Sample records for activated fatty acids

  1. Saturated Fatty Acid Activates but Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Inhibits Toll-like Receptor 2 Dimerized with

    E-print Network

    Lee, Won-Ha

    Saturated Fatty Acid Activates but Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Inhibits Toll-like Receptor 2 saturated fatty acids in their molecules. Previously, we reported that TLR4 ac- tivation is reciprocally modulated by saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in macrophages. However, it is not known whether

  2. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. PMID:25510639

  3. Fatty acid activation in cyanobacteria mediated by acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase enables fatty acid recycling.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarzyk, Danuta; Fulda, Martin

    2010-03-01

    In cyanobacteria fatty acids destined for lipid synthesis can be synthesized de novo, but also exogenous free fatty acids from the culture medium can be directly incorporated into lipids. Activation of exogenous fatty acids is likely required prior to their utilization. To identify the enzymatic activity responsible for activation we cloned candidate genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and identified the encoded proteins as acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetases (Aas). The enzymes catalyze the ATP-dependent esterification of fatty acids to the thiol of acyl carrier protein. The two protein sequences are only distantly related to known prokaryotic Aas proteins but they display strong similarity to sequences that can be found in almost all organisms that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. To investigate the biological role of Aas activity in cyanobacteria, aas knockout mutants were generated in the background of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and S. elongatus PCC 7942. The mutant strains showed two phenotypes characterized by the inability to utilize exogenous fatty acids and by the secretion of endogenous fatty acids into the culture medium. The analyses of extracellular and intracellular fatty acid profiles of aas mutant strains as well as labeling experiments indicated that the detected free fatty acids are released from membrane lipids. The data suggest a considerable turnover of lipid molecules and a role for Aas activity in recycling the released fatty acids. In this model, lipid degradation represents a third supply of fatty acids for lipid synthesis in cyanobacteria. PMID:20061450

  4. Activation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by rat tissues in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T.S.; Bazan, N.G.

    1984-12-01

    The conversion of labeled palmitic, linoleic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids to their respective acyl CoA's was studied in homogenates and microsomes of rat tissues. The highest activity, both in homogenates and microsomes, was seen in liver and heart. There was moderate activity in retina, brain, lung, kidney and testes and the lowest activity was found in spleen. Docosahexaenoic acid was activated much less actively in heart tissue than the other fatty acids. In all tissues examined, the highest activation was observed with arachidonic acid and the lowest with docosahexaenoic acid. Except for liver, those tissues that contained high levels of docosahexaenoic acid also had the highest activation capacity for this fatty acid.

  5. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS), have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene. PMID:22433663

  6. Fatty acids modulate transforming growth factor-  activity and plasma clearance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thai-Yen Ling; Yen-Hua Huang; Ming-Chih Lai; Shuan Shian Huang; Jung San

    2003-01-01

    The activity and plasma clearance of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? are known to be regulated by activated ?2-macroglobulin (?2M*). This has been implicated in pathophysiological processes, but no small molecule compounds have been reported to modulate TGF-? activity by affecting the interaction of TGF-? and ?2M*. Here, we demonstrate that fatty acids are capable of inhibiting complex formation of TGF-?

  7. Peroxisomal and Mitochondrial Fatty Acid -Oxidation in Mice Nullizygous for Both Peroxisome Proliferator-activated

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Proliferator-activated Receptor and Peroxisomal Fatty Acyl-CoA Oxidase GENOTYPE CORRELATION WITH FATTY LIVER of specific fatty liver phenotype. In animal cells, mitochondria as well as peroxisomes oxidize fatty acidsPeroxisomal and Mitochondrial Fatty Acid -Oxidation in Mice Nullizygous for Both Peroxisome

  8. Omega3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rylon Hofacer; Ronald Jandacek; Therese Rider; Patrick Tso; I. Jack Magrisso; Stephen C. Benoit; Robert K. McNamara

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression\\/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would

  9. Reconciling ligase ribozyme activity with Fatty Acid vesicle stability.

    PubMed

    Anella, Fabrizio; Danelon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The "RNA world" and the "Lipid world" theories for the origin of cellular life are often considered incompatible due to the differences in the environmental conditions at which they can emerge. One obstacle resides in the conflicting requirements for divalent metal ions, in particular Mg2+, with respect to optimal ribozyme activity, fatty acid vesicle stability and protection against RNA strand cleavage. Here, we report on the activity of a short L1 ligase ribozyme in the presence of myristoleic acid (MA) vesicles at varying concentrations of Mg2+. The ligation rate is significantly lower at low-Mg2+ conditions. However, the loss of activity is overcompensated by the increased stability of RNA leading to a larger amount of intact ligated substrate after long reaction periods. Combining RNA ligation assays with fatty acid vesicles we found that MA vesicles made of 5 mM amphiphile are stable and do not impair ligase ribozyme activity in the presence of approximately 2 mM Mg2+. These results provide a scenario in which catalytic RNA and primordial membrane assembly can coexist in the same environment. PMID:25513761

  10. enzyme activities in muscle (experiment 1). This suggests that the fatty acids deposited

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    content of muscle, perirenal fat or liver. Rather, the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids mainly. In the liver, carnitine palmi- toyltransferase I (CPT I) controls the entry of long-chain fatty acidsenzyme activities in muscle (experiment 1). This suggests that the fatty acids deposited in muscle

  11. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase is up-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acid via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and suppresses polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ashibe, Bunichiro; Motojima, Kiyoto

    2009-12-01

    Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH; also known as ALDH3A2 or ALDH10) oxidizes medium- or long-chain aliphatic aldehydes. FALDH deficiency in humans is known to be the cause of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, in which individuals display neurological symptoms and cutaneous abnormality. FALDH-V, a splice isoform of FALDH, is localized in the peroxisome and contributes to the oxidization of pristanal, an intermediate of the alpha-oxidation pathway. FALDH-N, another splice isoform of FALDH, is induced by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligands, although its activation mechanism has not been clarified. In the present study, we show that transcriptional activation of FALDH is directly regulated by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha through a direct repeat-1 site located in the FALDH promoter. In addition, FALDH is efficiently induced by linoleic acid in rat hepatoma Fao cells through transcriptional activation by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Furthermore, ectopic expression of endoplasmic reticulum-localizing FALDH-N, but not peroxisome-localizing FALDH-V, suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by linoleic acid in HEK293 cells. These results suggest the autocatalytic nature of the FALDH-N system against endoplasmic reticulum stress that is induced by polyunsaturated fatty acid; polyunsaturated fatty acid binds to peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha to activate the expression of FALDH-N, which then detoxifies polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived fatty aldehydes and protects cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:19860831

  12. Pharmacological Activity of Fatty Acid Amides Is Regulated, but Not Mediated, by Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase in Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARON H. LICHTMAN; E. GREGORY HAWKINS; GRAEME GRIFFIN; BENJAMIN F. CRAVATT

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid amides (FAAs) represent a class of neuromodulatory lipids that includes the endocannabinoid anandamide and the sleep-inducing substance oleamide. Both anandamide and ole- amide produce behavioral effects indicative of cannabinoid activity, but only anandamide binds the cannabinoid (CB1) receptor in vitro. Accordingly, oleamide has been proposed to induce its behavioral effects by serving as a competitive sub- strate for

  13. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on protein kinase C activity in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H F Seung Kim; E J Weeber; J D Sweatt; A L Stoll; L B Marangell

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary clinical data indicate that omega-3 fatty acids may be effective mood stabilizers for patients with bipolar disorder. Both lithium and valproic acid are known to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) activity after subchronic administration in cell culture and in vivo. The current study was undertaken to determine the effects of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic

  14. Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation

    SciTech Connect

    Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

    1987-05-01

    The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. /sup 14/C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell.

  15. Enzymatic and physiological characterization of fatty acid activation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qianqian; Tan, Xiaoming; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-10-01

    Free fatty acids are typically activated by thioesterification processes and catalyzed by the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase or fatty acyl-ACP synthetase. However, the routes for fatty acid activation in cyanobacteria are not well understood. In this investigation, the slr1609 gene, which encodes the fatty acid activation enzyme, was cloned from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. This gene was identified by heterologous expression and in vitro enzymatic activity analyses. Different from previous reports stating that free fatty acids are only activated through the fatty acyl-ACP synthetases encoded by these genes in cyanobacteria, this gene was also proven to possess a fatty acyl-CoA synthetase activity, by in vitro enzymatic activity analyses and in vivo complementation experiments. The protein Slr1609 is located in both the cell membrane and the cytosol of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The differences in the transcriptional profiles between the wild type and the slr1609 deletion mutant strain were evaluated using microarray analyses. These analyses indicated that 299 differentially expressed genes are involved in fatty acid metabolism, photosynthesis, carbon fixation, stress tolerance and other metabolic processes. Our experiments demonstrate the observed compositional changes in the unsaturated fatty acids from the membrane lipids of the slr1609 deletion mutant when shifted from 30 to 24?°C. PMID:23417914

  16. Activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rats fed ?-linolenic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yearul Kabir; Takashi Ide

    1996-01-01

    The activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rats fed linseed and perilla oils rich in ?-linolenic acid (?-18:3) was compared to that in rats fed safflower oil rich in linoleic acid (18:2) and a saturated fat (palm oil). Palm and safflower oils were essentially devoid of ?-18:3. The palmitoyl-CoA oxidation rates both in mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways in

  17. Chemopreventive n-3 fatty acids activate RXR? in colonocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Spencer, Thomas E.; Wang, Naisyin; Moyer, Mary P.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exert a chemopreventive effect in the colon have not been elucidated. Retinoid X receptors (RXR) are a family of nuclear receptors implicated in cancer chemoprevention. Since docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 PUFA enriched in fish oil, reduces colonocyte proliferation and enhances apoptosis relative to n-6 PUFA-treated cells, we determined whether DHA can serve as a specific ligand for RXR? activation relative to n-6 PUFA in colonocytes. In a mammalian one-hybrid assay, immortalized young adult mouse colonic (YAMC) cells were co-transfected with a yeast galactose upstream activating sequence (UAS)4-tk-Luciferase (Luc) reporter plasmid, plus either GAL4 DNA-binding domain fused to RXR?, retinoic acid receptor ? or GAL4 alone, followed by an n-3, n-6 or n-9 fatty acid incubation. Luc activity levels were dose-dependently elevated only in n-3 PUFA (DHA)-treated RXR?. Since RXR homodimers and RXR/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) heterodimers bind consensus direct repeat (DR1) motifs, YAMC and NCM460 (a normal human colonic cell line), were respectively, co-transfected with RXR? and DR1-Luc, followed by different PUFA treatment. Luc activity levels were increased (P < 0.05) only in DHA groups. The DHA-dependent induction of DR-1-Luc was reduced to basal levels upon RXR? antagonist-treatment, with no effect on PPAR? antagonist-treatment. A role for select RXR isoforms in colonocyte biology was also determined by examining nuclear receptor mRNA levels in rat colon following dietary lipid and carcinogen exposure over time. RXR?, RXR? and RXR? were detected in rat colonic mucosa, and the levels of RXR? and RXR? were elevated in fish oil (n-3 PUFA) versus corn oil (n-6 PUFA) fed animals after 16 weeks. These data indicate that, RXR?, an obligatory component of various nuclear receptors, preferentially binds n-3 PUFA in colonocytes, and that the nuclear receptor targets for PUFA in the colon are modulated by dietary lipid exposure. PMID:12844485

  18. Adsorption of Palm Oil Carotene and Free Fatty Acids onto Acid Activated Cameroonian Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binwie Joy, Nde-Aga; Richard, Kamga; Pierre, Nguetnkam Jean

    The adsorption of carotene and free fatty acids from crude palm oil by local clay, activated with various concentrations of sulphuric acid (0.5, 1 and 2 M) was investigated. Kinetic studies of the adsorption of carotene and of free fatty acids at 65, 80 and 90°C, showed that the time required attaining adsorption equilibrium decreases as the temperature increases, regardless of the adsorbent used. Clay activated with 1 M sulphuric acid solution was the most efficient local clay for the adsorption of carotene and of free fatty acid and it compared favourably with the industrial clay used as reference. The bleaching efficiency of local clay was correlated to the surface area of the adsorbents. It was found that the Freundlich equation is applicable to the adsorption isotherms of carotene from palm oil. The Brimberg model used to determine the activation energy of the adsorption process gave the values, 82±12, 72±11, 74±11 and 37±6 kJ molG1, for industrial adsorbent, 0.5, 1 and 2 M activated clays, respectively.

  19. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Activate Calcium Channels in Ventricular Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, James Min-Che; Xian, Hu; Bacaner, Marvin

    1992-07-01

    Nonesterified fatty acids accumulate at sites of tissue injury and necrosis. In cardiac tissue the concentrations of oleic acid, arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, and other fatty acids increase greatly during ischemia due to receptor or nonreceptor-mediated activation of phospholipases and/or diminished reacylation. In ischemic myocardium, the time course of increase in fatty acids and tissue calcium closely parallels irreversible cardiac damage. We postulated that fatty acids released from membrane phospholipids may be involved in the increase of intracellular calcium. We report here that low concentrations (3-30 ?M) of each long-chain unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic) and saturated (palmitic, stearic, and arachidic) fatty acid tested induced multifold increases in voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) in cardiac myocytes. In contrast, neither short-chain fatty acids (<12 carbons) or fatty acid esters (oleic and palmitic methyl esters) had any effect on ICa, indicating that activation of calcium channels depended on chain length and required a free carboxyl group. Inhibition of protein kinases C and A, G proteins, eicosanoid production, or nonenzymatic oxidation did not block the fatty acid-induced increase in ICa. Thus, long-chain fatty acids appear to directly activate ICa, possibly by acting at some lipid sites near the channels or directly on the channel protein itself. We suggest that the combined effects of fatty acids released during ischemia on ICa may contribute to ischemia-induced pathogenic events on the heart that involve calcium, such as arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and myocardial damage due to cytotoxic calcium overload.

  20. Elevated hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 activity affects multiple pathways controlling hepatic lipid and carbohydrate composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Wang; Moises Torres-Gonzalez; Sasmita Tripathy; Daniela Botolin; Barbara Christian; Donald B. Jump

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 (Elovl-5) plays an important role in long chain monounsaturated and polyun- saturated fatty acid synthesis. Elovl-5 activity is regulated during development, by diet, hormones, and drugs, and in chronic disease. This report examines the impact of ele- vated Elovl-5 activity on hepatic function. Adenovirus- mediated induction of Elovl5 activity in livers of C57BL\\/6 mice increased hepatic

  1. Phosphatidate Phosphatase Activity Plays Key Role in Protection against Fatty Acid-induced Toxicity in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Fakas, Stylianos; Qiu, Yixuan; Dixon, Joseph L.; Han, Gil-Soo; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Sturley, Stephen L.; Carman, George M.

    2011-01-01

    The PAH1-encoded phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pivotal enzyme that produces diacylglycerol for the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and simultaneously controls the level of PA used for phospholipid synthesis. Quantitative lipid analysis showed that the pah1? mutation caused a reduction in TAG mass and an elevation in the mass of phospholipids and free fatty acids, changes that were more pronounced in the stationary phase. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the pah1? mutant were unaltered, although the ratio of palmitoleic acid to oleic acid was increased with a similar change in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The pah1? mutant exhibited classic hallmarks of apoptosis in stationary phase and a marked reduction in the quantity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Cells lacking PA phosphatase were sensitive to exogenous fatty acids in the order of toxicity palmitoleic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid. In contrast, the growth of wild type cells was not inhibited by fatty acid supplementation. In addition, wild type cells supplemented with palmitoleic acid exhibited an induction in PA phosphatase activity and an increase in TAG synthesis. Deletion of the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which counteracts PA phosphatase in controlling PA content, suppressed the defect in lipid droplet formation in the pah1? mutant. However, the sensitivity of the pah1? mutant to palmitoleic acid was not rescued by the dgk1? mutation. Overall, these findings indicate a key role of PA phosphatase in TAG synthesis for protection against fatty acid-induced toxicity. PMID:21708942

  2. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  3. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibition Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in SKOV3 Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weibo Zhou; Leslie E. Landree; Jagan N. Thupari; Michael L. Pinn; Tsion Bililign; Eun Kyoung Kim; Aravinda Vadlamudi; Susan M. Medghalchi; Rajaa El Meskini; Gabriele V. Ronnett; Craig A. Townsend; Francis P. Kuhajda

    2007-01-01

    1 Pathology, 2 Neuroscience, 3 Neurology, 4 Oncology, and 5 Abstract Fatty acid synthase (FAS), the enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, is highly expressed in ovarian cancers and most common human carcinomas. Inhibition of FAS and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have been shown to be cytotoxic to human cancer cells in vitro and

  4. Fatty acid-binding protein activities in bovine muscle, liver and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.B.; Ekeren, P.A.; Sanders, J.O.

    1985-11-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue, sternomandibularis muscle and liver were obtained from steers immediately postmortem. Muscle strips and adipose tissue snips were incubated with 0.75 mM (1- UC)palmitate and 5 mM glucose. Muscle strips esterified palmitate at the rate of 2.5 nmol/min per gram tissue, which was 30% of the rate observed for adipose tissue. Fatty acid-binding protein activity was measured in 104,000 x g supernatant fractions of liver, muscle and adipose tissue homogenates. Muscle and adipose tissue fractions bound 840 and 140 pmol (1- UC)palmitoyl-CoA per gram tissue, respectively. Fatty acid-binding protein activity was greater in adipose tissue than in muscle when data were expressed per milligram protein. Fatty acid binding-protein activity was correlated with the rate of palmitate esterification within each tissue. Liver contained the highest fatty acid-binding protein activity.

  5. Active role of fatty acid amino acid conjugates in nitrogen metabolism in Spodoptera litura larvae

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Aboshi, Takako; Abe, Hiroaki; Nishida, Ritsuo; Alborn, Hans T.; Tumlinson, James H.; Mori, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    Since the first fatty acid amino acid conjugate (FAC) was isolated from regurgitant of Spodoptera exigua larvae in 1997 [volicitin: N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-l-glutamine], their role as elicitors of induced responses in plants has been well documented. However, studies of the biosyntheses and the physiological role of FACs in the insect have been minimal. By using 14C-labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, and linolenic acid in feeding studies of Spodoptera litura larvae, combined with tissue analyses, we found glutamine in the midgut cells to be a major source for biosynthesis of FACs. Furthermore, 20% of the glutamine moiety of FACs was derived from glutamic acid and ammonia through enzymatic reaction of glutamine synthetase (GS). To determine whether FACs improve GS productivity, we studied nitrogen assimilation efficiency of S. litura larvae fed on artificial diets containing 15NH4Cl and glutamic acid. When the diet was enriched with linolenic acid, the nitrogen assimilation efficiency improved from 40% to >60%. In the lumen, the biosynthesized FACs are hydrolyzed to fatty acids and glutamine, which are reabsorbed into tissues and hemolymph. These results strongly suggested that FACs play an active role in nitrogen assimilation in Lepidoptera larva and that glutamine containing FACs in the gut lumen may function as a form of storage of glutamine, a key compound of nitrogen metabolism. PMID:18997016

  6. Regulation of triacylglycerol hydrolase expression by dietary fatty acids and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vernon W. Dolinsky; Dean Gilham; Grant M. Hatch; Luis B. Agellon; Richard Lehner; Dennis E. Vance

    2003-01-01

    Triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the lipolysis of intracellular stored triacylglycerol (TG). Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) regulate a multitude of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are PPAR ligands and fatty acids are produced via TGH activity, so we studied whether dietary fats and PPAR agonists could regulate TGH expression. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TGH

  7. Retinal pigment epithelial acid lipase activity and lipoprotein receptors: effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Elner, Victor M

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipase in situ, in vitro, and after challenge with phagocytic stimuli. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of fluorescently labeled native, aceto-acetylated, and oxidized LDL was studied in vitro and in vivo. LDL effects on RPE lysosomal enzymes were assessed. Lysosomal enzyme activity was compared in RPE cells from monkeys fed diets rich in fish oil to those from control animals and in cultured RPE cells exposed to sera from these monkeys. RESULTS: RPE acid lipase activity was substantial and comparable to that of mononuclear phagocytes. Acid lipase activity increased significantly following phagocytic challenge with photoreceptor outer segment (POS) membranes. Receptor-mediated RPE uptake of labeled lipoproteins was determined in vitro. Distinctive uptake of labeled lipoproteins occurred in RPE cells and mononuclear phagocytes in vivo. Native LDL enhanced RPE lysosomal enzyme activity. RPE lysosomal enzymes increased significantly in RPE cells from monkeys fed fish oil-rich diets and in cultured RPE cells exposed to their sera. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cells contain substantial acid lipase for efficient metabolism of lipids imbibed by POS phagocytosis and LDL uptake. Diets rich in fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acids, by enhancing acid lipase, may reduce RPE lipofuscin accumulation, RPE oxidative damage, and the development of ARMD. PMID:12545699

  8. Saturated fatty acids activate TLR-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 were shown to be activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) but inhibited by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, one report (ATVB 11:1944, 2009) suggested that SFA-induced TLR activation in cell culture systems is due to contaminants in BSA used for conjugating f...

  9. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  10. A FAD2 homologue from Lesquerella lindheimeri has predominantly fatty acid hydroxylase activity,

    E-print Network

    Kunst, Ljerka

    A FAD2 homologue from Lesquerella lindheimeri has predominantly fatty acid hydroxylase activity the catalytic outcome of the hydroxylation/desaturation reaction. Transformation of an Arabidopsis fad2/fae1 castor [7] and L. fendleri [8]. The enzymes have 71% amino acid identity and belong to the FAD2 fold

  11. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity.

    PubMed

    Mofford, David M; Adams, Spencer T; Reddy, G S Kiran Kumar; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Miller, Stephen C

    2015-07-15

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain. PMID:26120870

  12. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain. PMID:26120870

  13. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of antimicrobial fatty acids and derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lu; Peng, Li-juan; Dong, Xiao-wu; Wu, Di; Wu, Vivian Chi-Hua; Feng, Feng-Qin

    2012-02-01

    Fatty acids and derivatives (FADs) are resources for natural antimicrobials. In order to screen for additional potent antimicrobial agents, the antimicrobial activities of FADs against Staphylococcus aureus were examined using a microplate assay. Monoglycerides of fatty acids were the most potent class of fatty acids, among which monotridecanoin possessed the most potent antimicrobial activity. The conventional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) were performed to establish two statistically reliable models (conventional QSAR: R(2)=0.942, Q(2)(LOO)=0.910; CoMFA: R(2)=0.979, Q(2)=0.588, respectively). Improved forecasting can be achieved by the combination of these two models that provide a good insight into the structure-activity relationships of the FADs and that may be useful to design new FADs as antimicrobial agents. PMID:22302421

  14. Regulation of triacylglycerol hydrolase expression by dietary fatty acids and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Dolinsky, Vernon W; Gilham, Dean; Hatch, Grant M; Agellon, Luis B; Lehner, Richard; Vance, Dennis E

    2003-11-30

    Triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the lipolysis of intracellular stored triacylglycerol (TG). Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) regulate a multitude of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are PPAR ligands and fatty acids are produced via TGH activity, so we studied whether dietary fats and PPAR agonists could regulate TGH expression. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TGH expression was increased 10-fold upon differentiation, compared to pre-adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells incubated with a PPARgamma agonist during the differentiation process resulted in a 5-fold increase in TGH expression compared to control cells. Evidence for direct regulation of TGH expression by PPARgamma could not be demonstrated as TGH expression was not affected by a 24-h incubation of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the PPARgamma agonist. Feeding mice diets enriched in fatty acids for 3 weeks did not affect hepatic TGH expression, though a 3-week diet enriched in fatty acids and cholesterol increased hepatic TGH expression 2-fold. Two weeks of clofibrate feeding did not significantly affect hepatic TGH expression or microsomal lipolytic activities in wild-type or PPARalpha-null mice, indicating that PPARalpha does not regulate hepatic TGH expression. Therefore, TGH expression does not appear to be directly regulated by PPARs or fatty acids in the liver or adipocytes. PMID:14642773

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids moderate effects of physical activity on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-07-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

  16. Activities of liver mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rats fed trans fat.

    PubMed

    Ide, T; Watanabe, M; Sugano, M; Yamamoto, I

    1987-01-01

    The effect of trans fat on the activities of liver mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes was examined in various strains of rats. When Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 30 days diets containing either olive oil or partially hydrogenated corn oil as a source of cis- or trans-octadecenoate, respectively, the activities of various enzymes of mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation measured with cis- and trans-9-octadecenoic acid as substrates showed little dietary fat-dependent change. In Fischer 344 rats, feeding trans fat for 15 mo increased only moderately various enzymes of beta-oxidation except for carnitine acyltransferase. The rate of mitochondrial ketogenesis and the activity of carnitine acyltransferase measured with trans-9-octadecenoic acid as a substrate were about half those with the cis-counterpart. Peroxisomes oxidized trans-9-octadecenoyl-CoA at a rate comparable to the cis-counterpart. It was concluded from this study and previous ones that the difference in the geometry of dietary fatty acid had only a marginal effect in modulating the hepatic fatty acid oxidation system, in spite of marked differences in the metabolic behavior of cis- and trans fatty acid in cell-free preparations and perfused liver. PMID:3821403

  17. Dietary Fatty Acids and Their Potential for Controlling Metabolic Diseases Through Activation of FFA4/GPR120.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Trond; Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2015-07-17

    It is well known that the amount and type of ingested fat impacts the development of obesity and metabolic diseases, but the potential for beneficial effects from fat has received less attention. It is becoming clear that the composition of the individual fatty acids in diet is important. Besides acting as precursors of potent signaling molecules, dietary fatty acids act directly on intracellular and cell surface receptors. The free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4, previously GPR120) is linked to the regulation of body weight, inflammation, and insulin resistance and represents a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this review, we discuss the various types of dietary fatty acids, the link between FFA4 and metabolic diseases, the potential effects of the individual fatty acids on health, and the ability of fatty acids to activate FFA4. We also discuss the possibility of dietary schemes that implement activation of FFA4. PMID:26185978

  18. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  19. Relationship of Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Walking Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Adewuyi; J. B. Roelofs; E. Gruys; M. J. M. Toussaint; Eerdenburg van F. J. C. M

    2006-01-01

    To survive and produce milk, postpartum dairy cows use their reserves through lipolysis. If the negative energy balance is severe, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are formed that can impair several physiological processes. A pilot study suggested that increased walking activity after calving may be related to a reduced serum concentration of NEFA. The objective of this study was to determine

  20. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  1. Use of vegetable oils and fatty acid methyl esters in the production of spherical activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gryglewicz; K Grabas; G Gryglewicz

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of using vegetable oils, i.e., rapeseed oil, soybean oil, linseed oil, tung oil, castor oil and dehydroxylated castor oil, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from them, for the agglomeration of bituminous coals was investigated. Both vegetable oils and FAMEs were found to be suitable bridging liquids for the production of spherical agglomerates-precursor of spherical activated

  2. Cytochrome b5 Coexpression Increases Tetrahymena thermophila ?6 Fatty Acid Desaturase Activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dahmen, Jeremy L.; Olsen, Rebecca; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids, are important to the physiology of many microorganisms and metazoans and are vital to human development and health. The production of these and related fatty acids depends on ?6 desaturases, the final components of an electron transfer chain that introduces double bonds into 18-carbon fatty acid chains. When a ?6 desaturase identified from the ciliated protist Tetrahymena thermophila was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures supplemented with the 18:2?9,12 substrate, only 4% of the incorporated substrate was desaturated. Cytochrome b5 protein sequences identified from the genome of T. thermophila included one sequence with two conserved cytochrome b5 domains. Desaturation by the ?6 enzyme increased as much as 10-fold when T. thermophila cytochrome b5s were coexpressed with the desaturase. Coexpression of a cytochrome b5 from Arabidopsis thaliana with the ?6 enzyme also increased desaturation. A split ubiquitin growth assay indicated that the strength of interaction between cytochrome b5 proteins and the desaturase plays a vital role in fatty acid desaturase activity, illustrating the importance of protein-protein interactions in this enzyme activity. PMID:23584993

  3. Production of Biologically Active Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids have gained industrial attention because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. The bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from ...

  4. Production of Biologically Active Hydroxy Fatty Acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) have gained important attentions because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from different unsatu...

  5. Ceramides increase the activity of the secretory phospholipase A2 and alter its fatty acid specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Koumanov, Kamen S; Momchilova, Albena B; Quinn, Peter J; Wolf, Claude

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of human recombinant secretory type II phospholipase A(2) activity by ceramide and cholesterol was investigated using model glycerophospholipid substrates composed of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine dispersed in aqueous medium. Enzyme activity was monitored by measurement of released fatty acids using capillary GC-MS. Fatty acids from the sn-2 position of the phospholipids were hydrolysed by the enzyme in proportion to the relative abundance of the phospholipid in the substrate. Addition of increasing amounts of ceramide to the substrate progressively enhanced phospholipase activity. The increased activity was accomplished largely by preferential hydrolysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, derived from phosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of sphingomyelin to the substrate glycerophospholipids inhibited phospholipase activity but its progressive substitution by ceramide, so as to mimic sphingomyelinase activity, counteracted the inhibition. The presence of cholesterol in dispersions of glycerophospholipid-substrate-containing ceramides suppressed activation of the enzyme resulting from the presence of ceramide. The molecular basis of enzyme modulation was investigated by analysis of the phase structure of the dispersed lipid substrate during temperature scans from 46 to 20 degrees C using small-angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction. These studies indicated that intermediate structures created after ceramide-dependent phase separation of hexagonal and lamellar phases represent the most susceptible form of the substrate for enzyme hydrolysis. PMID:11903045

  6. Oleic Acid Stimulates Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids through Protein Kinase A-dependent Activation of SIRT1-PGC1? Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Hong; Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Dominy, John E.; Lee, Yoonjin; Kim, Sungjin; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Xiang, Yang K.; Puigserver, Pere

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential components of the dynamic lipid metabolism in cells. Fatty acids can also signal to intracellular pathways to trigger a broad range of cellular responses. Oleic acid is an abundant monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid that impinges on different biological processes, but the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Here, we report that oleic acid stimulates the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway and activates the SIRT1-PGC1? transcriptional complex to modulate rates of fatty acid oxidation. In skeletal muscle cells, oleic acid treatment increased intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) that turned on protein kinase A activity. This resulted in SIRT1 phosphorylation at Ser-434 and elevation of its catalytic deacetylase activity. A direct SIRT1 substrate is the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1-? (PGC1?), which became deacetylated and hyperactive after oleic acid treatment. Importantly, oleic acid, but not other long chain fatty acids such as palmitate, increased the expression of genes linked to fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1-PGC1?-dependent mechanism. As a result, oleic acid potently accelerated rates of complete fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells. These results illustrate how a single long chain fatty acid specifically controls lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Pharmacological manipulation of this lipid signaling pathway might provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation. PMID:23329830

  7. The antifungal activity of fatty acids of all stages of Sarcophaga carnaria L. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Go??biowski, Marek; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Oleszczak, Alma; Dawgul, Ma?gorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Bogu?, Mieczys?awa I; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    Fatty acids as components of cuticular lipids of insects play a significant role in antifungal in protection against fungal infection. The chemical composition of cuticular and internal extracts obtained from all developmental stages of flesh flies Sarcophaga carnaria was identified. The fatty acids were detected using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and the most abundant for all examined stages were: 18:1 > 16:0 > 16:1 > 18:0 > 18:2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) C20 were found in both, cuticular and internal extracts. GC-MS analysis showed higher relative content of PUFA in adults than in preimaginal stages. Fatty acids alone as well as their cuticular and internal extracts obtained from larvae, pupae male and female of S. carnaria were tested according to their potential antimicrobial activity against entomopathogenic fungi: Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana (Tve-N39) and B. bassiana (Dv-1/07). FA presented diverse antimicrobial activity depending on the length of the chain and the presence of unsaturated bonds. Short chain and unsaturated FA (6:0, 11:0, 13:0) have shown significantly stronger activity against fungi but they were detected in lower concentrations. PUFA inhibit fungal growth more effectively than unsaturated long chain fatty acids. Cuticular and internal extracts of all living forms of S. carnaria exhibited approximately equal activity against tested entomopathogenic fungi. We presumed that the most abundant saturated long chain FA and additionally PUFA founded in our analysis are involved in protecting the flies against fungal infection. PMID:23969191

  8. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L.) growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%). This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Results: Linolenic acid (45.83%) and oleic acid (47.54%) were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 ±0.011 mg GAE per dry matter) was the potent antioxidant in the assays. Results obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis). Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25050298

  9. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  10. Fatty acids inhibit growth-factor-induced diacylglycerol kinase alpha activation in vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, X; Jiang, Y; Qian, W; Lu, X; Walsh, J P

    2001-07-01

    We have previously shown that unsaturated fatty acids amplify platelet-derived-growth-factor (PDGF)-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation in vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs). Diacylglycerol-induced PKC activation is normally terminated by diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs). We thus hypothesized that fatty acids act by inhibiting a DGK. Fractionation of VSMC extracts demonstrated that the DGK alpha isoform was the major DGK activity present. PDGF markedly increased the DGK activity of cultured cells. An inhibitor selective for the DGK alpha isoform, R59949 [3-[2-[4-(bis-(4-fluorophenyl)methylene]piperidin-1-yl)ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-4(1H)-quinazolinone], abolished the growth-factor-induced increase in DGK activity, but had little effect on basal activity. PDGF thus selectively activates DGKalpha. Epidermal growth factor and alpha-thrombin stimulated total DGK activity similarly to PDGF. Activation by epidermal growth factor was sensitive to R59949, again suggesting involvement of DGKalpha. However, the alpha-thrombin-induced activity was unaffected by this agent. Unsaturated fatty acids inhibited growth-factor-induced DGKalpha activation, but had no effect on basal activity. Fatty acids also amplified the PDGF-induced increase in cell diacylglycerol content. These results indicate that inhibition of DGKalpha contributes to fatty-acid-induced amplification of PKC activation. Increased levels of fatty acids in diabetes may thus contribute to chronic PKC activation associated with this disorder. PMID:11415460

  11. Fatty acids inhibit growth-factor-induced diacylglycerol kinase alpha activation in vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Du, X; Jiang, Y; Qian, W; Lu, X; Walsh, J P

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that unsaturated fatty acids amplify platelet-derived-growth-factor (PDGF)-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation in vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs). Diacylglycerol-induced PKC activation is normally terminated by diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs). We thus hypothesized that fatty acids act by inhibiting a DGK. Fractionation of VSMC extracts demonstrated that the DGK alpha isoform was the major DGK activity present. PDGF markedly increased the DGK activity of cultured cells. An inhibitor selective for the DGK alpha isoform, R59949 [3-[2-[4-(bis-(4-fluorophenyl)methylene]piperidin-1-yl)ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-4(1H)-quinazolinone], abolished the growth-factor-induced increase in DGK activity, but had little effect on basal activity. PDGF thus selectively activates DGKalpha. Epidermal growth factor and alpha-thrombin stimulated total DGK activity similarly to PDGF. Activation by epidermal growth factor was sensitive to R59949, again suggesting involvement of DGKalpha. However, the alpha-thrombin-induced activity was unaffected by this agent. Unsaturated fatty acids inhibited growth-factor-induced DGKalpha activation, but had no effect on basal activity. Fatty acids also amplified the PDGF-induced increase in cell diacylglycerol content. These results indicate that inhibition of DGKalpha contributes to fatty-acid-induced amplification of PKC activation. Increased levels of fatty acids in diabetes may thus contribute to chronic PKC activation associated with this disorder. PMID:11415460

  12. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  13. bZIP67 regulates the omega-3 fatty acid content of Arabidopsis seed oil by activating fatty acid desaturase3.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ana; Kelly, Amélie A; van Erp, Harrie; Shaw, Eve; Powers, Stephen J; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J

    2013-08-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seed maturation is accompanied by the deposition of storage oil, rich in the essential ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA). The synthesis of ALA is highly responsive to the level of fatty acid desaturase3 (FAD3) expression, which is strongly upregulated during embryogenesis. By screening mutants in leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1)-inducible transcription factors using fatty acid profiling, we identified two mutants (lec1-like and bzip67) with a seed lipid phenotype. Both mutants share a substantial reduction in seed ALA content. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that bZIP67 binds G-boxes in the FAD3 promoter and enhances FAD3 expression but that activation is conditional on bZIP67 association with LEC1-like (L1L) and nuclear factor-YC2 (NF-YC2). Although FUSCA3 and abscisic acid insensitive3 are required for L1L and bZIP67 expression, neither protein is necessary for [bZIP67:L1L:NF-YC2] to activate FAD3. We conclude that a transcriptional complex containing L1L, NF-YC2, and bZIP67 is induced by LEC1 during embryogenesis and specifies high levels of ALA production for storage oil by activating FAD3 expression. PMID:23995083

  14. bZIP67 Regulates the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content of Arabidopsis Seed Oil by Activating FATTY ACID DESATURASE3[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Ana; Kelly, Amélie A.; van Erp, Harrie; Shaw, Eve; Powers, Stephen J.; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seed maturation is accompanied by the deposition of storage oil, rich in the essential ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA). The synthesis of ALA is highly responsive to the level of FATTY ACID DESATURASE3 (FAD3) expression, which is strongly upregulated during embryogenesis. By screening mutants in LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1)–inducible transcription factors using fatty acid profiling, we identified two mutants (lec1-like and bzip67) with a seed lipid phenotype. Both mutants share a substantial reduction in seed ALA content. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that bZIP67 binds G-boxes in the FAD3 promoter and enhances FAD3 expression but that activation is conditional on bZIP67 association with LEC1-LIKE (L1L) and NUCLEAR FACTOR-YC2 (NF-YC2). Although FUSCA3 and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 are required for L1L and bZIP67 expression, neither protein is necessary for [bZIP67:L1L:NF-YC2] to activate FAD3. We conclude that a transcriptional complex containing L1L, NF-YC2, and bZIP67 is induced by LEC1 during embryogenesis and specifies high levels of ALA production for storage oil by activating FAD3 expression. PMID:23995083

  15. Na(+)-H+ antiporter activity in relation to membrane fatty acid composition and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Goré, J; Besson, P; Hoinard, C; Bougnoux, P

    1994-01-01

    Na(+)-H+ exchange activity was studied in a human breast cancer cell line. At steady state, the intracellular pH (pHi) of the cells was 7.23 +/- 0.01, and intracellular buffering capacity (beta i) was 44 +/- 4 mM/pH unit. pHi was controlled by a Na(+)-H+ antiporter that was reversible, electroneutral, inhibited by 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)amiloride, and dependent on extracellular Na+. The exchanger function depended on internal H+ concentration, according to an allosteric activation mechanism obeying the model of Hill. The exchanger was inactive at pHi > or = 7.22, and its maximal activity was reached at pHi < 6.60. The exchanger was stimulated by osmotic shrinking but was unaffected by growth factors (epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I) or by serum. When cells were grown in a medium supplemented with linoleic or alpha-linolenic acids, large quantities of the additional fatty acid accumulated in membranes, saturated fatty acids increased, and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased. These changes reduced cell proliferation but had no effect on the steady-state value of pHi, on beta i, or on the kinetic parameters of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. Therefore, in this system, cell proliferation is not directly related to the activation of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. PMID:8304409

  16. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  17. Antifungal hydroxy fatty acids produced during sourdough fermentation: microbial and enzymatic pathways, and antifungal activity in bread.

    PubMed

    Black, Brenna A; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter(-1). Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter(-1). L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter(-1) (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  18. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping 

    E-print Network

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    We hypothesized that subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue would differ in monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types...

  19. Apolipoprotein D Transgenic Mice Develop Hepatic Steatosis through Activation of PPAR? and Fatty Acid Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Marilyne; Lalonde, Simon; Najyb, Ouafa; Thiery, Maxime; Daneault, Caroline; Des Rosiers, Chrisitne; Rassart, Eric; Mounier, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing human apolipoprotein D (H-apoD) in the brain are resistant to neurodegeneration. Despite the use of a neuron-specific promoter to generate the Tg mice, they expressed significant levels of H-apoD in both plasma and liver and they slowly develop hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We show here that hepatic PPAR? expression in Tg mice is increased by 2-fold compared to wild type (WT) mice. Consequently, PPAR? target genes Plin2 and Cide A/C are overexpressed, leading to increased lipid droplets formation. Expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36, another PPARgamma target, is also increased in Tg mice associated with elevated fatty acid uptake as measured in primary hepatocytes. Elevated expression of AMPK in the liver of Tg leads to phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase, indicating a decreased activity of the enzyme. Fatty acid synthase expression is also induced but the hepatic lipogenesis measured in vivo is not significantly different between WT and Tg mice. In addition, expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation, is slightly upregulated. Finally, we show that overexpressing H-apoD in HepG2 cells in presence of arachidonic acid (AA), the main apoD ligand, increases the transcriptional activity of PPAR?. Supporting the role of apoD in AA transport, we observed enrichment in hepatic AA and a decrease in plasmatic AA concentration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the hepatic steatosis observed in apoD Tg mice is a consequence of increased PPAR? transcriptional activity by AA leading to increased fatty acid uptake by the liver. PMID:26083030

  20. Antibacterial free fatty acids: activities, mechanisms of action and biotechnological potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Desbois; Valerie J. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the diverse and potent biological activities of free fatty acids (FFAs) is the ability to kill or inhibit the growth\\u000a of bacteria. The antibacterial properties of FFAs are used by many organisms to defend against parasitic or pathogenic bacteria.\\u000a Whilst their antibacterial mode of action is still poorly understood, the prime target of FFA action is the cell membrane,

  1. Antagonistic effect of fat on the antibotulinal activity of food preservatives and fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen A Glass; Eric A Johnson

    2004-01-01

    The effect of fat on the antibotulinal activity of 11 food preservatives, 12 free fatty acids, and nine lots of enzyme-modified cheese (EMC) was evaluated in a media system. Anhydrous milkfat or soybean oil was added to tubes of Trypticase–peptone–glucose–yeast extract medium (TPGY) supplemented with the additives (final pH adjusted to 5.9). Treatments were inoculated with 3-log10 proteolytic Clostridium botulinumspores\\/ml

  2. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the fermented milks obtained from three different species were evaluated. Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH assay showed activity in probiotic fermented milk obtained from all the products being highest in goat milk (93 %) followed by product from camel milk (86 %) and then product from cow milk (79 %). The composition of beneficial fatty acids such as stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were higher in fermented milk than the unfermented ones. Results suggested that probiotic bacteria are able to utilize the nutrients in goat and camel milk more efficiently compared to cow milk. Increase in antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milks enhances the therapeutic value of the products. PMID:25477694

  3. Synthesis of Fatty Acids by Yeast Particles

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Harold P.

    1966-01-01

    Klein, Harold P. (Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.). Synthesis of fatty acids by yeast particles. J. Bacteriol. 92:130–135. 1966.—When a mitochondria-free homogenate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was centrifuged at 100,000 × g for 60 min, the sedimented crude particles incorporated acetate into fatty acids, but not into nonsaponifiable lipids. Degradation of the fatty acids formed indicated this to be de novo synthesis rather than chain elongation. Subfractions of the crude particles were obtained. The “ribosomal” fraction was unable to synthesize fatty acids, but had properties indicating the presence of acetokinase, fatty acid desaturase, and, probably, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. A “light” particle fraction with a high specific activity of fatty acid synthetase was also obtained. Fatty acid synthesis by the “soluble” supernatant fluid appeared to be the result of contamination by the “light” particles. The data suggested the presence of several particulate entities in mitochondria-free homogenates. PMID:5941271

  4. Human dendritic cell activities are modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, mainly through PPAR :RXR heterodimers: comparison with other polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Zapata-Gonzalez; Felix Rueda; Jordi Petriz; Pere Domingo; Francesc Villarroya; Julieta Diaz-Delfin; Maria A. de Madariaga; Joan C. Domingo

    2008-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that omega-3 fatty acids may modulate immune re- sponses. When monocytes were differentiated to den- dritic cells (DCs) in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the expression of costimulatory and an- tigen presentation markers was altered in a concen- tration-dependent way, positively or negatively, de- pending on the markers tested and the maturation stage of the

  5. TR4 promotes fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by activation of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Seung-Jin; Choi, Hojung; Chang, Chawnshang; Kim, Eungseok

    2014-11-01

    We show that testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) increases the expression of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by direct binding to a TR4 responsive element in the murine PC promoter. While TR4 overexpression increased PC activity, oxaloacetate (OAA) and glycerol levels with enhanced incorporation of (14)C from (14)C-pyruvate into fatty acids in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, PC knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA) or inhibition of PC activity by phenylacetic acid (PAA) abolished TR4-enhanced fatty acid synthesis. Moreover, TR4 microRNA reduced PC expression with decreased fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that TR4-mediated enhancement of fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes requires increased expression of PC gene. PMID:25240193

  6. Mechanism by Which Fatty Acids Inhibit Insulin Activation of Insulin Receptor Substrate1 (IRS-1)-associated Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase Activity in Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunli Yu; Yan Chen; Gary W. Cline; Dongyan Zhang; Haihong Zong; Yanlin Wang; Raynald Bergeron; Jason K. Kim; Samuel W. Cushman; Gregory J. Cooney; Bronwyn Atcheson; Morris F. White; Edward W. Kraegen; Gerald I. Shulman

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that fatty acids in- duce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by blocking insulin activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS- 1)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-ki- nase). To examine the mechanism by which fatty acids mediate this effect, rats were infused with either a lipid emulsion (consisting mostly of 18:2 fatty acids) or glyc- erol. Intracellular C18:2 CoA increased

  7. Stimulation of the activities of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes by dietary fat rich in a-linolenic acid in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ide; Masakazu Murata; Michihiro Suganot

    The activities of hepatic fatty acid oxidation en- zymes in rats fed perilla oil rich in a-linolenic acid (a-18:3) were compared with those fed saturated fats or safflower oil (the mixture of safflower oil and olive oil, 94:8, w\\/w) contain- ing the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids with perilla oil exclusively as linoleic acid (18:2). When the rats were

  8. An active site mutant of Escherichia coli cyclopropane fatty acid synthase forms new non-natural fatty acids providing insights on the mechanism of the enzymatic reaction.

    PubMed

    E, Guangqi; Drujon, Thierry; Correia, Isabelle; Ploux, Olivier; Guianvarc'h, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    We have produced and purified an active site mutant of the Escherichia coli cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (CFAS) by replacing the strictly conserved G236 within cyclopropane synthases, by a glutamate residue, which corresponds to E146 of the homologous mycolic acid methyltransferase, Hma, producing hydroxymethyl mycolic acids. The G236E CFAS mutant had less than 1% of the in vitro activity of the wild type enzyme. We expressed the G236E CFAS mutant in an E. coli (DE3) strain in which the chromosomal cfa gene had been deleted. After extraction of phospholipids and conversion into the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), we observed the formation of cyclopropanated FAMEs suggesting that the mutant retained some of the normal activity in vivo. However, we also observed the formation of new C17 methyl-branched unsaturated FAMEs whose structures were determined using GC/MS and NMR analyses. The double bond was located at different positions 8, 9 or 10, and the methyl group at position 10 or 9. Thus, this new FAMEs are likely arising from a 16:1 acyl chain of a phospholipid that had been transformed by the G236E CFAS mutant in vivo. The reaction catalyzed by this G236E CFAS mutant thus starts by the methylation of the unsaturated acyl chain at position 10 or 9 yielding a carbocation at position 9 or 10 respectively. It follows then two competing steps, a normal cyclopropanation or hydride shift/elimination events giving different combinations of alkenes. This study not only provides further evidence that cyclopropane synthases (CSs) form a carbocationic intermediate but also opens the way to CSs engineering for the synthesis of non-natural fatty acids. PMID:23954860

  9. Chylomicron particle size and number, factor VII activation and dietary monounsaturated fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Renuka R Silva; Colette N. M Kelly; Amanda E Jones; Ruth D Smith; Stephen A Wootton; George J Miller; Christine M Williams

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) on postprandial chylomicron (triacylglycerol (TAG), apolipoprotein B-48 (apo B-48) and retinyl ester (RE)), chylomicron particle size and factor VII (FVII) response when subjects were given a standard meal. In a controlled sequential design, 51 healthy young subjects followed an SFA-rich diet (Reference diet)

  10. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  11. Fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ?- and ?-mediated gene expression via liver fatty acid binding protein: A signaling path to the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Christian; Borrmann, Carola M.; Börchers, Torsten; Spener, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes and target for fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs. How these signaling molecules reach the nuclear receptor is not known; however, similarities in ligand specificity suggest the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) as a possible candidate. In localization studies using laser-scanning microscopy, we show that L-FABP and PPAR? colocalize in the nucleus of mouse primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate by pull-down assay and immunocoprecipitation that L-FABP interacts directly with PPAR?. In a cell biological approach with the aid of a mammalian two-hybrid system, we provide evidence that L-FABP interacts with PPAR? and PPAR? but not with PPAR? and retinoid X receptor-? by protein–protein contacts. In addition, we demonstrate that the observed interaction of both proteins is independent of ligand binding. Final and quantitative proof for L-FABP mediation was obtained in transactivation assays upon incubation of transiently and stably transfected HepG2 cells with saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as with hypolipidemic drugs. With all ligands applied, we observed strict correlation of PPAR? and PPAR? transactivation with intracellular concentrations of L-FABP. This correlation constitutes a nucleus-directed signaling by fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs where L-FABP acts as a cytosolic gateway for these PPAR? and PPAR? agonists. Thus, L-FABP and the respective PPARs could serve as targets for nutrients and drugs to affect expression of PPAR-sensitive genes. PMID:11226238

  12. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-immune diseases or degenerative neurologic diseases. PUFAs are used for metabolic syndrome related with obesity or diabetes. However, there are several considerations related with intake of PUFAs. Obsession with the intake of unsaturated fatty acids could bring about the shortage of essential fatty acids that are crucial for our body, weaken the immune system, and increase the risk of heart disease, arrhythmia, and stroke. In this review, we discuss types, physiologic mechanism of action of PUFAs, intake of PUFAs for children, recommended intake of PUFAs, and considerations for the intake of PUFAs. PMID:24224148

  13. Comparative effects of perilla and fish oils on the activity and gene expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rat liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ide; Hideyuki Kobayashi; Lakshmikuttyamma Ashakumary; Isabelle A. Rouyer; Yoko Takahashi; Toshifumi Aoyama; Takashi Hashimoto; Michinao Mizugaki

    2000-01-01

    The activity and mRNA level of hepatic enzymes in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were compared in rats fed diets containing either 15% saturated fat (palm oil), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, perilla oil rich in ?-linolenic acid or fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) for 15 days. The mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate was

  14. Regulatory Activity of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in T-Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wooki; Khan, Naim A.; McMurray, David N.; Prior, Ian A.; Wang, Naisyin; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are considered to be authentic immunosuppressors and appear to exert beneficial effects with respect to certain immune-mediated diseases. In addition to promoting T-helper 1 (Th1) cell to T-helper 2 (Th2) cell effector T-cell differentiation, n-3 PUFA may also exert anti-inflammatory actions by inducing apoptosis in Th1 cells. With respect to mechanisms of action, effects range from the modulation of membrane receptors to gene transcription via perturbation of a number of second messenger cascades. In this review, the putative targets of anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFA, activated during early and late events of T-cell activation will be discussed. Studies have demonstrated that these fatty acids alter plasma membrane micro-organization (lipid rafts) at the immunological synapse, the site where T-cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) form a physical contact for antigen initiated T-cell signaling. In addition, the production of diacylglycerol and the activation of different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), calcium signaling, and nuclear translocation/activation of transcriptional factors, can be modulated by n-3 PUFA. Advantages and limitations of diverse methodologies to study the membrane lipid raft hypothesis, as well as apparent contradictions regarding the effect of n-3 PUFA on lipid rafts will be critically presented. PMID:20176053

  15. Inhibitory activities of omega-3 Fatty acids and traditional african remedies on keloid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Olaitan, Peter B; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E C; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M; Reichenberger, Ernst J

    2011-04-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies-boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter-leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world. PMID:24489452

  16. Inhibitory Activities of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Traditional African Remedies on Keloid Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Olaitan, Peter B.; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E.C.; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M.; Reichenberger, Ernst J.

    2012-01-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies—boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter—leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world. PMID:24489452

  17. Fatty acid signaling in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward E. Farmer; Hans Weber; Sabine Vollenweider

    1998-01-01

    .   Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have\\u000a established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly\\u000a derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a vital role in the discovery of fatty acid-derived signal

  18. Modulation of purified murine T cell subset activation by dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids 

    E-print Network

    Arrington, Jennifer L

    2000-01-01

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to reduce inflammation in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The present studies sought to elucidate mechanisms whereby n-3 PUFAs downregulate T cell proliferation and affect CD4 and CD8...

  19. Clavulones and related tert-hydroxycyclopentenone fatty acids: occurrence, physiological activity and problem of biogenetic origin.

    PubMed

    Grechkin, A N

    1995-05-01

    The present review is concerned with a group of prostanoids from soft corals, namely, clavulones and their congeners, as well as with related octadecanoids found in plants of the genus Chromolaena (Compositae). Known physiological properties of these prostaglandin-like fatty acids are discussed. Special attention is paid to published hypotheses on the biogenetic origin of clavulones and related fatty acids. According to a newly proposed biosynthetic route, acyclic alpha-ketols are metabolic precursors of cyclopentenolones. PMID:7551677

  20. Continuous volatile fatty acid production from waste activated sludge hydrolyzed at pH 12.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Du, Maoan; Pan, Xiangliang; Wan, Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study adopted rapid alkaline treatment at pH 12 to hydrolyze 66% of total chemical oxygen demands. Then the hydrolyzed liquor was fermented in a continuous-flow stirred reactor to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at 8-h hydraulic retention time and at 35 °C. The maximum VFA productivity reached 365 mg VFAs g(-1) volatile suspended solids in a 45-d operation, with most produced VFAs being acetate and propionate, principally produced by protein degradation. The Bacteroidia, ?-proteobacteria and the Clostridia were identified to be the classes correlating with the fermentation processes. The fermented liquor was applied to denitrifying phosphorus removal process as alternative carbon source after excess phosphorus and nitrogen being recycled via struvite precipitation. Fermented liquors from alkaline hydrolysis-acid fermentation on waste activated sludge are a potential renewable resource for applications that need organic carbons. PMID:24630368

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of fatty acid amides on the N-oleoylethanolamide-like activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Noguchi, Kaori; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shirahata, Akira; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of fatty acid amides were synthesized and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) agonistic activities were evaluated in a normal rat liver cell line, clone 9. The mRNAs of the PPAR-? downstream genes, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1 and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as PPAR-? agonistic activities. We prepared nine oleic acid amides. Their PPAR-? agonistic activities were, in decreasing order, N-oleoylhistamine (OLHA), N-oleoylglycine, Oleamide, N-oleoyltyramine, N-oleoylsertonin, and Olvanil. The highest activity was found with OLHA. We prepared and evaluated nine N-acylhistamines (N-acyl-HAs). Of these, OLHA, C16:0-HA, and C18:1?(9)-trans-HA showed similar activity. Activity due to the different chain length of the saturated fatty acid peaked at C16:0-HA. The PPAR-? antagonist, GW6471, inhibited the induction of the PPAR-? downstream genes by OLHA and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA). These data suggest that N-acyl-HAs could be considered new PPAR-? agonists. PMID:25832022

  2. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping

    E-print Network

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    ) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types and backgrounds were sampled. External fat samples were collected from eight different carcass locations: round, sirloin, loin, rib... was the lowest. Due to the significant differences amongst fat depots within bovine carcasses in their fatty acid composition we conclude that substantial differences exist across fat depots. v DEDICATION...

  3. Supplementation of omega 3 fatty acids improves oxidative stress in activated BV2 microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Lorenzo; Momo Dongmo, Bendjedith; Avallone, Rossella

    2015-05-01

    Many reports have shown promising beneficial effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (L-PUFAs) of the omega 3 series in several brain diseases. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that omega 3 fatty acids supplement reduced pro-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that a supplement rich in PUFAs (SRP) increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner suggesting its protective role against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell death in BV2 microglial cell line. In the same cultures, the supplement rich in PUFAs reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production. A most prominent target for ROS management is the family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The co-treatment with SRP and LPS increased significantly the nuclear immunoreactivity of PPAR-?when compared the LPS treatment alone. Moreover, the chronic administration of the SRP in rats, increased the immunoreactivity of the PPAR-?1 protein confirming its potential neuroprotective effect. PMID:25582176

  4. AMPK activation promotes lipid droplet dispersion on detyrosinated microtubules to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Herms, Albert; Bosch, Marta; Reddy, Babu J.N.; Schieber, Nicole L.; Fajardo, Alba; Rupérez, Celia; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Ferguson, Charles; Rentero, Carles; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Parton, Robert G.; Gross, Steven P.; Pol, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that provide fatty acids (FAs) to cellular processes including synthesis of membranes and production of metabolic energy. While known to move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs), the role of LD motion and whether it facilitates interaction with other organelles are unclear. Here we show that during nutrient starvation, LDs and mitochondria relocate on detyrosinated MT from the cell centre to adopt a dispersed distribution. In the cell periphery, LD–mitochondria interactions increase and LDs efficiently supply FAs for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. This cellular adaptation requires the activation of the energy sensor AMPK, which in response to starvation simultaneously increases LD motion, reorganizes the network of detyrosinated MTs and activates mitochondria. In conclusion, we describe the existence of a specialized cellular network connecting the cellular energetic status and MT dynamics to coordinate the functioning of LDs and mitochondria during nutrient scarcity. PMID:26013497

  5. AMPK activation promotes lipid droplet dispersion on detyrosinated microtubules to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Herms, Albert; Bosch, Marta; Reddy, Babu J N; Schieber, Nicole L; Fajardo, Alba; Rupérez, Celia; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Ferguson, Charles; Rentero, Carles; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Parton, Robert G; Gross, Steven P; Pol, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that provide fatty acids (FAs) to cellular processes including synthesis of membranes and production of metabolic energy. While known to move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs), the role of LD motion and whether it facilitates interaction with other organelles are unclear. Here we show that during nutrient starvation, LDs and mitochondria relocate on detyrosinated MT from the cell centre to adopt a dispersed distribution. In the cell periphery, LD-mitochondria interactions increase and LDs efficiently supply FAs for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. This cellular adaptation requires the activation of the energy sensor AMPK, which in response to starvation simultaneously increases LD motion, reorganizes the network of detyrosinated MTs and activates mitochondria. In conclusion, we describe the existence of a specialized cellular network connecting the cellular energetic status and MT dynamics to coordinate the functioning of LDs and mitochondria during nutrient scarcity. PMID:26013497

  6. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through ?-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

  7. Isolation and identification of C-19 fatty acids with anti-tumor activity from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom).

    PubMed

    Gao, Pei; Hirano, Tomoya; Chen, Zhiqing; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Sugimoto, Akiko

    2012-04-01

    We previously showed that ethanolic extracts of spores of Ganoderma lucidum inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells. The active constituents appeared to be long-chain fatty acids, particularly carbon-19 (C-19) fatty acids which have not been reported in spores of Ganoderma lucidum. In the present study, two of these C-19 fatty acids which are key compounds in the activities, were identified as their 2-naphthyl ester derivatives after esterification of a mixture of fatty acids obtained from the spores. The active compounds were determines as nonadecanoic acid and cis-9-nonadecenoic acid. The location of the double bond of cis-9-nonadecenoic acid was demonstrated by GC-MS analysis, based on the fragmentation pattern of the adduct prepared from the fatty acid and dimethyl disulfide. PMID:22230194

  8. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF1?). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1? knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1? as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  9. Mangiferin Decreases Plasma Free Fatty Acids through Promoting Its Catabolism in Liver by Activation of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yucun; Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW) decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG) levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the ?-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L) to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism. PMID:22292039

  10. Synthesis of Phenoxyacyl-Ethanolamides and Their Effects on Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Lionel; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Hwang, Hyeondo; Montgomery, Christa L.; Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; John, George; Koulen, Peter; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Chapman, Kent D.

    2014-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are involved in numerous biological activities in plant and animal systems. The metabolism of these lipids by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a key regulatory point in NAE signaling activity. Several active site-directed inhibitors of FAAH have been identified, but few compounds have been described that enhance FAAH activity. Here we synthesized two sets of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides from natural products, 3-n-pentadecylphenolethanolamide and cardanolethanolamide, with structural similarity to NAEs and characterized their effects on the hydrolytic activity of FAAH. Both compounds increased the apparent Vmax of recombinant FAAH proteins from both plant (Arabidopsis) and mammalian (Rattus) sources. These NAE-like compounds appeared to act by reducing the negative feedback regulation of FAAH activity by free ethanolamine. Both compounds added to seedlings relieved, in part, the negative growth effects of exogenous NAE12:0. Cardanolethanolamide reduced neuronal viability and exacerbated oxidative stress-mediated cell death in primary cultured neurons at nanomolar concentrations. This was reversed by FAAH inhibitors or exogenous NAE substrate. Collectively, our data suggest that these phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides act to enhance the activity of FAAH and may stimulate the turnover of NAEs in vivo. Hence, these compounds might be useful pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH-mediated regulation of NAE signaling in plants or animals. PMID:24558037

  11. The profile of fatty acids in frontal cortex of rats depends on the type of fat used in the diet and correlates with neuropeptidase activities.

    PubMed

    Segarra, A B; Ruiz-Sanz, J I; Ruiz-Larrea, M B; Ramírez-Sánchez, M; de Gasparo, M; Banegas, I; Martínez-Cañamero, M; Vives, F; Prieto, I

    2011-02-01

    The kind of fat in the diet modifies the profile of fatty acids in brain and also affects aminopeptidase activities in tissues. Although modifications in brain fatty acids, neurotransmitters, or enzymes due to dietary fat composition have been reported, no direct relationship has yet been described between specific brain fatty acid changes and neuropeptide metabolism following the fat composition of the diet. We investigated the lipid profile and some neuropeptidase activities in the frontal cortex of adult male rats after a period in which diets were supplemented with fatty acids differing in their degrees of saturation such as fish oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFAs), olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, MUFAs), and coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids, SAFAs). It is observed that the diet composition affects fatty acid distribution in the brain. Although there is no change of global aminopeptidase/neuropeptidase, their activities in the brain correlate positively or negatively with the dietary fat composition. It is hypothesized that fatty acid in the diet modifies membrane fluidity, peptidases tertiary structure, and therefore, the availability and function of neuropeptides. The present results support the notion that cognitive functions may be modulated depending on the type of fat used in the diet. PMID:21120792

  12. A FAD2 homologue from Lesquerella lindheimeri has predominantly fatty acid hydroxylase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie Dauk; Patricia Lam; Ljerka Kunst; Mark A. Smith

    2007-01-01

    A genomic sequence encoding a polypeptide with 91% sequence identity to the Lesquerella fendleri bifunctional oleate 12-hydroxylase:desaturase was amplified by PCR from Lesquerella lindheimeri. Expression of the gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the synthesis of ricinoleic acid and very low levels of di-unsaturated fatty acids. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the L. lindheimeri and castor

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Desbois, Andrew P.; Lawlor, Keelan C.

    2013-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32–1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15–30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. PMID:24232668

  14. FATTY ACIDS MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 ACTIVATION THROUGH REGULATION OF RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND RECRUITMENT INTO LIPID RAFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies (J Biol Chem 2003, 2004) demonstrated that saturated ...

  15. Intestinal metabolism of fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Enser, M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The effect of concentration on the oxidation and incorporation into lipids of lauric acid and linoleic acid by rings of rat small intestine has been studied in vitro. 2. In the absence of glucose, the oxidation of lauric acid in the range 0·01–5·0mm showed a maximum at 0·1mm. In the presence of glucose the maximum was at 0·5mm. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the presence of glucose increased throughout the concentration range 0·01–5·0mm. 3. The incorporation of lauric acid into lipids was maximal at 0·5–0·6mm in the presence of glucose, but at 10mm in the absence of glucose. At 0·8mm-lauric acid, in the presence of glucose, over 75% of the incorporated lauric acid was in triglycerides, but at 10mm they only contained 30%. The incorporation of glucose carbon into glycerides paralleled the incorporation of lauric acid. 4. In the range 0·01–2·5mm-linoleic acid the quantity incorporated into lipids increased. In the range 0·01–0·4mm linoleic acid was incorporated predominantly into triglycerides, but between 0·4 and 1·0mm most was in diglycerides, and between 2·5 and 5·0mm most was in monoglycerides. 5. The relationship of fatty acid concentration to the mechanism of absorption is discussed, together with the correlation between the distribution of the absorbed fatty acids within the tissue lipids and the lipase activity of intestinal mucosa. PMID:5837779

  16. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  17. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Bourre

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant.

  18. Purification and characterization of a fatty acid-activated protein kinase (PKN) from rat testis.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, M; Mukai, H; Shibata, H; Ono, Y

    1995-09-01

    PKN, a novel protein kinase with a catalytic domain homologous to that of the protein kinase C (PKC) family and unique N-terminal leucine-zipper-like sequences, was identified by molecular cloning from a human hippocampus cDNA library [Mukai and Ono (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199, 897-904]. Recently we partially purified recombinant PKN from COS7 cells transfected with the cDNA construct encoding human PKN, and demonstrated that the recombinant PKN was activated by unsaturated fatty acids and limited proteolysis [Mukai, Kitagawa, Shibata et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 204, 348-356]. The present work has focused on the further purification and characterization of PKN from native rat tissue. Immunochemical measurement revealed that PKN was found in every tissue, and was especially abundant in testis, spleen and brain; subcellular fractionation of rat brain showed that half of the PKN was localized in the soluble cytosolic fraction. PKN was purified approx. 8000-fold to apparent homogeneity from the cytosolic fraction of rat testis by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, ammonium sulphate fractionation and chromatography on butyl-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, Mono Q and protamine-CH-Sepharose. The enzyme migrates as a band of apparent molecular mass 120 kDa. Using serine-containing peptides based on the pseudosubstrate sequence of PKC-delta as phosphate acceptors, the kinase activity was stimulated several-fold by 40 microM unsaturated fatty acids or by detergents such as 0.04% sodium deoxycholate and 0.004% SDS. In the absence of modifiers, protamine sulphate, myelin basic protein and synthetic peptides based on the pseudosubstrate site of PKCs or ribosomal S6 protein were good substrates for phosphorylation by the kinase. In the presence of 40 microM arachidonic acid the kinase activity of PKN for these phosphate acceptors was increased 2-18-fold. The autophosphorylation activity of purified PKN was partially inhibited by pretreatment with alkaline phosphatase. These properties appear to distinguish PKN from many protein kinases isolated previously. PMID:7654208

  19. Ligand-activated PPAR?-dependent DNA demethylation regulates the fatty acid ?-oxidation genes in the postnatal liver.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Tatsuya; Kamei, Yasutomi; Yuan, Xunmei; Takahashi, Mayumi; Kanai, Sayaka; Tamura, Erina; Tsujimoto, Kazutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Shimano, Hitoshi; Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Hatada, Izuho; Suganami, Takayoshi; Hashimoto, Koshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    The metabolic function of the liver changes sequentially during early life in mammals to adapt to the marked changes in nutritional environment. Accordingly, hepatic fatty acid ?-oxidation is activated after birth to produce energy from breast milk lipids. However, how it is induced during the neonatal period is poorly understood. Here we show DNA demethylation and increased mRNA expression of the fatty acid ?-oxidation genes in the postnatal mouse liver. The DNA demethylation does not occur in the fetal mouse liver under the physiologic condition, suggesting that it is specific to the neonatal period. Analysis of mice deficient in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and maternal administration of a PPAR? ligand during the gestation and lactation periods reveal that the DNA demethylation is PPAR? dependent. We also find that DNA methylation of the fatty acid ?-oxidation genes are reduced in the adult human liver relative to the fetal liver. This study represents the first demonstration that the ligand-activated PPAR?-dependent DNA demethylation regulates the hepatic fatty acid ?-oxidation genes during the neonatal period, thereby highlighting the role of a lipid-sensing nuclear receptor in the gene- and life-stage-specific DNA demethylation of a particular metabolic pathway. PMID:25311726

  20. Capsaicin, nonivamide and trans-pellitorine decrease free fatty acid uptake without TRPV1 activation and increase acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rohm, Barbara; Riedel, Annett; Ley, Jakob P; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Red pepper and its major pungent component, capsaicin, have been associated with hypolipidemic effects in rats, although mechanistic studies on the effects of capsaicin and/or structurally related compounds on lipid metabolism are scarce. In this work, the effects of capsaicin and its structural analog nonivamide, the aliphatic alkamide trans-pellitorine and vanillin as the basic structural element of all vanilloids on the mechanisms of intestinal fatty acid uptake in differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells were studied. Capsaicin and nonivamide were found to reduce fatty acid uptake, with IC50 values of 0.49 ?M and 1.08 ?M, respectively. trans-Pellitorine was shown to reduce fatty acid uptake by 14.0±2.14% at 100 ?M, whereas vanillin was not effective, indicating a pivotal role of the alkyl chain with the acid amide group in fatty acid uptake by Caco-2 cells. This effect was associated neither with the activation of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) nor with effects on paracellular transport or glucose uptake. However, acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity increased (p<0.05) in the presence of 10 ?M capsaicin, nonivamide or trans-pellitorine, pointing to an increased fatty acid biosynthesis that might counteract the decreased fatty acid uptake. PMID:25422952

  1. Activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) promotes fatty acid oxidation through the SIRT1/PGC-1? pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xuqin [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China); Sun, Tao [Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China)] [Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdwang666@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •TC, a CB2R specific agonist, stimulates SIRT1 activity by PKA/CREB pathway. •TC promotes PGC-1? transcriptional activity by increasing its deacetylation. •TC increases the expression of genes linked to FAO and promotes the rate of FAO. •The effects of TC in FAO are dependent on CB2R. •Suggesting CB2R as a target to treat diseases with lipid dysregulation. -- Abstract: Abnormal fatty acid oxidation has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. At the transcriptional level, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) has been reported to strongly increase the ability of hormone nuclear receptors PPAR? and ERR? to drive transcription of fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In this study, we report that a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) can lead to fatty acid oxidation through the PGC-1? pathway. We have found that CB2R is expressed in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, and that use of the specific agonist trans-caryophyllene (TC) stimulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity by increasing the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), thus leading to increased levels of PGC-1? deacetylation. This use of TC treatment increases the expression of genes linked to the fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1/PGC-1?-dependent mechanism and also drastically accelerates the rate of complete fatty acid oxidation in C2C12 myotubes, neither of which occur when CB2R mRNA is knocked down using siRNA. These results reveal that activation of CB2R by a selective agonist promotes lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Our findings imply that pharmacological manipulation of CB2R may provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

  2. Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids Regulate Gene Expression through Direct Interactions with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors alpha and gamma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Kliewer; Scott S. Sundseth; Stacey A. Jones; Peter J. Brown; G. Bruce Wisely; Cecilia S. Koble; Pallavi Devchand; Walter Wahli; Timothy M. Willson; James M. Lenhard; Jurgen M. Lehmann

    1997-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha and gamma are key regulators of lipid homeostasis and are activated by a structurally diverse group of compounds including fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones. While thiazolidinediones and 15-deoxy-Delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 have been shown to bind to PPARgamma , it has remained unclear whether other activators mediate their effects through

  3. Biological denitrification of brine: the effect of compatible solutes on enzyme activities and fatty acid degradation.

    PubMed

    Cyplik, Pawe?; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Czarny, Jakub; Drozdzy?ska, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, ?ukasz

    2012-09-01

    The effect of the addition of compatible solutes (ectoine and trehalose) on the denitrification process of saline wastewater was studied. In saline wastewater, it was observed that the initial concentration of nitrates was 500 mg N l?¹. A fatty substance isolated from oiled bleaching earth (waste of vegetable oil refining process) was used as a source of carbon.The consortium, which was responsible for the denitrification process originated from the wastewater of the vegetable oil industry. The consortium of microorganisms was identified by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and sequencing techniques. It was noted that ectoine affects significantly the activity of lipase and nitrate reductase, and resulted in faster denitrification compared to saline wastewater with the addition of trehalose or control saline wastewater (without compatible solutes). It was observed that relative enzyme activities of lipase and nitrate reductase increased by 32 and 35%, respectively, in the presence of 1 mM ectoine. This resulted in an increase in specific nitrate reduction rate in the presence of 1 mM ectoine to 5.7 mg N g?¹ VSS h?¹, which was higher than in the absence of ectoine (3.2 mg N g?¹ VSS h?¹). The addition of trehalose did not have an effect on nitrate removals. Moreover, it was found that trehalose was used up completely by bacteria as a source of carbon in the denitrification process. The fatty acids were biodegraded by 74% in the presence of 1 mM ectoine. PMID:22286267

  4. Cellular fatty acid analysis as a potential tool for predicting mosquitocidal activity of Bacillus sphaericus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Frachon, E; Hamon, S; Nicolas, L; de Barjac, H

    1991-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters and numerical analysis were carried out with 114 Bacillus sphaericus strains. Since only two clusters harbored mosquitocidal strains, this technique could be developed in screening programs to limit bioassays on mosquito larvae. It also allows differentiation of highly homologous strains. PMID:1781697

  5. Mutations in the fatty acid elongation 1 gene are associated with a loss of ?-ketoacyl-CoA synthase activity in low erucic acid rapeseed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J Roscoe; R Lessire; J Puyaubert; M Renard; M Delseny

    2001-01-01

    Low erucic acid rapeseed (LEAR) is characterised by a near absence of very long chain fatty acids in the seed oil which has been correlated with a lack of acyl-CoA elongation activity. Here we show that the absence of acyl-CoA and ATP-dependent elongation activities in microsomes isolated from LEAR embryos is associated with an absence of ?-ketoacyl-CoA synthase activity encoded

  6. Structural requirements for charged lipid molecules to directly increase or suppress K+ channel activity in smooth muscle cells. Effects of fatty acids, lysophosphatidate, acyl coenzyme A and sphingosine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Petrou; Richard W. Ordway; James A. Hamilton; John V. Walsh; Joshua J. Singer

    1994-01-01

    We determined the structural features necessary for fatty acids to exert their action on K+ channels of gastric smooth muscle cells. Examination of the effects of a variety of synthetic and naturally occurring lipid compounds on K+ channel activity in cell-attached and excised membrane patches revealed that negatively charged analogs of medium to long chain fatty acids (but not short

  7. Directed tagging of the Arabidopsis FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene with the maize transposon activator.

    PubMed Central

    James, D W; Lim, E; Keller, J; Plooy, I; Ralston, E; Dooner, H K

    1995-01-01

    The FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene of Arabidopsis is required for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids in the seed. The product of the FAE1 gene is presumed to be a condensing enzyme that extends the chain length of fatty acids from C18 to C20 and C22. We report here the cloning of FAE1 by directed transposon tagging with the maize element Activator (Ac). An unstable fae1 mutant was isolated in a line carrying Ac linked to the FAE1 locus on chromosome 4. Cosegregation and reversion analyses established that the new mutant was tagged by Ac. A DNA fragment flanking Ac was cloned by inverse polymerase chain reaction and used to isolate FAE1 genomic clones and a cDNA clone from a library made from immature siliques. The predicted amino acid sequence of the FAE1 protein shares homology with those of other condensing enzymes (chalcone synthase, stilbene synthases, and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III), supporting the notion that FAE1 is the structural gene for a synthase or condensing enzyme. FAE1 is expressed in developing seed, but not in leaves, as expected from the effect of the fae1 mutation on the fatty acid compositions of those tissues. PMID:7734965

  8. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p < 0.05). The oil yield was 6.58-7.17% which contained predominantly unsaturated fatty acids (89.42%). The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid was ca. 6/1. The total tocopherol content ranged from 37.49 to 59.82 ?g/g and mainly consisted of ?-tocopherol. Trace amount of ?- and ?-tocotrienols was also found. Black quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols. PMID:25529712

  9. Structural Basis for Activation of Fatty Acid-binding Protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Gillilan,R.; Ayers, S.; Noy, N.

    2007-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) delivers ligands from the cytosol to the nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma} in the nucleus, thereby enhancing the transcriptional activity of the receptor. Notably, FABP4 binds multiple ligands with a similar affinity but its nuclear translocation is activated only by specific compounds. To gain insight into the structural features that underlie the ligand-specificity in activation of the nuclear import of FABP4, we solved the crystal structures of the protein complexed with two compounds that induce its nuclear translocation, and compared these to the apo-protein and to FABP4 structures bound to non-activating ligands. Examination of these structures indicates that activation coincides with closure of a portal loop phenylalanine side-chain, contraction of the binding pocket, a subtle shift in a helical domain containing the nuclear localization signal of the protein, and a resultant change in oligomeric state that exposes the nuclear localization signal to the solution. Comparisons of backbone displacements induced by activating ligands with a measure of mobility derived from translation, libration, screw (TLS) refinement, and with a composite of slowest normal modes of the apo state suggest that the helical motion associated with the activation of the protein is part of the repertoire of the equilibrium motions of the apo-protein, i.e. that ligand binding does not induce the activated configuration but serves to stabilize it. Nuclear import of FABP4 can thus be understood in terms of the pre-existing equilibrium hypothesis of ligand binding.

  10. Total dietary fat and fatty acid content modifies plasma phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity indices, and urinary prostaglandin E in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to diets high in fat, low fat diets are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that a low fat (LF; 20% fat) and a low fat high omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid diet (LFn3; 23% fat with 3% as ALA, EPA and DHA) would enhance n-3 composition of PLFA and reduce urinary ...

  11. Ceramide-Activated Phosphatase Mediates Fatty Acid–Induced Endothelial VEGF Resistance and Impaired Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Vishal C.; Jackson, Elias; Zhang, Xian M.; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Dobrucki, Lawrence W.; Yu, Jun; Bernatchez, Pascal; Sinusas, Albert J.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Sessa, William C.; Yarovinsky, Timur O.; Bender, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, including endothelial hyporesponsiveness to prototypical angiogenic growth factors and eNOS agonists, underlies vascular pathology in many dysmetabolic states. We investigated effects of a saturated free fatty acid, palmitic acid (PA), on endothelial cell responses to VEGF. PA-pretreated endothelial cells had markedly diminished Akt, eNOS, and ERK activation responses to VEGF, despite normal VEGFR2 phosphorylation. PA inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic cord formation in Matrigel, and PA-treated endothelial cells accumulated early species (C16) ceramide. The serine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor myriocin reversed these defects. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) became more eNOS-associated in PA-treated cells; the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid reversed PA-induced signaling defects. Mice fed a diet high in saturated fat for 2 to 3 weeks had impaired i) aortic Akt and eNOS phosphorylation to infused VEGF, ii) ear angiogenic responses to intradermal adenoviral-VEGF injection, and iii) vascular flow recovery to hindlimb ischemia as indicated by laser Doppler and ?V?3 SPECT imaging. High-fat feeding did not impair VEGF-induced signaling or angiogenic responses in mice with reduced serine palmitoyltransferase expression. Thus, de novo ceramide synthesis is required for these detrimental PA effects. The findings demonstrate an endothelial VEGF resistance mechanism conferred by PA, which comprises ceramide-induced, PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of critical activation sites on enzymes central to vascular homeostasis and angiogenesis. This study defines potential molecular targets for preservation of endothelial function in metabolic syndrome. PMID:24606881

  12. Biological Control of Phytopathogenic Fungi by Fatty Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siyun Liu; Weibin Ruan; Jing Li; Hua Xu; Jingan Wang; Yubao Gao; Jingguo Wang

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of fatty acids against phytopathogenic fungi. Two pot\\u000a experiments were conducted by mixing palmitic and oleic acids in the soil in which poor plant growth was observed. In addition,\\u000a the antifungal activities of nine fatty acids (butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic\\u000a acid,

  13. Insulin inhibition of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in the heart results in activation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase and inhibition of fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gamble, J; Lopaschuk, G D

    1997-11-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) is an important regulator of fatty acid oxidation in the heart, since it produces malonyl CoA, a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid uptake. Under conditions of metabolic stress, 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is highly expressed in cardiac muscle, can phosphorylate and decrease ACC activity. In this study, we determined if fatty acid oxidation in the heart could be regulated by insulin, due to alterations in AMPK regulation of ACC activity. Isolated working rat hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 11 mmol/L glucose, 0.4 mmol/L [9,10(-3)H]palmitate, and either 100 microU/mL insulin or 1,000 microU/mL insulin. Increasing insulin concentration resulted in a decrease in fatty acid oxidation rates (P < .05), a decrease in AMPK activity (P < .05), and an increase in ACC activity (P < .05) compared with the low-insulin group. A negative correlation was observed between AMPK and ACC activity (r = -.76). We conclude that insulin, acting through inhibition of AMPK and stimulation of ACC, is capable of inhibiting myocardial fatty acid oxidation. PMID:9361684

  14. Modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, platelet aggregation and serum prostaglandins in rats fed spray-dried milk containing n-3 fatty acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Ramaprasad; V. Baskaran; T. P. Krishnakantha; B. R. Lokesh

    2005-01-01

    Spray-dried milk enriched with n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil (LSO) or fish oil (FO) were fed to rats to study its influence on liver lipid peroxides, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, serum prostaglandins and platelet aggregation. Significant level of ? linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were accumulated at the expense of arachidonic acid in the liver of rats

  15. Fatty acid remodeling in cellular glycerophospholipids following the activation of human T cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Robichaud, Philippe Pierre; Boulay, Katherine; Munganyiki, Jean Éric; Surette, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in fatty acid (FA) and glycerophospholipid (GPL) metabolism associated with cell cycle entry are not fully understood. In this study FA-GPL remodeling was investigated in resting and proliferating primary human T cells. Significant changes were measured in the composition and distribution of FAs in GPLs following receptor activation of human T cells. The FA distribution of proliferating T cells was very similar to that of the human Jurkat T cell line and when the stimulus was removed from proliferating T cells, they stopped proliferating and the FA distribution largely reverted back to that of resting T cells. The cellular content of saturated and monounsaturated FAs was significantly increased in proliferating cells, which was associated with an induction of FA synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 gene expression. Additionally, cellular arachidonate was redistributed in GPLs in a distinct pattern that was unlike any other FAs. This redistribution was associated with an induction of CoA-dependent and CoA-independent remodeling. Accordingly, significant changes in the expression of several acyl-CoA synthetases, lysophospholipid acyltransferases, and phospholipase A2 were measured. Overall, these results suggest that metabolic pathways are activated in proliferating T cells that may represent fundamental changes associated with human cell proliferation. PMID:23894206

  16. Enhancement of E. coli acyl-CoA synthetase FadD activity on medium chain fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Way, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    FadD catalyses the first step in E. coli beta-oxidation, the activation of free fatty acids into acyl-CoA thioesters. This activation makes fatty acids competent for catabolism and reduction into derivatives like alcohols and alkanes. Alcohols and alkanes derived from medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 6–12 carbons) are potential biofuels; however, FadD has low activity on MCFAs. Herein, we generate mutations in fadD that enhance its acyl-CoA synthetase activity on MCFAs. Homology modeling reveals that these mutations cluster on a face of FadD from which the co-product, AMP, is expected to exit. Using FadD homology models, we design additional FadD mutations that enhance E. coli growth rate on octanoate and provide evidence for a model wherein FadD activity on octanoate can be enhanced by aiding product exit. These studies provide FadD mutants useful for producing MCFA derivatives and a rationale to alter the substrate specificity of adenylating enzymes. PMID:26157619

  17. Uptake of fatty acids by Mycoplasma capricolum.

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, J

    1988-01-01

    The energy requirements for fatty acid uptake by Mycoplasma capricolum were studied. Fatty acid transport and esterification to phospholipid appeared to be tightly coupled, since there was little intracellular accumulation of free fatty acid. Uptake was blocked by iodoacetate, n-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuribenzoate. Glucose, glycerol, and potassium ions were necessary for fatty acid uptake by whole cells. A reduction in uptake was observed in cells treated with valinomycin or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The effect of temperature on the rate of oleate uptake showed a discontinuity at 24 degrees C. Above 24 degrees C an energy of activation of 4.6 kcal (ca. 19.2 kJ)/mol was obtained. The data suggest that uptake of fatty acid by M. capricolum is an energy-linked, protein-mediated process. A membrane-bound enzyme activity that catalyzed the synthesis of fatty acyl-hydroxamate was demonstrated. This activity was virtually independent or only marginally dependent on coenzyme A, depending on the assay system, but was stimulated approximately twofold by ATP. PMID:2834319

  18. Non-esterified fatty acids increase arterial pressure via central sympathetic activation in humans.

    PubMed

    Florian, John P; Pawelczyk, James A

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute increases in plasma NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) raise SVR (systemic vascular resistance) and BP (blood pressure). However, these studies have failed to distinguish between CNS (central nervous system) mechanisms that raise sympathetic activity and paracrine mechanisms that increase SVR directly, independent of CNS involvement. The aim of the present study was to directly determine whether the sympathetic nervous system contributes to the pressor response to NEFAs. On 2 days separated by at least 2 weeks, 17 lean healthy volunteers (ten male/seven female; age, 22+/-1 years; body mass index, 23+/-1 kg/m2; values are means+/-S.E.M.) received a 4-h intravenous infusion of 20% Intralipid or placebo (in a single-blind randomized balanced order). MSNA (muscle sympathetic nerve activity), HR (heart rate), BP (oscillometric brachial measurement) and Q (cardiac output; acetylene rebreathing) were measured before and throughout infusion. The change in HR (+8.2+/-1.0 and +2.4+/-1.2 beats/min), systolic BP (+14.0+/-1.6 and +3.2+/-2.5 mmHg) and diastolic BP (+8.2+/-1.0 and -0.1+/-1.7 mmHg) were significantly greater after the 4-h infusion of Intralipid compared with placebo (P<0.001). The change in BP with Intralipid resulted from an increase in SVR (Q/mean arterial pressure; P<0.001) compared with baseline, without a change in Q. MSNA burst frequency increased during Intralipid infusion compared with baseline (+4.9+/-1.3 bursts/min; P<0.05), and total MSNA (frequencyxamplitude) was augmented 65% (P<0.001), with no change during placebo infusion. Lipid infusion increased insulin, aldosterone and F2-isoprostane, but not leptin, concentrations. On the basis of the concomitant increase in BP, MSNA and SVR, we conclude that central sympathetic activation contributes to the pressor response to NEFAs. PMID:19426144

  19. Fatty Acids Homeostasis; the search for

    E-print Network

    Knyazev, Andrew

    Fatty Acids Homeostasis; the search for the key regulatory factors. --Andrew Knyazev, Math CUStargardt''ss--like macular degenerationlike macular degeneration FA metabolic proteins in diseases #12;FA Homeostasis of the Fatty Acids moleculesFatty Acids molecules !! The mechanism of Fatty Acid homeostasis is not understood

  20. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Alter Mouse CD4+ T Cell Activation by Modifying the Lipid Bilayer Properties 

    E-print Network

    Hou, Tim Yu-Tien

    2014-12-05

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) possess anti-inflammatory properties. The ...

  1. Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition Regulates Cardiac SERCA Activity in a Hibernator, the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Strijkstra, Arjen; Boerema, Ate; Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (Tb) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+?ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6) in SR phospholipids (PL) should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum Tb in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in vitro at 35°C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3). SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower Tb during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum Tb tolerated by hibernators. PMID:23650545

  2. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  3. [6]-Gingerol inhibits de novo fatty acid synthesis and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity which triggers apoptosis in HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Impheng, Hathaichanok; Richert, Lysiane; Pekthong, Dumrongsak; Scholfield, C Norman; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Pungpetchara, Ittipon; Srisawang, Piyarat

    2015-01-01

    The de novo fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by key lipogenic enzymes, including fatty acid synthase (FASN) has emerged as one of the novel targets of anti-cancer approaches. The present study explored the possible inhibitory efficacy of [6]-gingerol on de novo fatty acid synthesis associated with mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction in HepG2 cells. We observed a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential accompanied by a reduction of fatty acid levels. [6]-gingerol administration manifested inhibition of FASN expression, indicating FASN is a major target of [6]-gingerol inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Indeed, we found that increased ROS generation could likely be a mediator of the anti-cancer effect of [6]-gingerol. A reduction of fatty acid levels and induction of apoptosis were restored by inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity, suggesting an accumulation of malonyl-CoA level could be the major cause of apoptotic induction of [6]-gingerol in HepG2 cells. The present study also showed that depletion of fatty acid following [6]-gingerol treatment caused an inhibitory effect on carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity (CPT-1), whereas C75 augmented CPT-1 activity, indicating that [6]-gingerol exhibits the therapeutic benefit on suppression of fatty acid ?-oxidation.

  4. Fasciola hepatica Fatty Acid Binding Protein Induces the Alternative Activation of Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Santiago, Olgary

    2014-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a highly evolved parasite that uses sophisticated mechanisms to evade the host immune response. The immunosuppressive capabilities of the parasite have been associated with antigens secreted through the parasite's tegument, called excretory-secretory products (ESPs). Proteomic studies have identified the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as one of molecules present in the parasite ESPs. Although FABP has been investigated for potential use in the development of vaccines against fascioliasis, its direct interaction with cells of immune system has not been studied. In this study, FABP was purified in native form from soluble extracts of F. hepatica adult flukes using a combination of molecular sieving chromatography and preparative isoelectric focusing. The immunological effect of the purified protein, termed Fh12, was assayed in vitro using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) obtained from healthy human donors. Results from the assay indicate that Fh12 produced a significantly increased arginase expression and activity and induced the expression of chitinase-3-like protein (CHI3L1). The assay also showed that Fh12 downregulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). This indicates that Fh12 induced the production of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?). The results also demonstrated the ability of Fh12 to downregulate the secretion of the proinflammatory and inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-1?B, even after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as its ability to stimulate the overexpression of IL-10. These results suggest a potent anti-inflammatory role for Fh12, which could occur via targeting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). PMID:25225247

  5. Biodegradation of C5-C 8 fatty acids and production of aroma volatiles by Myroides sp. ZB35 isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zijun; Zhu, Xiankun; Xi, Lijun; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Li; Lu, Jian R

    2014-05-01

    In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain. However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries. PMID:24810320

  6. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Beare-Rogers; L. M. Gray; R. Hollywood

    Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipox- idase, for trans fatty acid by infrared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of hinoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, representing various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated

  7. New developments in synthetic fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman O. V. Sonntag

    1969-01-01

    New developments in synthetic fatty acids have occurred in the last few years in Russia, Japan, the United States and Canada.\\u000a In 1959 Russia decided to replace 40% of natural fatty acids in soaps with synthetic fatty acids. In 1966, 548 million pounds\\u000a of C5–C30 synthetic fatty acids were produced including 288 million pounds of C10–C20 fatty acids. Forty million

  8. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

  9. Effect of media compositions on ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, growth and fatty acid content in mycelium extracts of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 from Taxus Sumatrana (Miq.) de Laub.

    PubMed

    Artanti, Nina; Tachibana, Sanro; Kardono, Leonardus B S

    2014-07-01

    The active ?-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 were found to be the unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids). These compounds have potential as antidiabetic agents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of various media composition on growth (mycelium dry weight) and the fatty acids content (?g mg(-1) mycelium DW) of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, the experiments were set up by varying the carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions and desaturase and fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the media. Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 grown on potato dextrose broth (PDB) was used as control. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities were (range from 43.9 ± 2.5 to 88.6 ± 5.2%) at 10 ?g mL(-1). This activity seemed to correlate with the unsaturated fatty acids content of the samples. Different sugars as carbon source experiment showed that xylose gave the highest growth (938.7 ± 141.6 mg). However, the highest fatty acids content was obtained from fructose medium which containing linoleic acid (38.8 ± 4.9 ? g mg(-1) DW). Soluble starch gave better growth (672.5 ± 62.3 mg) but very low fatty acids content (2.8 ± 0.1 ?g mg(-1) DW) was obtained. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source. Fatty acids production was better as compared to beef extract and soytone. This is the first report of various media compositions on fatty acids content in Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:26035936

  10. Saturated fatty acids activate ERK signaling to downregulate hepatic sortilin 1 in obese and diabetic mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Lipeng; Chiang, John Y. L.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Dunn, Winston; Roberts, Benjamin; Li, Tiangang

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic VLDL overproduction is a characteristic feature of diabetes and an important contributor to diabetic dyslipidemia. Hepatic sortilin 1 (Sort1), a cellular trafficking receptor, is a novel regulator of plasma lipid metabolism and reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides by inhibiting hepatic apolipoprotein B production. Elevated circulating free fatty acids play key roles in hepatic VLDL overproduction and the development of dyslipidemia. This study investigated the regulation of hepatic Sort1 in obesity and diabetes and the potential implications in diabetic dyslipidemia. Results showed that hepatic Sort1 protein was markedly decreased in mouse models of type I and type II diabetes and in human individuals with obesity and liver steatosis, whereas increasing hepatic Sort1 expression reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the saturated fatty acid palmitate activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and inhibited Sort1 protein by mechanisms involving Sort1 protein ubiquitination and degradation. Consistently, hepatic ERK signaling was activated in diabetic mice, whereas blocking ERK signaling by an ERK inhibitor increased hepatic Sort1 protein in mice. These results suggest that increased saturated fatty acids downregulate liver Sort1 protein, which may contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in obesity and diabetes. PMID:23904453

  11. Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Subventricular Zone Oxidize Fatty Acids to Produce Energy and Support Neurogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Makin, Rebecca; Sweet, Ian R; Trevelyan, Andrew J; Miwa, Satomi; Horner, Philip J; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2015-07-01

    Neural activity is tightly coupled to energy consumption, particularly sugars such as glucose. However, we find that, unlike mature neurons and astrocytes, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) do not require glucose to sustain aerobic respiration. NSPCs within the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) express enzymes required for fatty acid oxidation and show sustained increases in oxygen consumption upon treatment with a polyunsaturated fatty acid. NSPCs also demonstrate sustained decreases in oxygen consumption upon treatment with etomoxir, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. In addition, etomoxir decreases the proliferation of SVZ NSPCs without affecting cellular survival. Finally, higher levels of neurogenesis can be achieved in aged mice by ectopically expressing proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1?), a factor that increases cellular aerobic capacity by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic gene transcription. Regulation of metabolic fuel availability could prove a powerful tool in promoting or limiting cellular proliferation in the central nervous system. Stem Cells 2015;33:2306-2319. PMID:25919237

  12. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment. PMID:24913167

  13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate breast cancer growth through activation of a neutral sphingomyelinase-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Harvey, Kevin A; Ruzmetov, Nargiz; Welch, Zachary R; Sech, Laura; Jackson, Kim; Stillwell, William; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2005-11-10

    The effect of fish oils and their active omega-3 fatty acid constituents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were investigated on breast cancer growth. In in vivo experiments, mice were fed diets that were rich in either omega-3 (fish oil) or omega-6 (corn oil) fatty acids. Three weeks after implantation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, the tumor volume and weight were significantly lower (p < 0.05) for mice fed the omega-3 diets compared to those fed the omega-6 diets. Dietary fish oil also caused a 40% (p < 0.05) increase in neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMYase) activity in the tumors. The tumor tissues from fish oil-fed animals expressed elevated p21 (waf1/cip1) mRNA, whereas tumor tissues from corn oil-fed animals exhibited undetectable levels of p21 expression. In in vitro experiments, at concentrations as low as 25 muM, DHA and EPA inhibited the growth of cultured MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner by 20-25% (p < 0.05). N-SMYase activity was also increased by 30-40% (p < 0.05) in the DHA- or EPA-treated cells in which an increase in ceramide formation was observed. DHA and EPA were both observed to enhance membrane bleb formation and also to induce the expression of p21. Omega-3 fatty acids-induced bleb formation and p21 expression were inhibited by the N-SMYase inhibitor GW4869, which also inhibited apoptosis by approximately 40% (p < 0.05). The results suggest that inhibition of breast cancer growth in nude mice by dietary fish oil and inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in culture by treatment with DHA and EPA is mediated by activation of N-SMYase. PMID:15900589

  14. Synthesis and characterization of some novel fatty acid analogues: A preliminary investigation on their activity against human lung carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preparation of some novel heterocyclic compounds with long alkyl and alkenyl chain of cytotoxic activity. Methods Gamma linolenic acid, a poly unsaturated fatty acid and stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid were isolated from the microalga Spirulina platensis. Some novel gamma linolenic acid and stearic acid analogues having 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated by the growth inhibition of A-549 cells in-vitro. Results Compound 1 and 3 showed comparable cytotoxicity against the human lung carcinoma A-549 cell lines. PMID:23537396

  15. Genetic parameters for intramuscular fatty acid composition and metabolism in pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ntawubizi; E. Colman; S. Janssens; K. Raes; N. Buys; S. De Smet

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for pork intramuscular fatty acid composition and indices for desaturase and elongase activities involved in the n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism. Fatty acid composition of the longissimus muscle of 437 slaughter pigs was analysed and indices for enzyme activities were calculated from product to precursor fatty acid

  16. Delta 6-desaturase activity in liver microsomes of rats fed diets enriched with cholesterol and/or omega 3 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M L; Sebokova, E; Thomson, A B; Clandinin, M T

    1988-01-01

    The effect of feeding semipurified diets enriched in linseed (rich in C18:3, omega 3 fatty acid) or fish (rich in C20:5, omega 3 and C22:6, omega 3 fatty acid) oil with and without cholesterol supplementation on the desaturation of linoleic acid (C18:2, omega 6) by rat liver microsomal fractions was investigated. Animals fed diets supplemented with beef tallow were used as equal-energy controls. Both linseed-oil and fish-oil diets, without added cholesterol, decrease conversion of C18:2, omega 6 fatty acid to gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3, omega 6). Reduction in delta 6-desaturation was significantly greater for animals fed the diet containing fish oil than with animals fed the linseed-oil diet. The major effect of cholesterol supplementation was to decrease the rate of desaturation of C18:2, omega 6, when fed in combination with the beef-tallow diet, whereas delta 6-desaturation was unaffected when cholesterol was fed along with diets high in omega 3 fatty acids (linseed oil or fish oil). The activity of the delta 6-desaturase in vitro is consistent with the fatty acid composition observed for the microsomal membranes on which this enzyme is localized. Dietary linseed oil and fish oil lowered the arachidonic (C20:4, omega 6) acid content of rat liver microsomes, with an accompanying increase in membrane eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, omega 3) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, omega 3) acid content, in comparison with the group fed beef tallow. Inclusion of cholesterol into the beef-tallow or linseed-oil diets resulted in decreased membrane C20:4, omega 6-fatty-acid content, with concomitant increase in C18:2, omega 6-fatty-acid content. However, addition of cholesterol to the fish-oil diet did not alter the microsomal membrane content of C20:4, omega 6 fatty acid. Thus it is suggested that (1) the decrease in prostaglandin E2, thromboxane and prostacyclin levels generally observed after fish-oil consumption may be at least partly due to inhibition of C20:4, omega 6-fatty-acid synthesis from C18:2, omega 6 fatty acid; and (2) consumption of fish oil prevents the further decrease in C20:4, omega 6-fatty-acid levels by dietary cholesterol that is apparent when cholesterol is fed in combination with diets high in saturated fat or C18:3, omega 3 fatty acid. PMID:3342019

  17. Abnormal n-6 fatty acid metabolism in cystic fibrosis is caused by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Umunakwe, Obi C.; Seegmiller, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in PUFA metabolism, including increased metabolism of linoleate to arachidonate. Recent studies have connected these abnormalities to increased expression and activity of the ?6- and ?5-desaturase enzymes. However, the mechanism connecting these changes to the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations responsible for CF is unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that increased activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), previously described in CF bronchial epithelial cells, causes these changes in fatty acid metabolism by driving desaturase expression. Using CF bronchial epithelial cell culture models, we confirm elevated activity of AMPK in CF cells and show that it is due to increased phosphorylation of AMPK by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ? (CaMKK?). We also show that inhibition of AMPK or CaMKK? reduces desaturase expression and reverses the metabolic alterations seen in CF cells. These results signify a novel AMPK-dependent mechanism linking the genetic defect in CF to alterations in PUFA metabolism. PMID:24859760

  18. Indices of fatty acid desaturase activity in healthy human subjects: effects of different types of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Vessby, Bengt; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt; Tengblad, Siv; Berglund, Lars

    2013-09-14

    ?9-Desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD-1) regulates the desaturation of SFA, mainly stearic and palmitic, to MUFA. ?6-Desaturase (D6D) and ?5-desaturase (D5D) are involved in the metabolism of linoleic and ?-linolenic acid to polyunsaturated metabolites. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different types of dietary fat on indices of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) activity (evaluated as product:precursor ratios) in plasma and skeletal muscle in human subjects. A high SCD-1 index has been related to obesity and metabolic disorders, while the D5D index is associated with insulin sensitivity. Fatty acid composition of serum and skeletal muscle lipids was analysed by GLC during a randomised, controlled, 3-month dietary intervention in healthy subjects. A comparison of the effects of a diet containing butter fat (SFA, n 17) with a diet containing monounsaturated fat (MUFA, n 17), keeping all other dietary components constant, showed a reduced SCD-1 activity index by 20% on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet assessed in serum cholesteryl esters. The D6D and D5D indices remained unaffected. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduced the SCD-1 index by a similar magnitude while the D6D index decreased and the D5D index increased. It is concluded that changes in the type of fat in the diet affect the indices of FADS activity in serum and skeletal muscle in human subjects. The desaturase activity indices estimated from the serum lipid ester composition are significantly related to corresponding indices studied in skeletal muscle phospholipids. PMID:23414551

  19. Structural Basis for Ligand Regulation of the Fatty Acid-binding Protein 5, Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ?/? (FABP5-PPAR?/?) Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Eric H.; Goswami, Devrishi; Griffin, Patrick R.; Noy, Noa; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a widely expressed group of calycins that play a well established role in solubilizing cellular fatty acids. Recent studies, however, have recast FABPs as active participants in vital lipid-signaling pathways. FABP5, like its family members, displays a promiscuous ligand binding profile, capable of interacting with numerous long chain fatty acids of varying degrees of saturation. Certain “activatingfatty acids induce the protein's cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation, stimulating PPAR?/? transactivation; however, the rules that govern this process remain unknown. Using a range of structural and biochemical techniques, we show that both linoleic and arachidonic acid elicit FABP5's translocation by permitting allosteric communication between the ligand-sensing ?2 loop and a tertiary nuclear localization signal within the ?-helical cap of the protein. Furthermore, we show that more saturated, nonactivating fatty acids inhibit nuclear localization signal formation by destabilizing this activation loop, thus implicating FABP5 specifically in cis-bonded, polyunsaturated fatty acid signaling. PMID:24692551

  20. Cyclic fatty acids from linolenic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Eisenhauer; R. E. Beal; E. L. Griffin

    1964-01-01

    Linolenic acid of 95% purity was heated with excess alkali in ethylene glycol to produce cyclic fatty acids. Reaction variables,\\u000a which are associated with the cyclization reaction and which were investigated, included solvent-to-fatty-acid ratio, catalyst\\u000a concentration, and reaction temperature, headspace gas (N2 or C2H4), and head-space gas pressure.\\u000a \\u000a Yields of cyclic acids were improved by increasing solvent ratio (1.5–6 wt

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of polyherbal formulation (Normeta) in oxidative stress induced by alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron in rats.

    PubMed

    Patere, Shilpa N; Saraf, Madhusudan N; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a large number of diseases or disorders which are initiated and/or exacerbated by pro-oxidants such as various drugs including alcohol and food additives. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of oral treatment with polyherbal formulation Normeta (2 ml and 4 ml/kg) on hepatic damage induced by alcohol 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained at levels between 150 and 350 mg/dl), thermally oxidized oil (polyunsaturated fatty acids) (15% of diet) and carbonyl iron (1.5-2% of diet) for 30 days in rats. In vitro studies with 1, 1-Diphenyl, 2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide and Ferric chloride (Fe(+3) ions) showed that Normeta possesses antioxidant and metal chelating activity. Alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron feeding produced an increase in serum levels of iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and decrease in serum proteins. It was also associated with elevated lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and disruption of antioxidant defence mechanism in liver, decreased body weight and increased liver to body weight ratio. Oral administration of Normeta along with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron decreased the serum iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase levels and increased serum protein levels. The levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased. Improvement in body weight and liver to body weight ratio was also observed. The effects of Normeta on physico-metabolic parameters were comparable with silymarin. This indicates that Normeta has favourable effect in bringing down the severity of hepatotoxicity. PMID:19486336

  2. Dietary fatty acids affect semen quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A H; Moghadasian, M H; Alizadeh, A R

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which play a crucial role in fertilization. This review focuses on analysis of sperm fatty acid profiles and the effects of omega-3, saturated and trans dietary and sperm fatty acids on sperm parameters. Two major points have been pivotal points of investigation in the field of sperm fatty acid profiles: first, the comparison between fatty acid profiles of fertile and infertile men and second, the effect of dietary fatty acids on sperm fatty acid profiles as well as sperm quality and quantity. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) are the predominant PUFA and saturated fatty acids, respectively, in human sperm cells. Higher levels of DHA are concentrated on the sperm's head or tail varying among different species. However, the human sperm head contains a higher concentration of DHA. Dietary fatty acids influence on sperm fatty acid profiles and it seems that sperm fatty acid profiles are most sensitive to dietary omega-3 PUFA. Although improvements in sperm parameters are a response to omega-3 sources after more than 4 weeks of supplementation in the male diet, time-dependent and dose-dependent responses may explain the failure in some experiments. In human spermatozoa, elevated saturated or trans fatty acid concentration and a low DHA level is a concern. The regulations of the sperm fatty acid mean melting point as well as expression regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) alongside with spermatozoon assembly, anti-apoptosis effects, eicosanoid formation, and hormone activity are the putative key factors that induce a response by inclusion of omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25951427

  3. Fatty Acids from Plasmodium falciparum Down-Regulate the Toxic Activity of Malaria Glycosylphosphatidylinositols

    PubMed Central

    Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Schofield, Louis; Azzouz, Nahid; Schmidt, Jörg; Santos de Macedo, Cristiana; Ferguson, Michael A. J.; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills roughly 2.5 million people, mainly children, annually. Much of this mortality is thought to arise from the actions of a malarial toxin. This toxin, identified as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), is a major pathogenicity determinant in malaria. A malarial molecule, Pfj, labeled by [3H]glucosamine like the GPIs, was identified as a non-GPI molecule. Here we show that Pfj is able to down-regulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production induced by the GPI of P. falciparum. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that Pfj was not a single molecule but represented a number of molecules. Separation methods, such as cation-exchange chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, were used to isolate and identify the following four main fatty acids responsible for the inhibitory effect on TNF-? production: myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, and palmitoleic acids. This regulatory effect on cytokine production suggests that there is balanced bioactivity for the different categories of malarial lipids. PMID:16988223

  4. Fatty Acid and Essential Oil Compositions of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium with Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Erta?, Abdulselam; Bo?a, Mehmet; Ha?imi, Nesrin; Y?lmaz, Mustafa Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    This study represents the first report on the chemical composition and biological activity of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium. The major components of the essential oil were identified as hexatriacontene (23.0%), arachidic acid (15.5%) and ?-selinene (10.0%). The main constituents of the fatty acid obtained from the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic acid (29.8%), linoleic acid (18.6%) and oleic acid (10.5%). In particular, the water extract exhibited higher activity than ?-tocopherol and BHT, which were used as standards in the ABTS cation radical scavenging assay and indicated higher inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase enzyme than the reference compound, galanthamine but exhibited weak activity in ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH-free radical scavenging, and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity assays. The petroleum ether extract exhibited higher activity than ?-tocopherol which was used as standard in the ?-carotene bleaching method at concentration 100 ?g/mL. The acetone extract exhibited higher activity than ?-tocopherol which was used as standard cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method at 100 ?g/mL concentration. The acetone and methanol extracts were active on all microorganisms tested with a small zone diameter indicating weak activity. PMID:25561929

  5. Distinction among isomeric unsaturated fatty acids as lithiated adducts by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using low energy collisionally activated dissociation on a triple stage quadrupole instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fong-Fu Hsu; John Turk

    1999-01-01

    Features of tandem mass spectra of dilithiated adduct ions of unsaturated fatty acids obtained by electrospray ionization\\u000a mass spectrometry with low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) on a triple stage quadrupole instrument are described.\\u000a These spectra distinguish among isomeric unsaturated fatty acids and permit assignment of double-bond location. Informative\\u000a fragment ions reflect cleavage of bonds remote from the charge site on

  6. Fatty acids for myocardial imaging.

    PubMed

    Corbett, J R

    1999-07-01

    Radioiodinated free fatty acids are tracers that can be used to assess both myocardial perfusion and metabolism. There have been several fatty acids and structurally modified fatty acids studied since Evans' initial report of radiolabeled I-123 oleic acid in 1965. The radiolabeling of a phenyl group added to the long chain fatty acids in the omega-terminal position opposite the carboxyl terminal group prevents nonspecific deiodination and the rapid release of free iodine as the tracer undergoes beta-oxidation. The additional inclusion of a methyl or dimethyl group to the chain slows oxidation resulting in prolonged myocardial retention. The longer retention of the radiolabel permits longer image acquisitions more compatible with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, especially with single-detector imaging systems. Several protocols have been implemented using these compounds, particularly 15-(para-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methyl pentadecanoic BMIPP, to detect abnormal fatty acid metabolism in ischemic heart disease as well as in nonischemic and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. Successful management of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathies depends on the accurate identification of hibernating myocardium. The studies covered in this review suggest that both IPPA and BMIPP, especially when combined with markers of myocardial perfusion, may be excellent tracers of viable and potentially functional myocardium. Future studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to confirm the results of these studies and to compare their efficacy with that of other available imaging modalities. Cost and distribution issues will have to be resolved for these metabolic tracers to compete in the commercial marketplace. Otherwise they will likely be available only on a limited basis for research use. As progress is made with these issues and with the development of newer imaging systems, the use of radioiodinated and fluorinated fatty acids is likely to be increasingly attractive. PMID:10433339

  7. Yhhu981, a novel compound, stimulates fatty acid oxidation via the activation of AMPK and ameliorates lipid metabolism disorder in ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-liang; Huang, Su-ling; Xie, Fu-chun; Zeng, Li-min; Hu, You-hong; Leng, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Defects in fatty acid metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity. In this study, we investigated the effects of a novel compound yhhu981 on fatty acid metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The capacity to stimulate fatty acid oxidation was assessed in C2C12 myotubes. The fatty acid synthesis was studied in HepG2 cells using isotope tracing. The phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was examined with Western blot analysis. For in vivo experiments, ob/ob mice were orally treated with yhhu981 acutely (300 mg/kg) or chronically (150 or 300 mg·kg?1·d?1 for 22 d). On the last day of treatment, serum and tissue samples were collected for analysis. Results: Yhhu981 (12.5–25 ?mol/L) significantly increased fatty acid oxidation and the expression of related genes (Sirt1, Pgc1? and Mcad) in C2C12 myotubes, and inhibited fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, yhhu981 dose-dependently increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in both C2C12 myotubes and HepG2 cells. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, blocked fatty acid oxidation in yhhu981-treated C2C12 myotubes and fatty acid synthesis decrease in yhhu981-treated HepG2 cells. Acute administration of yhhu981 decreased the respiratory exchange ratio in ob/ob mice, whereas chronic treatment with yhhu981 ameliorated the lipid abnormalities and ectopic lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and liver of ob/ob mice. Conclusion: Yhhu981 is a potent compound that stimulates fatty acid oxidation, and exerts pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism by activating AMPK. PMID:25732571

  8. Possible involvement of long chain fatty acids in the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fukuzawa, Masataka; Yamaguchi, Rie; Hide, Izumi; Chen, Zhiqing; Hirai, Yuko; Sugimoto, Akiko; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2008-10-01

    During our isolation of biologically active substances from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi, G. lucidum) guided by the inhibitory activity on HL-60 cell proliferation, NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data indicate the substance contains a mixture of several long chain fatty acids. Hence, in this study, we have examined the inhibitory effects of an ethanolic extract of the spores of G. lucidum as the spore extract, on the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines by comparison with several authentic long chain fatty acids. Of the fatty acids we examined nonadecanoic acid (C19:0) showed the highest inhibitory activity for HL-60 cell proliferation with IC(50) values of 68+/-7 microM followed by heptadecanoic acid (C17:0, 120+/-23 microM), octa- (C18:0, 127+/-4 microM) and hexadecanoic acids (C16:0, 132+/-25 microM), respectively. The corresponding unsaturated fatty acids containing one double bond such as cis-10-nonadecenoic acid (C19:1), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (C18:1), cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1) and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) were less effective. The ethanolic extract of spores of G. lucidum were shown by annexin-V FITC/PI double staining to induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells in a similar way to cis-10-nonadecenoic acid (C19:1). These unsaturated fatty acids probably inhibit tumor necrosis factor production induced by lipopolysaccharide in a mouse macrophage preparation. Our results suggest the spores of G. lucidum contain 19-carbon fatty acids as one of the components for characteristics of its physiological effects. PMID:18827358

  9. Comparative effects of perilla and fish oils on the activity and gene expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ide, T; Kobayashi, H; Ashakumary, L; Rouyer, I A; Takahashi, Y; Aoyama, T; Hashimoto, T; Mizugaki, M

    2000-05-01

    The activity and mRNA level of hepatic enzymes in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were compared in rats fed diets containing either 15% saturated fat (palm oil), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid or fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) for 15 days. The mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate was 50% higher in rats fed perilla and fish oils than in the other groups. Perilla and fish oils compared to palm and safflower oils approximately doubled and more than tripled, respectively, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate. Compared to palm and safflower oil, both perilla and fish oils caused a 50% increase in carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity. Dietary fats rich in n-3 fatty acids also increased the activity of other fatty acid oxidation enzymes except for 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The extent of the increase was greater with fish oil than with perilla oil. Interestingly, both perilla and fish oils decreased the activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase measured using short- and medium-chain substrates. Compared to palm and safflower oils, perilla and fish oils increased the mRNA level of many mitochondrial and peroxisomal enzymes. Increases were generally greater with fish oil than with perilla oil. Fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase activity and mRNA level were higher in rats fed palm oil than in the other groups. Among rats fed polyunsaturated fats, activities and mRNA levels of these enzymes were lower in rats fed fish oil than in the animals fed perilla and safflower oils. The values were comparable between the latter two groups. Safflower and fish oils but not perilla oil, compared to palm oil, also decreased malic enzyme activity and mRNA level. Examination of the fatty acid composition of hepatic phospholipid indicated that dietary alpha-linolenic acid is effectively desaturated and elongated to form EPA and DHA. Dietary perilla oil and fish oil therefore exert similar physiological activity in modulating hepatic fatty acid oxidation, but these dietary fats considerably differ in affecting fatty acid synthesis. PMID:10802246

  10. 6-methyl-8-hexadecenoic acid: A novel fatty acid from the marine sponge Desmapsama anchorata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Néstor M. Carballeira; Maria E. Maldonado

    1988-01-01

    The novel fatty acid 7-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (1) was identified in the marine spongeDesmapsama anchorata. Other interesting fatty acids identified were 14-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (2), better known through its methyl ester as one of the components of the sex attractant of the female dermestid beetle, and\\u000a the saturated fatty acid 3-methylheptadecanoic (3), known to possess larvicidal activity. The main phospholipid fatty acids encountered inD.

  11. A single amino acid change humanizes long-chain fatty acid binding and activation of mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    Oswal, Dhawal P.; Alter, Gerald M.; Rider, S. Dean; Hostetler, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism which functions through ligand binding. Despite high amino acid sequence identity (>90%), marked differences in PPAR? ligand binding, activation and gene regulation have been noted across species. Similar to previous observations with synthetic agonists, we have recently reported differences in ligand affinities and extent of activation between human PPAR? (hPPAR?) and mouse PPAR? (mPPAR?) in response to long chain fatty acids (LCFA). The present study was aimed to determine if structural alterations could account for these differences. The binding of PPAR? to LCFA was examined through in silico molecular modeling and docking simulations. Modeling suggested that variances at amino acid position 272 are likely to be responsible for differences in saturated LCFA binding to hPPAR? and mPPAR?. To confirm these results experimentally, LCFA binding, circular dichroism, and transactivation studies were performed using a F272I mutant form of mPPAR?. Experimental data correlated with in silico docking simulations, further confirming the importance of amino acid 272 in LCFA binding. Although the driving force for evolution of species differences at this position are yet unidentified, this study enhances our understanding of ligand-induced regulation by PPAR? and demonstrates the efficacy of molecular modeling and docking simulations. PMID:24858253

  12. Influence of dietary essential fatty acid level on fatty acid composition in peripheral nerve and muscle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of dietary essential fatty acid level on fatty acid composition in peripheral nerve fed with diets containing different levels of essential unsaturated fatty acids, namely linoleic (18 :2 (n-6)) and linolenic (18 : 2 (n-3)) acid, in the oil. Nerve and muscle fatty acids were analyzed

  13. Modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, platelet aggregation and serum prostaglandins in rats fed spray-dried milk containing n -3 fatty acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Ramaprasad; V. Baskaran; T. P. Krishnakantha; B. R. Lokesh

    2005-01-01

    Spray-dried milk enriched with n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil or fish oil were fed to rats to study its influence on liver lipid peroxides, hepatic antioxidant\\u000a enzyme activities, serum prostaglandins and platelet aggregation. Significant level of ? linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic\\u000a acid and docosahexaenoic acid were accumulated at the expense of arachidonic acid in the liver of rats fed n-3

  14. Medium Chain Fatty Acids Are Selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) ? Activators and Pan-PPAR Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Steven D.; Lin, Jean Z.; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A.; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Skaf, Munir S.; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8–C10) bind the PPAR? LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPAR? LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPAR? and exhibit full blockade of PPAR? phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPAR? also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/?-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPAR? modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  15. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPAR? ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10) bind the PPAR? LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPAR? LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPAR? and exhibit full blockade of PPAR? phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPAR? also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/?-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPAR? modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  16. Fatty Acid Transduction of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Paul R. S.; Lin, Yiming; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Groeger, Alison L.; Batthyany, Carlos; Sweeney, Scott; Long, Marshall H.; Iles, Karen E.; Baker, Laura M. S.; Branchaud, Bruce P.; Chen, Yuqing E.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of human plasma and urine revealed abundant nitrated derivatives of all principal unsaturated fatty acids. Nitrated palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in concert with their nitrohydroxy derivatives. Two nitroalkene derivatives of the most prevalent fatty acid, oleic acid, were synthesized (9- and 10-nitro-9-cis-octadecenoic acid; OA-NO2), structurally characterized and determined to be identical to OA-NO2 found in plasma, red cells, and urine of healthy humans. These regioisomers of OA-NO2 were quantified in clinical samples using 13C isotope dilution. Plasma free and esterified OA-NO2 concentrations were 619 ± 52 and 302 ± 369 nM, respectively, and packed red blood cell free and esterified OA-NO2 was 59 ± 11 and 155 ± 65 nM. The OA-NO2 concentration of blood is ~50% greater than that of nitrated linoleic acid, with the combined free and esterified blood levels of these two fatty acid derivatives exceeding 1 ?M. OA-NO2 is a potent ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at physiological concentrations. CV-1 cells co-transfected with the luciferase gene under peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element regulation, in concert with PPAR?, PPAR?, or PPAR? expression plasmids, showed dose-dependent activation of all PPARs by OA-NO2. PPAR? showed the greatest response, with significant activation at 100 nM, while PPAR? and PPAR? were activated at ~300 nM OA-NO2. OA-NO2 also induced PPAR?-dependent adipogenesis and deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at a potency exceeding nitrolinoleic acid and rivaling synthetic thiazo-lidinediones. These data reveal that nitrated fatty acids comprise a class of nitric oxide-derived, receptor-dependent, cell signaling mediators that act within physiological concentration ranges. PMID:16227625

  17. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, Marina; Finkernagel, Florian; Cavalcante, Marcela Frota; Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra; Müller, Rolf; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPAR? in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPK?1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPAR? agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPAR? increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPK?1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPAR?- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload. PMID:26098914

  18. Changes in the activities of the enzymes of hepatic fatty acid oxidation during development of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, P C; Bailey, E

    1976-01-01

    1. Changes in the activities of several enzymes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation were measured in livers of developing rats between late foetal life and maturity. The enzymes studied are medium- and long-chain ATP-dependent acyl-CoA synthetases of the outer mitochondrial membrane and matrix, GTP-dependent acyl-CoA synthetase, carnitine acyltransferase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, general 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. PMID:6020

  19. Fatty acid flippase activity of UCP2 is essential for its proton transport in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Marcelo J; Chou, James J

    2014-09-01

    Modulation of cellular energy expenditure is fundamental to normal and pathological cell growth and differentiation. Mitochondria stores energy as a proton gradient across their inner membrane. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can dissipate the gradient to produce heat or regulate metabolite fluxes. UCP-mediated proton currents require fatty acids (FAs) and are blocked by nucleotides, but the molecular basis of these processes is unknown. We find, by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional mutagenesis, that UCP2 can bind FAs laterally through its peripheral site, and this intramembrane molecular recognition is essential for UCP2-catalyzed FA flipping across the membrane, which in turn is essential for proton translocation. The antagonist GDP binds inside the UCP2 cavity and perturbs its conformation, which can displace FA from the peripheral site as a mean of inhibiting proton currents. Our data provide a biophysical perspective of the intricate interplay of UCPs, FA, and nucleotides in determining proton fluxes in mitochondria. PMID:25127353

  20. Free fatty acid fractions from some vegetable oils exhibit reduced survival time-shortening activity in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Huang, M Z; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Okuyama, H

    1998-07-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that several vegetable oils that included low-erucic rapeseed oil markedly shortened the survival time (by approximately 40%) of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats as compared with perilla oil, soybean oil, and fish oil. We considered that a factor other than fatty acids is toxic to SHRSP rats, because the survival time-shortening activity could not be accounted for by the fatty acid compositions of these oils. In fact, a free fatty acid (FFA) fraction derived from lipase-treated rapeseed oil was found to be essentially devoid of such activity. A high-oleate safflower oil/safflower oil/perilla oil mixture exhibited a survival time-shortening activity comparable to that of rapeseed oil, but the activity of this mixed oil was also reduced by lipase treatment. A partially hydrogenated soybean oil shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, but a FFA fraction derived from lipase-treated partially hydrogenated soybean oil shortened it by 13% compared with soybean oil. Fatty acid compositions of the rapeseed oil and a FFA fraction derived from lipase-treated rapeseed oil were similar, but those of hepatic phospholipids of rats fed the oil and FFA were slightly but significantly different. These results support the interpretation that the survival time-shortening activity exhibited by some vegetable oils is due to minor components other than fatty acids, and that an active component(s) were produced in or contaminated soybean oil during the partial hydrogenation processes. PMID:9688167

  1. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. A. M. Hulshof; MA van Erp-Baart; M. Antttolainen; W. Becker; S. M. Church; C. Couet; E Hermann-Kunz; H Kesteloot; T Leth; I Martins; O Moreiras; J Moschandreas; L Pizzoferrato; AH Rimestad; H Thorgeirsdottir; JMN van Amelsvoort; A Aro; AG Kafatos; D Lanzmann-Petithory; G van Poppel; KFAM Hulshof

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries.Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fatty acids and total fat in adults and\\/or the total population using the

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Fu, Caili; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan; Li, Tianhu; Huang, Dejian

    2014-02-15

    Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID. PMID:24128547

  3. In vitro antibacterial activities and mechanism of sugar fatty acid esters against five food-related bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Heyan; Hao, Tianyang; Li, Siran

    2015-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of sugar fatty acid esters, with different fatty acid and saccharide moieties, against five food-related bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Sucrose monocaprate showed the strongest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, especially Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were 2.5 and 10mM, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for Gram-positive bacteria were 10mM. Time-kill assay also showed that sucrose monocaprate significantly inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. The permeability of the cell membrane and intracellular proteins were both changed by sucrose monocaprate according to cell constituents' leakage, SDS-PAGE and scanning electron microscope assays. It is suggested that sucrose monocaprate, with both emulsifying and antibacterial activities, have a potential to serve as a safe multifunctional food additive in food industries. PMID:25977039

  4. Structure-activity analysis of harmful algae inhibition by congeneric compounds: case studies of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Shi, Jiyan; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of harmful algal blooms has been increasing significantly around the world. In order to ensure the safety of drinking water, procedures to screen potential materials as effective algicides are needed, and predictive methods which save both the labor and time compared with traditional experimental approaches, are particularly desirable. In this study, data from previous studies on the algal-growth inhibitory action of two kinds of compounds, namely, the action of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones on the harmful algae Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella marina, were modeled using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). The models were shown to have highly predictive ability and stability, and provided insight into the inhibitory mechanisms of congeneric compounds. The main descriptors in the fatty-acid models were the Connolly accessible area and the number of rotatable bonds, illustrating that molecular surface area and shape are important in their algicidal actions. In the thiazolidinedione models, the critical volume, octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP), and Connolly solvent-excluded volume were found to be significant, indicating that hydrophobicity, substituent group size, and mode of action are mechanistically important. Our results showed the algicidal activity of a series of compounds on different algae could be modeled, and each model is efficacious for compounds that fall into the application domain of the QSAR model. This work demonstrates how reliable predictions of the algicidal activity of novel compounds and explanations of their inhibitory mechanisms can be obtained. PMID:24562453

  5. Fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and synergistic contribution to antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

    2014-10-15

    Understanding the profile of lipophilic phytochemicals in lentils is necessary to better understand the health benefits of lentils. The fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions and antioxidant activities of the lipophilic extracts of 20 lentil cultivars (10 red and 10 green) were therefore examined. Lentils contained 1.52-2.95% lipids, of which 77.5-81.7% were unsaturated essential fatty acids. Total tocopherols ranged from 37 to 64?g/g DW, predominantly ?-tocopherol (96-98% of the tocopherol content), followed by ?- and ?-tocopherol. trans-Lutein was the primary and major carotenoid (64-78%) followed by trans-zeaxanthin (5-13%). Carotenoids and tocopherols showed weak correlation with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity (r=0.4893 and 0.3259, respectively), but good correlation when combined (r=0.6688), suggesting they may act synergistically. Carotenoids were found to contribute the most to the strong antioxidant activity measured by photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. Results from this study contribute to the development of lentil cultivars and related functional foods with increased health benefits. PMID:24837953

  6. Mutations in the fatty acid elongation 1 gene are associated with a loss of beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase activity in low erucic acid rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Roscoe, T J; Lessire, R; Puyaubert, J; Renard, M; Delseny, M

    2001-03-01

    Low erucic acid rapeseed (LEAR) is characterised by a near absence of very long chain fatty acids in the seed oil which has been correlated with a lack of acyl-CoA elongation activity. Here we show that the absence of acyl-CoA and ATP-dependent elongation activities in microsomes isolated from LEAR embryos is associated with an absence of beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase activity encoded by the Bn-fatty acid elongation 1 (FAE1) genes. Size exclusion chromatography of solubilised microsomes revealed the presence of a high molecular mass acyl-CoA elongase complex in high erucic acid rapeseed which was absent in microsomes isolated from LEAR seeds. Although transcripts for the Bn-FAE1 genes were detected in LEAR embryos, immunoblots using antisera raised against the beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase indicated an absence of this protein. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of immature embryo cDNAs reveals that LEAR alleles of Bn-FAE1 encode variant beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase proteins. PMID:11248246

  7. Fatty Acid Based Biodegradable Polymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Prakash Jain; Marina Sokolsky; Neeraj Kumar; A. J. Domb

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic polymers have become an indispensable part of the daily?life of human beings and the biodegradable class of polymers hold immense value in therapeutics. Fatty acid incorporation in biodegradable polymers renders flexibility, low melting point, hydrophobicity, and pliability properties. At the same time, degradation into naturally occurring compounds makes them environmentally friendly besides their utility in various applications like drug

  8. Oxidative stability of fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds follows the recent trend in the food industry to fortify processed foods with health promoting supplements. The chemical structure of these compounds presents a challenge to the feed formulator and producer that must contend with such unstable ...

  9. Fatty Acid Synthesis by Elongases in Trypanosomes

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Fatty Acid Synthesis by Elongases in Trypanosomes Soo Hee Lee,1 Jennifer L. Stephens,1 Kimberly S and prokaryotic organisms are thought to synthesize fatty acids using a type I or type II synthase. In addition, eukaryotes ex- tend pre-existing long chain fatty acids using microsomal elongases (ELOs). We have found

  10. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the...

  11. Lipid and fatty acid composition of diatoms revisited: rapid wound-activated change of food quality parameters influences herbivorous copepod reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Wichard, Thomas; Gerecht, Andrea; Boersma, Maarten; Poulet, Serge A; Wiltshire, Karen; Pohnert, Georg

    2007-07-01

    Lipid and fatty acid composition are considered to be key parameters that determine the nutritive quality of phytoplankton diets for zooplanktonic herbivores. The fitness, reproduction and physiology of the grazers are influenced by these factors. The trophic transfer of lipids and fatty acids from algal cells has been typically studied by using simple extraction and quantification approaches, which, as we argue here, do not reflect the actual situation in the plankton. We show that cell disruption, as it occurs during a predator's grazing on diatoms can drastically change the lipid and fatty acid content of the food. In some algae, a rapid depletion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is observed within the first minutes after cell disruption. This fatty acid depletion is directly linked to the production of PUFA-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA); these are molecules that are thought to be involved in the chemical defence of the algae. PUA-releasing diatoms are even capable of transforming lipids from other sources if these are available in the vicinity of the wounded cells. Fluorescent staining reveals that the enzymes involved in lipid transformation are active in the foregut of copepods, and therefore link the depletion processes directly to food uptake. Incubation experiments with the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis showed that PUFA depletion in PUA-producing diatoms is correlated to reduced hatching success, and can be compensated for by externally added single fatty acids. PMID:17541989

  12. Histidine-41 of the cytochrome b5 domain of the borage delta6 fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, O; Shewry, P R; Napier, J A

    1999-10-01

    Unlike most other plant microsomal desaturases, the Delta6-fatty acid desaturase from borage (Borago officinalis) contains an N-terminal extension that shows homology to the small hemoprotein cytochrome (Cyt) b5. To determine if this domain serves as a functional electron donor for the Delta6-fatty acid desaturase, mutagenesis and functional analysis by expression in transgenic Arabidopsis was carried out. Although expression of the wild-type borage Delta6-fatty acid desaturase resulted in the synthesis and accumulation of Delta6-unsaturated fatty acids, this was not observed in plants transformed with N-terminally deleted forms of the desaturase. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt one of the axial heme-binding residues (histidine-41) of the Cyt b5 domain; expression of this mutant form of the Delta6-desaturase in transgenic plants failed to produce Delta6-unsaturated fatty acids. These data indicate that the Cyt b5 domain of the borage Delta6-fatty acid desaturase is essential for enzymatic activity. PMID:10517856

  13. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid ?-Hydroxylase (CYP4) Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, James P.; Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; Wiland, Homer; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis), due to a decrease in mitochondria ?-oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal ?-oxidation, and microsomal ?-oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). How steatosis increases PPAR? activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation and ?-oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), or saturated (SFA) may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4? with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the ?-oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR?. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid ?-hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) CYP4F?-hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis. PMID:20300478

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rino [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nobu@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murota, Kaeko [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan)] [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan); Yamada, Yuko [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Moriyama, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover, bezafibrate treatment suppressed postprandial lipidemia after oral administration of olive oil to the mice. These findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia through enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes, suggesting that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activity is a novel target of PPAR{alpha} agonist for decreasing circulating levels of lipids under postprandial conditions.

  15. The cAMP/PKA pathway rapidly activates SIRT1 to promote fatty acid oxidation independently of changes in NAD+

    PubMed Central

    Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Dominy, John E.; Blättler, Sharon M.; Jedrychowski, Mark P.; Banks, Alexander S.; Lim, Ji-Hong; Chim, Helen; Gygi, Steven P.; Puigserver, Pere

    2012-01-01

    The NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is an evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensor of the Sirtuin family that mediates homeostatic responses to certain physiological stresses such as nutrient restriction. Previous reports have implicated fluctuations in intracellular NAD+ concentrations as the principal regulator of SIRT1 activity. However, here we have identified a cAMP-induced phosphorylation of a highly conserved serine (S434) located in the SIRT1 catalytic domain that rapidly enhanced intrinsic deacetylase activity independently of changes in NAD+ levels. Attenuation of SIRT1 expression or the use of a non-phosphorylatable SIRT1 mutant prevented cAMP-mediated stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and gene expression linked to this pathway. Overexpression of SIRT1 in mice significantly potentiated the increases in fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure caused by either pharmacological ?-adrenergic agonism or cold exposure. These studies support a mechanism of Sirtuin enzymatic control through the cAMP/PKA pathway with important implications for stress responses and maintenance of energy homeostasis. PMID:22195961

  16. The Two Carboxylases of Corynebacterium glutamicum Essential for Fatty Acid and Mycolic Acid Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Gande; Lynn G. Dover; Karin Krumbach; Gurdyal S. Besra; Hermann Sahm; Tadao Oikawa; Lothar Eggeling

    2007-01-01

    The suborder Corynebacterianeae comprises bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, and these bacteria contain in addition to the linear fatty acids, unique -branched -hydroxy fatty acids, called mycolic acids. Whereas acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase activity is required to provide malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis, a new type of carboxylase is apparently additionally present in these bacteria. It activates the

  17. Characterization of the fatty acid synthetase system of Curtobacterium pusillum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, A; Uemura, N; Okuda, S

    1986-06-01

    Curtobacterium pusillum contains 11-cyclohexylundecanoic acid as a major component of cellular fatty acids. A trace amount of 13-cyclohexyltridecanoic acid is also present. Fatty acids other than omega-cyclohexyl fatty acids present are 13-methyltetradecanoic, 12-methyltetradecanoic, n-pentadecanoic, 14-methylpentadecanoic, 13-methylpentadecanoic, n-hexadecanoic, 15-methylhexadecanoic, 14-methylhexadecanoic, and n-heptadecanoic acids. The fatty acid synthetase system of this bacterium was studied. Various 14C-labeled precursors were added to the growth medium and the incorporation of radioactivity into cellular fatty acids was analyzed. Sodium [14C]acetate and [14C]glucose were incorporated into almost all species of cellular fatty acids, the incorporation into 11-cyclohexylundecanoic acid being predominant. [14C]Isoleucine was incorporated into 12-methyltetradecanoic and 14-methylhexadecanoic acids: [14C]leucine into 13-methyltetradecanoic and 15-methylhexadecanoic acids; and [14C]valine into 14-methylpentadecanoic acid. [14C]-Shikimic acid was incorporated almost exclusively into omega-cyclohexyl fatty acids. The fatty acid synthetase activity of the crude enzyme preparation of C. pusillum was reconstituted on the addition of acyl carrier protein. This synthetase system required NADPH and preferentially utilized cyclohexanecarbonyl-CoA as a primer. The system was also able to use branched- and straight-chain acyl-CoAs with 4 to 6 carbon atoms effectively as primers but was unable to use acetyl-CoA. However, if acetyl acyl carrier protein was used as the priming substrate, the system produced straight-chain fatty acids. The results imply that the specificity of the initial acyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein acyltransferase dictates the structure of fatty acids synthesized and that the enzymes catalyzing the subsequent chain-elongation reactions do not have the same specificity restriction. PMID:3528138

  18. Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed. PMID:23200809

  19. Specific variations of fatty acid composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 induced by quaternary ammonium compounds and relation with resistance to bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Guérin-Méchin, L; Dubois-Brissonnet, F; Heyd, B; Leveau, J Y

    1999-11-01

    The role of membrane fatty acid composition in the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 to the bactericidal activity of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) was investigated. The strain was grown in a medium with increasing concentrations of a QAC, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14) and two non-QACs, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and tri-sodium phosphate. In the presence of C14 only, the strain was able to grow in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration. As the strain adapted to C14, resistance to bactericidal activity of the same biocide increased. For the non-QACs, no change was noted when cells were grown in the presence of biocides. The C14-adapted cells showed variations in membrane fatty acid composition. A hierarchical clustering analysis was used to compare all fatty acid compositions of cultures in the presence, or not, of the three biocides used here and another QAC studied previously. The clusters obtained underlined specific variations of membrane fatty acids in response to the presence of QACs. Furthermore, with a simple linear regression analysis, a relationship was shown between the membrane fatty acids and the resistance developed by the strain against the bactericidal activity of C14. PMID:10594715

  20. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    O'Quin, Jami B; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

    2009-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared toward the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically expressed enzymes. Here, we show that the addition of an N-terminal epitope tag sequence (either Myc or hemagglutinin) to oleate desaturase (FAD2) or omega-3 linoleate desaturase (FAD3) enzymes from plants, which catalyze consecutive reactions in the production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids, significantly increases their activity up to fourfold when expressed in yeast cells. Quantitative protein blotting using an antibody specific for native FAD2 revealed that the steady-state amount of the epitope-tagged FAD2 protein was also approximately fourfold higher than that of its untagged counterpart, demonstrating a direct relationship between the epitope tag-induced increase in enzyme amount and fatty acid product formation. Protein half-life and RNA blotting experiments indicated that the half-lives and mRNA content of the tagged and untagged FAD2 proteins were essentially the same, suggesting that the epitope tags increased protein abundance by improving translational efficiency. Taken together, these results indicate that the addition of an epitope tag sequence to a plant fatty acid desaturase (FAD) not only provides a useful means for protein immunodetection using highly specific, commercially available antibodies, but that it also significantly increases FAD activity and the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in yeast cells. PMID:19137289

  1. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A fatty acid desaturase modulates the activation of defense signaling pathways in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Kachroo; John Shanklin; Jyoti Shah; Edward J. Whittle; Daniel F. Klessig

    2001-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in activating various plant defense responses, including expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and systemic acquired resistance. A critical positive regulator of the SA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis is encoded by the NPR1 gene. However, there is growing evidence that NPR1-independent pathways can also activate PR expression and disease resistance. To elucidate the

  3. Sex and depot differences in ex vivo adipose tissue fatty acid storage and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Chen, Liang; Oberschneider, Elisabeth; Harteneck, Debra; Jensen, Michael D

    2015-05-01

    Adipose tissue fatty acid storage varies according to sex, adipose tissue depot, and degree of fat gain. However, the mechanism(s) for these variations is not completely understood. We examined whether differences in adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) might play a role in these variations. We optimized an enzyme activity assay for total GPAT and GPAT1 activity in human adipose tissue and measured GPAT activity. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from obese and nonobese adults for measures of GPAT and GPAT1 activities, ex vivo palmitate storage, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT) activities, and CD36 protein. Total GPAT and GPAT1 activities decreased as a function of adipocyte size in both omental (r = -0.71, P = 0.003) and subcutaneous (r = -0.58, P = 0.04) fat. The relative contribution of GPAT1 to total GPAT activity increased as a function of adipocyte size, accounting for up to 60% of GPAT activity in those with the largest adipocytes. We found strong, positive correlations between ACS, GPAT, and DGAT activities for both sexes and depots (r values 0.58-0.91) and between these storage factors and palmitate storage rates into TAG (r values 0.55-0.90). We conclude that: 1) total GPAT activity decreases as a function of adipocyte size; 2) GPAT1 can account for over half of adipose GPAT activity in hypertrophic obesity; and 3) ACS, GPAT, and DGAT are coordinately regulated. PMID:25738782

  4. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. We previously showed that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study was focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. Methods: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 hours) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C);transient coronary occlusion (10 minutes) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution to the citric acid cycle (FC) was analyzed by 13-Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% baseline at 4 hours and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [ATP]/[ADP] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. Conclusions: T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following ischemia-reperfusion injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  5. Triiodothyronine Activates Lactate Oxidation Without Impairing Fatty Acid Oxidation and Improves Weaning From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G; Portman, Michael A

    2014-10-28

    Background:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. It has previously been shown that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury.Methods?and?Results:Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 h) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C); transient coronary occlusion (10 min) for ischemia-reperfusion (IR) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon ((13)C)-labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs, was infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution (FC) to the citric acid cycle was analyzed by(13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance. ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% of the baseline at 4 h and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [adenosine triphosphate]/[adenosine diphosphate] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR.Conclusions:T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following IR injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning. PMID:25354460

  6. Sustained activation of PPAR? by endogenous ligands increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation and prevents obesity in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiansheng; Jia, Yuzhi; Fu, Tao; Viswakarma, Navin; Bai, Liang; Rao, M Sambasiva; Zhu, Yijun; Borensztajn, Jayme; Reddy, Janardan K

    2012-02-01

    Obesity, a major health concern, results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are paradigmatic of obesity, resulting from excess energy intake and storage. Mice lacking acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), the first enzyme of the peroxisomal fatty acid ?-oxidation system, are characterized by increased energy expenditure and a lean body phenotype caused by sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) by endogenous ligands in liver that remain unmetabolized in the absence of Acox1. We generated ob/ob mice deficient in Acox1 (Acox1(-/-)) to determine how the activation of PPAR? by endogenous ligands might affect the obesity of ob/ob mice. In contrast to Acox1(-/-) (14.3±1.2 g at 6 mo) and the Acox1-deficient (ob/ob) double-mutant mice (23.8±4.6 g at 6 mo), the ob/ob mice are severely obese (54.3±3.2 g at 6 mo) and had significantly more (P<0.01) epididymal fat content. The resistance of Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice to obesity is due to increased PPAR?-mediated up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver. Activation of PPAR? in Acox1-deficient ob/ob mice also reduces serum glucose and insulin (P<0.05) and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Further, PPAR? activation reduces hepatic steatosis and increases hepatocellular regenerative response in Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice at a more accelerated pace than in mice lacking only Acox1. However, Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice manifest hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and also develop hepatocellular carcinomas (8 of 8 mice) similar to those observed in Acox1(-/-) mice (10 of 10 mice), but unlike in ob/ob (0 of 14 mice) and OB/OB (0 of 6 mice) mice, suggesting that superimposed ER stress and PPAR? activation contribute to carcinogenesis in a fatty liver. Finally, absence of Acox1 in ob/ob mice can impart resistance to high-fat diet (60% fat)-induced obesity, and their liver had significantly (P<0.01) more cell proliferation. These studies with Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice indicate that sustained activation of lipid-sensing nuclear receptor PPAR? attenuates obesity and restores glucose homeostasis by ameliorating insulin resistance but increases the risk for liver cancer development, in part related to excess energy combustion. PMID:22009939

  7. The activity of fatty acid synthase of epidermal keratinocytes is regulated in the lower stratum spinousum and the stratum basale by local inflammation rather than by circulating hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Uchiyama; Ayako Yamamoto; Kensuke Kameda; Hideo Yamaguchi; Masaaki Ito

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal keratinocytes produce and secrete lipids to maintain the water barrier of the epidermis. To clarify the regulation of epidermal lipid synthesis, we investigated the hormonal effect on the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) of the keratinocytes, and the expression of FAS in the human skin. In cultured keratinocytes, the FAS activity, assayed by measuring the oxidation of

  8. Thermodynamics of Fatty Acid Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Zakim

    2000-01-01

    .   There is continuing controversy about the mechanism for transfer of fatty acids (FA) between plasma and the interior of cells\\u000a and vice versa. One view is that this is a spontaneous process. The generally accepted view is that each step of the process is facilitated\\u000a by a specialized protein. Whether uptake is spontaneous or facilitated, the components of the

  9. Decreased hepatic production of very low density lipoproteins following activation of fatty acid oxidation by Ro 22-0654

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munehiko Yamamoto; Nobuhim Fukuda; Joseph Triscari; Ann C. Sullivan; Joseph A. Ontko

    In fed rat livers perfused with (l-'*C)oleic acid, Ro 22-0654 (4-amino-5-ethyl-3-thiophenecarboxylic acid methyl ester hydrochloride), an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis, acti- vated ketogenesis and decreased the secretion of triglyceride in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Ro 22-0654 was without effect on total oleic acid uptake and utilization by the liver. The liver triglyceride content, urea synthesis, and bile production

  10. Synergy of fatty acid and reactive alkenal activation of proton conductance through uncoupling protein 1 in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Telma C.; Parker, Nadeene; Brand, Martin D.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of proton transport through mammalian UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) expressed in yeast mitochondria were measured. There was little or no UCP1 activity in the absence of added palmitate, but significant activity in its presence. The activator 4-HNE (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) had little effect when added alone, but significantly enhanced proton conductance in the presence of added palmitate. Activation of the proton conductance of UCP1 was synergistic: proton conductance in the presence of both palmitate and 4-HNE was significantly greater than the sum of the individual effects. Mitochondria from control yeast transformed with empty vector showed no such synergy, showing that synergy is a property of UCP1. Activation by the 4-HNE analogue trans-cinnamate showed essentially the same characteristics as activation by 4-HNE. Mitochondria from brown adipose tissue also showed synergistic activation of GDP-sensitive proton conductance by palmitate and 4-HNE. These results show that reactive alkenals activate the proton conductance of UCP1 more strongly when fatty acids are also added, with implications for both mechanistic and physiological models of UCP1 activation. PMID:16451125

  11. Complex I assembly function and fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity of ACAD9 both contribute to disease severity in ACAD9 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Manuel; Haberberger, Birgit; Xia, Chuanwu; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Goetzman, Eric S; Wang, Yudong; Uppala, Radha; Zhang, Yuxun; Karunanidhi, Anuradha; Prabhu, Dolly; Alharbi, Hana; Prochownik, Edward V; Haack, Tobias; Häberle, Johannes; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnes; Taylor, Robert W; Nicholls, Robert D; Kim, Jung-Ja; Prokisch, Holger; Vockley, Jerry

    2015-06-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is an assembly factor for mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I (CI), and ACAD9 mutations are recognized as a frequent cause of CI deficiency. ACAD9 also retains enzyme ACAD activity for long-chain fatty acids in vitro, but the biological relevance of this function remains controversial partly because of the tissue specificity of ACAD9 expression: high in liver and neurons and minimal in skin fibroblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that this enzymatic ACAD activity is required for full fatty acid oxidation capacity in cells expressing high levels of ACAD9 and that loss of this function is important in determining phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. First, we confirmed that HEK293 cells express ACAD9 abundantly. Then, we showed that ACAD9 knockout in HEK293 cells affected long-chain fatty acid oxidation along with Cl, both of which were rescued by wild type ACAD9. Further, we evaluated whether the loss of ACAD9 enzymatic fatty acid oxidation affects clinical severity in patients with ACAD9 mutations. The effects on ACAD activity of 16 ACAD9 mutations identified in 24 patients were evaluated using a prokaryotic expression system. We showed that there was a significant inverse correlation between residual enzyme ACAD activity and phenotypic severity of ACAD9-deficient patients. These results provide evidence that in cells where it is strongly expressed, ACAD9 plays a physiological role in fatty acid oxidation, which contributes to the severity of the phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. Accordingly, treatment of ACAD9 patients should aim at counteracting both CI and fatty acid oxidation dysfunctions. PMID:25721401

  12. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric (Pitt); (Michigan); (Van Andel); (Morehouse-MED)

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  13. Cardiac lipoprotein lipase activity in the hypertrophied heart may be regulated by fatty acid flux.

    PubMed

    Hauton, David; Caldwell, Germaine M

    2012-04-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterised by an imbalance between lipid uptake and fatty acid ?-oxidation leading to an accumulation of lipids, particularly triacylglycerol (TAG). It is unclear whether uptake mechanisms such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL) can be attenuated to diminish this uptake. Rats were cold acclimated to induce cardiac hypertrophy and increase cardiac LPL. Lipid uptake and metabolism were altered by feeding a 'Western-style' high fat diet (WSD) or feeding oxfenicine (2g/L) in the drinking water. Diastolic stiffness (increased volume change/unit pressure change) was induced in hypertrophied hearts for rats fed WSD (P<0.05) or WSD+oxfenicine (P<0.01), although absolute performance of cardiac muscle, estimated from stress-strain calculations was unchanged. Cold acclimation increased cardiac endothelial LPL (P<0.05) but this was diminished following oxfenicine. Following WSD LPL was further decreased below WSD-fed control hearts (P<0.05) with no further decrease by oxfenicine supplementation. A negative correlation was noted between plasma TAG and endothelial LPL (correlation coefficient=-0.654; P<0.001) but not cardiac TAG concentration. Transcript levels of angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL4) were increased 6-fold by WSD (P<0.05) and increased 15-fold following WSD+oxfenicine (P<0.001). For CA-hearts fed WSD or WSD+oxfenicine ANGPTL4 mRNA levels were preserved at chow-fed levels. VLDLR protein levels were increased 10-fold (P<0.01) by CA. ANGPTL4 protein levels were increased 2-fold (P<0.05) by WSD, but restored following oxfenicine. For CA-hearts WSD increased ANGPTL4 protein levels 3-fold (P<0.01) with WSD+oxfenicine increasing ANGPTL4 protein 4-fold (P<0.01). These data suggest that endothelial LPL levels in the heart are altered to maintain FA flux and may exploit ANGPTL4. PMID:22226882

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Peet, Malcolm; Stokes, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for physical health is now well recognised and there is increasing evidence that omega-3 fatty acids may also be important to mental health. The two main omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important biological functions in the CNS. DHA is a major structural component of neuronal membranes, and changing the fatty acid composition of neuronal membranes leads to functional changes in the activity of receptors and other proteins embedded in the membrane phospholipid. EPA has important physiological functions that can affect neuronal activity. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between depression and low dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, and biochemical studies have shown reduced levels of omega-3 fatty acids in red blood cell membranes in both depressive and schizophrenic patients. Five of six double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia, and four of six such trials in depression, have reported therapeutic benefit from omega-3 fatty acids in either the primary or secondary statistical analysis, particularly when EPA is added on to existing psychotropic medication. Individual clinical trials have suggested benefits of EPA treatment in borderline personality disorder and of combined omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The evidence to date supports the adjunctive use of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of treatment unresponsive depression and schizophrenia. As these conditions are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus, omega-3 fatty acids should also benefit the physical state of these patients. However, as the clinical research evidence is preliminary, large, and definitive randomised controlled trials similar to those required for the licensing of any new pharmacological treatment are needed. PMID:15907142

  15. Effect of the degree of hydrogenation of dietary fish oil on the trans fatty acid content and enzymatic activity of rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Morgado, N; Galleguillos, A; Sanhueza, J; Garrido, A; Nieto, S; Valenzuela, A

    1998-07-01

    The degree of fat hydrogenation and the trans fatty acid content of the diet affect the fatty acid composition of membranes, and the amount and the activity of some membrane enzymes. We describe the effects of four isocaloric diets containing either sunflower oil (SO, 0% trans), fish oil (FO, 0.5% trans), partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO, 30% trans), or highly hydrogenated fish oil (HHFO, 3.6% trans) as fat sources on the lipid composition and the trans fatty acid content of rat hepatic microsomes. We also describe the effect of these diets on the cytochrome P-450 content and on the aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and UDP-glucuronyl transferase microsomal activities. Cytochrome P-450 content was dependent on the degree of unsaturation of the diet, being higher for the FO-containing diet and lower for the HHFO diet. Aminopyrine N-demethylase activity also correlated with the degree of unsaturation of the diet as did the cytochrome P-450 content did (FO > SO > PHFO > HHFO). Aniline hydroxylase activity appeared to be independent of the degree of unsaturation of the dietary fat, but correlated with the trans fatty acid content of the diet, which was also reflected in the trans content of the microsomal membranes. UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity was higher for the FO-containing diet than for the SO diet, showing intermediate values after the PHFO and HHFO diets. PMID:9688169

  16. N-Terminal Fatty Acid Substitution Increases the Leishmanicidal Activity of CA(1-7)M(2-9), a Cecropin-Melittin Hybrid Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Chicharro, Cristina; Granata, Cesare; Lozano, Rosario; Andreu, David; Rivas, Luis

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the leishmanicidal activity of the synthetic cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptide CA(1-7)M(2-9) (KWKLFKKIGAVLKVL-NH2), a systematic study of its acylation with saturated linear fatty acids was carried out. Acylation of the N?-7 lysine residue led to a drastic decrease in leishmanicidal activity, whereas acylation at lysine 1, in either the ? or the ? NH2 group, increased up to 3 times the activity of the peptide against promastigotes and increased up to 15 times the activity of the peptide against amastigotes. Leishmanicidal activity increased with the length of the fatty acid chain, reaching a maximum for the lauroyl analogue (12 carbons). According to the fast kinetics, dissipation of membrane potential, and parasite membrane permeability to the nucleic acid binding probe SYTOX green, the lethal mechanism was directly related to plasma membrane permeabilization. PMID:11502512

  17. Modulation of Nitro-fatty Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vitturi, Dario A.; Chen, Chen-Shan; Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Koenitzer, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Nicolas A.; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation, characterized by the activation of both resident and infiltrated immune cells, is accompanied by increased production of oxidizing and nitrating species. Nitrogen dioxide, the proximal nitrating species formed under these conditions, reacts with unsaturated fatty acids to yield nitroalkene derivatives. These electrophilic products modulate protein function via post-translational modification of susceptible nucleophilic amino acids. Nitroalkenes react with Keap1 to instigate Nrf2 signaling, activate heat shock response gene expression, and inhibit NF-?B-mediated signaling, inducing net anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective metabolic responses. We report the purification and characterization of a NADPH-dependent liver enzyme that reduces the nitroalkene moiety of nitro-oleic acid, yielding the inactive product nitro-stearic acid. Prostaglandin reductase-1 (PtGR-1) was identified as a nitroalkene reductase by protein purification and proteomic studies. Kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, immunological and molecular biology approaches as well as clinical analyses confirmed this identification. Overexpression of PtGR-1 in HEK293T cells promoted nitroalkene metabolism to inactive nitroalkanes, an effect that abrogated the Nrf2-dependent induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression by nitro-oleic acid. These results situate PtGR-1 as a critical modulator of both the steady state levels and signaling activities of fatty acid nitroalkenes in vivo. PMID:23878198

  18. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity. PMID:19336899

  19. Effects of glucose starvation on the oxidation of fatty acids by maize root tip mitochondria and peroxisomes: evidence for mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in a higher plant.

    PubMed Central

    Dieuaide, M; Couée, I; Pradet, A; Raymond, P

    1993-01-01

    Fatty acid beta-oxidation was studied in organellar fractions from maize root tips by h.p.l.c. and radiometric analysis of the products of incubations with [1-14C]octanoate and [1-14C]palmitate. In crude organellar fractions containing both mitochondria and peroxisomes, octanoate and palmitate beta-oxidation, as determined by the production of acetyl-CoA, was functional and, for palmitate, was activated 4-12-fold after subjecting the root tips to 48 h of glucose starvation. The sensitivity to a 'cocktail' of respiratory-chain inhibitors containing cyanide, azide and salicylhydroxamate depended on the conditions of incubation, with no inhibition in a medium facilitating peroxisomal beta-oxidation and a significant inhibition in a medium potentially facilitating mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Indeed, preparations of highly purified mitochondria from glucose-starved root tips were able to oxidize octanoate and palmitate to give organic acids of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This activity was inhibited 5-10-fold by the above cocktail of respiratory-chain inhibitors, with no parallel accumulation of acetyl-CoA, thus showing that the inhibition affected beta-oxidation rather than the pathway from acetyl-CoA to the organic acids. This provides the first evidence that the complete beta-oxidation pathway from fatty acids to citrate was functional in mitochondria from a higher plant. Moreover, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity was shown to be present in the purified mitochondria. In contrast with the peroxisomal activity, mitochondrial beta-oxidation showed the same efficiency with octanoate and palmitate and was strictly dependent on glucose starvation. PMID:8250843

  20. RESEARCH PAPER Contribution of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase and

    E-print Network

    Palva, Tapio

    RESEARCH PAPER Contribution of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase and 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII: Cold acclimation, fatty acid, freezing resistance, linoleic acid, low temperature, omega-3 fatty acid

  1. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN CRITICAL ILLNESS

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julie M.; Stapleton, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation of enteral nutritional formulas and parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions with omega-3 fatty acids is a recent area of research in patients with critical illness. It is hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce inflammation in critically ill patients, particularly those with sepsis and acute lung injury. The objective of this article is to review the data on supplementing omega-3 fatty acids during critical illness; enteral and parenteral supplementation are reviewed separately. The results of the research available to date are contradictory for both enteral and parenteral omega-3 fatty acid administration. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may influence the acute inflammatory response in critically ill patients, but more research is needed before definitive recommendations about the routine use of omega-3 fatty acids in caring for critically ill patients can be made. PMID:20796218

  2. Derivatives of the cationic plant alkaloids berberine and palmatine amplify protonophorous activity of fatty acids in model membranes and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Pustovidko, Antonina V; Rokitskaya, Tatiana I; Severina, Inna I; Simonyan, Ruben A; Trendeleva, Tatiana A; Lyamzaev, Konstantin G; Antonenko, Yuri N; Rogov, Anton G; Zvyagilskaya, Renata A; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Chernyak, Boris V

    2013-09-01

    Previously it has been shown by our group that berberine and palmatine, penetrating cations of plant origin, when conjugated with plastoquinone (SkQBerb and SkQPalm), can accumulate in isolated mitochondria or in mitochondria of living cells and effectively protect them from oxidative damage. In the present work, we demonstrate that SkQBerb, SkQPalm, and their analogs lacking the plastoquinone moiety (C10Berb and C10Palm) operate as mitochondria-targeted compounds facilitating protonophorous effect of free fatty acids. These compounds induce proton transport mediated by small concentrations of added fatty acids both in planar and liposomal model lipid membranes. In mitochondria, such an effect can be carried out by endogenous fatty acids and the adenine nucleotide translocase. PMID:23026390

  3. The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid on Vitamin D Activation in Hemodialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Mi; Son, Young Ki; Kim, Seong Eun; An, Won Suk

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of cardiovascular disease and vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease patients is well known. Vitamin D activation by omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation may explain the cardioprotective effects exerted by omega-3 FA. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) supplementation may increase 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels compared to 25(OH)D supplementation alone in hemodialysis (HD) patients that have insufficient or deficient 25(OH)D levels. We enrolled patients that were treated for at least six months with 25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL (NCT01596842). Patients were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with cholecalciferol supplemented with omega-3 FA or a placebo. Levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane FA contents were also measured. Levels of 25(OH)D were increased in both groups at 12 weeks compared to baseline. The 1,25(OH)2D levels at 12 weeks compared to baseline showed a tendency to increase in the omega-3 FA group. The oleic acid and monounsaturated FA content decreased, while the omega-3 index increased in the omega-3 FA group. Omega-3 FA supplementation may be partly associated with vitamin D activation, although increased 25(OH)D levels caused by short-term cholecalciferol supplementation were not associated with vitamin D activation in HD patients. PMID:25636157

  4. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  5. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  6. Structural requirements for charged lipid molecules to directly increase or suppress K+ channel activity in smooth muscle cells. Effects of fatty acids, lysophosphatidate, acyl coenzyme A and sphingosine

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We determined the structural features necessary for fatty acids to exert their action on K+ channels of gastric smooth muscle cells. Examination of the effects of a variety of synthetic and naturally occurring lipid compounds on K+ channel activity in cell-attached and excised membrane patches revealed that negatively charged analogs of medium to long chain fatty acids (but not short chain analogs) as well as certain other negatively charged lipids activate the channels. In contrast, positively charged, medium to long chain analogs suppress activity, and neutral analogs are without effect. The key requirements for effective compounds seem to be a sufficiently hydrophobic domain and the presence of a charged group. Furthermore, those negatively charged compounds unable to "flip" across the bilayer are effective only when applied at the cytosolic surface of the membrane, suggesting that the site of fatty acid action is also located there. Finally, because some of the effective compounds, for example, the fatty acids themselves, lysophosphatidate, acyl Coenzyme A, and sphingosine, are naturally occurring substances and can be liberated by agonist- activated or metabolic enzymes, they may act as second messengers targeting ion channels. PMID:8195783

  7. Applying a multitarget rational drug design strategy: the first set of modulators with potent and balanced activity toward dopamine D3 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Alessio; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Albani, Clara; Tarozzo, Glauco; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele; Cavalli, Andrea; Bottegoni, Giovanni

    2014-05-18

    Combining computer-assisted drug design and synthetic efforts, we generated compounds with potent and balanced activities toward both D3 dopamine receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme. By concurrently modulating these targets, our compounds hold great potential toward exerting a disease-modifying effect on nicotine addiction and other forms of compulsive behavior. PMID:24691497

  8. Growth temperature affects accumulation of exogenous fatty acids and fatty acid composition in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia M. McDonough; Therese M. Roth

    2004-01-01

    The incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, was\\u000a examined in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe at two growth temperatures, 20?C and 30?C. Fatty acids supplied to S. pombe in the growth medium were found to be preferentially incorporated into the cells, becoming a dominant species. The relative\\u000a increase in exogenous fatty acids

  9. The role of Ncb5or in fatty acid metabolism and redox homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Xu, Ming

    2011-12-31

    RNA and protein levels are considered. Accumulation of saturated fatty acids in Ncb5or-/- hepatocytes increases mitochondrial content, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-ã coactivator 1á (PGC-1á) expression, fatty acid oxidation rates, oxidative stress...

  10. METABOLITE SIGNALING; ROLE OF FATTY ACIDS IN PLANT DEFENSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stearoyl-ACP-desaturase-mediated conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid (18:1) is the key step regulating levels of unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) in the cell. A mutation in the ssi2 encoded S-ACP-DES results in constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathway and repression of certain...

  11. The Fatty Acid Signaling Molecule cis-2-Decenoic Acid Increases Metabolic Activity and Reverts Persister Cells to an Antimicrobial-Susceptible State

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Aleksey; Planzos, Penny; Zelaya, Hector M.

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells, which are tolerant to antimicrobials, contribute to biofilm recalcitrance to therapeutic agents. In turn, the ability to kill persister cells is believed to significantly improve efforts in eradicating biofilm-related, chronic infections. While much research has focused on elucidating the mechanism(s) by which persister cells form, little is known about the mechanism or factors that enable persister cells to revert to an active and susceptible state. Here, we demonstrate that cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-DA), a fatty acid signaling molecule, is able to change the status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli persister cells from a dormant to a metabolically active state without an increase in cell number. This cell awakening is supported by an increase of the persister cells' respiratory activity together with changes in protein abundance and increases of the transcript expression levels of several metabolic markers, including acpP, 16S rRNA, atpH, and ppx. Given that most antimicrobials target actively growing cells, we also explored the effect of cis-DA on enhancing antibiotic efficacy in killing persister cells due to their inability to keep a persister cell state. Compared to antimicrobial treatment alone, combinational treatments of persister cell subpopulations with antimicrobials and cis-DA resulted in a significantly greater decrease in cell viability. In addition, the presence of cis-DA led to a decrease in the number of persister cells isolated. We thus demonstrate the ability of a fatty acid signaling molecule to revert bacterial cells from a tolerant phenotype to a metabolically active, antimicrobial-sensitive state. PMID:25192989

  12. Interaction of Fatty Acid with Myoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Renuka; Kreutzer, Ulrike; Shih, Lifan; Jue, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Upon titration with palmitate, the 1H NMR spectra of metmyoglobin cyanide (MbCN) reveal a selective perturbation of the 8 heme methyl, consistent with a specific interaction of myoglobin (Mb) with fatty acid. Other detectable hyperfine shifted resonances of the heme group remain unchanged. Mb also enhances fatty acid solubility, as reflected in a more intense methylene peak of palmitate in Mb than in Tris buffer. Ligand binding analysis indicates an apparent palmitate dissociation constant (Kd) of 43 ?M. These results suggest that Mb can bind fatty acid and may have a role in facilitating fatty acid transport in the cell. PMID:18840435

  13. Trienoic Fatty Acids and Plant Tolerance of High Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuuki Murakami; Michito Tsuyama; Yoshichika Kobayashi; Hiroaki Kodama; Koh Iba

    2000-01-01

    The chloroplast membrane of higher plants contains an unusually high concentration of trienoic fatty acids. Plants grown in colder temperatures have a higher content of trienoic fatty acids. Transgenic tobacco plants in which the gene encoding chloroplast omega-3 fatty acid desaturase, which synthesizes trienoic fatty acids, was silenced contained a lower level of trienoic fatty acids than wild-type plants and

  14. Growth temperature affects accumulation of exogenous fatty acids and fatty acid composition in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia M. McDonough; Therese M. Roth

    2004-01-01

    The incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, was examined in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe at two growth temperatures, 20 °C and 30 °C. Fatty acids supplied to S. pombe in the growth medium were found to be preferentially incorporated into the cells, becoming a dominant species. The relative increase in exogenous

  15. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF EGGS ENRICHED WITH OMEGA -3 FATTY ACIDS ON THE MARKET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vekoslava STIBILJ; Mojca KOMAN; Antonija HOLCMAN

    1999-01-01

    The aim of our work was to determine fatty acid content in eggs enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from various producers on the market. Due to simplicity, speed and reduced organic solvent usage, we used the in situ trans-esterification ISTE method for the determination of the fatty acid composition in eggs. The method was checked by the analysis of

  16. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  17. [Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids].

    PubMed

    Caramia, G

    2012-01-01

    In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as precursors of "lipid mediator" molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body's inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA) were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxye-icosatetraenoic acids (EETR) and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE), whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE). For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as hashish and marijuana (-)-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. They act as true 'endogenous cannabinoids' by binding and functionally activating one or both cannabinoid receptor present on nervous and peripheral cell membranes. Enzymes that carry out anandamide oxidation are the same fatty acid oxygenases that are known to act on endogenous arachidonic acid namely, the members of the COX, LOX, and P450 families of enzymes. Recent advances in the biochemistry and pharmacology of the endocannabinoid system, also for its central and peripheral roles in regulating food intake, will offer the development of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:22730630

  18. Modification of the fatty acid composition of bovine tissues 

    E-print Network

    Chang, Joyce

    1990-01-01

    , quantitating the activity of the enzymes involved in the conversion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in intestine, liver, muscle and adipose tissue will be a second objective of this study. In addition, these enzyme systems will be studied... in liver and adipose tissue, thereby affecting the composition of 10 the fatty acids in those tissues. Along with physical activity, obesity seems to also play a role in the regulation of the desaturase enzyme. A suggested mechanism by which physical...

  19. [The fatty acid composition of ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivated in Georgia and its byological activity].

    PubMed

    Kakilashvili, B Iu; Zurabashvili, D Z; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A; Parulava, G K

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was individual quantitatively and qualitatively determination of fatty acids in ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.), cultivated in Georgia. The neutral lipids extracts were fractionated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (PTC-1, Waters) with refractory detector R-401. Analitical column (150,0x3,0 mm) was filled with reversphase Bondopak C18). Software OASIS-740 is used. The correction retention times of each fatty acids is compared with comformity standard. The investigation showed that in flax seed oil linoleic (31,3±2,1 mg%) and linolenic (40,2±2,9 mg%) acids were predominant and together constitute principal basic of research composition. The flax seed oil contained also palmitic and stearic acids in less quantitaty. PMID:24632654

  20. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  1. Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    de Lema, M.G.; Aeberhard, E.E.

    1986-11-01

    Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated (18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)) fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

  2. Improving the short-chain fatty acids production of waste activated sludge stimulated by a bi-frequency ultrasonic pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aijuan; Yang, Chunxue; Kong, Fanying; Liu, Dandan; Chen, Zhaobo; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie

    2013-04-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the most important intermediate in the waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation process. This work explored a novel approach to improve the SCFAs production from WAS. Experimental results showed that the disintegration and acidification of WAS were enhanced markedly by using bi-frequency (28+40 kHz) ultrasonic pretreatment compared with monofrequency (28 kHz and 40 kHz) ultrasonic pretreatments. After 28 + 40 kHz ultrasonic pretreatment, the SCOD concentration increased from original 363 mg COD l(-1) to 10810 mg COD l(-1) which was 1.53-fold and 1.44-fold of the values obtained with 28kHz and 40kHz ultrasonic pretreatments, respectively. The maximum SCFAs production reached 7587 mg COD l(-1) in the 28 + 40 kHz test which was respectively 1.25-fold and 1.31-fold of that in the 28 kHz (6053 mg COD l(-1)) and 40 kHz (5809 mg COD I(-1)) tests. This was the highest SCFAs production obtained so far using WAS, pretreated by ultrasonic technology, as the renewable carbon source. SCFAs composition analysis revealed there was more acetic acid (3992 mg COD l(-1), accounted for 52.6% of the total SCFAs) for the 28+40 kHz ultrasonic pretreatment which was beneficial to many subsequent bioprocesses. PMID:24620609

  3. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721.3627 Section 721.3627...721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid (PMN P-94-422) is...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). 721.3710 Section...721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as a Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721.3627 Section 721.3627...721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid (PMN P-94-422) is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). 721.3710 Section...721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as a Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is...

  7. Essential Fatty Acids and Human Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Yu Chang; Jen-Yin Chen

    2009-01-01

    3 Abstract- The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Clinical

  8. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type ?-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three ?-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reviewed results from published studies regarding the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake on insulin resistance (IR) in human subjects. Evidence has been gathered from epidemiological, cross-sectional and interventions studies. Increased intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) inc...

  10. Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Kodani, Sean; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), which are lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases from polyunsaturated fatty acids, are important signaling molecules known to regulate various biological processes including inflammation, pain and angiogenesis. The EpFAs are further metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form fatty acid diols which are usually less-active. Pharmacological inhibitors of sEH that stabilize endogenous EpFAs are being considered for human clinical uses. Here we review the biology of ?-3 and ?-6 EpFAs on inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:24345640

  11. Dietary fat and the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Carroll

    1965-01-01

    Some characteristics of the fatty acid composition of animal tissue lipids are described and the origins of tissue fatty acids\\u000a are discussed briefly. The effect of dietary fat on composition of tissue lipids is discussed. Types of dietary fatty acids\\u000a for which experimental work is described include polyunsaturated fatty acids, short-chain fatty acids, fatty acids with chain\\u000a length greater than

  12. Oleic acid transfer from microsomes to egg lecithin liposomes: Participation of fatty acid binding protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Catala; Beatriz Avanzati

    1983-01-01

    Oleic acid transfer from microsomes or mitochondria to egg lecithin liposomes was stimulated by fatty acid binding protein.\\u000a By gel filtration, it could be demonstrated that this protein incorporates oleic acid into liposomes. Fatty acid binding protein\\u000a transfer activity was higher using microsomes rather than mitochondria, which suggests a selective interaction with different\\u000a kinds of membranes. Transfer of oleic acid

  13. Omega3 fatty acids and inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor A. Mori; Lawrence J. Beilin

    2004-01-01

    Dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have a variety of anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects that may be of relevance\\u000a to atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations of myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. The n-3 fatty acids\\u000a that appear to be most potent in this respect are the long-chain polyunsaturates derived from marine oils, namely eicosapentaenoic\\u000a acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA),

  14. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p?=?0.045), clarity (p?=?0.012), and regulation strategies (p?=?0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions. PMID:26032795

  15. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  17. Fatty acid ethanolamides modulate CD36-mRNA through dietary fatty acid manipulation in Syrian Golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Rideout, Todd; Yurkova, Natalia; Yang, Haifeng; Eck, Peter; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-08-01

    Fatty acids convert to fatty acid ethanolamides which associate with lipid signalling, fat oxidation, and energy balance; however, the extent to which dietary fatty acids manipulation can impact such control processes through fatty acid ethanolamides-related mechanisms remains understudied. The objective was to examine the impact of diets containing 6% corn oil, high oleic canola oil, docosahexaenoic acid + high oleic canola oil, and fish oil on plasma and organ levels of fatty acid ethanolamides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? regulatory targets, and lipid metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters. After 29 days, in plasma, animals that were fed fish oil showed greater (p < 0.05) oleoylethanolamide and lower (p < 0.05) arachidonoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide levels compared with other groups, while animals fed canola oil showed higher (p < 0.05) oleoylethanolamide levels in proximal intestine and liver than groups that were fed coin oil and fish oil. The canola oil group showed elevated (p < 0.01) fat oxidation (%) and over 3.0-fold higher (p < 0.05) hepatic-CD36 expression compared with the corn oil group. Hepatic-lipogenesis was lower (p < 0.05) in hamsters that were fed DHA-canola oil compared with the corn oil group. To conclude, dietary fatty acids produced shifts in plasma and organ levels of arachidonoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide, and palmitoylethanolamid, which were accompanied by changes in gene expression, lipogenesis, and energy expenditure, suggesting mechanisms through which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. PMID:23855275

  18. The effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on brown adipose tissue activity in rats maintained at thermal neutrality.

    PubMed

    Yazbeck, J; Goubern, M; Senault, C; Chapey, M F; Portet, R

    1989-01-01

    1. The consequences of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on the resting metabolism, food efficiency and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity were examined in rats maintained at thermal neutrality (28 C). 2. Weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed a hypolipidic semi-purified diet (control diet: 2% sunflower oil; EFA-deficient diet: 2% hydrogenated coconut oil) for 9 weeks. 3. They were kept at 28 C for the last 5 weeks. Compared to controls, in EFA-deficient rats the growth shortfall reached 21% at killing. 4. As food intake was the same in EFA-deficient and control rats, food efficiency was thus decreased by 40%. 5. Resting metabolism expressed per surface unit was 15% increased. 6. Non-renal water loss was increased by 88%. 7. BAT weight was 28% decreased but total and mitochondrial proteins were not modified. 8. Heat production capacity, tested by GDP binding per BAT was 69% increased in BAT of deficient rats. 9. The stimulation of BAT was established by two other tests: GDP inhibition of mitochondrial O2 consumption and swelling of mitochondria. 10. It is suggested that the observed enhancement of resting metabolism in EFA-deficient rats is, in part, due to an activation of heat production in BAT. PMID:2573473

  19. Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyan, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

  20. Regional uptake of meal fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael D; Sarr, Michael G; Dumesic, Daniel A; Southorn, Peter A; Levine, James A

    2003-12-01

    Two protocols were performed to study meal fatty acid metabolism. In protocol 1, 14 patients scheduled for elective intra-abdominal surgery (11 undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity) consumed a meal containing [3H]triolein in the evening before surgery. This allowed us to measure adipose tissue lipid specific activity (SA) in mesenteric and omental, deep and superficial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Intra-abdominal adipose tissue lipid SA was greater than subcutaneous lipid SA. There were no significant differences between mesenteric and omental or between deep and superficial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. In protocol 2, meal fatty acid oxidation and uptake into subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue ([3H]triolein) were measured in six normal, healthy volunteers. Meal fatty acid oxidation (3H2O generation) plus that remaining in plasma ( approximately 1%) plus uptake into upper body subcutaneous, lower body subcutaneous, and visceral fat allowed us to account for 98 +/- 6% of meal fatty acids 24 h after meal ingestion. We conclude that omental fat is a good surrogate for visceral fat and that abdominal subcutaneous fat depots are comparable with regard to meal fatty acid metabolic studies. Using [3H]triolein, we were able to account for virtually 100% of meal fatty acids 24 h after meal ingestion. These results support the meal fatty acid tracer model as a way to study the metabolic fate of dietary fat. PMID:12915396

  1. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  2. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  3. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids: micronutrients in disguise.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Novak, E M; Keller, B O

    2013-01-01

    Considerable information has accumulated to show that DHA and EPA have unique roles that differ from other n-3 fatty acids and the n-6 fatty acids, with increasing understanding of the mechanisms through which these fatty acids reduce risk of disease. DHA and EPA regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, but are present in foods of animal origin, which are generally high in protein with variable triglycerides and low carbohydrate. Biological activity at intakes too low to provide significant amounts of energy is consistent with the definition of a vitamin for which needs are modified by life-stage, diet and genetic variables, and disease. Recent studies reveal that DHA may play a central role in co-coordinating complex networks that integrate hepatic glucose, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism for the purpose of efficient utilization of dietary protein, particularly during early development when the milk diet provides large amounts of energy from fat. PMID:22709913

  4. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy. PMID:23112921

  5. Fatty acid breakdown in developing embryos of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Chia, T; Rawsthorne, S

    2000-12-01

    Developing Brassica napus embryos are primarily concerned with the accumulation of storage products, namely oil, starch and protein. The presence of fatty acid catabolic pathways in the background of this biosynthetic activity was investigated. Enzymes involved in the process of lipid mobilization, such as malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, are detectable towards the late stages of embryo development. [(14)C]Acetate feeding experiments also reveal that fatty acid catabolism becomes increasingly functional as the embryo matures. PMID:11171195

  6. Mechanisms of regulation of gene expression by fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu T. Nakamura; Yewon Cheon; Yue Li; Takayuki Y. Nara

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism. In particular, two transcription\\u000a factors, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1 c) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?),\\u000a have emerged as key mediators of gene regulation by FA. SREBP-1 c induces a set of lipogenic enzymes in liver. Polyunsaturated\\u000a fatty acids (PUFA), but not saturated

  7. Cellular fatty acid profile and H(+)-ATPase activity to assess acid tolerance of Bacillus sp. for potential probiotic functional attributes.

    PubMed

    Shobharani, P; Halami, Prakash M

    2014-11-01

    The present study has been focused widely on comparative account of probiotic qualities of Bacillus spp. for safer usage. Initially, 170 heat resistant flora were isolated and selected for non-pathogenic cultures devoid of cytK, hblD, and nhe1 virulence genes. Subsequently, through biochemical tests along with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid profiling, the cultures were identified as Bacillus megaterium (AR-S4), Bacillus subtilis (HR-S1), Bacillus licheniformis (Csm1-1a and HN-S1), and Bacillus flexus (CDM4-3c and CDM3-1). The selected cultures showed 70-80 % survival under simulated gastrointestinal condition which was also confirmed through H(+)-ATPase production. The amount of H(+)-ATPase increased by more than 2-fold when grown at pH 2 which support for the acid tolerance ability of Bacillus isolates. The study also examined the influence of acidic pH on cellular fatty acid composition of Bacillus spp. A remarkable shift in the fatty acid profile was observed at acidic pH through an increased amount of even numbered fatty acid (C16 and C18) in comparison with odd numbered (C15 and C17). Additionally, the cultures exhibited various probiotic functional properties. Overall, the study increases our understanding of Bacillus spp. and will allow both industries and consumers to choose for well-defined probiotic with possible health benefits. PMID:25125040

  8. Plasma acylcarnitine profiles suggest incomplete long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation and altered tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in type 2 diabetic African-American women.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean H; Hoppel, Charles L; Lok, Kerry H; Zhao, Ling; Wong, Scott W; Minkler, Paul E; Hwang, Daniel H; Newman, John W; Garvey, W Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflective of muscle fat catabolism when comparing individuals bearing a missense G304A uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 g/a) polymorphism to controls, because UCP3 is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and g/a individuals have reduced whole-body fat oxidation. MS analyses of 42 carnitine moieties in plasma samples from fasting type 2 diabetics (n = 44) and nondiabetics (n = 12) with or without the UCP3 g/a polymorphism (n = 28/genotype: 22 diabetic, 6 nondiabetic/genotype) were conducted. Contrary to our hypothesis, genotype had a negligible impact on plasma metabolite patterns. However, a comparison of nondiabetics vs. type 2 diabetics revealed a striking increase in the concentrations of fatty acylcarnitines reflective of incomplete LCFA beta-oxidation in the latter (i.e. summed C10- to C14-carnitine concentrations were approximately 300% of controls; P = 0.004). Across all volunteers (n = 56), acetylcarnitine rose and propionylcarnitine decreased with increasing hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.544, P < 0.0001; and r = -0.308, P < 0.05, respectively) and with increasing total plasma acylcarnitine concentration. In proof-of-concept studies, we made the novel observation that C12-C14 acylcarnitines significantly stimulated nuclear factor kappa-B activity (up to 200% of controls) in RAW264.7 cells. These results are consistent with the working hypothesis that inefficient tissue LCFA beta-oxidation, due in part to a relatively low tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity, increases tissue accumulation of acetyl-CoA and generates chain-shortened acylcarnitine molecules that activate proinflammatory pathways implicated in insulin resistance. PMID:19369366

  9. Effect of the degree of hydrogenation of fish oil on the enzymatic activity and on the fatty acid composition of hepatic microsomes from young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Nora; Sanhueza, Julio; Nieto, Susana; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the degree of hydrogenation of dietary fat, it is possible to modify the fatty acid composition and the biochemical activity of cellular tissues. The age can be another variable influencing these modifications. The effect of isocaloric diets containing oils with different degrees of hydrogenation: fish oil (FO, 0.3% TRANS), partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO, 29% TRANS), or highly hydrogenated fish oil (HHFO, 2.3% TRANS), in the fatty acid composition (CIS and TRANS isomers) of hepatic microsomes from young (70-day-old) and aged (18-month-old) rats, in the microsomal cytochrome P-450 (C-450) content, and in the aminopyrine N-demethylase (AND), aniline hydroxylase (AH), NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase (NCR), UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UGT), and GSH-S transferase (GST) enzymatic activities were studied. Fatty acid composition and n-6/n-3 ratio of microsomal membranes was modified to a higher extent in young rats. C-450 content and AND activity were reduced when the degree of hydrogenation of dietary fat was increased in the young and the aged rats. AH activity was higher after the PHFO diet in the young rats only. NCR activity was reduced in the young animals when the hydrogenation of the fat was increased. However, in aged rats the enzyme exhibited a higher activity after the PHFO and HHFO diet. UGT and GST activities where not affected by the level of hydrogenation of the dietary fat in both the young and the aged rats. However, UGT activity was higher in the young rats, while GST activity was higher in the aged animals. We conclude that hydrogenation of dietary fat can modify the fatty acid composition of hepatic microsomes, young animals being more sensitive to these changes than aged animals. These effects were also reflected in the amount and/or the activity of some molecular components of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase enzyme system. Microsomal TRANS fatty acid composition is not affecting the activity of the enzymes, the age of the animals being the most important factor. PMID:12743463

  10. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activity studies on three Agaricus species with fatty acid compositions and iron contents: A comparative study on the three most edible mushrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Öztürk; Mehmet Emin Duru; ?eyda Kivrak; Nazime Mercan-Do?an; Aziz Türkoglu; Mehmet Ali Özler

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acids of Agaricus essettei, Agaricus bitorquis and Agaricus bisporus were investigated by using GC and GC–MS. The dominant fatty acids were found to be linoleic (61.82–67.29%) and palmitic (12.67–14.71%) acids among the 13 fatty acids detected in the oils. Total unsaturation for the oils was calculated as 77.50%, 77.44%, and 79.72%, respectively. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial

  11. Dietary omega 3 fatty acids and the developing brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila M. Innis

    2008-01-01

    The ?-3 fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients and one of their important roles is providing the fatty acid with 22 carbons and 6 double bonds known as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for nervous tissue growth and function. Inadequate intakes of ?-3 fatty acids decrease DHA and increase ?-6 fatty acids in the brain. Decreased DHA in the developing brain leads

  12. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids promote the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by activating the JAK/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dehong; Yang, Quan; Shi, Maohua; Zhong, Limei; Wu, Changyou; Meng, Tao; Yin, Huiyong; Zhou, Jie

    2013-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert immunosuppressive effects that could prove beneficial in clinical therapies for certain autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. However, the mechanism of PUFA-mediated immunosuppression is far from understood. Here, we provide evidence that PUFAs enhance the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a negative immune regulator. PUFA-induced MDSCs have a more potent suppressive effect on T-cell responses than do control MDSCs. These observations were found both in cultured mouse bone marrow cells in vitro and in vivo in mice fed diets enriched in PUFAs. The enhanced suppressive activity of MDSCs by PUFAs administration was coupled with a dramatic induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleo- tide phosphate oxidase subunit p47(phox) and was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mechanistic studies revealed that PUFAs mediate its effects through JAK-STAT3 signaling. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by JAK inhibitor JSI-124 almost completely abrogated the effects of PUFAs on MDSCs. Moreover, the effects of PUFAs on MDSCs and the underlying mechanisms were confirmed in tumor-bearing mice. In summary, this study sheds new light on the immune modulatory role of PUFAs, and demonstrates that MDSCs expansion may mediate the effects of PUFAs on the immune system. PMID:23897117

  17. Carcass characteristics and fatty acid-binding protein activity in tissues of porcine and bovine species fed elevated monounsaturated fats 

    E-print Network

    St. John, Lori Ceanne

    1986-01-01

    . Fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue from cattle fed rapeseed stratified by treatment and location Fatty acid (X) 14:0 16:0 16:1 18:0 18:1 18:2 Treatment Control Rapeseed 3. 9 3. 6 26. 7b 24. 3 2. 0 20. 2 2. 0 20. 5 41. 2 4. 8 43. 0 5. 5... Adi ose tissue location Perirenal Subcutaneous (SN)d Subcutaneous (LD) 2. 9 4. 3 4. 1 24. 3 1. 1 28. 4 25. 8 2. 2 17. 2b 26. 7 2. 8 14. 9 38. 3 4. 4 43. 4 5. 3 44. 7 5. 6 a, b Neans with the same supercript letter within a column within...

  18. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

  19. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  20. Fatty acid contents of certain processed foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constance Willard; R. D. Englert; L. M. Richards

    1954-01-01

    Summary  Fatty acid constituents of two cheeses, four cured meats, and two hydrogenated oils were determined; two sets of data were\\u000a obtained for each sample. Unsaturated acids were determined spectrophotometrically in the total fatty acids prepared from\\u000a each fat, and saturated and unsaturated components were determined chemically and spectrophotometrically on each fraction\\u000a obtained from distilling the methyl esters prepared from the

  1. Effect of manipulation of incubation temperature on fatty acid profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities in meat-type chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Ba?datlio?lu, N; Yenisey, Ç; Siegel, P B; Özkan, S; Ak?it, M

    2012-12-01

    Eggs (n = 1,800) obtained from Ross broiler breeders at 32 and 48 wk of age were incubated at either a constant temperature of 37.6°C throughout (T1), or the temperature was reduced for 6 h to 36.6°C each day during embryonic age (EA) 10 to 18 (T2). Yolk sac, liver, and brain fatty acid profiles and oxidant and antioxidant status of liver and brain were measured at EA 14, 19, and day of hatch (DOH). Fatty acid profiles of yolk sac, liver, and brain were influenced by age of breeder with significant breeder hen age × incubation temperature interactions. At EA 14, higher levels of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 had been transferred from the yolk sac to T2 embryos from younger than older breeders, whereas for T1 and T2 embryos, yolk sac 20:4n-6 and 22.6n-3 values were similar for older breeders. Accumulation of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids in the liver of T1 and T2 embryos from younger breeders was similar; however, T2 embryos from older breeders had higher liver levels of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 than T1 embryos. At EA 19, liver nitric oxide levels were higher for T2 embryos from younger breeders than those from breeders incubated at T1. Brain catalase levels of T2 embryos from younger breeders were higher than those from older breeders at DOH. Thus, changes in fatty acid profiles and catalase and nitric oxide production of brain and liver tissues resulting from 1°C lower incubation temperature from EA 10 to 18 reflect adaptive changes. PMID:23155039

  2. Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol Inhibit Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase by Activating the Lipoxygenase Pathway of the Arachidonate Cascade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Maccarrone; Simona Salvati; Monica Bari; Alessandro Finazzi-Agrò

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of intact human neuroblastoma CHP100 cells with anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide, AEA) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) inhibits intracellular fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). This effect was not associated with covalent modifications of FAAH, since specific inhibitors of farnesyltransferase, kinases, phosphatases, glycosyltransferase or nitric oxide synthase were ineffective. Electrophoretic analysis of 33P-labelled proteins, Western blot with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, and glycan analysis of cellular

  3. Effect of esterification with fatty acid of ?-cryptoxanthin on its thermal stability and antioxidant activity by chemiluminescence method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HongFei Fu; BiJun Xie; Gang Fan; ShaoJun Ma; XinRong Zhu; SiYi Pan

    2010-01-01

    ?-Cryptoxanthin, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid of potential interest for health, was found in vegetables and fruits in both free and esterified forms. Stabilities of free ?-cryptoxanthin (FCX) and its esters including ?-cryptoxanthin laurate (CXL), ?-cryptoxanthin myristate (CXM), and ?-cryptoxanthin palmitate (CXP) against heat were studied by high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS). All ?-cryptoxanthin fatty acid esters were more stable

  4. HIV-protease inhibitors suppress skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation by reducing CD36 and CPT1 fatty acid transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Richmond; Michael J. Carper; Xiaoyong Lei; Sheng Zhang; Kevin E. Yarasheski; Sasanka Ramanadham

    2010-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and treatment with HIV-protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) is associated with dysregulated fatty acid and lipid metabolism. Enhanced lipolysis, increased circulating fatty acid levels, and hepatic and intramuscular lipid accumulation appear to contribute to insulin resistance in HIV-infected people treated with PI-based HAART. However, it is unclear whether currently prescribed HIV-PIs

  5. Methyl esters in the fatty acid industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Farris

    1979-01-01

    Methyl esters, derived from natural fats or oils, can be used as alternatives to fatty acids in the production of a number\\u000a of derivatives. The derivatives that can be made from methyl esters include fatty alkanolamides, fatty alcohols, isopropyl\\u000a esters, and sucrose polyesters. By using methyl esters as the raw materials, several benefits may be realized, such as, the\\u000a ability

  6. Comparative effects of dietary fat types on hepatic enzyme activities related to the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acid and to lipogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Nakamoto, T; Mori, Y; Kawakami, M; Mabuchi, H; Ohishi, Y; Ichikawa, N; Koike, A; Masuda, K

    2001-08-01

    The effects of different types of dietary fat on the activities of hepatic enzymes related to fatty acid synthesis [glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)], oxidation [acyl-CoA synthetase (AST), carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT), and peroxisomal beta-oxidation (PbetaOX)], and lipogenesis [phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), and phosphocholine diacylglycerol transferase (PCDGT)], and plasma and liver lipid levels were investigated in male Wistar rats. The animals were 6 weeks old and about 120 g of body weight, and were fed on test diets containing 20% of a mixture of tripalmitin, tristearin and corn oil (SFA), olive oil (OLI), sunflower oil (SUN), linseed oil (LIS), and sardine oil (SAR) for 2 weeks. The concentrations of plasma total cholesterol (T-CHOL), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CHOL), triacylglycerol (TG) and phospholipid (PL) were generally higher in the rats fed on SFA and OLI than in those given SUN, LIS and SAR. The rats fed on OLI had a higher level of liver T-CHOL than those fed on the other fats. The liver TG content was nearly higher from the intake of SFA and OLI than from SUN, LIS and SAR, although the liver PL level was not affected by the type of dietary fat. The SFA and OLI groups had the highest activities of hepatic G6PDH and ACC, and the SAR group, the lowest activities. The activities of AST and CPT, and peroxisomal PbetaOX in the liver were higher in the rats fed on the LIS and SAR diets than in those given the other diets. The hepatic PAP activity was higher from the intake of OLI and SUN, and tended to be higher from SFA than from LIS and SAR. The activity of liver DGAT was higher from SFA and inclined to be higher from OLI, SUN, and LIS than from SAR, while the PCDGT activity in the liver was not effected by the type of dietary fat. The concentrations of plasma and liver TG were generally positively correlated with the activities of liver enzymes related to the synthesis of fatty acids and lipids, and negatively with those involved in fatty acid oxidation. Based on these results, it is suggested that the levels of plasma and liver TG were controlled by different types of dietary fat through changes in the hepatic enzyme activities related to fatty acid synthesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation. PMID:11577713

  7. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-10-24

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation. PMID:18682402

  8. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride and phospholipid metabolism by hypolipidemic sulfur-substituted fatty acid analogues.

    PubMed

    Skorve, J; Asiedu, D; Rustan, A C; Drevon, C A; al-Shurbaji, A; Berge, R K

    1990-09-01

    The mechanisms behind the hypotriglyceridemic effect of 1,10-bis(carboxymethylthio)decane (3-thiadicarboxylic acid) and tetradecylthioacetic acid and the development of fatty liver caused by 3-tetradecylthiopropionic acid (Aarsland et al. 1989. J. Lipid Res. 30: 1711-1718.) were studied in the rat. Repeated administration of S-substituted non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analogues to normolipidemic rats resulted in a time-dependent decrease in plasma triglycerides, phospholipids, and free fatty acids. This was accompanied by an acute reduction in the liver content of triglycerides and an increase in the hepatic concentration of phospholipids. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation was stimulated, whereas lipogenesis was inhibited. The activity of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase decreased while the activity of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase increased. These results suggest that the observed triglyceride-lowering effect was due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation accompanied by a reduction in the availability of the substrate i.e., free fatty acid, along with an enzymatic inhibition (phosphatidate phosphohydrolase). Administration of 3-tetradecylthiopropionic acid led to a drastic increase in the hepatic triglyceride content. Levels of plasma triglyceride phospholipid and free fatty acid also increased. Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity was stimulated whereas CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase was inhibited. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation was decreased. These data indicate that the development of fatty liver as an effect of 3-tetradecylpropionic acid is probably due to accelerated triglyceride biosynthesis, which is mediated by an increase in the availability of fatty acid along with stimulation of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase. The results of the present study speak strongly in favor of the hypothesis that phosphatidate phosphohydrolase is a major rate-limiting enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. Furthermore, they point out that the biosynthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids might be coordinately regulated. Such regulation is possibly mediated via phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. Whether the increase in hepatic phospholipids via increased CDP-pathway accounts for an increase of lipid components for proliferation of peroxisomes (3-thiadicarboxylic acid and tetradecylacetic acid) should be considered. PMID:2174075

  9. Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ?(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

    2012-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and ?9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. ?9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle. PMID:22019314

  10. The Fatty Acid Content of Ocean Water

    E-print Network

    Slowey, James Frank

    1960-01-01

    Typical Elution Curve obtained with a Differential Detector 10 Separation of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids in @later of 10 Meter Depth at Station I on Cruise 59-H-I 23 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION During the past fifty years. much effort has been expended... technique described by James and Martin (10). They showed that micro quantities of fatty acids could be separated and identified rapidly by this method (11). The extension of gas chromatographic separation to the methyl esters of the fatty acids...

  11. Free fatty acid fractions from some vegetable oils exhibit reduced survival time-shortening activity in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Miyazaki; Min-Zhao Huang; Naoya Takemura; Shiro Watanabe; Harumi Okuyama

    1998-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that several vegetable oils that included low-erucic rapeseed oil markedly shortened the survival\\u000a time (by ?40%) of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats as compared with perilla oil, soybean oil, and fish\\u000a oil. We considered that a factor other than fatty acids is toxic to SHRSP rats, because the survival time-shortening activity\\u000a could not be accounted for by

  12. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jami B. O’Quin; Robert T. Mullen; John M. Dyer

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared toward the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated\\u000a omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically expressed enzymes. Here, we\\u000a show that the addition of an N-terminal epitope tag sequence (either Myc or hemagglutinin) to oleate desaturase (FAD2) or\\u000a omega-3 linoleate

  13. The Coactivator PGC1 Cooperates with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha in Transcriptional Control of Nuclear Genes Encoding Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation Enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICK B. VEGA; JANICE M. HUSS; DANIEL P. KELLY

    2000-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARa) plays a key role in the transcriptional control of genes encoding mitochondrial fatty acid b-oxidation (FAO) enzymes. In this study we sought to determine whether the recently identified PPAR gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1) is capable of coactivating PPARa in the transcriptional control of genes encoding FAO enzymes. Mammalian cell cotransfection experiments demon- strated that PGC-1

  14. Nrf2 affects the efficiency of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ludtmann, Marthe H. R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Zhang, Ying; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2) regulates the cellular redox homoeostasis and cytoprotective responses, allowing adaptation and survival under conditions of stress. The significance of Nrf2 in intermediary metabolism is also beginning to be recognized. Thus this transcription factor negatively affects fatty acid synthesis. However, the effect of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation is currently unknown. In the present paper, we report that the mitochondrial oxidation of long-chain (palmitic) and short-chain (hexanoic) fatty acids is depressed in the absence of Nrf2 and accelerated when Nrf2 is constitutively active. Addition of fatty acids stimulates respiration in heart and liver mitochondria isolated from wild-type mice. This effect is significantly weaker when Nrf2 is deleted, whereas it is stronger when Nrf2 activity is constitutively high. In the absence of glucose, addition of fatty acids differentially affects the production of ATP in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type, Nrf2-knockout and Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)-knockout mice. In acute tissue slices, the rate of regeneration of FADH2 is reduced when Nrf2 is absent. This metabolic role of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation has implications for chronic disease conditions including cancer, metabolic syndrome and neurodegeneration. PMID:24206218

  15. Comparison of anti-Vibrio activities of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and glycerol and sucrose esters of fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Beuchat, L R

    1980-01-01

    The effects of fatty acids and their glycerol and sucrose esters, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate on growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in laboratory media at pH 6.7 were evaluated. The minimum concentrations at which inhibition by esters of glycerol could be detected were lowest for monolaurin (5 microgram/ml) and monocaprin (40 microgram/ml); these concentrations were lower than those observed for inhibition by lauric and capric acids, respectively. Inhibitory action of sucrose caprylate was detected at 40 microgram/ml, whereas sucrose caprate was effective at 100 microgram/ml; sucrose esters of lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids were ineffective at 100 microgram/ml. Potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate inhibited growth at concentrations as low as 30 and 300 microgram/ml, respectively, and enhanced the rate of thermal inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus at slightly higher concentrations. Fatty acid esters of glycerol and sucrose offer potential as perservatives for slightly acid or alkaline low-fat foods which do not lend themselves to the full antimicrobial action of traditional food preservatives such as potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. PMID:7406487

  16. Developmental changes of lipoxygenase and fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase activities in cultured cells of Marchantia polymorpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Matsui; Yoshiaki Kaji; Tadahiko Kajiwara; Akikazu Hatanaka

    1996-01-01

    Lipoxygenase activity in Marchantia polymorpha cells rapidly increased during the lag phase of cell growth. In the logarithmically-growing cells activity tended to decrease, but again increased in the stationary phase. The two lipoxygenases enhanced in the lag and the stationary phases were purifed. Then could not be differentiated from each other by their enzymatic properties, such as pH-activity profiles, substrate

  17. Rational Design of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors that Act by Covalently Bonding to Two Active Site Residues

    PubMed Central

    Otrubova, Katerina; Brown, Monica; McCormick, Michael S.; Han, Gye W.; O’Neal, Scott T.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    The design and characterization of ?-ketoheterocycle fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are disclosed that additionally and irreversibly target a cysteine (Cys269) found in the enzyme cytosolic port while maintaining the reversible covalent Ser241 attachment responsible for their rapid and initially reversible enzyme inhibition. Two ?-ketooxazoles (3 and 4) containing strategically placed electrophiles at the C5 position of the pyridyl substituent of 2 (OL-135) were prepared and examined as inhibitors of FAAH. Consistent with the observed time-dependent non-competitive inhibition, the co-crystal X-ray structure of 3 bound to a humanized variant of rat FAAH revealed that 3 was not only covalently bound to the active site catalytic nucleophile Ser241 as a deprotonated hemiketal, but also to Cys269 through the pyridyl C5-substituent, thus providing an inhibitor with dual covalent attachment in the enzyme active site. In vivo characterization of the prototypical inhibitors in mice demonstrate that they raise endogenous brain levels of FAAH substrates to a greater extent and for a much longer duration (>6 h) than the reversible inhibitor 2, indicating that the inhibitors accumulate and persist in the brain to completely inhibit FAAH for a prolonged period. Consistent with this behavior and the targeted irreversible enzyme inhibition, 3 reversed cold allodynia in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in mice for a sustained period (>6 h) beyond that observed with the reversible inhibitor 2, providing effects that were unchanged over the 1–6 h time course monitored. PMID:23581831

  18. FATTY ACID DIGESTION AND UTILIZATION BY DAIRY COWS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUMBY J. E. STORRY; J. D. SUTTON; J. D. OLDHAM

    duction depends not only on the proportion of volatile fatty acids produced from fermenta- tion within the rumen but also on the balance of major nutrients absorbed from the small intestine, particularly long chain fatty acids (Kronfeld, 1976 ; Bines etal., 1978). Because of microbial synthesis of long chain fatty acids in the rumen the amount of fatty acids flowing

  19. The Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on their degree of unsaturation and chain length, dietary fatty acids can affect blood lipids and lipoprotein levels. Both saturated fatty acids (12:0-16:0) and dietary cholesterol increase blood cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce it. Trans fatty acids, even though are pol...

  20. Ecophysiology of omega Fatty acids: a lid for every jar.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Walter; Giroud, Sylvain; Valencak, Teresa G; Ruf, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Omega fatty acids affect various physiological functions, such as locomotion, cardiac function, and thermogenesis. We highlight evidence from animal models that points to pathways by which specific omega fatty acids exert differential effects. We suggest that optimizing the omega fatty acid composition of tissues involves trade-offs between costs and benefits of specific fatty acids. PMID:25933823

  1. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the manufacture of food components in accordance with...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic...

  2. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the manufacture of food components in accordance with...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic...

  3. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the manufacture of food components in accordance with...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic...

  4. Estimating intake of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Me Filipowicz

    2010-01-01

    Estimating intake of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy\\u000aby\\u000aRebecca Mary Elizabeth Filipowicz\\u000aAbstract\\u000aThe essential omega 3 (n-3) fatty acid alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) and the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important structural components of cell membranes. During pregnancy a steady supply of n-3 fatty acids is required to support positive

  5. Functional characterization of flax fatty acid desaturase FAD2 and FAD3 isoforms expressed in yeast reveals a broad diversity in activity.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Natasa; Thambugala, Dinushika; Duguid, Scott; Loewen, Evelyn; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-07-01

    With 45 % or more oil content that contains more than 55 % alpha linolenic (LIN) acid, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the richest plant sources of this essential fatty acid. Fatty acid desaturases 2 (FAD2) and 3 (FAD3) are the main enzymes responsible for the ?12 and ?15 desaturation in planta. In linseed, the oilseed morphotype of flax, two paralogous copies, and several alleles exist for each gene. Here, we cloned three alleles of FAD2A, four of FAD2B, six of FAD3A, and seven of FAD3B into a pYES vector and transformed all 20 constructs and an empty construct in yeast. The transformants were induced in the presence of oleic (OLE) acid substrate for FAD2 constructs and linoleic (LIO) acid for FAD3. Conversion rates of OLE acid into LIO acid and LIO acid into LIN acid were measured by gas chromatography. Conversion rate of FAD2 exceeded that of FAD3 enzymes with FAD2B having a conversion rate approximately 10 % higher than FAD2A. All FAD2 isoforms were active, but significant differences existed between isoforms of both FAD2 enzymes. Two FAD3A and three FAD3B isoforms were not functional. Some nonfunctional enzymes resulted from the presence of nonsense mutations causing premature stop codons, but FAD3B-C and FAD3B-F seem to be associated with single amino acid changes. The activity of FAD3A-C was more than fivefold greater than the most common isoform FAD3A-A, while FAD3A-F was fourfold greater. Such isoforms could be incorporated into breeding lines to possibly further increase the proportion of LIN acid in linseed. PMID:24522837

  6. Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Kidney of Normotensive and Genetically Hypertensive Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SATOSHI FUJII; HIDEAKI KAWAGUCHI; HISAKAZU YASUDA

    SUMMARY Fatty acid binding protein was purified from renal medulla, and its binding activity and fatty acid composition were determined in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as controls. Fatty acid binding activity was higher in 5- week-old prehypertensive SHRSP than in control WKY (0.155 ± 0.006 vs 0.030 ± 0.001 mol palmitic acid\\/mol protein). However,

  7. Omega3 Fatty Acids and Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and animal experiments indicate that omega-3 fatty acids exert protective effects against some common cancers, especially cancers of the breast, colon and prostate. Many mechanisms are involved, including suppression of neoplastic transformation, cell growth inhibition, and enhanced apoptosis and antiangiogenicity, through the inhibition of eicosanoid production from omega-6 fatty acids; suppression of cycloöxygenase-2 (COX-2), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) and

  8. Genetic variability of milk fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M.-R. Arnould; H. Soyeurt

    2009-01-01

    The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is far from the optimal fat composition in regards to human health. The natural sources of\\u000a variation, such as feeding or genetics, could be used to increase the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids. The impact\\u000a of feeding is well described. However, genetic effects on the milk FA composition begin to be extensively studied. This

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supply with human milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. U. Sauerwald; H. Demmelmair; B. Koletzko

    2001-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk may derive from diet, liberation from maternal body stores, or endogenous synthesis\\u000a from precursor fatty acids. The contribution of each of these sources has not been studied in detail. Although maternal diet\\u000a is a key factor affecting human milk composition, other factors such as gestational age, stage of lactation, nutritional status,\\u000a and genetic background

  10. Polyunsaturated Fatty acid Supply with Human Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten U. Sauenvald; Hans Demmelmair; Nataša Fidler; Berthold Koletzko

    The origin of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in human milk has not been studied in detail. Diet, liberation from maternalstores\\u000a and endogenous synthesis from precursors may contribute to PUFA present in human milk. Other factors influencing lipid content\\u000a and fatty acid composition such as gestational age, stage of lactation, nutritional status and genetical background are known.\\u000a In a series of

  11. Omega3 Fatty Acids and Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Margaret Pilkington; Lesley Elizabeth Rhodes

    \\u000a Using nutrients such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) for the promotion of skin health and treatment of\\u000a skin disorders is a novel concept. These bioactive fatty acids have a high safety profile and could potentially be used as\\u000a an adjuvant or alternative to traditional therapy. Evidence exists to suggest that n-3 PUFA exert their protective effects\\u000a in biological

  12. Digestion and absorption of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and in- flammatory diseases. Dietary sources of essential fatty acids are vegetable oils for either, and to some authors explains differences observed between vegetable and fish oil absorption. So additional linoleic or a-linolenic acids, and sea fish oils for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Because

  13. Orlistat Is a Novel Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Synthase with Antitumor Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Kridel; Fumiko Axelrod; Natasha Rozenkrantz; Jeffrey W. Smith

    2004-01-01

    One of the fundamental principles of pharmacology is that most drugs have side effects. Although considerable attention is paid to detrimental side effects, drugs can also have beneficial side effects. Given the time and expense of drug development, it would be particularly exciting if a sys- tematic method could be applied to reveal all of the activities, including the unappreciated

  14. Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi

    2009-01-01

    Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

  15. Fatty acid metabolism studies of human epidermal cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia L. Marcelo; William R. Dunham

    Adult human epidermal keratinocytes grow rapidly in medium that is essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient. In this medium they exhibit decreased amounts of the fatty acids, 18:2, 20:3, 20:4, and contain increased amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids. (I%)- and (SHIacetate and radiolabeled fatty acids, 16:0, 18:2, and 20:4 were used to study the fatty acid metabolism of these cells. Label from

  16. Omega3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatry: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlene P. Freeman

    2000-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids found in plant and marine sources. Unlike saturated fats, which have been shown to have negative health consequences, omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids that have been associated with many health benefits. Omega-3 fatty acids may prove to be efficacious in a number of psychiatric disorders. Mood disorders have been associated

  17. Influence of Free Fatty Acids, Lysophosphatidylcholine, Platelet-Activating Factor, Acylcarnitine, and Echinocandin B on 1,3-?-d-Glucan Synthase and Callose Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Kauss, Heinrich; Jeblick, Wolfgang

    1986-01-01

    The activity of 1,3-?-d-glucan synthase assayed in the presence of digitonin in a microsomal preparation from suspension-cultured cells of Glycine max can be fully inhibited by unsaturated fatty acids, trienoic acids being most effective. Lysophosphatidylcholine, platelet-activating factor, acylcarnitine, and Echinocandin B can also fully inhibit the enzyme. Inhibition is observed both when the enzyme is activated by Ca2+ or by trypsinization. At low amounts some of the substances can also cause stimulation. These effects all may result from a displacement of certain endogenous phospholipids necessary for optimal activity of the 1,3-?-d-glucan synthase. In the absence of digitonin the enzyme activity is greatly stimulated by lysophosphatidylcholine, platelet-activating factor, acylcarnitine, and Echinocandin B within a certain concentration range, presumably by rendering the microsomal vesicles permeable to the substrate and Ca2+. Dibucaine does not cause such an effect. Acylcarnitine and Echinocandin B at low concentrations can induce callose synthesis in vivo; this effect is enhanced by chitosan. At higher concentrations the two substances and polyunsaturated fatty acids cause severe electrolyte leakage. The effects are discussed in regard to the induction of callose synthesis by enforced Ca2+ influx, and its modulation by membrane lipids. PMID:16664610

  18. Indentification and Localization of the Fatty Acids in Haemophilus parainfluenzae

    PubMed Central

    White, David C.; Cox, Richard H.

    1967-01-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae was capable of synthesizing 22 fatty acids. These fatty acids were equivalent to 4% of the bacterial dry weight. These fatty acids were localized in the membrane-wall complex, which contained the respiratory pigments, the quinone, and the phospholipids. The fatty acids which could be extracted with organic solvents comprised 86% of the total fatty acids of the cell. These fatty acids were distributed as 98% in the phospholipids and 1.9% in the neutral lipids, of which 0.5% were free fatty acids. Palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and vaccenic acids comprised 72% of the total fatty acids and were found almost exclusively in the phospholipids. The phospholipids also contained the cyclopropane fatty acids. The neutral lipids contained significant proportions of the odd-numbered branched and straight-chain fatty acids. The principal free fatty acids were n-dodecanoic and pentadecenoic acids. The nonextractable wall complex contained 14% of the total fatty acids. These wall fatty acids were rendered soluble only after saponification. The wall fraction contained all of the ?-hydroxymyristic acid and most of the myristoleic and pentadecenoic acids. The significance of the distribution of fatty acids between nonesterified, neutral lipid, phospholipid, and nonextractible wall remains to be determined. PMID:6025415

  19. Essential fatty acid nutrition of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Staton, M A; Edwards, H M; Brisbin, I L; Joanen, T; McNease, L

    1990-07-01

    The essential fatty acid (EFA) nutrition of young American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) was examined by feeding a variety of fats/oils with potential EFA activity. Over a 12-wk period, alligators fed diets containing 2.5 or 5.0% chicken liver oil grew longer and heavier and converted feed to body mass more efficiently than alligators fed other fat/oil combinations that lacked or contained only trace amounts of arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)]. Alligators fed an EFA-deficient diet (containing only coconut fat as the dietary fat) were the slowest-growing animals and converted feed to body mass least efficiently. However, over a 41-wk feeding period, alligators fed this diet showed no obvious external signs of deficiency other than being reduced in size and unthrifty. Fatty acid composition of heart, liver, muscle, skin and adipose tissue lipids was influenced markedly by dietary fat composition. Tissues varied significantly in response to dietary fat composition. Heart lipids contained the lowest levels of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and the highest levels of arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid levels were less influenced by diet than were levels of other 20- and 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids. Radiotracer studies indicated that linoleic acid was converted to arachidonic acid in the liver. Nevertheless, tissue arachidonic acid levels also appeared to be maintained by concentration from dietary sources and selective conservation. It appears that a dietary source of arachidonic acid may be required for a maximum rate of growth. PMID:2114472

  20. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2–ARE pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE–luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate–cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

  1. Association of serum aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity and RBC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with flow-mediated dilation in healthy, young Hispanic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Wiest, Elani F; Warneke, Alex; Walsh, Mary T; Langsfeld, Mark; Anderson, Joe; Walker, Mary K

    2015-01-22

    Impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) occurs prior to clinical disease in young cigarette smokers. We investigated two potential biomarkers of FMD: serum aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activity and RBC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy young Hispanic cigarette smokers. We recruited never (n=16) and current (n=16) Hispanic smokers (32 ± 7 years old), excluding individuals with clinical cardiovascular disease. We measured FMD with duplex ultrasound, RBC fatty acids and serum AHR activity using a luciferase reporter assay. FMD was significantly impaired in smokers (5.8 ± 4%) versus never smokers (12.3 ± 7.4%, p=0.001). Serum AHR activity was significantly increased in smokers (1467 ± 358 relative light units (RLU)) versus never smokers (689 ± 251 RLU, p<0.001), and correlated positively with FMD only in smokers (r=0.691, p<0.004). RBC percentage of ?-linolenic acid (ALA%) was significantly increased in smokers (0.14 ± 0.03%) versus never smokers (0.11 ± 0.03%, p=0.018), and correlated inversely with FMD only in smokers (r=-0.538, p=0.03). The combination of serum AHR activity, ALA%, and systolic blood pressure significantly correlated with FMD in a multivariable regression model (r=0.802, p<0.008). These results suggest that serum AHR activity and RBC ALA% could serve as biomarkers of FMD in healthy, young Hispanic cigarette smokers. PMID:25482063

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated up-regulation of syndecan-1 by n-3 fatty acids promotes apoptosis of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiguo; Berquin, Isabelle M; Owens, Rick T; O'Flaherty, Joseph T; Edwards, Iris J

    2008-04-15

    Diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against breast cancer but biochemical mechanisms are unclear. Our studies showed that the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) up-regulated syndecan-1 (SDC-1) in human breast cancer cells, and we tested the hypothesis that DHA-mediated up-regulation of SDC-1 induces apoptosis. DHA was delivered to MCF-7 cells by n-3 PUFA-enriched low-density lipoproteins (LDL) or by albumin in the presence or absence of SDC-1 small interfering RNA. The n-3 PUFA induced apoptosis, which was blocked by SDC-1 silencing. We also confirmed that SDC-1 up-regulation and apoptosis promotion by n-3 PUFA was mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). Using a luciferase gene driven by either a PPAR response element or a DR-1 site present in the SDC-1 promoter, reporter activities were enhanced by n-3 LDL, DHA, and PPAR gamma agonist, whereas activity of a luciferase gene placed downstream of a mutant DR-1 site was unresponsive. Cotransfection with dominant-negative PPAR gamma DNA eliminated the increase in luciferase activity. These data provide strong evidence that SDC-1 is a molecular target of n-3 PUFA in human breast cancer cells through activation of PPAR gamma and that n-3 PUFA-induced apoptosis is mediated by SDC-1. This provides a novel mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of n-3 PUFA in breast cancer. PMID:18413760

  3. 2-Alkynoic fatty acids inhibit Topoisomerase IB from Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, Néstor M.; Cartagena, Michelle; Sanabria, David; Kaiser, Marcel; Tasdemir, Deniz; Prada, Christopher F.; Reguera, Rosa M.; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    2-Alkynoic fatty acids display antimycobacterial, antifungal, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention. In this work we synthesized the 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA), 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA), and 2-tetradecynoic acid (2-TDA) and show that 2-ODA is the best inhibitor of the Leishmania donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an EC50 = 5.3 ± 0.7 ?M. The potency of LdTopIB inhibition follows the trend 2-ODA> 2-HDA> 2-TDA, indicating that the effectiveness of inhibition depends on the fatty acid carbon chain length. All of the studied 2-alkynoic fatty acids were less potent inhibitors of the human topoisomerase IB enzyme (hTopIB) as compared to LdTopIB. 2-ODA also displayed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani (IC50 = 11.0 ?M), but it was less effective against other protozoa, Trypanosoma cruzi (IC50 = 48.1 ?M) and T. brucei rhodesiense (IC50 = 64.5 ?M). The antiprotozoal activity of the 2-alkynoic fatty acids, in general, followed the trend 2-ODA> 2-HDA> 2-TDA. The experimental information gathered so far indicates that 2-ODA is a promising antileishmanial compound. PMID:22932312

  4. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  5. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Hong Yu; Richa Rawat; John Shanklin

    2011-01-01

    Background  Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence\\u000a of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids\\u000a with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid\\u000a fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation

  6. Milk Fatty Acids II: Prediction of the Production of Individual Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Moate; W. Chalupa; R. C. Boston; I. J. Lean

    2008-01-01

    Previously observed relationships between dietary composition and production of a small number of indi- vidual milk fatty acids were the motivation to examine whetherequationscouldbedevelopedtopredictproduc- tion of all the major individual milk fatty acids. Such equations could be incorporated into ration formulation programs and used to examine factors that influence milk fat composition. Data from 29 published experi- ments onHolstein cows

  7. Assays of the biological activities of two fatty acid derivatives formed in the edible mushrooms cantharellus cibarius and C. tubaeformis as a response to injury.

    PubMed

    Anke, H; Morales, P; Sterner, O

    1996-04-01

    Cibaric acid (1) and 10-hydroxy-8-decenoic acid (2) are two fatty acid derivatives that are formed in the fruit bodies of Cantharellus cibarius (chanterelle) and C. tubaeformis as a response to injury. Unlike the potent defensive sesquiterpenes formed in injured fruit bodies of the pungent Lactarius species, compounds 1 and 2 only possess very weak antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Compound 2 was found to be a very weak direct-acting mutagen in the Ames test (<1 revertant/microgram and plate), while cibaric acid (1) was inactive in this assay. As 1 is destroyed during cooking, there are currently no reasons for suspecting that the consumption of C. cibarius poses a risk to consumers. PMID:8657757

  8. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  9. The nitrite-oxidizing community in activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant determined by fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Myriam; Zumbrägel, Sabine; Bakker, Evert; Spieck, Eva; Eggers, Till; Lipski, André

    2013-10-01

    Metabolically-active autotrophic nitrite oxidizers from activated sludge were labeled with (13)C-bicarbonate under exposure to different temperatures and nitrite concentrations. The labeled samples were characterized by FAME-SIP (fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing). The compound cis-11-palmitoleic acid, which is the major lipid of the most abundant nitrite oxidizer in activated sludge, Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii, showed (13)C-incorporation in all samples exposed to 3 mM nitrite. Subsequently, the lipid cis-7-palmitoleic acid was labeled, and it indicated the activity of a nitrite oxidizer that was different from the known Nitrospira taxa in activated sludge. The highest incorporation of cis-7-palmitoleic acid label was found after incubation with a nitrite concentration of 0.3 mM at 17 and 22°C. While activity of Nitrobacter populations could not be detected by the FAME-SIP approach, an unknown nitrite oxidizer with the major lipid cis-9 isomer of palmitoleic acid exhibited (13)C-incorporation at 28°C with 30 mM nitrite. These results indicated flexibility of nitrite-oxidizing guilds in a complex community responding to different conditions. Labeled lipids so far not described for activated sludge-associated nitrifiers indicated the presence of unknown nitrite oxidizers in this habitat. The FAME-SIP-based information can be used to define appropriate conditions for the enrichment of nitrite-oxidizing guilds from complex samples. PMID:23921154

  10. Development of Escherichia coli MG1655 strains to produce long chain fatty acids by engineering fatty acid synthesis (FAS) metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eunyoung; Lee, Sunhee; Won, Jong-In; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Jihyeon; Lee, Jinwon

    2011-06-10

    The goal of this research was to develop recombinant Escherichia coli to improve fatty acid synthesis (FAS). Genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase (accA, accB, accC), malonyl-CoA-[acyl-carrier-protein] transacylase (fabD), and acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14 gene), which are all enzymes that catalyze key steps in the synthesis of fatty acids, were cloned and over-expressed in E. coli MG1655. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzyme catalyzes the addition of CO(2) to acetyl-CoA to generate malonyl-CoA. The enzyme encoded by the fabD gene converts malonyl-CoA to malonyl-[acp], and the EC 3.1.2.14 gene converts fatty acyl-ACP chains to long chain fatty acids. All the genes except for the EC 3.1.2.14 gene were homologous to E. coli genes and were used to improve the enzymatic activities to over-express components of the FAS pathway through metabolic engineering. All recombinant E. coli MG1655 strains containing various gene combinations were developed using the pTrc99A expression vector. To observe changes in metabolism, the in vitro metabolites and fatty acids produced by the recombinants were analyzed. The fatty acids (C16) from recombinant strains were produced 1.23-2.41 times higher than that from the wild type. PMID:22112270

  11. Circulating fatty acid profiles in response to three levels of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. King; A. A. AbuGhazaleh; S. K. Webel; K. L. Jones

    Fatty acids of the n-3 type confer health benefits to humans and other species. Their importance to equine physiology could include improved exercise tolerance, decreased inflammation, and improved re- productive function. The circulating fatty acid profile and the acquisition and washout of fatty acids in re- sponse to n-3 supplementation were determined for horses in the current study. A fatty

  12. Free fatty acid receptor 3 is a key target of short chain fatty acid

    PubMed Central

    López Soto, Eduardo Javier; Gambino, Luisina Ongaro; Mustafá, Emilio Román

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system (NS) activity participates in metabolic homeostasis by detecting peripheral signal molecules derived from food intake and energy balance. High quality diets are thought to include fiber-rich foods like whole grain rice, breads, cereals, and grains. Several studies have associated high consumption of fiber-enriched diets with a reduced risk of diabetes, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. In the lower intestine, anaerobic fermentation of soluble fibers by microbiota produces short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), key energy molecules that have a recent identified leading role in the intestinal gluconeogenesis, promoting beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance1. SCFAs are also signaling molecules that bind to specific G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) named Free Fatty Acid Receptor 3 (FFA3, GPR41) and 2 (FFA2, GPR43). However, how SCFAs impact NS activity through their GPCRs is poorly understood. Recently, studies have demonstrated the presence of FFA2 and FFA3 in the sympathetic NS of rat, mouse and human2, 3. Two studies have showed that FFA3 activation by SCFAs increases firing and norepinephrine (NE) release from sympathetic neurons3, 4. However, the recent study from the Ikeda Laboratory2 revealed that activation of FFA3 by SCFAs impairs N-type calcium channel (NTCC) activity, which contradicts the idea of FFA3 activation leading to increased action potential evoked NE release. Here we will discuss the scope of the latter study and the putative physiological role of SCFAs and FFAs in the sympathetic NS. PMID:24762451

  13. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721...Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a...alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721...Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a...alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols...

  15. Engineering oilseeds to produce nutritional fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Damude, Howard G; Kinney, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that regular consumption of foods rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has multiple positive health benefits. The fats and oils from marine fish contain high contents of these beneficial fatty acids but increased consumer demand has also increased strain on the ability of the world's fisheries to meet demand from wild capture. Many consumers are choosing fish oil supplements or are eating foods that have been complemented with fish oils instead of consuming fish directly. However, removing undesirable odors, flavors and contaminants is expensive. In contrast, oils derived from land plants such as soybean are inexpensive and contaminant free. Recent strides in plant molecular biology now allow the engineering of oilseeds for the production of novel fats and oils, including those synthesized by complex, multigene biosynthetic pathways such as the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Given the potential benefits to the environment with regards to overfishing and the health prospects of increased consumption of these healthy fatty acids, producing these fatty acids in oilseeds is a desirable and worthy goal. In this review, we will describe the recent advances in this field along with some of the technical hurdles encountered thus far. PMID:18251865

  16. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (?-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ?-3 FA and PSE. PMID:25842314

  17. Impact of dietary fatty acids on metabolic activity and host intestinal microbiota composition in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Elaine; O' Doherty, Robert M; Murphy, Eileen F; Wall, Rebecca; O' Sullivan, Orla; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2014-02-20

    Different dietary fat and energy subtypes have an impact on both the metabolic health and the intestinal microbiota population of the host. The present study assessed the impact of dietary fat quality, with a focus on dietary fatty acid compositions of varying saturation, on the metabolic health status and the intestinal microbiota composition of the host. C57BL/6J mice (n 9-10 mice per group) were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either (1) palm oil, (2) olive oil, (3) safflower oil or (4) flaxseed/fish oil for 16 weeks and compared with mice fed low-fat (LF) diets supplemented with either high maize starch or high sucrose. Tissue fatty acid compositions were assessed by GLC, and the impact of the diet on host intestinal microbiota populations was investigated using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. Compositional sequencing analysis revealed that dietary palm oil supplementation resulted in significantly lower populations of Bacteroidetes at the phylum level compared with dietary olive oil supplementation (P< 0·05). Dietary supplementation with olive oil was associated with an increase in the population of the family Bacteroidaceae compared with dietary supplementation of palm oil, flaxseed/fish oil and high sucrose (P< 0·05). Ingestion of the HF-flaxseed/fish oil diet for 16 weeks led to significantly increased tissue concentrations of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA compared with ingestion of all the other diets (P< 0·05); furthermore, the diet significantly increased the intestinal population of Bifidobacterium at the genus level compared with the LF-high-maize starch diet (P< 0·05). These data indicate that both the quantity and quality of fat have an impact on host physiology with further downstream alterations to the intestinal microbiota population, with a HF diet supplemented with flaxseed/fish oil positively shaping the host microbial ecosystem. PMID:24555449

  18. Fatty acid content of margarines in the Greek market (including trans-fatty acids): a contribution to improving consumers' information.

    PubMed

    Triantafillou, Dimitrios; Zografos, Vasilios; Katsikas, Haralambos

    2003-03-01

    The fatty acid composition, including trans-fatty acids, of 15 margarine samples from the Greek market was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Saturated, cis-monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found in the ranges of 24.1-53.3%, 15.5-50.3%, and 14.3-50.2% of total fatty acids, respectively. The trans-fatty acid content of Greek margarines varied from 0.1 to 19% and was, on the average, lower than previously reported. The high content in saturated fatty acids of the samples examined is criticized. There is significant discrepancy between fatty acid composition and the description of the product on the label. A concise index to describe fatty acid composition is proposed. This index can appear on the label and would give the consumers a much more accurate picture of the fatty acid composition. PMID:12701370

  19. THREE MICROSOMAL OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE GENES CONTRIBUTE TO SOYBEAN LINOLENIC ACID LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three independent genetic loci have been shown to contribute to soybean (Glycine max L.) seed linolenic acid levels, including the well-characterized Fan locus. Linolenic acid is the product of omega-3-fatty acid desaturase enzyme activity. The objective of this study was to identify and character...

  20. Enrichment of maternal diet with conjugated linoleic acids influences desaturases activity and fatty acids profile in livers and hepatic microsomes of the offspring with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Bia?ek, Agnieszka; Stawarska, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Czuba, Katarzyna; Konarska, Anna; Mazurkiewicz, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of diet supplementation of pregnant and breast-feeding female Sprague-Dawley rats with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on the ?6- and ?5-desaturase activity in hepatic microsomes as well as on fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in liver and hepatic microsomes of the progeny with chemically induced mammary tumors. Rats were divided into two groups with different diet supplementation (vegetable oil (which did not contain CLA) or CLA). Their female offspring was divided within these groups into two subgroups: (1)--fed the same diet as mothers (K1 - oil, 01 - CLA), and (2)--fed the standard fodder (K2, O2). At 50th day of life, the progeny obtained carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene). Higher supply of CLA in diet of mothers resulted in lower susceptibility to chemically induced mammary tumors in their offspring (p = 0.0322). It also influenced the fatty acids profile in livers and in hepatic microsomes, especially polyunsaturated n3 and n6 fatty acids. CLA inhibited the activity of the desaturases, which confirmed that CLA can reduce the level of arachidonic acid directly, reducing linoleic acid content in membranes, or indirectly, through the regulation of its metabolism. We were unable to confirm or deny the antioxidative properties of CLA. Our results indicate that the higher supply of CLA in mothers' diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding causes their incorporation into tissues of children, changes the efficiency of fatty acids metabolism and exerts health-promoting effect in their adult life reducing the breast cancer risk. PMID:25362803

  1. New applications for fatty acids and derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Weiss; R. Rosberg; N. O. V. Sonntag; S. Eng

    1979-01-01

    The early development of the American fatty acid industry during 1900–1920 is usually associated with the use of stearic acid\\u000a in candles for lighting purposes. Today, the use of stearic acid in candle manufacture continues; the volume consumed for\\u000a this application is not small, but the use is for ornamental, decorative or festival purposes, only incidentally for emergency\\u000a lighting purposes.

  2. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide reduces fat-specific expression and activity of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and inhibits release of free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Andres, Janin; Biedasek, Katrin; Mai, Knut; Kühnen, Peter; Krude, Heiko; Isken, Frank; Rudovich, Natalia; Osterhoff, Martin A; Kintscher, Ulrich; Nauck, Michael; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim

    2012-02-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been suggested to have direct effects on nonislet tissues. GIP also reportedly increased glucose uptake and inhibition of lipolysis in adipocytes after inhibition of the intracellular cortisone-cortisol shuttle 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1). We here analyzed whether GIP modifies lipid metabolism and further elucidated the relation between GIP, 11?-HSD1, and fatty acid metabolism. GIP reduced activity of 11?-HSD1 promoter constructs and the expression and activity of 11?-HSD1 in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. This was paralleled by a reduction of free fatty acid (FFA) release and a reduced expression of key enzymes regulating lipolysis in adipose tissue. Preinhibition of 11?-HSD1 completely abolished GIP-induced effects on FFA release. To investigate the acute effects of GIP in humans, a randomized clinical trial was performed. GIP lowered circulating FFAs compared with saline control and reduced expression and ex vivo activity of 11?-HSD1 and adipose triglyceride lipase expression in subcutaneous fat biopsies. Our data suggest that GIP reduces FFA release from adipose tissue by inhibition of lipolysis or by increased reesterification. This process appears to depend on a modification of 11?-HSD1 activity. In general, the presented data support that GIP has direct and insulin-independent effects on adipose tissue. PMID:22179810

  3. Fatty acid relationship in an aquatic food chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter F. Jezyk; A. John Penicnak

    1966-01-01

    The relationships amongst the fatty acids of the lipids from members of a model aquatic food chain were examined. The basic\\u000a pattern of the fatty acids in the members, algae-brine shrimp-hydra, originated in the phytoplankton. Fatty acids in the neutral\\u000a lipids of adult brine shrimp,Artemia salina, closely resembled dietary, or algal, fatty acids, whereas the phospholipid acids differed considerably from

  4. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ;-Mediated Up-regulation of Syndecan-1 by n-3 Fatty Acids Promotes Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiguo Sun; Isabelle M. Berquin; Rick T. Owens; Joseph T. O'Flaherty; Iris J. Edwards

    2008-01-01

    Diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against breast cancer but biochemical mecha- nisms are unclear. Our studies showed that the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) up-regulated syndecan-1 (SDC-1) in human breast cancer cells, and we tested the hypothesis that DHA-mediated up-regulation of SDC-1 induces apoptosis. DHA was delivered to MCF-7 cells by n-3 PUFA-enriched

  5. Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases.

    PubMed

    Sici?ska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-01-01

    For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders. PMID:26206997

  6. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins 1 and 2 Differentially Modulate the Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? in a Ligand-selective Manner.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Maria L R; Liu, Bonan; Halls, Michelle L; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Patil, Rahul; Velkov, Tony; Jans, David A; Bunnett, Nigel W; Scanlon, Martin J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2015-05-29

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) regulate the expression of proteins that control aspects of reproduction, development and metabolism, and are major therapeutic targets. However, NHRs are ubiquitous and participate in multiple physiological processes. Drugs that act at NHRs are therefore commonly restricted by toxicity, often at nontarget organs. For endogenous NHR ligands, intracellular lipid-binding proteins, including the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), can chaperone ligands to the nucleus and promote NHR activation. Drugs also bind FABPs, raising the possibility that FABPs similarly regulate drug activity at the NHRs. Here, we investigate the ability of FABP1 and FABP2 (intracellular lipid-binding proteins that are highly expressed in tissues involved in lipid metabolism, including the liver and intestine) to influence drug-mediated activation of the lipid regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?. We show by quantitative fluorescence imaging and gene reporter assays that drug binding to FABP1 and FABP2 promotes nuclear localization and PPAR? activation in a drug- and FABP-dependent manner. We further show that nuclear accumulation of FABP1 and FABP2 is dependent on the presence of PPAR?. Nuclear accumulation of FABP on drug binding is driven largely by reduced nuclear egress rather than an increased rate of nuclear entry. Importin binding assays indicate that nuclear access occurs via an importin-independent mechanism. Together, the data suggest that specific drug-FABP complexes can interact with PPAR? to effect nuclear accumulation of FABP and NHR activation. Because FABPs are expressed in a regionally selective manner, this may provide a means to tailor the patterns of NHR drug activation in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:25847235

  7. Elevated free fatty acid concentrations in lipemic sera reduce protein binding of valproic acid significantly more than phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A; Crossey, M J

    1997-02-01

    Higher concentrations of free valproic acid and phenytoin have been reported in patients with uremia and liver disease. Free fatty acids also displace valproic acid and phenytoin. This is a study of the magnitude of displacement of valproic acid and phenytoin from protein binding by free fatty acid in lipemic sera. Higher concentrations of free fatty acids in lipemic sera affected protein binding of valproic acid significantly more than that of phenytoin. Supplementing normal sera with free fatty acids also increased the free concentrations of both valproic acid and phenytoin as expected, but the observed effect was several times higher in magnitude with valproic acid. There was an increased free fraction of valproic acid in patients who received valproic acid and had hypertriglyceridemia. In a patient with uremia, there was also a significant increase in free valproic acid concentration after routine hemodialysis caused by an increase in free fatty acid concentration secondary to hemodialysis. Increased protein binding of valproic acid in sera was observed after treatment with activated charcoal because charcoal can remove free fatty acid. Because higher free fatty acid concentration significantly affects protein binding of valproic acid, careful monitoring of free valproic acid in patients with lipid disorder may be beneficial. PMID:9030671

  8. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

  9. Resistance to Freezing and Frozen Storage of Streptococcus thermophilus Is Related to Membrane Fatty Acid Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Beal; F. Fonseca; G. Corrieu

    2001-01-01

    The resistance to freezing and frozen storage of Strep- tococcus thermophilus was related to the fatty acid com- position of the cell membrane. The effects of four experi- mental factors were investigated on the fatty acid con- centrations and on the recovery of acidification activity of S. thermophilus stored at ?20°C by using a complete experimental design: incorporating oleic acid

  10. Presence, formation and putative biological activities of N-acyl serotonins, a novel class of fatty-acid derived mediators, in the intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Voortman, Trudy; Balvers, Michiel G J; Hendriks, Henk F J; M Wortelboer, Heleen; Witkamp, Renger F

    2011-10-01

    Following the discovery of the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) and other N-acyl-ethanolamines, several other compounds have been found in which amino acids or neurotransmitters rather than ethanolamide are linked to fatty acids. Studies have shown that the local availability of fatty acid precursors, which in turn is modulated by dietary intake of lipids, determines the pattern of conjugates formed. Less information is available whether the same might be true for the amines or neurotransmitters involved. We hypothesized that N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) and its analogs could be endogenously present in those tissues that have high contents of serotonin. We investigated the endogenous presence of N-acyl serotonins in different parts of the gastro-intestinal tract of pigs and mice. We discovered that AA-5-HT, oleoyl-serotonin, palmitoyl-serotonin, and stearoyl-serotonin were endogenously present, particularly in the jejunum and ileum. Their formation in vitro was stimulated by the addition of serotonin to intestinal tissue incubations. Furthermore, in a mouse study we showed that the pattern of formation is dependent on the relative amount of fatty acids in the diet. The formation of docosahexaenoyl-serotonin and eicosapentaenoyl-serotonin was elevated in mice fed with a diet containing fish oil. Preliminary data showed that several of the serotonin conjugates are able to inhibit glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and FAAH activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that N-acyl serotonins are a novel class of lipid mediators present in the gut with highly promising biological properties. PMID:21798367

  11. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Results Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. Conclusions In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for CFA accumulation via heterologous expression in production plants. PMID:21612656

  12. Fatty acid oxidation in relation to cholesterol biosynthesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Dupont, J

    1966-11-01

    Groups of male and female rats were fed diets containing (calorie basis) 2% corn oil (low-fat, LF), 42% corn oil (CO) or 2% corn oil plus 40% beef tallow (BT) for 2 weeks. Then rats of each sex and diet group were given an intraperitoneal injection of(14)C-acetate,- stearate- oleate or linoleate. Acetate incorporation into cholesterol and rate of oxidation of each fatty acid were determined. Specific activity of cholesterol was higher in females than males, higher with 40% lipid in the diet than with 2% corn oil and higher for CO than BT. Linoleate was oxidized more rapidly than oleate which exceeded stearate. An index of dietary lipid oxidation was computed based on fatty acid oxidation rate, per cent of each fatty acid in the diet and per cent of lipid calories in the diet. Serum cholesterol-(14)C was found to be proportional to dietary lipid oxidation index. PMID:17805649

  13. Three new fatty acid esters from the mushroom Boletus pseudocalopus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2012-06-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of a MeOH extract of the Korean wild mushroom Boletus pseudocalopus resulted in the identification of three new fatty acid esters, named calopusins A-C (1-3), along with two known fatty acid methyl esters (4-5). These new compounds are structurally unique fatty acid esters with a 2,3-butanediol moiety. Their structures were elucidated through 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data and GC-MS analysis as well as a modified Mosher's method. The new compounds 1-3 showed significant inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the tested cancer cell lines with IC(50) values in the range 2.77-12.51 ?M. PMID:22271425

  14. Effects of fatty acids on human serum albumin binding centers.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, G E; Syrejshchikova, T I; Smolina, N V; Uzbekov, M G

    2012-07-01

    Albumin is a carrier of nonesterified long-chain fatty acids and many other ligands. The status of its binding centers was studied for various proportions of nonesterified long-chain fatty acids and albumin as exemplified by palmitic acid. The status of the binding center was tested by recording K-35 probe fluorescence decay in the subnanosecond band. This method showed the work of three types of centers. Palmitic acid enhanced binding activity of all centers, though to a different degree: if the palmitic acid/albumin proportion increased to 2-3, the probe binding to type 1 centers (located in the drug center I region) increased 1.5 times, while binding to type 3 centers increased more than 3-fold. Modification of these centers by nonesterified long-chain fatty acids was similar in the isolated human albumin preparation and in diluted blood serum. Hence, K-35 probe showed the actual status of various albumin centers, their binding capacity depending to a different measure on the fatty acid charge of albumin. PMID:22866302

  15. Changes in the physiological parameters, fatty acid metabolism, and SCD activity and expression in juvenile GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared at three different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ma, X Y; Qiang, J; He, J; Gabriel, N N; Xu, P

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of rearing temperature on the composition of fatty acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and gene expression in GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) tilapia. Three triplicate groups of fish were reared for 40 days at 22, 28, or 34 °C. At the end of the trial, the final body weight of juveniles reared at 28 °C was higher than that of fish reared at 22 or 34 °C. Feed intake, feed efficiency, and the protein efficiency ratio were also higher at 28 °C. The fatty acid composition of muscle tissue differed significantly (P < 0.05) among the treatment groups. The content of SFA decreased with decreasing temperature, whereas the UFA content increased. We observed high levels of PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFAs, in fish reared at the lower temperature. Rearing at low temperature significantly (P < 0.05) increased the expression and activity of the SCD gene. Increased SCD activity and gene expression can increase the biosynthesis of MUFAs in GIFT tilapia muscle. Additionally, cold acclimation can decrease the content of TC and TG in GIFT tilapia, which can help increase cold tolerance. PMID:25939714

  16. The science of Fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Kevin L

    2015-05-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central role in many of the chronic diseases that characterize modern society. In the past decade, our understanding of how dietary fats affect our immune system and subsequently our inflammatory status has grown considerably. There are compelling data showing that high-fat meals promote endotoxin [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] translocation into the bloodstream, stimulating innate immune cells and leading to a transient postprandial inflammatory response. The nature of this effect is influenced by the amount and type of fat consumed. The role of various dietary constituents, including fats, on gut microflora and subsequent health outcomes in the host is another exciting and novel area of inquiry. The impact of specific fatty acids on inflammation may be central to how dietary fats affect health. Three key fatty acid-inflammation interactions are briefly described. First, the evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids induce inflammation in part by mimicking the actions of LPS. Second, the often-repeated claim that dietary linoleic acid promotes inflammation was not supported in a recent systematic review of the evidence. Third, an explanation is offered for why omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are so much less anti-inflammatory in humans than in mice. The article closes with a cautionary tale from the genomic literature that illustrates why extrapolating the results from inflammation studies in mice to humans is problematic. PMID:25979502

  17. Long-chain fatty acids and ethanol affect the properties of membranes in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Miller; Amos O. Dare; Marcie L. Moore; Robert G. Kooser; Billy W. Geer

    1993-01-01

    The larval fatty acid composition of neutral lipids and membrane lipids was determined in three ethanol-tolerant strains ofDrosophila melanogaster. Dietary ethanol promoted a decrease in long-chain fatty acids in neutral lipids along with enhanced alcohol dehydrogenase\\u000a (EC 1.1.1.1) activity in all of the strains. Dietary ethanol also increased the incorporation of14C-ethanol into fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) by two- to

  18. Relationship between cadmium sensitivity and degree of plasma membrane fatty acid unsaturation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Howlett; S. V. Avery

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the redox-active metal copper has recently been found to be influenced by cellular fatty acid composition. This study\\u000a sought to investigate whether fatty acid composition affected plasma membrane permeabilisation and whole-cell toxicity induced\\u000a by the redox-inactive metal cadmium. S. cerevisiae NCYC 1383 was enriched with the polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleate (18:2) and linolenate (18:3)

  19. Anaerobic degradation of volatile fatty acids at different sulphate concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Visser; I. Beeksma; F. van der Zee; A. J. M. Stams; G. Lettinga

    1993-01-01

    The effect of sulfate on the anaerobic breakdown of mixtures of acetate, propionate and butyrate at three different sulfate to fatty acid ratios was studied in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Sludge characteristics were followed with time by means of sludge activity tests and by enumeration of the different physiological bacterial groups. At each sulfate concentration acetate was completely converted

  20. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Stimulates Differentiation of Oligodendroglia Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. van Meeteren; W. Baron; C. Beermann; C. D. Dijkstra; E. A. F. van Tol

    2006-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been postulated as alternative supportive treatment for multiple sclerosis, since they may promote myelin repair. We set out to study the effect of supplementation with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on OLN-93 oligodendroglia and rat primary oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro. It appeared that OLN-93 cells actively incorporate and metabolise the supplemented PUFAs in their cell

  1. Degradation of volatile fatty acids in highly efficient anaerobic digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qunhui Wang; Masaaki Kuninobu; Hiroaki I Ogawa; Yasuhiko Kato

    1999-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, we examined the effects of C2–C6 volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on methane fermentation, as well as the behavior of VFAs in anaerobic digestion. The VFA concentrations and methane production in anaerobic digestion were increased by pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS), such as ultrasonic disintegration, thermal and freezing treatments. The major intermediate products

  2. Fatty acid composition of human milk in Western Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Bahrami; Z Rahimi

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the fatty acid composition of mature human milk in Western Iran with special focus on trans fatty acids.Design:Observational study.Methods:Milk samples were collected from 52 lactating mothers aging 19–39 y, from Western Iran. Subjects were asked to complete a diet questionnaire. Milk fatty acids were measured as 2-nitrophenylhydrazide derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography.Results:Saturated fatty acids were the main fraction

  3. Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of cyclopropenoid fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Schneider; Sook P. Loke; D. T. Hopkins

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of cyclopropenoid fatty acids in oils. The method consists of reacting the methyl esters\\u000a of the cyclopropenoid fatty acids with silver nitrate in methanol to form ether and ketone derivatives. The derivatives formed\\u000a from the cyclopropenoid fatty acids are separated from the methyl esters of the normal fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography\\u000a on

  4. Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Uauy; Dennis R. Hoffman; Patricio Peirano; David G. Birch; Eileen E. Birch

    2001-01-01

    Essential fatty acids are structural components of all tissues and are indispensable for cell membrane synthesis; the brain,\\u000a retina and other neural tissues are particularly rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). These fatty acids\\u000a serve as specific precursors for eicosanoids, which regulate numerous cell and organ functions. Recent human studies support\\u000a the essential nature of n-3 fatty acids in

  5. Diversity of ?12 fatty acid desaturases in santalaceae and their role in production of seed oil acetylenic fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shoko; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Damcevski, Katherine; Gibb, Nerida; Wood, Craig; Hamberg, Mats; Haritos, Victoria S

    2013-11-01

    Plants in the Santalaceae family, including the native cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis and sweet quandong Santalum acuminatum, accumulate ximenynic acid (trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid) in their seed oil and conjugated polyacetylenic fatty acids in root tissue. Twelve full-length genes coding for microsomal ?12 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) from the two Santalaceae species were identified by degenerate PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences placed five Santalaceae FADs with ?12 FADs, which include Arabidopsis thaliana FAD2. When expressed in yeast, the major activity of these genes was ?12 desaturation of oleic acid, but unusual activities were also observed: i.e. ?15 desaturation of linoleic acid as well as trans-?12 and trans-?11 desaturations of stearolic acid (9-octadecynoic acid). The trans-12-octadecen-9-ynoic acid product was also detected in quandong seed oil. The two other FAD groups (FADX and FADY) were present in both species; in a phylogenetic tree of microsomal FAD enzymes, FADX and FADY formed a unique clade, suggesting that are highly divergent. The FADX group enzymes had no detectable ?12 FAD activity but instead catalyzed cis-?13 desaturation of stearolic acid when expressed in yeast. No products were detected for the FADY group when expressed recombinantly. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the FADY genes were expressed in leaf rather than developing seed of the native cherry. FADs with promiscuous and unique activities have been identified in Santalaceae and explain the origin of some of the unusual lipids found in this plant family. PMID:24062307

  6. Diversity of ?12 Fatty Acid Desaturases in Santalaceae and Their Role in Production of Seed Oil Acetylenic Fatty Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Shoko; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Damcevski, Katherine; Gibb, Nerida; Wood, Craig; Hamberg, Mats; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2013-01-01

    Plants in the Santalaceae family, including the native cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis and sweet quandong Santalum acuminatum, accumulate ximenynic acid (trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid) in their seed oil and conjugated polyacetylenic fatty acids in root tissue. Twelve full-length genes coding for microsomal ?12 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) from the two Santalaceae species were identified by degenerate PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences placed five Santalaceae FADs with ?12 FADs, which include Arabidopsis thaliana FAD2. When expressed in yeast, the major activity of these genes was ?12 desaturation of oleic acid, but unusual activities were also observed: i.e. ?15 desaturation of linoleic acid as well as trans-?12 and trans-?11 desaturations of stearolic acid (9-octadecynoic acid). The trans-12-octadecen-9-ynoic acid product was also detected in quandong seed oil. The two other FAD groups (FADX and FADY) were present in both species; in a phylogenetic tree of microsomal FAD enzymes, FADX and FADY formed a unique clade, suggesting that are highly divergent. The FADX group enzymes had no detectable ?12 FAD activity but instead catalyzed cis-?13 desaturation of stearolic acid when expressed in yeast. No products were detected for the FADY group when expressed recombinantly. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the FADY genes were expressed in leaf rather than developing seed of the native cherry. FADs with promiscuous and unique activities have been identified in Santalaceae and explain the origin of some of the unusual lipids found in this plant family. PMID:24062307

  7. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John (Shoreham, NY); Whittle, Edward J. (Greenport, NY)

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  8. Activity of dietary fatty acids on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterisation of pinolenic acid as a dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist with potential effect against metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Watterson, Kenneth R; Stocker, Claire J; Sokol, Elena; Jenkins, Laura; Simon, Katharina; Grundmann, Manuel; Petersen, Rasmus K; Wargent, Edward T; Hudson, Brian D; Kostenis, Evi; Ejsing, Christer S; Cawthorne, Michael A; Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond

    2015-06-01

    Various foods are associated with effects against metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, their mechanisms of action are mostly unclear. Fatty acids may contribute by acting as precursors of signalling molecules or by direct activity on receptors. The medium- and long-chain NEFA receptor FFA1 (free fatty acid receptor 1, previously known as GPR40) has been linked to enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas FFA4 (free fatty acid receptor 4, previously known as GPR120) has been associated with insulin-sensitising and anti-inflammatory effects, and both receptors are reported to protect pancreatic islets and promote secretion of appetite and glucose-regulating hormones. Hypothesising that FFA1 and FFA4 mediate therapeutic effects of dietary components, we screened a broad selection of NEFA on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterised active compounds in concentration-response curves. Of the screened compounds, pinolenic acid, a constituent of pine nut oil, was identified as a relatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist, and its suitability for further studies was confirmed by additional in vitro characterisation. Pine nut oil and free and esterified pure pinolenic acid were tested in an acute glucose tolerance test in mice. Pine nut oil showed a moderately but significantly improved glucose tolerance compared with maize oil. Pure pinolenic acid or ethyl ester gave robust and highly significant improvements of glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the present results indicate that pinolenic acid is a comparatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist that exerts antidiabetic effects in an acute mouse model. The compound thus deserves attention as a potential active dietary ingredient to prevent or counteract metabolic diseases. PMID:25916176

  9. Lipid and fatty acid requirements of tilapias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tilapia have been shown to have a dietary requirement for linoleic (n-6) series fatty acids (18:2n-6 or 20:4n-6). The optimum dietary levels of n-6 reported were 0.5 and 1% for redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), respectively. Tilapia have been suggested to al...

  10. Hydroxyl Fatty Acids and Hydroxyl Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is produced domestically in large supply, averaging over 20 billion pounds per year with an annual carryover of more than one billion pounds. It is important to find new uses for this surplus soybean oil. Hydroxyl fatty acids and hydroxyl oils are platform materials for specialty chemi...

  11. PLANT FATTY ACID (ETHANOL) AMIDE HYDROLASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays a central role in modulating endogenous N-acylethanolamine (NAE) levels in vertebrates, and, in part, constitutes an “endocannabinoid” signaling pathway that regulates diverse physiological and behavioral processes in animals. Recently, an Arabidopsis FAAH hom...

  12. Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariush Mozaffarian; Martijn B. Katan; Alberto Ascherio; Meir J. Stampfer; Walter C. Willett

    2006-01-01

    Trans fats, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration (Figure 1), are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. From the perspective of the food industry, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are attractive because of their

  13. Fatty acid metabolism meets organelle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Walch, Laurence; ?opi?, Alenka; Jackson, Catherine L

    2015-03-23

    Upon nutrient deprivation, cells metabolize fatty acids (FAs) in mitochondria to supply energy, but how FAs, stored as triacylglycerols in lipid droplets, reach mitochondria has been mysterious. Rambold et al. (2015) now show that FA mobilization depends on triacylglycerol lipolysis, whereas autophagy feeds the lipid droplet pool for continued fueling of mitochondria. PMID:25805129

  14. Plasma Acylcarnitine Profiles Suggest Incomplete Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation and Altered Tricarboxylic Cycle Activity in Type 2 Diabetic African-American Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflect...

  15. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance...

  16. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance...

  17. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance...

  18. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance...

  19. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food and...Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the...

  20. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and...Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be...

  1. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and...Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be...

  2. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food and...Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the...

  3. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs...Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance...

  4. Fatty acid-regulated transcription factors in the liver.

    PubMed

    Jump, Donald B; Tripathy, Sasmita; Depner, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription was first reported in the early 1990s. Several transcription factors have been identified as targets of fatty acid regulation. This regulation is achieved by direct fatty acid binding to the transcription factor or by indirect mechanisms where fatty acids regulate signaling pathways controlling the expression of transcription factors or the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, or proteolytic cleavage of the transcription factor. Although dietary fatty acids are well-established regulators of hepatic transcription factors, emerging evidence indicates that endogenously generated fatty acids are equally important in controlling transcription factors in the context of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Our first goal in this review is to provide an up-to-date examination of the molecular and metabolic bases of fatty acid regulation of key transcription factors controlling hepatic metabolism. Our second goal is to link these mechanisms to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a growing health concern in the obese population. PMID:23528177

  5. Cyclic fatty acid yields from linseed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Eisenhauer; R. E. Beal; E. L. Griffin

    1963-01-01

    Increased yields of saturated cyclic fatty acids which are fluid at ?50C have been obtained from linseed oil. Depending on\\u000a reaction conditions, yields varied from 20–42 g of cyclic acids per 100 g of linseed oil. Solvent ratios of 6, 3, and 1.5?1;\\u000a catalyst concentrations of 10, 30, 60, and 100%; and reaction temps of 225, 275, 295, and 325C

  6. Functional Analysis of Leishmania Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Oyola, Samuel O.; Evans, Krystal J.; Smith, Terry K.; Smith, Barbara A.; Hilley, James D.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Kaye, Paul M.; Smith, Deborah F.

    2012-01-01

    The single gene encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthetase (CFAS) is present in Leishmania infantum, L. mexicana and L. braziliensis but absent from L. major, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In L. infantum, usually causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, the CFAS gene is transcribed in both insect (extracellular) and host (intracellular) stages of the parasite life cycle. Tagged CFAS protein is stably detected in intracellular L. infantum but only during the early log phase of extracellular growth, when it shows partial localisation to the endoplasmic reticulum. Lipid analyses of L. infantum wild type, CFAS null and complemented parasites detect a low abundance CFAS-dependent C19? fatty acid, characteristic of a cyclopropanated species, in wild type and add-back cells. Sub-cellular fractionation studies locate the C19? fatty acid to both ER and plasma membrane-enriched fractions. This fatty acid is not detectable in wild type L. major, although expression of the L. infantum CFAS gene in L. major generates cyclopropanated fatty acids, indicating that the substrate for this modification is present in L. major, despite the absence of the modifying enzyme. Loss of the L. infantum CFAS gene does not affect extracellular parasite growth, phagocytosis or early survival in macrophages. However, while endocytosis is also unaffected in the extracellular CFAS nulls, membrane transporter activity is defective and the null parasites are more resistant to oxidative stress. Following infection in vivo, L. infantum CFAS nulls exhibit lower parasite burdens in both the liver and spleen of susceptible hosts but it has not been possible to complement this phenotype, suggesting that loss of C19? fatty acid may lead to irreversible changes in cell physiology that cannot be rescued by re-expression. Aberrant cyclopropanation in L. major decreases parasite virulence but does not influence parasite tissue tropism. PMID:23251490

  7. Fatty acid selectivity of lipases: Erucic acid from rapeseed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Sonnet; Thomas A. Foglia; Stephen H. Feairheller

    1993-01-01

    The fatty acid selectivity of several commercial lipases was evaluated in the hydrolysis of high-erucic acid rapeseed oil\\u000a (HEARO). The lipase ofPseudomonas cepacia catalyzed virtually complete hydrolysis of the oil (94–97%), while that ofGeotrichum candidum discriminated strongly against erucic acid, especially in esterification. A two-step process is suggested for obtaining a\\u000a highly enriched erucic acid in which theG. candidum lipase

  8. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). 721.10512 Section 721.10512...for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). 721.10512 Section 721.10512...for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

  14. Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2013-01-01

    A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

  15. Cyclooxygenase2 generates anti-inflammatory mediators from omega-3 fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison L Groeger; Chiara Cipollina; Marsha P Cole; Steven R Woodcock; Gustavo Bonacci; Tanja K Rudolph; Volker Rudolph; Bruce A Freeman; Francisco J Schopfer

    2010-01-01

    Electrophilic fatty acids are generated during inflammation by non-enzymatic reactions and can modulate inflammatory responses. We used a new mass spectrometry–based electrophile capture strategy to reveal the formation of electrophilic oxo-derivatives (EFOX) from the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). These EFOX were generated by a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-catalyzed mechanism in activated macrophages. Modulation of COX-2 activity

  16. Impact of omega-3 fatty acid enriched TPN on leukotriene synthesis by leukocytes after major surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. KÖLLER; M. SENKAL; M. KEMEN; W. KÖNIG; V. ZUMTOBEL; G. MUHR

    2003-01-01

    Major surgery leads to post-traumatic immune dysregulation which is driven by the activation of potent proinflammatory mediators including the leukotrienes (LTs). The LTs of the four-series derive from arachidonic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid). In contrast, LTs of the five-series are metabolic products of eicosapentaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and exert less biological activities. Therapeutical strategies to attenuate proinflammatory

  17. The effect of variations in dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidyicholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane C. Putnam; Susin E. Carlson; Phillip W. De Voe; Lewis A. Barness

    Human milk, or one of two formulas that derive their fat from vegetable oil, was fed to infants from birth until 4.5 to 6 months of age. Infants fed human milk received 2% of total fatty acids as 20 to 22 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids which are not found in vegetable oils, are synthesized by animals from

  18. [Essential fatty acids and the skin].

    PubMed

    Berbis, P; Hesse, S; Privat, Y

    1990-06-01

    Metabolism of the essential fatty acids (AGE) in an organism leads to synthesis of eicosanoids, which have various biological properties. Linoleic acid plays an important part in maintenance of epidermal integrity by intervening in the cohesion of the stratum corneum and in prevention of transepidermal water loss. Metabolites of arachidonic acid (mostly those obtained by the lipoxygenase pathway) are important agents in causing many inflammatory skin reactions concurrent with development of skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Pharmacological and dietetic control of the metabolism of arachidonic acid is a new and interesting therapeutic concept in the care of skin diseases. Also, fish oil, which is rich in linoleic acid and poor in arachidonic acid, seems to be useful in basal treatment of psoriasis. The value of evening primrose oil, which is rich in gamma-linoleic acid, in the treatment of atopic dermatitis is discussed. PMID:2143069

  19. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for Optimal Neurodevelopment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Uauy; Patricia Mena; Adolfo Llanos; Patricio Peirano

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Key Points\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The supply of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) affects the composition of plasma and red blood\\u000a cell membrane lipids of term and preterm infants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Human infants require docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their diet because they are unable to form this in sufficient quantity\\u000a from the linoleic acid provided from vegetable oils.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • 

  20. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase induced by EGFR/ERK activation promotes tumor growth in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yong; Yu, Yun; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Lin

    2015-08-01

    Lipid metabolism is dysregulated in many human diseases including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancers. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme involved in de novo lipid biosynthesis, is significantly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and associates with tumor progression. However, limited data is available to understand underlying biological functions and clinical significance of overexpressed FASN in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, upregulated FASN was more frequently observed in PDAC tissues compared with normal pancreas in a tissue microarray. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that high expression level of FASN resulted in a significantly poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown or inhibition of endogenous FASN decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in HPAC and AsPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR/ERK signaling accounts for elevated FASN expression in PDAC as ascertained by performing siRNA assays and using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that FASN exhibits important roles in tumor growth and EGFR/ERK pathway is responsible for upregulated expression of FASN in PDAC. PMID:26043686

  1. Adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein as inter-compartmental shuttle for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists in cultured cell.

    PubMed

    Adida, Anne; Spener, Friedrich

    2006-02-01

    We and others showed earlier that liver-type, epidermal-type and adipocyte-type (A-) fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) mediate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) dependent gene expression by channelling their ligand (fatty acid or drug) to the nuclear receptors via direct protein/protein interaction. To clarify mechanistic details of this signaling path, we address here A-FABP import into the nucleus and its interaction with PPARgamma. Making use of COS cells transfected with wild-type or mutant A-FABPs, we exclude posttranslational modification of A-FABP as import signal and provide evidence for both, ligand-dependent and ligand-independent nuclear translocation. With the aid of in vitro pull down assay we demonstrate that specific interaction of A-FABP with PPARgamma isoforms does not require ligand. Moreover, A-FABP binds not only to the ligand-binding domain including hinge domain (domains DEF), but also to the DNA-binding domain including AB domains (domains ABC) of PPARgamma. PMID:16574478

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  3. Autoxidation of fatty acid monolayers adsorbed on silica gel: III. Effects of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guey-Shuang Wu; Robert A. Stein; James F. Mead

    1978-01-01

    Autoxidation of fatty acid monolayers on silica consisting of multiple components to simulate biomembranes has been studied\\u000a by the rate of fatty acid disappearance and the products formed. When palmitic acid was incorporated into linoleic acid monolayers,\\u000a the decrease in rate was proportional to the amounts of plamitic acid present. The protective effect of the saturated fatty\\u000a acid diminished rapidly

  4. Omega3 enriched egg production: the effect of ?-linolenic ?-3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Antruejo; J. O. Azcona; P. T. Garcia; C. Gallinger; M. Rosmini; R. Ayerza; W. Coates; C. D. Perez

    2011-01-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ?-6:?-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ?-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk.2. Feeding ?-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the

  5. Determination of Some Fatty Acids in Local Plant Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanna Kanchanamayoon

    Some fatty acids: palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, in plant seeds were determined. The plant seed samples were Sesamum indicum Linn., Perilla frutescens(Linn.) Britt, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Corchorus olitorius L., Hibiscus canabinus, Tamarindus indica Linn., Irivingia ex. Malayana oliv. A. Benn. The samples were methylated to methylester by methanolic hydrochloric and extracted by toluene. The fatty

  6. Reactivity of Trametes laccases with fatty and resin acids.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, S; Holmbom, B; Spetz, P; Mustranta, A; Buchert, J

    2001-04-01

    Lipophilic extractives commonly referred to as wood pitch or wood resin can have a negative impact on paper machine runnability and product quality. The lipophilic extractives are composed mainly of fatty acids, resin acids, sterols, steryl esters and triglycerides. In this work, the suitability of laccases for the modification of fatty and resin acids was studied, using two model fractions. In the treatments, resin and fatty acid dispersions were treated with two different laccases, i.e. laccases from Trametes hirsuta and T. villosa. Different chromatographic methods were used to elucidate the effects of laccase treatments on the chemistry of the fatty and resin acids. Both laccases were able to modify the fatty and resin acids to some extent. In the case of fatty acids, a decrease in the amount of linoleic, oleic and pinolenic acids was observed, whereas the modification of resin acids resulted in a reduced amount of conjugated resin acids. PMID:11341313

  7. Fatty acid synthase and liver triglyceride metabolism: housekeeper or messenger?

    PubMed Central

    Jensen-Urstad, Anne P. L.; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) catalyzes the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. In the liver, FAS has long been categorized as a housekeeping protein, producing fat for storage of energy when nutrients are present in excess. Most previous studies of FAS regulation have focused on the control of gene expression. However, recent findings suggest that hepatic FAS may also be involved in signaling processes that include activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Moreover, reports of rapid alterations in FAS activity and as well as findings of post-translational modifications of the FAS protein support the notion that dynamic events in addition to transcription impact FAS regulation. These results indicate that FAS enzyme activity can impact liver physiology through signaling as well as energy storage and that its regulation may be complex. PMID:22009142

  8. On the Light Dependence of Fatty Acid Synthesis in Spinach Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Andreas; Heise, Klaus-Peter

    1983-01-01

    The capacity of intact chloroplasts to synthesize long chain fatty acids from acetate depends on the stroma pH in Spinacia oleracea, U. S. hybrid 424. The pH optimum is close to 8.5. Lowering of the stroma pH leads to a reduction of acetate incorporation but does not suffice to eliminate fatty acid synthesis completely. Chain elongation from palmitic to oleic acid shows the same pH dependence. Fatty acid synthesis is activated in the dark upon the simultaneous addition of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and orthophosphate supplying ATP and oxaloacetate for reoxidation of NADPH in the stroma. Under these conditions both dark fatty acid synthesis and synthesis of oleate from palmitate show the same pH dependence as in the light. Dark fatty acid synthesis is further stimulated by increasing the stromal Mg2+ concentration with the ionophore A 23187. In contrast to CO2 fixation, dark fatty acid synthesis is considerably reduced by dithiothreitol (DTT). This observation may be due to an acetyl-CoA deficiency, caused by a nonenzymic acylation of DTT, and a competition for ATP between DTT-activated CO2 fixation and fatty acid synthesis. Because d,l-glyceraldehyde as inhibitor of CO2 fixation compensates the DTT effect on dark fatty acid synthesis, reducing equivalents may be involved in the light dependence of acetate activation. PMID:16663156

  9. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote activation-induced cell death in Th1-polarized murine CD4+ T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Kirsten C.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Wang, Naisyin; McMurray, David N.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary n-3 PUFAs have been shown to attenuate T-cell-mediated inflammation. To investigate whether dietary n-3 PUFAs promote activation-induced cell death (AICD) in CD4+ T-cells induced in vitro to a polarized T-helper1 (Th1) phenotype, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing either 5% corn oil (CO; n-6 PUFA control) or 4% fish oil (FO) plus 1% CO (n-3 PUFA) for 2 weeks. Splenic CD4+ T-cells were cultured with ?-interleukin-4 (?IL-4), IL-12, and IL-2 for 2 days and then with recombinant (r) IL-12 and rIL-2 for 3 days in the presence of diet-matched homologous mouse serum (HMS) to prevent loss of cell membrane fatty acids, or with fetal bovine serum. After polarization, Th1 cells were reactivated and analyzed for interferon-? and IL-4 by intracellular cytokine staining and for apoptosis by Annexin V/propidium iodide. Dietary FO enhanced Th1 polarization by 49% (P = 0.0001) and AICD by 24% (P = 0.0001) only in cells cultured in the presence of HMS. FO enhancement of Th1 polarization and AICD after culture was associated with the maintenance of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in plasma membrane lipid rafts. In conclusion, n-3 PUFAs enhance the polarization and deletion of proinflammatory Th1 cells, possibly as a result of alterations in membrane micro-domain fatty acid composition. PMID:15145980

  10. Impact of processing on formation of trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    King, J M; White, P J

    1999-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are formed during hydrogenation which is done to improve the functionality and oxidative stability of oils. Several process conditions affect the content of trans fatty acids in hydrogenated oil. There is conflicting evidence as to whether intake of trans fatty acids, in foods such as margarine, affects the types and levels of cholesterol produced in the blood. Epidemiological studies have shown associated increases in total cholesterol and low density lipoproteins, as well as decreased levels of high density lipo-proteins in the blood. It is unknown whether these effects are related directly to trans fatty acids or to the decrease of unsaturated fatty acids in the diet. This chapter will cover the recent nutritional status of trans fatty acids and the effect of processing on the levels of trans fatty acids in foods. PMID:10335368

  11. Origin and utilization of volatile fatty acids in the rat C. RMSY C. DEMIGN F. CHARTIER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Origin and utilization of volatile fatty acids in the rat C. RÉMÉSY C. DEMIGNÉ F. CHARTIER differences in the caecum of the rat have been compared for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and for electrolytes plasma was increased in fed as in starved rats, showing that acetyl CoA synthe- tase was still active

  12. Essential Fatty Acids and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Gabis, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Essential fatty acids (EFAs), also known as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, have been claimed to have beneficial effects as a treatment for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Animal experiments have provided information about the role of EFA in the brain, and several mechanisms of EFA activity are well known. The current review…

  13. What do we really know about the health effects of natural sources of trans fatty acids?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the food industry remains actively engaged in the development of alternatives for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in order to reduce intake of trans fatty acids, intake of these fatty acids from natural sources remains as a small part of our diet. The question remains, are there differ...

  14. A low fat diet enhances polyunsaturated fatty acid desaturation and elongation independent of n3 enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low fat diets are associated with risk reduction for chronic metabolic diseases compared to high fat diets. To evaluate effects of varied fat and fatty acid intake on lipid metabolism, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were measured and delta 5 and 6 desaturase activities (D5D, D6D) were calculated in...

  15. Neuropsychological Outcomes in Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders: 85 Cases Detected by Newborn Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waisbren, Susan E.; Landau, Yuval; Wilson, Jenna; Vockley, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders include conditions in which the transport of activated acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) into the mitochondria or utilization of these substrates is disrupted or blocked. This results in a deficit in the conversion of fat into energy. Most patients with fatty acid oxidation defects are now identified through…

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids downregulate the low density lipoprotein receptor of human HepG2 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebely Pal; Andrew M Thomson; Cynthia D. K Bottema; Paul D Roach

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different fatty acids on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor of cultured human liver HepG2 cells. Previous studies investigating the effect of fatty acids on LDL expression have reported conflicting findings and are limited to measurements of LDL receptor binding activity. Therefore, this study is unique in that the

  17. FadD Is Required for Utilization of Endogenous Fatty Acids Released from Membrane Lipids ? †

    PubMed Central

    Pech-Canul, Ángel; Nogales, Joaquina; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Álvarez, Laura; Geiger, Otto; Soto, María José; López-Lara, Isabel M.

    2011-01-01

    FadD is an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase responsible for the activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into acyl-CoAs. Mutation of fadD in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti promotes swarming motility and leads to defects in nodulation of alfalfa plants. In this study, we found that S. meliloti fadD mutants accumulated a mixture of free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. The composition of the free fatty acid pool and the results obtained after specific labeling of esterified fatty acids with a ?5-desaturase (?5-Des) were in agreement with membrane phospholipids being the origin of the released fatty acids. Escherichia coli fadD mutants also accumulated free fatty acids released from membrane lipids in the stationary phase. This phenomenon did not occur in a mutant of E. coli with a deficient FadL fatty acid transporter, suggesting that the accumulation of fatty acids in fadD mutants occurs inside the cell. Our results indicate that, besides the activation of exogenous LCFA, in bacteria FadD plays a major role in the activation of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids. Furthermore, expression analysis performed with S. meliloti revealed that a functional FadD is required for the upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid degradation and suggested that in the wild-type strain, the fatty acids released from membrane lipids are degraded by ?-oxidation in the stationary phase of growth. PMID:21926226

  18. The capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a carnivorous vertebrate: Functional characterisation and nutritional regulation of a Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity and an Elovl5 elongase in striped snakehead (Channa striata).

    PubMed

    Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2015-03-01

    The endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. Although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient LC-PUFA to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway from striped snakehead (Channa striata), which is a strict freshwater piscivore that shows high deposition of LC-PUFA in its flesh. We also functionally characterised a previously isolated fatty acyl desaturase cDNA from this species. Results showed that the striped snakehead desaturase is capable of ?4 and ?5 desaturation activities, while the elongase showed the characteristics of Elovl5 elongases. Collectively, these findings reveal that striped snakehead exhibits the genetic resources to synthesise docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Both genes are expressed at considerable levels in the brain and the liver. In liver, both genes were up-regulated by dietary C18 PUFA, although this increase did not correspond to a significant rise in the deposition of muscle LC-PUFA. Brain tissue of fish fed with plant oil diets showed higher expression of fads2 gene compared to fish fed with fish oil-based diet, which could ensure DHA levels remain constant under limited dietary DHA intake. This suggests the importance of DHA production from EPA via the ?4 desaturation step in order to maintain an optimal reserve of DHA in the neuronal tissues of carnivores. PMID:25542509

  19. Essential fatty acids in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Das, U N

    1999-09-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFAs) form an important component of cell membranes, are eicosanoid precursors and are therefore required for both the structure and function of every cell in the body. EFAs can modulate the activity of protein kinase C, T and B cell response, free radical generation and lipid peroxidation, lymphokine secretion and cell proliferation. EFAs also have anti-mutagenic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. EFAs and their metabolites lower serum cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. EFAs appear to be of benefit in atopic eczema, premenstrual syndrome, psoriasis, auto-immune disorders especially rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, prevention of target organ damage in diabetes mellitus, peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis, coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. EFAs and their metabolites can selectively kill tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo without harming normal cells. In addition, EFAs seem to play a fundamental role in inflammation and immune response. In view of their actions and relative safety, it is anticipated that EFAs may be useful in the management of several diseases. PMID:10778663

  20. Manufacture of soap from fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Herrick; Eric Jungermann

    1963-01-01

    Summary  Soap manufacture from fatty acids is a well established precess with some advantages over continuous saponification of neutral\\u000a fats. These include:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1) \\u000a \\u000a Ability to use cheaper fats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2) \\u000a \\u000a Easier glycerol recovery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3) \\u000a \\u000a Better control over by-products.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4) \\u000a \\u000a Versatility-fatty acids can be used to make other derivatives than soaps.

  1. Human Serum Albumin and p53-Activating Peptide Fusion Protein Is Able to Promote Apoptosis and Deliver Fatty Acid-Modified Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Michelle R.; Yao, Nianhuan; Myers, Kenneth A.; Li, Zhiyu

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic peptides offer a high degree of specificity, potency, and low toxicity; making them promising candidates for cancer therapy. Despite these advantages, a number of hurdles, such as poor serum stability and inefficient cellular penetration, must be overcome. Fusing a therapeutic peptide to human serum albumin (HSA) is a common approach to extend the serum stability of a peptide that binds to extracellular receptors. However, no study has shown that this approach can be applied to target intracellular proteins. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using a recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) fusion protein to simultaneously deliver two types of molecules: a peptide capable of binding an intracellular target, as well as fatty acid (FA)-modified FITC (FA-FITC). Two peptides reported to disrupt the intracellular p53 and MDM2/MDMX interaction were fused to the C-terminal of HSA. Cellular and biochemical studies indicate that rHSA fusion proteins were efficiently taken up by SJSA-1 cells and retained MDM2- and MDMX-binding activity. By inducing the accumulation of p53, both fusion proteins promoted efficient cytotoxicity in SJSA-1 cells via caspase activation. Long chain fatty acid (LCFA) transportation is an essential endogenous function of HSA. This study also demonstrates that rHSA fusion proteins formed highly stable complexes with FA-FITC via non-covalent interactions. FA-FITC complexed with HSA could be internalized efficiently and rHSA-P53i and rHSA-PMI retained apoptotic activity as complex components. It is expected that such an approach can ultimately be used to facilitate intracellular delivery of two anticancer therapeutics, each with distinct but complimentary mechanisms, to achieve synergistic efficacy. PMID:24278348

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and PPAR? in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Iris J.; O'Flaherty, Joseph T.

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 (or n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites are natural ligands for peroxisome proliferator receptor activator (PPAR)? and, due to the effects of PPAR? on cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, are potential anticancer agents. Dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs has been associated with a reduced risk of certain cancers in human populations and in animal models. In vitro studies have shown that omega-3 PUFAs inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells through various pathways but one of which involves PPAR? activation. The differential activation of PPAR? and PPAR?-regulated genes by specific dietary fatty acids may be central to their distinct roles in cancer. This review summarizes studies relating PUFAs to PPAR? and cancer and offers a new paradigm relating an n-3 PUFA through PPAR? to the expression of the cell surface proteoglycan, syndecan-1, and to the death of cancer cells. PMID:18769551

  3. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  4. Viscosities of vegetable oils and fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Noureddini; B. C. Teoh; L. Davis Clements

    1992-01-01

    Data for viscosity as a function of temperature from 24 to 110C (75 to 230F) have been measured for a number of vegetable\\u000a oils (crambe, rapeseed, corn, soybean, milk-weed, coconut, lesquerella) and eight fatty acids in the range from C9 to C22. The viscosity measurements were performed according to ASTM test methods D 445 and D 446. Several correlations were

  5. Rosiglitazone increases fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) but not carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat muscle mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Carley R; Holloway, Graham P; Campbell, S E; Yoshida, Yuko; Tandon, Narendra N; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J J F P; Spriet, Lawrence L; Bonen, Arend

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter the expression of genes involved in regulating lipid metabolism. Rosiglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, induces tissue-specific effects on lipid metabolism; however, its mode of action in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Since fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) was recently identified as a possible regulator of skeletal muscle fatty acid transport and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we examined in this tissue the effects of rosiglitazone infusion (7 days, 1 mg day?1) on FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein, its plasmalemmal content and fatty acid transport. In addition, in isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria we examined rates of fatty acid oxidation, FAT/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) protein, and CPTI and ?-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (?-HAD) activities. Rosiglitazone did not alter FAT/CD36 mRNA or protein expression, FAT/CD36 plasmalemmal content, or the rate of fatty acid transport into muscle (P > 0.05). In contrast, rosiglitazone increased the rates of fatty acid oxidation in both SS (+21%) and IMF mitochondria (+36%). This was accompanied by concomitant increases in FAT/CD36 in subsarcolemmal (SS) (+43%) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria (+46%), while SS and IMF CPTI protein content, and CPTI submaximal and maximal activities (P > 0.05) were not altered. Similarly, citrate synthase (CS) and ?-HAD activities were also not altered by rosiglitazone in SS and IMF mitochondria (P > 0.05). These studies provide another example whereby changes in mitochondrial fatty oxidation are associated with concomitant changes in mitochondrial FAT/CD36 independent of any changes in CPTI. Moreover, these studies identify for the first time a mechanism by which rosiglitazone stimulates fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, namely the chronic, subcellular relocation of FAT/CD36 to mitochondria. PMID:18238811

  6. Evaluation of antifungal activity of free fatty acids methyl esters fraction isolated from Algerian Linum usitatissimum L. seeds against toxigenic Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Amrouche; Houcine, Benmehdi; Halima, Dalile; Meriem, Chabane sari; Imane, Zaaboub; Eddine, Smahi Djamal; Abdallah, Moussaoui; Daoudi, Chabane sari

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the major fraction of fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) isolated from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds oil collected from Bechar department (Algeria). Methods The assessment of antifungal activity was carried out in terms of percentage of radial growth on solid medium (potatoes dextrose agar PDA) and biomass growth inhibition on liquid medium (potatoes dextrose broth PDB) against two fungi. Results The FAMEs was found to be effective in inhibiting the radial mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus more than Aspergillus ochraceus on all tested concentrations. The highest antifungal index was found to be (54.19%) compared to Aspergillus ochraceus (40.48%). The results of the antifungal activity of the FAMEs inhibition of biomass on liquid medium gave no discounted results, but this does not exclude the antifungal activity. Conclusions We can assume that the observed antifungal potency may be due to the abundance of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids in linseed oil which appears to be promising to treat fungal infections, storage fungi and food spoilage in food industry field. PMID:23730556

  7. Lipidomics of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Lipid mediators are produced from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids through enzymatic and free radical-mediated reactions. When subject to oxygenation via cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, polyunsaturated fatty acids give rise to an array of metabolites including eicosanoids, docosanoids, and octadecanoids. These potent bioactive lipids are involved in many biochemical and signaling pathways, with inflammation being of particular importance. Moreover, because they are produced by more than one pathway and substrate, and are present in a variety of biological milieus, their analysis is not always possible with conventional assays. Liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry offers a versatile and sensitive approach for the analysis of bioactive lipids, allowing specific and accurate quantitation of multiple species present in the same sample. Here we explain the principles of this approach to mediator lipidomics and present detailed protocols for the assay of enzymatically produced oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can be tailored to answer biological questions or facilitate assessment of nutritional and pharmacological interventions. PMID:22940496

  8. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    PubMed

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23971051

  9. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    PubMed Central

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330?mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175?mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23971051

  10. Elaidate, an 18-carbon trans-monoenoic fatty acid, but not physiological fatty acids increases intracellular Zn(2+) in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zacherl, Janelle R; Tourkova, Irina; St Croix, Claudette M; Robinson, Lisa J; Peck Palmer, Octavia M; Mihalik, Stephanie J; Blair, Harry C

    2015-04-01

    Artificial trans fatty acids promote atherosclerosis by blocking macrophage clearance of cell debris. Classical fatty-acid response mechanisms include TLR4-NF-?B activation, and Erk1/2 phosphorylation, but these may not indicate long-term mechanisms. Indeed, nuclear NF-?B was increased by 60?min treatment by 30??M of the 18 carbon trans unsaturated fatty acid elaidic acid (elaidate), the physiological cis-unsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (oleate), and the 18 or 16 carbon saturated fatty acids stearic and palmitic acid (stearate or palmitate). However, except for stearate, effects on related pathways were minimal at 44?h. To determine longer term effects of trans fatty acids, we compared mRNA expression profiles of (trans) elaidate to (cis) oleate, 30??M, at 44?h in human macrophages. We found that elaidate changed Zn(2+) -homeostasis gene mRNAs markedly. This might be important because Zn(2+) is a major regulator of macrophage activity. Messenger RNAs of seven Zn(2+) -binding metallothioneins decreased 2-4-fold; the zinc importer SLC39A10 increased twofold, in elaidate relative to oleate-treated cells. Results were followed by quantitative PCR comparing cis, trans, and saturated fatty acid effects on Zn(2+) -homeostasis gene mRNAs. This confirmed that elaidate uniquely decreased metallothionein expression and increased SLC39A10 at 44?h. Further, intracellular Zn(2+) was measured using N-(carboxymethyl)-N-[2-[2-[2(carboxymethyl) amino]-5-(2,7,-difluoro-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)-phenoxy]-ethoxy]-4-methoxyphenyl]glycine, acetoxymethyl ester (FluoZin-3-AM). This showed that, at 44?h, only cells treated with elaidate had increased Zn(2+) . The durable effect of elaidate on Zn(2+) activation is a novel and specific effect of trans fatty acids on peripheral macrophage metabolism. PMID:25358453

  11. Variation in Lake Michigan alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) thiaminase and fatty acids composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Brown, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Thiaminase activity of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) is variable across Lake Michigan, yet factors that contribute to the variability in alewife thiaminase activity are unknown. The fatty acid content of Lake Michigan alewife has not been previously reported. Analysis of 53 Lake Michigan alewives found a positive correlation between thiaminase activity and the following fatty acid: C22:ln9, sum of omega-6 fatty acids (Sw6), and sum of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thiaminase activity was negatively correlated with C15:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, C24:0, C18:ln9t, C20:3n3, C22:2, and the sum of all saturated fatty acids (SAFA). Multi-variant regression analysis resulted in three variables (C18:ln9t, Sw6, SAFA) that explained 71% (R2=0.71, P<0.0001) of the variation in thiaminase activity. Because the fatty acid content of an organism is related is food source, diet may be an important factor modulating alewife thiaminase activity. These data suggest there is an association between fatty acids and thiaminase activity in Lake Michigan alewife.

  12. Use of tocopherol with polyunsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tocopherol can inhibit the oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by stabilizing lipid radicals that form at elevated temperatures or pro-oxidant conditions. This is particularly relevant for feeds formulated with fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or linolenic acid (ALA) T...

  13. Fatty acids and carotenoids from Stinging Nettle ( Urtica dioica L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Guil-Guerrero; M. M. Rebolloso-Fuentes; M. E. Torija Isasa

    2003-01-01

    Several parts (leaves at different maturity stages, stems, roots and seeds) of an edible wild vegetable, Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) were analysed for fatty acids by GLC and carotenoids by reversed-phase HPLC and gradient elution. ?-linolenic acid was the pre-dominant fatty acid in leaves, while seeds were richer in linoleic acid. Nine carotenoids were identified in the leaves. For

  14. Synthesis of medium chain length fatty acid ethyl esters in engineered Escherichia coli using endogenously produced medium chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liping; Liu, Junfeng; Nie, Kaili; Liu, Luo; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li

    2013-07-10

    Microbial biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived biofuels from renewable carbon sources has attracted significant attention in recent years. Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of micro-diesel. The expression of codon optimized two plants (Umbellularia californica and Cinnamomum camphora) medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase genes (ucFatB and ccFatB) in Escherichia coli resulted in a very high level of extractable medium-chain-specific hydrolytic activity and caused large accumulation of medium-chain free fatty acids. By heterologous co-expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, specific plant thioesterases in E. coli, with supplementation of exogenous ethanol, resulted in drastic changes in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) composition ranging from 12:0 to 18:1. Through an optimized microbial shake-flask fermentation of two modified E. coli strains, yielded FFAs and FAEEs in the concentration of approximately 500 mg L(-1)/250 mg L(-1) and 2.01 mg g(-1)/1.99 mg g(-1), respectively. The optimal ethanol level for FAEEs yield in the two recombinant strains was reached at the 3% ethanol concentration, which was about 5.4-fold and 1.93-fold higher than that of 1% ethanol concentration. PMID:23769314

  15. Fatty Acids in the Causation and Therapy of Metabolic Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram B. Singh; Fabien De Meester; Viola Mechirova; Daniel Pella; Kuniaki Otsuka

    The role of fatty acids in the prevention and pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome leading to cardiovascular diseases, type\\u000a 2 diabetes and insulin resistance are reviewed. We did Medline, PubMed search till March, 2007. Excess of linoleic acid, trans\\u000a fatty acids (TFA), saturated and total fat as well as refined starches and sugar are proinflammatory. Low dietary monounsaturated\\u000a fatty acids (MUFA)

  16. Soil Bacterial Biomass, Activity, Phospholipid Fatty Acid Pattern, and pH Tolerance in an Area Polluted with Alkaline Dust Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Bååth, E.; Frostegård, Å.; Fritze, H.

    1992-01-01

    Soil bacterial biomass, phospholipid fatty acid pattern, pH tolerance, and growth rate were studied in a forest area in Finland that is polluted with alkaline dust from an iron and steel works. The pollution raised the pH of the humus layer from 4.1 to 6.6. Total bacterial numbers and the total amounts of bacterial phospholipid fatty acids in the humus layer did not differ between the unpolluted control sites and the polluted ones. The number of CFU increased by a factor of 6.4 in the polluted sites compared with the controls, while the bacterial growth rate, measured by the thymidine incorporation technique, increased about 1.8-fold in the polluted sites. A shift in the pattern of phospholipid fatty acids indicated a shift in the bacterial species composition. The largest proportional increase was found for the fatty acid 10Me18:0, which indicated an increase in the number of actinomycetes in the polluted sites. The levels of the fatty acids i14:0, 16:1?5, cy17:0, 18:1?7, and 19:1 also increased in the polluted sites while those of fatty acids 15:0, i15:0, 10Me16:0, 16:1?7t, 18:1?9, and cy19:0 decreased compared with the unpolluted sites. An altered pH tolerance of the bacterial assemblage was detected either as a decrease in acid-tolerant CFU in the polluted sites or as altered bacterial growth rates at different pHs. The latter was estimated by measuring the thymidine incorporation rate of bacteria extracted from soil by homogenization-centrifugation at different pHs. PMID:16348828

  17. Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy. PMID:23336351

  18. Role of serotonin in fatty acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saturated fatty acids are thought to be of relevance for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In previous studies we found that food-derived carbohydrates such as fructose alter the intestinal serotonergic system while inducing fatty liver disease in mice. Here, we examined the effect of fatty acid quantity (11% versus 15%) and quality (saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids) on hepatic fat accumulation, intestinal barrier and the intestinal serotonergic system. Methods C57BL/6 mice had free access to diets enriched with one of the three fatty acids or standard diet, for 8 weeks. In an additional experiment mice were fed diets enriched with saturated, monounsaturated fatty acids or standard diet supplemented with tryptophan (0.4 g/(kg.d), 8 weeks) or not. Hepatic fat accumulation, small intestinal barrier impairment and components of the serotonergic system were measured with RT-PCR, western blot or immunoassays. For statistical analysis t-test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test and Bartlett’s test for equal variances was used. Results Hepatic triglycerides, liver weight and liver to body weight ratio were significantly changed depending on the fat quality but not fat quantity. In contrast, fat quantity but not quality decreased the expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-1 in the small intestine. These changes seemed to result in enhanced portal vein endotoxin concentrations and fatty liver disease after feeding diet enriched with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids but not polyunsaturated fatty acids. Neither fatty acid quantity nor quality significantly influenced the intestinal serotonergic system. Similarly, tryptophan supplementation had no impact on small intestinal barrier or fatty liver disease. Conclusion In conclusion, diets rich in saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids promote the development of fatty liver disease in mice, likely by a dysfunction of the small intestinal mucosal barrier. PMID:24321090

  19. Inflammation in Response to n3 Fatty Acids in a Porcine Obesity Model

    PubMed Central

    Faris, Richard J; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Li, Jenny; Jones, Douglas E; Spurlock, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids have distinct cellular effects related to inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Dietary saturated fat activates toll-like receptor 4, which in turn can lead to chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. Conversely, n3 fatty acids are generally antiinflammatory and promote insulin sensitivity, in part via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. Ossabaw swine are a useful biomedical model of obesity. We fed Ossabaw pigs either a low-fat control diet or a diet containing high-fat palm oil with or without additional n3 fatty acids for 30 wk to investigate the effect of saturated fats and n3 fatty acids on obesity-linked inflammatory markers. The diet did not influence the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, TNF?, IL6, or IL12. In addition, n3 fatty acids attenuated the increase in inflammatory adipose tissue CD16–CD14+ macrophages induced by high palm oil. High-fat diets with and without n3 fatty acids both induced hyperglycemia without hyperinsulinemia. The high-fat only group but not the high-fat group with n3 fatty acids showed reduced insulin sensitivity in response to insulin challenge. This effect was not mediated by decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B. Therefore, in obese Ossabaw swine, n3 fatty acids partially attenuate insulin resistance but only marginally change inflammatory status and macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue. PMID:23561883

  20. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    PubMed

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jaros?awa

    2014-01-01

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment. PMID:25228507

  1. Four Trypanosoma brucei fatty acyl-CoA synthetases: fatty acid specificity of the recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, D W; Englund, P T

    2001-01-01

    As part of our investigation of fatty acid metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei, we have expressed four acyl-CoA synthetase (TbACS) genes in Esherichia coli. The recombinant proteins, with His-tags on their C-termini, were purified to near homogeneity using nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. Although these enzymes are highly homologous, they have distinct specificities for fatty acid chain length. TbACS1 prefers saturated fatty acids in the range C(11:0) to C(14:0) and TbACS2 prefers shorter fatty acids, mainly C(10:0). TbACS3 and 4, which have 95% sequence identity, have similar specificities, favouring fatty acids between C(14:0) and C(17:0). In addition, TbACS1, 3 and 4 function well with a variety of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:11535136

  2. Evaluating acid and base catalysts in the methylation of milk and rumen fatty acids with special emphasis on conjugated dienes and total trans fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. G. Kramer; Vivek Fellner; Michael E. R. Dugan; Frank D. Sauer; Magdi M. Mossoba; Martin P. Yurawecz

    1997-01-01

    Milk analysis is receiving increased attention. Milk contains conjugated octadecadienoic acids (18?2) purported to be anticarcinogenic,\\u000a low levels of essential fatty acids, and trans fatty acids that increase when essential fatty acids are increased in dairy rations. Milk and rumen fatty acid methyl esters\\u000a (FAME) were prepared using several acid-(HCl, BF3, acetyl chloride, H2SO4) or base-catalysts (NaOCH3, tetramethylguanidine, diazomethane), or

  3. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyong-Su; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-09-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the ?-carbon position and C n-1 hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C n-1 hydrocarbons were higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin.

  4. ?-sulfonated fatty acid esters: II. Solution behavior of ?-sulfonated fatty acid polyethylene glycol esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomomichi Okano; Naoyuki Egawa; Masami Fujiwara; Masahiro Fukuda

    1996-01-01

    Sodium ?-sulfonated, fatty acid polyethylene glycol monoesters [C\\u000a m\\u000a H2m+1CH(SO3Na)COO(C2H4O)\\u000a n\\u000a H] and diesters [C\\u000a m\\u000a H2m+1CH(SO3Na)COO(C2H4O)\\u000a n\\u000a COCH(SO3Na)C\\u000a m\\u000a H2m+1], wherem=10–16 andn=1–35, were prepared by esterification of ?-sulfonated, fatty acids with polyethylene glycols, followed by neutralization\\u000a with NaOH. Crude products were purified by reversed-phase column chromatography on an octadecyl-modified silica gel. Characteristic\\u000a solution behavior of these ?-sulfonated fatty acid

  5. Incorporation of fatty acids by concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes and the effect on fatty acid composition and membrane fluidity.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P; Harvey, D J; Watts, A; Newsholme, E A

    1994-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of the neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions of rat lymph node lymphocytes were characterized. Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). Membrane fluidity was measured using nitroxide spin-label e.s.r., and increased during culture with concanavalin A. Culturing the lymphocytes in the absence of mitogen did not affect fatty acid composition or membrane fluidity. The uptake and fate of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were studied in detail; there was a time-dependent incorporation of each fatty acid into all lipid classes but each fatty acid had a characteristic fate. Palmitic and arachidonic acids were incorporated principally into phospholipids whereas oleic and linoleic acids were incorporated in similar proportions into phospholipids and triacylglycerols. Oleic acid was incorporated mainly into phosphatidylcholine, palmitic and linoleic acids were incorporated equally into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and arachidonic acid was incorporated mainly into phosphatidylethanolamine. Supplementation of the culture medium with particular fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid) led to enrichment of that fatty acid in both neutral lipids and phospholipids. This generated lymphocytes with phospholipids differing in saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, degree of polyunsaturation, index of unsaturation and n - 6/n - 3 ratio. This method allowed the introduction into lymphocyte phospholipids of fatty acids not normally present (e.g. alpha-linolenic) or usually present in low proportions (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic). These three n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids replaced arachidonic acid in lymphocyte phospholipids. Fatty acid incorporation led to an alteration in lymphocyte membrane fluidity: palmitic and stearic acids decreased fluidity whereas the unsaturated fatty acids increased fluidity. It is proposed that the changes in lymphocyte phospholipid fatty acid composition and membrane fluidity brought about by culture in the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids are responsible for the inhibition of lymphocyte functions caused by these fatty acids. PMID:8002957

  6. Potentiation of TRPV3 channel function by unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Zhen; Xiao, Rui; Wang, Chunbo; Gao, Na; Colton, Craig K; Wood, Jackie D; Zhu, Michael X

    2006-07-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are polymodal detectors of multiple environmental factors, including temperature, pH, and pressure. Inflammatory mediators enhance TRPV function through multiple signaling pathways. The lipoxygenase and epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism have been shown to directly activate TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively. TRPV3 is a thermosensitive channel with an intermediate temperature threshold of 31-39 degrees C. We have previously shown that TRPV3 is activated by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB). Here we show that AA and other unsaturated fatty acids directly potentiate 2APB-induced responses of TRPV3 expressed in HEK293 cells, Xenopus oocytes, and mouse keratinocytes. The AA-induced potentiation is observed in intracellular Ca2+ measurement, whole-cell and two-electrode voltage clamp studies, as well as single channel recordings of excised inside-out and outside-out patches. The fatty acid-induced potentiation is not blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C and thus differs from that induced by the kinase. The potentiation does not require AA metabolism but is rather mimicked by non-metabolizable analogs of AA. These results suggest a novel mechanism regulating the TRPV3 response to inflammation, which differs from TRPV1 and TRPV4, and involves a direct action of free fatty acids on the channel. PMID:16557504

  7. Potentiation of TRPV3 Channel Function by Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    HU, HONG-ZHEN; XIAO, RUI; WANG, CHUNBO; GAO, NA; COLTON, CRAIG K.; WOOD, JACKIE D.; ZHU, MICHAEL X.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are polymodal detectors of multiple environmental factors, including temperature, pH, and pressure. Inflammatory mediators enhance TRPV function through multiple signaling pathways. The lipoxygenase and epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism have been shown to directly activate TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively. TRPV3 is a thermosensitive channel with an intermediate temperature threshold of 31–39°C. We have previously shown that TRPV3 is activated by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB). Here we show that AA and other unsaturated fatty acids directly potentiate 2APB-induced responses of TRPV3 expressed in HEK293 cells, Xenopus oocytes, and mouse keratinocytes. The AA-induced potentiation is observed in intracellular Ca2+ measurement, whole-cell and two-electrode voltage clamp studies, as well as single channel recordings of excised inside-out and outside-out patches. The fatty acid-induced potentiation is not blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C and thus differs from that induced by the kinase. The potentiation does not require AA metabolism but is rather mimicked by non-metabolizable analogs of AA. These results suggest a novel mechanism regulating the TRPV3 response to inflammation, which differs from TRPV1 and TRPV4, and involves a direct action of free fatty acids on the channel. PMID:16557504

  8. n-3 fatty acids inhibit defects and fatty acid changes caused by phenytoin in early gestation in mice.

    PubMed

    High, K A; Kubow, S

    1994-11-01

    Our previous work has shown that n-3 fatty acids exert a protective effect against phenytoin-induced cleft palate when phenytoin was administered midgestation [gestational days (GD) 12 and 13] to CD-1 mice. The effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on phenytoin teratogenicity were investigated at an earlier gestational period (GD 9) to examine whether n-3 fatty acids could exert protective action against other teratogenic effects of phenytoin apart from cleft palate. The effect of phenytoin exposure on maternal hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acid composition was also studied since delta 6 desaturase activity has been shown to be modified by pharmacological action. Female CD-1 mice were fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD), safflower oil (SAFF) or a cod liver/linseed oil (CLO/LO)-based diet for three weeks prior to impregnation and throughout pregnancy. Pregnant mice were administered a single i.p. dose of phenytoin on GD 9, and teratological assessments were performed on GD 19. Tissues were harvested on GD 10 for maternal hepatic phospholipid fatty acid analysis from another group of phenytoin-treated mice. The CLO/LO and the SLD mice, as compared to the SAFF-fed animals, showed a reduction in total malformations and fetal growth retardation due to phenytoin. Open eye defect was the only anomaly induced by phenytoin in the CLO/LO fetuses while phenytoin produced a variety of malformations in the SAFF fetuses such as tail defects, cleft palate, open eye and absence or blockage of the ureter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7869858

  9. Aldehydes from n-6 fatty acid peroxidation. Effects on aminophospholipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Guichardant; N. Bernoud-Hubac; B. Chantegrel; C. Deshayes; M. Lagarde

    2002-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-nonenal (4-HNE) is a major by-product of n-6 fatty acid peroxidation. It has been described to covalently bind biomolecules expressing primary amine, especially the Lys residues in proteins. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are well-described macromolecules to be modified by 4-HNE, making them available to scavenger receptors on macrophages. Those macrophages then become foam cells and play an active role in atherogenesis.This

  10. Effects of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency on Mouse Brain Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Hannah; A. T. Campagnoni

    1987-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on the activities of several membrane-bound enzymes was examined in the brains of C57BL\\/6J mice. Pregnant females were placed on an EFA-deficient diet during the last week of gestation and their progeny were examined at intervals up to 16 weeks after birth. Early signs of the deficiency, such as reduced body and

  11. Essential Fatty Acid Nutrition of the American Alligator (Alligator mississlppiensis)}

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK A. STATOn; HARDY M. EDWARDS; TED JOANEH; LARRY MCHEASE

    The essential fatty acid (EFA) nutrition of young American alligators (Alligator mississippien- sis) was examined by feeding a variety of fats\\/oils with potential EFA activity. Over a 12-wk period, alligators fed diets containing 2.5 or 5.0% chicken liver oil grew longer and heavier and converted feed to body mass more efficiently than alligators fed other fat\\/oil combi nations that lacked

  12. The Natural Diyne-Furan Fatty Acid EV-086 Is an Inhibitor of Fungal Delta-9 Fatty Acid Desaturation with Efficacy in a Model of Skin Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B. V.; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A.; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S.

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids—but not saturated fatty acids—antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086–phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses. PMID:24189258

  13. Function of Heterologous Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA, a Type 2 Fatty Acid Synthase Enzyme Involved in Extending C20 Fatty Acids to C60toC90 Mycolic Acids, during De Novo Lipoic Acid Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aner Gurvitz; J. Kalervo Hiltunen; Alexander J. Kastaniotis

    2008-01-01

    We describe the physiological function of heterologously expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA during de novo lipoic acid synthesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mitochondria. InhA, representing 2-trans-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and the target for the front-line antituberculous drug isoniazid, is involved in the activity of dissociative type 2 fatty acid synthase (FASII) that extends associative type 1 fatty acid synthase (FASI)-derived C20

  14. Fatty acid biosynthesis by a particulate preparation from germinating pea

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Paul; Harwood, John L.

    1977-01-01

    1. Fatty acid synthesis was studied in microsomal preparations from germinating pea (Pisum sativum). 2. The preparations synthesized a mixture of saturated fatty acids up to a chain length of C24 from [14C]malonyl-CoA. 3. Whereas hexadecanoic acid was made de novo, octadecanoic acid and icosanoic acid were synthesized by elongation. 4. The products formed during [14C]malonyl-CoA incubation were analysed, and unesterified fatty acids and polar lipids were found to be major products. [14C]Palmitic acid represented a high percentage of the acyl-carrier protein esters, whereas 14C-labelled very-long-chain fatty acids were mainly present as unesterified fatty acids. CoA esters were minor products. 5. The addition of exogenous lipids to the incubation system usually resulted in stimulation of [14C]malonyl-CoA incorporation into fatty acids. The greatest stimulation was obtained with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. Both exogenous palmitic acid and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine increased the amount of [14C]-stearic acid synthesized, relative to [14C]palmitic acid. Addition of stearic acid increased the amount of [14C]icosanoic acid formed. 6. [14C]Stearic acid was elongated more effectively to icosanoic acid than [14C]stearoyl-CoA, and its conversion was not decreased by addition of unlabelled stearoyl-CoA. 7. Incorporation of [14C]malonyl-CoA into fatty acids was markedly decreased by iodoacetamide and 5,5?-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Palmitate elongation was sensitive to arsenite addition, and stearate elongation to the presence of Triton X-100 or fluoride. The action of fluoride was not, apparently, due to chelation. 8. The microsomal preparations differed from soluble fractions from germinating pea in (a) synthesizing very-long-chain fatty acids, (b) not utilizing exogenous palmitate–acyl-carrier protein as a substrate for palmitate elongation and (c) having fatty acid synthesis stimulated by the addition of certain complex lipids. PMID:579600

  15. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool.

  16. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Therapeutic Potential in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip C. Calder

    2009-01-01

    The fatty acids of most relevance to inflammatory processes are the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid, the precursor of inflammatory eicosanoids like prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4, and the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DHA are found in oily fish and fish oils. Eicosanoids derived from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid play

  17. Is acetylcarnitine a substrate for fatty acid synthesis in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G. (Horticulture Research Inst., Auckland (New Zealand)); Post-Beittenmiller, D.; Ohlrogge, J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Browse, J. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Long-chain fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine by chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), pea (Pisum sativum), amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus), or maize (Zea mays) occurred at less than 2% of the rate of fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetate irrespective of the maturity of the leaves or whether the plastids were purified using sucrose or Percoll medium. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was not significantly utilized by highly active chloroplasts rapidly prepared from pea and spinach using methods not involving density gradient centrifugation. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was recovered quantitatively from chloroplast incubations following 10 min in the light. Unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine (0.4 mM) did not compete with [1-[sup 14]C]acetate (0.2 mM) as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by any of the more than 70 chloroplast preparations tested in this study. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity was not detected in any chloroplast preparation and was present in whole leaf homogenates at about 0.1% of the level of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity. When supplied to detached pea shoots and detached spinach, amaranthus, and maize leaves via the transpiration stream, 1 to 4% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine and 47 to 57% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetate taken up was incorporated into lipids. Most (78--82%) of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine taken up was recovered intact. It is concluded that acetylcarnitine is not a major precursor for fatty acid synthesis in plants. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Effect of environmental factors on the production of oxygenated unsaturated fatty acids from linoleic acids by Bacillus megaterium ALA2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching T. Hou

    2005-01-01

    We identified [Hou CT (2003) New uses of vegetable oils: novel oxygenated fatty acids by biotransformation. SIM News 53:56–61] many novel oxygenated fatty acids produced from linoleic acid by Bacillus megaterium ALA2: 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,17-THOA); 12,13,16-trihydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,16-THOA); 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid; and 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA, the main product, has antiplant pathogenic fungal activity. To develop an industrial process for the production

  19. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

  20. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

  1. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

  2. Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Morales; ICFR Ferreira; AM Carvalho; MC Sánchez-Mata; M Cámara; J Tardío

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in human nutrition, being associated with several health benefits. The analyzed vegetables, in spite of its low fat content, lower than 2%, present a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3, n-6 and n-9 series, such as ?-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. Wild edible plants contain in general a good balance

  3. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573.914 Food... § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive...the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  4. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573.914 Food... § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive...the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  5. Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

  6. Unsaturated fatty acids and viability of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Hazell, S L; Graham, D Y

    1990-01-01

    Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori was found to be sensitive to the toxic effects of an unsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic acid). Data are presented that support the hypothesis that exogenous catalase added to basal media enhances the growth of H. pylori by preventing the formation of toxic peroxidation products from long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:2112559

  7. Contribution of Diet and Genes to Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiko Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Dietary recommendations for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are based in part on results from epidemiologic studies to\\u000a determine the level of dietary PUFA required to maintain optimal health. There are many challenges to estimating consumption\\u000a of fatty acids through dietary surveys. PUFA measured in different biological samples have been used as biomarkers of fatty\\u000a acid consumption. In addition to diet,

  8. The hydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids by the ruminant 

    E-print Network

    Reddy, H. G. Ramakrishna

    1955-01-01

    , and extraction, saponification, and distillation of fatty acids were carried out by the method described above for the feed ~ ample. In some samples, where the recovery of the fatty acids wss so small that they could not be distilled, the process of re... Representative U. S. Linseed Oil . Z3 INTRODUCTION It is a curious fact of nature, that among the herbivorous animals, the ruminant deposits its fat in a predominantly saturated condition, despite the highly unsaturated fatty acids contained in the feed...

  9. Trans fatty acid isomers in Canadian human milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z.-Y. Chen; G. Pelletier; R. Hollywood; W. M. N. Ratnayake

    1995-01-01

    The fatty acid composition, totaltrans content (i.e., sum of all the fatty acids which may have one or moretrans double bonds) and geometric and positional isomer distribution of unsaturated fatty acids of 198 human milk samples collected\\u000a in 1992 from nine provinces of Canada were determined using a combination of capillary gas-liquid chromatography and silver\\u000a nitrate thin-layer chromatography. The mean

  10. Production of branched-chain fatty acids from sterculia oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kai; E. H. Pryde

    1982-01-01

    Methyl sterculate was rearranged by use of 0.5% of rhodium catalyst to isomeric conjugated diene fatty acid methyl esters\\u000a containing both methylene-and methyl-branched isomers. The rearanged products were hydrogenated directly to saturated, methyl-substituted,\\u000a branched-chain fatty acid methyl esters with the methyl substituent at one of the positions formerly occupied by the cyclopropenoid\\u000a ring. The crude branched-chain fatty acids from these

  11. Antitumour and pro-apoptotic actions of highly unsaturated fatty acids in glioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Leaver; H. S. Bell; M. T. Rizzo; J. W. Ironside; A. Gregor; S. B. Wharton; I. R. Whittle

    2002-01-01

    The highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of the n-6 and n-3 series are involved in cell signalling in normal and transformed cells and have recently been associated with pathways leading to tumour cell death. The antitumour activity of three HUFA (arachidonic acid, gamma linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) were studied in glioma cells and tissue. Using five glioma models, including

  12. Marine polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, V C; Hassing, M-R; Lewandowski, P A

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from marine sources, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are widely consumed as supplements within the community. However, the use of marine PUFAs in a therapeutic context is also increasing in patients receiving treatment for a range of cancer types. On balance, the literature suggests that marine PUFAs have potential as an effective adjuvant to chemotherapy treatment, may have direct anticancer effects, and may help ameliorate some of the secondary complications associated with cancer. Although a range of doses have been trialled, it would appear that supplementation of fish oil (>3?g per day) or EPA/DHA (>1?g EPA and >0.8?g DHA per day) is associated with positive clinical outcomes. However, further research is still required to determine the mechanisms via which marine PUFAs are mediating their effects. This review summarises our current understanding of marine PUFAs and cancer therapy. PMID:23299528

  13. Melittin exerts multiple effects on the release of free fatty acids from L1210 cells: lack of selective activation of phospholipase A2 by melittin.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Park, H S; Lee, S J; Choi, M U

    2001-05-01

    Melittin is known as a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activator, but the selectivity of its effect on PLA2 is uncertain. We examined the selectivity of melittin effect on the release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from L1210 cells using various inhibitors. A systemic lipid analysis by HPLC and GLC revealed that melittin induced release of various FFAs including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated FFAs. Various PLA2 inhibitors examined exerted only minimal effects on the melittin-induced arachidonic acid (AA) and palmitic acid (PAL) releases. Specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (U73122) and diacylglycerol lipase (RHC80267) exerted significant inhibitory effects on both AA and PAL releases. These results suggest that melittin-induced FFA release is most likely due to multiple participations of various types of lipases. Since BAPTA/AM, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, did not influence the FFA release, the Ca2+ influxed by melittin appeared not to be a key factor for the FFA release. The mimicking of the melittin-induced FFA release by digitonin, a membrane-permeabilizing agent, implies that the membrane-perturbing action of melittin is likely the cause of the FFA release. Melittin also induced release of multiple FFAs from other cell lines including P388D1 and HL60. The rapid melittin-stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) observed in L1210 cells appeared not directly related to the steady release of FFA, as indicated by the fact that the PLD was not blocked by RHC80267. In view of melittin's multiple effects on the composition of cellular lipids, we conclude that melittin does neither exclusively release any single FFA nor selectively activate PLA2 in L1210 cells. The problem of using melittin as a PLA2 activator is discussed. PMID:11370672

  14. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1290 Fatty acids test system. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1290 Fatty acids test system. (a)...

  16. Total Fat Intake Modifies Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Humans1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K. Raatz; Douglas Bibus; William Thomas; Penny Kris-Etherton

    Plasma fatty acid composition reflects dietary fatty acids. Whether the total fat content of the diet alters the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipid, cholesteryl ester, triacylglycerol and free fatty acids is unknown. To evaluate the effects of low versus high fat diets on plasma fatty acids, a 12-wk, randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was conducted in healthy men and

  17. Contribution of Free Fatty Acids to the Flavor of Rancid Milk[1] and [2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Scanlan; Lois A. Sather; E. A. Day

    1965-01-01

    Fatty acids, added to fresh milk in the quantities reportedly liberated by lipase, produced a flavor similar to the flavor of rancid milk. Samples of milk with groups of fatty acids and fatty acids singly omitted from the fatty acid mixture were evaluated for rancidity by a flavor panel. The flavor panel results indicated that the even-numbered fatty acids from

  18. Ranking the toxicity of fatty acids on Jurkat and Raji cells by flow cytometric analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Lima; C. C. Kanunfre; C. Pompéia; R. Verlengia; R. Curi

    2002-01-01

    The fatty acids have an important role in the control of leukocyte metabolism and function. Higher concentrations of certain fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and volatile fatty acids, can cause cell death via apoptosis or, when concentrations are greater, necrosis. In this study, we determined the highest concentrations of various fatty acids that are non-toxic to two human

  19. Transcriptional regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mondino, S.; Gago, G.; Gramajo, H.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The main purpose of our study is to understand how mycobacteria exert control over the biosynthesis of their membrane lipids and find out the key components of the regulatory network that control fatty acid biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. In this paper we describe the identification and purification of FasR, a transcriptional regulator from Mycobacterium sp. that controls the expression of the fatty acid synthase (fas) and the 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (acpS) encoding genes, whose products are involved in the fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis pathways. In vitro studies demonstrated that fas and acpS genes are part of the same transcriptional unit and that FasR specifically binds to three conserved operator sequences present in the fas-acpS promoter region (Pfas). The construction and further characterization of a fasR conditional mutant confirmed that FasR is a transcriptional activator of the fas-acpS operon and that this protein is essential for mycobacteria viability. Furthermore, the combined used of Pfas-lacZ fusions in different fasR backgrounds and electrophoretic mobility shift assays experiments, strongly suggested that long-chain acyl-CoAs are the effector molecules that modulate the affinity of FasR for its DNA binding sequences and therefore the expression of the essential fas-acpS operon. PMID:23721164

  20. Applications of cellular fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, D F

    1991-01-01

    More than ever, new technology is having an impact on the tools of clinical microbiologists. The analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) has become markedly more practical with the advent of the fused-silica capillary column, computer-controlled chromatography and data analysis, simplified sample preparation, and a commercially available GLC system dedicated to microbiological applications. Experience with applications in diagnostic microbiology ranges from substantial success in work with mycobacteria, legionellae, and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli to minimal involvement with fungi and other nonbacterial agents. GLC is a good alternative to other means for the identification of mycobacteria or legionellae because it is rapid, specific, and independent of other specialized testing, e.g., DNA hybridization. Nonfermenters show features in their cellular fatty acid content that are useful in identifying species and, in some cases, subspecies. Less frequently encountered nonfermenters, including those belonging to unclassified groups, can ideally be characterized by GLC. Information is just beginning to materialize on the usefulness of cellular fatty acids for the identification of gram-positive bacteria and anaerobes, despite the traditional role of GLC in detecting metabolic products as an aid to identification of anaerobes. When species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci is called for, GLC may offer an alternative to biochemical testing. Methods for direct analysis of clinical material have been developed, but in practical and economic terms they are not yet ready for use in the clinical laboratory. Direct analysis holds promise for detecting markers of infection due to an uncultivable agent or in clinical specimens that presently require cultures and prolonged incubation to yield an etiologic agent. PMID:1747860

  1. Improving the fatty acid profile of fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus dichotomus, using a lipid emulsion rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Velu, Chinavenmeni S; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2004-11-17

    Fatty acids are the largest component of lipids and have become a useful tool in the determination of live feeds to a variety of cultured species. Bioencapsulation is a technique which allows high-level incorporation of desired components (i.e., fatty acids, vitamins, antibiotics, etc.) in live feeds, which in turn can be supplemented to the consumer organisms. The procedure described in the present study serves as a platform of technology for enriching the Streptocephalus dichotomus. Uptake of two enrichment diets (ALGAMAC2000 and DHA-SELCO) by adult S. dichotomus was investigated. The fatty acid profile supports the hypothesis that the enrichment diet increases the level of essential fatty acids, such as linolic, linolenic, eicosapentenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids. The average content (percent of total fatty acids detected) of the enriched organism by different highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) products were as follows: ALGAMAC2000 showed 14-22% saturated fatty acid (SFA), 17-18% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), 28-41% polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), 23-34% n-3, and 4.9-7.5% n-6, whereas DHA-SELCO showed about 20-23% SFA, 20-26% MUFA, 38% PUFA, 28-31% n-3, and 7.5-10% n-6. Our present investigation proves that both HUFA-rich diets appear to be an appropriate enrichment diet, and further provides an additional rationale for using fairy shrimp as a maturation diet for any cultivable freshwater organism. PMID:15537314

  2. Metabolic consequences of dietary trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, G V

    1994-05-21

    The epidemic of coronary heart disease in the western world followed the introduction of partially hydrogenated fats in food. Exposure to trans fatty acids (TFA) in those foods can explain the observed sex and age differences in serum cholesterol concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD), the cholesterolaemic response to pregnancy, and national differences in rates of CHD. There is evidence that TFA can be innocuously used for muscular work. I propose that the TFA in partially hydrogenated fats impair lipoprotein receptors during energy surfeit, leading to hypercholesterolaemia, atherogenesis, obesity, and insulin resistance. A series of feasible experiments is proposed to examine this hypothesis. PMID:7910281

  3. Stimulation of tumor-associated fatty acid synthase expression by growth factor activation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes V Swinnen; Hannelore Heemers; Ludo Deboel; Fabienne Foufelle; Walter Heyns; Guido Verhoeven

    2000-01-01

    Increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) is observed in a clinically aggressive subset of various common cancers and interference with FAS offers promising opportunities for selective chemotherapeutic intervention. The mechanisms by which FAS expression is (up)-regulated in these tumors remain, however, largely unknown. Recently we demonstrated that in LNCaP prostate cancer cells FAS expression is markedly elevated by androgens

  4. Effects of zinc deficiency and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanda Clejan; Mariano Castro-Magana; Platon J. Collipp; Ernesto Jonas; Vaddanahally T. Maddaiah

    1982-01-01

    The effects of zinc deficiency and testosterone on fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and microsomes of liver, intestine\\u000a and testes were studied. The activities of fatty acid desaturase (?6 and ?5) in rat liver and testes were also measured. A\\u000a significant decrease in the level of arachidonic acid was observed in plasma of normal rats fed the zinc-deficient diet.

  5. Vascular relaxation to omega-3 fatty acids: Comparison to sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, papaverine, and D600

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary B. Engler

    1992-01-01

    The vasorelaxant activity of the omega-3 fatty acids—docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids—in comparison with other known vasodilators—sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, papaverine, and D600—were studied in the isolated rat aorta. The relaxant responses of these vasodilators and fatty acids at concentratios of 1–100 µM were assessed in aortic rings contracted with norepinephrine (NE 10-6 M) or with KCl (30 mM). Cyclic

  6. Omega3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M Ross; Jennifer Seguin; Lee E Sieswerda

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and\\/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled

  7. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

  8. The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    MIURA, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ?-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described. PMID:24126285

  9. The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ?-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described. PMID:24126285

  10. Understanding diet and modeling changes in the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid composition of U.S. garrison foods for active duty personnel.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Bernadette P; Yu, Karina; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Johnson, Jeremiah; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important in reducing the risk of mental illness. We used the DoD Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel (HRBS) to assess current military dietary patterns and meal locations. We used the Lands Equation to model PUFAs in a sample Garrison diet and the nutritional impact of substitution of foods higher in omega-3 PUFAs and lower in omega-6 PUFAs on tissue composition. The military diet was very poor quality compared to 2010 Healthy People Guidelines. A representative Garrison diet does not meet our estimated healthy n-3 HUFA intake at 3.5 g/d, corresponding with a tissue composition of 60% n-3 in HUFA (i.e., 40% n-6 in HUFA). Substitution of n-3 rich eggs, poultry, pork and other food commodities, combined with use on low linoleic acid oils, may contribute significantly to attaining healthier n-6/n-3 proportions in the tissue. PMID:25373102

  11. Distribution of fatty acids during germination of soybean seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Joshi; B. K. Chopra; L. C. Collins; V. M

    1973-01-01

    Gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids in the seeds of soybean (Glycine max) showed mainly linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids with linoleic acid being the major component. Changes in the distribution\\u000a of fatty acids were measured during germination in the cotyledons and roots. A decrease in palmitic and oleic acids was observed\\u000a in the cotyledons from 6 to 12

  12. Role of volatile fatty acids in colonization resistance to Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed Central

    Rolfe, R D

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro inhibition of Clostridium difficile by volatile fatty acids was correlated with the pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the ceca of hamsters of different ages. The concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids increased with the age of the animals. Maximum concentrations of individual volatile fatty acids were attained when the animals were ca. 19 days old, with acetic, propionic, and butyric acids occurring in the highest concentrations (72, 16, and 32 microequivalents/g of cecum, respectively). The cecal pH was approximately the same in hamsters of all ages (pH 6.6 to 7.0). Only butyric acid reached a concentration in the ceca of hamsters which was inhibitory to the in vitro multiplication of C. difficile. This inhibitory concentration was attained when the animals were ca. 19 days of age. When mixtures of volatile fatty acids were prepared at concentrations equal to those present in the ceca of hamsters, there was a direct correlation between the in vitro inhibitory activity of the volatile fatty acids and the susceptibility of hamsters 4 days of age or older to C. difficile intestinal colonization. The resistance of hamsters less than 4 days of age to C. difficile intestinal colonization appears to be due to factors other than volatile fatty acids. PMID:6735467

  13. Turkish freshwater and marine macrophyte extracts show in vitro antiprotozoal activity and inhibit FabI, a key enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Orhan, I; Sener, B; Atici, T; Brun, R; Perozzo, R; Tasdemir, D

    2006-06-01

    The ethanolic extracts of a number of Turkish freshwater macrophytes (Potamogeton perfoliatus, Ranunculus tricophyllus and Cladophora glomerata) and marine macroalgae (Dictyota dichotoma, Halopteris scoparia, Posidonia oceanica, Scinaia furcellata, Sargassum natans and Ulva lactuca) were assayed for their in vitro antiprotozoal activity. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum were used as test organisms. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also assessed against primary rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cells). Whereas none of the extracts were active against T. cruzi, all crude extracts displayed appreciable trypanocidal activity against T. brucei rhodesiense, with S. natans being the most active one (IC(50) 7.4microg/ml). Except for the marine alga H. scoparia, all extracts also possessed leishmanicidal potential. The best antileishmanial activity was exerted by U. lactuca and P. oceanica (IC(50)'s 5.9 and 8.0microg/ml, respectively). Five extracts that demonstrated inhibitory activity towards P. falciparum (IC(50)'s 18.1-48.8microg/ml) were simultaneously assayed against FabI, a crucial enzyme of the fatty acid system of P. falciparum, to find out whether FabI was their target. The extracts of C. glomerata and U. lactuca efficiently inhibited the FabI enzyme with IC(50) values of 1.0 and 4.0microg/ml, respectively. None of the extracts were cytotoxic towards mammalian L6 cells. This work reports for the first time antiprotozoal activity of some Turkish marine and freshwater algae, as well as a target-based antiplasmodial screening for the identification of P. falciparum FabI inhibitors from aquatic and marine macrophytes. PMID:16697632

  14. Inhibition of Insulin and T 3 Induced Fatty Acid Synthase by Hexanoate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murielle M. Akpa; Sabine Sawadogo; Anne Radenne; Catherine Mounier

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is responsible for the de novo synthesis of palmitate and stearate. This enzyme is activated by\\u000a insulin and T3, and inhibited by fatty acids. In this study, we show that insulin and T3 have an inducing effect on FAS enzymatic activity, which is synergetic when both hormones are present. Octanoate and hexanoate\\u000a specifically inhibit this hormonal

  15. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids prolongs platelet survival in hyperlipidemic patients with atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Levine; Marc Fisher; Peter B. Schneider; Richard H. Whitten; Bonnie H. Weiner; Ira S. Ockene; Brian F. Johnson; Mark H. Johnson; Elizabeth M. Doyle; Patricia A. Riendeau

    1989-01-01

    Enhanced dietary omega-3 fatty acid consumption is thought to be associated with a reduced incidence of atherothrombotic disorders. This effect may be mediated in part through suppression of in vivo platelet activity by omega-3 fatty acids. We observed that platelet survival, a sensitive indicator of in vivo platelet activity was prolonged from 6.4 +\\/- 1.5 days to 7.7 +\\/- 1.4

  16. Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profile Alters the Fatty Acid Profile and Quality of Beef from Confined Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Lage, Josiane F.; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta. C.; Reis, Ricardo A.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lipid sources with different fatty acids profile on meat fatty acids profile and beef quality traits of Nellore. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial body weight of 419±11 kg (at 15±2 mo) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF), and soybean grains (SG). No effects of lipid sources were observed (p>0.05) on beef color, pH, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length. Beef from cattle fed PO had greater shear-force values (p<0.05) compared to beef from cattle fed WF. Deposition of main unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) was greater in treatments WF, SG, and LO, respectively, while the values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater when animals were fed LO. The inclusion of LO in the diet enhances the concentration of CLA in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat besides improving the atherogenicity index and elongase activity. As such, LO can be used with the aim to improve the quality of beef from confined Nellore cattle. Conversely, the use of PO is not recommended since it may increase the concentration of undesirable unsaturated fatty acids in muscle and subcutaneous fat, shear-force and the atherogenicity index. PMID:26104402

  17. Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profile Alters the Fatty Acid Profile and Quality of Beef from Confined Nellore Steers.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Lage, Josiane F; Carvalho, Isabela P C; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Reis, Ricardo A; Berchielli, Telma T

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lipid sources with different fatty acids profile on meat fatty acids profile and beef quality traits of Nellore. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial body weight of 419±11 kg (at 15±2 mo) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF), and soybean grains (SG). No effects of lipid sources were observed (p>0.05) on beef color, pH, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length. Beef from cattle fed PO had greater shear-force values (p<0.05) compared to beef from cattle fed WF. Deposition of main unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) was greater in treatments WF, SG, and LO, respectively, while the values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater when animals were fed LO. The inclusion of LO in the diet enhances the concentration of CLA in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat besides improving the atherogenicity index and elongase activity. As such, LO can be used with the aim to improve the quality of beef from confined Nellore cattle. Conversely, the use of PO is not recommended since it may increase the concentration of undesirable unsaturated fatty acids in muscle and subcutaneous fat, shear-force and the atherogenicity index. PMID:26104402

  18. The fatty acid composition of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae reared with live and inert food: deviation from their natural fatty acid profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan C Navarro; Roger Villanueva

    2003-01-01

    The fatty acids of the mature ovary, late eggs and wild juveniles of Octopus vulgaris were analysed to establish, in accordance with the published data on the fatty acid composition of hatchlings, a theoretical framework of the ideal fatty acid profile, i.e. the “natural” fatty acid profile, during the early life of the species. The time course variation of the

  19. 40 CFR 721.10297 - Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. 721.10297 Section 721.10297...10297 Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10297 - Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. 721.10297 Section 721.10297...10297 Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10297 - Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. 721.10297 Section 721.10297...10297 Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids castor-oil fatty acids complexes. (a)...

  2. Measuring Oral Fatty Acid Thresholds, Fat Perception, Fatty Food Liking, and Papillae Density in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Haryono, Rivkeh Y.; Sprajcer, Madeline A.; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from a number of laboratories indicates that humans have the ability to identify fatty acids in the oral cavity, presumably via fatty acid receptors housed on taste cells. Previous research has shown that an individual's oral sensitivity to fatty acid, specifically oleic acid (C18:1) is associated with body mass index (BMI), dietary fat consumption, and the ability to identify fat in foods. We have developed a reliable and reproducible method to assess oral chemoreception of fatty acids, using a milk and C18:1 emulsion, together with an ascending forced choice triangle procedure. In parallel, a food matrix has been developed to assess an individual's ability to perceive fat, in addition to a simple method to assess fatty food liking. As an added measure tongue photography is used to assess papillae density, with higher density often being associated with increased taste sensitivity. PMID:24961177

  3. Measuring oral fatty acid thresholds, fat perception, fatty food liking, and papillae density in humans.

    PubMed

    Haryono, Rivkeh Y; Sprajcer, Madeline A; Keast, Russell S J

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from a number of laboratories indicates that humans have the ability to identify fatty acids in the oral cavity, presumably via fatty acid receptors housed on taste cells. Previous research has shown that an individual's oral sensitivity to fatty acid, specifically oleic acid (C18:1) is associated with body mass index (BMI), dietary fat consumption, and the ability to identify fat in foods. We have developed a reliable and reproducible method to assess oral chemoreception of fatty acids, using a milk and C18:1 emulsion, together with an ascending forced choice triangle procedure. In parallel, a food matrix has been developed to assess an individual's ability to perceive fat, in addition to a simple method to assess fatty food liking. As an added measure tongue photography is used to assess papillae density, with higher density often being associated with increased taste sensitivity. PMID:24961177

  4. PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXY FATTY ACIDES FROM PALMITOLEIC ACID BY PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids are those which contain hydroxyl groups on fatty acid backbone. They have gained important attention because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Previously it was reported that a novel bacterial strain...

  5. [The content of individual fatty acids and numbers of double bonds, insulin, C-peptide and unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma in testing tolerance to glucose].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Sazhina, N N; Aripovski?, A V; Evteeva, N M; Tkhagalizhokova, É M; Parkhimovich, R M

    2014-10-01

    The glucose tolerance test demonstrates that content of unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma decreases up to three times and the content of oleic and linoleic acids is more decreased in the pool of fatty acids lipids. Out of resistance to insulin, hormone secretion increases up to three times. The decreasing of level of individual fatty acids occurs in a larger extent. Under resistance to insulin secretion of insulin is increasing up to eight times. The decreasing of level of each fatty acid is less expressed. The effect of insulin reflects decreasing of content of double bonds in blood plasma. The number of double bonds characterizes the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids in lipids of blood plasma. The higher number of double bonds is in the pool of unesterified fatty acids the more active is the effect of insulin. The hyper-secretion of insulin is directly proportional to content of palmitic fatty acid in lipids of blood plasma on fasting. According the phylogenetic theory of general pathology, the effect of insulin on metabolism of glucose is mediated by fatty acids. The insulin is blocking lipolysis in insulin-depended subcutaneous adipocytes and decreases content of unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma. The insulin is depriving all cells of possibility to absorb unesterified fatty acids and "forces" them to absorb glucose increasing hereby number of GLUT4 on cell membrane. The resistance to insulin is manifested in high concentration of unesterfied fatty acids, hyperinsulinemia, hyperalbuminemia and increasing of concentration of C-reactive protein-monomer. The resistance to insulin is groundlessly referred to as a symptom of diabetes mellitus type II. The resistance to insulin is only a functional disorder lasting for years. It can be successfully arrested. The diabetes mellitus is developed against the background of resistance to insulin only after long-term hyper-secretion of insulin and under emaciation and death of ?-cells. The diabetes mellitus type I and not type II is an undesirable outcome of resistance to insulin. PMID:25884071

  6. Fatty Acids as Therapeutic Auxiliaries for Oral and Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Michael J.; Zaro, Jennica L.; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Guley, Patrick C.; Cho, Moo J.

    2012-01-01

    Many drugs have decreased therapeutic activity due to issues with absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The co-formulation or covalent attachment of drugs with fatty acids has demonstrated some capacity to overcome these issues by improving intestinal permeability, slowing clearance and binding serum proteins for selective tissue uptake and metabolism. For orally administered drugs, albeit at low level of availability, the presence of fatty acids and triglycerides in the intestinal lumen may promote intestinal uptake of small hydrophilic molecules. Small lipophilic drugs or acylated hydrophilic drugs also show increased lymphatic uptake and enhanced passive diffusional uptake. Fatty acid conjugation of small and large proteins or peptides have exhibited protracted plasma half-lives, site-specific delivery and sustained release upon parenteral administration. These improvements are most likely due to associations with lipid-binding serum proteins, namely albumin, LDL and HDL. These molecular interactions, although not fully characterized, could provide the ability of using the endogenous carrier systems for improving therapeutic outcomes. PMID:22921839

  7. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. 721.6220 Section 721...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a) Chemical substance...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. 721.6220 Section 721...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a) Chemical substance...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. 721.6220 Section 721...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a) Chemical substance...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. 721.6220 Section 721...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a) Chemical substance...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. 721.6220 Section 721...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a) Chemical substance...fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. 721...Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. ...identified generically as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt...

  13. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. 721...Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. ...identified generically as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol. 721...3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol. ...generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol...

  15. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30...CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The...

  16. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory...Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting...

  17. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30...CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The...

  18. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory...Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting...

  19. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory...Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting...

  20. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30...CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The...