrophilic fatty acid derivatives, including nitrolinoleic acid and nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2), can mediate anti-inflammatory and pro-survival signaling reactions. The transcription factor Nrf2, activated by electrophilic fatty acids, suppresses redox-sensitive pro-inflammatory gene expression and protects against vascular endothelial oxidative injury. It was therefore postulated that activation of Nrf2 by OA-NO2 accounts in part for its anti-inflammatory actions, motivating the characterization of Nrf2-dependent and -independent effects of OA-NO2 on gene expression using genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Control and Nrf2-small interfering RNA-transfected human endothelial cells were treated with vehicle, oleic acid, or OA-NO2, and differential gene expression profiles were determined. Although OA-NO2 significantly induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes, including heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, the majority of OA-NO2-regulated genes were regulated by Nrf2-independent pathways. Moreover, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the heat shock response is the major pathway activated by OA-NO2, with robust induction of a number of heat shock genes regulated by the heat shock transcription factor. Inasmuch as the heat shock response mediates anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions, this mechanism is proposed to contribute to the protective cell signaling functions of nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acid derivatives. PMID:19808663

  13. Measurement of Long-Chain Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetase Activity.

    PubMed

    Füllekrug, Joachim; Poppelreuther, Margarete

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS) are a family of essential enzymes of lipid metabolism, activating fatty acids by thioesterification with coenzyme A. Fatty acyl-CoA molecules are then readily utilized for the biosynthesis of storage and membrane lipids, or for the generation of energy by ß-oxidation. Acyl-CoAs also function as transcriptional activators, allosteric inhibitors, or precursors for inflammatory mediators. Recent work suggests that ACS enzymes may drive cellular fatty acid uptake by metabolic trapping, and may also regulate the channeling of fatty acids towards specific metabolic pathways. The implication of ACS enzymes in widespread lipid associated diseases like type 2 diabetes has rekindled interest in this protein family. Here, we describe in detail how to measure long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase activity by a straightforward radiometric assay. Cell lysates are incubated with ATP, coenzyme A, Mg(2+), and radiolabeled fatty acid bound to BSA. Differential phase partitioning of fatty acids and acyl-CoAs is exploited to quantify the amount of generated acyl-CoA by scintillation counting. The high sensitivity of this assay also allows the analysis of small samples like patient biopsies. PMID:26552674

  14. Structurally modified fatty acids - clinical potential as tracers of metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dudczak, R.; Schmoliner, R.; Angelberger, P.; Knapp, F.F.; Goodman, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recently 15-p-iodophenyl-betamethyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMPPA) was proposed for myocardial scintigraphy, as possible probe of metabolic processes other than ..beta..-oxidation. In 19 patients myocardial scintigraphy was done after i.v. BMPPA (2 to 4 mCi). Data were collected (LAO 45/sup 0//14; anterior/5) for 100 minutes in the fasted patients. From heart (H) and liver (L) organ to background (BG) ratios were calculated, and the elimination (E) behavior was analyzed from BG (V. cava region) corrected time activity curves. In 10 patients plasma and urine were examined. By CHCl/sub 3//MeOH extraction of plasma samples (90 min. pi) both in water and in organic medium soluble catabolites were found. TLC fractionation showed that those were co-migrating, compared to standards, with benzoic acid, BMPPA and triglycerides. In urine (0 to 2h pi: 4.1% dose) hippuric acid was found. It is concluded that BMPPA is a useful agent for myocardial scintigraphy. Its longer retention in the heart compared to unbranched radioiodinated fatty acids may facilitate SPECT studies. Rate of elimination and plasma analysis indicate the metabolic breakdown of BMPPA. Yet, the complexity of the supposed mechanism may impede curve interpretation in terms of specific metabolic pathways. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. [The fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil (Curucbitae maxima Dich) cultivated in Georgia].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify qualitatively and quantitatively fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil cultivated in Georgia (Cucurbitae maxima Duch) and evaluate its biological activities. Evaluation was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Fatty acids ranging from C12:0 to C22:0 were identified in the probe. The oil contained 0,2?±0,01mg% lauric, 0,3?±0,01 mg% miristic, 9,0?±0,7mg% palmitic, 5,5?±0,4 mg% stearic, 28,1?±1,0 mg% oleic, 40,2?±1,9 mg% linolic, 12,1?±1,0 mg% linolenic, 2,0?±0,2mg% arachinic and 1,2?±0,1 mg% begenic acids. The investigation showed that large pumpkin seed oil contains a range of biologically significant fatty acids, unique proportion of which attaches great value to the vegetative material. PMID:25341255

  16. The Role of Long Chain Fatty Acids and Their Epoxide Metabolites in Nociceptive Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karen; Vito, Steve; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid derived mediators contribute to inflammation and the sensing of pain. The contributions of omega-6 derived prostanoids in enhancing inflammation and pain sensation are well known. Less well explored are the opposing anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the omega-6 derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Far less has been described about the epoxidized metabolites derived from omega-3 long chain fatty acids. The epoxide metabolites are turned over rapidly with enzymatic hydrolysis by the soluble epoxide hydrolase being the major elimination pathway. Despite this, the overall understanding of the role of lipid mediators in the pathology of chronic pain is growing. Here we review the role of long chain fatty acids and their metabolites in alleviating both acute and chronic pain conditions. We focus specifically on the epoxidized metabolites of omega-6 and omega-3 long chain fatty acids as well as a novel strategy to modulate their activity in vivo. PMID:25240260

  17. The role of long chain fatty acids and their epoxide metabolites in nociceptive signaling.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karen; Vito, Steve; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-10-01

    Lipid derived mediators contribute to inflammation and the sensing of pain. The contributions of omega-6 derived prostanoids in enhancing inflammation and pain sensation are well known. Less well explored are the opposing anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the omega-6 derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Far less has been described about the epoxidized metabolites derived from omega-3 long chain fatty acids. The epoxide metabolites are turned over rapidly with enzymatic hydrolysis by the soluble epoxide hydrolase being the major elimination pathway. Despite this, the overall understanding of the role of lipid mediators in the pathology of chronic pain is growing. Here, we review the role of long chain fatty acids and their metabolites in alleviating both acute and chronic pain conditions. We focus specifically on the epoxidized metabolites of omega-6 and omega-3 long chain fatty acids as well as a novel strategy to modulate their activity in vivo. PMID:25240260

  18. Stimulation by epinephrine of the membrane transport of long chain fatty acid in the adipocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Abumrad, N.A.; Perry, P.R.; Whitesell, R.R.

    1985-08-25

    In isolated rat adipocytes, epinephrine rapidly stimulates the transport of long chain fatty acid across the plasma membrane. At a concentration of unbound oleate of 0.1 microM and 5 min exposure to the hormone, the minimal effective concentration of epinephrine is 0.03 and the optimal concentration 0.3 microM (0.01 and 0.1 microgram/ml). The stimulated rates are 5-10-fold the basal rate of influx or efflux. The hormone effect is on the transport process specifically as shown by isolation of the product of transport in either direction as unesterified fatty acid and inhibition by the transport inhibitors phloretin and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. This effect of epinephrine on transport coordinates physiologically with lipase activation to bring about fatty acid release from adipose tissue.

  19. The effect of dietary sulfur on the metabolism of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of methionine-supplemented diet on the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids was studied by comparing results of control and cysteine-supplemented diets in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a period of 17 days one of the following diets: control, cysteine-supplemented, and/or methionine-supplemented. On the last day of the feeding period, the rats were administered either (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonic acid (AA) or (1-{sup 14}C) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by stomach tube five hours before sacrificing. The cyclooxygenase activity in liver microsomes, the apparent Km of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and brain homogenates, and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the phosphatidylinositol fraction of brain, heat, lung, spleen, and kidney tissues were analyzed.

  20. Fatty Acid use in Diving Mammals: More than Merely Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Kanatous, Shane B.

    2012-01-01

    Diving mammals, are under extreme pressure to conserve oxygen as well as produce adequate energy through aerobic pathways during breath-hold diving. Typically a major source of energy, lipids participate in structural and regulatory roles and have an important influence on the physiological functions of an organism. At the stoichiometric level, the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) utilizes less oxygen than metabolizing either monounsaturated fatty acids or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and yields fewer ATP per same length fatty acid. However, there is evidence that indicates the cellular metabolic rate is directly correlated to the lipid composition of the membranes such that the greater the PUFA concentration in the membranes the greater the metabolic rate. These findings appear to be incompatible with diving mammals that ingest and metabolize high levels of unsaturated fatty acids while relying on stored oxygen. Growing evidence from birds to mammals including recent evidence in Weddell seals also indicates that at the whole animal level the utilization of PUFAs to fuel their metabolism actually conserves oxygen. In this paper, we make an initial attempt to ascertain the beneficial adaptations or limitations of lipids constituents and potential trade-offs in diving mammals. We discuss how changes in Antarctic climate are predicted to have numerous different environmental effects; such potential shifts in the availability of certain prey species or even changes in the lipid composition (increased SFA) of numerous fish species with increasing water temperatures and how this may impact the diving ability of Weddell seals. PMID:22707938