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Sample records for activated immune response

  1. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system ...

  2. Immune response

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cells. T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. This type of immunity becomes deficient in persons with HIV, the virus ... blood. B lymphocytes provide the body with humoral immunity as they circulate in the fluids in search ...

  3. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    PubMed

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis. PMID:18173180

  4. Activation and Regulation of DNA-Driven Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The innate immune system provides early defense against infections and also plays a key role in monitoring alterations of homeostasis in the body. DNA is highly immunostimulatory, and recent advances in this field have led to the identification of the innate immune sensors responsible for the recognition of DNA as well as the downstream pathways that are activated. Moreover, information on how cells regulate DNA-driven immune responses to avoid excessive inflammation is now emerging. Finally, several reports have demonstrated how defects in DNA sensing, signaling, and regulation are associated with susceptibility to infections or inflammatory diseases in humans and model organisms. In this review, the current literature on DNA-stimulated innate immune activation is discussed, and important new questions facing this field are proposed. PMID:25926682

  5. Photodynamic therapy for cancer and activation of immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT for cancer due to the acute inflammatory response, exposure and presentation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins and other danger signals. Nevertheless effective, powerful tumor-specific immune response in both animal models and also in patients treated with PDT for cancer, is the exception rather than the rule. Research in our laboratory and also in others is geared towards identifying reasons for this sub-optimal immune response and discovering ways of maximizing it. Reasons why the immune response after PDT is less than optimal include the fact that tumor-antigens are considered to be self-like and poorly immunogenic, the tumor-mediated induction of CD4+CD25+foxP3+ regulatory T-cells (T-regs), that are able to inhibit both the priming and the effector phases of the cytotoxic CD8 T-cell anti-tumor response and the defects in dendritic cell maturation, activation and antigen-presentation that may also occur. Alternatively-activated macrophages (M2) have also been implicated. Strategies to overcome these immune escape mechanisms employed by different tumors include combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments such as products obtained from pathogenic microorganisms against which mammals have evolved recognition systems such as PAMPs and toll-like receptors (TLR). This paper will cover the use of CpG oligonucleotides (a TLR9 agonist found in bacterial DNA) to reverse dendritic cell dysfunction and methods to remove the immune suppressor effects of T-regs that are under active study.

  6. Cinobufagin Modulates Human Innate Immune Responses and Triggers Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shanshan; Spelmink, Laura; Codemo, Mario; Subramanian, Karthik; Pütsep, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Chan-Su is widely used for treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but also as a remedy for infections such as furunculosis, tonsillitis and acute pharyngitis. The clinical use of Chan-Su suggests that it has anti-infective effects, however, the mechanism of action is incompletely understood. In particular, the effect on the human immune system is poorly defined. Here, we describe previously unrecognized immunomodulatory activities of cinobufagin (CBG), a major bioactive component of Chan-Su. Using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we show that LPS-induced maturation and production of a number of cytokines was potently inhibited by CBG, which also had a pro-apoptotic effect, associated with activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, CBG triggered caspase-1 activation and significantly enhanced IL-1β production in LPS-stimulated cells. Finally, we demonstrate that CBG upregulates gene expression of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hBD-2 and hBD-3 in DCs, and induces secretion of HNP1-3 and hCAP-18/LL-37 from neutrophils, potentiating neutrophil antibacterial activity. Taken together, our data indicate that CBG modulates the inflammatory phenotype of DCs in response to LPS, and triggers an antibacterial innate immune response, thus proposing possible mechanisms for the clinical effects of Chan-Su in anti-infective therapy. PMID:27529866

  7. Cinobufagin Modulates Human Innate Immune Responses and Triggers Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shanshan; Spelmink, Laura; Codemo, Mario; Subramanian, Karthik; Pütsep, Katrin; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Olliver, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Chan-Su is widely used for treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but also as a remedy for infections such as furunculosis, tonsillitis and acute pharyngitis. The clinical use of Chan-Su suggests that it has anti-infective effects, however, the mechanism of action is incompletely understood. In particular, the effect on the human immune system is poorly defined. Here, we describe previously unrecognized immunomodulatory activities of cinobufagin (CBG), a major bioactive component of Chan-Su. Using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we show that LPS-induced maturation and production of a number of cytokines was potently inhibited by CBG, which also had a pro-apoptotic effect, associated with activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, CBG triggered caspase-1 activation and significantly enhanced IL-1β production in LPS-stimulated cells. Finally, we demonstrate that CBG upregulates gene expression of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hBD-2 and hBD-3 in DCs, and induces secretion of HNP1-3 and hCAP-18/LL-37 from neutrophils, potentiating neutrophil antibacterial activity. Taken together, our data indicate that CBG modulates the inflammatory phenotype of DCs in response to LPS, and triggers an antibacterial innate immune response, thus proposing possible mechanisms for the clinical effects of Chan-Su in anti-infective therapy. PMID:27529866

  8. GITR Activation Positively Regulates Immune Responses against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Frederico R. C.; Mota, Caroline M.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Marcela D.; Fonseca, Denise M.; Silva, João S.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite responsible for causing clinical diseases especially in pregnant and immunosuppressed individuals. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR), which is also known as TNFRS18 and belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily, is found to be expressed in various cell types of the immune system and provides an important costimulatory signal for T cells and myeloid cells. However, the precise role of this receptor in the context of T. gondii infection remains elusive. Therefore, the current study investigated the role of GITR activation in the immunoregulation mechanisms induced during the experimental infection of mice with T. gondii. Our data show that T. gondii infection slightly upregulates GITR expression in Treg cells and B cells, but the most robust increment in expression was observed in macrophages and dendritic cells. Interestingly, mice infected and treated with an agonistic antibody anti-GITR (DTA-1) presented a robust increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production at preferential sites of parasite replication, which was associated with the decrease in latent brain parasitism of mice under treatment with DTA-1. Several in vivo and in vitro analysis were performed to identify the cellular mechanisms involved in GITR activation upon infection, however no clear alterations were detected in the phenotype/function of macrophages, Tregs and B cells under treatment with DTA-1. Therefore, GITR appears as a potential target for intervention during infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, even though further studies are still necessary to better characterize the immune response triggered by GITR activation during T. gondii infection. PMID:27027302

  9. Muscles provide protection during microbial infection by activating innate immune response pathways in Drosophila and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Arunita; Roy, Debasish; Patnaik, Esha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Muscle contraction brings about movement and locomotion in animals. However, muscles have also been implicated in several atypical physiological processes including immune response. The role of muscles in immunity and the mechanism involved has not yet been deciphered. In this paper, using Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFMs) as a model, we show that muscles are immune-responsive tissues. Flies with defective IFMs are incapable of mounting a potent humoral immune response. Upon immune challenge, the IFMs produce anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) through the activation of canonical signaling pathways, and these IFM-synthesized AMPs are essential for survival upon infection. The trunk muscles of zebrafish, a vertebrate model system, also possess the capacity to mount an immune response against bacterial infections, thus establishing that immune responsiveness of muscles is evolutionarily conserved. Our results suggest that physiologically fit muscles might boost the innate immune response of an individual. PMID:27101844

  10. Activation of cellular immune response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mora, A; Pérez-Mateo, M; Viedma, J A; Carballo, F; Sánchez-Payá, J; Liras, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators have recently been implicated as potential markers of severity in acute pancreatitis. AIMS: To determine the value of neopterin and polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase as markers of activation of cellular immunity and as early predictors of disease severity. PATIENTS: Fifty two non-consecutive patients classified according to their clinical outcome into mild (n = 26) and severe pancreatitis (n = 26). METHODS: Neopterin in serum and the PMN elastase/A1PI complex in plasma were measured during the first three days of hospital stay. RESULTS: Within three days after the onset of acute pancreatitis, PMN elastase was significantly higher in the severe pancreatitis group. Patients with severe disease also showed significantly higher values of neopterin on days 1 and 2 but not on day 3 compared with patients with mild disease. There was a significant correlation between PMN elastase and neopterin values on days 1 and 2. PMN elastase on day 1 predicted disease severity with a sensitivity of 76.7% and a specificity of 91.6%. Neopterin did not surpass PMN elastase in the probability of predicting disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that activation of cellular immunity is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and may be a main contributory factor to disease severity. Neopterin was not superior to PMN elastase in the prediction of severity. PMID:9245935

  11. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation and tissue repair. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... and adaptive immune systems. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  12. Immune response

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The immune system includes specialized white blood cells, called lymphocytes that adapt themselves to fight specific foreign invaders. These cells develop into two groups in the bone marrow. From the bone ...

  13. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles

    PubMed Central

    Varn, Frederick S.; Andrews, Erik H.; Mullins, David W.; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  14. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles.

    PubMed

    Varn, Frederick S; Andrews, Erik H; Mullins, David W; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  15. INVOLVEMENT OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN RECOGNITION PROTEIN L6 IN ACTIVATION OF IMMUNE DEFICIENCY PATHWAY IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSIVE SILKWORM CELLS.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Sagisaka, Aki

    2016-06-01

    The immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathway is activated by Gram-negative bacteria for producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In Drosophila melanogaster, the activation of this pathway is initiated by the recognition of Gram-negative bacteria by peptidoglycan (PGN) recognition proteins (PGRPs), PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE. In this study, we found that the Imd pathway is involved in enhancing the promoter activity of AMP gene in response to Gram-negative bacteria or diaminopimelic (DAP) type PGNs derived from Gram-negative bacteria in an immune responsive silkworm cell line, Bm-NIAS-aff3. Using gene knockdown experiments, we further demonstrated that silkworm PGRP L6 (BmPGRP-L6) is involved in the activation of E. coli or E. coli-PGN mediated AMP promoter activation. Domain analysis revealed that BmPGRP-L6 contained a conserved PGRP domain, transmembrane domain, and RIP homotypic interaction motif like motif but lacked signal peptide sequences. BmPGRP-L6 overexpression enhances AMP promoter activity through the Imd pathway. BmPGRP-L6 binds to DAP-type PGNs, although it also binds to lysine-type PGNs that activate another immune signal pathway, the Toll pathway in Drosophila. These results indicate that BmPGRP-L6 is a key PGRP for activating the Imd pathway in immune responsive silkworm cells. PMID:26991439

  16. CIP2A Promotes T-Cell Activation and Immune Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cvrljevic, Anna; Khan, Mohd Moin; Treise, Irina; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Au-Yeung, Byron; Sittig, Eleonora; Laajala, Teemu Daniel; Chen, Yiling; Oeder, Sebastian; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Horsch, Marion; Aittokallio, Tero; Busch, Dirk H.; Ollert, Markus W.; Neff, Frauke; Beckers, Johannes; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Chen, Zhi; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Westermarck, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The oncoprotein Cancerous Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is overexpressed in most malignancies and is an obvious candidate target protein for future cancer therapies. However, the physiological importance of CIP2A-mediated PP2A inhibition is largely unknown. As PP2A regulates immune responses, we investigated the role of CIP2A in normal immune system development and during immune response in vivo. We show that CIP2A-deficient mice (CIP2AHOZ) present a normal immune system development and function in unchallenged conditions. However when challenged with Listeria monocytogenes, CIP2AHOZ mice display an impaired adaptive immune response that is combined with decreased frequency of both CD4+ T-cells and CD8+ effector T-cells. Importantly, the cell autonomous effect of CIP2A deficiency for T-cell activation was confirmed. Induction of CIP2A expression during T-cell activation was dependent on Zap70 activity. Thus, we reveal CIP2A as a hitherto unrecognized mediator of T-cell activation during adaptive immune response. These results also reveal CIP2AHOZ as a possible novel mouse model for studying the role of PP2A activity in immune regulation. On the other hand, the results also indicate that CIP2A targeting cancer therapies would not cause serious immunological side-effects. PMID:27100879

  17. CIP2A Promotes T-Cell Activation and Immune Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection.

    PubMed

    Côme, Christophe; Cvrljevic, Anna; Khan, Mohd Moin; Treise, Irina; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Au-Yeung, Byron; Sittig, Eleonora; Laajala, Teemu Daniel; Chen, Yiling; Oeder, Sebastian; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Horsch, Marion; Aittokallio, Tero; Busch, Dirk H; Ollert, Markus W; Neff, Frauke; Beckers, Johannes; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Chen, Zhi; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Westermarck, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The oncoprotein Cancerous Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is overexpressed in most malignancies and is an obvious candidate target protein for future cancer therapies. However, the physiological importance of CIP2A-mediated PP2A inhibition is largely unknown. As PP2A regulates immune responses, we investigated the role of CIP2A in normal immune system development and during immune response in vivo. We show that CIP2A-deficient mice (CIP2AHOZ) present a normal immune system development and function in unchallenged conditions. However when challenged with Listeria monocytogenes, CIP2AHOZ mice display an impaired adaptive immune response that is combined with decreased frequency of both CD4+ T-cells and CD8+ effector T-cells. Importantly, the cell autonomous effect of CIP2A deficiency for T-cell activation was confirmed. Induction of CIP2A expression during T-cell activation was dependent on Zap70 activity. Thus, we reveal CIP2A as a hitherto unrecognized mediator of T-cell activation during adaptive immune response. These results also reveal CIP2AHOZ as a possible novel mouse model for studying the role of PP2A activity in immune regulation. On the other hand, the results also indicate that CIP2A targeting cancer therapies would not cause serious immunological side-effects. PMID:27100879

  18. Activation of NLRC4 downregulates TLR5-mediated antibody immune responses against flagellin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yang, Jingyi; Zhang, Ejuan; Zhong, Maohua; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Jie; Zhou, Dihan; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Yi; Li, Yaoming; Yan, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin is a unique pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), which can be recognized by surface localized Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein 4 (NLRC4) receptors. Activation of the TLR5 and/or NLRC4 signaling pathways by flagellin and the resulting immune responses play important roles in anti-bacterial immunity. However, it remains unclear how the dual activities of flagellin that activate the TLR5 and/or NLRC4 signaling pathways orchestrate the immune responses. In this study, we assessed the effects of flagellin and its mutants lacking the ability to activate TLR5 and NLRC4 alone or in combination on the adaptive immune responses against flagellin. Flagellin that was unable to activate NLRC4 induced a significantly higher antibody response than did wild-type flagellin. The increased antibody response could be eliminated when macrophages were depleted in vivo. The activation of NLRC4 by flagellin downregulated the flagellin-induced and TLR5-mediated immune responses against flagellin. PMID:25914934

  19. Dermatophytes Activate Skin Keratinocytes via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Induce Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Achterman, Rebecca R.; Moyes, David L.; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R.; Blair, Kris M.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-κB and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  20. Zinc deficiency enhanced inflammatory response by increasing immune cell activation and inducing IL6 promoter demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Carmen P.; Rinaldi, Nicole A.; Ho, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Scope Zinc deficiency results in immune dysfunction and promotes systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc deficiency on cellular immune activation and epigenetic mechanisms that promote inflammation. This work is potentially relevant to the aging population given that age-related immune defects, including chronic inflammation, coincide with declining zinc status. Methods and results An in vitro cell culture system and the aged mouse model were used to characterize immune activation and DNA methylation profiles that may contribute to the enhanced proinflammatory response mediated by zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency up-regulated cell activation markers ICAM1, MHC class II, and CD86 in THP1 cells, that coincided with increased IL1β and IL6 responses following LPS stimulation. A decreased zinc status in aged mice was similarly associated with increased ICAM1 and IL6 gene expression. Reduced IL6 promoter methylation was observed in zinc deficient THP1 cells, as well as in aged mice and human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from aged individuals. Conclusion Zinc deficiency induced inflammatory response in part by eliciting aberrant immune cell activation and altered promoter methylation. Our results suggested potential interactions between zinc status, epigenetics, and immune function, and how their dysregulation could contribute to chronic inflammation. PMID:25656040

  1. Persistent Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Adult Drosophila Following Radiation Exposure During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Sudmeier, Lisa J.; Samudrala, Sai-Suma; Howard, Steven P.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for pediatric central nervous system malignancies, but survivors often suffer from neurological and neurocognitive side effects that occur many years after radiation exposure. Although the biological mechanisms underlying these deleterious side effects are incompletely understood, radiation exposure triggers an acute inflammatory response that may evolve into chronic inflammation, offering one avenue of investigation. Recently, we developed a Drosophila model of the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure. Here we use this model to investigate the role of the innate immune system in response to radiation exposure. We show that the innate immune response and NF-ĸB target gene expression is activated in the adult Drosophila brain following radiation exposure during larval development, and that this response is sustained in adult flies weeks after radiation exposure. We also present preliminary data suggesting that innate immunity is radioprotective during Drosophila development. Together our data suggest that activation of the innate immune response may be beneficial initially for survival following radiation exposure but result in long-term deleterious consequences, with chronic inflammation leading to impaired neuronal function and viability at later stages. This work lays the foundation for future studies of how the innate immune response is triggered by radiation exposure and its role in mediating the biological responses to radiation. These studies may facilitate the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious side effects of CRT. PMID:26333838

  2. Activation of cutaneous immune responses in complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Birklein, Frank; Drummond, Peter D.; Li, Wenwu; Schlereth, Tanja; Albrecht, Nahid; Finch, Philip M.; Dawson, Linda F.; Clark, J. David; Kingery, Wade S.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is unresolved, but TNF-α and IL-6 are elevated in experimental skin blister fluid from CRPS affected limbs, as is tryptase, a marker for mast cells. In the rat fracture model of CRPS exaggerated sensory and sympathetic neural signaling stimulate keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation, causing the local production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines leading to pain behavior. The current investigation used CRPS patient skin biopsies to determine whether keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation occur in CRPS skin and to identify the cellular source of the up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6, and tryptase observed in CRPS experimental skin blister fluid. Skin biopsies were collected from the affected skin and the contralateral mirror site in 55 CRPS patients and the biopsy sections were immunostained for keratinocyte, cell proliferation, mast cell markers, TNF-α, and IL-6. In early CRPS keratinocytes were activated in the affected skin, resulting in proliferation, epidermal thickening, and up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 expression. In chronic CRPS there was reduced keratinocyte proliferation with epidermal thinning in the affected skin. Acute CRPS patients also had increased mast cell accumulation in the affected skin, but there was no increase in mast cell numbers in chronic CRPS. PMID:24462502

  3. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  4. Sexually dimorphic effects of neonatal immune system activation with lipopolysaccharide on the behavioural response to a homotypic adult immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that acute immune activation during the early postnatal period with the Gram-negative endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alters a variety of physiological and behavioural processes in the adult animal. For example, neonatal LPS exposure affects disease susceptibility later in life, though these effects appear to be modulated by time of exposure, sex, and immune stimulus. The current study examined sex differences in the effect of neonatal LPS treatment on the locomotor activity response to adult LPS administration. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50 microg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Later in adulthood (postnatal day 92), all animals were subjected to an adult LPS challenge and were injected (i.p.) with 200 microg/kg LPS. Two hours after injection, animals were placed in a non-novel open-field and locomotor activity was assessed for 30 min. Body weights were determined both at the time of injection and 24h later to examine LPS-induced weight loss. Adult males treated neonatally with LPS exhibited significantly less horizontal and vertical activity in response to the LPS challenge relative to males treated neonatally with saline. This effect was not observed in females. Thus, the current study provides important evidence of sexual dimorphism in the long-term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on the responses to an adult homotypic immune challenge in rats. These findings have potential clinical significance given that neonatal exposure to pathogens is a fairly common occurrence and Gram-negative bacteria are a common cause of neonatal bacterial infections. PMID:18280690

  5. Sequential Immune Responses: The Weapons of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Charles D.; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Johnathan

    2016-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what ‘immunity’ means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different tempos) which together provide host protection. SIR1 uses rapidly activated enzymes like the NADPH oxidases and is present in all animal cells. SIR2 is mediated by the first ‘immune’ cells: macrophage-like cells. SIR3 evolved in animals like invertebrates and provides enhanced protection through advanced macrophage recognition and killing of pathogens and through other innate immune cells such as neutrophils. Finally, in vertebrates, macrophages developed SIR4: the ability to present antigens to T cells. Though much slower than SIR1–3, adaptive responses provide a unique new protection for higher vertebrates. Importantly, newer SIR responses were added on top of older, evolutionarily conserved functions to provide ‘layers’ of host protection. SIR transcends existing models by elucidating the different weapons of immunity that provide host protection in higher animals. PMID:25871013

  6. Integrative inflammasome activity in the regulation of intestinal mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Elinav, E; Henao-Mejia, J; Flavell, R A

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract harbors a vast and diverse ecosystem of microbes that are separated from the sterile host milieu by a single layer of epithelial cells. While this bio-geographical configuration is critical for host biological processes, it imposes a risk for microbial penetration and life-threatening systemic invasion. Inflammasomes are cytosolic multi-protein platforms that sense both microbial and damage-associated molecular patterns and initiate a potent innate immune anti-microbial response. In this review, we will highlight the role of inflammasomes in the orchestration and regulation of the intestinal immune response, focusing on the roles of inflammasomes in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, enteric infection, auto-inflammation, and tumorigenesis. We highlight the centrality of inflammasome signaling in the complex cross-talk between host mucosal immune arms and the environment, in particular the microflora, with emphasis on the spatial and temporal integration of inflammasome activation with signals from other innate signaling platforms. PMID:23212196

  7. Activation of NOD receptors by Neisseria gonorrhoeae modulates the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Mavrogiorgos, Nikolaos; Mekasha, Samrawit; Yang, Yibin; Kelliher, Michelle A; Ingalls, Robin R

    2014-05-01

    NOD1 and NOD2 are members of the NOD-like receptor family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific fragments of the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan. Neisseria species are unique amongst Gram-negative bacteria in that they turn over large amounts of peptidoglycan during growth. We examined the ability of NOD1 and NOD2 to recognize Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and determined the role of NOD-dependent signaling in regulating the immune response to gonococcal infection. Gonococci, as well as conditioned medium from mid-logarithmic phase grown bacteria, were capable of activating both human NOD1 and NOD2, as well as mouse NOD2, leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and polyubiquitination of the adaptor receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2. We identified a number of cytokines and chemokines that were differentially expressed in wild type versus NOD2-deficient macrophages in response to gonococcal infection. Moreover, NOD2 signaling up-regulated complement pathway components and cytosolic nucleic acid sensors, suggesting a broad impact of NOD activation on innate immunity. Thus, NOD1 and NOD2 are important intracellular regulators of the immune response to infection with N. gonorrhoeae. Given the intracellular lifestyle of this pathogen, we believe these cytosolic receptors may provide a key innate immune defense mechanism for the host during gonococcal infection. PMID:23884094

  8. Activation of NOD receptors by Neisseria gonorrhoeae modulates the innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Mavrogiorgos, Nikolaos; Mekasha, Samrawit; Yang, Yibin; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Ingalls, Robin R.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-1 and NOD2 are members of the NOD-like receptor family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific fragments of the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan. Neisseria species are unique amongst Gram-negative bacteria in that they turn over large amounts of peptidoglycan during growth. In this study we examined the ability of NOD1 and NOD2 to recognize N. gonorrhoeae, and determined the role of NOD-dependent signaling in regulating the immune response to gonococcal infection. We found that gonococci, as well as conditioned medium from mid-logarithmic phase grown bacteria, were capable of activating both human NOD1 and NOD2, as well as mouse NOD2, leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and polyubiquitination of the adaptor receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2). We identified a number of cytokines and chemokines that were differentially expressed in wild type vs. NOD2 deficient macrophages in response to gonococcal infection. Moreover, NOD2 signaling upregulated complement pathway components and cytosolic nucleic acid sensors, suggesting a broad impact of NOD activation on innate immunity. These data demonstrate that NOD1 and NOD2 are important intracellular regulators of the immune response to infection with N. gonorrhoeae. Given the intracellular lifestyle of this pathogen, we believe these cytosolic receptors may provide a key innate immune defense mechanism for the host during gonococcal infection. PMID:23884094

  9. TFEB and TFE3 cooperate in the regulation of the innate immune response in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Nunzia; Brady, Owen A; Diab, Heba I; Martina, José A; Sun, Lu; Huynh, Tuong; Lim, Jeong-A; Zare, Hossein; Raben, Nina; Ballabio, Andrea; Puertollano, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The activation of transcription factors is critical to ensure an effective defense against pathogens. In this study we identify a critical and complementary role of the transcription factors TFEB and TFE3 in innate immune response. By using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology, and in vivo models, we determined that TFEB and TFE3 collaborate with each other in activated macrophages and microglia to promote efficient autophagy induction, increased lysosomal biogenesis, and transcriptional upregulation of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, secretion of key mediators of the inflammatory response (CSF2, IL1B, IL2, and IL27), macrophage differentiation (CSF1), and macrophage infiltration and migration to sites of inflammation (CCL2) was significantly reduced in TFEB and TFE3 deficient cells. These new insights provide us with a deeper understanding of the transcriptional regulation of the innate immune response. PMID:27171064

  10. Role of acid sphingomyelinase bioactivity in human CD4+ T-cell activation and immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Bai, A; Kokkotou, E; Zheng, Y; Robson, S C

    2015-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), a lipid hydrolase enzyme, has the potential to modulate various cellular activation responses via the generation of ceramide and by interaction with cellular receptors. We have hypothesized that ASM modulates CD4+ T-cell receptor activation and impacts immune responses. We first observed interactions of ASM with the intracellular domains of both CD3 and CD28. ASM further mediates T-cell proliferation after anti-CD3/CD28 antibody stimulation and alters CD4+ T-cell activation signals by generating ceramide. We noted that various pharmacological inhibitors of ASM or knockdown of ASM using small hairpin RNA inhibit CD3/CD28-mediated CD4+ T-cell proliferation and activation. Furthermore, such blockade of ASM bioactivity by biochemical inhibitors and/or molecular-targeted knockdown of ASM broadly abrogate T-helper cell responses. In conclusion, we detail immune, pivotal roles of ASM in adaptive immune T-cell responses, and propose that these pathways might provide novel targets for the therapy of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26203857

  11. Ubiquitin signaling in immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:27012466

  12. Immune Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Saleem; Surendran, Naveen; Pichichero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neonates have little immunological memory and a developing immune system, which increases their vulnerability to infectious agents. Recent advances in understanding of neonatal immunity indicate that both innate and adaptive responses are dependent on precursor frequency of lymphocytes, antigenic dose and mode of exposure. Studies in neonatal mouse models and human umbilical cord blood cells demonstrate the capability of neonatal immune cells to produce immune responses similar to adults in some aspects but not others. This review focuses mainly on the developmental and functional mechanisms of the human neonatal immune system. In particular, the mechanism of innate and adaptive immunity and the role of neutrophils, antigen presenting cells, differences in subclasses of T lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Tregs) and B cells are discussed. In addition, we have included the recent developments in neonatal mouse immune system. Understanding neonatal immunity is essential to development of therapeutic vaccines to combat newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:25088080

  13. Pathogen Recognition and Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    van der Vaart, Michiel; Spaink, Herman P.; Meijer, Annemarie H.

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish has proven itself as an excellent model to study vertebrate innate immunity. It presents us with possibilities for in vivo imaging of host-pathogen interactions which are unparalleled in mammalian model systems. In addition, its suitability for genetic approaches is providing new insights on the mechanisms underlying the innate immune response. Here, we review the pattern recognition receptors that identify invading microbes, as well as the innate immune effector mechanisms that they activate in zebrafish embryos. We compare the current knowledge about these processes in mammalian models and zebrafish and discuss recent studies using zebrafish infection models that have advanced our general understanding of the innate immune system. Furthermore, we use transcriptome analysis of zebrafish infected with E. tarda, S. typhimurium, and M. marinum to visualize the gene expression profiles resulting from these infections. Our data illustrate that the two acute disease-causing pathogens, E. tarda and S. typhimurium, elicit a highly similar proinflammatory gene induction profile, while the chronic disease-causing pathogen, M. marinum, induces a weaker and delayed innate immune response. PMID:22811714

  14. The immune response in Drosophila: pattern of cecropin expression and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Samakovlis, C; Kimbrell, D A; Kylsten, P; Engström, A; Hultmark, D

    1990-09-01

    Cecropins are antibacterial peptides, induced in Drosophila as part of the humoral immune response to a bacterial invasion. We have used the cloned Drosophila cecropin genes CecA1, A2 and B as probes to study the developmental and tissue specific regulation of this response. The genes are strongly expressed in fat body and hemocytes after injection of bacteria, the CecA genes being much more active than CecB in the fat body. All parts of the fat body and 5-10% of the hemocytes are involved in this response. CecA1 and A2 are most active in larvae and adults; CecB is preferentially active in early pupae. A small peak of constitutive cecropin expression in early pupae appears to be caused by bacteria in the food. Cecropin A, the common product of the CecA1 and A2 genes, was identified in the hemolymph of immunized flies at a concentration of 25-50 microM, enough to kill all tested bacteria except Serratia, a Drosophila pathogen. A useful in vitro system to study the immune response has been found in Schneider's line 2 cells which respond to lipopolysaccharide and laminarin by cecropin expression. PMID:2390977

  15. Radiotherapy combined with TLR7/8 activation induces strong immune responses against gastrointestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Schölch, Sebastian; Rauber, Conrad; Tietz, Alexandra; Rahbari, Nuh N; Bork, Ulrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Kahlert, Christoph; Haberkorn, Uwe; Tomai, Mark A; Lipson, Kenneth E; Carretero, Rafael; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz; Huber, Peter E

    2015-03-10

    In addition to local cytotoxic activity, radiotherapy may also elicit local and systemic antitumor immunity, which may be augmented by immunotherapeutic agents including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists. Here, we investigated the ability of 3M-011 (854A), a TLR7/8 agonist, to boost the antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells (DC) as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. The combined treatment induced marked local and systemic responses in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. In vitro cytotoxicity assays as well as in vivo depletion experiments with monoclonal antibodies identified NK and CD8 T cells as the cell populations mediating the cytotoxic effects of the treatment, while in vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) in CD11c-DTR transgenic mice revealed DC as the pivotal immune hub in this setting. The specificity of the immune reaction was confirmed by ELISPOT assays. TLR7/8 agonists therefore seem to be potent adjuvants to radiotherapy, inducing strong local and profound systemic immune responses to tumor antigens released by conventional therapy. PMID:25609199

  16. Radiotherapy combined with TLR7/8 activation induces strong immune responses against gastrointestinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Alexandra; Rahbari, Nuh N.; Bork, Ulrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Kahlert, Christoph; Haberkorn, Uwe; Tomai, Mark A.; Lipson, Kenneth E.; Carretero, Rafael; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz; Huber, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to local cytotoxic activity, radiotherapy may also elicit local and systemic antitumor immunity, which may be augmented by immunotherapeutic agents including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists. Here, we investigated the ability of 3M-011 (854A), a TLR7/8 agonist, to boost the antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells (DC) as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. The combined treatment induced marked local and systemic responses in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. In vitro cytotoxicity assays as well as in vivo depletion experiments with monoclonal antibodies identified NK and CD8 T cells as the cell populations mediating the cytotoxic effects of the treatment, while in vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) in CD11c-DTR transgenic mice revealed DC as the pivotal immune hub in this setting. The specificity of the immune reaction was confirmed by ELISPOT assays. TLR7/8 agonists therefore seem to be potent adjuvants to radiotherapy, inducing strong local and profound systemic immune responses to tumor antigens released by conventional therapy. PMID:25609199

  17. Mapping the crossroads of immune activation and cellular stress response pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cláudio, Nuno; Dalet, Alexandre; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune cell network detects specific microbes and damages to cell integrity in order to coordinate and polarize the immune response against invading pathogens. In recent years, a cross-talk between microbial-sensing pathways and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has been discovered and have attracted the attention of many researchers from the inflammation field. Abnormal accumulation of proteins in the ER can be seen as a sign of cellular malfunction and triggers a collection of conserved emergency rescue pathways. These signalling cascades, which increase ER homeostasis and favour cell survival, are collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The induction or activation by microbial stimuli of several molecules linked to the ER stress response pathway have led to the conclusion that microbe sensing by immunocytes is generally associated with an UPR, which serves as a signal amplification cascade favouring inflammatory cytokines production. Induction of the UPR alone was shown to promote inflammation in different cellular and pathological models. Here we discuss how the innate immune and ER-signalling pathways intersect. Moreover, we propose that the induction of UPR-related molecules by microbial products does not necessarily reflect ER stress, but instead is an integral part of a specific transcription programme controlled by innate immunity receptors. PMID:23584529

  18. Regulation of Intestinal Immune Responses through TLR Activation: Implications for Pro- and Prebiotics.

    PubMed

    de Kivit, Sander; Tobin, Mary C; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali; Landay, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa is constantly facing a high load of antigens including bacterial antigens derived from the microbiota and food. Despite this, the immune cells present in the gastrointestinal tract do not initiate a pro-inflammatory immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors expressed by various cells in the gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and resident immune cells in the lamina propria. Many diseases, including chronic intestinal inflammation (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), allergic gastroenteritis (e.g., eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS), and infections are nowadays associated with a deregulated microbiota. The microbiota may directly interact with TLR. In addition, differences in intestinal TLR expression in health and disease may suggest that TLRs play an essential role in disease pathogenesis and may be novel targets for therapy. TLR signaling in the gut is involved in either maintaining intestinal homeostasis or the induction of an inflammatory response. This mini review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of intestinal epithelial TLR signaling in both tolerance induction or promoting intestinal inflammation, with a focus on food allergy. We will also highlight a potential role of the microbiota in regulating gut immune responses, especially through TLR activation. PMID:24600450

  19. Effector and suppressor circuits of the immune response are activated in vivo by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, H; Kripke, M L

    1987-06-01

    The application of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) onto the skin of mice induces a contact hypersensitivity immune response. Lymph nodes draining the skin painted with FITC contain fluorescent cells that induce contact hypersensitivity to FITC when injected into normal mice. The antigen-presenting cells responsible for activating the effector pathway of the contact hypersensitivity response express Ia histocompatibility determinants and are resistant to inactivation with gamma-radiation. Exposing the skin to low doses of UV radiation (280-320 nm) before the application of FITC suppresses the contact hypersensitivity response to FITC. Cells present in the draining lymph nodes of these mice induce suppressor T lymphocytes when injected into normal recipients. The inducer cells in the draining lymph nodes are Thy 1+, Ia- and are inactivated by gamma-radiation. These studies demonstrate that different mechanisms are involved in the in vivo activation of effector and suppressor immune responses, and they suggest that the mode of initial antigen presentation determines which immunologic circuit will be activated in response to a contact-sensitizing antigen. PMID:2884661

  20. Effector and suppressor circuits of the immune response are activated in vivo by different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, H.; Kripke, M.L.

    1987-06-01

    The application of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) onto the skin of mice induces a contact hypersensitivity immune response. Lymph nodes draining the skin painted with FITC contain fluorescent cells that induce contact hypersensitivity to FITC when injected into normal mice. The antigen-presenting cells responsible for activating the effector pathway of the contact hypersensitivity response express Ia histocompatibility determinants and are resistant to inactivation with gamma-radiation. Exposing the skin to low doses of UV radiation (280-320 nm) before the application of FITC suppresses the contact hypersensitivity response to FITC. Cells present in the draining lymph nodes of these mice induce suppressor T lymphocytes when injected into normal recipients. The inducer cells in the draining lymph nodes are Thy 1+, Ia- and are inactivated by gamma-radiation. These studies demonstrate that different mechanisms are involved in the in vivo activation of effector and suppressor immune responses, and they suggest that the mode of initial antigen presentation determines which immunologic circuit will be activated in response to a contact-sensitizing antigen.

  1. Active chinese mistletoe lectin-55 enhances colon cancer surveillance through regulating innate and adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan-Hui; Cheng, Wei-Zhi; Gong, Fang; Ma, An-Lun; Yu, Qi-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Hu, Chao-Ying; Chen, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Dong-Qing

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of Active Chinese mistletoe lectin-55 (ACML-55) in tumor immune surveillance. METHODS: In this study, an experimental model was established by hypodermic inoculating the colon cancer cell line CT26 (5 × 105 cells) into BALB/c mice. The experimental treatment was orally administered with ACML-55 or PBS, followed by the inoculation of colon cancer cell line CT26. Intracellular cytokine staining was used to detect IFN-γ production by tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells. FACS analysis was employed to profile composition and activation of CD4+, CD8+, γδ T and NK cells. RESULTS: Our results showed, compared to PBS treated mice, ACML-55 treatment significantly delayed colon cancer development in colon cancer -bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Treatment with ACML-55 enhanced both Ag specific activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and increased the number of tumor Ag specific CD8+ T cells. It was more important to increase the frequency of tumor Ag specific IFN-γ producing-CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, ACML-55 treatment also showed increased cell number of NK, and γδT cells, indicating the role of ACML-55 in activation of innate lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ACML-55 therapy can enhance function in immune surveillance in colon cancer-bearing mice through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:18785279

  2. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans.

    PubMed

    Kox, Matthijs; van Eijk, Lucas T; Zwaag, Jelle; van den Wildenberg, Joanne; Sweep, Fred C G J; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Pickkers, Peter

    2014-05-20

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. Herein, we evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either the intervention (n = 12) or control group (n = 12). Subjects in the intervention group were trained for 10 d in meditation (third eye meditation), breathing techniques (i.a., cyclic hyperventilation followed by breath retention), and exposure to cold (i.a., immersions in ice cold water). The control group was not trained. Subsequently, all subjects underwent experimental endotoxemia (i.v. administration of 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin). In the intervention group, practicing the learned techniques resulted in intermittent respiratory alkalosis and hypoxia resulting in profoundly increased plasma epinephrine levels. In the intervention group, plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased more rapidly after endotoxin administration, correlated strongly with preceding epinephrine levels, and were higher. Levels of proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were lower in the intervention group and correlated negatively with IL-10 levels. Finally, flu-like symptoms were lower in the intervention group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in epinephrine release and subsequent suppression of the innate immune response in humans in vivo. These results could have important implications for the treatment of conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases. PMID:24799686

  3. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  4. Active Suppression of Early Immune Response in Tobacco by the Human Pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Shirron, Natali; Yaron, Sima

    2011-01-01

    The persistence of enteric pathogens on plants has been studied extensively, mainly due to the potential hazard of human pathogens such as Salmonella enterica being able to invade and survive in/on plants. Factors involved in the interactions between enteric bacteria and plants have been identified and consequently it was hypothesized that plants may be vectors or alternative hosts for enteric pathogens. To survive, endophytic bacteria have to escape the plant immune systems, which function at different levels through the plant-bacteria interactions. To understand how S. enterica survives endophyticaly we conducted a detailed analysis on its ability to elicit or evade the plant immune response. The models of this study were Nicotiana tabacum plants and cells suspension exposed to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The plant immune response was analyzed by looking at tissue damage and by testing oxidative burst and pH changes. It was found that S. Typhimurium did not promote disease symptoms in the contaminated plants. Live S. Typhimurium did not trigger the production of an oxidative burst and pH changes by the plant cells, while heat killed or chloramphenicol treated S. Typhimurium and purified LPS of Salmonella were significant elicitors, indicating that S. Typhimurium actively suppress the plant response. By looking at the plant response to mutants defective in virulence factors we showed that the suppression depends on secreted factors. Deletion of invA reduced the ability of S. Typhimurium to suppress oxidative burst and pH changes, indicating that a functional SPI1 TTSS is required for the suppression. This study demonstrates that plant colonization by S. Typhimurium is indeed an active process. S. Typhimurium utilizes adaptive strategies of altering innate plant perception systems to improve its fitness in the plant habitat. All together these results suggest a complex mechanism for perception of S. Typhimurium by plants. PMID:21541320

  5. Flagellin from Marinobacter algicola and Vibrio vulnificus activates the innate immune response of gilthead seabream.

    PubMed

    Montero, Jana; Gómez-Casado, Eduardo; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; Mulero, Victoriano

    2014-11-01

    Adjuvants have emerged as the best tools to enhance the efficacy of vaccination. However, the traditional adjuvants used in aquaculture may cause adverse alterations in fish making necessary the development of new adjuvants able to stimulate the immune system and offer strong protection against infectious pathogens with minimal undesirable effects. In this respect, flagellin seems an attractive candidate due to its ability to strongly stimulate the immune response of fish. In the present study, we have evaluated the ability of recombinant flagellin from Marinobacter algicola (MA) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vvul), a non-pathogenic and a pathogenic bacteria, respectively, to stimulate the innate immune system of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and compare the effect with that of the classical flagellin from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium, STF). Intraperitoneal injection of MA and Vvul resulted in a strong inflammatory response characterized by increased reactive oxygen species production and the infiltration of acidophilic granulocytes at the injection site. Interestingly, however, only flagellin from MA consistently induced the expression of the gene encoding pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β. These effects were further confirmed in vitro, where a dose-dependent activation of macrophages and acidophilic granulocytes by MA and Vvul flagellins was observed. In contrast, STF flagellin was found to be less potent in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Our results suggest the potential use of MA and Vvul flagellins as immunostimulants and adjuvants for fish vaccination. PMID:25020195

  6. Molecular characteristics of Illicium verum extractives to activate acquired immune response

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wanxi; Lin, Zhi; Wang, Lansheng; Chang, Junbo; Gu, Fangliang; Zhu, Xiangwei

    2015-01-01

    Illicium verum, whose extractives can activate the demic acquired immune response, is an expensive medicinal plant. However, the rich extractives in I. verum biomass were seriously wasted for the inefficient extraction and separation processes. In order to further utilize the biomedical resources for the good acquired immune response, the four extractives were obtained by SJYB extraction, and then the immunology moleculars of SJYB extractives were identified and analyzed by GC–MS. The result showed that the first-stage extractives contained 108 components including anethole (40.27%), 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde (4.25%), etc.; the second-stage extractives had 5 components including anethole (84.82%), 2-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-n-methyl-acetamide (7.11%), etc.; the third-stage extractives contained one component namely anethole (100%); and the fourth-stage extractives contained 5 components including cyclohexyl-benzene (64.64%), 1-(1-methylethenyl)-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene (17.17%), etc. The SJYB extractives of I. verum biomass had a main retention time between 10 and 20 min what’s more, the SJYB extractives contained many biomedical moleculars, such as anethole, eucalyptol, [1S-(1α,4aα,10aβ)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, stigmast-4-en-3-one, γ-sitosterol, and so on. So the functional analytical results suggested that the SJYB extractives of I. verum had a function in activating the acquired immune response and a huge potential in biomedicine. PMID:27081359

  7. Molecular characteristics of Illicium verum extractives to activate acquired immune response.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wanxi; Lin, Zhi; Wang, Lansheng; Chang, Junbo; Gu, Fangliang; Zhu, Xiangwei

    2016-05-01

    Illicium verum, whose extractives can activate the demic acquired immune response, is an expensive medicinal plant. However, the rich extractives in I. verum biomass were seriously wasted for the inefficient extraction and separation processes. In order to further utilize the biomedical resources for the good acquired immune response, the four extractives were obtained by SJYB extraction, and then the immunology moleculars of SJYB extractives were identified and analyzed by GC-MS. The result showed that the first-stage extractives contained 108 components including anethole (40.27%), 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde (4.25%), etc.; the second-stage extractives had 5 components including anethole (84.82%), 2-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-n-methyl-acetamide (7.11%), etc.; the third-stage extractives contained one component namely anethole (100%); and the fourth-stage extractives contained 5 components including cyclohexyl-benzene (64.64%), 1-(1-methylethenyl)-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene (17.17%), etc. The SJYB extractives of I. verum biomass had a main retention time between 10 and 20 min what's more, the SJYB extractives contained many biomedical moleculars, such as anethole, eucalyptol, [1S-(1α,4aα,10aβ)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, stigmast-4-en-3-one, γ-sitosterol, and so on. So the functional analytical results suggested that the SJYB extractives of I. verum had a function in activating the acquired immune response and a huge potential in biomedicine. PMID:27081359

  8. Asparagine Endopeptidase Controls Anti-Influenza Virus Immune Responses through TLR7 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Maschalidi, Sophia; Hässler, Signe; Blanc, Fany; Sepulveda, Fernando E.; Tohme, Mira; Chignard, Michel; van Endert, Peter; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Descamps, Delphyne; Manoury, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by dendritic cells recognize nucleic acids derived from pathogens and play an important role in the immune responses against the influenza virus (IAV), a single-stranded RNA sensed by different receptors including TLR7. However, the importance of TLR7 processing in the development of anti-viral immune responses is not known. Here we report that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) deficient mice are unable to generate a strong anti-IAV response, as demonstrated by reduced inflammation, cross presentation of cell-associated antigens and priming of CD8+ T cells following TLR7-dependent pulmonary infection induced by IAV. Moreover, AEP deficient lung epithelial- or myeloid-cells exhibit impaired TLR7 signaling due to defective processing of this receptor. Indeed, TLR7 requires a proteolytic cleavage by AEP to generate a C-terminal fragment competent for signaling. Thus, AEP activity is critical for TLR7 processing, opening new possibilities for the treatment of influenza and TLR7-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID:22916010

  9. Asparagine endopeptidase controls anti-influenza virus immune responses through TLR7 activation.

    PubMed

    Maschalidi, Sophia; Hässler, Signe; Blanc, Fany; Sepulveda, Fernando E; Tohme, Mira; Chignard, Michel; van Endert, Peter; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Descamps, Delphyne; Manoury, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by dendritic cells recognize nucleic acids derived from pathogens and play an important role in the immune responses against the influenza virus (IAV), a single-stranded RNA sensed by different receptors including TLR7. However, the importance of TLR7 processing in the development of anti-viral immune responses is not known. Here we report that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) deficient mice are unable to generate a strong anti-IAV response, as demonstrated by reduced inflammation, cross presentation of cell-associated antigens and priming of CD8(+) T cells following TLR7-dependent pulmonary infection induced by IAV. Moreover, AEP deficient lung epithelial- or myeloid-cells exhibit impaired TLR7 signaling due to defective processing of this receptor. Indeed, TLR7 requires a proteolytic cleavage by AEP to generate a C-terminal fragment competent for signaling. Thus, AEP activity is critical for TLR7 processing, opening new possibilities for the treatment of influenza and TLR7-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID:22916010

  10. Activation of cytokine genes during primary and anamnestic immune response to inactivated c. albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, E; Scaringi, L; Cornacchione, P; Fettucciari, K; Sabatini, R; Mezzasoma, L; Benedetti, C; Cianetti, S; Rossi, R; Marconi, P

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that after repeated stimulations with inactivated C. albicans (CA) cells, CD2F1 mice respond with a cytokine pattern typical of T-helper 1 (ThI) subset development. The purpose of this study was to analyse the sequence of immunological events which, soon after priming mice with CA, lead to the development of primary and anamnestic response. A comprehensive kinetics analysis of cytokine mRNA expression was performed by Northern blot assay, in peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), at different phases of immune response to CA: after priming (one i.p. injection of 2 x 10(7) CA cells mouse), during development of the primary immune response (five progressive CA i.p. injections over a 2-week period) and in the anamnestic response (CA booster 30 days after the primary response). In vitro assays were performed 2 and 24 hr after every CA stimulation. The response to CA priming was characterized by an early and high expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-1 beta mRNAs At 24hr. IL-2 mRNA was still at a high level, while IL-1 beta had greatly decreased. A weak expression of IL-10 was only induced at 2 hr. whereas IL-12 p40 subunit, interferon-7 (IFN-7) IL-4 and IL-5 mRNAs were undetectable. In this phase no in vitro proliferative response of PEC to CA was observed, whereas a significant natural killer (NK) activity was induced. From the second CA injection, the IFN-7 mRNA was already induced at 2 hr. Its expression level increased progressively with the number of CA injections persisting up to 24 hr after the fifth stimulation. A progressive increase of IL-2 mRNA expression was also induced whereas IL-1 beta and IL-10 mRNAs were always transiently expressed at 2 hr at levels similar to those observed after the priming. IL-12 p40 subunit. IL-4 and IL-5 mRNAs were never detectable. The expression of this selected cytokine pattern typical of Thl response was correlated with the development of CA-specific T lymphocytes as confirmed by the in vitro

  11. Complement activation pathways: a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses in asthma.

    PubMed

    Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2007-07-01

    Although it is widely accepted that allergic asthma is driven by T helper type 2 (Th2)-polarized immune responses to innocuous environmental allergens, the mechanisms driving these aberrant immune responses remain elusive. Recent recognition of the importance of innate immune pathways in regulating adaptive immune responses have fueled investigation into the role of innate immune pathways in the pathogenesis of asthma. The phylogenetically ancient innate immune system, the complement system, is no exception. The emerging paradigm is that C3a production at the airway surface serves as a common pathway for the induction of Th2-mediated inflammatory responses to a variety of environmental triggers of asthma (i.e., allergens, pollutants, viral infections, cigarette smoke). In contrast, C5a plays a dual immunoregulatory role by protecting against the initial development of a Th2-polarized adaptive immune response via its ability to induce tolerogenic dendritic cell subsets. On the other hand, C5a drives type 2-mediated inflammatory responses once inflammation ensues. Thus, alterations in the balance of generation of the various components of the complement pathway either due to environmental exposure changes or genetic alterations in genes of the complement cascade may underlie the recent rise in asthma prevalence in westernized countries. PMID:17607007

  12. Immune response to H pylori

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Giovanni; Reyes, Victor E; Beswick, Ellen J

    2006-01-01

    The gastric mucosa separates the underlying tissue from the vast array of antigens that traffic through the stomach lumen. While the extreme pH of this environment is essential in aiding the activation of enzymes and food digestion, it also renders the gastric epithelium free from bacterial colonization, with the exception of one important human pathogen, H pylori. This bacterium has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, actively move through the mucosal layer, attach to the epithelium, evade immune responses, and achieve persistent colonization. While a hallmark of this infection is a marked inflammatory response with the infiltration of various immune cells into the infected gastric mucosa, the host immune response is unable to clear the infection and may actually contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Here, we review the host responses involved during infection with H pylori and how they are influenced by this bacterium. PMID:17007009

  13. Zymosan and PMA activate the immune responses of Mutz3-derived dendritic cells synergistically.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Sung; Kim, Young-Jun; Han, Kyu Ung; Yoon, Byung Dae; Kim, Jae Wha

    2015-09-01

    Beta-glucan (β-glucan) including zymosan has been known as a super food because of its multifunctional activities, such as the enhancement of immune responses. To study the functional mechanism of β-glucan in immune stimulation, the effect of zymosan on dendritic cell (DC) was investigated by monitoring the production of TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. DC was differentiated from Mutz-3, a human acute myeloid leukemia cell line, by cytokine treatment and characterized. DC-specific cell surface markers were increased during the differentiation. Especially, Dectin-1, a β-glucan receptor, was upregulated during DC differentiation, and mediated zymosan-induced TNF-α production, which was inhibited by silencing of dectin-1. Zymosan exhibited synergistic effect with other immune stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a well-known PKC activator. Simultaneous treatment of zymosan and PMA enhanced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunits, p50 and p65, mediating the increase of TNF-α production. Bay 11-7082, an NF-κB inhibitor, blocked morphological changes and TNF-α production induced by zymosan and/or PMA treatment. Western blot analysis has showed zymosan-Dectin-1 pathway mediated destructive phosphorylation of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase α subunit (IKKα) in IKK complexes, while PMA-PKC pathway regulated selective phosphorylation and degradation of IKKβ. Simultaneous phosphorylation of separate IKK subunits by co-treatment of zymosan and PMA resulted in cooperative activation of NF-κB and TNF-α production. PMID:26183538

  14. Antitumor activity of a novel small molecule TLR7 agonist via immune response induction and tumor microenvironment modulation.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yuwen; Wang, Xiaodong; Wan, Yanyan; Zhong, Jingjing; Gao, Dong; Liu, Yu; Gao, Ningning; Li, Wang; Liu, Bing; Huang, Xinping; Jin, Zhenchao; Peng, Boya; Wang, Zhulin; Fu, Li; Chen, Siping; Jin, Guangyi

    2016-02-01

    Immunotherapy is emerging as a powerful and active tumor-specific approach against cancer via triggering the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental elements of the immune system, which facilitate our understanding of the innate and adaptive immune pathways. TLR agonists used as single agents can effectively eradicate tumors due to their potent stimulation of innate and adaptive immunity. We examined the effects of a novel adenine type of TLR7 agonists on both innate and adaptive immune activation in vitro and in vivo. We established the local and distant tumor‑bearing mice derived from murine mammary carcinoma cell line (4T1) to model metastatic disease. Our data demonstrated that SZU101 was able to stimulate innate immune cells to release cytokines at the very high level compared with LPS at the same or lower concentration. Locally intratumoral SZU101 injection can elicit a systemic antitumor effect on murine breast tumor model. SZU101 affected the frequency of intratumoral immune cell infiltration, including the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ increase, and the ratio of Tregs decrease. Our data reveal that the antitumor effect of SZU101 is associated with multiple mechanisms, inducing tumor‑specific immune response, activation of innate immune cells and modulation of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26718332

  15. An Activated Immune and Inflammatory Response Targets the Pancreas of Newborn Pigs with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Sinkora, Marek; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.; McCray, Jr., Paul B.; Butler, John; Uc, Aliye

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: In cystic fibrosis (CF), pancreatic disease begins in utero and progresses over time to complete destruction of the organ. Although inflammatory cells have been detected in the pancreas of humans and pigs with CF, their subtypes have not been characterized. Methods: Using four-color flow cytometry, we analyzed the surface antigens of leukocytes in pancreas, blood, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of newborn pigs with CF (CFTR–/– and CFTRΔF508/ΔF508) and in those without CF (CFTR+/–, CFTR+/ΔF508, CFTR+/+). Pancreatic histopathology was examined with HE stain. Results: CF pig pancreas had patchy distribution of inflammatory cells with neutrophils/macrophages in dilated acini, and lymphocytes in the interstitium compared to non-CF. B cells, effector (MHC-II+) and cytotoxic (CD2+CD8+) γδ T cells, activated (MHC-II+ and/or CD25+) and effector (CD4+CD8+) αβ T helper cells, effector natural killer cells (MHC-II+CD3−CD8+), and monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils were increased in the CF pig pancreas compared to pigs without CF. Blood and MLN leukocyte populations were not different between CF and non-CF pigs. Conclusions: We discovered an activated immune response that was specific to the pancreas of newborn CF pigs; inflammation was not systemic. The presence of both innate and adaptive immune cells suggests that the disease process is complex and extensive. PMID:22057257

  16. Immune responses to improving welfare.

    PubMed

    Berghman, L R

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that "increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better" because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "sickness behavior," includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  17. Essential Function for the Nuclear Protein Akirin2 in B Cell Activation and Humoral Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Tartey, Sarang; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Imamura, Tomoko; Wakabayashi, Atsuko; Ori, Daisuke; Mino, Takashi; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2015-07-15

    Akirin2, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein, is an important factor regulating inflammatory gene transcription in mammalian innate immune cells by bridging the NF-κB and SWI/SNF complexes. Although Akirin is critical for Drosophila immune responses, which totally rely on innate immunity, the mammalian NF-κB system is critical not only for the innate but also for the acquired immune system. Therefore, we investigated the role of mouse Akirin2 in acquired immune cells by ablating Akirin2 function in B lymphocytes. B cell-specific Akirin2-deficient (Cd19(Cre/+)Akirin2(fl/fl)) mice showed profound decrease in the splenic follicular (FO) and peritoneal B-1, but not splenic marginal zone (MZ), B cell numbers. However, both Akirin2-deficient FO and MZ B cells showed severe proliferation defect and are prone to undergo apoptosis in response to TLR ligands, CD40, and BCR stimulation. Furthermore, B cell cycling was defective in the absence of Akirin2 owing to impaired expression of genes encoding cyclin D and c-Myc. Additionally, Brg1 recruitment to the Myc and Ccnd2 promoter was severely impaired in Akirin2-deficient B cells. Cd19(Cre/+)Akirin2(fl/fl) mice showed impaired in vivo immune responses to T-dependent and -independent Ags. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Akirin2 is critical for the mitogen-induced B cell cycle progression and humoral immune responses by controlling the SWI/SNF complex, further emphasizing the significant function of Akirin2 not only in the innate, but also in adaptive immune cells. PMID:26041538

  18. Photodynamic-therapy Activates Immune Response by disrupting Immunity Homeostasis of Tumor Cells, which Generates Vaccine for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanhong; Yin, Guifang; Le, Vanminh; Zhang, Anle; Chen, Siyu; Liang, Xin; Liu, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a regulatory approved cancer treatment, is reported to be capable of causing immunogenic apoptosis. The current data reveal PDT can cause the dysregulation of "eat me" and "don't eat me" signal by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) -mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This dysregulation probably contribute to the increased uptake of PDT-killed Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells by homologous dendritic cells (DCs), accompanied by phenotypic maturation (CD80(high), CD86(high), and CD40(high)) and functional stimulation (NO(high), IL-10(absent)) of dendritic cells as well as subsequent T-cell responses. Morevover, C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with PDT-treated LLCs (PDT-DCs) or PDT-treated LLCs alone (PDT-LLCs) exhibited potent immunity against LLC tumors. In the current study, the PDT-induced immune response was characterized as a process related with the dysregulation of "eat me" signal and "don't eat me" signal, revealing the possibility for developing PDT into an antitumor vaccination strategy for personalized cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26722223

  19. Photodynamic-therapy Activates Immune Response by disrupting Immunity Homeostasis of Tumor Cells, which Generates Vaccine for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanhong; Yin, Guifang; Le, Vanminh; Zhang, Anle; Chen, Siyu; Liang, Xin; Liu, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a regulatory approved cancer treatment, is reported to be capable of causing immunogenic apoptosis. The current data reveal PDT can cause the dysregulation of “eat me” and “don't eat me” signal by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) -mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This dysregulation probably contribute to the increased uptake of PDT-killed Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells by homologous dendritic cells (DCs), accompanied by phenotypic maturation (CD80high, CD86high, and CD40high) and functional stimulation (NOhigh, IL-10absent) of dendritic cells as well as subsequent T-cell responses. Morevover, C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with PDT-treated LLCs (PDT-DCs) or PDT-treated LLCs alone (PDT-LLCs) exhibited potent immunity against LLC tumors. In the current study, the PDT-induced immune response was characterized as a process related with the dysregulation of “eat me” signal and “don't eat me” signal, revealing the possibility for developing PDT into an antitumor vaccination strategy for personalized cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26722223

  20. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  1. Antitumor and Adjuvant Activity of λ-carrageenan by Stimulating Immune Response in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Min; Shao, Bin; Nie, Wen; Wei, Xia-Wei; Li, Yu-Li; Wang, Bi-Lan; He, Zhi-Yao; Liang, Xiao; Ye, Ting-Hong; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2015-01-01

    λ-Carrageenan is a seaweed polysaccharide which has been generally used as proinflammatory agent in the basic research, however, how the immunomodulating activity of λ-carrageenan affects tumor microenvironment remains unknown. In this study, we found that intratumoral injection of λ-carrageenan could inhibit tumor growth in B16-F10 and 4T1 bearing mice and enhance tumor immune response by increasing the number of tumor-infiltrating M1 macrophages, DCs and more activated CD4(+)CD8(+) T lymphocytes in spleen. In addition, λ-carrageenan could enhance the secretion of IL17A in spleen and significantly increase the level of TNF-α in tumor, most of which was secreted by infiltrating macrophages. Moreover, λ-carrageenan exhibited an efficient adjuvant effect in OVA-based preventative and therapeutic vaccine for cancer treatment, which significantly enhanced the production of anti-OVA antibody. The toxicity analysis suggested that λ-carrageenan was with a good safety profile. Thus, λ-carrageenan might be used both as a potent antitumor agent and an efficient adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26098663

  2. Antitumor and Adjuvant Activity of λ-carrageenan by Stimulating Immune Response in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Shao, Bin; Nie, Wen; Wei, Xia-Wei; Li, Yu-Li; Wang, Bi-Lan; He, Zhi-Yao; Liang, Xiao; Ye, Ting-Hong

    2015-01-01

    λ-Carrageenan is a seaweed polysaccharide which has been generally used as proinflammatory agent in the basic research, however, how the immunomodulating activity of λ-carrageenan affects tumor microenvironment remains unknown. In this study, we found that intratumoral injection of λ-carrageenan could inhibit tumor growth in B16-F10 and 4T1 bearing mice and enhance tumor immune response by increasing the number of tumor-infiltrating M1 macrophages, DCs and more activated CD4+CD8+ T lymphocytes in spleen. In addition, λ-carrageenan could enhance the secretion of IL17A in spleen and significantly increase the level of TNF-α in tumor, most of which was secreted by infiltrating macrophages. Moreover, λ-carrageenan exhibited an efficient adjuvant effect in OVA-based preventative and therapeutic vaccine for cancer treatment, which significantly enhanced the production of anti-OVA antibody. The toxicity analysis suggested that λ-carrageenan was with a good safety profile. Thus, λ-carrageenan might be used both as a potent antitumor agent and an efficient adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26098663

  3. Influence of immune activation and inflammatory response on cardiovascular risk associated with the human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Luis M; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro-Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Egido, Jesús; García-Puig, Juan; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection. PMID:25609975

  4. A small molecule inhibitor for ATPase activity of Hsp70 and Hsc70 enhances the immune response to protein antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Zhang, Haiying; Lee, Bo Ryeong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Ha, Sang-Jun; Shin, Injae

    2015-12-01

    The ATPase activities of Hsp70 and Hsc70 are known to be responsible for regulation of various biological processes. However, little is known about the roles of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in modulation of immune responses to antigens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of apoptozole (Az), a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp70 and Hsc70, on immune responses to protein antigens. The results show that mice administered with both protein antigen and Az produce more antibodies than those treated with antigen alone, showing that Az enhances immune responses to administered antigens. Treatment of mice with Az elicits production of antibodies with a high IgG2c/IgG1 ratio and stimulates the release of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines, suggesting that Az activates the Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The observations made in the present study suggest that inhibition of Hsp70 and Hsc70 activities could be a novel strategy designing small molecule-based adjuvants in protein vaccines.

  5. The Drosophila IMD pathway in the activation of the humoral immune response

    PubMed Central

    Kleino, Anni; Silverman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The IMD pathway signaling plays a pivotal role in the Drosophila defense against bacteria. During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in identifying the components and deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathway, including the means of bacterial sensing and signal transduction. While these findings have contributed to the understanding of the immune signaling in insects, they have also provided new insights in studying the mammalian NF-κB signaling pathways. Here, we summarize the current view of the IMD pathway focusing on how it regulates the humoral immune response of Drosophila. PMID:23721820

  6. Classical complement activation and acquired immune response pathways are not essential for retinal degeneration in the rd1 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Bärbel; Demos, Christina; Frigg, Rico; Grimm, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Misregulation of the innate immune response and other immune-related processes have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of a number of different neurodegenerative diseases, including age related macular degeneration. In an animal model for photoreceptor degeneration, several genes of the innate and acquired immune system were found to be differentially regulated in the retina during the degenerative process. In addition to this differential regulation of individual genes, we found that in the rd1 retina a significantly higher number of genes involved in immune-related responses were expressed at any given time during the degenerative period. The peak of immune-related gene expression was at postnatal day 14, coinciding with the peak of photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd1 mouse. We directly tested the potential involvement of acquired and innate immune responses in initiation and progression of photoreceptor degeneration by analyzing double mutant animals. Retinal morphology and photoreceptor apoptosis of rd1 mice on a SCID genetic background (no mature T- and B-cells) or in combination with a RAG-1 (no functional B- and T-cells) or a C1qα (no functional classical complement activation pathway) knockout was followed during the degenerative process using light microscopy or TUNEL staining, respectively. Although complement factor C1qα was highly up-regulated in the rd1 retina concomitantly with the degenerative process, lack of this protein did not protect the rd1 retina. Similarly, retinal degeneration and photoreceptor apoptosis appeared to proceed normally in the rd1 mouse lacking functional B- and T-cells. Our results suggest that both, the classical complement system of innate immunity and a functional acquired immune response are not essential for the degenerative process in the rd1 mouse retina. PMID:17069800

  7. Activation of a G protein-coupled receptor by its endogenous ligand triggers the Caenorhabditis elegans innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Zugasti, Olivier; Bose, Neelanjan; Squiban, Barbara; Belougne, Jérôme; Kurz, C. Léopold; Schroeder, Frank C.; Pujol, Nathalie; Ewbank, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Immune defenses are triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns or as a result of damage to host cells. The elicitors of immune responses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are unclear. Using a genome-wide RNAi screen, we identify the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) DCAR-1 as being required for the response to fungal infection and wounding. DCAR-1 acts in the epidermis to regulate the expression of antimicrobial peptides via a conserved p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Through targeted metabolomics analysis we identify the tyrosine-derivative 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid (HPLA) as an endogenous ligand. These findings reveal DCAR-1 and its cognate ligand HPLA to be important triggers of the epidermal innate immune response in C. elegans and highlight the ancient role of GPCRs in host defense. PMID:25086774

  8. Repeated Ozone Exposure Exacerbates Insulin Resistance And Activates Innate Immune Response In Genetically Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jixin; Allen, Katryn; Rao, Xiaoquan; Ying, Zhekang; Braunstein, Zachary; Kankanala, Saumya R.; Xia, Chang; Wang, Xiaoke; Bramble, Lori A.; Wagner, James G.; Lewandowski, Ryan; Sun, Qinghua; Harkema, Jack R.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhaled ozone (O3) has been demonstrated as a harmful pollutant and associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes and vascular disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms by which O3 mediates harmful effects are poorly understood. Objectives To investigate the effect of O3 exposure on glucose intolerance, immune activation and underlying mechanisms in a genetically susceptible mouse model. Methods Diabetes-prone KK mice were exposed to filtered air (FA), or O3 (0.5 ppm) for 13 consecutive weekdays (4 h/day). Insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed following the last exposure. Plasma insulin, adiponectin, and leptin were measured by ELISA. Pathologic changes were examined by H&E and oil-red-o staining. Inflammatory responses were detected using flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Results KK mice exposed to O3 displayed an impaired insulin response. Plasma insulin and leptin levels were reduced in O3-exposed mice. Three-week exposure to O3 induced lung inflammation and increased monocytes/macrophages in both blood and visceral adipose tissue. Inflammatory monocytes/macrophages increased both systemically and locally. CD4+ T cell activation was also enhanced by the exposure of O3 although the relative percentage of CD4+ T cell decreased in blood and adipose tissue. Multiple inflammatory genes including CXCL-11, IFN-γ, TNFα, IL-12, and iNOS were up-regulated in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, the expression of oxidative stress-related genes such as Cox4, Cox5a, Scd1, Nrf1, and Nrf2, increased in visceral adipose tissue of O3-exposed mice. Conclusions Repeated O3 inhalation induces oxidative stress, adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:27240593

  9. Immune Responses in Hookworm Infections

    PubMed Central

    Loukas, Alex; Prociv, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Hookworms infect perhaps one-fifth of the entire human population, yet little is known about their interaction with our immune system. The two major species are Necator americanus, which is adapted to tropical conditions, and Ancylostoma duodenale, which predominates in more temperate zones. While having many common features, they also differ in several key aspects of their biology. Host immune responses are triggered by larval invasion of the skin, larval migration through the circulation and lungs, and worm establishment in the intestine, where adult worms feed on blood and mucosa while injecting various molecules that facilitate feeding and modulate host protective responses. Despite repeated exposure, protective immunity does not seem to develop in humans, so that infections occur in all age groups (depending on exposure patterns) and tend to be prolonged. Responses to both larval and adult worms have a characteristic T-helper type 2 profile, with activated mast cells in the gut mucosa, elevated levels of circulating immunoglobulin E, and eosinoophilia in the peripheral blood and local tissues, features also characteristic of type I hypersensitivity reactions. The longevity of adult hookworms is determined probably more by parasite genetics than by host immunity. However, many of the proteins released by the parasites seem to have immunomodulatory activity, presumably for self-protection. Advances in molecular biotechnology enable the identification and characterization of increasing numbers of these parasite molecules and should enhance our detailed understanding of the protective and pathogenetic mechanisms in hookworm infections. PMID:11585781

  10. Divergent Annexin A1 expression in periphery and gut is associated with systemic immune activation and impaired gut immune response during SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Angela A. S.; Glavan, Tiffany; Jiang, Guochun; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; Dandekar, Satya; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 disease progression is paradoxically characterized by systemic chronic immune activation and gut mucosal immune dysfunction, which is not fully defined. Annexin A1 (ANXA1), an inflammation modulator, is a potential link between systemic inflammation and gut immune dysfunction during the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Gene expression of ANXA1 and cytokines were assessed in therapy-naïve rhesus macaques during early and chronic stages of SIV infection and compared with SIV-negative controls. ANXA1 expression was suppressed in the gut but systemically increased during early infection. Conversely, ANXA1 expression increased in both compartments during chronic infection. ANXA1 expression in peripheral blood was positively correlated with HLA-DR+CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell frequencies, and negatively associated with the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and CCR5. In contrast, the gut mucosa presented an anergic cytokine profile in relation to ANXA1 expression. In vitro stimulations with ANXA1 peptide resulted in decreased inflammatory response in PBMC but increased activation of gut lymphocytes. Our findings suggest that ANXA1 signaling is dysfunctional in SIV infection, and may contribute to chronic inflammation in periphery and with immune dysfunction in the gut mucosa. Thus, ANXA1 signaling may be a novel therapeutic target for the resolution of immune dysfunction in HIV infection. PMID:27484833

  11. Immune responses to improving welfare

    PubMed Central

    Berghman, L. R.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that “increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better” because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as “sickness behavior,” includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  12. Immune activation and response to pembrolizumab in POLE-mutant endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, Janice M; Panda, Anshuman; Zhong, Hua; Hirshfield, Kim; Damare, Sherri; Lane, Katherine; Sokol, Levi; Stein, Mark N; Rodriguez-Rodriquez, Lorna; Kaufman, Howard L; Ali, Siraj; Ross, Jeffrey S; Pavlick, Dean C; Bhanot, Gyan; White, Eileen P; DiPaola, Robert S; Lovell, Ann; Cheng, Jonathan; Ganesan, Shridar

    2016-06-01

    Antibodies that target the immune checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have resulted in prolonged and beneficial responses toward a variety of human cancers. However, anti-PD-1 therapy in some patients provides no benefit and/or results in adverse side effects. The factors that determine whether patients will be drug sensitive or resistant are not fully understood; therefore, genomic assessment of exceptional responders can provide important insight into patient response. Here, we identified a patient with endometrial cancer who had an exceptional response to the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab. Clinical grade targeted genomic profiling of a pretreatment tumor sample from this individual identified a mutation in DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) that associated with an ultramutator phenotype. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that the presence of POLE mutation associates with high mutational burden and elevated expression of several immune checkpoint genes. Together, these data suggest that cancers harboring POLE mutations are good candidates for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. PMID:27159395

  13. Immune activation and response to pembrolizumab in POLE-mutant endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehnert, Janice M.; Panda, Anshuman; Zhong, Hua; Hirshfield, Kim; Damare, Sherri; Lane, Katherine; Sokol, Levi; Stein, Mark N.; Rodriguez-Rodriquez, Lorna; Kaufman, Howard L.; Ali, Siraj; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Pavlick, Dean C.; Bhanot, Gyan; White, Eileen P.; DiPaola, Robert S.; Lovell, Ann; Cheng, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies that target the immune checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have resulted in prolonged and beneficial responses toward a variety of human cancers. However, anti–PD-1 therapy in some patients provides no benefit and/or results in adverse side effects. The factors that determine whether patients will be drug sensitive or resistant are not fully understood; therefore, genomic assessment of exceptional responders can provide important insight into patient response. Here, we identified a patient with endometrial cancer who had an exceptional response to the anti–PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab. Clinical grade targeted genomic profiling of a pretreatment tumor sample from this individual identified a mutation in DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) that associated with an ultramutator phenotype. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that the presence of POLE mutation associates with high mutational burden and elevated expression of several immune checkpoint genes. Together, these data suggest that cancers harboring POLE mutations are good candidates for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. PMID:27159395

  14. Allopurinol induces innate immune responses through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akira; Oda, Shingo; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, is a frequent cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) in humans, including drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Although SCARs have been suspected to be immune-mediated, the mechanisms of allopurinol-induced SCARs remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether allopurinol has the ability to induce innate immune responses in vitro using human dendritic cell (DC)-like cell lines, including HL-60, THP-1 and K562, and a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment of HL-60 cells with allopurinol significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor α in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, allopurinol induced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which regulate cytokine production in DC. In addition, allopurinol-induced increases in cytokine expression were inhibited by co-treatment with the MAPK inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggest that allopurinol has the ability to induce innate immune responses in a DC-like cell line through activation of the MAPK signaling pathways. These results indicate that innate immune responses induced by allopurinol might be involved in the development of allopurinol-induced SCARs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26641773

  15. Activation of Innate Immune-Response Genes in Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) Infected with the Fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    PubMed Central

    Rapin, Noreen; Johns, Kirk; Martin, Lauren; Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Voyles, Jamie; Misra, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Recently bats have been associated with the emergence of diseases, both as reservoirs for several new viral diseases in humans and other animals and, in the northern Americas, as hosts for a devastating fungal disease that threatens to drive several bat species to regional extinction. However, despite these catastrophic events little Information is available on bat defences or how they interact with their pathogens. Even less is known about the response of bats to infection during torpor or long-term hibernation. Using tissue samples collected at the termination of an experiment to explore the pathogenesis of White Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats, we determined if hibernating bats infected with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans could respond to infection by activating genes responsible for innate immune and stress responses. Lesions due to fungal infection and, in some cases, secondary bacterial infections, were restricted to the skin. However, we were unable to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA from these sites. We therefore examined lungs for response at an epithelial surface not linked to the primary site of infection. We found that bats responded to infection with a significant increase in lungs of transcripts for Cathelicidin (an anti-microbial peptide) as well as the immune modulators tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 10 and 23. In conclusion, hibernating bats can respond to experimental P. destructans infection by activating expression of innate immune response genes. PMID:25391018

  16. Activation of innate immune-response genes in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) infected with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    PubMed

    Rapin, Noreen; Johns, Kirk; Martin, Lauren; Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Willis, Craig K R; Voyles, Jamie; Misra, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Recently bats have been associated with the emergence of diseases, both as reservoirs for several new viral diseases in humans and other animals and, in the northern Americas, as hosts for a devastating fungal disease that threatens to drive several bat species to regional extinction. However, despite these catastrophic events little Information is available on bat defences or how they interact with their pathogens. Even less is known about the response of bats to infection during torpor or long-term hibernation. Using tissue samples collected at the termination of an experiment to explore the pathogenesis of White Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats, we determined if hibernating bats infected with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans could respond to infection by activating genes responsible for innate immune and stress responses. Lesions due to fungal infection and, in some cases, secondary bacterial infections, were restricted to the skin. However, we were unable to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA from these sites. We therefore examined lungs for response at an epithelial surface not linked to the primary site of infection. We found that bats responded to infection with a significant increase in lungs of transcripts for Cathelicidin (an anti-microbial peptide) as well as the immune modulators tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 10 and 23. In conclusion, hibernating bats can respond to experimental P. destructans infection by activating expression of innate immune response genes. PMID:25391018

  17. Cellular immune activity in response to increased training of elite oarsmen prior to Olympic competition.

    PubMed

    Jakeman, P M; Weller, A; Warrington, G

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the changes in urinary neopterin, a biochemical marker of cellular immune activity, in elite male rowers undertaking a progressive increase in training prior to Olympic competition. Twenty-seven male rowers of the 1992 Great Britain team provided daily urine samples for a 4-week period of training that included 17 days of altitude training and 10 days of heat acclimatization. The mean (+/- S.D.) ratio of neopterin/creatinine in urine increased from pre-training values of 135 +/- 32 to a peak of 219 +/- 121 mumol neopterin per mol creatinine on day 19 of training (P < 0.05). Changes in the ratio of neopterin/creatinine with training were found to be transient and highly variable between subjects, ranging from no change to peak values five-fold greater than baseline. On the basis of the in vivo measurement of cell-mediated immunity employed in this study, we conclude that elite athletes engaged in high-intensity training prior to competition show either no change or a moderate increase in cellular immune activation. PMID:7563287

  18. Activation of immune responses in mice by an oral administration of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) mucus.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Wako, Tadayuki

    2013-01-01

    Bunching onion [Allium fistulosum L. (Liliaceae)] secretes mucus in the cavities of its green leaves. The effects of the mucus, which is consumed as food, were examined. The mucus augmented the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 from RAW 264 cells and of interleukin (IL)-12 from J774.1 cells; however, extracts from green leaves and white sheaths did not. An oral administration of this mucus to mice augmented the immune functions of peritoneal cells by increasing TNF-α and IL-12 production and phagocytosis. It also augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production from spleen cells and natural killer (NK) activity. These results suggest that an oral administration of the A. fistulosum mucus can enhance natural immunity. PMID:24018671

  19. Transcriptional activation of c3 and hsp70 as part of the immune response of Acropora millepora to bacterial challenges.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya; Bourne, David; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The impact of disease outbreaks on coral physiology represents an increasing concern for the fitness and resilience of reef ecosystems. Predicting the tolerance of corals to disease relies on an understanding of the coral immune response to pathogenic interactions. This study explored the transcriptional response of two putative immune genes (c3 and c-type lectin) and one stress response gene (hsp70) in the reef building coral, Acropora millepora challenged for 48 hours with bacterial strains, Vibrio coralliilyticus and Alteromonas sp. at concentrations of 10(6) cells ml(-1). Coral fragments challenged with V. coralliilyticus appeared healthy while fragments challenged with Alteromonas sp. showed signs of tissue lesions after 48 hr. Coral-associated bacterial community profiles assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis changed after challenge by both bacterial strains with the Alteromonas sp. treatment demonstrating the greatest community shift. Transcriptional profiles of c3 and hsp70 increased at 24 hours and correlated with disease signs in the Alteromonas sp. treatment. The expression of hsp70 also showed a significant increase in V. coralliilyticus inoculated corals at 24 h suggesting that even in the absence of disease signs, the microbial inoculum activated a stress response in the coral. C-type lectin did not show a response to any of the bacterial treatments. Increase in gene expression of c3 and hsp70 in corals showing signs of disease indicates their potential involvement in immune and stress response to microbial challenges. PMID:23861754

  20. Transcriptional Activation of c3 and hsp70 as Part of the Immune Response of Acropora millepora to Bacterial Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tanya; Bourne, David; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The impact of disease outbreaks on coral physiology represents an increasing concern for the fitness and resilience of reef ecosystems. Predicting the tolerance of corals to disease relies on an understanding of the coral immune response to pathogenic interactions. This study explored the transcriptional response of two putative immune genes (c3 and c-type lectin) and one stress response gene (hsp70) in the reef building coral, Acropora millepora challenged for 48 hours with bacterial strains, Vibrio coralliilyticus and Alteromonas sp. at concentrations of 106 cells ml-1. Coral fragments challenged with V. coralliilyticus appeared healthy while fragments challenged with Alteromonas sp. showed signs of tissue lesions after 48 hr. Coral-associated bacterial community profiles assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis changed after challenge by both bacterial strains with the Alteromonas sp. treatment demonstrating the greatest community shift. Transcriptional profiles of c3 and hsp70 increased at 24 hours and correlated with disease signs in the Alteromonas sp. treatment. The expression of hsp70 also showed a significant increase in V. coralliilyticus inoculated corals at 24 h suggesting that even in the absence of disease signs, the microbial inoculum activated a stress response in the coral. C-type lectin did not show a response to any of the bacterial treatments. Increase in gene expression of c3 and hsp70 in corals showing signs of disease indicates their potential involvement in immune and stress response to microbial challenges. PMID:23861754

  1. Immune Suppression and Immune Activation in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Joshua; Douglas, Steven D.; Evans, Dwight L.

    2010-01-01

    Depression has been characterized as a disorder of both immune suppression and immune activation. Markers of impaired cellular immunity (decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity) and inflammation (elevated IL-6, TNFα, CRP) have been associated with depression. These immunological markers have been associated with other medical illnesses, suggesting that immune dysregulation may be a central feature common to both depression and to its frequent medical comorbidities. Yet the significant associations of findings of both immune suppression and immune activation with depression raise questions concerning the relationship between these two classes of immunological observations. Depressed populations are heterogeneous groups, and there may be differences in the immune profiles of populations that are more narrowly defined in terms of symptom profile and/or demographic features. There have been few reports concurrently investigating markers of immune suppression and immune activation in the same depressed individuals. An emerging preclinical literature suggests that chronic inflammation may directly contribute to the pathophysiology of immune suppression in the context of illnesses such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. This literature provides us with specific immunoregulatory mechanisms mediating these relationships that could also explain differences in immune disturbances between subsets of depressed individuals We propose a research agenda emphasizing the assessment of these immunoregulatory mechanisms in large samples of depressed subjects as a means to define the relationships among immune findings (suppression and/or activation) within the same depressed individuals and to characterize subsets of depressed subjects based on shared immune profiles. Such a program of research, building on and integrating our knowledge of the psychoneuroimmunology of depression, could lead to innovation in the assessment and treatment of depression and its medical comorbidities

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 1beta modulates host innate immune response by antagonizing IRF3 activation.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Kwon, Byungjoon; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Jones, Clinton; Pattnaik, Asit K; Osorio, Fernando A

    2010-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection of swine leads to a serious disease characterized by a delayed and defective adaptive immune response. It is hypothesized that a suboptimal innate immune response is responsible for the disease pathogenesis. In the study presented here we tested this hypothesis and identified several nonstructural proteins (NSPs) with innate immune evasion properties encoded by the PRRS viral genome. Four of the total ten PRRSV NSPs tested were found to have strong to moderate inhibitory effects on beta interferon (IFN-beta) promoter activation. The strongest inhibitory effect was exhibited by NSP1 followed by, NSP2, NSP11, and NSP4. We focused on NSP1alpha and NSP1beta (self-cleavage products of NSP1 during virus infection) and NSP11, three NSPs with strong inhibitory activity. All of three proteins, when expressed stably in cell lines, strongly inhibited double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) signaling pathways. NSP1beta was found to inhibit both IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)- and NF-kappaB-dependent gene induction by dsRNA and Sendai virus. Mechanistically, the dsRNA-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 were strongly inhibited by NSP1beta. Moreover, when tested in a porcine myelomonocytic cell line, NSP1beta inhibited Sendai virus-mediated activation of porcine IFN-beta promoter activity. We propose that this NSP1beta-mediated subversion of the host innate immune response plays an important role in PRRSV pathogenesis. PMID:19923190

  3. Ischemia/reperfusion activates myocardial innate immune response: the key role of the toll-like receptor

    PubMed Central

    Vilahur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Recent data have indicated that the myocardium may act as an immune organ initiating cardiac innate immune response and inflammation. It has been suggested that activation of the immune system occurs upon the interaction of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated and released during ischemic damage with pattern recognition receptors (Toll like receptors; TLR) present in cardiac cells. Among TLRs, TLR4, and TLR2 are the ones mostly expressed in cardiac tissue. Whereas TLR4 has shown to play a detrimental role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the effect elicited by TLR2 activation remains controversial. Once activated, TLR signaling may occur via the Myd88- and Trif- dependent pathways leading to NFκB and IFN-3 activation, respectively, and subsequent stimulation of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine gene expression. Cytokine release contributes to neutrophils activation, recruitment, adhesion and infiltration to the site of cardiac injury further perpetuating the inflammatory process. This mini-review will focus on the current knowledge regarding the role of the heart in inducing and coordinating the innate inflammatory response via the TLR signaling pathway in myocardial I/R injury. PMID:25566092

  4. IFNG-mediated immune responses enhance autophagy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in patients with active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rovetta, Ana I; Peña, Delfina; Hernández Del Pino, Rodrigo E; Recalde, Gabriela M; Pellegrini, Joaquín; Bigi, Fabiana; Musella, Rosa M; Palmero, Domingo J; Gutierrez, Marisa; Colombo, María I; García, Verónica E

    2015-01-01

    Protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires IFNG. Besides, IFNG-mediated induction of autophagy suppresses survival of virulent Mtb in macrophage cell lines. We investigated the contribution of autophagy to the defense against Mtb antigen (Mtb-Ag) in cells from tuberculosis patients and healthy donors (HD). Patients were classified as high responders (HR) if their T cells produced significant IFNG against Mtb-Ag; and low responders (LR) when patients showed weak or no T cell responses to Mtb-Ag. The highest autophagy levels were detected in HD cells whereas the lowest quantities were observed in LR patients. Interestingly, upon Mtb-Ag stimulation, we detected a positive correlation between IFNG and MAP1LC3B-II/LC3-II levels. Actually, blockage of Mtb-Ag-induced IFNG markedly reduced autophagy in HR patients whereas addition of limited amounts of IFNG significantly increased autophagy in LR patients. Therefore, autophagy collaborates with human immune responses against Mtb in close association with specific IFNG secreted against the pathogen. PMID:25426782

  5. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    PubMed

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. PMID:24631200

  6. Aberrant Activation of p38 MAP Kinase-Dependent Innate Immune Responses Is Toxic to Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cheesman, Hilary K.; Feinbaum, Rhonda L.; Thekkiniath, Jose; Dowen, Robert H.; Conery, Annie L.; Pukkila-Worley, Read

    2016-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of innate immune responses in intestinal epithelial cells underlies the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders of the intestine. Here we examine the physiological effects of immune hyperactivation in the intestine of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We previously identified an immunostimulatory xenobiotic that protects C. elegans from bacterial infection by inducing immune effector expression via the conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway, but was toxic to nematodes developing in the absence of pathogen. To investigate a possible connection between the toxicity and immunostimulatory properties of this xenobiotic, we conducted a forward genetic screen for C. elegans mutants that are resistant to the deleterious effects of the compound, and identified five toxicity suppressors. These strains contained hypomorphic mutations in each of the known components of the p38 MAP kinase cassette (tir-1, nsy-1, sek-1, and pmk-1), demonstrating that hyperstimulation of the p38 MAPK pathway is toxic to animals. To explore mechanisms of immune pathway regulation in C. elegans, we conducted another genetic screen for dominant activators of the p38 MAPK pathway, and identified a single allele that had a gain-of-function (gf) mutation in nsy-1, the MAP kinase kinase kinase that acts upstream of p38 MAPK pmk-1. The nsy-1(gf) allele caused hyperinduction of p38 MAPK PMK-1-dependent immune effectors, had greater levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, and was more resistant to killing by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to wild-type controls. In addition, the nsy-1(gf) mutation was toxic to developing animals. Together, these data suggest that the activity of the MAPKKK NSY-1 is tightly regulated as part of a physiological mechanism to control p38 MAPK-mediated innate immune hyperactivation, and ensure cellular homeostasis in C. elegans. PMID:26818074

  7. Aberrant Activation of p38 MAP Kinase-Dependent Innate Immune Responses Is Toxic to Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Cheesman, Hilary K; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; Thekkiniath, Jose; Dowen, Robert H; Conery, Annie L; Pukkila-Worley, Read

    2016-03-01

    Inappropriate activation of innate immune responses in intestinal epithelial cells underlies the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders of the intestine. Here we examine the physiological effects of immune hyperactivation in the intestine of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We previously identified an immunostimulatory xenobiotic that protects C. elegans from bacterial infection by inducing immune effector expression via the conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway, but was toxic to nematodes developing in the absence of pathogen. To investigate a possible connection between the toxicity and immunostimulatory properties of this xenobiotic, we conducted a forward genetic screen for C. elegans mutants that are resistant to the deleterious effects of the compound, and identified five toxicity suppressors. These strains contained hypomorphic mutations in each of the known components of the p38 MAP kinase cassette (tir-1, nsy-1, sek-1, and pmk-1), demonstrating that hyperstimulation of the p38 MAPK pathway is toxic to animals. To explore mechanisms of immune pathway regulation in C. elegans, we conducted another genetic screen for dominant activators of the p38 MAPK pathway, and identified a single allele that had a gain-of-function (gf) mutation in nsy-1, the MAP kinase kinase kinase that acts upstream of p38 MAPK pmk-1. The nsy-1(gf) allele caused hyperinduction of p38 MAPK PMK-1-dependent immune effectors, had greater levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, and was more resistant to killing by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to wild-type controls. In addition, the nsy-1(gf) mutation was toxic to developing animals. Together, these data suggest that the activity of the MAPKKK NSY-1 is tightly regulated as part of a physiological mechanism to control p38 MAPK-mediated innate immune hyperactivation, and ensure cellular homeostasis in C. elegans. PMID:26818074

  8. Innate Immune Activation in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system is a prewired set of cellular and humoral components that has developed to sense perturbations in normal physiology and trigger responses to restore the system back to baseline. It is now understood that many of these components can also sense the physiologic changes that occur with obesity and be activated. While the exact reasons for this chronic immune response to obesity are unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest that innate inflammatory systems link obesity and disease. Based on this, anti-inflammatory therapies for diseases like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome may form the core of future treatment plans. This review will highlight the components involved in the innate immune response and discuss the evidence that they contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases. PMID:23068074

  9. Antitumor activity and immune response induction of a dual agonist of Toll-like receptors 7 and 8.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daqing; Precopio, Melissa; Lan, Tao; Yu, Dong; Tang, Jimmy X; Kandimalla, Ekambar R; Agrawal, Sudhir

    2010-06-01

    Viral and synthetic single-stranded RNAs are the ligands for Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 (TLR7 and TLR8). We have reported a novel class of synthetic oligoribonucleotides, referred to as stabilized immune-modulatory RNA compounds, which act as agonists of TLR7, TLR8, or both TLR7 and TLR8 depending on the sequence composition and the presence of specific chemical modifications. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of a dual TLR7/8 agonist in tumor-bearing mice with peritoneal disseminated CT26.CL25 colon and 3LL-C75 lung carcinomas. Peritoneal administration of dual TLR7/8 agonist in mice bearing CT26.CL25 colon carcinomas had potent dose-dependent antitumor activity, which was associated with a marked decrease in CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells and a significant increase in tumor antigen-specific IFN-gamma-secreting effector cell responses in splenocytes and local tumor-infiltrating cells. In 3LL-C75 lung carcinoma, dual TLR7/8 agonist induced strong immune responses and antitumor effects in C57BL/6 and TLR9(-/-) mice, but not in TLR7(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice, indicating that the agonist induces immune responses via TLR7 and through the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. TLR8 is not functional in mice. Additionally, s.c. administration of TLR7/8 agonist effectively prevented lung metastasis of tumors in the CT26.CL25 pulmonary metastasis model. These studies show that the dual TLR7/8 agonist induced Th1-type immune responses and potent antitumor activity in mice via TLR7 and through the MyD88-dependent pathway. PMID:20515950

  10. Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bhasker, T Vijay; Gowda, N K S; Mondal, S; Krishnamoorthy, P; Pal, D T; Mor, A; Bhat, S Karthik; Pattanaik, A K

    2016-07-01

    The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (P<0.01) the footpad thickness and serum total antioxidant activity, hepatic expression levels of both Cu-Zn SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) mRNAs. The erythrocytic SOD activity and humoral response did not differ significantly among the dietary groups. In Ca restricted groups, humoral immune response was significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared to control but increased (P<0.05) with 40ppm B supplementation. Serum levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status. PMID:27259355

  11. Attenuated Rabies Virus Activates, while Pathogenic Rabies Virus Evades, the Host Innate Immune Responses in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi W.; Sarmento, Luciana; Wang, Yuhuan; Li, Xia-qing; Dhingra, Vikas; Tseggai, Tesfai; Jiang, Baoming; Fu, Zhen F.

    2005-01-01

    Rabies virus (RV) induces encephalomyelitis in humans and animals. However, the pathogenic mechanism of rabies is not fully understood. To investigate the host responses to RV infection, we examined and compared the pathology, particularly the inflammatory responses, and the gene expression profiles in the brains of mice infected with wild-type (wt) virus silver-haired bat RV (SHBRV) or laboratory-adapted virus B2C, using a mouse genomic array (Affymetrix). Extensive inflammatory responses were observed in animals infected with the attenuated RV, but little or no inflammatory responses were found in mice infected with wt RV. Furthermore, attenuated RV induced the expression of the genes involved in the innate immune and antiviral responses, especially those related to the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) signaling pathways and inflammatory chemokines. For the IFN-α/β signaling pathways, many of the interferon regulatory genes, such as the signal transduction activation transducers and interferon regulatory factors, as well as the effector genes, for example, 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase and myxovirus proteins, are highly induced in mice infected with attenuated RV. However, many of these genes were not up-regulated in mice infected with wt SHBRV. The data obtained by microarray analysis were confirmed by real-time PCR. Together, these data suggest that attenuated RV activates, while pathogenic RV evades, the host innate immune and antiviral responses. PMID:16160183

  12. Initiation of HAART during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection rapidly controls virus replication in the CNS by enhancing immune activity and preserving protective immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David R.; Gama, Lucio; Queen, Suzanne E.; Li, Ming; Brice, Angela K.; Kelly, Kathleen M.; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Clements, Janice E.

    2012-01-01

    The CNS remains vulnerable to HIV-induced damage despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a rigorous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model of HAART that combines three classes of antiretroviral drugs (a protease inhibitor, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and an integrase inhibitor), we examined immune responses and virus replication in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following HAART initiation during acute infection (4 days postinoculation (p. i.)). HAART-treated macaques did not experience the level of acute CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and NK cell count suppression in the peripheral blood normally observed during acute infection. Initiation of HAART produced a rapid four-log decline in viral load in plasma and a slower two-log decline of viral RNA in the CSF over the subsequent 17 days of infection. Despite a dramatic reduction of viral RNA levels in the brain at 21 days p.i., viral DNA levels were not different between the two groups. Expression of most cytokine mRNA in brain of HAART-treated macaques did not significantly differ from untreated controls. Expression of the IFN responsive gene MxA was significantly reduced in the brain of HAART-treated macaques, suggesting control of hyperactive immune responses. Control of virus replication likely was enhanced by significant increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell trafficking in the brain of infected animals on HAART therapy and the concomitant increase in levels of IFNγ. Collectively, these data indicate preserved innate and adaptive immune activity in the brain following HAART initiation during acute SIV infection in this macaque model, suggesting profound benefits following acute treatment of SIV. PMID:21165785

  13. Immune response to bacteria induces dissemination of Ras-activated Drosophila hindgut cells

    PubMed Central

    Bangi, Erdem; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Rahme, Laurence G; Cagan, Ross; Apidianakis, Yiorgos

    2012-01-01

    Although pathogenic bacteria are suspected contributors to colorectal cancer progression, cancer-promoting bacteria and their mode of action remain largely unknown. Here we report that sustained infection with the human intestinal colonizer Pseudomonas aeruginosa synergizes with the Ras1V12 oncogene to induce basal invasion and dissemination of hindgut cells to distant sites. Cross-talk between infection and dissemination requires sustained activation by the bacteria of the Imd–dTab2–dTak1 innate immune pathway, which converges with Ras1V12 signalling on JNK pathway activation, culminating in extracellular matrix degradation. Hindgut, but not midgut, cells are amenable to this cooperative dissemination, which is progressive and genetically and pharmacologically inhibitable. Thus, Drosophila hindgut provides a valuable system for the study of intestinal malignancies. PMID:22498775

  14. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  15. Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with concomitant induction of cellular immune responses by a tetraaza-macrocycle with acetate pendant arms.

    PubMed

    David, S; Ordway, D; Arroz, M J; Costa, J; Delgado, R

    2001-01-01

    The novel tetraaza-macrocyclic compound 3,7,11-tris(carboxymethyl)-3,7,11,17-tetraaza-bicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),13,15-triene, abbreviated as ac3py14, was investigated for its activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for induction of protective cellular immune responses. Perspective results show that ac3py14 and its Fe3+ 1:1 complex, [Fe(ac3py14)], inhibited radiometric growth of several strains of M. tuberculosis. Inhibition with 25 microg/mL varied from 99% for H37Rv to 80% and above for multiple drug-resistant clinical isolates. The capacity of ac3py14 to elicit a beneficial immune response without cellular apoptosis was assessed and compared to the effects of virulent M. tuberculosis. The present study produces evidence that after stimulation with ac3py14 there was significant production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas the production of interleukin-5 (IL-5) remained low, and there was development of a memory population (CD45RO). The level of binding of Annexin V, a marker of apoptosis, was not sufficient to result in toxic effects toward alphabeta and gammadelta T cells and CD14+ macrophages. This preliminary study is the first report of a compound that simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect against M. tuberculosis and induces factors associated with protective immune responses. PMID:11501675

  16. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) Activity During the Primary Immune Response to Influenza Infection Modifies the Memory T Cell Response to Influenza Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Leo K.; Fox, Julie M.; Mellor, Andrew L.; Tompkins, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The generation of a heterosubtypic memory T cell response is important for cross-protective immunity against unrelated strains of influenza virus. One way to facilitate the generation of the memory T cell population is to control the activity of immune modulatory agents. The enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is upregulated during influenza infection by the interferon response where IDO activity depletes tryptophan required in T cell response. In this study, IDO activity was pharmacologically inhibited with 1-methyl-tryptophan (1MT) during the primary response to influenza virus infection and the effect on the memory T cell response was evaluated. 1MT treatment improved the memory T cell response to influenza virus challenge by increasing interferon gamma expression by CD4 and CD8 T cells, and numbers of lung virus-specific CD8+ T cells, and increased the Th1 response as well as modifying the immunodominance hierarchy to increase the number of subdominant epitope specific CD8+ T cells, a feature which may be linked to decreased regulatory T cell function. These changes also accompanied evidence of accelerated lung tissue repair upon virus challenge. These findings suggest that modulation of IDO activity could be exploited in influenza vaccine development to enhance memory T cell responses and reduce disease burden. PMID:24702331

  17. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  18. Active suppression of D. melanogaster immune response by long gland products of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina boulardi.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, C; Carton, Y; Dubuffet, A; Drezen, J M; Poirie, M

    2003-05-01

    To develop inside their insect hosts, endoparasitoid wasps must either evade or overcome the host's immune system. Several ichneumonid and braconid wasps inject polydnaviruses that display well-studied immune suppressive effects. However, little is known about the strategies of immunoevasion used by other parasitoid families, such as figitid wasps. The present study provides experimental evidence, based on superparasitism and injection experiments, that the figitid species Leptopilina boulardi uses an active mechanism to suppress the Drosophila melanogaster host immune response, i.e. the encapsulation of the parasitoid eggs. The immune suppressive factors are localised in the long gland and reservoir of the female genital tractus, where virus-like particles (VLPs) have been observed. Parasitism experiments using a host tumorous strain indicate that these factors do not destroy host lamellocytes but that they impair the melanisation pathway. Interestingly, they are not susceptible to heating and are not depleted with prolonged oviposition experience, in contrast to observations reported for L. heterotoma, another figitid species. The mechanisms that prevent encapsulation of eggs from L. boulardi and L. heterotoma differ in several respects, suggesting that different physiological strategies of immunosuppression might be used by specialised and generalist parasitoids. PMID:12770630

  19. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis MmsA, a novel immunostimulatory antigen, induces dendritic cell activation and promotes Th1 cell-type immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Woo Sik; Choi, Hong-Hee; Kim, Hong Min; Kwon, Kee Woong; Han, Seung Jung; Cha, Seung Bin; Cho, Sang-Nae; Koh, Won-Jung; Shin, Sung Jae

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an outstanding pathogen that modulates the host immune response. This inconvenient truth drives the continual identification of antigens that generate protective immunity, including Th1-type T cell immunity. Here, the contribution of methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MmsA, Rv0753c) of Mtb to immune responses was examined in the context of dendritic cell (DC) activation and T cell immunity both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that MmsA induced DC activation by activating the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Additionally, MmsA-treated DCs activated naïve T cells, effectively polarized CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to secrete IFN-γ and IL-2, and induced T cell proliferation. These results indicate that MmsA is a novel DC maturation-inducing antigen that drives the Th1 immune response. Thus, MmsA was found to potentially regulate immune responses via DC activation toward Th1-type T cell immunity, enhancing our understanding of Mtb pathogenesis. PMID:26507911

  1. Immunological signaling networks: Integrating the body's immune response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune system’s role is to eliminate disease from the host. Immune cells are primarily responsible for eliminating pathogens or cancerous cells. In addition, immune cells regulate the immune response affecting the types of cells that are activated or suppressed. The following discussion is an...

  2. Toll-like receptor activation of XBP1 regulates innate immune responses in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Martinon, Fabio; Chen, Xi; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    2011-01-01

    Sensors of pathogens, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), detect microbes to activate transcriptional programs that orchestrate adaptive responses to specific insults. Here we report that TLR4 and TLR2 specifically activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress sensor kinase IRE1α and its downstream target, the transcription factor XBP1. Previously described XBP1 ER stress target genes were not induced by TLR signaling. Instead, TLR-activated XBP1 was required for optimal and sustained production of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Consistent with this finding, IRE1α activation by ER-stress synergized with TLR activation for cytokine production. Moreover, XBP1 deficiency markedly increased bacterial burden in animals infected with the TLR2-activating human pathogen Francisella tularensis. Our findings uncover an unsuspected critical new function for the XBP1 transcription factor in mammalian host defenses. PMID:20351694

  3. Innate Immune Responses Activated in Arabidopsis Roots by Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Danna, Cristian H.; Clay, Nicole K.; Songnuan, Wisuwat; Simon, Matthew D.; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that roots are the organs most subject to microbial interactions, very little is known about the response of roots to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). By monitoring transcriptional activation of β-glucuronidase reporters and MAMP-elicited callose deposition, we show that three MAMPs, the flagellar peptide Flg22, peptidoglycan, and chitin, trigger a strong tissue-specific response in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, either at the elongation zone for Flg22 and peptidoglycan or in the mature parts of the roots for chitin. Ethylene signaling, the 4-methoxy-indole-3-ylmethylglucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, and the PEN2 myrosinase, but not salicylic acid or jasmonic acid signaling, play major roles in this MAMP response. We also show that Flg22 induces the cytochrome P450 CYP71A12-dependent exudation of the phytoalexin camalexin by Arabidopsis roots. The phytotoxin coronatine, an Ile-jasmonic acid mimic produced by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, suppresses MAMP-activated responses in the roots. This suppression requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase COI1 as well as the transcription factor JIN1/MYC2 but does not rely on salicylic acid–jasmonic acid antagonism. These experiments demonstrate the presence of highly orchestrated and tissue-specific MAMP responses in roots and potential pathogen-encoded mechanisms to block these MAMP-elicited signaling pathways. PMID:20348432

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Differentially Activates cGAS- and Inflammasome-Dependent Intracellular Immune Responses through ESX-1.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Ruth; Gulen, Muhammet F; Sala, Claudia; Perin, Sonia Garcia; Lou, Ye; Rybniker, Jan; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Schmidt, Tobias; Hornung, Veit; Cole, Stewart T; Ablasser, Andrea

    2015-06-10

    Cytosolic detection of microbial products is essential for the initiation of an innate immune response against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). During Mtb infection of macrophages, activation of cytosolic surveillance pathways is dependent on the mycobacterial ESX-1 secretion system and leads to type I interferon (IFN) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Whereas the inflammasome regulates IL-1β secretion, the receptor(s) responsible for the activation of type I IFNs has remained elusive. We demonstrate that the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is essential for initiating an IFN response to Mtb infection. cGAS associates with Mtb DNA in the cytosol to stimulate cyclic GAMP (cGAMP) synthesis. Notably, activation of cGAS-dependent cytosolic host responses can be uncoupled from inflammasome activation by modulating the secretion of ESX-1 substrates. Our findings identify cGAS as an innate sensor of Mtb and provide insight into how ESX-1 controls the activation of specific intracellular recognition pathways. PMID:26048138

  5. Pyruvate Carboxylase Activates the RIG-I-like Receptor-Mediated Antiviral Immune Response by Targeting the MAVS signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongying; Zhou, Yaqin; Zhu, Shengli; Feng, Jian; Chen, Xueyuan; Liu, Shi; Peng, Nanfang; Yang, Xiaodan; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    When retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 protein (RIG-I)-like receptors sense viral dsRNA in the cytosol, RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are recruited to the mitochondria to interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and initiate antiviral immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that the biotin-containing enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) plays an essential role in the virus-triggered activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling mediated by MAVS. PC contributes to the enhanced production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PC knockdown inhibits the virus-triggered innate immune response. In addition, PC shows extensive antiviral activity against RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV), human enterovirus 71 (EV71), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Furthermore, PC mediates antiviral action by targeting the MAVS signalosome and induces IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines by promoting phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor-α (IκBα) and the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation, which leads to activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1). Our findings suggest that PC is an important player in host antiviral signaling. PMID:26906558

  6. Pyruvate Carboxylase Activates the RIG-I-like Receptor-Mediated Antiviral Immune Response by Targeting the MAVS signalosome.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhongying; Zhou, Yaqin; Zhu, Shengli; Feng, Jian; Chen, Xueyuan; Liu, Shi; Peng, Nanfang; Yang, Xiaodan; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    When retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 protein (RIG-I)-like receptors sense viral dsRNA in the cytosol, RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are recruited to the mitochondria to interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and initiate antiviral immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that the biotin-containing enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) plays an essential role in the virus-triggered activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling mediated by MAVS. PC contributes to the enhanced production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PC knockdown inhibits the virus-triggered innate immune response. In addition, PC shows extensive antiviral activity against RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV), human enterovirus 71 (EV71), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Furthermore, PC mediates antiviral action by targeting the MAVS signalosome and induces IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines by promoting phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor-α (IκBα) and the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation, which leads to activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1). Our findings suggest that PC is an important player in host antiviral signaling. PMID:26906558

  7. THE INITIAL PHASE OF AN IMMUNE RESPONSE FUNCTIONS TO ACTIVATE REGULATORY T CELLS

    PubMed Central

    O’Gorman, William E.; Dooms, Hans; Thorne, Steve H.; Kuswanto, Wilson F.; Simonds, Erin F.; Krutzik, Peter O.; Nolan, Garry P.; Abbas, Abul K.

    2009-01-01

    An early reaction of CD4+ T lymphocytes to antigen is the production of cytokines, notably IL-2. In order to detect cytokine dependent responses, naive antigen-specific T cells were stimulated in vivo and the presence of phosphorylated STAT5 molecules was used to identify the cell populations responding to IL-2. Within hours of T-cell priming, IL-2-dependent STAT5 phosphorylation occurred primarily in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. In contrast, the antigen-specific T cells received STAT5 signals only after repeated antigen exposure or memory differentiation. Regulatory T cells receiving IL-2 signals proliferated and developed enhanced suppressive activity. These results indicate that one of the earliest events in a T cell response is the activation of endogenous regulatory cells, potentially to prevent autoimmunity. PMID:19542444

  8. MAVS Forms Functional Prion-Like Aggregates To Activate and Propagate Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fajian; Sun, Lijun; Zheng, Hui; Skaug, Brian; Jiang, Qiu-Xing; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY In response to viral infection, RIG-I–like RNA helicases bind to viral RNA and activate the mitochondrial protein MAVS, which in turn activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB to induce type-I interferons. We have previously shown that RIG-I binds to unanchored lysine-63 (K63) polyubiquitin chains and that this binding is important for MAVS activation; however, the mechanism underlying MAVS activation is not understood. Here we show that viral infection induces the formation of very large MAVS aggregates, which potently activate IRF3 in the cytosol. We find that a fraction of recombinant MAVS protein forms fibrils capable of activating IRF3. Remarkably, the MAVS fibrils behave like prions and effectively convert endogenous MAVS into functional aggregates. We also show that, in the presence of K63 ubiquitin chains, RIG-I catalyzes the conversion of MAVS on the mitochondrial membrane to prion-like aggregates. These results suggest that a prion-like conformational switch of MAVS activates and propagates the antiviral signaling cascade. PMID:21782231

  9. Low Thymic Activity and Dendritic Cell Numbers Are Associated with the Immune Response to Primary Viral Infection in Elderly Humans.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Axel Ronald; Mälzer, Julia Nora; Domingo, Cristina; Jürchott, Karsten; Grützkau, Andreas; Babel, Nina; Nienen, Mikalai; Jelinek, Tomas; Niedrig, Matthias; Thiel, Andreas

    2015-11-15

    Immunological competence declines progressively with age, resulting in increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection and impaired responses to vaccines. Underlying mechanisms remain largely obscure as they have been related to complex, individual systemic immune properties that are challenging to investigate. In this study, we explored age-related changes in human immunity during a primary virus infection experimentally induced by immunization with live-attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine. Applying detailed serology, advanced FACS analysis, and systems biology, we discovered that aged subjects developed fewer neutralizing Abs, mounted diminished YF-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, and showed quantitatively and qualitatively altered YF-specific CD4(+) T cell immunity. Among numerous immune signatures, low in vivo numbers of naive CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants and peripheral dendritic cells correlated well with reduced acute responsiveness and altered long-term persistence of human cellular immunity to YF vaccination. Hence, we reveal in this article that essential elements of immune responses such as recent thymic emigrants and dendritic cells strongly relate to productive immunity in the elderly, providing a conceivable explanation for diminished responsiveness to vaccination with neoantigens and infection with de novo pathogens in the aged population. PMID:26459351

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals dysregulation of innate immune response genes and neuronal activity-dependent genes in autism

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Simone; Ellis, Shannon E.; Ashar, Foram N.; Moes, Anna; Bader, Joel S.; Zhan, Jianan; West, Andrew B.; Arking, Dan E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of genomic variation associated with autism have suggested the existence of extreme heterogeneity. Large-scale transcriptomics should complement these results to identify core molecular pathways underlying autism. Here we report results from a large-scale RNA sequencing effort, utilizing region-matched autism and control brains to identify neuronal and microglial genes robustly dysregulated in autism cortical brain. Remarkably, we note that a gene expression module corresponding to M2-activation states in microglia is negatively correlated with a differentially expressed neuronal module, implicating dysregulated microglial responses in concert with altered neuronal activity-dependent genes in autism brains. These observations provide pathways and candidate genes that highlight the interplay between innate immunity and neuronal activity in the aetiology of autism. PMID:25494366

  11. Overview of the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, David D.

    2010-01-01

    The immune system has evolved to protect the host from a universe of pathogenic microbes that are themselves constantly evolving. The immune system also helps the host eliminate toxic or allergenic substances that enter through mucosal surfaces. Central to the immune system’s ability to mobilize a response to an invading pathogen, toxin or allergen is its ability to distinguish self from non-self. The host uses both innate and adaptive mechanisms to detect and eliminate pathogenic microbes. Both of these mechanisms include self-nonself discrimination. This overview identifies key mechanisms used by the immune system to respond to invading microbes and other exogenous threats and identifies settings in which disturbed immune function exacerbates tissue injury. PMID:20176265

  12. Physiology of the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Denburg, J. A.; Bienenstock, J.

    1979-01-01

    The established mechanisms of immune responsiveness to foreign or self components are reviewed, with particular reference to relevant clinical problems and current research. A multitiered immunological system of cellular and subcellular elements are involved when the body deals with perturbations from without or within. The concept exists that a delicate balance between positive ('helper') and negative ('suppressor') forces is essential to maintaining health. Brief discussion is given to diagnosis of immune abnormalities in the light of these facts. PMID:21297689

  13. Murine macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and immune activation in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common cause of bacterial seafood-related illness in the United States. Currently, there is a dearth of literature regarding immunity to infection with this pathogen. Here we studied V. parahaemolyticus-infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophage detecting both pro- and...

  14. Mycobacterium avium serovars 2 and 8 infections elicit unique activation of the host macrophage immune responses.

    PubMed

    Cebula, B R; Rocco, J M; Maslow, J N; Irani, V R

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium is an opportunistic pathogen whose pathogenesis is attributed to its serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid (ssGPL), which varies among its 31 serovars. To determine if the presence and type of ssGPLs contribute to M. avium pathogenesis, we infected murine macrophages (mφs) with two M. avium wild type (wt) serovars (2 and 8) and their serovar-null strains. We examined the influence of ssGPL (presence and type) on cytokine production in non-activated (-IFN-γ) and activated (+IFN-γ) mφs, and the bacterial intra-mφ survival over a 6-day infection process. Serovar-2 infections activated TNF-α production that increased over the 6 day period and was capable of controlling the intra-mφ serovar-2 null strain. In contrast, the serovar-8 infection stimulated a strong pro-inflammatory response, but was incapable of removing the invading pathogen, maybe through IL-10 production. It was clear that the intracellular growth of serovar-null in contrast to the wt M. avium strains was easily controlled. Based on our findings and the undisputed fact that M. avium ssGPL is key to its pathogenesis, we conclude that it is not appropriate to dissect the pathogenesis of one M. avium serovar and apply those findings to other serovars. PMID:22991047

  15. Innate immune activation in intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Oliver J; Maloy, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Loss of intestinal immune regulation leading to aberrant immune responses to the commensal microbiota are believed to precipitate the chronic inflammation observed in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Innate immune receptors that recognize conserved components derived from the microbiota are widely expressed by both epithelial cells and leucocytes of the gastrointestinal tract and play a key role in host protection from infectious pathogens; yet precisely how pathogenic and commensal microbes are distinguished is not understood. Furthermore, aberrant innate immune activation may also drive intestinal pathology, as patients with IBD exhibit extensive infiltration of innate immune cells to the inflamed intestine, and polymorphisms in many innate immunity genes influence susceptibility to IBD. Thus, a balanced interaction between the microbiota and innate immune activation is required to maintain a healthy mutualistic relationship between the microbiota and the host, which when disturbed can result in intestinal inflammation. PMID:21912101

  16. Behavioral responses to immune-system activation in an anuran (the cane toad, Bufo marinus): field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, D; Brown, G P; Thompson, M B; Shine, R

    2011-01-01

    The challenges posed by parasites and pathogens evoke behavioral as well as physiological responses. Such behavioral responses are poorly understood for most ectothermic species, including anuran amphibians. We quantified effects of simulated infection (via injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) on feeding, activity, and thermoregulation of cane toads Bufo marinus within their invasive range in tropical Australia. LPS injection reduced feeding rates in laboratory trials. For toads in outdoor enclosures, LPS injection reduced activity and shifted body temperature profiles. Although previous research has attributed such thermal shifts to behavioral fever (elevated body temperatures may help fight infection), our laboratory studies suggest instead that LPS-injected toads stopped moving. In a thermal gradient, LPS-injected toads thus stayed close to whichever end of the gradient (hot or cold) they were first introduced; the introduction site (rather than behavioral thermoregulation) thus determined body temperature regimes. Shifts in thermal profiles of LPS-injected toads in outdoor enclosures also were a secondary consequence of inactivity. Thus, the primary behavioral effects of an immune response in cane toads are reduced rates of activity and feeding. Thermoregulatory modifications also occur but only as a secondary consequence of inactivity. PMID:21128787

  17. Cre-dependent DNA recombination activates a STING-dependent innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, Geneviève; Ferrand, Jonathan; Höning, Klara; Jayasekara, W. Samantha N.; Cain, Jason E.; Behlke, Mark A.; Gough, Daniel J.; G. Williams, Bryan R.; Hornung, Veit; Gantier, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Gene-recombinase technologies, such as Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination, are important tools in the study of gene function, but have potential side effects due to damaging activity on DNA. Here we show that DNA recombination by Cre instigates a robust antiviral response in mammalian cells, independent of legitimate loxP recombination. This is due to the recruitment of the cytosolic DNA sensor STING, concurrent with Cre-dependent DNA damage and the accumulation of cytoplasmic DNA. Importantly, we establish a direct interplay between this antiviral response and cell–cell interactions, indicating that low cell densities in vitro could be useful to help mitigate these effects of Cre. Taking into account the wide range of interferon stimulated genes that may be induced by the STING pathway, these results have broad implications in fields such as immunology, cancer biology, metabolism and stem cell research. Further, this study sets a precedent in the field of gene-engineering, possibly applicable to other enzymatic-based genome editing technologies. PMID:27166376

  18. Cre-dependent DNA recombination activates a STING-dependent innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Pépin, Geneviève; Ferrand, Jonathan; Höning, Klara; Jayasekara, W Samantha N; Cain, Jason E; Behlke, Mark A; Gough, Daniel J; G Williams, Bryan R; Hornung, Veit; Gantier, Michael P

    2016-06-20

    Gene-recombinase technologies, such as Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination, are important tools in the study of gene function, but have potential side effects due to damaging activity on DNA. Here we show that DNA recombination by Cre instigates a robust antiviral response in mammalian cells, independent of legitimate loxP recombination. This is due to the recruitment of the cytosolic DNA sensor STING, concurrent with Cre-dependent DNA damage and the accumulation of cytoplasmic DNA. Importantly, we establish a direct interplay between this antiviral response and cell-cell interactions, indicating that low cell densities in vitro could be useful to help mitigate these effects of Cre. Taking into account the wide range of interferon stimulated genes that may be induced by the STING pathway, these results have broad implications in fields such as immunology, cancer biology, metabolism and stem cell research. Further, this study sets a precedent in the field of gene-engineering, possibly applicable to other enzymatic-based genome editing technologies. PMID:27166376

  19. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    MedlinePlus

    ... they’ve been exposed. For example, the passive rabies immunization (rabies immune globulin) is commonly used after a certain ... of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual ...

  20. Optically Triggered Immune Response through Photocaged Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Govan, Jeane M.; Young, Douglas D.; Lively, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial and viral CpG oligonculeotides are unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine dinucleotide sequences and trigger an innate immune response through activation of the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We have developed synthetic photocaged CpGs via site-specific incorporation of nitropiperonyloxymethyl (NPOM)-caged thymidine residues. These oligonucleotides enable the optical control of TLR9 function and thereby provide light-activation of an immune response. We provide a proof-of-concept model by applying a reporter assay in live cells and by quantification of endogenous production of interleukin 6. PMID:26034339

  1. Modulating immune responses with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, T; Chin, J

    2000-02-01

    For many years, probiotic bacteria have been known to confer health benefits to the consumer. One possible mechanism for this may be the ability of probiotic bacteria to modulate immune responses. Oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) has been found to enhance innate immunity by stimulating the activity of splenic NK cells. Oral feeding with killed LcS was able to stimulate the production of Th1 cytokines, resulting in repressed production of IgE antibodies against Ovalbumin in experimental mice. The ability to switch mucosal immune responses towards Th1 with probiotic bacteria provides a strategy for treatment of allergic disorders. Growth of Meth A tumour cells in the lungs was also inhibited by intrapleural injection of LcS. Oral administration of other probiotic bacteria, such as Streptococcus thermophilus (St), Lactobacillus fermentum (Lf) and yeast (Y), elicited different immune responses. Mice that were prefed yeast or Lf followed by feeding with ovalbumin (OVA) responded better to vaccination with OVA than mice not given either probiotic or OVA or mice that had been prefed only OVA. However, antibody responses were significantly suppressed in response to vaccination with OVA in mice that had been prefed yeast followed by yeast and OVA as well as mice prefed Lf followed by Lf and OVA. Prefeeding St followed by OVA feeding enhanced cellular immune responses against ovalbumin. In contrast, mice prefed St followed by St + OVA were hyporesponsive against OVA. While antigen feeding alone appears to prime for an immune response, cofeeding antigen with probiotic bacteria can suppress both antibody and cellular immune responses and may provide an efficacious protocol to attenuate autoimmune diseases, such as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, by jointly dosing with myelin basic protein and probiotic bacteria. PMID:10651931

  2. Noninvasive imaging of immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Keliher, Edmund J.; Bilate, Angelina M.; Duarte, Joao N.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Jacobsen, Johanne Tracey; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Swee, Lee Kim; Victora, Gabriel D.; Weissleder, Ralph; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2015-01-01

    At their margins, tumors often contain neutrophils, dendritic cells, and activated macrophages, which express class II MHC and CD11b products. The interplay between stromal cells, tumor cells, and migratory cells such as lymphocytes creates opportunities for noninvasive imaging of immune responses. We developed alpaca-derived antibody fragments specific for mouse class II MHC and CD11b products, expressed on the surface of a variety of myeloid cells. We validated these reagents by flow cytometry and two-photon microscopy to obtain images at cellular resolution. To enable noninvasive imaging of the targeted cell populations, we developed a method to site-specifically label VHHs [the variable domain (VH) of a camelid heavy-chain only antibody] with 18F or 64Cu. Radiolabeled VHHs rapidly cleared the circulation (t1/2 ≈ 20 min) and clearly visualized lymphoid organs. We used VHHs to explore the possibility of imaging inflammation in both xenogeneic and syngeneic tumor models, which resulted in detection of tumors with remarkable specificity. We also imaged the infiltration of myeloid cells upon injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant. Both anti-class II MHC and anti-CD11b VHHs detected inflammation with excellent specificity. Given the ease of manufacture and labeling of VHHs, we believe that this method could transform the manner in which antitumor responses and/or infectious events may be tracked. PMID:25902531

  3. Noninvasive imaging of immune responses.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Keliher, Edmund J; Bilate, Angelina M; Duarte, Joao N; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Jacobsen, Johanne Tracey; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Swee, Lee Kim; Victora, Gabriel D; Weissleder, Ralph; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2015-05-12

    At their margins, tumors often contain neutrophils, dendritic cells, and activated macrophages, which express class II MHC and CD11b products. The interplay between stromal cells, tumor cells, and migratory cells such as lymphocytes creates opportunities for noninvasive imaging of immune responses. We developed alpaca-derived antibody fragments specific for mouse class II MHC and CD11b products, expressed on the surface of a variety of myeloid cells. We validated these reagents by flow cytometry and two-photon microscopy to obtain images at cellular resolution. To enable noninvasive imaging of the targeted cell populations, we developed a method to site-specifically label VHHs [the variable domain (VH) of a camelid heavy-chain only antibody] with (18)F or (64)Cu. Radiolabeled VHHs rapidly cleared the circulation (t1/2 ≈ 20 min) and clearly visualized lymphoid organs. We used VHHs to explore the possibility of imaging inflammation in both xenogeneic and syngeneic tumor models, which resulted in detection of tumors with remarkable specificity. We also imaged the infiltration of myeloid cells upon injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. Both anti-class II MHC and anti-CD11b VHHs detected inflammation with excellent specificity. Given the ease of manufacture and labeling of VHHs, we believe that this method could transform the manner in which antitumor responses and/or infectious events may be tracked. PMID:25902531

  4. Association of Strong Immune Responses to PPE Protein Rv1168c with Active Tuberculosis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nooruddin; Alam, Kaiser; Nair, Shiny; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Murthy, Kolluri J. R.; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2008-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection is critical for the treatment, prevention, and control of TB. Conventional diagnostic tests based on purified protein derivative (PPD) do not achieve the required diagnostic sensitivity. Therefore, in this study, we have evaluated the immunogenic properties of Rv1168c, a member of the PPE family, in comparison with PPD, which is routinely used in the tuberculin test, and Hsp60 and ESAT-6, well-known immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In a conventional enzyme immunoassay, the recombinant Rv1168c protein displayed stronger immunoreactivity against the sera obtained from patients with clinically active TB than did PPD, Hsp60, or ESAT-6 and could distinguish TB patients from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated controls. Interestingly, Rv1168c antigen permits diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary TB as well as extrapulmonary TB cases, which are often difficult to diagnose by conventional tests. The immunodominant nature of Rv1168c makes it a promising candidate to use in serodiagnosis of TB. In addition, our studies also show that Rv1168c is a potent T-cell antigen which elicits a strong gamma interferon response in sensitized peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from TB patients. PMID:18400969

  5. Molecular characterization, immune responses and DNA protection activity of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6).

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Chung, Hee-Chung; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Kim, Hyowon; Saranya Revathy, K; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we describe the molecular characterization, immune responses of rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus peroxiredoxin 6 cDNA (RbPrx6) and DNA protection activity of its recombinant protein. The full-length cDNA sequence of RbPrx6 was identified after pyrosequencing of rock bream cDNA library. RbPrx6 consists of 663 bp open reading frame (ORF) that codes for a putative protein of 221 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 27 kDa. It showed characteristic peroxiredoxin super-family domain similar to vertebrate Prx counterparts. In the pair-wise comparison, RbPrx6 showed the highest amino acid identity (92.8%) to Scophthalmus maximus Prx6. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that constitutive expression of RbPrx6 transcripts in eleven tissues selected from un-challenged fish showing the highest level in liver. Synthetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and iridovirus containing supernatant, up-regulated the RbPrx6 mRNA in liver. Purified recombinant RbPrx6 protein was able to protect supercoiled plasmid DNA from damages that is induced by metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species. Our results suggest that RbPrx6 may play an important role in regulating oxidative stress by scavenging of ROS, involving immune reactions and minimizing the DNA damage in rock bream. PMID:22484606

  6. The Drosophila protein Mustard tailors the innate immune response activated by the IMD pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhipeng; Berkey, Cristin D.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe a Drosophila melanogaster transposon insertion mutant with tolerance to V. cholerae infection and markedly decreased transcription of diptericin as well as other genes regulated by the IMD innate immunity signaling pathway. We present genetic evidence that this insertion affects a locus previously implicated in pupal eclosion. This genetic locus, which we have named mustard (mtd), contains a LysM domain, often involved in carbohydrate recognition, and a TLDc domain of unknown function. Over twenty Mtd isoforms containing one or both of these conserved domains are predicted. We establish that the mutant phenotype represents a gain of function and can be replicated by increased expression of a short, nuclearly localized Mtd isoform comprised almost entirely of the TLDc domain. We show that this Mtd isoform does not block Relish cleavage or translocation into the nucleus. Lastly, we present evidence suggesting that the eclosion defect previously attributed to the Mtd locus may be the result of the unopposed action of the NF-κB homolog, Relish. Mtd homologs have been implicated in resistance to oxidative stress. However, this is the first evidence that Mtd or its homologs alter the output of an innate immunity signaling cascade from within the nucleus. PMID:22427641

  7. Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia and immune activation.

    PubMed

    Schroecksnadel, K; Frick, B; Wirleitner, B; Winkler, C; Schennach, H; Fuchs, D

    2004-02-01

    Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis, thrombosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Homocysteine accumulation in the blood can be due to many underlying causes, which may interact with each other, e.g. genetic disposition and B-vitamin status. The role of the sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine in the pathogenesis of diseases remains unclear, even if many studies suggest a causal relationship between homocysteine-mediated processes like oxidative stress, NO-inactivation and endothelial deficiency and atherogenesis. Proposed mechanisms of action of homocysteine are discussed, and the question is addressed, whether effects that are attributed to homocysteine, are not rather the consequence of folate and vitamin B12-deficiency. Deficiency of these B-vitamins in parallel with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is often found in patients with enhanced activation of the cellular immune system, like Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and also vascular diseases. In patients with these diseases an association between homocysteine metabolism, oxidative stress and immune activation exists. On the one hand proliferation of immunocompetent cells having an enhanced demand for B-vitamins leads to the accumulation of homocysteine. On the other hand macrophages stimulated by TH1-type cytokine interferon-gamma form reactive oxygen species (ROS), which oxidize antioxidants, lipoproteins and oxidation-sensitive B-vitamins. Thereby Th1-type immune response could contribute importantly to the development of hyperhomocysteinemia, and may also be a major determinant of disease progression. PMID:14965213

  8. Damage signals in the insect immune response

    PubMed Central

    Krautz, Robert; Arefin, Badrul; Theopold, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Insects and mammals share an ancient innate immune system comprising both humoral and cellular responses. The insect immune system consists of the fat body, which secretes effector molecules into the hemolymph and several classes of hemocytes, which reside in the hemolymph and of protective border epithelia. Key features of wound- and immune responses are shared between insect and mammalian immune systems including the mode of activation by commonly shared microbial (non-self) patterns and the recognition of these patterns by dedicated receptors. It is unclear how metazoan parasites in insects, which lack these shared motifs, are recognized. Research in recent years has demonstrated that during entry into the insect host, many eukaryotic pathogens leave traces that alert potential hosts of the damage they have afflicted. In accordance with terminology used in the mammalian immune systems, these signals have been dubbed danger- or damage-associated signals. Damage signals are necessary byproducts generated during entering hosts either by mechanical or proteolytic damage. Here, we briefly review the current stage of knowledge on how wound closure and wound healing during mechanical damage is regulated and how damage-related signals contribute to these processes. We also discuss how sensors of proteolytic activity induce insect innate immune responses. Strikingly damage-associated signals are also released from cells that have aberrant growth, including tumor cells. These signals may induce apoptosis in the damaged cells, the recruitment of immune cells to the aberrant tissue and even activate humoral responses. Thus, this ensures the removal of aberrant cells and compensatory proliferation to replace lost tissue. Several of these pathways may have been co-opted from wound healing and developmental processes. PMID:25071815

  9. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activity in response to different immune stimuli in haemocytes of the common periwinkle Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Gorbushin, Alexander M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-09-01

    The modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in haemocytes of the common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) in response to immune challenges by lipopolysaccharide from Echerichia coli (LPS), mannan from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and secretory-excretory products (SEP) of trematodes Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae) or after the treatment with phorbol ester (PMA) has been studied by Western blotting using affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Exposure of the cells in suspension to PMA, LPS and mannan triggered an activation of p38 and ERK2. The JNK-mediated cascade was modulated differently by the elicitors examined. PMA treatment caused a transient activation of the JNK54 isoform, LPS exposure resulted in a decrease in activity of JNK46, and mannan had no effect on JNK phosphorylation status. Incubation of periwinkle haemocytes in culture medium containing trematode SEP did not affect the activity of any MAPK. PMID:16533608

  10. Vaccination Strategies for Mucosal Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ogra, Pearay L.; Faden, Howard; Welliver, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Mucosal administration of vaccines is an important approach to the induction of appropriate immune responses to microbial and other environmental antigens in systemic sites and peripheral blood as well as in most external mucosal surfaces. The development of specific antibody- or T-cell-mediated immunologic responses and the induction of mucosally induced systemic immunologic hyporesponsiveness (oral or mucosal tolerance) depend on complex sets of immunologic events, including the nature of the antigenic stimulation of specialized lymphoid structures in the host, antigen-induced activation of different populations of regulatory T cells (Th1 versus Th2), and the expression of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. Availability of mucosal vaccines will provide a painless approach to deliver large numbers of vaccine antigens for human immunization. Currently, an average infant will receive 20 to 25 percutaneous injections for vaccination against different childhood infections by 18 months of age. It should be possible to develop for human use effective, nonliving, recombinant, replicating, transgenic, and microbial vector- or plant-based mucosal vaccines to prevent infections. Based on the experience with many dietary antigens, it is also possible to manipulate the mucosal immune system to induce systemic tolerance against environmental, dietary, and possibly other autoantigens associated with allergic and autoimmune disorders. Mucosal immunity offers new strategies to induce protective immune responses against a variety of infectious agents. Such immunization may also provide new prophylactic or therapeutic avenues in the control of autoimmune diseases in humans. PMID:11292646

  11. Activation of innate antiviral immune response via double-stranded RNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Wei-Hua; Azadzoi, Kazem M.; Su, Ning; Dai, Peng; Sun, Jianbin; Wang, Qin; Liang, Ping; Zhang, Wentao; Lei, Xiaoying; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Viruses induce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the host cells. The mammalian system has developed dsRNA-dependent recognition receptors such as RLRs that recognize the long stretches of dsRNA as PAMPs to activate interferon-mediated antiviral pathways and apoptosis in severe infection. Here we report an efficient antiviral immune response through dsRNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis against infections from different classes of viruses. We demonstrated that virus-infected A549 cells were efficiently killed in the presence of a chimeric RLR receptor, dsCARE. It measurably suppressed the interferon antiviral pathway but promoted IL-1β production. Canonical cell death analysis by morphologic assessment, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase cleavage and chemical inhibition excluded the involvement of apoptosis and consistently suggested RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis as the underlying mechanism of infected cell death. The necroptotic pathway was augmented by the formation of RIP1-RIP3 necrosome, recruitment of MLKL protein and the activation of cathepsin D. Contributing roles of RIP1 and RIP3 were confirmed by gene knockdown. Furthermore, the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 but not the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD impeded dsCARE-dependent infected cell death. Our data provides compelling evidence that the chimeric RLR receptor shifts the common interferon antiviral responses of infected cells to necroptosis and leads to rapid death of the virus-infected cells. This mechanism could be targeted as an efficient antiviral strategy. PMID:26935990

  12. Analysis of Immune Responses against a Wide Range of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens in Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Desta; Ran, Leonie; Geberemeskel, Wudneh; Tebeje, Mekashaw; Alemu, Amelewerk; Selase, Alemayehu; Tegbaru, Belete; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Friggen, Annemieke H.; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Wolday, Dawit; Messele, Tsehaynesh

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing host immune responses to molecular targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential to develop effective immunodiagnostics and better vaccines. We investigated the immune response against a large series of M. tuberculosis antigens, including 5 classical and 64 nonclassical (39 DosR regulon-encoded, 4 resuscitation-promoting factor [RPF], and 21 reactivation-associated) antigens in active-pulmonary-tuberculosis (TB) patients. Whole blood from TB patients (n = 34) was stimulated in vitro with M. tuberculosis antigens. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was measured after 7 days of stimulation, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The majority of the study participants responded to the classical M. tuberculosis antigens TB10.4 (84.8%), early secreted antigenic target-6 kDa (ESAT-6)/CFP-10 (70.6%), and purified protein derivative (PPD) (55.9%). However, only 26.5% and 24.2% responded to HSP65 and Ag85A/B, respectively. Of the 64 nonclassical antigens, 23 (33.3%) were immunogenic (IFN-γ levels, >62 pg/ml) and 8 were strong inducers of IFN-γ (IFN-γ levels, ≥100 pg/ml). The RPF antigens were the most immunogenic. In addition, we observed distinct cytokine expression profiles in response to several M. tuberculosis antigens by multiplex immunoassay. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and IL-6 were commonly detected at high levels after stimulation with 4/15 latency antigens (Rv0081, Rv2006, Rv2629, and Rv1733c) and were found especially in supernatants of the three strong IFN-γ inducers (Rv2629, Rv1009, and Rv2389c). IL-8, IL-6, and IL-17 were exclusively detected after stimulation with Rv0574c, Rv2630, Rv1998, Rv054c, and Rv2028c. In conclusion, in active-pulmonary-TB patients, we identified 23 new immunogenic M. tuberculosis antigens. The distinct expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in response to specific subsets of M. tuberculosis antigens may be promising for the development of immunodiagnostics

  13. Injury-induced immune responses in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Yvan; Buzgariu, Wanda; Reiter, Silke; Galliot, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The impact of injury-induced immune responses on animal regenerative processes is highly variable, positive or negative depending on the context. This likely reflects the complexity of the innate immune system that behaves as a sentinel in the transition from injury to regeneration. Early-branching invertebrates with high regenerative potential as Hydra provide a unique framework to dissect how injury-induced immune responses impact regeneration. A series of early cellular events likely require an efficient immune response after amputation, as antimicrobial defence, epithelial cell stretching for wound closure, migration of interstitial progenitors toward the wound, cell death, phagocytosis of cell debris, or reconstruction of the extracellular matrix. The analysis of the injury-induced transcriptomic modulations of 2636 genes annotated as immune genes in Hydra identified 43 genes showing an immediate/early pulse regulation in all regenerative contexts examined. These regulations point to an enhanced cytoprotection via ROS signaling (Nrf, C/EBP, p62/SQSMT1-l2), TNFR and TLR signaling (TNFR16-like, TRAF2l, TRAF5l, jun, fos-related, SIK2, ATF1/CREB, LRRC28, LRRC40, LRRK2), proteasomal activity (p62/SQSMT1-l1, Ced6/Gulf, NEDD8-conjugating enzyme Ubc12), stress proteins (CRYAB1, CRYAB2, HSP16.2, DnaJB9, HSP90a1), all potentially regulating NF-κB activity. Other genes encoding immune-annotated proteins such as NPYR4, GTPases, Swap70, the antiproliferative BTG1, enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (5-lipoxygenase, ACSF4), secreted clotting factors, secreted peptidases are also pulse regulated upon bisection. By contrast, metalloproteinases and antimicrobial peptide genes largely follow a context-dependent regulation, whereas the protease inhibitor α2macroglobulin gene exhibits a sustained up-regulation. Hence a complex immune response to injury is linked to wound healing and regeneration in Hydra. PMID:25086685

  14. Review of the innate immune response in acne vulgaris: activation of Toll-like receptor 2 in acne triggers inflammatory cytokine responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disorder that affects 40-50 million people in the USA alone. The pathogenesis of acne is multifactorial, including hormonal, microbiological and immunological mechanisms. One of the factors that contributes to the pathogenesis of acne is Propionibacterium acnes; yet, the molecular mechanism by which P. acnes induces inflammation is not known. Recent studies have demonstrated that microbial agents trigger cytokine responses via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns conserved among microorganisms and elicit immune responses. We investigated whether TLR2 mediates P. acnes-induced cytokine production in acne. Using transfectant cells we found that TLR2 was sufficient for NF-kappaB activation in response to P. acnes. In addition, peritoneal macrophages from wild-type, TLR6 knockout and TLR1 knockout mice, but not TLR2 knockout mice, produced IL-6 in response to P. acnes.P. acnes induced activation of IL-12 and IL-8 production by primary human monocytes, and this cytokine production was inhibited by anti-TLR2-blocking antibody. Finally, in acne lesions, TLR2 was expressed on the cell surface of macrophages surrounding pilosebaceous follicles. These data suggest that P. acnes triggers inflammatory cytokine responses in acne by activation of TLR2. As such, TLR2 may provide a novel target for the treatment of this common skin disease. PMID:16205063

  15. [Modulation of immune response by bacterial lipopolysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Aldapa-Vega, Gustavo; Pastelín-Palacios, Rodolfo; Isibasi, Armando; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; López-Macías, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a molecule that is profusely found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and is also a potent stimulator of the immune response. As the main molecule on the bacterial surface, is also the most biologically active. The immune response of the host is activated by the recognition of LPS through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and this receptor-ligand interaction is closely linked to LPS structure. Microorganisms have evolved systems to control the expression and structure of LPS, producing structural variants that are used for modulating the host immune responses during infection. Examples of this include Helicobacter pylori, Francisella tularensis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Salmonella spp. High concentrations of LPS can cause fever, increased heart rate and lead to septic shock and death. However, at relatively low concentrations some LPS are highly active immunomodulators, which can induce non-specific resistance to invading microorganisms. The elucidation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the recognition of LPS and its structural variants has been fundamental to understand inflammation and is currently a pivotal field of research to understand the innate immune response, inflammation, the complex host-pathogen relationship and has important implications for the rational development of new immunomodulators and adjuvants. PMID:27560917

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE25/PPE41 protein complex induces activation and maturation of dendritic cells and drives Th2-biased immune responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Bao, Yige; Chen, Xuerong; Burton, Jeremy; Gong, Xueli; Gu, Dongqing; Mi, Youjun; Bao, Lang

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades innate host immune responses by parasitizing macrophages and causes significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A mycobacterial antigen that can activate dendritic cells (DCs) and elicit effective host innate immune responses will be vital to the development of an effective TB vaccine. The M. tuberculosis genes PE25/PPE41 encode proteins which have been associated with evasion of the host immune response. We constructed a PE25/PPE41 complex gene via splicing by overlapping extension and expressed it successfully in E. coli. We investigated whether this protein complex could interact with DCs to induce effective host immune responses. The PE25/PPE41 protein complex induced maturation of isolated mouse DCs in vitro, increasing expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II), thereby promoting Th2 polarization via secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. In addition, PE25/PPE41 protein complex-activated DCs induced proliferation of mouse CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and a strong humoral response in immunized mice. The sera of five TB patients were also highly reactive to this antigen. These findings suggest that interaction of the PE25/PPE41 protein complex with DCs may be of great immunological significance. PMID:26318856

  17. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induce Peculiar Alternatively Activated Macrophages Capable of Dampening Both Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Chiossone, Laura; Conte, Romana; Spaggiari, Grazia Maria; Serra, Martina; Romei, Cristina; Bellora, Francesca; Becchetti, Flavio; Andaloro, Antonio; Moretta, Lorenzo; Bottino, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) support hematopoiesis and exert immunoregulatory activities. Here, we analyzed the functional outcome of the interactions between MSCs and monocytes/macrophages. We showed that MSCs supported the survival of monocytes that underwent differentiation into macrophages, in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. However, MSCs skewed their polarization toward a peculiar M2-like functional phenotype (M(MSC) ), through a prostaglandin E2-dependent mechanism. M(MSC) were characterized by high expression of scavenger receptors, increased phagocytic capacity, and high production of interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor-β. These cytokines contributed to the immunoregulatory properties of M(MSC) , which differed from those of typical IL-4-induced macrophages (M2). In particular, interacting with activated natural killer (NK) cells, M(MSC) inhibited both the expression of activating molecules such as NKp44, CD69, and CD25 and the production of IFNγ, while M2 affected only IFNγ production. Moreover, M(MSC) inhibited the proliferation of CD8(+) T cells in response to allogeneic stimuli and induced the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Toll-like receptor engagement reverted the phenotypic and functional features of M(MSC) to those of M1 immunostimulatory/proinflammatory macrophages. Overall our data show that MSCs induce the generation of a novel type of alternatively activated macrophages capable of suppressing both innate and adaptive immune responses. These findings may help to better understand the role of MSCs in healthy tissues and inflammatory diseases including cancer, and provide clues for novel therapeutic approaches. Stem Cells 2016;34:1909-1921. PMID:27015881

  18. Activation of the Innate Immune Response against DENV in Normal Non-Transformed Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bustos-Arriaga, José; García-Machorro, Jazmín; León-Juárez, Moisés; García-Cordero, Julio; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; Méndez-Cruz, A. René; Juárez-Delgado, Francisco J.; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia

    2011-01-01

    Background When mosquitoes infected with DENV are feeding, the proboscis must traverse the epidermis several times (“probing”) before reaching a blood vessel in the dermis. During this process, the salivary glands release the virus, which is likely to interact first with cells of the various epidermal and dermal layers, cells which could be physiologically relevant to DENV infection and replication in humans. However, important questions are whether more abundant non-hematopoietic cells such as fibroblasts become infected, and whether they play any role in antiviral innate immunity in the very early stages of infection, or even if they might be used by DENV as primary replication cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Fibroblasts freshly released from healthy skin and infected 12 hours after their isolation show a positive signal for DENV. In addition, when primary skin fibroblast cultures were established and subsequently infected, we showed DENV-2 antigen-positive intracellular signal at 24 hours and 48 hours post-infection. Moreover, the fibroblasts showed productive infection in a conventional plaque assay. The skin fibroblasts infected with DENV-2 underwent potent signaling through both TLR3 and RIG- 1, but not Mda5, triggering up-regulation of IFNβ, TNFα, defensin 5 (HB5) and β defensin 2 (HβD2). In addition, DENV infected fibroblasts showed increased nuclear translocation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), but not interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), when compared with mock-infected fibroblasts. Conclusions/Significance In this work, we demonstrated the high susceptibility to DENV infection by primary fibroblasts from normal human skin, both in situ and in vitro. Our results suggest that these cells may contribute to the pro-inflammatory and anti-viral microenvironment in the early stages of interaction with DENV-2. Furthermore, the data suggest that fibroblast may also be used as a primary site of DENV replication and provide viral

  19. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis.

    PubMed

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  20. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  1. Sirtuin 1 regulates dendritic cell activation and autophagy during Respiratory Syncytial Virus-induced immune responses1

    PubMed Central

    Owczarczyk, Anna B.; Schaller, Matthew A.; Reed, Michelle; Rasky, Andrew J.; Lombard, David B.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children worldwide. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+ dependent deacetylase, has been associated with the induction of autophagy and the regulation of inflammatory mediators. We found that Sirt1 was upregulated in mouse lung after RSV infection. Infected animals that received EX-527, a selective SIRT1 inhibitor, displayed exacerbated lung pathology, with increased mucus production, elevated viral load, and enhanced Th2 cytokine production. Gene expression analysis of isolated cell populations revealed that Sirt1 was most highly upregulated in RSV-treated dendritic cells (DCs). Upon RSV infection, EX-527-treated DCs, Sirt1 siRNA-treated DCs, or DCs from conditional knockout (Sirt1f/f-CD11c–Cre+) mice showed downregulated inflammatory cytokine gene expression and attenuated autophagy. Finally, RSV infection of Sirt1f/f-CD11c–Cre+ mice resulted in altered lung and lymph node cytokine responses, leading to exacerbated pathology. These data indicate that SIRT1 promotes DC activation associated with autophagy-mediated processes during RSV infection, thereby directing efficient antiviral immune responses. PMID:26157176

  2. DOCK8 is a Cdc42 activator critical for interstitial dendritic cell migration during immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Terasawa, Masao; Pieczyk, Markus; Habiro, Katsuyoshi; Katakai, Tomoya; Hanawa-Suetsugu, Kyoko; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Nishizaki, Tomoko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Duan, Xuefeng; Uruno, Takehito; Nishikimi, Akihiko; Sanematsu, Fumiyuki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Stein, Jens V.; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    To migrate efficiently through the interstitium, dendritic cells (DCs) constantly adapt their shape to the given structure of the extracellular matrix and follow the path of least resistance. It is known that this amoeboid migration of DCs requires Cdc42, yet the upstream regulators critical for localization and activation of Cdc42 remain to be determined. Mutations of DOCK8, a member of the atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor family, causes combined immunodeficiency in humans. In the present study, we show that DOCK8 is a Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is critical for interstitial DC migration. By generating the knockout mice, we found that in the absence of DOCK8, DCs failed to accumulate in the lymph node parenchyma for T-cell priming. Although DOCK8-deficient DCs migrated normally on 2-dimensional surfaces, DOCK8 was required for DCs to crawl within 3-dimensional fibrillar networks and to transmigrate through the subcapsular sinus floor. This function of DOCK8 depended on the DHR-2 domain mediating Cdc42 activation. DOCK8 deficiency did not affect global Cdc42 activity. However, Cdc42 activation at the leading edge membrane was impaired in DOCK8-deficient DCs, resulting in a severe defect in amoeboid polarization and migration. Therefore, DOCK8 regulates interstitial DC migration by controlling Cdc42 activity spatially. PMID:22461490

  3. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response Many people have never heard of sepsis, or ... tract infection) and then a powerful and harmful response by your body’s own immune system . “With sepsis, ...

  4. B cells activated in lymph nodes in response to ultraviolet irradiation or by interleukin-10 inhibit dendritic cell induction of immunity.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Scott N; Halliday, Gary M

    2005-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation suppresses systemic immunity. We explored these cellular mechanisms by exposing mice to systemically immunosuppressive doses of UV radiation and then analyzing cell phenotype and function in the lymphoid organs. Although UV radiation increased total cell number in the draining lymph nodes (DLN), it did not alter the activation state of dendritic cells (DC). Rather, UV radiation selectively activated lymph node B cells, with these cells being larger and expressing higher levels of both anti-major histocompatibility complex II and B220 but not co-stimulatory molecules. This phenotype resembled that of a B cell geared toward immune tolerance. To test whether UV radiation-activated B cells were responsible for immunosuppression, DC and B cells were conjugated to antigen ex vivo and transferred into naive hosts. Although DC by themselves activated T cells, when the B cells from UV radiation-irradiated mice were co-injected with DC, they suppressed DC activation of immunity. Interleukin (IL)-10-activated B cells also suppressed DC induction of immunity, suggesting that IL-10 may be involved in this suppressive effect of UV radiation. These results demonstrate a new mechanism of UV radiation immunosuppression whereby UV radiation activates B cells in the skin-DLN that can suppress DC activation of T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:15737198

  5. Host immune response to infection and cancer: unexpected commonalities

    PubMed Central

    Goldszmid, Romina S.; Dzutsev, Amiran; Trinchieri, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Both microbes and tumors activate innate resistance, tissue repair and adaptive immunity. Unlike acute infection, tumor growth is initially inapparent; however, inflammation and immunity affect all phases of tumor growth from initiation to progression and dissemination. Here, we discuss the shared features involved in the immune response to infection and cancer including modulation by commensal microbiota, reactive hematopoiesis, chronic immune responses and regulatory mechanisms to prevent collateral tissue damage. This comparative analysis of immunity to infection and cancer furthers our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying innate resistance and adaptive immunity and their translational application to the design of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:24629336

  6. CRACC-targeting Fc-fusion protein induces activation of NK cells and DCs and improves T cell immune responses to antigenic targets.

    PubMed

    Aldhamen, Yasser A; Rastall, David P W; Chen, Weimin; Seregin, Sergey S; Pereira-Hicks, Cristiane; Godbehere, Sarah; Kaminski, Norbert E; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The CD2-like receptor activating cytotoxic cell (CRACC) receptor is a member of the SLAM family of receptors that are found on several types of immune cells. We previously demonstrated that increasing the abundance of the adaptor protein EAT-2 during vaccination enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses to vaccine antigens. Engagement of the CRACC receptor in the presence of the EAT-2 adaptor generally results in immune cell activation, while activating CRACC signaling in cells that lack EAT-2 adaptor inhibits their effector and regulatory functions. As EAT-2 is the only SAP adaptor that interacts with the CRACC receptor, we hypothesized that technologies that specifically modulate CRACC signaling during vaccination may also improve antigen specific adaptive immune responses. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a CRACC-targeting Fc fusion protein and included it in vaccination attempts. Indeed, mice co-vaccinated with the CRACC-Fc fusion protein and an adenovirus vaccine expressing the HIV-Gag protein had improved Gag-specific T cell responses, as compared to control mice. These responses are characterized by increased numbers of Gag-specific tetramer+ CD8+ T cells and increases in production of IFNγ, TNFα, and IL2, by Gag-specific CD8+ T cells. Moreover, our results revealed that use of the CRACC-Fc fusion protein enhances vaccine-elicited innate immune responses, as characterized by increased dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and IFNγ production from NK cells. This study highlights the importance of CRACC signaling during the induction of an immune response generally, and during vaccinations specifically, and also lends insight into the mechanisms underlying our prior results noting EAT-2-dependent improvements in vaccine efficacy. PMID:27151882

  7. Innate Immune Sensing and Response to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Pulendran, Bali; Maddur, Mohan S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Recent studies in mouse models have revealed an indispensable role for the innate immune system in defense against influenza virus. Recognition of the virus by innate immune receptors in a multitude of cell types activates intricate signaling networks, functioning to restrict viral replication. Downstream effector mechanisms include activation of innate immune cells and, induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. However, uncontrolled innate responses are associated with exaggerated disease, especially in pandemic influenza virus infection. Despite advances in the understanding of innate response to influenza in the mouse model, there is a large knowledge gap in humans, particularly in immunocom-promised groups such as infants and the elderly. We propose here, the need for further studies in humans to decipher the role of innate immunity to influenza virus, particularly at the site of infection. These studies will complement the existing work in mice and facilitate the quest to design improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies against influenza. PMID:25078919

  8. Aging Exacerbates Depressive-like Behavior in Mice in Response to Activation of the Peripheral Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Godbout, Jonathan P; Moreau, Maïté; Lestage, Jacques; Chen, Jing; Sparkman, Nathan L; O’Connor, Jason; Castanon, Nathalie; Kelley, Keith W; Dantzer, Robert; Johnson, Rodney W

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to peripheral infections may be permissive to cognitive and behavioral complications in the elderly. We have reported that peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes an exaggerated neuroinflammatory response and prolonged sickness behavior in aged BALB/c mice. Because LPS also causes depressive behavior, the purpose of this study was to determine whether aging is associated with an exacerbated depressive-like response. We confirmed that LPS (0.33 mg/kg intraperitoneal) induced a protracted sickness response in aged mice with reductions in locomotor and feeding activities 24 and 48 h postinjection, when young adults had fully recovered. When submitted to the forced swim test 24 h post-LPS, both young adult and aged mice exhibited an increased duration of immobility. However, when submitted to either the forced swim test or the tail suspension test 72 h post-LPS, an increased duration of immobility was evident only in aged mice. This prolonged depressive-like behavior in aged LPS-treated mice was associated with a more pronounced induction of peripheral and brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and a markedly higher turnover rate of brain serotonin (as measured by the ratio of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid over 5-hydroxyt-tryptamine) compared to young adult mice at 24 post-LPS injection. These results provide the first evidence that age-associated reactivity of the brain cytokine system could play a pathophysiological role in the increased prevalence of depression observed in the elderly. PMID:18075491

  9. Disentangling the relationship between tumor genetic programs and immune responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Bedognetti, Davide; Hendrickx, Wouter; Ceccarelli, Michele; Miller, Lance D; Seliger, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Correlative studies in humans have demonstrated that an active immune microenvironment characterized by the presence of a T-helper 1 immune response typifies a tumor phenotype associated with better outcome and increased responsiveness to immune manipulation. This phenotype also signifies the counter activation of immune-regulatory mechanisms. Variables modulating the development of an effective anti-tumor immune response are increasingly scrutinized as potential therapeutic targets. Genetic alterations of cancer cells that functionally influence intratumoral immune response include mutational load, specific mutations of genes involved in oncogenic pathways and copy number aberrations involving chemokine and cytokine genes. Inhibiting oncogenic pathways that prevent the development of the immune-favorable cancer phenotype may complement modern immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:26967649

  10. Activation of Intrinsic Immune Responses and Microglial Phagocytosis in an Ex Vivo Spinal Cord Slice Culture Model of West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Eamon D.; Leser, J. Smith; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes significant neuroinvasive disease involving the brain and/or spinal cord. Experimental mouse models of WNV infection have established the importance of innate and adaptive immune responses in controlling the extent and severity of central nervous system (CNS) disease. However, differentiating between immune responses that are intrinsic to the CNS and those that are dependent on infiltrating inflammatory cells has proven difficult. We used a murine ex vivo spinal cord slice culture (SCSC) model to determine the innate immune processes specific to the CNS during WNV infections. By 7 days after ex vivo infection of SCSCs, the majority of neurons and a substantial percentage of astrocytes were infected with WNV, resulting in apoptotic cell death and astrogliosis. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, were activated by WNV infection, as exemplified by their amoeboid morphology, the development of filopodia and lamellipodia, and phagocytosis of WNV-infected cells and debris. Microglial cell activation was concomitant with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL10, CXCL1, CCL5, CCL3, CCL2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The application of minocycline, an inhibitor of neuroinflammation, altered the WNV-induced proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression profile, with inhibited production of CCL5, CCL2, and IL-6. Our findings establish that CNS-resident cells have the capacity to initiate a robust innate immune response against WNV infection in the absence of infiltrating inflammatory cells and systemic immune responses. IMPORTANCE There are no specific treatments of proven efficacy available for WNV neuroinvasive disease. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of WNV CNS infection is crucial for the rational development of novel therapies. Development of a spinal cord

  11. Contrasting human cytokine responses to promastigote whole-cell extract and the Leishmania analogue receptor for activated C kinase antigen of L. amazonensis in natural infection versus immunization

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo-Coutinho, R B G; Matos, D C S; Armôa, G G R; Maia, R M; Schubach, A; Mayrink, W; Mendonça, S C F

    2008-01-01

    It is known that the same antigen can induce different immune responses, depending upon the way that it is presented to the immune system. The objective of this study was to compare cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients and subjects immunized with a first-generation candidate vaccine composed of killed Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes to a whole-cell promastigote antigen extract (La) and to the recombinant protein LACK (Leishmania analogue receptor for activated C kinase), both from L. amazonensis. Thirty-two patients, 35 vaccinees and 13 healthy subjects without exposure to Leishmania, were studied. Cytokine production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The interferon (IFN)-γ levels stimulated by La were significantly higher and the levels of interleukin (IL)-10 significantly lower than those stimulated by LACK in the patient group, while LACK induced a significantly higher IFN-γ production and a significantly lower IL-10 production compared with those induced by La in the vaccinated group. LACK also induced a significantly higher frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells than did La in the vaccinated group. The contrast in the cytokine responses stimulated by LACK and La in PBMC cultures from vaccinated subjects versus patients indicates that the human immune response to crude and defined Leishmania antigens as a consequence of immunization differs from that induced by natural infection. PMID:18627399

  12. Differential regional immune response in Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    de Meis, Juliana; Morrot, Alexandre; Farias-de-Oliveira, Désio Aurélio; Villa-Verde, Déa Maria Serra; Savino, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Following infection, lymphocytes expand exponentially and differentiate into effector cells to control infection and coordinate the multiple effector arms of the immune response. Soon after this expansion, the majority of antigen-specific lymphocytes die, thus keeping homeostasis, and a small pool of memory cells develops, providing long-term immunity to subsequent reinfection. The extent of infection and rate of pathogen clearance are thought to determine both the magnitude of cell expansion and the homeostatic contraction to a stable number of memory cells. This straight correlation between the kinetics of T cell response and the dynamics of lymphoid tissue cell numbers is a constant feature in acute infections yielded by pathogens that are cleared during the course of response. However, the regional dynamics of the immune response mounted against pathogens that are able to establish a persistent infection remain poorly understood. Herein we discuss the differential lymphocyte dynamics in distinct central and peripheral lymphoid organs following acute infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. While the thymus and mesenteric lymph nodes undergo a severe atrophy with massive lymphocyte depletion, the spleen and subcutaneous lymph nodes expand due to T and B cell activation/proliferation. These events are regulated by cytokines, as well as parasite-derived moieties. In this regard, identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying regional lymphocyte dynamics secondary to T. cruzi infection may hopefully contribute to the design of novel immune intervention strategies to control pathology in this infection. PMID:19582140

  13. Location, location, location: tissue-specific regulation of immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Pasare, Chandrashekhar

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of DCs and PRRs has contributed immensely to our understanding of induction of innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of PRRs leads to secretion of inflammatory cytokines that regulate priming and differentiation of antigen-specific T and B lymphocytes. Pathogens enter the body via different routes, and although the same set of PRRs is likely to be activated, it is becoming clear that the route of immune challenge determines the nature of outcome of adaptive immunity. In addition to the signaling events initiated following innate-immune receptor activation, the cells of the immune system are influenced by the microenvironments in which they reside, and this has a direct impact on the resulting immune response. Specifically, immune responses could be influenced by specialized DCs, specific factors secreted by stromal cells, and also, by commensal microbiota present in certain organs. Following microbial detection, the complex interactions among DCs, stromal cells, and tissue-specific factors influence outcome of immune responses. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the phenotypic heterogeneity of innate and adaptive immune cells and how tissue-specific factors in the systemic and mucosal immune system influence the outcome of adaptive-immune responses. PMID:23825388

  14. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  15. A genetic inference on cancer immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ena; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Marincola, Francesco M.

    2012-01-01

    A cancer immune signature implicating good prognosis and responsiveness to immunotherapy was described that is observed also in other aspects of immune-mediated, tissue-specific destruction (TSD). Its determinism remains, however, elusive. Based on limited but unique clinical observations, we propose a multifactorial genetic model of human cancer immune responsiveness. PMID:22754772

  16. Activation of Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain 2 (NOD2) by Human Cytomegalovirus Initiates Innate Immune Responses and Restricts Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Arun; Forman, Michael; Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an important innate immune sensor of bacterial pathogens. Its induction results in activation of the classic NF-κB pathway and alternative pathways including type I IFN and autophagy. Although the importance of NOD2 in recognizing RNA viruses has recently been identified, its role in sensing DNA viruses has not been studied. We report that infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in significant induction of NOD2 expression, beginning as early as 2 hours post infection and increasing steadily 24 hours post infection and afterwards. Infection with human herpesvirus 1 and 2 does not induce NOD2 expression. While the HCMV-encoded glycoprotein B is not required for NOD2 induction, a replication competent virion is necessary. Lentivirus-based NOD2 knockdown in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and U373 glioma cells leads to enhanced HCMV replication along with decreased levels of interferon beta (IFN-β) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL8. NOD2 induction in HCMV-infected cells activates downstream NF-κB and interferon pathways supported by reduced nuclear localization of NF-κB and pIRF3 in NOD2 knockdown HFFs. Stable overexpression of NOD2 in HFFs restricts HCMV replication in association with increased levels of IFN-β and IL8. Similarly, transient overexpression of NOD2 in U373 cells or its downstream kinase, RIPK2, results in decreased HCMV replication and enhanced cytokine responses. However, overexpression of a mutant NOD2, 3020insC, associated with severe Crohn's disease, results in enhanced HCMV replication and decreased levels of IFN-β in U373 cells. These results show for the first time that NOD2 plays a significant role in HCMV replication and may provide a model for studies of HCMV recognition by the host cell and HCMV colitis in Crohn's disease. PMID:24671169

  17. Chimpanzees Immunized with Recombinant Soluble CD4 Develop Anti-Self CD4 Antibody Responses with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Boyson, Jonathan E.; Lord, Carol I.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1992-06-01

    In view of the efficiency with which human immunodeficiency virus replication can be blocked in vitro with anti-CD4 antibodies, the elicitation of an anti-CD4 antibody response through active immunization might represent a useful therapeutic strategy for AIDS. Here we demonstrate that immunization of chimpanzees with recombinant soluble human CD4 elicited an anti-CD4 antibody response. The elicited antibody bound self CD4 on digitonin-treated but not freshly isolated lymphocytes. Nevertheless, this antibody blocked human immunodeficiency virus replication in chimpanzee and human lymphocytes. These observations suggest that immunization with recombinant soluble CD4 from human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans may be feasible and therapeutically beneficial.

  18. Phosphorylation of the Plant Immune Regulator RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 Enhances Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activity and Inhibits Flagellin-Triggered Immune Responses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongHyuk; Bourdais, Gildas; Yu, Gang; Robatzek, Silke; Coaker, Gitta

    2015-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB targets multiple host proteins during infection, including the plant immune regulator RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4) and RPM1-INDUCED PROTEIN KINASE (RIPK). In the presence of AvrB, RIPK phosphorylates RIN4 at Thr-21, Ser-160, and Thr-166, leading to activation of the immune receptor RPM1. Here, we investigated the role of RIN4 phosphorylation in susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that RIN4 is a disordered protein and phosphorylation affects protein flexibility. RIN4 T21D/S160D/T166D phosphomimetic mutants exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility upon surface inoculation with P. syringae, wider stomatal apertures, and enhanced plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA1 is highly expressed in guard cells, and its activation can induce stomatal opening. The ripk knockout also exhibited a strong defect in pathogen-induced stomatal opening. The basal level of RIN4 Thr-166 phosphorylation decreased in response to immune perception of bacterial flagellin. RIN4 Thr166D lines exhibited reduced flagellin-triggered immune responses. Flagellin perception did not lower RIN4 Thr-166 phosphorylation in the presence of strong ectopic expression of AvrB. Taken together, these results indicate that the AvrB effector targets RIN4 in order to enhance pathogen entry on the leaf surface as well as dampen responses to conserved microbial features. PMID:26198070

  19. Phosphorylation of the Plant Immune Regulator RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 Enhances Plant Plasma Membrane H⁺-ATPase Activity and Inhibits Flagellin-Triggered Immune Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, DongHyuk; Bourdais, Gildas; Yu, Gang; Robatzek, Silke; Coaker, Gitta

    2015-07-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB targets multiple host proteins during infection, including the plant immune regulator RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4) and RPM1-INDUCED PROTEIN KINASE (RIPK). In the presence of AvrB, RIPK phosphorylates RIN4 at Thr-21, Ser-160, and Thr-166, leading to activation of the immune receptor RPM1. Here, we investigated the role of RIN4 phosphorylation in susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that RIN4 is a disordered protein and phosphorylation affects protein flexibility. RIN4 T21D/S160D/T166D phosphomimetic mutants exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility upon surface inoculation with P. syringae, wider stomatal apertures, and enhanced plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase AHA1 is highly expressed in guard cells, and its activation can induce stomatal opening. The ripk knockout also exhibited a strong defect in pathogen-induced stomatal opening. The basal level of RIN4 Thr-166 phosphorylation decreased in response to immune perception of bacterial flagellin. RIN4 Thr166D lines exhibited reduced flagellin-triggered immune responses. Flagellin perception did not lower RIN4 Thr-166 phosphorylation in the presence of strong ectopic expression of AvrB. Taken together, these results indicate that the AvrB effector targets RIN4 in order to enhance pathogen entry on the leaf surface as well as dampen responses to conserved microbial features. PMID:26198070

  20. Novel Role for Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) in the Restriction of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 by the Cellular Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Kristen L.; Wasson, Peter; McFarlane, Steven; Tong, Lily; Brown, James R.; Grant, Kyle G.; Domingues, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is used by the intrinsic antiviral immune response to restrict viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Despite characterization of the host factors that rely on SUMOylation to exert their antiviral effects, the enzymes that mediate these SUMOylation events remain to be defined. We show that unconjugated SUMO levels are largely maintained throughout infection regardless of the presence of ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, in the absence of ICP0, high-molecular-weight SUMO-conjugated proteins do not accumulate if HSV-1 DNA does not replicate. These data highlight the continued importance for SUMO signaling throughout infection. We show that the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) is upregulated during HSV-1 infection and localizes to nuclear domains that contain viral DNA. PIAS4 is recruited to sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry through SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent mechanisms that are destabilized by ICP0. In contrast, PIAS4 accumulates in replication compartments through SIM-independent mechanisms irrespective of ICP0 expression. Depletion of PIAS4 enhances the replication of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1, which is susceptible to restriction by the intrinsic antiviral immune response. The mechanisms of PIAS4-mediated restriction are synergistic with the restriction mechanisms of a characterized intrinsic antiviral factor, promyelocytic leukemia protein, and are antagonized by ICP0. We provide the first evidence that PIAS4 is an intrinsic antiviral factor. This novel role for PIAS4 in intrinsic antiviral immunity contrasts with the known roles of PIAS proteins as suppressors of innate immunity. IMPORTANCE Posttranslational modifications with small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins regulate multiple aspects of host immunity and viral replication. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family of SUMO ligases is predominantly associated

  1. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Tremelimumab (anti-CTLA4) mediates immune responses mainly by direct activation of T effector cells rather than by affecting T regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sameena; Burt, Deborah J; Ralph, Christy; Thistlethwaite, Fiona C; Hawkins, Robert E; Elkord, Eyad

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) blockade has shown antitumor activity against common cancers. However, the exact mechanism of immune mediation by anti-CTLA4 remains to be elucidated. Further understanding of how CTLA4 blockade with tremelimumab mediates immune responses may allow a more effective selection of responsive patients. Our results show that tremelimumab enhanced the proliferative response of T effector cells (Teff) upon TCR stimulation, and abrogated Treg suppressive ability. In the presence of tremelimumab, frequencies of IL-2-secreting CD4(+) T cells and IFN-γ-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were increased in response to polyclonal activation and tumor antigens. Importantly, Treg frequency was not reduced in the presence of tremelimumab, and expanded Tregs in cancer patients treated with tremelimumab expressed FoxP3 with no IL-2 release, confirming them as bona fide Tregs. Taken together, this data indicates that tremelimumab induces immune responses mainly by direct activation of Teff rather than by affecting Tregs. PMID:21056008

  3. Powerful Complex Immunoadjuvant Based on Synergistic Effect of Combined TLR4 and NOD2 Activation Significantly Enhances Magnitude of Humoral and Cellular Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dzharullaeva, Alina S.; Tukhvatulina, Natalia M.; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V.; Shmarov, Maxim M.; Dolzhikova, Inna V.; Stanhope-Baker, Patricia; Naroditsky, Boris S.; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Logunov, Denis Y.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    Binding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activates innate immune responses and contributes to development of adaptive immunity. Simultaneous stimulation of different types of PRRs can have synergistic immunostimulatory effects resulting in enhanced production of molecules that mediate innate immunity such as inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, etc. Here, we evaluated the impact of combined stimulation of PRRs from different families on adaptive immunity by generating alum-based vaccine formulations with ovalbumin as a model antigen and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist MPLA and the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) agonist MDP adsorbed individually or together on the alum-ovalbumin particles. Multiple in vitro and in vivo readouts of immune system activation all showed that while individual PRR agonists increased the immunogenicity of vaccines compared to alum alone, the combination of both PRR agonists was significantly more effective. Combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2 results in a stronger and broader transcriptional response in THP-1 cells compared to individual PRR stimulation. Immunostimulatory composition containing both PRR agonists (MPLA and MDP) in the context of the alum-based ovalbumin vaccine also enhanced uptake of vaccine particles by bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and promoted maturation (up-regulation of expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII) and activation (production of cytokines) of BMDCs. Finally, immunization of mice with vaccine particles containing both PRR agonists resulted in enhanced cellular immunity as indicated by increased proliferation and activation (IFN-γ production) of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following in vitro restimulation with ovalbumin and enhanced humoral immunity as indicated by higher titers of ovalbumin-specific IgG antibodies. These results indicate that combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2

  4. Molecular immune response of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    PubMed

    Xu, De-Hai; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Shoemaker, Craig A; Zhang, Dunhua; Moreira, Gabriel S A

    2016-07-01

    The parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) has been reported in various freshwater fishes worldwide and results in severe losses to both food and aquarium fish production. The fish surviving natural infections or immunized with live theronts develop strong specific and non-specific immune responses. Little is known about how these immune genes are induced or how they interact and lead to specific immunity against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. This study evaluated the differential expression of immune-related genes, including immunoglobulin, immune cell receptor, cytokine, complement factor and toll-like receptors in head kidney from channel catfish at different time points after immunization with live theronts of I. multifiliis. The immunized fish showed significantly higher anti-Ich antibody expressed as immobilization titer and ELISA titer than those of control fish. The vast majority of immunized fish (95%) survived theront challenge. Expression of IgM and IgD heavy chain genes exhibited a rapid increase from 4 hour (h4) to 2 days (d2) post immunization. Expression of immune cell receptor genes (CD4, CD8-α, MHC I, MHC II β, TcR-α, and TcR-β) showed up-regulation from h4 to d6 post immunization, indicating that different immune cells were actively involved in cellular immune response. Cytokine gene expression (IL-1βa, IL-1βb, IFN-γ and TNF-α) increased rapidly at h4 post immunization and were at an up-regulated level until d2 compared to the bovine serum albumin control. Expression of complement factor and toll-like receptor genes exhibited a rapid increase from h4 to d2 post immunization. Results of this study demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in the specific or non-specific immune response post immunization and that the vaccination against Ich resulted in protection against infection by I. multifiliis. PMID:27044331

  5. Rift Valley Fever Virus Encephalitis Is Associated with an Ineffective Systemic Immune Response and Activated T Cell Infiltration into the CNS in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Kimberly A.; McElroy, Anita K.; Jones, Tara L.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes outbreaks of severe disease in livestock and humans throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In people, RVFV generally causes a self-limiting febrile illness but in a subset of individuals, it progresses to more serious disease. One manifestation is a delayed-onset encephalitis that can be fatal or leave the afflicted with long-term neurologic sequelae. In order to design targeted interventions, the basic pathogenesis of RVFV encephalitis must be better understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To characterize the host immune responses and viral kinetics associated with fatal and nonfatal infections, mice were infected with an attenuated RVFV lacking NSs (ΔNSs) that causes lethal disease only when administered intranasally (IN). Following IN infection, C57BL/6 mice developed severe neurologic disease and succumbed 7–9 days post-infection. In contrast, inoculation of ΔNSs virus subcutaneously in the footpad (FP) resulted in a subclinical infection characterized by a robust immune response with rapid antibody production and strong T cell responses. IN-inoculated mice had delayed antibody responses and failed to clear virus from the periphery. Severe neurological signs and obtundation characterized end stage-disease in IN-inoculated mice, and within the CNS, the development of peak virus RNA loads coincided with strong proinflammatory responses and infiltration of activated T cells. Interestingly, depletion of T cells did not significantly alter survival, suggesting that neurologic disease is not a by-product of an aberrant immune response. Conclusions/Significance Comparison of fatal (IN-inoculated) and nonfatal (FP-inoculated) ΔNSs RVFV infections in the mouse model highlighted the role of the host immune response in controlling viral replication and therefore determining clinical outcome. There was no evidence to suggest that neurologic disease is immune-mediated in RVFV infection. These results provide

  6. Transient activation of mucosal effector immune responses by resident intestinal bacteria in normal hosts is regulated by interleukin-10 signalling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cong; Sartor, R Balfour; Huang, Kehe; Tonkonogy, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a key regulator of mucosal homeostasis. In the current study we investigated the early events after monoassociating germ-free (GF) wild-type (WT) mice with an Escherichia coli strain that we isolated previously from the caecal contents of a normal mouse housed under specific pathogen-free conditions. Our results show that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreted by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from both IL-10 deficient mice and WT mice, stimulated ex vivo with E. coli lysate, was dramatically higher at day 4 after monoassociation compared with IFN-γ secreted by cells from GF mice without E. coli colonization. Production of IFN-γ rapidly and progressively declined after colonization of WT but not IL-10-deficient mice. The E. coli lysate-stimulated WT MLN cells also produced IL-10 that peaked at day 4 and subsequently declined, but not as precipitously as IFN-γ. WT cells that express CD4, CD8 and NKp46 produced IFN-γ; WT CD4-positive cells and B cells produced IL-10. Recombinant IL-10 added to E. coli-stimulated MLN cell cultures inhibited IFN-γ secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. MLN cells from WT mice treated in vivo with neutralizing anti-IL-10 receptor antibody produced more IFN-γ compared with MLN cells from isotype control antibody-treated mice. These findings show that a resident E. coli that induces chronic colitis in monoassociated IL-10-deficient mice rapidly but transiently activates the effector immune system in normal hosts, in parallel with induction of protective IL-10 produced by B cells and CD4(+) cells that subsequently suppresses this response to mediate mucosal homeostasis. PMID:27147411

  7. Maternal antibodies and infant immune responses to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kathryn M

    2015-11-25

    Infants are born with immature immune systems, making it difficult for them to effectively respond to the infectious pathogens encountered shortly after birth. Maternal antibody is actively transported across the placenta and serves to provide protection to the newborn during the first weeks to months of life. However, maternal antibody has been shown repeatedly to inhibit the immune responses of young children to vaccines. The mechanisms for this inhibition are presented and the impact on ultimate immune responses is discussed. PMID:26256526

  8. Immune response during space flight.

    PubMed

    Criswell-Hudak, B S

    1991-01-01

    The health status of an astronaut prior to and following space flight has been a prime concern of NASA throughout the Apollo series of lunar landings, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz Test Projects (ASTP), and the new Spacelab-Shuttle missions. Both humoral and cellular immunity has been studied using classical clinical procedures. Serum proteins show fluctuations that can be explained with adaptation to flight. Conversely, cellular immune responses of lymphocytes appear to be depressed in both in vivo as well as in vitro. If this depression in vivo and in vitro is a result of the same cause, then man's adaptation to outer space living will present interesting challenges in the future. Since the cause may be due to reduced gravity, perhaps the designs of the experiments for space flight will offer insights at the cellular levels that will facilitate development of mechanisms for adaptation. Further, if the aging process is viewed as an adaptational concept or model and not as a disease process then perhaps space flight could very easily interact to supply some information on our biological time clocks. PMID:1915698

  9. Regulation of immune responses by neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Arase, Hisashi

    2014-06-01

    Neutrophils, the most abundant circulating cells in humans, are major pathogen-killing immune cells. For many years, these cells were considered to be simple killers at the "bottom" of immune responses. However, recent studies have revealed more sophisticated mechanisms associated with neutrophilic cytotoxic functions, and neutrophils have been shown to contribute to various infectious and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the key features of neutrophils during inflammatory responses, from their release from the bone marrow to their death in inflammatory loci. We also discuss the expanding roles of neutrophils that have been identified in the context of several inflammatory diseases. We further focus on the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil recruitment to inflamed tissues and neutrophil cytotoxic activities against both pathogens and host tissues. PMID:24850053

  10. Chitin Modulates Innate Immune Responses of Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Barbara; Müller-Wiefel, Alisa Sophie; Rupec, Rudolph; Korting, Hans Christian; Ruzicka, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Chitin, after cellulose the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, is an essential component of exoskeletons of crabs, shrimps and insects and protects these organisms from harsh conditions in their environment. Unexpectedly, chitin has been found to activate innate immune cells and to elicit murine airway inflammation. The skin represents the outer barrier of the human host defense and is in frequent contact with chitin-bearing organisms, such as house-dust mites or flies. The effects of chitin on keratinocytes, however, are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesized that chitin stimulates keratinocytes and thereby modulates the innate immune response of the skin. Here we show that chitin is bioactive on primary and immortalized keratinocytes by triggering production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Chitin stimulation further induced the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) TLR4 on keratinocytes at mRNA and protein level. Chitin-induced effects were mainly abrogated when TLR2 was blocked, suggesting that TLR2 senses chitin on keratinocytes. Conclusions/Significance We speculate that chitin-bearing organisms modulate the innate immune response towards pathogens by upregulating secretion of cytokines and chemokines and expression of MyD88-associated TLRs, two major components of innate immunity. The clinical relevance of this mechanism remains to be defined. PMID:21383982

  11. Targeting the tumor microenvironment to enhance antitumor immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Van der Jeught, Kevin; Bialkowski, Lukasz; Daszkiewicz, Lidia; Broos, Katrijn; Goyvaerts, Cleo; Renmans, Dries; Van Lint, Sandra; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-specific antigens and the immune responses directed against them has instigated the development of therapies to enhance antitumor immune responses. Most of these cancer immunotherapies are administered systemically rather than directly to tumors. Nonetheless, numerous studies have demonstrated that intratumoral therapy is an attractive approach, both for immunization and immunomodulation purposes. Injection, recruitment and/or activation of antigen-presenting cells in the tumor nest have been extensively studied as strategies to cross-prime immune responses. Moreover, delivery of stimulatory cytokines, blockade of inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint blockade have been explored to restore immunological fitness at the tumor site. These tumor-targeted therapies have the potential to induce systemic immunity without the toxicity that is often associated with systemic treatments. We review the most promising intratumoral immunotherapies, how these affect systemic antitumor immunity such that disseminated tumor cells are eliminated, and which approaches have been proven successful in animal models and patients. PMID:25682197

  12. Immune Response to Recombinant Capsid Proteins of Adenovirus in Humans: Antifiber and Anti-Penton Base Antibodies Have a Synergistic Effect on Neutralizing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gahéry-Ségard, Hanne; Farace, Françoise; Godfrin, Dominique; Gaston, Jesintha; Lengagne, Renée; Tursz, Thomas; Boulanger, Pierre; Guillet, Jean-Gérard

    1998-01-01

    Replication-deficient adenovirus used in humans for gene therapy induces a strong immune response to the vector, resulting in transient recombinant protein expression and the blocking of gene transfer upon a second administration. Therefore, in this study we examined in detail the capsid-specific humoral immune response in sera of patients with lung cancer who had been given one dose of a replication-defective adenovirus. We analyzed the immune response to the three major components of the viral capsid, hexon (Hx), penton base (Pb), and fiber (Fi). A longitudinal study of the humoral response assayed on adenovirus particle-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates showed that patients had preexisting immunity to adenovirus prior to the administration of adenovirus–β-gal. The level of the response increased in three patients after adenovirus administration and remained at a maximum after three months. One patient had a strong immune response to adenovirus prior to treatment, and this response was unaffected by adenovirus administration. Sera collected from the patients were assayed for recognition of each individual viral capsid protein to determine more precisely the molecular basis of the humoral immune response. Clear differences existed in the humoral response to the three major components of the viral capsid in serum from humans. Sequential appearance of these antibodies was observed: anti-Fi antibodies appeared first, followed by anti-Pb antibodies and then by anti-Hx antibodies. Moreover, anti-Fi antibodies preferentially recognized the native trimeric form of Fi protein, suggesting that they recognized conformational epitopes. Our results showed that sera with no neutralizing activity contained only anti-Fi antibodies. In contrast, neutralizing activity was only obtained with sera containing anti-Fi and anti-Pb antibodies. More importantly, we showed that anti-native Fi and anti-Pb antibodies had a synergistic effect on neutralization. The

  13. Staphylococcal manipulation of host immune responses.

    PubMed

    Thammavongsa, Vilasack; Kim, Hwan Keun; Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial commensal of the human nares and skin, is a frequent cause of soft tissue and bloodstream infections. A hallmark of staphylococcal infections is their frequent recurrence, even when treated with antibiotics and surgical intervention, which demonstrates the bacterium's ability to manipulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In this Review, we highlight how S. aureus virulence factors inhibit complement activation, block and destroy phagocytic cells and modify host B cell and T cell responses, and we discuss how these insights might be useful for the development of novel therapies against infections with antibiotic resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:26272408

  14. Staphylococcal manipulation of host immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Thammavongsa, Vilasack; Kim, Hwan Keun; Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial commensal of the human nares and skin, is a frequent cause of soft tissue and bloodstream infections. A hallmark of staphylococcal infections is their frequent recurrence, even when treated with antibiotics and surgical intervention, which demonstrates the bacterium’s ability to manipulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In this Review, we highlight how S. aureus virulence factors inhibit complement activation, block and destroy phagocytic cells and modify host B and T cell responses, and we discuss how these insights might be useful for the development of novel therapies against infections with antibiotic resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:26272408

  15. Activation of the immune response against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus after intramuscular inoculation of an intermediate strain.

    PubMed

    Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Zoth, Silvina Chimeno; Gómez, Evangelina; Gravisaco, María José; Berinstein, Analía

    2011-09-01

    Infectious bursal disesase is a highly contagious, wide spread immunosuppressive chicken disease caused by the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV). IBDV is a two segmented double-strand RNA virus, member of the Birnaviridae family. In order to study the interaction between IBDV and the immune system, chickens were exposed to an intermediate IBDV strain by intramuscular route, and using Real Time PCR the expression of a panel of avian cytokines and chemokines in duodenum, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was analyzed. Also, splenic nitrite (NO₂) production and the frequencies of different mononuclear cell populations were evaluated by Griess reaction and flow cytometry, respectively. Intramuscular (i.m.) IBDV inoculation promoted an over expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-15 and gIFN in spleen, which correlated with an increase of gIFN plasma concentration measured by ELISA, together with an increment of NO₂ concentration in splenocyte supernatants at 1dpi. Results obtained in the present work showed that IBDV of intermediate virulence, given i.m., induced similar effects to those previously described for highly virulent IBDV in early innate immune responses. Considering that the i.m. route is the route of choice for the delivery of new generation vaccines, and that the use of recombinant antigens also requires the addition of adjuvants for proper immune stimulation, results presented here could contribute to identify suitable cytokines to be used or to be stimulated when utilizing subunit vaccines, for the improvement of prevention tools for avian health. PMID:21514000

  16. NUTRITION AND THE AGING IMMUNE RESPONSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of neoplastic and infectious diseases is increased in the elderly, as is the resulting morbidity and mortality. The age-related changes of the immune response have mainly been reported for cell-mediated immune functions such as DTH skin response, antibody response to T cell-dependent a...

  17. Immunization with Human Papillomavirus 16 L1+E2 Chimeric Capsomers Elicits Cellular Immune Response and Antitumor Activity in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    López-Toledo, Gabriela; Schädlich, Lysann; Alonso-Castro, Ángel Josabad; Monroy-García, Alberto; García-Rocha, Rosario; Guido, Miriam C; Gissmann, Lutz; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Development of cervical cancer is associated with persistent infections by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Although current HPV L1-based prophylactic vaccines prevent infection, they do not help to eliminate prevalent infections or lesions. Our aims were (i) to generate a vaccine combining prophylactic and therapeutic properties by producing chimeric capsomers after fusion of the L1 protein to different fragments of E2 from HPV 16, and (ii) to evaluate their capacity to generate an antitumoral cellular response, while conserving L1 neutralizing epitopes. Chimeric proteins were produced in Escherichia coli and purified by glutathione S-transferase (GST)-affinity chromatography. Their structure was characterized using size exclusion chromatography, sucrose gradient centrifugation, electron microscopy, and anti-L1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All chimeric proteins form capsomers and heterogeneous aggregates. One, containing part of the carboxy-terminal domain of E2 and its hinge region (L1Δ+E2H/NC, aa 206-307), conserved the neutralizing epitope H16.V5. We then evaluated the capacity of this chimeric protein to induce a cytotoxic T-cell response against HPV 16 E2. In (51)Cr release cytotoxicity assays, splenocytes from C57BL/6 immunized mice recognized and lysed TC-1/E2 cells, which express and present endogenously processed E2 peptides. Moreover, this E2-specific cytotoxic response inhibited the growth of tumors of TC-1/E2 cells in mice. Finally, we identified an epitope (aa 292-301) of E2 involved in this cytotoxic response. We conclude that the L1Δ+E2H/NC chimeric protein produced in bacteria can be an effective and economically interesting candidate for a combined prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine that could help eliminating HPV16-positive low-grade cervical lesions and persistent viral infections, thus preventing the development of lesions and, at the same time, the establishment of new infections. PMID:27058179

  18. A Hypothesis: Supplementation with Mushroom-Derived Active Compound Modulates Immunity and Increases Survival in Response to Influenza Virus (H1N1) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chunchao, Han; Guo, Jian-you

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that the mushroom-derived active compound may be a potential strategy for increasing survival in response to influenza virus (H1N1) infection through the stimulation of host innate immune response. The validity of the hypothesis can be tested by immune response to influenza infection as seen through survival percentage, virus clearance, weight loss, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels, lytic efficiency in the spleens of mice and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expressions in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The hypothesis may improve people's quality of life, reduce the medical cost of our healthcare system and eliminate people's fears of influenza outbreak. PMID:21660092

  19. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  20. Plasmids enriched with CpG motifs activate human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and enhance th-1 immune responses to hepatitis B surface antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihui; Cao, Jie; Liao, Xiaoling; Ke, Jinshan; Zhu, Shiying; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhongtian

    2011-06-01

    T helper-1 (Th-1)-type immune responses play an important role in viral clearance during infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Unmethylated CpG motifs present in bacterial DNA can activate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signals and act as potent adjuvants to induce Th-1-type immune responses. Here, a mini-plasmid with 812 base pairs in length was constructed and used as a vector to prepare a series of plasmids containing 3-21 copies of D-type CpG motifs. In vitro, these CpG-enriched plasmids strongly stimulated proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and enhanced secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). The responses of the PBMCs from healthy individuals to the plasmids were stronger than those obtained from HBV-infected individuals. Contrary to the strong Th-2-biased response induced by surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) plus alum adjuvant, immunization of BALB/c mice with HBsAg plus these plasmids induced a strong Th-1-biased response. The plasmids increased the titers of HBsAg-specific total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG(2a). HBsAg-specific IL-2 and IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity were also enhanced in the presence of the plasmids. The strength of the immune responses positively correlated with the number of CpG motifs in the plasmids. These results indicate that the use of CpG-enriched plasmids as an adjuvant to recombinant HBsAg could provide a promising and cost-effective approach for the development of efficacious therapeutic vaccines against HBV infection. PMID:21668361

  1. Immune responses to infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2013-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. Despite the extensive use of attenuated, and more recently recombinant, vaccines for the control of this disease, ILT continues to affect the intensive poultry industries worldwide. Innate and cell-mediated, rather than humoral immune responses, have been identified as responsible for protection against disease. This review examines the current understandings in innate and adaptive immune responses towards ILTV, as well as the role of ILTV glycoprotein G in modulating the host immune response towards infection. Protective immunity induced by ILT vaccines is also examined. The increasing availability of tools and reagents for the characterisation of avian innate and cell-mediated immune responses are expected to further our understanding of immunity against ILTV and drive the development of new generation vaccines towards enhanced control of this disease. PMID:23567343

  2. Immune responses to pertussis vaccines and disease.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kathryn M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2014-04-01

    In this article we discuss the following: (1) acellular vaccines are immunogenic, but responses vary by vaccine; (2) pertussis antibody levels rapidly wane but promptly increase after vaccination; (3) whole-cell vaccines vary in immunogenicity and efficacy; (4) whole-cell vaccines and naturally occurring pertussis generate predominantly T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, whereas acellular vaccines generate mixed Th1/Th2 responses; (5) active transplacental transport of pertussis antibody is documented; (6) neonatal immunization with diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine has been associated with some suppression of pertussis antibody, but suppression has been seen less often with acellular vaccines; (7) memory B cells persist in both acellular vaccine- and whole cell vaccine-primed children; and (8) in acellular vaccine-primed children, T-cell responses remain elevated and do not increase with vaccine boosters, whereas in whole-cell vaccine-primed children, these responses can be increased by vaccine boosting and natural exposure. Despite these findings, challenges remain in understanding the immune response to pertussis vaccines. PMID:24158958

  3. Delineation of a CpG phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide for activating primate immune responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, G; Weeratna, R D; Ballas, Z K; Payette, P; Blackwell, S; Suparto, I; Rasmussen, W L; Waldschmidt, M; Sajuthi, D; Purcell, R H; Davis, H L; Krieg, A M

    2000-02-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within specific sequence contexts (CpG motifs) are detected, like bacterial or viral DNA, as a danger signal by the vertebrate immune system. CpG ODN synthesized with a nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate backbone have been shown to be potent Th1-directed adjuvants in mice, but these motifs have been relatively inactive on primate leukocytes in vitro. Moreover, in vitro assays that predict in vivo adjuvant activity for primates have not been reported. In the present study we tested a panel of CpG ODN for their in vitro and in vivo immune effects in mice and identified in vitro activation of B and NK cells as excellent predictors of in vivo adjuvant activity. Therefore, we tested >250 phosphorothioate ODN for their capacity to stimulate proliferation and CD86 expression of human B cells and to induce lytic activity and CD69 expression of human NK cells. These studies revealed that the sequence, number, and spacing of individual CpG motifs contribute to the immunostimulatory activity of a CpG phosphorothioate ODN. An ODN with a TpC dinucleotide at the 5' end followed by three 6 mer CpG motifs (5'-GTCGTT-3') separated by TpT dinucleotides consistently showed the highest activity for human, chimpanzee, and rhesus monkey leukocytes. Chimpanzees or monkeys vaccinated once against hepatitis B with this CpG ODN adjuvant developed 15 times higher anti-hepatitis B Ab titers than those receiving vaccine alone. In conclusion, we report an optimal human CpG motif for phosphorothioate ODN that is a candidate human vaccine adjuvant. PMID:10640783

  4. Hypothalamic neurohormones and immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Quintanar, J. Luis; Guzmán-Soto, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive examination of the current literature describing the neural-immune interactions, with emphasis on the most recent findings of the effects of neurohormones on immune system. Particularly, the role of hypothalamic hormones such as Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In the past few years, interest has been raised in extrapituitary actions of these neurohormones due to their receptors have been found in many non-pituitary tissues. Also, the receptors are present in immune cells, suggesting an autocrine or paracrine role within the immune system. In general, these neurohormones have been reported to exert immunomodulatory effects on cell proliferation, immune mediators release and cell function. The implications of these findings in understanding the network of hypothalamic neuropeptides and immune system are discussed. PMID:23964208

  5. Ubiquitination in the Antiviral Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Meredith E.; Gack, Michaela U.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination has long been known to regulate fundamental cellular processes through the induction of proteasomal degradation of target proteins. More recently, ‘atypical’ nondegradative types of polyubiquitin chains have been appreciated as important regulatory moieties by modulating the activity or subcellular localization of key signaling proteins. Intriguingly, many of these non-degradative types of ubiquitination regulate the innate sensing pathways initiated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), ultimately coordinating an effective antiviral immune response. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding the functional roles of degradative and atypical types of ubiquitination in innate immunity to viral infections, with a specific focus on the signaling pathways triggered by RIG-I-like receptors, Toll-like receptors, and the intracellular viral DNA sensor cGAS. PMID:25753787

  6. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response using the avian innate immunity microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The avian innate immunity microarray (AIIM) is a genomics tool designed to study the transcriptional activity of the avian immune response (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 117:139-145, 2007). It is an avian cDNA microarray representing 4,959 avian genes spotted in triplicate. The AIIM contains 25 avian int...

  7. B-cell activating CpG ODN 1668 enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) exposed to Vibrio parahaemolitycus.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Reyna, Tomás; Angulo, Carlos; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Velázquez-Lizárraga, Esteban; Reyes-Becerril, Martha

    2016-09-01

    B-class CpG ODN 1668 is known to possess clear immunostimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the potential ability of CpG ODN 1668 to enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper exposed to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Four different treatments were evaluated in Pacific red snapper: (1) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668, (2) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668 and V. parahaemolyticus, (3) exposure only to V. parahaemolyticus and (4) PBS. Samples were taken at 24, 72, 168 and 240 h of stimulation/infection. The results show that intraperitoneal injection of CpG-ODN 1668 enhanced the anti-protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in serum. CpG ODN 1668 upregulated TLR9 and IgM gene expression in head-kidney, intestine and skin, with higher expression in head-kidney. A higher correlation was observed between TLR9 and IgM in head-kidney and intestine. Finally, no histopathological damages were observed in fish stimulated with CpG ODN 1668. In contrast, melanomacrophages-like structures were present in higher numbers in infected fish. Taken together, these results indicate that CpG ODN 1668 activates innate immune response and upregulate the TLR9 and IgM-mediated immune response. These results may be exploited for the control of Vibriosis in farmed Pacific red snapper. PMID:27143535

  8. Is Infant Immunity Actively Suppressed or Immature?

    PubMed Central

    Gervassi, Ana L; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Almost 7 million children under the age 5 die each year, and most of these deaths are attributable to vaccine-preventable infections. Young infants respond poorly to infections and vaccines. In particular, dendritic cells secrete less IL-12 and IL-18, CD8pos T cells and NK cells have defective cytolysis and cytokine production, and CD4pos T cell responses tend to bias towards a Th2 phenotype and promotion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The basis for these differences is not well understood and may be in part explained by epigenetic differences, as well as immaturity of the infant’s immune system. Here we present a third possibility, which involves active suppression by immune regulatory cells and place in context the immune suppressive pathways of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), CD5pos B cells, and Tregs. The immune pathways that these immune regulatory cells inhibit are similar to those that are defective in the infant. Therefore, the immune deficiencies seen in infants could be explained, in part, by active suppressive cells, indicating potential new avenues for intervention. PMID:25429207

  9. Tipping a favorable CNS intratumoral immune response using immune stimulation combined with inhibition of tumor-mediated immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Yuan; Wei, Jun; Fuller, Gregory N; Schrand, Brett; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Zhou, Shouhao; Rao, Ganesh; Calin, George; Gilboa, Eli; Heimberger, Amy B

    2016-05-01

    High-grade gliomas are notoriously heterogeneous regarding antigen expression, effector responses, and immunosuppressive mechanisms. Therefore, combinational immune therapeutic approaches are more likely to impact a greater number of patients and result in longer, durable responses. We have previously demonstrated the monotherapeutic effects of miR-124, which inhibits the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) immune suppressive pathway, and immune stimulatory 4-1BB aptamers against a variety of malignancies, including genetically engineered immune competent high-grade gliomas. To evaluate potential synergy, we tested an immune stimulatory aptamer together with microRNA-124 (miRNA-124), which blocks tumor-mediated immune suppression, and found survival to be markedly enhanced, including beyond that produced by monotherapy. The synergistic activity appeared to be not only secondary to enhanced CD3(+) cell numbers but also to reduced macrophage immune tumor trafficking, indicating that a greater therapeutic benefit can be achieved with approaches that both induce immune activation and inhibit tumor-mediated immune suppression within the central nervous system (CNS) tumors. PMID:27467917

  10. Dynamic Nature of Noncoding RNA Regulation of Adaptive Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Curtale, Graziella; Citarella, Franca

    2013-01-01

    Immune response plays a fundamental role in protecting the organism from infections; however, dysregulation often occurs and can be detrimental for the organism, leading to a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Recently our understanding of the molecular and cellular networks regulating the immune response, and, in particular, adaptive immunity, has improved dramatically. For many years, much of the focus has been on the study of protein regulators; nevertheless, recent evidence points to a fundamental role for specific classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in regulating development, activation and homeostasis of the immune system. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most comprehensive and well-studied, a number of reports suggest the exciting possibility that long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) could mediate host response and immune function. Finally, evidence is also accumulating that suggests a role for miRNAs and other small ncRNAs in autocrine, paracrine and exocrine signaling events, thus highlighting an elaborate network of regulatory interactions mediated by different classes of ncRNAs during immune response. This review will explore the multifaceted roles of ncRNAs in the adaptive immune response. In particular, we will focus on the well-established role of miRNAs and on the emerging role of lncRNAs and circulating ncRNAs, which all make indispensable contributions to the understanding of the multilayered modulation of the adaptive immune response. PMID:23975170

  11. DNA Damage Response and Immune Defense: Links and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nakad, Rania; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage plays a causal role in numerous human pathologies including cancer, premature aging, and chronic inflammatory conditions. In response to genotoxic insults, the DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates DNA damage checkpoint activation and facilitates the removal of DNA lesions. The DDR can also arouse the immune system by for example inducing the expression of antimicrobial peptides as well as ligands for receptors found on immune cells. The activation of immune signaling is triggered by different components of the DDR including DNA damage sensors, transducer kinases, and effectors. In this review, we describe recent advances on the understanding of the role of DDR in activating immune signaling. We highlight evidence gained into (i) which molecular and cellular pathways of DDR activate immune signaling, (ii) how DNA damage drives chronic inflammation, and (iii) how chronic inflammation causes DNA damage and pathology in humans. PMID:27555866

  12. Monitoring immune responses in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Jennifer A; Reddy, Sangeetha M; Reuben, Alexandre; Sharma, Padmanee

    2016-08-01

    Immune monitoring in the tumor microenvironment allows for important insights into immune mechanisms of response and resistance to various cancer treatments; however clinical challenges exist using current strategies. Significant questions remain regarding monitoring of archival versus fresh tissue, assessment of static versus dynamic markers, evaluation of limited tissue samples, and the translation of insights gained from immunologically 'hot' tumors such as melanoma to other 'cold' tumor microenvironments prevalent in other cancer types. Current and emerging immune monitoring strategies will be examined herein, and genomic-based assays complementing these techniques will also be discussed. Finally, host genomic and external environmental factors influencing anti-tumor immune responses will be considered, including the role of the gut microbiome. Though optimal immune monitoring techniques are in evolution, great promise exists in recent advances that will help guide patient selection as far as type, sequence, and combination of therapeutic regimens to enhance anti-tumor immunity and clinical responses. PMID:27240055

  13. Partial Sleep Restriction Activates Immune Response-Related Gene Expression Pathways: Experimental and Epidemiological Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rantanen, Ville; Kronholm, Erkki; Surakka, Ida; van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Lehto, Maili; Matikainen, Sampsa; Ripatti, Samuli; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Salomaa, Veikko; Jauhiainen, Matti; Alenius, Harri; Paunio, Tiina; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9) was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4) spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472). Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-κB signaling (P<0.005). Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:24194869

  14. Immunomodulating activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. extracts: activation of rat dendritic cells and improvement of the T(H)1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 μg/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 μg/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a T(H)1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of T(H)1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs. PMID:23109818

  15. Increased 18F-FDG uptake within the reticuloendothelial system in patients with active lung cancer on PET imaging may indicate activation of the systemic immune response.

    PubMed

    Bural, Gonca G; Torigian, Drew A; Chen, Wengen; Houseni, Mohamed; Basu, Sandip; Alavi, Abass

    2010-01-01

    systemic immune response, related to the presence or absence of active lung cancer, which can be detected and quantified non-invasively through (18)F-FDG-PET imaging. PMID:20411166

  16. Host responses to Renibacterium salmoninarum and specific components of the pathogen reveal the mechanisms of immune suppression and activation.

    PubMed

    Grayson, T Hilton; Cooper, Lynne F; Wrathmell, Annette B; Roper, Janet; Evenden, Andrew J; Gilpin, Martyn L

    2002-06-01

    During infection, Renibacterium salmoninarum survives within the pronephric macrophages of salmonid fish. Therefore, to study the initial phases of the interaction we infected macrophages with live bacteria and analysed the responses of host and pathogen. It was found that the expression of msa encoding the p57 antigen of R. salmoninarum, was constitutive, while the expression of hly and rsh, encoding haemolysins, and lysB and grp was reduced after infection. Macrophages showed a rapid inflammatory response in which the expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), inducible cyclo-oxygenase (Cox-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was enhanced, but tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression was greatly reduced initially and then increased. After 5 days, except for TNF-alpha and MHC II, expression returned to levels approaching those of uninfected macrophages. We propose that R. salmoninarum survives initial contact with macrophages by avoiding and/or interfering with TNF-alpha-dependent killing pathways. The effects of specific R. salmoninarum components were studied in vivo by injecting fish with DNA vaccine constructs expressing msa, hly, rsh, lysB, or grp. We found that msa reduced the expression of IL-1beta, Cox-2, and MHC II but stimulated TNF-alpha while hly, rsh and grp stimulated MHC II but down-regulated TNF-alpha. Constructs expressing hly or lysB stimulated iNOS expression and additionally, lysB stimulated TNF-alpha. The results show how p57 suppresses the host immune system and suggest that the immune mechanisms for the containment of R. salmoninarum infections rely on MHC II- and TNF-alpha-dependent pathways. Moreover, prolonged stimulation of TNF-alpha may contribute to the chronic inflammatory pathology of bacterial kidney disease. PMID:12047757

  17. Host responses to Renibacterium salmoninarum and specific components of the pathogen reveal the mechanisms of immune suppression and activation

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, T Hilton; Cooper, Lynne F; Wrathmell, Annette B; Roper, Janet; Evenden, Andrew J; Gilpin, Martyn L

    2002-01-01

    During infection, Renibacterium salmoninarum survives within the pronephric macrophages of salmonid fish. Therefore, to study the initial phases of the interaction we infected macrophages with live bacteria and analysed the responses of host and pathogen. It was found that the expression of msa encoding the p57 antigen of R. salmoninarum, was constitutive, while the expression of hly and rsh, encoding haemolysins, and lysB and grp was reduced after infection. Macrophages showed a rapid inflammatory response in which the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), inducible cyclo-oxygenase (Cox-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was enhanced, but tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression was greatly reduced initially and then increased. After 5 days, except for TNF-α and MHC II, expression returned to levels approaching those of uninfected macrophages. We propose that R. salmoninarum survives initial contact with macrophages by avoiding and/or interfering with TNF-α-dependent killing pathways. The effects of specific R. salmoninarum components were studied in vivo by injecting fish with DNA vaccine constructs expressing msa, hly, rsh, lysB, or grp. We found that msa reduced the expression of IL-1β, Cox-2, and MHC II but stimulated TNF-α while hly, rsh and grp stimulated MHC II but down-regulated TNF-α. Constructs expressing hly or lysB stimulated iNOS expression and additionally, lysB stimulated TNF-α. The results show how p57 suppresses the host immune system and suggest that the immune mechanisms for the containment of R. salmoninarum infections rely on MHC II- and TNF-α-dependent pathways. Moreover, prolonged stimulation of TNF-α may contribute to the chronic inflammatory pathology of bacterial kidney disease. PMID:12047757

  18. Protective host immune responses to Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Oanh H; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi are the causative agents of human typhoid fever. Current typhoid vaccines are ineffective and are not widely used in endemic areas. Greater understanding of host–pathogen interactions during Salmonella infection should facilitate the development of improved vaccines to combat typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonellosis. This review will focus on our current understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis and the major host immune components that participate in immunity to Salmonella infection. In addition, recent findings regarding host immune mechanisms in response to Salmonella infection will be also discussed, providing a new perspective on the utility of improved tools to study the immune response to Salmonella infections. PMID:25598340

  19. The innate immune response in the central nervous system and its role in glioma immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Friese, M A; Steinle, A; Weller, M

    2004-10-01

    The innate immune system encompasses natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and granulocytes, the complement system and antimicrobial peptides. Recognition pathways of the innate immune system include microbial non-self recognition, missing-self recognition and induced- self recognition. The central nervous system (CNS) participates in responses of the innate immune system. However, immune inhibitory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms physiologically outbalance and counteract immune activity and thereby limit immune-mediated tissue damage in the brain. Human gliomas appear to take advantage of this immunosuppressive milieu. Moreover, glioma cells themselves interfere with anti-tumor immune responses by expressing immune inhibitory cell surface molecules, such as HLA-G, or by releasing soluble immunosuppressants such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Yet, although glioma cells exhibit all cellular features of malignancy, these tumors very rarely metastasize outside the brain, raising the possibility of immune-mediated control of these cells outside, but not inside, the brain. Accordingly, activating the innate immune system by forcing glioma cells to express danger signals such as NKG2D ligands is a promising strategy of immunotherapy for these tumors. PMID:15585981

  20. Proteasome function shapes innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kammerl, Ilona E; Meiners, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome system degrades more than 80% of intracellular proteins into small peptides. Accordingly, the proteasome is involved in many essential cellular functions, such as protein quality control, transcription, immune responses, cell signaling, and apoptosis. Moreover, degradation products are loaded onto major histocompatibility class I molecules to communicate the intracellular protein composition to the immune system. The standard 20S proteasome core complex contains three distinct catalytic active sites that are exchanged upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines to form the so-called immunoproteasome. Immunoproteasomes are constitutively expressed in immune cells and have different proteolytic activities compared with standard proteasomes. They are rapidly induced in parenchymal cells upon intracellular pathogen infection and are crucial for priming effective CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune responses against infected cells. Beyond shaping these adaptive immune reactions, immunoproteasomes also regulate the function of immune cells by degradation of inflammatory and immune mediators. Accordingly, they emerge as novel regulators of innate immune responses. The recently unraveled impairment of immunoproteasome function by environmental challenges and by genetic variations of immunoproteasome genes might represent a currently underestimated risk factor for the development and progression of lung diseases. In particular, immunoproteasome dysfunction will dampen resolution of infections, thereby promoting exacerbations, may foster autoimmunity in chronic lung diseases, and possibly contributes to immune evasion of tumor cells. Novel pharmacological tools, such as site-specific inhibitors of the immunoproteasome, as well as activity-based probes, however, hold promises as innovative therapeutic drugs for respiratory diseases and biomarker profiling, respectively. PMID:27343191

  1. Antibodies against small heat-shock proteins in Alzheimer's disease as a part of natural human immune repertoire or activation of humoral response?

    PubMed

    Papuć, Ewa; Krupski, Witold; Kurys-Denis, Ewa; Rejdak, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of autoantibodies specific for some disease-related proteins, would allow to better assess their role as diagnostic and prognostic markers. In the light of increasing evidence for both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and data on the increased small heat-shock proteins (sHSP) expression in this disease, it seemed justified to assess humoral response against sHSP in AD patients. The aim of the study was to check whether AD has the ability to elicit immune response against small HSP, which could also serve as disease biomarkers. IgG and IgM autoantibodies against alpha B-crystallin and anti-HSP 60 IgG autoantibodies were assessed in 59 AD patients and 59 healthy subjects. Both IgM and IgG autoantibodies against alpha B-crystallin in AD patients were significantly higher compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between AD patients and healthy subjects were found in anti-HSP60 IgG autoantibody titers (p = 0.29). Anti-HSP60 antibodies present in AD patients may indeed belong to natural human immune repertoire, and chronic neurodegenerative process does not have significant inducing effect on the systemic immunoreactivity against HSP60. Increased titers of IgM and IgG autoantibodies against alpha B-crystallin in AD patients may reflect activation of humoral immune response in the course of this chronic disease, probably secondary to its increased expression. Further prospective studies, on larger group of AD patients and measuring a change in antibodies titers with disease progression are necessary to assess the exact role of these antibodies in AD. PMID:26566902

  2. Spaceflight and Development of Immune Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The objective of the studies contained in this project was to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of pregnant rats and their offspring. The hypothesis was that space flight and the attendant period of microgravity will result in alteration of immunological parameters of both the pregnant rats as well as their offspring carried in utero during the flight. The parameters tested included: production of cytokines, composition of leukocyte sub- populations, response of bone marrow/liver cells to granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor, and leukocyte blastogenesis. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection were determined. This yielded useful information for planning studies that could contribute to crew health. Additional information that could eventually prove useful to determine the potential for establishment of a permanent colony in space was obtained.

  3. In vivo activation of a T helper 2-driven innate immune response in lung fibrosis induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to certain forms of carbon nanotubes (CNT) induces fibrosing lesions in the lungs that manifest an acute inflammation followed by chronic interstitial fibrosis. The mechanism of CNT-induced fibrogenesis is largely unknown. The biphasic development with drastically distinct pathologic manifestations suggests a junction of acute-to-chronic transition. Here we analyzed the molecular pathways and regulators underlying the pathologic development of CNT-induced lung fibrosis. Mice were exposed to multi-walled CNT (MWCNT; XNRI MWNT-7, Mitsui; 40 μg) by pharyngeal aspiration for 7 days along with vehicle and carbonaceous controls. Genome-wide microarray analyses of the lungs identified a range of differentially expressed genes that potentially function in the acute-to-chronic transition through pathways involving immune and inflammatory regulation, responses to stress and extracellular stimuli, and cell migration and adhesion. In particular, a T helper 2 (Th2)-driven innate immune response was significantly enriched. We then demonstrated that MWCNT induced the expression of Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and a panel of signature downstream genes, such as Il4i1, Chia, and Ccl11/Eotaxin, time dependently. Induction of Th2 cytokines took place in CD4+ T lymphocytes indicating activation of Th2 cells. Furthermore, induction involved activation of a Th2 cell-specific signaling pathway through phosphorylation of STAT6 and up-regulation of GATA-3 to mediate the transcription of Th2 target genes. Our study uncovers activation of a Th2-driven immune/inflammatory response during pulmonary fibrosis development induced by MWCNT. The findings provide novel insights into the molecular events that control the transition from an acute inflammatory response to chronic fibrosis through Th2 functions in CNT-exposed lungs. PMID:27106021

  4. In vivo activation of a T helper 2-driven innate immune response in lung fibrosis induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Ma, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary exposure to certain forms of carbon nanotubes (CNT) induces fibrosing lesions in the lungs that manifest an acute inflammation followed by chronic interstitial fibrosis. The mechanism of CNT-induced fibrogenesis is largely unknown. The biphasic development with drastically distinct pathologic manifestations suggests a junction of acute-to-chronic transition. Here we analyzed the molecular pathways and regulators underlying the pathologic development of CNT-induced lung fibrosis. Mice were exposed to multi-walled CNT (MWCNT; XNRI MWNT-7, Mitsui; 40 μg) by pharyngeal aspiration for 7 days along with vehicle and carbonaceous controls. Genome-wide microarray analyses of the lungs identified a range of differentially expressed genes that potentially function in the acute-to-chronic transition through pathways involving immune and inflammatory regulation, responses to stress and extracellular stimuli, and cell migration and adhesion. In particular, a T helper 2 (Th2)-driven innate immune response was significantly enriched. We then demonstrated that MWCNT induced the expression of Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and a panel of signature downstream genes, such as Il4i1, Chia, and Ccl11/Eotaxin, time dependently. Induction of Th2 cytokines took place in CD4+ T lymphocytes indicating activation of Th2 cells. Furthermore, induction involved activation of a Th2 cell-specific signaling pathway through phosphorylation of STAT6 and up-regulation of GATA-3 to mediate the transcription of Th2 target genes. Our study uncovers activation of a Th2-driven immune/inflammatory response during pulmonary fibrosis development induced by MWCNT. The findings provide novel insights into the molecular events that control the transition from an acute inflammatory response to chronic fibrosis through Th2 functions in CNT-exposed lungs. PMID:27106021

  5. TRAF6 Establishes Innate Immune Responses by Activating NF-κB and IRF7 upon Sensing Cytosolic Viral RNA and DNA

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Takuya; Yamazaki, Kohsuke; Gohda, Jin; Akiyama, Taishin; Semba, Kentaro; Goto, Hideo; Kato, Atsushi; Yujiri, Toshiaki; Imai, Takahiko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Su, Bing; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Inoue, Jun-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Background In response to viral infection, the innate immune system recognizes viral nucleic acids and then induces production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9 detect viral RNA and DNA, respectively, in endosomal compartments, leading to the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. During such TLR signaling, TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is essential for the activation of NF-κB and the production of type I IFN. In contrast, RIG-like helicases (RLHs), cytosolic RNA sensors, are indispensable for antiviral responses in conventional dendritic cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts. However, the contribution of TRAF6 to the detection of cytosolic viral nucleic acids has been controversial, and the involvement of TRAF6 in IRF activation has not been adequately addressed. Principal Findings Here we first show that TRAF6 plays a critical role in RLH signaling. The absence of TRAF6 resulted in enhanced viral replication and a significant reduction in the production of IL-6 and type I IFNs after infection with RNA virus. Activation of NF-κB and IRF7, but not that of IRF3, was significantly impaired during RLH signaling in the absence of TRAF6. TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and MEKK3, whose activation by TRAF6 during TLR signaling is involved in NF-κB activation, were not essential for RLH-mediated NF-κB activation. We also demonstrate that TRAF6-deficiency impaired cytosolic DNA-induced antiviral responses, and this impairment was due to defective activation of NF-κB and IRF7. Conclusions/Significance Thus, TRAF6 mediates antiviral responses triggered by cytosolic viral DNA and RNA in a way that differs from that associated with TLR signaling. Given its essential role in signaling by various receptors involved in the acquired immune system, TRAF6 represents a key molecule in innate and antigen-specific immune responses against

  6. Bacterial RNAs activate innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Lee, Soohyun; Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The common molecular patterns of microbes play a critical role in the regulation of plant innate immunity. However, little is known about the role of nucleic acids in this process in plants. We pre-infiltrated Arabidopsis leaves with total RNAs from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000) and subsequently inoculated these plants with the same bacterial cells. Total Pto DC3000 RNAs pre-infiltrated into Arabidopsis leaves elicited plant immune responses against Pto DC3000. However, sheared RNAs and RNase A application failed to induce immunity, suggesting that intact bacterial RNAs function in plant innate immunity. This notion was supported by the positive regulation of superoxide anion levels, callose deposition, two mitogen-activated protein kinases and defense-related genes observed in bacterial RNA-pre-treated leaves. Intriguingly, the Pto DC3000 population was not compromised in known pattern recognition receptor mutants for chitin, flagellin and elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu). Plant defense-related mutant analyses further revealed that bacterial RNA-elicited innate immunity was normally required for salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling. Notably, among total RNAs, the abundant bacterial RNA species 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs were the major determinants of this response. Our findings provide evidence that bacterial RNA serves as a microbe-associated molecular pattern in plants. PMID:26499893

  7. Impaired Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccine in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Aging Women Is Associated with Immune Activation and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Freguja, Ricardo; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Frasca, Daniela; Fischl, Margaret A.; Pahwa, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging and HIV infection are independently associated with excessive immune activation and impaired immune responses to vaccines, but their relationships have not been examined. Methods For selecting an aging population we enrolled 28 post-menopausal women including 12 healthy volunteers and 16 HIV-infected women on antiretroviral treatment with <100 HIV RNA copies/ml. Antibody titers to trivalent influenza vaccination given during the 2011-2012 season were determined before and 4 weeks after vaccination. Results Seroprotective influenza antibody titers (≥1:40) were observed in 31% HIV+ and 58% HIV-uninfected women pre-vaccination. Following vaccination, magnitude of antibody responses and frequency of seroprotection were lower in HIV+ (75%) than in HIV– (91%) women. Plasma IL-21, the signature cytokine of T follicular helper cells (Tfh), and CD4 T cell IL-21R were upregulated with seroconversion (≥4 fold increase in antibody titer). Post-vaccine antibody responses were inversely correlated with pre-vaccination plasma TNFα levels and with activated CD4 T cells, including activated peripheral (p)Tfh. Plasma TNFα levels were correlated with activated pTfh cells (r=0.48, p=0.02), and inversely with the post-vaccination levels of plasma IL-21 (r=-0.53, p=0.02). In vitro TNFα blockade improved the ability of CD4 T cells to produce IL-21 and of B cells to secrete immunoglobulins, and addition of exogenous IL-21 to cell cultures enhanced B cell function. Higher frequencies of activated and exhausted CD8 T and B cells were noted in HIV+ women, but these markers did not show a correlation with antibody responses. Conclusions In aging HIV-infected and uninfected women, activated CD4 and pTfh cells may compromise influenza vaccine-induced antibody response, for which a mechanism of TNFα-mediated impairment of pTfh-induced IL-21 secretion is postulated. Interventions aimed at reducing chronic inflammation and immune activation in aging, HIV

  8. Compartmentalization of Immune Responses in Human Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sayma; Gudetta, Berhanu; Fink, Joshua; Granath, Anna; Ashenafi, Senait; Aseffa, Abraham; Derbew, Milliard; Svensson, Mattias; Andersson, Jan; Brighenti, Susanna Grundström

    2009-01-01

    Immune responses were assessed at the single-cell level in lymph nodes from children with tuberculous lymphadenitis. Tuberculosis infection was associated with tissue remodeling of lymph nodes as well as altered cellular composition. Granulomas were significantly enriched with CD68+ macrophages expressing the M. tuberculosis complex-specific protein antigen MPT64 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. There was a significant increase in CD8+ cytolytic T cells surrounding the granuloma; however, CD8+ T cells expressed low levels of the cytolytic and antimicrobial effector molecules perforin and granulysin in the granulomatous lesions. Quantitative real-time mRNA analysis revealed that interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-17 were not up-regulated in infected lymph nodes, but there was a significant induction of both transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-13. In addition, granulomas contained an increased number of CD4+FoxP3+ T cells co-expressing the immunoregulatory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor molecules. Low numbers of CD8+ T cells in the lesions correlated with high levels of transforming growth factor-β and FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, suggesting active immunosuppression at the local infection site. Compartmentalization and skewing of the immune response toward a regulatory phenotype may result in an uncoordinated effector T-cell response that reduces granule-mediated killing of M. tuberculosis-infected cells and subsequent disease control. PMID:19435796

  9. Paradoxical acclimation responses in the thermal performance of insect immunity.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Laura V; Heinrichs, David E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-05-01

    Winter is accompanied by multiple stressors, and the interactions between cold and pathogen stress potentially determine the overwintering success of insects. Thus, it is necessary to explore the thermal performance of the insect immune system. We cold-acclimated spring field crickets, Gryllus veletis, to 6 °C for 7 days and measured the thermal performance of potential (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activity) and realised (bacterial clearance and melanisation) immune responses. Cold acclimation decreased the critical thermal minimum from -0.5 ± 0.25 to -2.1 ± 0.18 °C, and chill coma recovery time after 72 h at -2 °C from 16.8 ± 4.9 to 5.2 ± 2.0 min. Measures of both potential and realised immunity followed a typical thermal performance curve, decreasing with decreasing temperature. However, cold acclimation further decreased realised immunity at low, but not high, temperatures; effectively, immune activity became paradoxically specialised to higher temperatures. Thus, cold acclimation induced mismatched thermal responses between locomotor and immune systems, as well as within the immune system itself. We conclude that cold acclimation in insects appears to preferentially improve cold tolerance over whole-animal immune performance at low temperatures, and that the differential thermal performance of physiological responses to multiple pressures must be considered when predicting ectotherms' response to climate change. PMID:26846428

  10. The immune response to resistive breathing.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, T; Roussos, C; Zakynthinos, S

    2004-12-01

    Resistive breathing is an "immune challenge" for the body, initiating an inflammatory response consisting of an elevation of plasma cytokines, and the recruitment and activation of lymphocyte subpopulations. These cytokines do not originate from monocytes, but are, instead, produced within the diaphragm, secondary to the increased muscle activation. Oxidative stress is a major stimulus for the cytokine induction, secondary to resistive breathing. The production of cytokines within the diaphragm may be mediating the diaphragm muscle fibre injury that occurs with strenuous contractions, or contributing towards the expected repair process. These cytokines may also compromise diaphragmatic contractility or contribute towards the development of muscle cachexia. They may also have systemic effects, mobilising glucose from the liver and free fatty acid from the adipose tissue to the strenuously working respiratory muscles. At the same time, they stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to production of adrenocorticotropin and beta-endorphins. The adrenocorticotropin response may represent an attempt of the organism to reduce the injury occurring in the respiratory muscles via the production of glucocorticoids and the induction of the acute phase-response proteins. The beta-endorphin response would decrease the activation of the respiratory muscles and change the pattern of breathing, which becomes more rapid and shallow, possibly in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent further injury to the respiratory muscles. PMID:15572550

  11. Hemolytic complement activity and concentrations of its third component during maturation of the immune response in colostrum-deprived foals.

    PubMed

    Bernoco, M M; Liu, I K; Willits, N H

    1994-07-01

    Six foals were deprived of colostrum for the first 36 hours after birth and, instead, received reconstituted powdered milk. Five control foals suckled their dams naturally. Blood samples were obtained from all the foals after birth and at approximately weekly intervals until at least 5.5 months of age. Sera were analyzed for hemolytic complement activity, complement component C3, and correlating IgG concentration. Hemolytic complement (P = 0.0145) and C3 (P = 0.0002) values were significantly higher in colostrum-deprived foals (CDF) than in naturally nursed foals at 2 to 5 days of age. In addition, significantly (P = 0.0149) higher IgG concentration was found in CDF than in naturally nursed foals between 3 and 5.5 months of age. It was concluded that the observed high complement activity in CDF within 2 to 5 days of age may provide an alternative in immune defense for IgG-deprived foals after failure of colostral transfer. PMID:7978631

  12. Cellular immune response in intraventricular experimental neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Moura, Vania B L; Lima, Sarah B; Matos-Silva, Hidelberto; Vinaud, Marina C; Loyola, Patricia R A N; Lino, Ruy S

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered a neglected parasitic infection of the human central nervous system. Its pathogenesis is due to the host immune response, stage of evolution and location of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ and systemic immune response through cytokines dosage (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ) as well as the local inflammatory response of the experimental NCC with Taenia crassiceps. The in situ and systemic cellular and inflammatory immune response were evaluated through the cytokines quantification at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days after inoculation and histopathological analysis. All cysticerci were found within the cerebral ventricles. There was a discrete intensity of inflammatory cells of mixed immune profile, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, at the beginning of the infection and predominance of mononuclear cells at the end. The systemic immune response showed a significant increase in all the analysed cytokines and predominance of the Th2 immune profile cytokines at the end of the infection. These results indicate that the location of the cysticerci may lead to ventriculomegaly. The acute phase of the infection showed a mixed Th1/Th17 profile accompanied by high levels of IL-10 while the late phase showed a Th2 immune profile. PMID:26626017

  13. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Su, Hanwen; Xiang, Meixian

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  14. Immune Response in Thyroid Cancer: Widening the Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Laura Sterian

    2014-01-01

    The association between thyroid cancer and thyroid inflammation has been repeatedly reported and highly debated in the literature. In fact, both molecular and epidemiological data suggest that these diseases are closely related and this association reinforces that the immune system is important for thyroid cancer progression. Innate immunity is the first line of defensive response. Unlike innate immune responses, adaptive responses are highly specific to the particular antigen that induced them. Both branches of the immune system may interact in antitumor immune response. Major effector cells of the immune system that directly target thyroid cancer cells include dendritic cells, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mast cells, and lymphocytes. A mixture of immune cells may infiltrate thyroid cancer microenvironment and the balance of protumor and antitumor activity of these cells may be associated with prognosis. Herein, we describe some evidences that immune response may be important for thyroid cancer progression and may help us identify more aggressive tumors, sparing the vast majority of patients from costly unnecessary invasive procedures. The future trend in thyroid cancer is an individualized therapy. PMID:25328756

  15. Human papillomavirus vaccines--immune responses.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret; Pinto, Ligia A; Trimble, Connie

    2012-11-20

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are highly effective. The available evidence suggests that neutralising antibody is the mechanism of protection. However, despite the robust humoral response elicited by VLP vaccines, there is no immune correlate, no minimum level of antibody, or any other immune parameter, that predicts protection against infection or disease. The durability of the antibody response and the importance of antibody isotype, affinity and avidity for vaccine effectiveness are discussed. Once infection and disease are established, then cellular immune responses are essential to kill infected cells. These are complex processes and understanding the local mucosal immune response is a prerequisite for the rational design of therapeutic HPV vaccines. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:23199968

  16. EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES ON THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of various pesticides on the humoral and cellular immune response to fluorescein labeled ovalbumin has been analyzed. Pesticides (Aroclor 1260, Dinoseb, Parathion, pentachloronitrobenzene, piperonyl butoxide, mixed pyrethrins and Resmethrin) were administered intrag...

  17. miR-424(322) reverses chemoresistance via T-cell immune response activation by blocking the PD-L1 immune checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shaohua; Tao, Zhen; Hai, Bo; Liang, Huagen; Shi, Ying; Wang, Tao; Song, Wen; Chen, Yong; OuYang, Jun; Chen, Jinhong; Kong, Fanfei; Dong, Yishan; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Li, Weiyong; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wan, Xiaoping; Wang, Chenguang; Li, Wencheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade of the inhibitory immune receptors PD-L1, PD-1 and CTLA-4 has emerged as a successful treatment strategy for several advanced cancers. Here we demonstrate that miR-424(322) regulates the PD-L1/PD-1 and CD80/CTLA-4 pathways in chemoresistant ovarian cancer. miR-424(322) is inversely correlated with PD-L1, PD-1, CD80 and CTLA-4 expression. High levels of miR-424(322) in the tumours are positively correlated with the progression-free survival of ovarian cancer patients. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that miR-424(322) inhibited PD-L1 and CD80 expression through direct binding to the 3′-untranslated region. Restoration of miR-424(322) expression reverses chemoresistance, which is accompanied by blockage of the PD-L1 immune checkpoint. The synergistic effect of chemotherapy and immunotherapy is associated with the proliferation of functional cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and the inhibition of myeloid-derived suppressive cells and regulatory T cells. Collectively, our data suggest a biological and functional interaction between PD-L1 and chemoresistance through the microRNA regulatory cascade. PMID:27147225

  18. miR-424(322) reverses chemoresistance via T-cell immune response activation by blocking the PD-L1 immune checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaohua; Tao, Zhen; Hai, Bo; Liang, Huagen; Shi, Ying; Wang, Tao; Song, Wen; Chen, Yong; OuYang, Jun; Chen, Jinhong; Kong, Fanfei; Dong, Yishan; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Li, Weiyong; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wan, Xiaoping; Wang, Chenguang; Li, Wencheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade of the inhibitory immune receptors PD-L1, PD-1 and CTLA-4 has emerged as a successful treatment strategy for several advanced cancers. Here we demonstrate that miR-424(322) regulates the PD-L1/PD-1 and CD80/CTLA-4 pathways in chemoresistant ovarian cancer. miR-424(322) is inversely correlated with PD-L1, PD-1, CD80 and CTLA-4 expression. High levels of miR-424(322) in the tumours are positively correlated with the progression-free survival of ovarian cancer patients. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that miR-424(322) inhibited PD-L1 and CD80 expression through direct binding to the 3'-untranslated region. Restoration of miR-424(322) expression reverses chemoresistance, which is accompanied by blockage of the PD-L1 immune checkpoint. The synergistic effect of chemotherapy and immunotherapy is associated with the proliferation of functional cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and the inhibition of myeloid-derived suppressive cells and regulatory T cells. Collectively, our data suggest a biological and functional interaction between PD-L1 and chemoresistance through the microRNA regulatory cascade. PMID:27147225

  19. The immune response to resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Simonson, S R

    2001-08-01

    The immune response to exercise has received increased attention in the last decade. Most of this attention has focused on aerobic exercise (AEX), whereas the effect of resistance exercise (REX) has received comparatively little notice. Resistance exercise and AEX have different physiologic impacts; perhaps this also applies to the immune system. The purpose of this review was to determine a consensus from the REX immune studies that have been completed. This is complicated by the multitude of immune parameters, the varying methods used to assess them, and the paucity of studies performed. Thus, it is difficult to make a blanket statement. There is a REX-induced leukocytosis. Resistance conditioning (RCO) does not alter this response or affect the resting immune system. From these data, it appears that neither REX nor RCO demonstrates a significant impact on peripheral immunosurveillance. PMID:11710669

  20. Modulation of Innate Immune Responses via Covalently Linked TLR Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the synthesis of novel adjuvants for vaccine development using multivalent scaffolds and bioconjugation chemistry to spatially manipulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. TLRs are primary receptors for activation of the innate immune system during vaccination. Vaccines that contain a combination of small and macromolecule TLR agonists elicit more directed immune responses and prolong responses against foreign pathogens. In addition, immune activation is enhanced upon stimulation of two distinct TLRs. Here, we synthesized combinations of TLR agonists as spatially defined tri- and di-agonists to understand how specific TLR agonist combinations contribute to the overall immune response. We covalently conjugated three TLR agonists (TLR4, 7, and 9) to a small molecule core to probe the spatial arrangement of the agonists. Treating immune cells with the linked agonists increased activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and enhanced and directed immune related cytokine production and gene expression beyond cells treated with an unconjugated mixture of the same three agonists. The use of TLR signaling inhibitors and knockout studies confirmed that the tri-agonist molecule activated multiple signaling pathways leading to the observed higher activity. To validate that the TLR4, 7, and 9 agonist combination would activate the immune response to a greater extent, we performed in vivo studies using a vaccinia vaccination model. Mice vaccinated with the linked TLR agonists showed an increase in antibody depth and breadth compared to mice vaccinated with the unconjugated mixture. These studies demonstrate how activation of multiple TLRs through chemically and spatially defined organization assists in guiding immune responses, providing the potential to use chemical tools to design and develop more effective vaccines. PMID:26640818

  1. The Unfolded Protein Response Element IRE1α Senses Bacterial Proteins Invading the ER to Activate RIG-I and Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin A.; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Platzer, Barbara; Cross, Benedict C.S.; Gardner, Brooke M.; De Luca, Heidi; Luong, Phi; Harding, Heather P.; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Walter, Peter; Fiebiger, Edda; Ron, David; Kagan, Jonathan C.; Lencer, Wayne I.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The plasma membrane and all membrane-bound organelles except for the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are equipped with pattern-recognition molecules to sense microbes or their products and induce innate immunity for host defense. Here, we report that inositol-requiring-1α (IRE1α), an ER protein that signals in the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated to induce inflammation by binding a portion of cholera toxin as it co-opts the ER to cause disease. Other known UPR transducers, including the IRE1α-dependent transcription factor XBP1, are dispensable for this signaling. The inflammatory response depends instead on the RNase activity of IRE1α to degrade endogenous mRNA, a process termed regulated IRE1α-dependent decay (RIDD) of mRNA. The mRNA fragments produced engage retinoic-acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), a cyto-solic sensor of RNA viruses, to activate NF-κB and interferon pathways. We propose IRE1α provides for a generalized mechanism of innate immune surveillance originating within the ER lumen. PMID:23684307

  2. Flexible cytokine production by macrophages and T cells in response to probiotic bacteria: a possible mechanism by which probiotics exert multifunctional immune regulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Shida, Kan; Nanno, Masanobu; Nagata, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics have been reported to be efficacious against cancers, infections, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases and autoimmune diseases, and it is important to explain how such multifunctional activities are realized. Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) is one of these multifunctional probiotics, and its ability to augment the host immune system has been extensively examined. We have shown that the cell wall structure of this probiotic strain is responsible for potently inducing IL-12 production. In addition, we have recently found that LcS differentially controls the inflammatory cytokine responses of macrophages and T cells in either Peyer's patches or the spleen. Other studies revealed that LcS-induced IL-12 production by macrophages is modified when other bacteria or their cell components are simultaneously present. These findings can provide a theoretical basis for understanding the multifunctional activities of specific probiotics. PMID:21637028

  3. Chemical Tools To Monitor and Manipulate Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Doran, Todd M; Sarkar, Mohosin; Kodadek, Thomas

    2016-05-18

    Methods to monitor and manipulate the immune system are of enormous clinical interest. For example, the development of vaccines represents one of the earliest and greatest accomplishments of the biomedical research enterprise. More recently, drugs capable of "reawakening" the immune system to cancer have generated enormous excitement. But, much remains to be done. All drugs available today that manipulate the immune system cannot distinguish between "good" and "bad" immune responses and thus drive general and systemic immune suppression or activation. Indeed, with the notable exception of vaccines, our ability to monitor and manipulate antigen-specific immune responses is in its infancy. Achieving this finer level of control would be highly desirable. For example, it might allow the pharmacological editing of pathogenic immune responses without restricting the ability of the immune system to defend against infection. On the diagnostic side, a method to comprehensively monitor the circulating, antigen-specific antibody population could provide a treasure trove of clinically useful biomarkers, since many diseases expose the immune system to characteristic molecules that are deemed foreign and elicit the production of antibodies against them. This Perspective will discuss the state-of-the-art of this area with a focus on what we consider seminal opportunities for the chemistry community to contribute to this important field. PMID:27115249

  4. The innate immune response in human tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Thomas R.; Borel, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Summary M ycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection can be cleared by the innate immune system before the initiation of an adaptive immune response. This innate protection requires a variety of robust cell autonomous responses from many different host immune cell types. However, Mtb has evolved strategies to circumvent some of these defences. In this mini‐review, we discuss these host–pathogen interactions with a focus on studies performed in human cells and/or supported by human genetics studies (such as genome‐wide association studies). PMID:26135005

  5. Cellular immune response experiment MA-031

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, B. S.

    1976-01-01

    Significant changes in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) lymphocytic responsiveness occurred in the cellular immune response of three astronauts during the 9 day flight of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. Parameters studied were white blood cell concentrations, lymphocyte numbers, B- and T-lymphocyte distributions in peripheral blood, and lymphocyte responsiveness to PHA, pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A, and influenza virus antigen.

  6. Regulation of Immune Responses by mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen N.; Heikamp, Emily B.; Horton, Maureen R.

    2013-01-01

    mTOR is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in integrating environmental cues in the form of growth factors, amino acids, and energy. In the study of the immune system, mTOR is emerging as a critical regulator of immune function because of its role in sensing and integrating cues from the immune microenvironment. With the greater appreciation of cellular metabolism as an important regulator of immune cell function, mTOR is proving to be a vital link between immune function and metabolism. In this review, we discuss the ability of mTOR to direct the adaptive immune response. Specifically, we focus on the role of mTOR in promoting differentiation, activation, and function in T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells. PMID:22136167

  7. Neuroendocrine and immune system responses with spaceflights.

    PubMed

    Tipton, C M; Greenleaf, J E; Jackson, C G

    1996-08-01

    -lymphocytes and natural killer cells are decreased with post-flight conditions. Of the lymphokines, interleukin-2 production, lymphocyte responsiveness, and the activity of natural killer cells are consistently reduced post-flight. Limited head-down tilt (HDT) data suggest it is an effective simulation model for microgravity investigations. Neuroendocrine and pharmacological countermeasures are virtually nonexistent and should become high priority items for future research. Although exercise has the potential to be an effective countermeasure for various neuroendocrine-immune responses in microgravity, this concept must be tested before flights to Mars are scheduled. PMID:8871909

  8. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    -lymphocytes and natural killer cells are decreased with post-flight conditions. Of the lymphokines, interleukin-2 production, lymphocyte responsiveness, and the activity of natural killer cells are consistently reduced post-flight. Limited head-down tilt (HDT) data suggest it is an effective simulation model for microgravity investigations. Neuroendocrine and pharmacological countermeasures are virtually nonexistent arid should become high priority items for future research. Although exercise has the potential to be an effective countermeasure for various neuroen-docrine-immune responses in microgravity, this concept must be tested before flights to Mars are scheduled.

  9. Role of nutrients in the development of neonatal immune response.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Lin, Hong; Ho-Lin, Deborah; Dnistrian, Ann; Cassileth, Barrie R; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2009-11-01

    Nutrients exert unique regulatory effects in the perinatal period that mold the developing immune system. The interactions of micronutrients and microbial and environmental antigens condition the post-birth maturation of the immune system, influencing reactions to allergens, fostering tolerance towards the emerging gastrointestinal flora and ingested antigens, and defining patterns of host defense against potential pathogens. The shared molecular structures that are present on microbes or certain plants, but not expressed by human cells, are recognized by neonatal innate immune receptors. Exposure to these activators in the environment through dietary intake in early life can modify the immune response to allergens and prime the adaptive immune response towards pathogens that express the corresponding molecular structures. PMID:19906219

  10. Role of nutrients in the development of neonatal immune response

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Lin, Hong; Ho-Lin, Deborah; Dnistrian, Ann; Cassileth, Barrie R; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients exert unique regulatory effects in the perinatal period that mold the developing immune system. The interactions of micronutrients and microbial and environmental antigens condition the post-birth maturation of the immune system, influencing reactions to allergens, fostering tolerance towards the emerging gastrointestinal flora and ingested antigens, and defining patterns of host defense against potential pathogens. The shared molecular structures that are present on microbes or certain plants, but not expressed by human cells, are recognized by neonatal innate immune receptors. Exposure to these activators in the environment through dietary intake in early life can modify the immune response to allergens and prime the adaptive immune response towards pathogens that express the corresponding molecular structures. PMID:19906219

  11. Heat-Based Tumor Ablation: Role of the Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The ideal cancer therapy not only induces the death of all localized tumor cells with less damage to surrounding normal tissue, but also activates a systemic antitumor immunity. Heat-based tumor ablation has the potential to be such a treatment as it can minimal-invasively ablate a targeted tumor below the skin surface, and may subsequently augment host antitumor immunity. This chapter primarily introduces increasing pre-clinical and clinical evidence linking antitumor immune response to thermal tumor ablation, and then discusses the potential mechanisms involved in ablation-enhanced host antitumor immunity. The seminal studies performed so far indicate that although it is not possible to make definite conclusions on the connection between thermal ablation and antitumor immune response, it is nonetheless important to conduct extensive studies on the subject in order to elucidate the processes involved. PMID:26486336

  12. Immune Response to Biologic Scaffold Materials

    PubMed Central

    Badylak, Stephen F.; Gilbert, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of mammalian extracellular matrix are commonly used in regenerative medicine and in surgical procedures for the reconstruction of numerous tissue and organs. These biologic materials are typically allogeneic or xenogeneic in origin and are derived from tissues such as small intestine, urinary bladder, dermis, and pericardium. The innate and acquired host immune response to these biologic materials and the effect of the immune response upon downstream remodeling events has been largely unexplored. Variables that affect the host response include manufacturing processes, the rate of scaffold degradation, and the presence of cross species antigens. This manuscript provides an overview of studies that have evaluated the immune response to biologic scaffold materials and variables that affect this response. PMID:18083531

  13. Host innate immune responses to sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wiersinga, Willem Joost; Leopold, Stije J; Cranendonk, Duncan R; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The immune response to sepsis can be seen as a pattern recognition receptor-mediated dysregulation of the immune system following pathogen invasion in which a careful balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses is vital. Invasive infection triggers both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host responses, the magnitude of which depends on multiple factors, including pathogen virulence, site of infection, host genetics, and comorbidities. Toll-like receptors, the inflammasomes, and other pattern recognition receptors initiate the immune response after recognition of danger signals derived from microorganisms, so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns or derived from the host, so-called danger-associated molecular patterns. Further dissection of the role of host–pathogen interactions, the cytokine response, the coagulation cascade, and their multidirectional interactions in sepsis should lead toward the development of new therapeutic strategies in sepsis. PMID:23774844

  14. Plasticity of immunity in response to eating.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Rachel L; Butler, Michael W; Stahlschmidt, Zachary R

    2016-07-01

    Following a meal, an animal can exhibit dramatic shifts in physiology and morphology, as well as a substantial increase in metabolic rate associated with the energetic costs of processing a meal (i.e. specific dynamic action, SDA). However, little is known about the effects of digestion on another important physiological and energetically costly trait: immune function. Thus, we tested two competing hypotheses. (1) Digesting animals up-regulate their immune systems (putatively in response to the increased microbial exposure associated with ingested food). (2) Digesting animals down-regulate their immune systems (presumably to allocate energy to the breakdown of food). We assayed innate immunity (lytic capacity and agglutination) in cornsnakes (Pantherophis guttatus) during and after meal digestion. Lytic capacity was higher in females, and (in support of our first hypothesis) agglutination was higher during absorption. Given its potential energetic cost, immune up-regulation may contribute to SDA. PMID:27099367

  15. Lower activation-induced T-cell apoptosis is related to the pathological immune response in secondary infection with hetero-serotype dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wang; Yan, Huacheng; Ma, Yuling; Yu, Tiantian; Guo, Hongxia; Kuang, Yuchan; Ren, Ruiwen; Li, Jintao

    2016-03-01

    The available evidence suggests that dengue virus-specific T lymphocytes and cytokine storm play a pivotal role in the immunopathogenesis of plasma leakage. Investigations are underway to identify the immune profiles associated with increased or decreased risk for severe disease. In this study, CD14+ cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients who recovered from DENV-1 infection were infected with DENV-1 or DENV-2 and co-cultured with memory T cells. We found that secondary infection with DENV-2 suppresses the cell reproductive capacity but forms more cell clones and more functional cells to produce more proinflammatory factors (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and IL-17) and less regulatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β) which results in higher viral replication compared to secondary infection with DENV-1. Memory dengue virus-specific T cells which are induced in a primary dengue virus infection are reactivated by the heterologous serotype of dengue virus and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during a secondary infection. Dramatically, less apoptosis and more continuous activation of T cells in secondary infection with hetero-serotype DENV were observed. This discovery which has not been reported previously may be the reasonable and vital interpretation for the cytokine storm and severe symptoms observed in secondary infection with DENV. In summary, secondary infection with hetero-serotype DENV elicits the relatively pathological immune response while secondary infection with homologous-serotype DENV induces the relatively protective immune response by activation-induced cell death (AICD) of T cells. PMID:26655144

  16. SIV antigen immunization induces transient antigen-specific T cell responses and selectively activates viral replication in draining lymph nodes in retroviral suppressed rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection causes a qualitative and quantitative loss of CD4+ T cell immunity. The institution of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4+ T cell responses to many pathogens, but HIV-specific responses remain deficient. Similarly, therapeutic immunization with HIV antigens of chronically infected, ART treated subjects results in poor induction of HIV-specific CD4 responses. In this study, we used a macaque model of ART treatment during chronic infection to study the virologic consequences of SIV antigen stimulation in lymph nodes early after immunization. Rhesus CMV (RhCMV) seropositive, Mamu A*01 positive rhesus macaques were chronically infected with SIVmac251 and treated with ART. The immune and viral responses to SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 antigen immunization in draining lymph nodes and peripheral blood were analyzed. Animals were immunized on contralateral sides with SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 encoding plasmids, which allowed lymph nodes draining each antigen to be obtained at the same time from the same animal for direct comparison. Results We observed that both SIV and RhCMV immunizations stimulated transient antigen-specific T cell responses in draining lymph nodes. The RhCMV-specific responses were potent and sustained (50 days post-immunization) in the periphery, while the SIV-specific responses were transient and extinguished quickly. The SIV antigen stimulation selectively induced transient SIV replication in draining lymph nodes. Conclusions The data are consistent with a model whereby viral replication in response to SIV antigen stimulation limits the generation of SIV antigen-specific responses and suggests a potential mechanism for the early loss and poor HIV-specific CD4+ T cell response observed in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:21752277

  17. NKT Cell Immune Responses to Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tessmer, Marlowe S.; Fatima, Ayesha; Paget, Christophe; Trottein, François; Brossay, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Background Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous population of innate T cells that have attracted recent interest because of their potential to regulate immune responses to a variety of pathogens. The most widely studied NKT cell subset is the invariant (i)NKT cells that recognize glycolipids in the context of the CD1d molecule. The multifaceted methods of activation iNKT cells possess and their ability to produce regulatory cytokines has made them a primary target for therapeutic studies. Objective/Methods This review gives insight into the roles of iNKT cells during infectious diseases, particularly viral infections. We also highlight the different mechanisms leading to iNKT cell activation in response to pathogens. Conclusions The iNKT cell versatility allows them to detect and respond to several viral infections. However, therapeutic approaches to specifically target iNKT cells will require additional research. Notably, examination of the roles of non-invariant NKT cells in response to pathogens warrant further investigations. PMID:19236234

  18. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  19. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  20. Local Immune Response in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Kivrak Salim, Derya; Sahin, Mehmet; Köksoy, Sadi; Adanir, Haydar; Süleymanlar, Inci

    2016-05-01

    There have been few studies concerning the cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with normal mucosa, chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma (GAC).In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the genomic expression levels and immune pathological roles of cytokines-interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, IL-17A, IL-32-in H pylori-infected patients with normal gastric mucosa (NGM; control), chronic active gastritis (CAG), and GAC. Genomic expression levels of these cytokines were assayed by real-time PCR analysis in gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 93 patients.We found that the genomic expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A mRNA were increased in the CAG group and those of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, TGF-β mRNA were increased in the GAC group with reference to H pylori-infected NGM group.This study is on the interest of cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa among individuals with normal, gastritis, or GAC. Our findings suggest that the immune response of gastric mucosa to infection of H pylori differs from patient to patient. For individual therapy, levels of genomic expression of IL-6 or other cytokines may be tracked in patients. PMID:27196487

  1. Local Immune Response in Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak Salim, Derya; Sahin, Mehmet; Köksoy, Sadi; Adanir, Haydar; Süleymanlar, Inci

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There have been few studies concerning the cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori–infected patients with normal mucosa, chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma (GAC). In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the genomic expression levels and immune pathological roles of cytokines—interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, IL-17A, IL-32—in H pylori–infected patients with normal gastric mucosa (NGM; control), chronic active gastritis (CAG), and GAC. Genomic expression levels of these cytokines were assayed by real-time PCR analysis in gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 93 patients. We found that the genomic expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A mRNA were increased in the CAG group and those of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, TGF-β mRNA were increased in the GAC group with reference to H pylori–infected NGM group. This study is on the interest of cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa among individuals with normal, gastritis, or GAC. Our findings suggest that the immune response of gastric mucosa to infection of H pylori differs from patient to patient. For individual therapy, levels of genomic expression of IL-6 or other cytokines may be tracked in patients. PMID:27196487

  2. TGF-β Activation and Function in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Mark A.; Sheppard, Dean

    2014-01-01

    The cytokine TGF-β plays an integral role in regulating immune responses. TGF-β has pleiotropic effects on adaptive immunity, especially in the regulation of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cell responses. Many immune and nonimmune cells can produce TGF-β, but it is always produced as an inactive complex that must be activated to exert functional effects. Thus, activation of latent TGF-β provides a crucial layer of regulation that controls TGF-β function. In this review, we highlight some of the important functional roles for TGF-β in immunity, focusing on its context-specific roles in either dampening or promoting T cell responses. We also describe how activation of TGF-β controls its function in the immune system, with a focus on the key roles for members of the integrin family in this process. PMID:24313777

  3. Effect of cellular mobility on immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. B.; Mannion, R.; Ruskin, H. J.

    2000-08-01

    Mobility of cell types in our HIV immune response model is subject to an intrinsic mobility and an explicit directed mobility, which is governed by Pmob. We investigate how restricting the explicit mobility, while maintaining the innate mobility of a viral-infected cell, affects the model's results. We find that increasing the explicit mobility of the immune system cells leads to viral dominance for certain levels of viral mutation. We conclude that increasing immune system cellular mobility indirectly increases the virus’ inherent mobility.

  4. Mosquito immune responses to arbovirus infections

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Carol D.; Olson, Ken E.

    2014-01-01

    The principal mosquito innate immune response to virus infections, RNA interference (RNAi), differs substantially from the immune response to bacterial and fungal infections. The exo-siRNA pathway constitutes the major anti-arboviral RNAi response and its essential genetic components have been identified. Recent research has also implicated the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway in mosquito anti-arboviral immunity, but Piwi gene-family components involved are not well-defined. Arboviruses must evade or suppress RNAi without causing pathogenesis in the vector to maintain their transmission cycle, but little is known about mechanisms of arbovirus modulation of RNAi. Genetic manipulation of mosquitoes to enhance their RNAi response can limit arbovirus infection and replication and could be used in novel strategies for interruption of arbovirus transmission and greatly reduce disease. PMID:25401084

  5. HIV-associated chronic immune activation

    PubMed Central

    Paiardini, Mirko; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Summary Systemic chronic immune activation is considered today as the driving force of CD4+ T-cell depletion and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A residual chronic immune activation persists even in HIV-infected patients in which viral replication is successfully inhibited by antiretroviral therapy, with the extent of this residual immune activation being associated with CD4+ T-cell loss. Unfortunately, the causal link between chronic immune activation and CD4+ T-cell loss has not been formally established. This article provides first a brief historical overview on how the perception of the causative role of immune activation has changed over the years and lists the different kinds of immune activation that have been observed to be characteristic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The mechanisms proposed to explain the chronic immune activation are multiple and are enumerated here, as well as the mechanisms proposed on how chronic immune activation could lead to AIDS. In addition, we summarize the lessons learned from natural hosts that know how to ‘show AIDS the door’, and discuss how these studies informed the design of novel immune modulatory interventions that are currently being tested. Finally, we review the current approaches aimed at targeting chronic immune activation and evoke future perspectives. PMID:23772616

  6. Agouron and immune response to commercialize remune immune-based treatment.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-06-19

    Agouron Pharmaceuticals agreed in June to collaborate with The Immune Response Corporation on the final development and marketing of an immune-based treatment for HIV. Remune, the vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is currently in Phase III randomized trials with 2,500 patients, and the trials are expected to be completed in April 1999. Immune-based treatments have been difficult to test, as there is no surrogate marker, like viral load, to determine if the drug is working. Agouron agreed to participate in the joint venture after reviewing encouraging results from preliminary trials in which remune was taken in combination with highly active antiretroviral drugs. PMID:11365593

  7. Thymol has antifungal activity against Candida albicans during infection and maintains the innate immune response required for function of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chengjie; Sun, Lingmei; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-08-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans model can be used to study Candida albicans virulence and host immunity, as well as to identify plant-derived natural products to use against C. albicans. Thymol is a hydrophobic phenol compound from the aromatic plant thyme. In this study, the in vitro data demonstrated concentration-dependent thymol inhibition of both C. albicans growth and biofilm formation during different developmental phases. With the aid of the C. elegans system, we performed in vivo assays, and our results further showed the ability of thymol to increase C. elegans life span during infection, inhibit C. albicans colony formation in the C. elegans intestine, and increase the expression levels of host antimicrobial genes. Moreover, among the genes that encode the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, mutation of the pmk-1 or sek-1 gene decreased the beneficial effects of thymol's antifungal activity against C. albicans and thymol's maintenance of the innate immune response in nematodes. Western blot data showed the level of phosphorylation of pmk-1 was dramatically decreased against C. albicans. In nematodes, treatment with thymol recovered the dysregulation of pmk-1 and sek-1 gene expressions, the phosphorylation level of PMK-1 caused by C. albicans infection. Therefore, thymol may act, at least in part, through the function of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway to protect against C. albicans infection and maintain the host innate immune response to C. albicans. Our results indicate that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway plays a crucial role in regulating the beneficial effects observed after nematodes infected with C. albicans were treated with thymol. PMID:26783030

  8. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B.; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4+ T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4+ T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  9. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4(+) T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4(+) T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  10. Human immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Havlir, D V; Wallis, R S; Boom, W H; Daniel, T M; Chervenak, K; Ellner, J J

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about the immunodominant or protective antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans. Cell-mediated immunity is necessary for protection, and healthy tuberculin-positive individuals are relatively resistant to exogenous reinfection. We compared the targets of the cell-mediated immune response in healthy tuberculin-positive individuals to those of tuberculosis patients and tuberculin-negative persons. By using T-cell Western blotting (immunoblotting) of nitrocellulose-bound M. tuberculosis culture filtrate, peaks of T-cell blastogenic activity were identified in the healthy tuberculin reactors at 30, 37, 44, 57, 64, 71 and 88 kDa. Three of these fractions (30, 64, and 71 kDa) coincided with previously characterized proteins: antigen 6/alpha antigen, HSP60, and HSP70, respectively. The blastogenic responses to purified M. tuberculosis antigen 6/alpha antigen and BCG HSP60 were assessed. When cultured with purified antigen 6/alpha antigen, lymphocytes of healthy tuberculin reactors demonstrated greater [3H]thymidine incorporation than either healthy tuberculin-negative controls or tuberculous patients (8,113 +/- 1,939 delta cpm versus 645 +/- 425 delta cpm and 1,019 +/- 710 delta cpm, respectively; P less than 0.01). Healthy reactors also responded to HSP60, although to a lesser degree than antigen 6/alpha antigen (4,276 +/- 1,095 delta cpm; P less than 0.05). Partially purified HSP70 bound to nitrocellulose paper elicited a significant lymphocyte blastogenic response in two of six of the tuberculous patients but in none of the eight healthy tuberculin reactors. Lymphocytes of none of five tuberculin-negative controls responded to recombinant antigens at 14 or 19 kDa or to HSP70. Antibody reactivity generally was inversely correlated with blastogenic response: tuberculous sera had high titer antibody to M. tuberculosis culture filtrate in a range from 35 to 180 kDa. This is the first systematic evaluation of the human response to a panel of native