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Sample records for activates cyclic-amp response

  1. The Interplay between Cyclic AMP, MAPK, and NF-?B Pathways in Response to Proinflammatory Signals in Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Aguirre, Vladimir; Wai, Khine; Felfly, Hady; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Pearse, Damien D.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP is an important intracellular regulator of microglial cell homeostasis and its negative perturbation through proinflammatory signaling results in microglial cell activation. Though cytokines, TNF-? and IL-1?, decrease intracellular cyclic AMP, the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. The current study examined which signaling pathways are responsible for decreasing cyclic AMP in microglia following TNF-? stimulation and sought to identify the role cyclic AMP plays in regulating these pathways. In EOC2 microglia, TNF-? produced a dramatic reduction in cyclic AMP and increased cyclic AMP-dependent PDE activity that could be antagonized by Rolipram, myristoylated-PKI, PD98059, or JSH-23, implicating a role for PDE4, PKA, MEK, and NF-?B in this regulation. Following TNF-? there were significant increases in iNOS and COX-2 immunoreactivity, phosphorylated ERK1/2 and NF-?B-p65, I?B degradation, and NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, which were reduced in the presence of high levels of cyclic AMP, indicating that reductions in cyclic AMP during cytokine stimulation are important for removing its inhibitory action on NF-?B activation and subsequent proinflammatory gene expression. Further elucidation of the signaling crosstalk involved in decreasing cyclic AMP in response to inflammatory signals may provide novel therapeutic targets for modulating microglial cell activation during neurological injury and disease. PMID:25722974

  2. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Téllez-Iñón, M T

    1988-01-01

    A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. Images Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2848508

  3. Mutants of PC12 cells with altered cyclic AMP responses

    SciTech Connect

    Block, T.; Kon, C.; Breckenridge, B.M.

    1984-10-01

    PCl2 cells, derived from a rat pheochromocytoma, were mutagenized and selected in media containing agents known to elevate intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP). More than 40 clones were isolated by selection with cholera toxin or 2-chloroadenosine or both. The variants that were deficient in accumulating cAMP were obtained by using a protocol in which 1 ..mu..m 8-bromo-cAMP was included in addition to the agonist. Certain of these variants were partially characterized with respect to the site of altered cAMP metabolism. The profiles of adenylate cyclase activity responsiveness of certain variants to guanosine-5'-(BETA,..gamma..-imido) triphosphate and to forskolin resembled those of UNC and cyc phenotypes of S49 lymphoma cells, which are functionally deficient in the GTP-sensitive coupling protein, N/sub s/. Other variants were characterized by increased cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity at low substrate concentration. Diverse morphological traits were observed among the variants, but it was not possible to assign them to a particular cAMP phenotype. Two revertants of a PCl2 mutant were isolated and observed to have regained a cellular cAMP response to 2-chloroadenosine and to forskolin. It is hoped that these PCl2 mutants will have utility for defining cAMP-mediated functions, including any links to the action of nerve growth factor, in cells derived from the neural crest.

  4. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by ginsenoside Rd via activation of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins and cyclic AMP response binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hye Gwang; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Han, Eun Hee; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-07-20

    Panax ginseng is a widely used herbal medicine in East Asia and is reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Here we show a unique effect of ginsenoside Rd (Rd) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Rd (100 {mu}g/ml), but not other ginsenosides induced COX-2 and increased prostaglandin E{sub 2} production. Gel shift and Western blot analyses using nuclear fractions revealed that Rd increased both the DNA binding of and the nuclear levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP){alpha}/{beta} and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), but not of p65, in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Rd increased the luciferase reporter gene activity in cells transfected with a 574-bp mouse COX-2 promoter construct. Site-specific mutation analyses confirmed that Rd-mediated transcriptional activation of COX-2 gene was regulated by C/EBP and CREB. These results provide evidence that Rd activated C/EBP and CREB, and that the activation of C/EBP and CREB appears to be essential for induction of COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells.

  5. Cell behavior in Dictyostelium discoideum: preaggregation response to localized cyclic AMP pulses

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The motion of cells in the aggregation phase of Dictyostelium discoideum development is complex. To probe its mechanisms we applied precisely timed (+/- 1 s) and positioned (+/-2 micrometers) pulses of cyclic AMP to fields of cells of moderate density using a micropipette. We recorded cell behavior by time lapse microcinematography and extracted cell motion data from the film with our Galatea computer system. Analysis of these data reveals: (a) Chemotaxis lasts only about as long as the cyclic AMP signal; in particular, brief pulses (approximately 5 s) do not induce chemotaxis. (b) Chemotactic competence increases gradually from within an hour after the initiation of development (starvation) to full competence at approximately 15 h when aggregation begins under our conditions. (c) Cell motion reverses rapidly (within 20 s) when the external gradient is reversed. There is no refractory period for motion. We present a new description of the process of aggregation consistent with our result and other recent findings. (d) The behavioral response to cyclic AMP includes a phenomenon we call "cringing." In a prototypical cringe the cell speed drops within 3 s after a brief cyclic AMP stimulus, and the cell stops and rounds and then resumes motion after 25 s. (e) The development of the speed response in cringing as the cells age closely parallels the development of the cyclic AMP-induced light-scattering response of cells in suspension. (f) Cringing occurs in natural populations during weak oriented movement. The computerized analysis of cell behavior proves to be a powerful technique which can reveal significant phenomena that are not apparent to the eye even after repeated examination of the film. PMID:6282894

  6. The Yeast Ras/Cyclic AMP Pathway Induces Invasive Growth by Suppressing the Cellular Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Stanhill, Ariel; Schick, Naomi; Engelberg, David

    1999-01-01

    Haploid yeast cells are capable of invading agar when grown on rich media. Cells of the ?1278b genetic background manifest this property, whereas other laboratory strains are incapable of invasive growth. We show that disruption of the RAS2 gene in the ?1278b background significantly reduces invasive growth but that expression of a constitutively active Ras2p (Ras2Val19p) in this strain has a minimal effect on its invasiveness. On the other hand, expression of Ras2Val19p in another laboratory strain, SP1, rendered it invasive. These results suggest that a hyperactive Ras2 pathway induces invasive growth and that this pathway might be overactive in the ?1278b genetic background. Indeed, cells of the ?1278b are defective in the induction of stress-responsive genes, while their Gcn4 target genes are constitutively transcribed. This pattern of gene expression was previously shown to be associated with an active Ras/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway. We show that suppression of stress-related genes in ?1278b cells is a result of their inability to activate transcription through the stress response element (STRE). Disruption of RAS2, which abolished invasiveness, induced an increase in STRE activity. Further, in the SP1 genetic background, disruption of either the MSN2/4 genes (encoding activators of STRE) or the yAP-1 gene was sufficient to restore invasive growth in ras2? cells. We conclude that Ras2-mediated suppression of the stress response is sufficient to induce invasiveness. Accordingly, the fact that the stress response is suppressed in ?1278b background explains its invasiveness. It seems that invasiveness is a phenotype related to unregulated growth and is therefore manifested by cells harboring an overactive Ras/cAMP cascade. In this respect, invasiveness in yeast is reminiscent of the property of ras-transformed fibroblasts to invade soft agar. PMID:10523641

  7. Microgravity changes in heart structure and cyclic-AMP metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Fine, A.; Kato, K.; Egnor, R.; Cheng, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on cardiac ultrastructure and cyclic AMP metabolism in tissues of rats flown on Spacelab 3 are reported. Light and electron microscope studies of cell structure, measurements of low and high Km phosphodiesterase activity, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, and regulatory subunit compartmentation show significant deviations in flight animals when compared to ground controls. The results indicate that some changes have occurred in cellular responses associated with catecholamine receptor interactions and intracellular signal processing.

  8. Cross-talk between glucagon- and adenosine-mediated signalling systems in rat hepatocytes: effects on cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Flores, M; Allende, G; Piña, E; García-Sáinz, J A

    1995-01-01

    The effect of adenosine analogues on glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat hepatocytes was explored. N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine and N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by glucagon. This effect seems to be mediated through A1 adenosine receptors. Pertussis toxin completely abolished the effect of CPA on glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in whole cells which suggested that a pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein was involved. On the other hand, this action of adenosine analogues on glucagon-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was reverted by the selective low-Km cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro 20-1724. Analysis of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase activity in purified hepatocyte plasma membranes showed that glucagon in the presence of GTP inhibited basal PDE activity by 45% and that CPA reverted this inhibition in dose-dependent manner. In membranes derived from pertussis-toxin-treated rats, we observed no inhibition of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase activity by glucagon in the absence or presence of CPA. Our results indicate that in hepatocyte plasma membranes, stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity and inhibition of a low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity are co-ordinately regulated by glucagon, and that A1 adenosine receptors can inhibit glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation by blocking glucagon's effect on phosphodiesterase activity. Images Figure 2 PMID:8554517

  9. Spatial Memory in the Morris Water Maze and Activation of Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding (CREB) Protein within the Mouse Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porte, Yves; Buhot, Marie Christine; Mons, Nicole E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of learning-induced cAMP response element-binding protein activation/phosphorylation (pCREB) in mice trained in a spatial reference memory task in the water maze. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined pCREB immunoreactivity (pCREB-ir) in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and related brain structures. During the…

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of cyclic AMP response in bovine cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, D R; Guillemette, C; Sirard, M A; Richard, F J

    2015-09-01

    Acquisition of oocyte developmental competence needs to be understood to improve clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction. The stimulation of cumulus cell concentration of cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) by pharmacological agents during in vitro maturation (IVM) participates in improvement of oocyte quality. However, precise coordination and downstream targets of cAMP signaling in cumulus cells are largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated better embryo development after cAMP stimulation for first 6 h during IVM. Using this model, we investigated cAMP signaling in cumulus cells through in vitro culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in the presence of cAMP raising agents: forskolin, IBMX, and dipyridamole (here called FID treatment). Transcriptomic analysis of cumulus cells indicated that FID-induced differentially expressed transcripts were implicated in cumulus expansion, steroidogenesis, cell metabolism, and oocyte competence. Functional genomic analysis revealed that protein kinase-A (PKA), extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and calcium (Ca(2+)) pathways as key regulators of FID signaling. Inhibition of PKA (H89) in FID-supplemented COCs or substitution of FID with calcium ionophore (A23187) demonstrated that FID activated primarily the PKA pathway which inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and was upstream of calcium signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by FID supported a regulation by dual specific phosphatase (DUSP1) via PKA. Our findings imply that cAMP (FID) regulates cell metabolism, steroidogenesis, intracellular signaling and cumulus expansion through PKA which modulates these functions through optimization of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and coordination of calcium signaling. These findings have implications for development of new strategies for improving oocyte in vitro maturation leading to better developmental competence. PMID:26082143

  11. Regulation of Cox-2 by cyclic AMP response element binding protein in prostate cancer: potential role for nexrutine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rita; Garcia, Gretchen E; Crosby, Katherine; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Thompson, Ian M; Troyer, Dean A; Kumar, Addanki P

    2007-11-01

    We recently showed that Nexrutine, a Phellodendron amurense bark extract, suppresses proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines and tumor development in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Our data also indicate that the anti-proliferative effects of Nexrutine are emediated in part by Akt and Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). Cyclooxygenase (Cox-2), a pro-inflammatory mediator, is a CREB target that induces prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and suppresses apoptosis. Treatment of LNCaP cells with Nexrutine reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced enzymatic as well as promoter activities of Cox-2. Nexrutine also reduced the expression and promoter activity of Cox-2 in PC-3 cells that express high constitutive levels of Cox-2. Deletion analysis coupled with mutational analysis of the Cox-2 promoter identified CRE as being sufficient for mediating Nexrutine response. Immunohistochemical analysis of human prostate tumors show increased expression of CREB and DNA binding activity in high-grade tumors (three-fold higher in human prostate tumors compared to normal prostate; P = .01). We have identified CREB-mediated activation of Cox-2 as a potential signaling pathway in prostate cancer which can be blocked with a nontoxic, cost-effective dietary supplement like Nexrutine, demonstrating a prospective for development of Nexrutine for prostate cancer management. PMID:18030357

  12. Cyclic AMP-Responsive Element Modulator ? Polymorphisms Are Potential Genetic Risks for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian; Chen, Xuyong; Du, Yan; Guo, Jianping; Su, Yin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator ? (CREM?) polymorphisms are novel susceptibility factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), four tag SNPs, rs1057108, rs2295415, rs11592925, and rs1148247, were genotyped in 889 SLE cases and 825 healthy controls. Association analyses were performed on whole dataset or clinical/serologic subsets. Association statistics were calculated by age and sex adjusted logistic regression. The G allele frequencies of rs2295415 and rs1057108 were increased in SLE patients, compared with healthy controls (rs2295415: 21.2% versus 17.8%, OR 1.244, P = 0.019; rs1057108: 30.8% versus 27.7%, OR 1.165, P = 0.049). The haplotype constituted by the two risk alleles “G-G” from rs1057108 and rs2295415 displayed strong association with SLE susceptibility (OR 1.454, P = 0.00056). Following stratification by clinical/serologic features, a suggestive association was observed between rs2295415 and anti-Sm antibodies-positive SLE (OR 1.382, P = 0.044). Interestingly, a potential protective effect of rs2295415 was observed for SLE patients with renal disorder (OR 0.745, P = 0.032). Our data provide first evidence that CREM? SNPs rs2295415 and rs1057108 maybe novel genetic susceptibility factors for SLE. SNP rs2295415 appears to confer higher risk to develop anti-Sm antibodies-positive SLE and may play a protective role against lupus nephritis. PMID:26601115

  13. Repression of protein kinase C and stimulation of cyclic AMP response elements by fumonisin, a fungal encoded toxin which is a carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Dickman, M; Henderson, G; Jones, C

    1995-04-15

    Fusarium moniliforme (FM) is a major fungal pathogen of corn and is involved with stalk rot disease. FM is widely spread throughout the world, including the United States. Most strains of FM produce several mycotoxins, the most prominent of which is called fumonisin. Recent epidemiological studies indicated that ingestion of fumonisin correlates with a higher incidence of esophageal cancer in Southern and Northern Africa and China. Furthermore, fumonisin causes a neurodegenerative disease in horses, induces hepatic cancer in rats, and induces pulmonary edema in swine. Considering that high levels of fumonisin have been detected in healthy and diseased corn grown in the United States, fumonisin may pose a health threat to humans and livestock animals. Structurally, fumonisin resembles sphingolipids which are present in the membranes of animal and plant cells. At the present time, very little is known concerning the mechanism by which fumonisin elicits its carcinogenic effect. Our studies indicate that fumonisin represses expression of protein kinase C and AP-1-dependent transcription. In contrast, fumonisin stimulated a simple promoter containing a single cyclic AMP response element. Since fumonisin did not alter protein kinase A activity, it appears that cyclic AMP response element activation was independent of protein kinase A. It is hypothesized that the ability of fumonisin to alter signal transduction pathways plays a role in carcinogenesis. PMID:7712470

  14. G protein activation and cyclic AMP modulation by naloxone benzoylhydrazone in distinct layers of rat olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Onali, Pierluigi; Olianas, Maria C

    2004-01-01

    Naloxone benzoylhydrazone (NalBzoH) has initially been developed as an agonist of the pharmacologically defined ?3-opioid receptor and has recently been employed as an antagonist at the opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor. In the present study, we investigated the ability of NalBzoH to elicit agonist-like effects on receptor signalling in distinct layers of rat olfactory bulb, a brain region where we have demonstrated the presence of opioid and ORL1 receptors coupled to both stimulation and inhibition of cyclic AMP formation. In membranes of the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer (ON-GL), external plexiform layer (EPL) and granule cell layer (GRL), NalBzoH elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of guanosine-5?-O-(3-[35S]-thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTP?S) binding with pEC50 values ranging from 7.36 to 7.86, whereas the ?1-opioid receptor agonists (?)-U-50,488 and U-69,593 were inactive. In membranes of GRL, but not ON-GL and EPL, NalBzoH stimulated basal adenylyl cyclase activity by 40% with a pEC50 of 8.14, and significantly potentiated the net enzyme stimulation elicited by corticotropin-releasing hormone and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 38. Pertussis toxin prevented the NalBzoH stimulations of [35S]GTP?S binding and adenylyl cyclase activity. In membranes of EPL and GRL, but not ON-GL, NalBzoH elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity with pEC50 values of 8.07 and 8.08, respectively. At concentrations that completely blocked the actions of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the ORL1 receptor antagonists CompB and [Nphe1]N/OFQ(1–13)NH2 failed to antagonize either the stimulatory or the inhibitory effect of NalBzoH on cyclic AMP formation. Similarly, the ?1-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine counteracted the NalBzoH effects with relatively low potencies (pKi values=7.67–8.09). Conversely, the selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist TIPP (pKi=9.10) and the selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP (pKi=8.27) reduced the inhibitory effect of NalBzoH by 70 and 30%, respectively. Moreover, TIPP and CTAP potently inhibited the NalBzoH stimulation of cyclic AMP, each antagonist maximally causing 50% blockade of the agonist response. These data demonstrate that in the olfactory bulb NalBzoH activates receptor signalling by acting through ?- and ?-opioid receptors and independently of ORL1 and ?1-opioid receptors. PMID:15451772

  15. Activation of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, C. R.; Mills, I.; Du, W.; Kamal, K.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway (AC) in endothelial cells (EC) exposed to different levels of mechanical strain. Bovine aortic EC were seeded to confluence on flexible membrane-bottom wells. The membranes were deformed with either 150 mm Hg (average 10% strain) or 37.5 mm Hg (average 6% strain) vacuum at 60 cycles per minute (0.5 s strain; 0.5 s relaxation) for 0-60 min. The results demonstrate that at 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain) there was a 1.5- to 2.2-fold increase in AC, cAMP, and PKA activity by 15 min when compared to unstretched controls. Further studies revealed an increase in cAMP response element binding protein in EC subjected to the 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain). These data support the hypothesis that cyclic strain activates the AC/cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathway in EC which may occur by exceeding a strain threshold and suggest that cyclic strain may stimulate the expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive promoter elements.

  16. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-15

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells.

  17. Metabolic responses of perfused rat livers to alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists, glucagon and cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Jakob, A; Diem, S

    1975-09-01

    1. The mechanism of action of glucagon and epinephrine was studied in perfused rat livers. Hormone-induced transitions from one metabolic steady state to another were followed in a non-recirculating perfusion system. Glucose and lactate production rates, oxygen uptake and K+ redistribution were measured. 2. Glucagon (3 nM), cyclic AMP (0.2 mM) and epinephrine (0.5 muM) had similar effects on K+ concentrations in the perfusate. Glycogenolysis responded more rapidly and O2 uptake was enhanced to a larger extent with epinephrine than with the other agents. alpha- and beta-receptor responses were differentiated by the use of phenylephrine (0.5 muM), isoproterenol (0.5 muM) and adrenergic blocking agents (phentolamine and beta-blocker Ro 3-4787 at 0.1 mM). 3. alpha-receptors mediated an activation of glucose production that was very rapid and was paralleled by a transient decrease of K+ concentrations in the effluent from the liver, lactate production rose gradually. Respiration was also enhanced, but fell again as lactate production increased. 4. beta-receptor stimulation was followed by an increase of glucose production that was less drastic and was paralleled by a K+ release, lactate production and respiration were only slightly enhanced. beta stimulation and glucagon both resulted in an inhibition of the alpha-adrenergic effect on lactate release and simultaneously increased O2 uptake. 5. We concluded that in perfused rat livers alpha- as well as beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation resulted in an activation of glycogenolysis, possibly by two different mechanisms. PMID:240432

  18. ACTIVATION OF A CYCLIC AMP-GUANINE EXCHANGE FACTOR IN HEPATOCYTES DECREASES NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baochun; Nweze, Ikenna; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Harbrecht, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine 3?, 5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activates intracellular signaling by regulating Protein Kinase A (PKA), calcium influx, and cAMP-binging guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac or cAMP-GEF). cAMP inhibits cytokine-induced expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hepatocytes by a PKA-independent mechanism. We hypothesized that Epac mediates this effect. A cyclic AMP analogue that specifically activates Epac, 8-(4-methoxyphenylthio)-2?-O-methyladenosine-3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (OPTmecAMP) and overexpression of liver specific Epac2 both inhibited IL-1?/IFN?–induced iNOS expression and nitrite production. OPTmecAMP inactivated Raf1/MEK/ERK signaling but ERK had no effect on iNOS expression. OPTmecAMP induced a persistent Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes that lasted up to 8 hours. Overexpression of a dominant negative Akt blocked the inhibitory effect of OPTmecAMP on iNOS production. A specific PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, attenuated the inhibition of nitrite production and iNOS expression produced by overexpressing a liver specific Epac2 (LEpac2). OPTmecAMP also induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in hepatocytes. Overexpression of dominant negative JNK enhanced cytokine- induced iNOS expression and nitrite production and reversed the inhibitory effects of LEpac2 on nitrite production and iNOS expression. We conclude that Epac regulates hepatocyte iNOS expression through an Akt- and JNK- mediated signaling mechanism. PMID:23143065

  19. A cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein (CREB2) is a cellular transactivator of the bovine leukemia virus long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Willems, L; Kettmann, R; Chen, G; Portetelle, D; Burny, A; Derse, D

    1992-01-01

    To gain insight into the cellular regulation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) trans activation, a lambda-gt11 cDNA library was constructed with mRNA isolated from a BLV-induced tumor and the recombinant proteins were screened with an oligonucleotide corresponding to the tax activation-responsive element (TAR). Two clones (called TAR-binding protein) were isolated from 750,000 lambda-gt11 plaques. The binding specificity was confirmed by Southwestern (DNA-protein) and gel retardation assays. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that TAR-binding protein is very similar to the CREB2 protein. It contains a leucine zipper structure required for dimerization, a basic amino acid domain, and multiple potential phosphorylation sites. A vector expressing CREB2 was transfected into D17 osteosarcoma cells. In the absence of the tax transactivator, the CREB2 protein and the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A activate the BLV long terminal repeat at a basal expression level: trans activation reached 10% of the values obtained in the presence of tax alone. These data demonstrate that CREB2 is a cellular factor able to induce BLV long terminal repeat expression in the absence of tax protein and could thus be involved in the early stages of viral infection. In addition, we observed that in vitro tax-induced trans activation can be activated or inhibited by CREB2 depending on the presence or absence of protein kinase A. These data suggest that the cyclic AMP pathway plays a role in the regulation of viral expression in BLV-infected animals. Images PMID:1309910

  20. Glial potassium channels activated by neuronal firing or intracellular cyclic AMP in Helix.

    PubMed Central

    Gommerat, I; Gola, M

    1996-01-01

    1. Cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp experiments were performed on satellite glial cells adhering to the cell body of neurones in situ within the nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia. The underlying neurone was under current or voltage-clamp control. 2. Neuronal firing induced a delayed (20-30 s) persistent (3-4 min) increase in the opening probability of glial K+ channels. The channels were also activated by perfusing the ganglion with a depolarizing high-K+ saline, except when the underlying neurone was prevented from depolarizing under voltage-clamp conditions. 3. Two K(+)-selective channels were detected in the glial membrane. The channel responding to neuronal firing was present in 95% of the patches (n = 393). It had a unitary conductance of 56 pS, a Na+ :K+ permeability ratio < 0.02 and displayed slight inward rectification in symmetrical [K+] conditions. It was sensitive to TEA, Ba2+ and Cs+. The following results refer to this channel as studied in the cell-attached configuration. 4. The glial K+ channel was activated by bath application of the membrane-permeant cyclic AMP derivatives 8-bromo-cAMP and dibutyryl-cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the diesterase inhibitors IBMX, theophylline and caffeine. It was insensitive to cyclic GMP activators and to conditions that might alter the intracellular [Ca2+] (ionomycin, low-Ca2+ saline and Ca2+ channel blockers). 5. The forskolin-induced changes in channel behaviour (open and closed time distributions, burst duration, short and long gaps within bursts) could be accounted for by a four-state model (3 closed states, 1 open state) by simply changing one of the six rate parameters. 6. The present results suggest that the signal sent by an active neurone to satellite glial cells is confined to the glial cells round that neurone. The effect of this signal on the class of glial K+ channels studied can be mimicked by an increase in glial cAMP concentration. The subsequent delayed opening of the glial K+ channels does not appear to play a role in siphoning the excess K+ released by active neurones. It is hypothesized that the cAMP-gated glial K+ channels may be involved in the control of glial cell proliferation. PMID:8887773

  1. A simple electrostatic switch important in the activation of type I protein kinase A by cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Dominico; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Sotriffer, Christoph A.; Pennypacker, Juniper K.; McCammon, J. Andrew; Taylor, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic AMP activates protein kinase A by binding to an inhibitory regulatory (R) subunit and releasing inhibition of the catalytic (C) subunit. Even though crystal structures of regulatory and catalytic subunits have been solved, the precise molecular mechanism by which cyclic AMP activates the kinase remains unknown. The dynamic properties of the cAMP binding domain in the absence of cAMP or C-subunit are also unknown. Here we report molecular-dynamics simulations and mutational studies of the RI? R-subunit that identify the C-helix as a highly dynamic switch which relays cAMP binding to the helical C-subunit binding regions. Furthermore, we identify an important salt bridge which links cAMP binding directly to the C-helix that is necessary for normal activation. Additional mutations show that a hydrophobic “hinge” region is not as critical for the cross-talk in PKA as it is in the homologous EPAC protein, illustrating how cAMP can control diverse functions using the evolutionarily conserved cAMP-binding domains. PMID:16322564

  2. Involvement of the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein in bovine leukemia virus expression in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, E; Kerkhofs, P; Mammerickx, M; Kettmann, R; Burny, A; Droogmans, L; Willems, L

    1994-01-01

    The TAR element (Tax-responsive element; also called TxRE) is a major determinant of the regulation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expression. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of viral expression, complexes formed between proteins and the TAR enhancer DNA were analyzed by gel retardation assays. We report here that nuclear lysates from ex vivo-isolated B lymphocytes contain proteins that specifically bind to TAR. An antibody directed toward the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein supershifted a complex (C1) present only in BLV-infected B lymphocytes. The CREB protein thus appears to be a major transcription factor involved in BLV expression in vivo. Images PMID:8057465

  3. Neural plasticity maintained high by activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: an age-independent, general mechanism in cat striate cortex.

    PubMed

    Imamura, K; Kasamatsu, T; Tanaka, S

    2007-06-29

    Adult cats lack ocular dominance plasticity, showing little change in the ocular dominance distribution following monocular deprivation. Ocular dominance plasticity is also lost in kitten visual cortex that has been continuously infused with either catecholaminergic neurotoxin, beta-adrenoreceptor blocker, or inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A). Complementarily, in adult cats we showed earlier that pharmacological activation of protein kinase A, albeit partially, restored ocular dominance plasticity. In the present study, we first asked whether, mediated by protein kinase A activation, the same molecular mechanisms could restore ocular dominance plasticity to kitten cortex that once lost the expression of plasticity due to prior pharmacological treatments. Concurrently with monocular deprivation, two kinds of cyclic AMP-related drugs (cholera toxin A-subunit or dibutyryl cyclic AMP) were directly infused in two types of aplastic kitten cortex pretreated with either 6-hydroxydopamine or propranolol. The combined treatment resulted in clear ocular dominance shift to the non-deprived eye, indicating that cortical plasticity was fully restored to aplastic kitten cortex. Next, to directly prove the sensitivity difference in protein kinase A activation between the immature and mature cortex, we compared the thus-obtained data in kittens with the published data derived from adult cats under the comparable experimental paradigm. The extent of ocular dominance changes following monocular deprivation was compared at different drug concentrations in the two preparations: the shifted ocular dominance distribution in aplastic kitten cortex infused with dibutyryl cyclic AMP at the lowest concentration tested and the W-shaped distribution in similarly treated adult cortex at a thousandfold-higher drug concentration that induced nearly maximal changes. We conclude that, irrespective of the animal's age, activation of protein kinase A cascades is a general mechanism to maintain ocular dominance plasticity high, their sensitivity being substantially higher in the immature than mature cortex. PMID:17544224

  4. Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J L; Harman, J G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is found in a variety of prokaryotes including both eubacteria and archaebacteria. cAMP plays a role in regulating gene expression, not only for the classic inducible catabolic operons, but also for other categories. In the enteric coliforms, the effects of cAMP on gene expression are mediated through its interaction with and allosteric modification of a cAMP-binding protein (CRP). The CRP-cAMP complex subsequently binds specific DNA sequences and either activates or inhibits transcription depending upon the positioning of the complex relative to the promoter. Enteric coliforms have provided a model to explore the mechanisms involved in controlling adenylate cyclase activity, in regulating adenylate cyclase synthesis, and in performing detailed examinations of CRP-cAMP complex-regulated gene expression. This review summarizes recent work focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of CRP-cAMP complex-mediated processes. For other bacteria, less detail is known. cAMP has been implicated in regulating antibiotic production, phototrophic growth, and pathogenesis. A role for cAMP has been suggested in nitrogen fixation. Often the only data that support cAMP involvement in these processes includes cAMP measurement, detection of the enzymes involved in cAMP metabolism, or observed effects of high concentrations of the nucleotide on cell growth. PMID:1315922

  5. Kinetics of activation of the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hoggett, J G; Brierley, I

    1992-01-01

    The activation of transcription initiation from the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) has been investigated using a fluorescence abortive initiation assay. The effect of the cyclic-AMP/CRP complex on the linear P4 promoter was to increase the initial binding (KB) of RNA polymerase to the promoter by about a factor of 10, but the rate of isomerization of closed to open complex (kf) was unaffected. One molecule of CRP per promoter was required for activation, and the concentration of cyclic AMP producing half-maximal stimulation was about 7-8 microM. Supercoiling caused a 2-3-fold increase in the rate of isomerization of the CRP-activated promoter, but weakened the initial binding of polymerase by about one order of magnitude. The unactivated supercoiled promoter was too weak to allow reliable assessment of kinetic parameters against the high background rate originating from the rest of the plasmid. PMID:1445251

  6. Kinetics of activation of the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Hoggett, J G; Brierley, I

    1992-11-01

    The activation of transcription initiation from the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) has been investigated using a fluorescence abortive initiation assay. The effect of the cyclic-AMP/CRP complex on the linear P4 promoter was to increase the initial binding (KB) of RNA polymerase to the promoter by about a factor of 10, but the rate of isomerization of closed to open complex (kf) was unaffected. One molecule of CRP per promoter was required for activation, and the concentration of cyclic AMP producing half-maximal stimulation was about 7-8 microM. Supercoiling caused a 2-3-fold increase in the rate of isomerization of the CRP-activated promoter, but weakened the initial binding of polymerase by about one order of magnitude. The unactivated supercoiled promoter was too weak to allow reliable assessment of kinetic parameters against the high background rate originating from the rest of the plasmid. PMID:1445251

  7. Essential role of L-arginine uptake and protein tyrosine kinase activity for NO-dependent vasorelaxation induced by stretch, isometric tension and cyclic AMP in rat pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hucks, David; Khan, Nayeem M; Ward, Jeremy P T

    2000-01-01

    The NO-dependent component of cyclic AMP-induced vasorelaxation in rat pulmonary arteries is critically dependent on extracellular L-arginine but independent of endothelial cell intracellular [Ca2+]. We examined whether L-arginine uptake was also essential for NO production induced by passive stretch or isometric tension, processes also reported to be Ca2+-independent. The passive length-tension curve was depressed by physiological concentrations of L-arginine (400??M; P<0.05). Inhibition of the y+ transporter with 10?mM L-lysine, NO synthase with L-NAME (100??M), or protein tyrosine kinase with erbstatin A (30??M) caused identical upward shifts (P<0.001), alone or in combination. Tyrphostin 23 was similar to erbstatin A, whilst the inactive analogue tyrphostin A1 and genistein were without effect. L-arginine (400??M) shifted the PGF2? concentration-response curve under isometric conditions to the right (P<0.05), whereas L-NAME or L-lysine caused a leftward shift (P<0.001). Tyrphostin 23 (30??M) more than reversed the L-arginine-induced suppression of PGF2?-induced tension; subsequent addition of L-NAME had no effect. The L-lysine-sensitive component of CPT cyclic AMP-induced vasorelaxation was abolished by erbstatin A. ACh-induced vasorelaxation was ?80% inhibited by L-NAME, but was not affected by L-lysine or 400??M L-arginine. Erbstatin A reduced the vasorelaxation by only ?25%. We conclude that activation of NO production by stretch, isometric tension, or cyclic AMP in rat pulmonary arteries is critically dependent on the presence and uptake of physiological concentrations of extracellular L-arginine, and protein tyrosine kinase activity. This directly contrasts with ACh-induced vasorelaxation, which was independent of extracellular L-arginine, and relatively unaffected by tyrosine kinase inhibition. PMID:11090123

  8. Presenilins Regulate Neurotrypsin Gene Expression and Neurotrypsin-dependent Agrin Cleavage via Cyclic AMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Modulation*

    PubMed Central

    Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Kim, Sonia N.; Benner, Christopher; Herrera, Cheryl M.; Kang, David E.; Garcia-Bassets, Ivan; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Presenilins, the catalytic components of the ?-secretase complex, are upstream regulators of multiple cellular pathways via regulation of gene transcription. However, the underlying mechanisms and the genes regulated by these pathways are poorly characterized. In this study, we identify Tequila and its mammalian ortholog Prss12 as genes negatively regulated by presenilins in Drosophila larval brains and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, respectively. Prss12 encodes the serine protease neurotrypsin, which cleaves the heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin. Altered neurotrypsin activity causes serious synaptic and cognitive defects; despite this, the molecular processes regulating neurotrypsin expression and activity are poorly understood. Using ?-secretase drug inhibitors and presenilin mutants in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we found that a mature ?-secretase complex was required to repress neurotrypsin expression and agrin cleavage. We also determined that PSEN1 endoproteolysis or processing of well known ?-secretase substrates was not essential for this process. At the transcriptional level, PSEN1/2 removal induced cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/CREB-binding protein binding, accumulation of activating histone marks at the neurotrypsin promoter, and neurotrypsin transcriptional and functional up-regulation that was dependent on GSK3 activity. Upon PSEN1/2 reintroduction, this active epigenetic state was replaced by a methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)-containing repressive state and reduced neurotrypsin expression. Genome-wide analysis revealed hundreds of other mouse promoters in which CREB binding is similarly modulated by the presence/absence of presenilins. Our study thus identifies Tequila and neurotrypsin as new genes repressed by presenilins and reveals a novel mechanism used by presenilins to modulate CREB signaling based on controlling CREB recruitment. PMID:24145027

  9. Evaluation of kemptide, a synthetic serine-containing heptapeptide, as a phosphate acceptor for the estimation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in respiratory tissues.

    PubMed

    Giembycz, M A; Diamond, J

    1990-01-15

    In the search for a phosphate acceptor to estimate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) activity in respiratory tissues devoid of the disadvantages inherent with the use of histones, we compared and contrasted a conventional substrate, histone IIa, with that of a novel heptapeptide phosphate acceptor, Kemptide (Kemp et al., J Biol Chem 252: 4888-4894, 1977). The specific activities of soluble A-kinase isolated from guinea-pig lung parenchyma and from bovine tracheal smooth muscle were significantly (12-16-fold) greater when Kemptide was used as substrate when compared to histone IIa. Moreover, studies with a specific inhibitor of A-kinase demonstrated that whilst the cyclic AMP-stimulated phosphorylation of Kemptide was catalysed exclusively by A-kinase, only approximately 89% of the phosphate incorporated into histone IIa was attributed to the activity of this enzyme. The activation constant (Kact) of cyclic AMP for A-kinase was estimated to be 1.5 microM when Kemptide was used as substrate, 25-fold higher than that obtained using histone IIa (60 nM) under identical conditions. In a complementary series of experiments it was found that both the basal and isoprenaline-stimulated A-kinase activity ratios were significantly higher when histone IIa was used as substrate when compared with that obtained using Kemptide. Elevating the ionic strength of the homogenization buffer or assay cocktail with NaCl produced a reversible (following dialysis), concentration-dependent, mixed uncompetitive, inhibition of cyclic AMP-stimulated histone phosphorylation; phosphokemptide formation was unaffected. The ability of salt to inhibit A-kinase activity also affected the elution profile of A-kinase isoenzymes following their separation by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. With histone IIa as substrate the Type I:Type II isoenzyme ratio in guinea-pig lung and in bovine tracheal smooth muscle was 9:91 and 35:65, respectively. Changing the phosphate acceptor to Kemptide reduced these respective ratios to 5:95 and 29:71. Although the effect on the isoenzyme ratio was small, the specific activities of the two isoenzymes isolated from both tissues were markedly attentuated by ca. 9% (Type I) and 36% (Type II). It is concluded that Kemptide is without many of the disadvantages inherent with histone IIa and is, thus, a preferable phosphate acceptor for estimating soluble A-kinase activity and determining the isoenzyme ratio in guinea-pig lung and in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. PMID:2154228

  10. Differentiation-Coupled Induction of Human Cytomegalovirus Replication by Union of the Major Enhancer Retinoic Acid, Cyclic AMP, and NF-?B Response Elements

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinxiang; Li, Ming; Torres, Yasaira Rodriguez; Galle, Courtney S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Triggers and regulatory pathways that effectively link human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate early (MIE) latent-lytic switch activation with progeny production are incompletely understood. In the quiescently infected human NTera2 cell model of primitive neural stem cells, we found that costimulation with vasoactive intestinal peptide (V) and phorbol ester (P) synergistically activated viral infection, but this effect waned over time. Coupling retinoic acid (R), an inducer of neuronal differentiation, to VP pulse stimulation attenuated the decline in viral activity and promoted the spread of the active infection through concentric layers of neighboring cells as cellular differentiation progressed. R stimulation alone was unable to activate the infection. The MIE enhancer cis-regulatory mechanisms responsible for this result were characterized by a strategy of combinatorial mutagenesis of five cis-acting element types (retinoic acid receptor binding elements [RARE], cyclic AMP [cAMP] response elements [CRE], NF-?B binding sites [kB], serum response element, and ETS/ELK-1 binding site) and multiple methods of assessment. We found that the CRE and kB combination sets the preinduction enhancer tone, is the major initiator and amplifier of RVP-induced MIE gene expression, and cooperates with RARE during cellular differentiation to enhance viral spread. In predifferentiated NTera2, we also found that the CRE-kB combination functions as initiator and amplifier of unstimulated HCMV MIE gene expression and cooperatively interacts with RARE to enhance viral spread. We conclude that RVP-stimulated signaling cascades and cellular differentiation operate through the enhancer CRE-kB-RARE core in strengthening induction of HCMV MIE gene expression in linkage with viral propagation. IMPORTANCE Cytomegalovirus-seropositive persons commonly lack detectable levels of cytomegalovirus replication, even when profoundly immunocompromised. In a human NTera2 cell model of primitive neural stem cells carrying resting cytomegalovirus genomes, we show that costimulation of protein kinase A and C-delta signaling cascades in conjunction with retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation brings about progeny virus propagation. Iterated DNA binding sites for retinoic acid receptor, CREB, and NF-?B family members in the cytomegalovirus major enhancer are at the crux in the pathway to HCMV activation. The stimulated CREB and NF-?B binding site combination vigorously initiates and amplifies the active cytomegalovirus infection and cooperates with activated retinoic acid receptor binding sites to further promote viral proliferation and spread between differentiated cells. These results support a paradigm in which a specific combination of stimuli coupled with cellular differentiation satisfies a core cis-activating code that unlocks enhancer silence to repower the cycle of cytomegalovirus propagation. PMID:26423948

  11. Ethanol-induced loss of brain cyclic AMP binding proteins: correlation with growth suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, S.; Kalmus, G.

    1987-05-01

    Brain hypoplasia secondary to maternal ethanol consumption is a common fetal defect observed in all models of fetal alcohol syndrome. The molecular mechanism by which ethanol inhibits growth is unknown but has been hypothesized to involve ethanol-induced changes in the activity of cyclic-AMP stimulated protein kinase. Acute and chronic alcohol exposure elevate cyclic AMP level in many tissues, including brain. This increase in cyclic AMP should increase the phosphorylating activity of kinase by increasing the amount of dissociated (active) kinase catalytic subunit. In 7-day embryonic chick brains, ethanol-induced growth suppression was correlated with increased brain cyclic AMP content but neither basal nor cyclic AMP stimulated kinase catalytic activity was increased. However, the levels of cyclic AMP binding protein (kinase regulatory subunit) were significantly lowered by ethanol exposure. Measured as either /sup 3/H cyclic AMP binding or as 8-azido cyclic AM/sup 32/P labeling, ethanol-exposed brains had significantly less cyclic AMP binding activity (51 +/- 14 versus 29 +/- 10 units/..mu..g protein for 8-azido cyclic AMP binding). These findings suggest that ethanol's effect on kinase activity may involve more than ethanol-induced activation of adenylate cyclase.

  12. Hepatitis C virus NS2 protein activates cellular cyclic AMP-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Kwon, Shi-Nae; Kang, Ju-Il; Lee, Song Hee; Jang, Sung Key; Ahn, Byung-Yoon; Kim, Yoon Ki . E-mail: yk-kim@korea.ac.kr

    2007-05-18

    Chronic infection of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to liver cirrhosis and cancer. The mechanism leading to viral persistence and hepatocellular carcinoma, however, has not been fully understood. In this study, we show that the HCV infection activates cellular cAMP-dependent pathways. Expression of a luciferase reporter gene controlled by a basic promoter with the cAMP response element (CRE) was significantly elevated in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells infected with the HCV JFH1. Analysis with viral subgenomic replicons indicated that the HCV NS2 protein is responsible for the effect. Furthermore, the level of cellular transcripts whose stability is known to be regulated by cAMP was specifically reduced in cells harboring NS2-expressing replicons. These results allude to the HCV NS2 protein having a novel function of regulating cellular gene expression and proliferation through the cAMP-dependent pathway.

  13. Purification and characterization of rat striatal tyrosine hydroxylase. Comparison of the activation by cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation and by other effectors.

    PubMed

    Richtand, N M; Inagami, T; Misono, K; Kuczenski, R

    1985-07-15

    Purification of rat striatal tyrosine hydroxylase in the presence of protease inhibitors effected a high yield of apparently homogeneous enzyme which is stable to prolonged storage. The purified enzyme migrates as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight of 61,300. Removal of protease inhibitors results in the appearance of additional bands with molecular weights of 59,800 and 57,000. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase incorporates 1 mol of phosphate/61,000-Da subunit of tyrosine hydroxylase, and concomitantly decreases the apparent Km of the enzyme for cofactor. Phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase is unstable at 37 degrees C, exhibiting a 50% decrease in apparent Vmax in 40 min with no change in Km for cofactor. Levels of incorporated phosphate remain constant over this time period. Tyrosine hydroxylase activated by and in the presence of phosphatidylinositol or high concentrations of NaCl exhibited a similar loss of activity at 37 degrees C, whereas enzyme activated by heparin was relatively stable. The rate of phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase is markedly increased in the presence of any of these effectors, suggesting that they promote a common conformation. Further, heparin appears to bind to tyrosine hydroxylase at a site distant from the phosphorylation site. Physiological effectors of tyrosine hydroxylase may act in concert with cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation, perhaps by binding to an allosteric site, to regulate enzyme activity in vivo. PMID:2861203

  14. Prostaglandin E2 increases cyclic AMP and inhibits endothelin-1 production/secretion by guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells through EP4 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Stéphane; Dubé, Jean; Villeneuve, Annie; Gobeil, Fernand; Yang, Quan; Battistini, Bruno; Guillemette, Gaétan; Sirois, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased adenosine 3??:?5?-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) formation in tracheal epithelial cells and concomitantly decreased the production/secretion of immunoreactive endothelin (irET). Naturally occurring prostanoids and selective and non-selective EP receptor agonists showed the following rank order of potency in stimulating cyclic AMP generation by epithelial cells: PGE2 (EP-selective)>16,16-dimethyl PGE2 (EP-selective)>11-deoxy PGE2 (EP-selective)>>>iloprost (IP/EP1/EP3-selective), butaprost (EP2-selective), PGD2 (DP-selective), PGF2? (FP-selective). The lack of responsiveness of the latter prostanoids indicated that the prostanoid receptor present in these cells is not of the DP, FP, IP, EP1, EP2 or EP3 subtype. Pre-incubating the cells with the selective TP/EP4-receptor antagonists AH23848B and AH22921X antagonized the PGE2-evoked cyclic AMP generation. This suggested that EP4 receptors mediate PGE2 effects. However, in addition to any antagonistic effects at EP4-receptors, both compounds, to a different extent, modified cyclic AMP metabolism. The selective EP1, DP and EP2 receptor antagonist (AH6809) failed to inhibit PGE2-evoked cyclic AMP generation which confirmed that the EP2 receptor subtype did not contribute to the change in cyclic AMP formation in these cells. The PGE2-induced inhibition of irET production by guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells was due to cyclic AMP generation and activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase since this effect was reverted by the cyclic AMP antagonist Rp-cAMPS. These results provide the first evidence supporting the existence of a functional prostaglandin E2 receptor that shares the pharmacological features of the EP4-receptor subtype in guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells. These receptors modulate cyclic AMP formation as well as ET-1 production/secretion in these cells. PMID:11226130

  15. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-01

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

  16. The palindromic series I repeats in the simian cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter behave as both strong basal enhancers and cyclic AMP response elements.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y N; Crawford, S; Stall, J; Rawlins, D R; Jeang, K T; Hayward, G S

    1990-01-01

    A 600-base-pair (bp) enhancer region upstream from the major IE94 gene of simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV) produces very strong basal expression of associated gene products. This domain consists of multiple sets of interspersed repetitive elements, including 11 copies of a conserved 16-bp palindromic sequence with the consensus CCATTGACGTCAATGG. These series I repeats contain an 8-bp core TGACGTCA that resembles the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE) of cellular genes. In transient chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays in K562 human erythroleukemia cells, a set of deleted variants of the IE94 promoter all responded up to 15-fold to induction by cAMP. However, successive removal of most of the SCMV 16-bp motifs reduced basal expression over 20-fold. The cAMP stimulation was also manifested at the steady-state RNA level after SCMV infection of K562 cells and was detectable within 1.5 h after treatment of DNA-transfected cells. Addition of a single 30-bp oligonucleotide encompassing the 16-bp palindrome conveyed up to 10-fold cAMP responsiveness onto a heterologous weak promoter but had no effect on basal expression. In contrast, two or more adjacent copies produced 20- to 40-fold increases in basal expression and provided greater than 200-fold activation in the presence of cAMP. Similar effects were obtained when the oligonucleotides were placed in a downstream location relative to the reporter gene. Studies with mutant oligonucleotides revealed that both the core CRE and the flanking sequence portions of the 16-bp elements were essential for enhancer function. Both components were also important for maximum cAMP responsiveness. Band shift assays with fractionated nuclear extracts from Raji lymphocytes revealed multiple competable complexes with cellular DNA-binding factors that recognized the series I elements. Three distinct CREB-like factors were detected that required only the core 8-bp elements for binding. We conclude that the 16-bp series I repeats provide a major contribution to the constitutive enhancer properties of the IE94 promoter and also act as functional CREs. The cAMP response properties appear likely to play a key role in reactivation of the virus from a latent state in appropriately differentiating cell types. Images PMID:2152815

  17. Revisiting the mechanism of activation of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) by cAMP in Escherichia coli: lessons from a subunit-crosslinked form of CRP.

    PubMed

    Saha, Abinit; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta; Datta, Ajit Bikram; Parrack, Pradeep

    2015-01-30

    Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), the global transcription regulator in prokaryotes, is active only as a cAMP-CRP complex. Binding of cAMP changes the conformation of CRP, transforming it from a transcriptionally 'inactive' to an 'active' molecule. These conformers are also characterized by distinct biochemical properties including the ability to form an S-S crosslink between the C178 residues of its two monomeric subunits. We studied a CRP variant (CRP(cl)), in which the subunits are crosslinked. We demonstrate that CRP(cl) can activate transcription even in the absence of cAMP. Implications of these results for the crystallographically-determined structure of cAMP-CRP are discussed. PMID:25541491

  18. Expression of phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in melanin-concentrating hormone neurons and orexin neurons in male and female rats during ad-libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Kimura, Fukuko; Akema, Tatsuo; Funabashi, Toshiya

    2014-07-01

    Using phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) as a marker of neural activity, we previously suggested that orexin neurons and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons play distinct roles in feeding behavior. In the present study, we examined the expression of pCREB during ad-libitum feeding; previously, only fasted animals were examined. MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed pCREB during spontaneous food intake. The induction of pCREB expression did not differ by sex, but attenuation seemed to occur faster in females than in males. On the basis of the results of the present study, we speculate that MCH neurons respond to nutrition-related feeding, but the feeding-related activity of orexin was not evident unless hunger was accompanied by stress, such as the stress caused by the absence of food in the case of fasting. Therefore, the desire to eat under normal conditions does not drive orexin neurons, but it does drive MCH neurons. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of consuming glucose or saccharin, a nonmetabolized sweetener, in fasted male and female rats. Glucose and saccharin were equally effective in reducing pCREB expression in the orexin neurons of female rats. In MCH neurons, glucose attenuated the expression of pCREB, but saccharin had no effect, irrespective of sex. Taken together, the results indicate that MCH and orexin peptides play physiologically distinct roles in feeding behavior. PMID:24780894

  19. Functional cyclic AMP response element in the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) promoter modulates epidermal growth factor receptor pathway- or androgen withdrawal-mediated BCRP/ABCG2 transcription in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Natarajan, Karthika; Safren, Lowell; Hamburger, Anne W; Hussain, Arif; Ross, Douglas D

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorylated cyclic-AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (p-CREB) is a downstream effector of a variety of important signaling pathways. We investigated whether the human BCRP promoter contains a functional cAMP response element (CRE). 8Br-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased the activity of a BCRP promoter reporter construct and BCRP mRNA in human carcinoma cells. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway activation also led to an increase in p-CREB and in BCRP promoter reporter activity via two major downstream EGFR signaling pathways: the phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT, ERK and CREB, while simultaneously enhancing BCRP mRNA and functional protein expression. EGF-stimulated CREB phosphorylation and BCRP induction were diminished by inhibition of EGFR, PI3K/AKT or RAS/MAPK signaling. CREB silencing using RNA interference reduced basal levels of BCRP mRNA and diminished the induction of BCRP by EGF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that a putative CRE site on the BCRP promoter bound p-CREB by a point mutation of the CRE site abolished EGF-induced stimulation of BCRP promoter reporter activity. Furthermore, the CREB co-activator, cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activator (CRTC2), is involved in CREB-mediated BCRP transcription: androgen depletion of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells increased both CREB phosphorylation and CRTC2 nuclear translocation, and enhanced BCRP expression. Silencing CREB or CRTC2 reduced basal BCRP expression and BCRP induction under androgen-depletion conditions. This novel CRE site plays a central role in mediating BCRP gene expression in several human cancer cell lines following activation of multiple cancer-relevant signaling pathways. PMID:25615818

  20. Transcription activation at Escherichia coli promoters dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein: effects of binding sequences for the RNA polymerase alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Savery, N J; Rhodius, V A; Wing, H J; Busby, S J

    1995-01-01

    Transcription activation at two semi-synthetic Escherichia coli promoters, CC(-41.5) and CC(-72.5), is dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) that binds to sites centred 41.5 and 72.5 bp upstream from the respective transcription startpoints. An UP-element that can bind the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha-subunit was cloned upstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-41.5) and downstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-72.5). In both cases CRP-dependent promoter activity was increased by the UP-element, but CRP-independent activity was not increased. DNase I footprinting was exploited to investigate the juxtaposition of bound CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits. In both cases, CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits occupy their cognate binding sites in ternary CRP-RNAP promoter complexes. RNAP alpha-subunits can occupy the UP-element in the absence of CRP, but this is not sufficient for open complex formation. The positive effects of binding RNAP alpha-subunits upstream of the DNA site for CRP at -41.5 are suppressed if the UP-element is incorrectly positioned. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7619086

  1. Potentiation of cyclic AMP-mediated vasorelaxation by phenylephrine in pulmonary arteries of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Priest, R M; Hucks, D; Ward, J P T

    1999-01-01

    ?1-adrenoceptor agonists may potentiate relaxation to ?-adrenoceptor agonists, although the mechanisms are unclear. We compared relaxations induced by ?-adrenoceptor agonists and cyclic AMP-dependent vasodilators in rat pulmonary arteries constricted with prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) or the ?1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (PE). In addition, we examined whether differences were related to cyclic AMP- or nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP-dependent pathways.Isoprenaline-induced relaxation was substantially potentiated in arteries constricted with PE compared with PGF2?. Methoxamine was similar to PE, whereas there was no difference between PGF2? and 30?mM KCl. The potentiation was primarily due to a marked increase in the NO-independent component of relaxation, from 9.1±1.7% for PGF2? to 55.1±4.4% for PE. NO-dependent relaxation was also enhanced, but to a lesser extent (?50%). Relaxation to salbutamol was almost entirely NO-dependent in both groups, and was potentiated ?50% by PE.Relaxation to forskolin (activator of adenylate cyclase) was also enhanced in PE constricted arteries. Part of this relaxation was NO-dependent, but the major effect of PE was to increase the NO-independent component. Propranolol diminished but did not abolish the potentiation. There was no difference in response to CPT cyclic AMP (membrane permeant analogue) between PE and PGF2?, suggesting that mechanisms distal to the production of cyclic AMP were unchanged.Relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was the same for PE and PGF2?, although relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was slightly depressed. This implies that potentiation by PE does not involve the cyclic GMP pathway directly.Mesenteric arteries constricted with PE did not show potentiation of isoprenaline-induced relaxation compared to those constricted with PGF2?, suggesting that this effect may be specific to the pulmonary circulation.These results clearly show that PE potentiates both the NO-independent and -dependent components of cyclic AMP-mediated relaxation in pulmonary arteries of the rat, although the effect on the former is more profound. We suggest that potentiation of both components is largely due to direct activation of adenylate cyclase via ?1-adrenoceptors, within the smooth muscle and endothelial cells respectively. PMID:10369485

  2. Roles of Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and the Carboxyl-Terminal Domain of the ? Subunit in Transcription Activation of the Escherichia coli rhaBAD Operon

    PubMed Central

    Holcroft, Carolyn C.; Egan, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    The Escherichia coli rhaBAD operon encodes the enzymes for catabolism of the sugar l-rhamnose. Full rhaBAD activation requires the AraC family activator RhaS (bound to a site that overlaps the ?35 region of the promoter) and the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP; bound immediately upstream of RhaS at ?92.5). We tested alanine substitutions in activating regions (AR) 1 and 2 of CRP for their effect on rhaBAD activation. Some, but not all, of the substitutions in both AR1 and AR2 resulted in approximately twofold defects in expression from rhaBAD promoter fusions. We also expressed a derivative of the ? subunit of RNA polymerase deleted for the entire C-terminal domain (?-?235) and assayed expression from rhaBAD promoter fusions. The greatest defect (54-fold) occurred at a truncated promoter where RhaS was the only activator, while the defect at the full-length promoter (RhaS plus CRP) was smaller (13-fold). Analysis of a plasmid library expressing alanine substitutions at every residue in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the ? subunit (?-CTD) identified 15 residues (mostly in the DNA-binding determinant) that were important at both the full-length and truncated promoters. Only one substitution was defective at the full-length but not the truncated promoter, and this residue was located in the DNA-binding determinant. Six substitutions were defective only at the promoter activated by RhaS alone, and these may define a protein-contacting determinant on ?-CTD. Overall, our results suggest that CRP interaction with ?-CTD may not be required for rhaBAD activation; however, ?-CTD does contribute to full activation, probably through interactions with DNA and possibly RhaS. PMID:10852886

  3. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species mediate decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells in response to cyclic AMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabbagh, Marwa; Fusi, Luca; Higham, Jenny; Lee, Yun; Lei, Kaiyu; Hanyaloglu, Aylin C; Lam, Eric W-F; Christian, Mark; Brosens, Jan J

    2011-02-01

    Differentiation of human endometrial stromal cells into specialized decidual cells is critical for embryo implantation and survival of the conceptus. Initiation of this differentiation process is strictly dependent on elevated cAMP levels, but the signal intermediates that control the expression of decidual marker genes, such as prolactin (PRL) and IGFBP1, remain poorly characterized. Here we show that cAMP-dependent decidualization can be attenuated or enhanced upon treatment of primary cultures with a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor (diphenylen iodonium) or activator (apocynin), respectively. Time-course analysis demonstrated that cAMP enhances endogenous reactive oxygen species production, apparent after 12 h of stimulation, which coincides with a dramatic increase in decidual PRL and IGFBP1 expression. Knockdown of the Rho GTPase RAC1, which disables activation of the NADPH oxidase homologs NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1, NOX-2, and NOX-3, had no effect on PRL or IGFBP1 expression. In contrast, silencing of NOX-4, or its cofactor p22(PHOX), inhibited the expression of both decidual markers. Finally, we show that the NOX-4/p22(PHOX) complex regulates the DNA-binding activity of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-?, a key regulator of human endometrial stromal cell differentiation. Thus, NOX-4 activation and reactive oxygen species signaling play an integral role in initiating the endometrial decidual response in preparation of pregnancy. PMID:21159852

  4. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230....1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to.... Cyclic AMP measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders,...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230....1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to.... Cyclic AMP measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders,...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230....1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to.... Cyclic AMP measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders,...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230....1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to.... Cyclic AMP measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders,...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230....1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to.... Cyclic AMP measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders,...

  9. Non-competitive antagonism of ?2-agonist-mediated cyclic AMP accumulation by ICI 118551 in BC3H1 cells endogenously expressing constitutively active ?2-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, H E; Latif, M L; Hill, S J

    2000-01-01

    Constitutive activity of the ?2-adrenoceptor, which is sensitive to inhibition by an inverse agonist such as ICI?118551, has been readily demonstrated in recombinant systems expressing constitutively-active mutant receptors or over-expressing the wild-type ?2-adrenoceptor. Here we demonstrate the presence of constitutive ?2-adrenoceptor activity in BC3H1 cells which endogenously express this receptor. In BC3H1 cells, only ICI?118551 behaved as an inverse agonist at ?2-adrenoceptors, while propranolol, ICI?118551, atenolol and, to a lesser extent, alprenolol exhibited inverse agonism in CHO-?24 cells transfected with cDNA for the human ?2-adrenoceptor (310?fmol.mg protein?1). The level of expression of ?2-adrenoceptors in BC3H1 cells was not high (78 fmol.mg protein?1) and the efficiency of receptor–effector coupling in this cell line was much lower than in the recombinant CHO-?24 cells (as judged by the partial agonist nature of both salbutamol and clenbuterol). ICI?118551 (log KD?9.73±0.07) and propranolol (log KD?9.25±0.12) both behaved as conventional competitive antagonists of isoprenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in high expressing CHO-?24 cells. In contrast, ICI 118551 appeared to act as a non-competitive antagonist in BC3H1 cells and in low expressing CHO-?26 cells (50?fmol.mg protein?1). This non-competitive effect of ICI 118551 in BC3H1 cells was also observed when either salbutamol was used as agonist, or the incubation period with isoprenaline was extended to 30?min. The possibility that these effects of ICI 118551 are due to an interaction with different affinity states (R, R* and R?) of the receptor is discussed. PMID:10960078

  10. Role of dynamics in the autoinhibition and activation of the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (EPAC).

    PubMed

    VanSchouwen, Bryan; Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; Fogolari, Federico; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) is a key receptor of cAMP in eukaryotes and controls critical signaling pathways. Currently, no residue resolution information is available on the full-length EPAC dynamics, which are known to be pivotal determinants of allostery. In addition, no information is presently available on the intermediates for the classical induced fit and conformational selection activation pathways. Here these questions are addressed through molecular dynamics simulations on five key states along the thermodynamic cycle for the cAMP-dependent activation of a fully functional construct of EPAC2, which includes the cAMP-binding domain and the integral catalytic region. The simulations are not only validated by the agreement with the experimental trends in cAMP-binding domain dynamics determined by NMR, but they also reveal unanticipated dynamic attributes, rationalizing previously unexplained aspects of EPAC activation and autoinhibition. Specifically, the simulations show that cAMP binding causes an extensive perturbation of dynamics in the distal catalytic region, assisting the recognition of the Rap1b substrate. In addition, analysis of the activation intermediates points to a possible hybrid mechanism of EPAC allostery incorporating elements of both the induced fit and conformational selection models. In this mechanism an entropy compensation strategy results in a low free-energy pathway of activation. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that the autoinhibitory interactions of EPAC are more dynamic than previously anticipated, leading to a revised model of autoinhibition in which dynamics fine tune the stability of the autoinhibited state, optimally sensitizing it to cAMP while avoiding constitutive activation. PMID:21873431

  11. Chlorotoxin does not inhibit volume-regulated, calcium-activated and cyclic AMP-activated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Chantal; Wei, Lin; Tytgat, Jan; Droogmans, Guy; Nilius, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to look for a high-affinity and selective polypeptide toxin, which could serve as a probe for the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) or the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We have partially purified chlorotoxin, including new and homologous short chain insectotoxins, from the crude venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (Lqq) by means of gel filtration chromatography. Material eluting between 280 and 420?min, corresponding to fractions 15–21, was lyophilized and tested on VRAC and CaCC, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We have also tested the commercially available chlorotoxin on VRAC, CaCC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and on the glioma specific chloride channel (GCC). VRAC and the correspondent current, ICl,swell, was activated in Cultured Pulmonary Artery Endothelial (CPAE) cells by a 25% hypotonic solution. Neither of the fractions 16–21 significantly inhibited ICl,swell (n=4–5). Ca2+-activated Cl? currents, ICl,Ca, activated by loading T84 cells via the patch pipette with 1??M free Ca2+, were not inhibited by any of the tested fractions (15–21), (n=2–5). Chlorotoxin (625?nM) did neither effect ICl,swell nor ICl,Ca (n=4–5). The CFTR channel, transiently transfected in COS cells and activated by a cocktail containing IBMX and forskolin, was not affected by 1.2??M chlorotoxin (n=5). In addition, it did not affect currents through GCC. We conclude that submicromolar concentrations of chlorotoxin do not block volume-regulated, Ca2+-activated and CFTR chloride channels and that it can not be classified as a general chloride channel toxin. PMID:10683204

  12. Activation of exchange protein activated by cyclic-AMP enhances long-lasting synaptic potentiation in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Banko, Jessica L.; Peters, Melinda M.; Klann, Eric; Weeber, Edwin J.; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    cAMP is a critical second messenger implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory in the mammalian brain. Substantial evidence links increases in intracellular cAMP to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream effectors (transcription factors, receptors, protein kinases) necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength. However, cAMP may also initiate signaling via a guanine nucleotide exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). The role of Epac in hippocampal synaptic plasticity is unknown. We found that in area CA1 of mouse hippocampal slices, activation of Epac enhances maintenance of LTP without affecting basal synaptic transmission. The persistence of this form of LTP requires extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and new protein synthesis, but not transcription. Because ERK is involved in translational control of long-lasting plasticity and memory, our data suggest that Epac is a crucial link between cAMP and ERK during some forms of protein synthesis-dependent LTP. Activation of Epac represents a novel signaling pathway for rapid regulation of the stability of enduring forms of LTP and, perhaps, of hippocampus- dependent long-term memories. PMID:18509114

  13. Activation of Exchange Protein Activated by Cyclic-AMP Enhances Long-Lasting Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Banko, Jessica L.; Peters, Melinda M.; Klann, Eric; Weeber, Edwin J.; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    cAMP is a critical second messenger implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory in the mammalian brain. Substantial evidence links increases in intracellular cAMP to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream effectors (transcription factors, receptors, protein kinases) necessary for long-term…

  14. Mitotic activation of the DISC1-inducible cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D9 (PDE4D9), through multi-site phosphorylation, influences cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Catherine L; Lee, Louisa C Y; Hill, Elaine V; Henderson, David J P; Anthony, Diana F; Houslay, Daniel M; Yalla, Krishna C; Cairns, Lynne S; Dunlop, Allan J; Baillie, George S; Huston, Elaine; Houslay, Miles D

    2014-09-01

    In Rat-1 cells, the dramatic decrease in the levels of both intracellular cyclic 3'5' adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP; cAMP) and in the activity of cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) observed in mitosis was paralleled by a profound increase in cAMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) activity. The decrease in PKA activity, which occurs during mitosis, was attributable to PDE4 activation as the PDE4 selective inhibitor, rolipram, but not the phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE3) inhibitor, cilostamide, specifically ablated this cell cycle-dependent effect. PDE4 inhibition caused Rat-1 cells to move from S phase into G2/M more rapidly, to transit through G2/M more quickly and to remain in G1 for a longer period. Inhibition of PDE3 elicited no observable effects on cell cycle dynamics. Selective immunopurification of each of the four PDE4 sub-families identified PDE4D as being selectively activated in mitosis. Subsequent analysis uncovered PDE4D9, an isoform whose expression can be regulated by Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) complex, as the sole PDE4 species activated during mitosis in Rat-1 cells. PDE4D9 becomes activated in mitosis through dual phosphorylation at Ser585 and Ser245, involving the combined action of ERK and an unidentified 'switch' kinase that has previously been shown to be activated by H2O2. Additionally, in mitosis, PDE4D9 also becomes phosphorylated at Ser67 and Ser81, through the action of MK2 (MAPKAPK2) and AMP kinase (AMPK), respectively. The multisite phosphorylation of PDE4D9 by all four of these protein kinases leads to decreased mobility (band-shift) of PDE4D9 on SDS-PAGE. PDE4D9 is predominantly concentrated in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but with a fraction distributed asymmetrically at the cell margins. Our investigations demonstrate that the diminished levels of cAMP and PKA activity that characterise mitosis are due to enhanced cAMP degradation by PDE4D9. PDE4D9, was found to locate primarily not only in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but also at the cell margins. We propose that the sequestration of PDE4D9 in a specific complex together with AMPK, ERK, MK2 and the H2O2-activatable 'switch' kinase allows for its selective multi-site phosphorylation, activation and regulation in mitosis. PMID:24815749

  15. The plasma cyclic-AMP response to noise in humans and rats—short-term exposure to various noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, M.; Dodo, H.; Ishii, F.; Yoneda, J.; Yamazaki, S.; Goto, H.

    1988-12-01

    Rats were exposed to short-term noise which was found to activate the hypothalamohypophyseal-adrenal system and result in a decrease of adrenal ascorbic acid (AAA) and an increase of serum corticosterone (SCS). The threshold limit value lay between 60 and 70 dB(A). To characterize better the effect of noise on the human hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system, a large group of subjects was exposed to short-term noise at 85 dB(A) and higher, and tested for levels of adrenocortical steroid (cortisol) and anterior pituitary hormones such as ACTH, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). Results in humans showed hyperfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary system. However, as the responses in rats and humans differed, a further experiment was performed using C-AMP, a second messenger mediating many of the effects of a variety of hormones. Plasma C-AMP in humans and rats increased significantly after exposure to noise greater than 70 dB(A). We suggest that plasma C-AMP could be useful as a sensitive index for noise-related stress in the daily living environment of humans and rats.

  16. Differential inhibitory mechanism of cyclic AMP on TNF-? and IL-12 synthesis by macrophages exposed to microbial stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Procópio, Daniela O; Teixeira, Mauro M; Camargo, Maristela M; Travassos, Luiz R; Ferguson, Michael A J; Almeida, Igor C; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    1999-01-01

    Microbial stimuli such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or glycosylphosphatidylinositol-mucins derived from Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes (tGPI-mucins) are effective stimulators of the synthesis of cytokines by macrophages. Here, we evaluated the ability of cyclic AMP mimetic or elevating agents to modulate TNF-? and IL-12 synthesis by murine inflammatory macrophages. Cholera Toxin (ChTx) inhibited tGPI-mucins (2.5?nM) or LPS (100?ng?ml?1) induced TNF-? and IL-12(p40) synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, the cyclic AMP mimetics, 8-bromo cyclic AMP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, or prostaglandin (PG) E2 inhibited the synthesis of both cytokines by macrophages exposed to microbial stimuli. The protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 partially reversed the inhibitory effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and PGE2 on both IL-12(p40) and TNF-? synthesis. Pretreatment of macrophages with dibutyryl cyclic AMP or ChTx augmented the synthesis of IL-10 triggered by microbial products. Elevation of cyclic AMP inhibited the synthesis of TNF-?, but not IL-12(p40), by inflammatory macrophages from IL-10 knockout mice. Kinetic studies showed that synthesis of both TNF-? and IL-10 peaked at 8?h and IL-12 at 24?h after stimulation with microbial stimuli. Together, our findings favour the hypothesis that the cyclic AMP inhibitory activity on IL-12(p40) but not on TNF-? synthesis is dependent on de novo protein synthesis, most likely involving IL-10, by macrophages stimulated with microbial products. Accordingly, dibutyryl cyclic AMP inhibited IL-12(p40) synthesis only when added before or at the same time of the stimuli. In contrast, the effect of this cyclic AMP analogue on TNF-? synthesis was protracted and observed even 2?h after the addition of the stimuli. PMID:10455266

  17. Activation of Endogenous Anti-Inflammatory Mediator Cyclic AMP Attenuates Acute Pyelonephritis in Mice Induced by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yang; Li, Ke; Wang, Na; Cai, Gui-Dong; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Yan; Gui, Bao-Song; Liu, En-Qi; Li, Zong-Fang; Zhou, Wuding

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pyelonephritis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is not well understood. Here, we show that besides UPEC virulence, the severity of the host innate immune response and invasion of renal epithelial cells are important pathogenic factors. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP significantly attenuated acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by UPEC. Administration of forskolin (a potent elevator of intracellular cAMP) reduced kidney infection (ie, bacterial load, tissue destruction); this was associated with attenuated local inflammation, as evidenced by the reduction of renal production of proinflammatory mediators, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and renal myeloperoxidase activity. In primary cell culture systems, forskolin not only down-regulated UPEC-stimulated production of proinflammatory mediators by renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells (eg, monocyte/macrophages) but also reduced bacterial internalization by renal tubular epithelial cells. Our findings clearly indicate that activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP is beneficial for controlling UPEC-mediated acute pyelonephritis in mice. The beneficial effect can be explained at least in part by limiting excessive inflammatory responses through acting on both renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells and by inhibiting bacteria invasion of renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:25478807

  18. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Cureri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of cAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of cAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of cAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of cAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of cAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  19. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate CAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of CAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of CAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of CAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of CAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  20. An AP-2 element acts synergistically with the cyclic AMP- and Phorbol ester-inducible enhancer of the human proenkephalin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, S.E.; Comb, M.; Pearlberg, J.; Goodman, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    An enhancer with two DNA elements, one containing the sequence CGTCA, is required for cyclic AMP-and phorbol ester-inducible transcription of the human proenkephalin gene. The authors report that an AP-2 element located adjacent to the enhancer acts synergistically with it to confer maximal response to cyclic AMP and phorbol esters.

  1. AIB1 = amplified in breast cancer; AF-1 = activation function-1; AF-2 = activation function-2; cAMP = cyclic AMP; CBP = CREB-binding protein; DES = diethylstilbestrol; E2 = 17-estradiol; ER = estrogen receptor; ERE = estrogen response element; EGF = epide

    E-print Network

    Brown, Myles

    39 AIB1 = amplified in breast cancer; AF-1 = activation function-1; AF-2 = activation function-2; c; PKA = protein kinase A; SERM = selective estrogen receptor modulator. Available online http://breast-cancer, they have also been associated pathologically with an increased risk for breast and endometrial cancer [2

  2. Oestradiol Increases Phosphorylation of a Dopamine-and Cyclic AMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) in Female Rat Brain

    E-print Network

    Oestradiol Increases Phosphorylation of a Dopamine- and Cyclic AMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein (DARPP. Key words: oestrogen, steroids, dopamine, hypothalamus, brain. Abstract Recent studies suggest that oestrogen and progestin receptors may be activated by the neurotransmitter dopamine, as well

  3. Histamine-induced increases in cyclic AMP levels in bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marley, P. D.; Thomson, K. A.; Jachno, K.; Johnston, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of histamine on cellular cyclic AMP levels in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells has been studied. 2. Histamine (0.3-30 microM) increased cyclic AMP levels transiently, with a maximal response after 5 min, a smaller response after 20 min, and no increase seen after 80 or 180 min. The EC50 at 5 min was approximately 2 microM. Histamine had no effect on cyclic AMP release from the cells over 5 min, but increased it after 90 min. 3. The cyclic AMP response to 5 microM histamine was reduced by 45% by 1 microM mepyramine and by almost 30% by 1 microM cimetidine, and was abolished by the combination of both antagonists. Cimetidine at 100 microM did not inhibit the response to histamine more than 1 microM cimetidine. The H3-receptor antagonist, thioperamide (1 microM), had no effect on the response to histamine. 4. The H1-receptor agonist, 2-thiazolyethylamine (5-100 microM) and the H2-receptor agonist, dimaprit (5-100 microM), each induced a cyclic AMP response, and gave more-than-additive responses when combined. The H3 agonist (R) alpha-methylhistamine (100 microM) had no effect either on its own or in combination with either the H1 or the H2 agonist. The response to 100 microM 2-thiazolylethylamine was unaffected by cimetidine (100 microM). 5. The cyclic AMP responses to 5 microM histamine, 100 microM thiazolylethylamine and 100 microM dimaprit were each weakly enhanced in the presence of 1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1725765

  4. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to measure...the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, including...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to measure...the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, including...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to measure...the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, including...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to measure...the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, including...

  8. Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through EP4 Receptor and Intracellular Cyclic AMP in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Milena; Chen, Li-Yuan; Liu, Yueqin; Martinez-Anton, Asuncion; Qi, Hai-Yan; Logun, Carolea; Alsaaty, Sara; Park, Yong Hwan; Kastner, Daniel L; Chae, Jae Jin; Shelhamer, James H

    2015-06-01

    PGE2 is a potent lipid mediator involved in maintaining homeostasis but also promotion of acute inflammation or immune suppression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing protein (NLR)P3 inflammasome plays an important role in host defense. Uncontrolled activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, owing to mutations in the NLRP3 gene, causes cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. In this study, we showed that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is inhibited by PGE2 in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. This effect was mediated through PGE2 receptor subtype 4 (EP4) and an increase in intracellular cAMP, independently of protein kinase A or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP. A specific agonist of EP4 mimicked, whereas its antagonist or EP4 knockdown reversed, PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. PGE2 caused an increase in intracellular cAMP. Blockade of adenylate cyclase by its inhibitor reversed PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. Increase of intracellular cAMP by an activator of adenylate cyclase or an analog of cAMP, or a blockade of cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterase inhibitor decreased NLRP3 activation. Protein kinase A or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP agonists did not mimic, and their antagonists did not reverse, PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. Additionally, constitutive IL-1? secretion from LPS-primed PBMCs of cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes patients was substantially reduced by high doses of PGE2. Moreover, blocking cytosolic phospholipase A2? by its inhibitor or small interfering RNA or inhibiting cyclooxygenase 2, resulting in inhibition of endogenous PGE2 production, caused an increase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our results suggest that PGE2 might play a role in maintaining homeostasis during the resolution phase of inflammation and might serve as an autocrine and paracrine regulator. PMID:25917098

  9. Unlike thyrotropin, thyroid-stimulating antibodies do not activate phospholipase C in human thyroid slices.

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, E; Van Sande, J; Ludgate, M; Corvilain, B; Rocmans, P; Dumont, J E; Mockel, J

    1991-01-01

    The effects of thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) and of thyrotropin (TSH) were compared, on the generation of cyclic AMP and inositol phosphates (InsP), in human thyroid slices incubated in vitro, and on the Rapoport cyclic AMP bioassay. The TSAb positive sera were obtained from 19 patients with Graves' disease. In 14 experiments with the slices system, TSH significantly increased cyclic AMP accumulation (TSH, 0.03-10 mU/ml) as well as the cyclic AMP-independent inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) generation (TSH, 1-10 mU/ml). In the same 14 experiments, TSAb (0.10-28 mg/ml) enhanced cyclic AMP intracellular levels as expected while they did not induce any InsP accumulation. Even when TSAb increased cyclic AMP levels to the same or higher values as those obtained with TSH concentrations allowing InsP3 generation. TSAb were still unable to activate the phosphatidylinositol-Ca2+ cascade. The patterns of the response curves of TSAb and TSH on cyclic AMP accumulation were different, suggesting that different mechanisms may be involved. In addition, unlike TSH, TSAb were not able to stimulate H2O2 generation, which in human tissue mainly depends on the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-Ca2+ cascade. Immunoglobulins from six additional Graves' patients lacking measurable cyclic AMP-stimulating activity in both slices and cells systems did not activate phospholipase C either. In conclusion, our results show that TSAb do not share all the metabolic actions of TSH on human thyroid tissue. The data provide support for the concept that the pathogenesis of Graves' disease can be fully accounted for by the ability of TSAb to stimulate adenylate cyclase. This work also confirms that TSH activates the cyclic AMP and the phosphatidylinositol cascade by independent pathways in the human thyroid. PMID:1673689

  10. Epidermal chalone and cyclic AMP: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Elgjo, K

    1975-01-01

    Water extracts of skin contain two factors that inhibit epidermal cell proliferation: one substance inhibits epidermal cells in the G2 phase (the epidermal G2 inhibitor), and another inhibits the transit of cells from the G1 phase into the S phase (the epidermal G1 inhibitor). Pretreatment of mice with a beta-receptor antagonist (propranolol) abolished the activity of the G2 inhibitor but not that of the G1 inhibitor. After pretreatment with both propranolol and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (caffine)the G2 inhibitor had full effect. Cafine alone had a moderately inhibitory effect on epidermal G2 cells and enhanced the depressing effect of the G1 inhibitor on epidermal DNA synthesis. AMP level in epidermis to be active. Cyclic AMP is probably also involved in the regulation of the rate of transit of epidermal G1 cells into the S phase but the epidermal cyclic AMP level seems not to be so critical for the efficacy of the epidermal G2 inhibitor in epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:162919

  11. Circadian cycles in VIP content and VIP stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Kaku, K; Tsuchiya, M; Tanizawa, Y; Okuya, S; Inoue, Y; Kaneko, T; Yanaihara, N

    1986-01-01

    VIP content in the rat pineal gland and cyclic AMP accumulation in response to VIP in the daily light and dark cycle were examined. VIP content in the pineal varied significantly during the day and night; the content decreased during exposure to light and was lowest at the onset of darkness, 6 p.m. (mean +/- SE, 23 +/- 5 pg/pineal), and increased during the night and was highest at the onset of light, 6 a.m. (72 +/- 12 pg/pineal). Response of cyclic AMP accumulation to VIP varied with a periodicity inversely related to the daily light and dark cycle of VIP content; cyclic AMP accumulation in response to 10(-7) M VIP increased in proportion to periods of exposure to light and peaked at 6 p.m., and decreased with the onset of darkness. PMID:3018698

  12. Regulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinghong; Lin, Ko-Wei; Murray, Fiona; Nakajima, Takeshi; Zhao, Yandong; Perkins, David L; Finn, Patricia W

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that cyclic AMP (cAMP) induces cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA) 4. CTLA4 is expressed in T cells, and is a negative regulator of T cell activation. CTLA4 expression is regulated by T cell receptor plus CD28 (adaptive immune signaling) at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Here, we examine the pathways by which cAMP regulates CTLA4 expression, focusing on transcriptional activation. Elevating intracellular cAMP levels by cell-permeable cAMP analogs, the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, or phosphodiesterase inhibitors increases CTLA4 mRNA expression in EL4 murine T cells and primary CD4(+) T cells. Activation of protein kinase A (using the protein kinase A-selective agonist, N6-phenyladenosine-cAMP), but not exchange proteins activated by cAMP (using the exchange proteins activated by cAMP-selective 8-pCPT-2Me-cAMP), increases CTLA4 promoter activity. Mutation constructs of the CTLA4 promoter uncover an enhancer binding site located within the -150 to -130 bp region relative to the transcription start site. Promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest that cAMP response element-binding is a putative transcription factor induced by cAMP. We have previously shown that CTLA4 mediates decreased pulmonary inflammation in an LPS-induced murine model of acute lung injury (ALI). We observed that LPS can induce CTLA4 transcription via the same cAMP-inducible promoter region. The immunosuppressant, rapamycin, decreases cAMP and LPS-induced CTLA4 transcription in vitro. In vivo, LPS induces cAMP accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and lung tissues in ALI. We demonstrate that rapamycin decreases cAMP accumulation and CTLA4 expression in ALI. Together, these data suggest that cAMP may negatively regulate pulmonary inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro by altering CTLA4 expression. PMID:23024062

  13. The In Vivo Activity of Ime1, the Key Transcriptional Activator of Meiosis-Specific Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Is Inhibited by the Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A Signal Pathway through the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-? Homolog Rim11

    PubMed Central

    Rubin-Bejerano, Ifat; Sagee, Shira; Friedman, Osnat; Pnueli, Lilach; Kassir, Yona

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorylation is the main mode by which signals are transmitted to key regulators of developmental pathways. The glycogen synthase kinase 3 family plays pivotal roles in the development and well-being of all eukaryotic organisms. Similarly, the budding yeast homolog Rim11 is essential for the exit of diploid cells from the cell cycle and for entry into the meiotic developmental pathway. In this report we show that in vivo, in cells grown in a medium promoting vegetative growth with acetate as the sole carbon source (SA medium), Rim11 phosphorylates Ime1, the master transcriptional activator required for entry into the meiotic cycle and for the transcription of early meiosis-specific genes. We demonstrate that in the presence of glucose, the kinase activity of Rim11 is inhibited. This inhibition could be due to phosphorylation on Ser-5, Ser-8, and/or Ser-12 because in the rim11S5AS8AS12A mutant, Ime1 is incorrectly phosphorylated in the presence of glucose and cells undergo sporulation. We further show that this nutrient signal is transmitted to Rim11 and consequently to Ime1 by the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signal transduction pathway. Ime1 is phosphorylated in SA medium on at least two residues, Tyr-359 and Ser-302 and/or Ser-306. Ser-302 and Ser-306 are part of a consensus site for the mammalian homolog of Rim11, glycogen synthase kinase 3-?. Phosphorylation on Tyr-359 but not Ser-302 or Ser-306 is essential for the transcription of early meiosis-specific genes and sporulation. We show that Tyr-359 is phosphorylated by Rim11. PMID:15282298

  14. Cyclic AMP system in muscle tissue during prolonged hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipenko, Y. A.; Bubeyev, Y. A.; Korovkin, B. F.; Mikhaleva, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Components of the cyclic Adenosine-cyclic-35-monophosphate (AMP) system in the muscle tissue of white rats were studied during 70-75 days of hypokinesia, created by placing the animals in small booths which restricted their movements, and during the readaptation period. In the initial period, cyclic AMP levels and the activities of phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase in muscle tissue were increased. The values for these indices were roughly equal for controls and experimental animals during the adaptation period, but on the 70th day of the experiment cAMP levels dropped, phosphodiesterase activity increased, and the stimulative effect of epinephrine on the activity of adenylate cyclase decreased. The indices under study normalized during the readaptation period.

  15. Partial characterization of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in guinea-pig lung employing the synthetic heptapeptide substrate, kemptide. In vitro sensitivity of the soluble enzyme to isoprenaline, forskolin, methacholine and leukotriene D4.

    PubMed

    Giembycz, M A; Diamond, J

    1990-04-15

    This paper describes the partial characterization of soluble cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) in guinea-pig lung using Kemptide, a synthetic serine-containing heptapeptide, and examines the sensitivity of this enzyme to drugs which are reported to increase and to decrease the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP. Differential centrifugation of lung homogenates revealed that 78% of A-kinase was present in the 31,000 gmax x 15 min supernatant fraction. Both basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated phosphotransferase activity of this 'soluble' enzyme were abolished by the heat-stable inhibitor of A-kinase. Soluble A-kinase was Mg2(+)-dependent (apparent Km and and Kact 8.6 and 2.6 mM, respectively) and was stimulated nine-fold by saturating concentrations of both cyclic AMP (Kact: 131 nM) and cyclic GMP (Kact: 28.7 microM) at a protein (enzyme) concentration of 1.3 micrograms. Kinetic analysis of the effect of Kemptide and ATP revealed linear, Hanes plots with Michealis constants of ca. 12 and 13 microM, respectively. Chromatography of the soluble enzyme over DEAE-cellulose resolved three peaks of catalytic activity when fractions were assayed in the presence of cyclic AMP (10 microM): (i) free catalytic subunits (5%), (ii) Type I isoenzyme (5%) and (iii) Type II isoenzyme (90%). The A-kinase activity ratio was markedly increased in lung pre-treated with the smooth muscle relaxants isoprenaline and forskolin. This biochemical effect was both time- and concentration-dependent and was temporally associated with the ability of these drugs to reduce lung parenchymal tone. In contrast, the contractile agonists, methacholine (Mch) and leukotriene (LT) D4 exerted opposite effects on A-kinase activity. Thus, Mch significantly reduced cyclic AMP levels and lowered basal A-kinase activity whilst the converse was true for LTD4. For both drugs this biochemical effect accompanied contraction of the lung. Pre-treatment of lung tissue with flurbiprofen, an irreversible inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase in vitro, abolished the ability of LTD4 to increase the A-kinase activity ratio suggesting that this biochemical response was mediated indirectly through the stimulated biosynthesis and release of a prostanoid(s) able to activate adenylyl cyclase; the increase in tension induced by LTD4, however, was not significantly affected by flurbiprofen pre-treatment. Collectively, these data support the concept that soluble A-kinase activity in guinea-pig lung can be regulated by changes in intracellular cyclic AMP and that activation and/or inhibition of this biochemical cascade may influence alterations in lung contractility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2157448

  16. Differential regulation of basic protein phosphorylation by calcium phospholipid and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Dawson, G; McAtee, P

    1989-07-01

    Myelin basic protein, an 80-kilodalton (kDa) protein in rat oligodendrocytes, and an 80-kDa basic protein in neuroblastoma x neonatal Chinese hamster brain explant hybrids were phosphorylated extensively when the cells were treated with either phorbol esters (TPA) or diacylglycerols (e.g., oleyoyl-acetylglycerol). TPA-stimulated phosphorylation was inhibited by pre-incubation with 50 microM psychosine (galactosyl-sphingosine), confirming that it is mediated through the phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PK-C). Surprisingly, phosphorylation of these proteins was inhibited by incubation of cells with agents which result in activation of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (dibutyryl cyclic AMP or forskolin). In contrast, phosphorylation of other nonbasic proteins, for example, the oligodendrocyte-specific 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase, was stimulated under these conditions (Vartanian et al.: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 85:939, 1988). The possible role of cyclic AMP in activating specific phosphatases or restricting the availability of diacylglycerol for PK-C activation is discussed. PMID:2777906

  17. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification....

  18. Evidence that cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors suppress TNF alpha generation from human monocytes by interacting with a 'low-affinity' phosphodiesterase 4 conformer.

    PubMed Central

    Souness, J. E.; Griffin, M.; Maslen, C.; Ebsworth, K.; Scott, L. C.; Pollock, K.; Palfreyman, M. N.; Karlsson, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of RP 73401 (piclamilast) and rolipram against human monocyte cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4) in relation to their effects on prostaglandin (PG)E2-induced cyclic AMP accumulation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF alpha production and TNF alpha mRNA expression. 2. PDE4 was found to be the predominant PDE isoenzyme in the cytosolic fraction of human monocytes. Cyclic GMP-inhibited PDE (PDE3) was also detected in the cytosolic and particulate fractions. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of human monocyte poly (A+) mRNA revealed amplified products corresponding to PDE4 subtypes A and B of which the former was most highly expressed. A faint band corresponding in size to PDE4D was also observed. 3. RP 73401 was a potent inhibitor of cytosolic PDE4 (IC50: 1.5 +/- 0.6 nM, n = 3). (+/-)-Rolipram (IC50: 313 +/- 6.7 nM, n = 3) was at least 200 fold less potent than RP 73401. R-(-)-rolipram was approximately 3 fold more potent than S-(+)-rolipram against cytosolic PDE4. 4. RP 73401 (IC50: 9.2 +/- 2.1 nM, n = 6) was over 50 fold more potent than (+/-)-rolipram (IC50: 503 +/- 134 nM, n = 6) ) in potentiating PGE2-induced cyclic AMP accumulation. R-(-)-rolipram (IC50: 289 +/- 121 nM, n = 5) was 4.7 fold more potent than its S-(+)-enantiomer (IC50: 1356 +/- 314 nM, n = 5). A strong and highly-significant, linear correlation (r = 0.95, P < 0.01, n = 13) was observed between the inhibitory potencies of a range of structurally distinct PDE4 inhibitors against monocyte PDE4 and their ED50 values in enhancing monocyte cyclic AMP accumulation. A poorer, though still significant, linear correlation (r = 0.67, P < 0.01, n = 13) was observed between the potencies of the same compounds in potentiating PGE2-induced monocyte cyclic AMP accumulation and their abilities to displace [3H]-rolipram binding to brain membranes. 5. RP 73401 (IC50: 6.9 +/- 3.3 nM, n = 5) was 71 fold more potent than (+/-)-rolipram (IC50: 490 +/- 260 nM, n = 4) in inhibiting LPS-induced TNF alpha release from monocytes. R-(-)-rolipram (IC50: 397 +/- 178 nM, n = 3) was 5.2-fold more potent than its S-(+)- enantiomer (IC50: 2067 +/- 659 nM, n = 3). As with cyclic AMP, accumulation a closer, linear correlation existed between the potency of structurally distinct compounds in suppressing TNF alpha with PDE4 inhibition (r = 0.93, P < 0.01, n = 13) than with displacement of [3H]-rolipram binding (r = 0.65, P < 0.01, n = 13). 6. RP 73401 (IC50: 2 nM) was 180 fold more potent than rolipram (IC50: 360 nM) in suppressing LPS (10 ng ml-1)-induced TNF alpha mRNA. 7. The results demonstrate that RP 73401 is a very potent inhibitor of TNF alpha release from human monocytes suggesting that it may have therapeutic potential in the many pathological conditions associated with over-production of this pro-inflammatory cytokine. Furthermore, PDE inhibitor actions on functional responses are better correlated with inhibition of PDE4 catalytic activity than displacement of [3H]-rolipram from its high-affinity binding site, suggesting that the native PDE4 in human monocytes exists predominantly in a 'low-affinity' state. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8762090

  19. Minocycline upregulates cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus of cerebral ischemia rats and improves behavioral deficits

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Xiao, Ming; He, Wenbo; Cai, Zhiyou

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays an important role in the mechanism of cognitive impairment and is also pivotal in the switch from short-term to long-term memory. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems a promising avenue in the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury since this neurotrophin could stimulate structural plasticity and repair cognitive impairment. Several findings have displayed that the dysregulation of the CREB–BDNF cascade has been involved in cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cerebral ischemia on learning and memory as well as on the levels of CREB, phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), and BDNF, and to determine the effect of minocycline on CREB, pCREB, BDNF, and behavioral functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. Methods The animal model was established by permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries. Behavior was evaluated 5 days before decapitation with Morris water maze and open-field task. Four days after permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries, minocycline was administered by douche via the stomach for 4 weeks. CREB and pCREB were examined by Western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. BDNF was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results The model rats after minocycline treatment swam shorter distances than control rats before finding the platform (P=0.0007). The number of times the platform position was crossed for sham-operation rats was more than that of the model groups in the corresponding platform location (P=0.0021). The number of times the platform position was crossed for minocycline treatment animals was significantly increased compared to the model groups in the corresponding platform position (P=0.0016). CREB, pCREB, and BDNF were downregulated after permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries in the model group. Minocycline increased the expression of CREB, pCREB, and BDNF, and improved cognitive suffered from impairment of permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries. Conclusion Minocycline improved cognitive impairment from cerebral ischemia via enhancing CREB, pCREB, and BDNF activity in the hippocampus. PMID:25750531

  20. Prostaglandin A1 metabolism and inhibition of cyclic AMP extrusion by avian erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Heasley, L.E.; Brunton, L.L.

    1985-09-25

    Prostaglandins (PG) inhibit active cyclic AMP export from pigeon red cells, PGA1 and PGA2 most potently. To probe the mechanism of this action of PGA1, the authors have studied the interaction of (TH)PGA1 with suspensions of pigeon red cells. The interaction of PGA1 with pigeon red cells is a multistep process of uptake, metabolism, and secretion. (TH) PGA1 rapidly enters red cells and is promptly metabolized to a compound(s) that remains in the aqueous layer after ethylacetate extraction. The glutathione-depleting agent, diamide, inhibits formation of the PGA1 metabolite. The red cells secrete the polar metabolite of PGA1 by a saturable mechanism that lowered temperatures inhibit. Because uptake and metabolism progress with much greater rates than metabolite secretion, red cells transiently concentrate the polar compound intracellularly. Onset and reversal of inhibition of cyclic AMP export by PGA1 coincide with accumulation and secretion of PGA1 metabolite, suggesting that the polar metabolite acts at an intracellular site to inhibit cyclic AMP efflux.

  1. Coxiella burnetii alters cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling during growth in macrophages.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Laura J; Kurten, Richard C; Voth, Daniel E

    2012-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the bacterial agent of human Q fever, an acute, flu-like illness that can present as chronic endocarditis in immunocompromised individuals. Following aerosol-mediated transmission, C. burnetii replicates in alveolar macrophages in a unique phagolysosome-like parasitophorous vacuole (PV) required for survival. The mechanisms of C. burnetii intracellular survival are poorly defined and a recent Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands emphasizes the need for better understanding this unique host-pathogen interaction. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of host cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity negatively impacts PV formation. In the current study, we confirmed PKA involvement in PV biogenesis and probed the role of PKA signaling during C. burnetii infection of macrophages. Using PKA-specific inhibitors, we found the kinase was needed for biogenesis of prototypical PV and C. burnetii replication. PKA and downstream targets were differentially phosphorylated throughout infection, suggesting prolonged regulation of the pathway. Importantly, the pathogen actively triggered PKA activation, which was also required for PV formation by virulent C. burnetii isolates during infection of primary human alveolar macrophages. A subset of PKA-specific substrates were differentially phosphorylated during C. burnetii infection, suggesting the pathogen uses PKA signaling to control distinct host cell responses. Collectively, the current results suggest a versatile role for PKA in C. burnetii infection and indicate virulent organisms usurp host kinase cascades for efficient intracellular growth. PMID:22473604

  2. Endogenous cyclic AMP-stimulated phosphorylation of a Wolfgram protein component in rabbit central-nervous-system myelin.

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, J M; Campbell, R S; Thompson, R J

    1984-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-stimulated phosphorylation of membrane proteins in central-nervous-system myelin was investigated, with rabbit brain myelin. Subfractionation of a myelin membrane preparation by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation produced a rapidly sedimenting population of membrane vesicles containing 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase, a light membrane fraction containing myelin basic protein and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and an intermediate membrane fraction containing the highest specific activity of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and a small proportion of myelin basic protein. Cyclic AMP stimulation of protein phosphorylation was confined to a protein of Mr 49 700, which co-electrophoresed with the upper component of the Wolfgram protein doublet. Cyclic AMP did not affect the phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. Cyclic AMP-stimulated phosphorylation of this protein followed 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase activity on subcellular fractionation and was correspondingly high in the intermediate or 'myelin-like' fraction on sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6089736

  3. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta activates insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription in osteoblasts. Identification of a novel cyclic AMP signaling pathway in bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umayahara, Y.; Ji, C.; Centrella, M.; Rotwein, P.; McCarthy, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a key role in skeletal growth by stimulating bone cell replication and differentiation. We previously showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other cAMP-activating agents enhanced IGF-I gene transcription in cultured primary rat osteoblasts through promoter 1, the major IGF-I promoter, and identified a short segment of the promoter, termed HS3D, that was essential for hormonal regulation of IGF-I gene expression. We now demonstrate that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) delta is a major component of a PGE2-stimulated DNA-protein complex involving HS3D and find that C/EBPdelta transactivates IGF-I promoter 1 through this site. Competition gel shift studies first indicated that a core C/EBP half-site (GCAAT) was required for binding of a labeled HS3D oligomer to osteoblast nuclear proteins. Southwestern blotting and UV-cross-linking studies showed that the HS3D probe recognized a approximately 35-kDa nuclear protein, and antibody supershift assays indicated that C/EBPdelta comprised most of the PGE2-activated gel-shifted complex. C/EBPdelta was detected by Western immunoblotting in osteoblast nuclear extracts after treatment of cells with PGE2. An HS3D oligonucleotide competed effectively with a high affinity C/EBP site from the rat albumin gene for binding to osteoblast nuclear proteins. Co-transfection of osteoblast cell cultures with a C/EBPdelta expression plasmid enhanced basal and PGE2-activated IGF-I promoter 1-luciferase activity but did not stimulate a reporter gene lacking an HS3D site. By contrast, an expression plasmid for the related protein, C/EBPbeta, did not alter basal IGF-I gene activity but did increase the response to PGE2. In osteoblasts and in COS-7 cells, C/EBPdelta, but not C/EBPbeta, transactivated a reporter gene containing four tandem copies of HS3D fused to a minimal promoter; neither transcription factor stimulated a gene with four copies of an HS3D mutant that was unable to bind osteoblast nuclear proteins. These results identify C/EBPdelta as a hormonally activated inducer of IGF-I gene transcription in osteoblasts and show that the HS3D element within IGF-I promoter 1 is a high affinity binding site for this protein.

  4. Electrical Stimulation Decreases Coupling Efficiency Between Beta-Adrenergic Receptors and Cyclic AMP Production in Cultured Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle cells in culture is an effective way to simulate the effects of muscle contraction and its effects on gene expression in muscle cells. Expression of the beta-adrenergic receptor and its coupling to cyclic AMP synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, and the goal of this project was to determine if electrical stimulation altered the beta-adrenergic response in muscle cells. Chicken skeletal muscle cells that had been grown for seven days in culture were subjected to electrical stimulation for an additional two days at a pulse frequency of 0.5 pulses/sec and a pulse duration of 200 msec. At the end of this two-day stimulation period, beta-adrenergic receptor population was measured by the binding of tritium-labeled CGP-12177 to muscle cells, and coupling to cAMP synthesis was measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) after treating the cells for 10 min with the potent (beta)AR agonist, isoproterenol. The number of beta adrenergic receptors and the basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP were not affected by electrical stimulation. However, the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was reduced by approximately 50%. Thus, an enhanced level of contraction reduces the coupling efficiency of beta-adrenergic receptors for cyclic AMP production.

  5. Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Yersinia pestis Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Crp and Impact on Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lathem, Wyndham W.; Schroeder, Jay A.; Bellows, Lauren E.; Ritzert, Jeremy T.; Koo, Jovanka T.; Price, Paul A.; Caulfield, Adam J.; Goldman, William E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) is a transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of numerous bacterial genes, usually in response to environmental conditions and particularly by sensing the availability of carbon. In the plague pathogen Yersinia pestis, Crp regulates the expression of multiple virulence factors, including components of the type III secretion system and the plasminogen activator protease Pla. The regulation of Crp itself, however, is distinctly different from that found in the well-studied Escherichia coli system. Here, we show that at physiological temperatures, the synthesis of Crp in Y. pestis is positively regulated at the posttranscriptional level. The loss of the small RNA chaperone Hfq results in decreased Crp protein levels but not in steady-state Crp transcript levels, and this regulatory effect occurs within the 5? untranslated region (UTR) of the Crp mRNA. The posttranscriptional activation of Crp synthesis is required for the expression of pla, and decoupling crp from Hfq through the use of an exogenously controlled promoter and 5? UTR increases Pla protein levels as well as partially rescues the growth defect associated with the loss of Hfq. Finally, we show that both Hfq and the posttranscriptional regulation of Crp contribute to the virulence of Y. pestis during pneumonic plague. The Hfq-dependent, posttranscriptional regulation of Crp may be specific to Yersinia species, and thus our data help explain the dramatic growth and virulence defects associated with the loss of Hfq in Y. pestis. PMID:24520064

  6. Cyclic AMP Regulates Social Behavior in African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Oberholzer, Michael; Saada, Edwin A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei engages in surface-induced social behavior, termed social motility, characterized by single cells assembling into multicellular groups that coordinate their movements in response to extracellular signals. Social motility requires sensing and responding to extracellular signals, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we report that T. brucei social motility depends on cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling systems in the parasite’s flagellum (synonymous with cilium). Pharmacological inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) completely blocks social motility without impacting the viability or motility of individual cells. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor to monitor cAMP dynamics in live cells, we demonstrate that this block in social motility correlates with an increase in intracellular cAMP levels. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of the flagellar PDEB1 phenocopies pharmacological PDE inhibition, demonstrating that PDEB1 is required for social motility. Using parasites expressing distinct fluorescent proteins to monitor individuals in a genetically heterogeneous community, we found that the social motility defect of PDEB1 knockdowns is complemented by wild-type parasites in trans. Therefore, PDEB1 knockdown cells are competent for social motility but appear to lack a necessary factor that can be provided by wild-type cells. The combined data demonstrate that the role of cyclic nucleotides in regulating microbial social behavior extends to African trypanosomes and provide an example of transcomplementation in parasitic protozoa. PMID:25922395

  7. Effect of indomethacin on the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Catalán, R E; Aragones, M D; Martinez, A M; Armijo, M; Piña, M

    1980-05-01

    Indomethacin inhibited cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in small intestine in in vivo experiments. An inverse pattern of variation was exhibited by acetyl salicylic acid, eterylate and benorylate, acetyl-p-amino-phenol being inactive. Indomethacin, acetyl salicylic acid, eterylate and benorylate increased the protein kinase activity in liver, lung and heart after in vivo administration. The in vivo effect of indomethacin was confirmed by in vitro experiments with small intestine and heart protein kinases. These results support the concept that indomethacin can affect protein kinase activity in a tissue-specific way. PMID:6247165

  8. Glucose Evokes Rapid Ca2+ and Cyclic AMP Signals by Activating the Cell-Surface Glucose-Sensing Receptor in Pancreatic ?-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Medina, Johan; Kojima, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic ?-cells. High concentration of glucose has been thought to exert its action solely through its metabolism. In this regard, we have recently reported that glucose also activates a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor and facilitates its own metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether glucose activates the glucose-sensing receptor and elicits receptor-mediated rapid actions. In MIN6 cells and isolated mouse ?-cells, glucose induced triphasic changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c); glucose evoked an immediate elevation of [Ca2+]c, which was followed by a decrease in [Ca2+]c, and after a certain lag period it induced large oscillatory elevations of [Ca2+]c. Initial rapid peak and subsequent reduction of [Ca2+]c were independent of glucose metabolism and reproduced by a nonmetabolizable glucose analogue. These signals were also blocked by an inhibitor of T1R3, a subunit of the glucose-sensing receptor, and by deletion of the T1R3 gene. Besides Ca2+, glucose also induced an immediate and sustained elevation of intracellular cAMP ([cAMP]c). The elevation of [cAMP]c was blocked by transduction of the dominant-negative Gs, and deletion of the T1R3 gene. These results indicate that glucose induces rapid changes in [Ca2+]c and [cAMP]c by activating the cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor. Hence, glucose generates rapid intracellular signals by activating the cell-surface receptor. PMID:26630567

  9. Cyclic AMP/PKA-dependent paradoxical activation of Raf/MEK/ERK signaling in polycystin-2 defective mice treated with Sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Spirli, Carlo; Morell, Carola M.; Locatelli, Luigi; Okolicsanyi, Stefano; Ferrero, Cecilia; Kim, Amy K.; Fabris, Luca; Fiorotto, Romina; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in polycystins (PC1 or PC2) are a cause of polycystic liver disease (PLD-ADPKD). In PC2-defective mice, cAMP/PKA-dependent activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK-ERK1/2 pathway stimulates the growth of liver cysts. To test the hypothesis that sorafenib, a Raf-inhibitor used for the treatment of liver and kidney cancers, inhibits liver cysts growth in PC-2 defective mice, we treated PC2 (i.e., Pkd2flox/?:pCxCreERTM, abbreviated as Pkd2cKO) mice with sorafenib-tosylate for 8 weeks (20–60 mg/kg/day). Sorafenib caused an unexpected increase in liver cyst area, cell proliferation (Ki67) and expression of pERK compared to Pkd2cKO mice treated with vehicle. When given to epithelial cells isolated from liver cysts of Pkd2cKO mice (Pkd2cKO-cells), sorafenib progressively stimulated pERK1/2 and cell proliferation (MTS and BrdU) at doses between 0.001 and 1 µM; but, both pERK1/2 and cell proliferation significantly decreased at the dose of 10 µM. Raf kinase activity assay showed that, while B-Raf is inhibited by sorafenib in both WT and Pkd2cKO cells, Raf-1 is inhibited in WT cells, but is significantly stimulated in Pkd2cKO cells. In Pkd2cKO-cells pretreated with a PKA inhibitor (PKI 1µM) and in mice treated with octreotide in combination with sorafenib, the paradoxical activation of Raf/ERK1/2 was abolished and cyst growth was inhibited. Conclusions In PC2-defective cells, sorafenib inhibits B-Raf, but paradoxically activates Raf-1, resulting in increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cell proliferation and cyst growth in vivo. These effects are consistent with the ability of Raf-inhibitors to transactivate Raf-1 when a PKA-activated Ras promotes Raf-1/B-Raf heterodimerization, and are inhibited by interfering with cAMP/PKA signaling both in vitro and in vivo, as shown by the reduction of liver cysts in mice treated with combined octreotide and sorafenib. PMID:22653837

  10. Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic AMP-gated, HCN1-like cation channel: the primary, full-length HCN isoform expressed in a saccular hair-cell layer.

    PubMed

    Cho, W J; Drescher, M J; Hatfield, J S; Bessert, D A; Skoff, R P; Drescher, D G

    2003-01-01

    The expression of transcript for hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive cation channel (HCN) isoforms underlying hyperpolarization-activated, inward current (I(h)) has been determined for a model hair-cell preparation from the saccule of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Based upon identification from homology to known vertebrate HCN cDNA sequence, cloning of PCR products amplified with degenerate primers indicated an expression frequency of 7:2:1 (HCN1:HCN2:HCN4) for the hair-cell sheet compared with 1:1:7 for brain. Full-length sequence has been obtained for the HCN1-like isoform representing the primary HCN transcript expressed in the hair-cell preparation. The channel protein is 938 amino acids in length with 93% amino acid identity for the region extending from the S1-S6 membrane spanning domains through the voltage-pore and cyclic nucleotide-binding domains, compared with HCN1 for rabbit, rat, mouse and human. The N- and C-terminal regions are less homologous, with 39-51% and 43-44% amino acid identities, respectively. Compared with other vertebrate HCN1, the hair-cell HCN1 contains additional consensus phosphorylation sites associated with unique repeats in the carboxy terminus. The HCN1-like transcript has been localized to hair cells of the saccular sensory epithelia by in situ hybridization. Previous electrophysiological studies have identified I(h) as the sole inwardly rectifying ion channel in a specific population of hair cells of the saccule of frogs [J Neurophysiol (1995) 73:1484] and fish [J Physiol (1996) 495:665]. I(h) is an important determinant of the resting membrane potential, and for this population of hair cells, is predicted to maintain the membrane potential within a voltage range allowing the voltage-gated calcium channels to open, permitting "spontaneous" release of transmitter. The molecular properties of the HCN1-like isoform underlying I(h) expressed in the saccular hair cells of the teleost, trout, may consequently impact spontaneous release of transmitter from hair cells of the saccule. PMID:12699787

  11. Mechanical control of cyclic AMP signalling and gene transcription through integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. J.; Alenghat, F. J.; Rim, P.; Fong, J. H.; Fabry, B.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This study was carried out to discriminate between two alternative hypotheses as to how cells sense mechanical forces and transduce them into changes in gene transcription. Do cells sense mechanical signals through generalized membrane distortion or through specific transmembrane receptors, such as integrins? Here we show that mechanical stresses applied to the cell surface alter the cyclic AMP signalling cascade and downstream gene transcription by modulating local release of signals generated by activated integrin receptors in a G-protein-dependent manner, whereas distortion of integrins in the absence of receptor occupancy has no effect.

  12. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. Effects of solubilization and vanadate/glutathione complex on inhibitor potencies against eosinophil cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Souness, J E; Maslen, C; Scott, L C

    1992-05-11

    Treatment of membranes from guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils with deoxycholate and NaCl solubilized greater than 95% of the particulate cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE IV). Solubilized PDE IV was at least 10 times more potently inhibited by selective PDE IV inhibitors (e.g. rolipram, denbufylline) than bound enzyme. Vanadate/glutathione complex (V/GSH) activated membrane-bound PDE IV and also increased potencies of these same inhibitors by at least 10-fold. Neither solubilization nor V/GSH markedly influenced the inhibitory activities of non-selective inhibitors (e.g. trequinsin, dipyridamole). Inhibitor effects on solubilized PDE IV and cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells were strongly correlated. These results suggest a biologically important site on eosinophil PDE IV which is concealed or partially concealed in freshly prepared membranes and is exposed by solubilization or V/GSH. PMID:1321725

  18. Mechanism for acute control of fatty acid synthesis by glucagon and 3':5'-cyclic AMP in the liver cell.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P A; Tarlow, D M; Lane, M D

    1977-01-01

    Labeling experiments with chicken liver cell monolayers and suspensions show that glucagon and N6, O2-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (dibutyryl cyclic AMP) block fatty acid synthesis from acetate without appreciably affecting cholesterogenesis from acetate or acylglyceride synthesis from palmitate. Neither acetyl-CoA carboxylase [acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.4.1.2] activity assayed in the presence of citrate nor fatty acid synthetase activity is decreased in extracts of cells treated with glucagon. However, the cytoplasmic concentration of citrate, a required allosteric activator of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, is depressed more than 90% by glucagon or dibutyrl cyclic AMP. Pyruvate or lactate largely prevents the inhibitory action of these effectors on fatty acid synthesis by causing a large increase in cytoplasmic citrate level. Thus, it appears that glucagon, acting via cyclic AMP, inhibits fatty acid synthesis by blocking the formation of citrate, an essential activator of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Images PMID:193102

  19. Sustained signalling by PTH modulates IP3 accumulation and IP3 receptors through cyclic AMP junctions

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Abha; Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates adenylyl cyclase through type 1 PTH receptors (PTH1R) and potentiates the Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol, which stimulates formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). We confirmed that in HEK cells expressing PTH1R, acute stimulation with PTH(1-34) potentiated carbachol-evoked Ca2+ release. This was mediated by locally delivered cyclic AMP (cAMP), but unaffected by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), exchange proteins activated by cAMP, cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) or substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) causes internalization of PTH1R–adenylyl cyclase signalling complexes, but the consequences for delivery of cAMP to IP3R within cAMP signalling junctions are unknown. Here, we show that sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) or with PTH analogues that do not evoke receptor internalization reduced the potentiated Ca2+ signals and attenuated carbachol-evoked increases in cytosolic IP3. Similar results were obtained after sustained stimulation with NKH477 to directly activate adenylyl cyclase, or with the membrane-permeant analogue of cAMP, 8-Br-cAMP. These responses were independent of PKA and unaffected by substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. During prolonged stimulation with PTH(1-34), hyperactive cAMP signalling junctions, within which cAMP is delivered directly and at saturating concentrations to its targets, mediate sensitization of IP3R and a more slowly developing inhibition of IP3 accumulation. PMID:25431134

  20. On the mechanism of action of lead in the testis: in vitro suppression of FSH receptors, cyclic AMP and steroidogenesis. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, J.P.; Salhanick, A.I.; Myers, K.I.

    1983-04-25

    The purpose of the present study was to determine by in vitro methods, if Pb acts by interfering directly with hormone binding, cyclic AMP production and steroidogenic enzyme activity. Sertoli cells were isolated from testes of prepubertal rats and cultured in the presence of 2.64 x 10/sup -4/ M of either NaAc (control) or PbAc for 1, 4, 24, 48, 96 or 144 hr. There was no reduction in FSH binding and in FSH-induced cyclic AMP after a 1-4 hr exposure to Pb. After a 24-hr exposure to Pb, the cells exhibited a 10-20% decrease in FSH binding and cyclic AMP production and after 96 hr there was a 75% decrease in these 2 parameters. The inhibition was greater in cells from 16 day old than from 20 day old rats, so that in the former, after a 144 hr exposure the FSH-induced cyclic AMP of the Pb exposed cells was only 3% of the amount produced by the NaAc exposed cells (i.e. a 97% inhibition). After in vitro exposure to Pb for 48 hr, the steroidogenic activity (progesterone conversion to steroid metabolites) of Sertoli cells was significantly reduced and their steroidogenesis was no longer stimulated by FSH. A crude testicular enzyme preparation containing 3..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3..beta..-HSD) exhibited approximately 25% reduction in activity if the assay buffer contained PbCl/sub 2/ instead of the equivalent in NaCl. Prolonged in vivo exposure to Pb resulted in approximately 50% reduction in 3..beta..-HSD activity. This is the first indication that in the testis Pb may act directly (immediate effect) by suppressing enzyme activities, and indirectly (long term effect) by reducing gonadotropin-receptor binding and the resultant cyclic AMP production.

  1. Effect of electrical stimulation on beta-adrenergic receptor population and cyclic amp production in chicken and rat skeletal muscle cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Strietzel, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Expression of the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) and its coupling to cyclic AMP (cAMP) synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, and the goal of this study was to determine if electrical stimulation in a pattern simulating slow muscle contraction would alter the betaAR response in primary cultures of avian and mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Specifically, chicken skeletal muscle cells and rat skeletal muscle cells that had been grown for 7 d in culture were subjected to electrical stimulation for an additional 2 d at a pulse frequency of 0.5 pulses/sec and a pulse duration of 200 msec. In chicken skeletal muscle cells, the betaAR population was not significantly affected by electrical stimulation; however, the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was reduced by approximately one-half. In contrast, the betaAR population in rat muscle cells was increased slightly but not significantly by electrical stimulation, and the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was increased by almost twofold. The basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP in neither rat muscle cells nor chicken muscle cells were affected by electrical stimulation.

  2. Substrate specificity of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Kemp, B E; Bylund, D B; Huang, T S; Krebs, E G

    1975-09-01

    The protein substrate specificity of the catalytic subunit of rabbit skeletal muscle cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37; ATP:protein phosphotransferase) has been studied using genetic variants of beta casein. It was found that beta casein-B was phosphorylated at a much greater rate than beta caseins A1, A2, A3, or C. The enhanced phosphorylation of beta casein-B, as compared with the most common variant A2, was attributed to an arginine substitution for a serine at position 122, which caused a nearby residue, serine 124, to become a phosphorylation site for the protein kinase. These results further support the concept that the local primary structure is important in specificity and that arginine may be a specific determinant common to all the local phosphorylation site sequences recognized by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. PMID:1059131

  3. Inhibition by somatostatin of amylase secretion induced by calcium and cyclic AMP in rat pancreatic acini.

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, H; Mine, T; Kojima, I

    1994-01-01

    It has recently been shown that somatostatin inhibits amylase secretion from isolated pancreatic acini by reducing cyclic AMP (cAMP) production [Matsushita, Okabayashi, Hasegawa, Koide, Kido, Okutani, Sugimoto and Kasuga (1993) Gastroenterology 104, 1146-1152]. To date, however, little is known as to the other mechanism(s) by which somatostatin inhibits amylase secretion in exocrine pancreas. To investigate the action of somatostatin independent of cAMP generation, we examined the effect of somatostatin in isolated rat pancreatic acini stimulated by 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 and 1 mM 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8Br-cAMP). Somatostatin inhibited amylase secretion evoked by a combination of A23187 and 8Br-cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum inhibition was obtained by 10(-7) M somatostatin, and at this concentration somatostatin inhibited the effect of A23187 and 8Br-cAMP by approximately 30%. In electrically permeabilized acini, an elevation of free calcium concentration resulted in an increase in amylase secretion and cAMP enhanced the secretion evoked by calcium. cAMP shifted the dose-response curve for calcium-induced secretion leftwards and elevated the peak value of secretion. Somatostatin inhibited the effect of cAMP on calcium-induced amylase secretion by shifting the dose-response curve to the right. To determine the involvement of a G-protein(s), we examined the effect of somatostatin in acini pretreated with pertussis toxin. Pretreatment of acini with pertussis toxin completely blocked somatostatin-inhibition of amylase-secretion evoked by A23187 and 8Br-cAMP. These results indicate that somatostatin decreases amylase secretion induced by cAMP and calcium by reducing the calcium sensitivity of exocytosis. A pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein is also involved in this step. Images Figure 5 PMID:7528010

  4. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli to RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkney, M; Hoggett, J G

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence polarization studies were used to study the interaction of a fluorescein-labelled conjugate of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (F-CRP) and RNA polymerase. Under conditions of physiological ionic strength, F-CRP binds to RNA polymerase holoenzyme in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner; the dissociation constant was about 3 microM in the presence of cyclic AMP and about 100 microM in its absence. Binding to core RNA polymerase under the same conditions was weak (Kdiss. approx. 80-100 microM) and independent of cyclic AMP. Competition experiments established that native CRP and F-CRP compete for the same binding site on RNA polymerase holoenzyme and that the native protein binds about 3 times more strongly than does F-CRP. Analytical ultracentrifuge studies showed that CRP binds predominantly to the monomeric rather than the dimeric form of RNA polymerase. PMID:2839152

  5. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli to RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, M; Hoggett, J G

    1988-03-15

    Fluorescence polarization studies were used to study the interaction of a fluorescein-labelled conjugate of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (F-CRP) and RNA polymerase. Under conditions of physiological ionic strength, F-CRP binds to RNA polymerase holoenzyme in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner; the dissociation constant was about 3 microM in the presence of cyclic AMP and about 100 microM in its absence. Binding to core RNA polymerase under the same conditions was weak (Kdiss. approx. 80-100 microM) and independent of cyclic AMP. Competition experiments established that native CRP and F-CRP compete for the same binding site on RNA polymerase holoenzyme and that the native protein binds about 3 times more strongly than does F-CRP. Analytical ultracentrifuge studies showed that CRP binds predominantly to the monomeric rather than the dimeric form of RNA polymerase. PMID:2839152

  6. Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Has a Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Haruka; Goto, Mayu; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP) treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating mechanisms in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with or without 100 mM ethanol. ECP was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. ECP was added to cultured cells that had been incubated with or without ethanol. The cells were incubated for 0–24 h. In cultured hepatocytes, the ECP treatment with ethanol inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression and activity, which is related to the production of ROS when large quantities of ethanol are oxidized. On the other hand, ECP treatment with ethanol increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These changes in activities of CYP2E1 and ADH were suppressed by treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. ECP treatment with ethanol enhanced cyclic AMP concentrations compared with those of control cells. ECP may be a candidate for preventing ethanol-induced liver injury via regulating alcohol metabolic enzymes in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner. PMID:26096275

  7. Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Has a Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Haruka; Goto, Mayu; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2015-06-01

    Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP) treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating mechanisms in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with or without 100 mM ethanol. ECP was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. ECP was added to cultured cells that had been incubated with or without ethanol. The cells were incubated for 0-24 h. In cultured hepatocytes, the ECP treatment with ethanol inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression and activity, which is related to the production of ROS when large quantities of ethanol are oxidized. On the other hand, ECP treatment with ethanol increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These changes in activities of CYP2E1 and ADH were suppressed by treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. ECP treatment with ethanol enhanced cyclic AMP concentrations compared with those of control cells. ECP may be a candidate for preventing ethanol-induced liver injury via regulating alcohol metabolic enzymes in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner. PMID:26096275

  8. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase interferes with GTP. gamma. S stimulated IP sub 3 formation in differentiated HL-60 cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Misaki, Naoyuki; Imaizumi, Taro; Watanabe, Yashuiro )

    1989-01-01

    The effects of addition of activated cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on the function of islet-activating protein (IAP)-sensitive GTP-binding (G) protein were studied in the plasma membranes of {sup 3}H-inositol-labeled differentiated human leukemic (HL-60) cells. Pretreatment of the membranes with activated PKA in the presence of MgATP for 15 min. at 37{degree}C decreased GTP {gamma}S-stimulated inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) formation by about 30%, but had no influence on Ca{sup 2+}-stimulated IP{sub 3} formation. And autoradiography in the phosphorylation experiments of solubilized HL-60 cell membranes by PKA showed some {sup 32}P incorporated bands, and among them one of the major bands showed the migration at 40 kDa supporting that the G protein coupling with PI response was phosphorylated by PKA. These results showed that pretreatment with activated PKA inhibited the mediating function of the G protein between the fMLP receptor and phospholipase C by its phosphorylation.

  9. Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population and Cyclic AMP Production in Chicken and Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Strietzel, Catherine J.

    2000-01-01

    Expression of the beta-adrenergic receptor (PAR) and its coupling to Adenosine 3'5' Cyclic Monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy and the goal of this study was to determine if electrical stimulation in a pattern simulating slow muscle contraction would alter the PAR response in primary cultures of avian and mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Specifically chicken skeletal muscle cells and rat skeletal muscle cells that had been grown for 7 d in culture, were subjected to electrical stimulation for an additional 2 d at a pulse frequency of 0.5 pulses/sec and a pulse duration of 200 msec. In chicken skeletal muscle cells, the PAR population was not significantly affected by electrical stimulation; however, the ability, of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was reduced by approximately one-half. In contrast, the PAR population in rat muscle cells was increased slightly but not significantly by electrical stimulation, and the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was increased by almost twofold. The basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP in neither rat muscle cells nor chicken muscle cells were affected by electrical stimulation.

  10. Desensitization by external Na of the cyclic AMP-dependent Na+/H+ antiporter in trout red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The erythrocytes of the trout, Salmo gairdneri, react to beta- adrenergic stimulation by activating a cyclic AMP-dependent and amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiporter (see Borgese, F., F. Garcia- Romeu, and R. Motais, Journal of General Physiology, 1986, 87:551-566). The present study traces the kinetic behavior of the unidirectional Na fluxes after stimulation by isoproterenol. A very considerable increase (100-fold) of the unidirectional Na influx (JNa(in)) follows the addition of isoproterenol to the erythrocyte suspension. After 1.5 min, JNa(in) falls suddenly, and asymptotically diminishes toward the nonstimulated flux level. The unidirectional Na efflux (JNa(out)) proceeds according to similar kinetics. The decrease of JNa(in) and JNa(out)is not linked to either a change in the driving forces of the transported ions or a decrease of the cyclic AMP concentration but to a desensitization of the Na+/H+ antiporter. This desensitization is dependent on the external Na concentration and is not controlled by internal Na, cell swelling, or external Ca. PMID:2839593

  11. Activation of an S6 kinase from rat astroglial cells by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Pierre, M; Gavaret, J M; Matricon, C; Pomerance, M; Jacquemin, C; Toru-Delbauffe, D

    1988-02-15

    Forskolin and isoproterenol, agonists of adenylate cyclase activity, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, stimulated an S6 kinase activity in astroglial cells. This activity was insensitive to the thermostable inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and had the same behaviour on a DEAE-Sephacel column as the mitogen stimulated S6 kinase. These observations support the idea that the cyclic AMP cascade, as well as various growth factors, can activate S6 kinase. PMID:2830139

  12. Tiotropium sustains the anti-inflammatory action of olodaterol via the cyclic AMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luigi; Roth, Michael; Miglino, Nicola; Keglowich, Laura; Zhong, Jun; Lardinois, Didier; Tamm, Michael; Borger, Pieter

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts) of the airway wall respond to cholinergic stimulation by releasing pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines and may thus contribute to chronic inflammation of the lung. Here, we studied the anti-inflammatory potential of olodaterol, a long acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist, and tiotropium, a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist, and whether they interact at the level of the cyclic AMP dependent signaling pathway. Pulmonary fibroblasts of asthmatic (n = 9) and non-asthmatic (n = 8) subjects were stimulated with the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol and interleukin-1? (IL-1 beta) in presence or absence of tiotropium or olodaterol alone, or their combination. We also measured cAMP levels and phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). As single components, carbachol, olodaterol and tiotropium did not affect IL-6 and IL-8 release. Carbachol concentration-dependently enhanced the production of IL-1?-induced IL-6 and IL-8, which was blocked by the simultaneous addition of tiotropium. The combination of olodaterol plus tiotropium further reduced IL-6 and IL-8 release. Olodaterol induced cAMP and the phosphorylation of CREB, an effect counteracted by carbachol, but rescued by tiotropium. We conclude that olodaterol plus tiotropium cooperate to decrease the inflammatory response in pulmonary fibroblasts in vitro. PMID:24269928

  13. The role of cyclic AMP in normalizing the function of engineered human blood microvessels in microfluidic collagen gels

    E-print Network

    Tien, Joe

    in microfluidic collagen gels Keith H.K. Wong, James G. Truslow, Joe Tien* Department of Biomedical Engineering tissue engineering Collagen gels Permeability Microfluidic channels Cyclic AMP a b s t r a c t Nearly all the phenotype of engineered human microvessels in microfluidic type I collagen gels. Cyclic AMP-elevating agents

  14. Analysis of the spacer DNA between the cyclic AMP receptor protein binding site and the lac promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Flatow, U; Rajendrakumar, G V; Garges, S

    1996-01-01

    The role of the spacer region DNA between the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) site and the RNA polymerase in the lac promoter was examined. We wanted to determine whether the wild-type DNA sequence of this region was an absolute requirement for CRP activation of lac transcription. The sequence of a 9-bp stretch of the spacer, from -41 to -49 relative to the start of transcription, was randomized, and the effect of randomization on lac expression was investigated in vitro and in vivo. We found that the spacer contains no specific sequence determinants for CRP activation of lac transcription; fewer than 1% of the mutants displayed greater than a 50% decrease in CRP activation of lac transcription. PMID:8636052

  15. Opposing actions of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and GMP on temperature in conscious guinea-pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williaes, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the intracerebroventricular administration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Db-cAMP) induced hyperthermia in guinea pigs which was not mediated through prostaglandins or norepinephrine since a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor and an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking agent did not antagonize the hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to Db-cAMP was attenuated by the central administration of a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, which indicates that cAMP may be involved, through beta-adrenergic receptors, in the central regulation of heat production and conservation. The central administration of Db-cGMP produced hypothermia which was not mediated via histamine H1 or H2 receptors and serotonin. The antagonism of hypothermia induced by Db-cGMP and acetylcholine + physostigmine by central administration of a cholinergic muscarine receptor antagonist and not by a cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist suggests that cholinoceptive neurons and endogenous cGMP may regulate heat loss through cholinergic muscarine receptors. It is concluded that these results indicate a regulatory role in thermoregulation provided by a balance between opposing actions of cAMP and cGMP in guinea pigs.

  16. The cyclic AMP receptor protein modulates colonial morphology in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weili; Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A

    2007-11-01

    Inactivation of the quorum-sensing regulator HapR causes Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype strain C7258 to adopt a rugose colonial morphology that correlates with enhanced biofilm formation. V. cholerae mutants lacking the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) produce very little HapR, which results in elevated expression of Vibrio exopolysaccharide (vps) genes and biofilm compared to the wild type. However, Deltacrp mutants still exhibited smooth colonial morphology and expressed reduced levels of vps genes compared to isogenic hapR mutants. In this study we demonstrate that deletion of crp and cya (adenylate cyclase) converts a rugose DeltahapR mutant to a smooth one. The smooth DeltahapR Deltacrp and DeltahapR Deltacya double mutants could be converted back to rugose by complementation with crp and cya, respectively. CRP was found to enhance the expression of VpsR, a strong activator of vps expression, but to diminish transcription of VpsT. Ectopic expression of VpsR in smooth DeltahapR Deltacrp and DeltahapR Deltacya double mutants restored rugose colonial morphology. Lowering intracellular cAMP levels in a DeltahapR mutant by the addition of glucose diminished VpsR expression and colonial rugosity. On the basis of our results, we propose a model for the regulatory input of CRP on exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:17921282

  17. Rab11, but not Rab4, facilitates cyclic AMP- and tauroursodeoxycholate-induced MRP2 translocation to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Won; Schonhoff, Christopher M; Webster, Cynthia R L; Anwer, M Sawkat

    2014-10-15

    Rab proteins (Ras homologous for brain) play an important role in vesicle trafficking. Rab4 and Rab11 are involved in vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane from early endosomes and recycling endosomes, respectively. Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) and cAMP increase bile formation, in part, by increasing plasma membrane localization of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). The goal of the present study was to determine the role of these Rab proteins in the trafficking of MRP2 by testing the hypothesis that Rab11 and/or Rab4 facilitate cAMP- and TUDC-induced MRP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Studies were conducted in HuH-NTCP cells (HuH7 cells stably transfected with human NTCP), which constitutively express MRP2. HuH-NTCP cells were transfected with Rab11-WT and GDP-locked dominant inactive Rab11-GDP or with Rab4-GDP to study the role of Rab11 and Rab4. A biotinylation method and a GTP overlay assay were used to determine plasma membrane MRP2 and activation of Rab proteins (Rab11 and Rab4), respectively. Cyclic AMP and TUDC increased plasma membrane MRP2 and stimulated Rab11 activity. Plasma membrane translocation of MRP2 by cAMP and TUDC was increased and inhibited in cells transfected with Rab11-WT and Rab11-GDP, respectively. Cyclic AMP (previous study) and TUDC increased Rab4 activity. However, cAMP- and TUDC-induced increases in MRP2 were not inhibited by Rab4-GDP. Taken together, these results suggest that Rab11 is involved in cAMP- and TUDC-induced MRP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. PMID:25190474

  18. Phosphorylation of high- and low-molecular-mass atrial natriuretic peptide analogs by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Olins, G M; Mehta, P P; Blehm, D J; Patton, D R; Zupec, M E; Whipple, D E; Tjoeng, F S; Adams, S P; Olins, P O; Gierse, J K

    1987-11-30

    Synthetic high- and low-molecular-mass atrial peptides were phosphorylated in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and [32P]ATP. From a series of atrial peptide analogs, it was deduced that the amino acid sequence, Arg101-Ser104 of atriopeptin was required for optimal phosphorylation. Phosphorylated AP(99-126) was less potent than the parent atriopeptin in vasorelaxant activity and receptor-binding properties. These results indicate that the presence of a phosphate group at the N-terminus of AP(99-126) decreases the interaction of the peptide with its receptor and, as a consequence, decreases bioactivity. These observations are in contrast to those of Rittenhouse et al. [(1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7607-7610] who reported that phosphorylation of AP(101-126) enhanced the stimulation of Na/K/Cl cotransport in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:2826230

  19. Regulatory Action of Calcium Ion on Cyclic AMP-Enhanced Expression of Implantation-Related Factors in Human Endometrial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kusama, Kazuya; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Isaka, Keiichi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Decidualization of human endometrial stroma and gland development is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP), but the role of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) on cAMP mediated-signaling in human endometrial stroma and glandular epithelia has not been well-characterized. The present study was designed to investigate the role of intracellular Ca2+ on cAMP mediated-decidualization and gland maturation events, which can be identified by the up-regulation of prolactin and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)1 in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and glandular epithelial EM-1 cells. Increases in decidual prolactin and IGFBP-1 transcript levels, induced by cAMP-elevating agents forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, were inhibited by Ca2+ influx into ESCs with Ca2+ ionophores (alamethicin, ionomycin) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibitors of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC), nifedipine and verapamil, enhanced the decidual gene expression. Furthermore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ store, up-regulated prolactin and IGFBP-1 expression. Ca2+ ionophores decreased intracellular cAMP concentrations, whereas nifedipine, verapamil or dantrolene increased cAMP concentrations in ESCs. In glandular epithelial cells, similar responses in COX2 expression and PGE2 production were found when intracellular cAMP levels were up-regulated by decreases in Ca2+ concentrations. Thus, a marked decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ levels caused the elevation of cAMP concentrations, resulting in enhanced expression of implantation-related factors including decidual markers. These findings suggest that fluctuation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations alters intracellular cAMP levels, which then regulate differentiation of endometrial stromal and glandular epithelial cells. PMID:26161798

  20. Immunocytochemical analysis of cyclic AMP receptor proteins in the developing rat parotid gland

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    Immunocytochemical analysis of cyclic AMP receptor proteins in the developing rat parotid gland. Introduction Rat salivary glands begin their development on day 13­14 of gestation. Cytodifferentiation of the sublingual gland is relatively complete at birth (21­22 days of gestation),1,2 whereas the submandibular

  1. Amylase and cyclic amp receptor protein expression in human diabetic parotid glands

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    Amylase and cyclic amp receptor protein expression in human diabetic parotid glands Monica Piras1 and molecular changes that occur in salivary glands during diabetes. METHODS: Biopsy samples of parotid glands gland samples. In type 1 diabetes amylase expression was greater than in non-diabetic glands, whereas

  2. Potent constitutive cyclic AMP-generating activity of XL?s implicates this imprinted GNAS product in the pathogenesis of McCune-Albright Syndrome and fibrous dysplasia of bone

    PubMed Central

    Mariot, Virginie; Wu, Joy Y.; Aydin, Cumhur; Mantovani, Giovanna; Mahon, Matthew J.; Linglart, Agnès; Bastepe, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), characterized primarily by hyperpigmented skin lesions, precocious puberty, and fibrous dyslasia of bone, carry postzygotic heterozygous mutations of GNAS causing constitutive cAMP signaling. GNAS encodes the ?-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs?), as well as a large variant (XL?s) derived from the paternal allele. The mutations causing MAS affect both GNAS products, but whether XL?s, like Gs?, can be involved in the pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated biopsy samples from four previously reported and eight new patients with MAS. Activating mutations of GNAS (Arg201 with respect to the amino acid sequence of Gs?) were present in all the previously reported and five of the new cases. The mutation was detected within the paternally expressed XL?s transcript in five and the maternally expressed NESP55 transcript in four cases. Tissues carrying paternal mutations appeared to have higher XL?s mRNA levels than maternal mutations. The human XL?s mutant analogous to Gs?-R201H (XL?s-R543H) showed markedly higher basal cAMP accumulation than wild-type XL?s in transfected cells. Wild-type XL?s demonstrated higher basal and isoproterenol-induced cAMP signaling than Gs? and co-purified with G?1?2 in transduced cells. XL?s mRNA was measurable in mouse calvarial cells, with its level being significantly higher in undifferentiated cells than those expressing preosteoblastic markers osterix and alkaline phosphatase. XL?s mRNA was also expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells and preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that constitutive XL?s activity adds to the molecular pathogenesis of MAS and fibrous dysplasia of bone. PMID:20887824

  3. Two divergently transcribed genes of Dictyostelium discoideum are cyclic AMP-inducible and coregulated during development.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, D M; Williams, J G

    1987-12-01

    The cysteine proteinase 1 (CP1) gene of Dictyostelium discoideum encodes a developmentally regulated sulfhydryl proteinase. We characterized the DNA sequences upstream of the CP1 gene and found a second developmentally regulated gene, which we term DG17. The translational open reading frame of the DG17 gene encoded a 458-amino-acid cysteine- and lysine-rich protein of unknown function. In several regions, the cysteine and lysine residues were arranged in a manner characteristic of the zinc-binding domains found in proteins which interact with nucleic acids. During normal development, the DG17 and CP1 genes are coordinately activated late in aggregation. The addition of exogenous cyclic AMP (cAMP) induced the premature expression of both mRNAs. By measuring the rate of specific mRNA synthesis in isolated nuclei, we showed that cAMP acted at the transcriptional level to activate both genes. The two genes were separated by 910 nucleotides and were divergently transcribed. The intergenic region was predominantly composed of A + T residues except for four short G-rich regions. These sequences coincided with the positions of four nuclease-hypersensitive sites, which appear during aggregation when the DG17 and CP1 genes are transcribed (J. Pavlovic, E. Banz, and R. W. Parish, Nucleic Acids Res. 14:8703-8722, 1986). Two of the G-rich regions formed the core of two almost identical 80-nucleotide repeats located 220 and 320 nucleotides upstream of the CP1 gene. Using the Dictyostelium transformation system, we showed that a restriction fragment containing the intergenic region was capable of directing bidirectional transcription in a cAMP-dependent manner. PMID:2830496

  4. A cyclic AMP receptor protein-regulated cell-cell communication system mediates expression of a FecA homologue in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Pi; Wong, Amy C Lee

    2007-08-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WR-C possesses an rpf/diffusible signal factor (DSF) cell-cell communication system. It produces cis-Delta2-11-methyl-dodecenoic acid, a DSF, and seven structural derivatives, which require rpfF and rpfB for synthesis. Acquisition of iron from the environment is important for bacterial growth as well as the expression of virulence genes. We identified a gene homologous to fecA, which encodes a ferric citrate receptor that transports exogenous siderophore ferric citrate from the environment into the bacterial periplasm. Western blot analysis with anti-FecA-His(6) antibody showed that the FecA homologue was induced in the iron-depleted medium supplemented with a low concentration of ferric citrate. Deletion of rpfF or rpfB resulted in reduced FecA expression compared to the wild type. Synthetic DSF restored FecA expression by the DeltarpfF mutant to the wild-type level. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that the fecA transcript was decreased in the DeltarpfF mutant compared to the wild type. These data suggest that DSF affected the level of fecA mRNA. Transposon inactivation of crp, which encodes cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) resulted in reduced FecA expression and rpfF transcript level. Putative CRP binding sites were located upstream of the rpfF promoter, indicating that the effect of CRP on FecA is through the rpf/DSF pathway and by directly controlling rpfF. We propose that CRP may serve as a checkpoint for iron uptake, protease activity, and hemolysis in response to environmental changes such as changes in concentrations of glucose, cAMP, iron, or DSF. PMID:17574998

  5. A Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Regulated Cell-Cell Communication System Mediates Expression of a FecA Homologue in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tzu-Pi; Wong, Amy C. Lee

    2007-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WR-C possesses an rpf/diffusible signal factor (DSF) cell-cell communication system. It produces cis-?2-11-methyl-dodecenoic acid, a DSF, and seven structural derivatives, which require rpfF and rpfB for synthesis. Acquisition of iron from the environment is important for bacterial growth as well as the expression of virulence genes. We identified a gene homologous to fecA, which encodes a ferric citrate receptor that transports exogenous siderophore ferric citrate from the environment into the bacterial periplasm. Western blot analysis with anti-FecA-His6 antibody showed that the FecA homologue was induced in the iron-depleted medium supplemented with a low concentration of ferric citrate. Deletion of rpfF or rpfB resulted in reduced FecA expression compared to the wild type. Synthetic DSF restored FecA expression by the ?rpfF mutant to the wild-type level. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that the fecA transcript was decreased in the ?rpfF mutant compared to the wild type. These data suggest that DSF affected the level of fecA mRNA. Transposon inactivation of crp, which encodes cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) resulted in reduced FecA expression and rpfF transcript level. Putative CRP binding sites were located upstream of the rpfF promoter, indicating that the effect of CRP on FecA is through the rpf/DSF pathway and by directly controlling rpfF. We propose that CRP may serve as a checkpoint for iron uptake, protease activity, and hemolysis in response to environmental changes such as changes in concentrations of glucose, cAMP, iron, or DSF. PMID:17574998

  6. The TonB3 system in the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is under the control of the global regulators Lrp and cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Alice, Alejandro F; Crosa, Jorge H

    2012-04-01

    TonB systems transduce the proton motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane to energize substrate transport through a specific TonB-dependent transporter across the outer membrane. Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic marine pathogen that can cause a fatal septicemic disease in humans and eels, possesses three TonB systems. While the TonB1 and TonB2 systems are iron regulated, the TonB3 system is induced when the bacterium grows in human serum. In this work we have determined the essential roles of the leucine-responsive protein (Lrp) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) in the transcriptional activation of this system. Whereas Lrp shows at least four very distinctive DNA binding regions spread out from position -59 to -509, cAMP-CRP binds exclusively in a region centered at position -122.5 from the start point of the transcription. Our results suggest that both proteins bind simultaneously to the region closer to the RNA polymerase binding site. Importantly, we report that the TonB3 system is induced not only by serum but also during growth in minimal medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source and low concentrations of Casamino Acids. In addition to catabolite repression by glucose, l-leucine acts by inhibiting the binding of Lrp to the promoter region, hence preventing transcription of the TonB3 operon. Thus, this TonB system is under the direct control of two global regulators that can integrate different environmental signals (i.e., glucose starvation and the transition between "feast" and "famine"). These results shed light on new mechanisms of regulation for a TonB system that could be widespread in other organisms. PMID:22307757

  7. Cyclic AMP-adenosine binding protein/S-adenosylhomocysteinase from mouse liver. A fraction of adenosine bound is converted to adenine.

    PubMed

    Ueland, M; Saebø, J

    1979-07-18

    1. Adenosine bound to the cyclic AMP-adenosine binding protein/S-adenosylhomocysteinase from mouse liver was partly converted to a product which was identified as adenine in four chromatographic systems. Ribose was formed in equivalent amounts. 2. The time course of the reaction was characterized by an initial burst phase lasting for less than one second followed by a slow progressive phase. The reaction was partly reversed by prolonged incubation, slow denaturation of the protein, dilution of the incubation mixture and removal of adenosine by converting it to inosine by the enzyme adenosine deaminase. 3. Both the ATP-treated (Ueland, P.M. and Døskeland, S.O. (1978) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 185, 195--203) and the non-treated protein were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.8. The adenosine-adenine, the cyclic AMP binding activities and the conversion activity comigrated with the main protein band, indicating that these properties reside on the same protein molecule. 4. Adenine generated by hydrolysis of adenosine was mainly bound to the protein as judged by nearly complete reversion of the conversion upon dilution in the presence of excess unlabelled adenine and by Sephadex G-25 chromatography. 5. The conversion of adenosine to inosine by the enzyme adenosine deaminase was decreased in the presence of the binding protein. 6. Adenine formation could also be demonstrated under condition of enzymic formation of S-adenosylhomocysteine, i.e. in the presence of hymocysteine. PMID:223649

  8. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) regulatory subunits are packaged and secreted by many exocrine and endocrine cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mednieks, M.I.; Hand, A.R.

    1986-05-01

    Regulatory (R) subunits of cAPK were identified by us as components of rat and human saliva by photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 32/P)-8-azido cyclic AMP. Photoaffinity labeling of purified rat parotid granule contents and immunogold labeling of thin sections with monoclonal antibodies showed the presence of R subunits in granules. The authors now report that cAPK R subunits are present in secretory granules and are apparently secreted by many exocrine and endocrine cell types. Labeling of thin sections of rat tissues with antibody to R subunits and protein A-gold shows gold particles over secretory granules of endocrine cells of the pituitary, pancreas and intestine. Zymogen granules of exocrine pancreatic acinar cells, the dense cores of secretory granules of seminal vesicle epithelial cells and secretory product in the seminal vesicle lumina were prominently labeled with gold. Photoaffinity labeling shows that pancreatic secretions and seminal vesicle contents have cAPK components. Phosphorylative modification of cellular proteins by cAMP controls hormonally stimulated protein secretion by many cell types. Although no catalytic activity was detected, identification of R subunits in granules and as secretory products indicates that they may have multiple roles in cellular mechanisms of action of cyclic AMP-mediated events in secretory cells.

  9. Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

  10. Complex transcriptional control of the sigma s-dependent stationary-phase-induced and osmotically regulated osmY (csi-5) gene suggests novel roles for Lrp, cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex, and integration host factor in the stationary-phase response of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lange, R; Barth, M; Hengge-Aronis, R

    1993-01-01

    osmY (csi-5) is a representative of a large group of sigma s-dependent genes in Escherichia coli that exhibit both stationary-phase induction and osmotic regulation. A chromosomal transcriptional lacZ fusion (csi-5::lacZ) was used to study the regulation of osmY. We show here that in addition to sigma s, the global regulators Lrp, cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex (cAMP-CRP), and integration host factor (IHF) are involved in the control of osmY. All three regulators negatively modulate the expression of osmY, and they act independently from sigma s. Stationary-phase induction of osmY in minimal medium can be explained by stimulation by sigma s combined with a relief of Lrp repression. Stationary-phase induction of osmY in rich medium is mediated by the combined action of sigma s, Lrp, cAMP-CRP, and IHF, with the latter three proteins acting as transition state regulators. The transcriptional start site of osmY was determined and revealed an mRNA with an unusual long nontranslated leader of 244 nucleotides. The regulatory region is characterized by a sigma 70-like -10 promoter region and contains potential binding sites for Lrp, CRP, and IHF. Whereas sigma s, Lrp, CRP, and IHF are clearly involved in stationary-phase induction, none of these regulators is essential for osmotic regulation of osmY. Images PMID:8253679

  11. REVIEW: Role of cyclic AMP signaling in the production and function of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Jin, Tianru

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cells express the proglucagon gene (gcg) and thereby produce the peptide hormone glucagon, which stimulates hepatic glucose production and thereby increases blood glucose levels. The same gcg gene is also expressed in the intestinal endocrine L cells and certain neural cells in the brain. In the gut, gcg expression leads to the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). This incretin hormone stimulates insulin secretion when blood glucose level is high. In addition, GLP-1 stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation, inhibits cell apoptosis, and has been utilized in the trans-differentiation of insulin producing cells. Today, a long-term effective GLP-1 receptor agonist has been developed as a drug in treating diabetes and potentially other metabolic disorders. Extensive investigations have shown that the expression of gcg and the production of GLP-1 can be activated by the elevation of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). Recent studies suggest that in addition to protein kinase A (PKA), exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), another effector of cAMP signaling, and the crosstalk between PKA and Wnt signaling pathway, are also involved in cAMP-stimulated gcg expression and GLP-1 production. Furthermore, functions of GLP-1 in pancreatic cells are mainly mediated by cAMP-PKA, cAMP-Epac and Wnt signaling pathways as well.

  12. Cyclic AMP regulation of Gs protein. Thyrotropin and forskolin increase the quantity of stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding proteins in cultured thyroid follicles.

    PubMed

    Saunier, B; Dib, K; Delemer, B; Jacquemin, C; Corrèze, C

    1990-11-15

    This study was carried out to clarify the way in which thyrotropin (TSH) and forskolin regulate the adenylylcyclase complex in thyroid follicle cells. We examined the effects of chronic treatment of pig thyroid follicles with TSH or forskolin on the state of G proteins by (a) assaying adenylylcyclase activity, (b) analyzing the ADP-ribosylation of stimulatory G protein (Gs) by cholera toxin, and (c) quantifying the Gs subunits by Western blotting with antipeptide antibodies. Chronic exposure (18 h) of thyroid follicles to a low concentration of TSH (0.01-0.1 milliunit/ml) enhanced the subsequent response of adenylylcyclase to TSH. Higher concentration of TSH (1 milliunit/ml) induced a homologous desensitization of this response. In cells pretreated with forskolin, the TSH-stimulated adenylylcyclase activity was higher than in control cells. The forskolin-or guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido) triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p)-stimulated adenylylcyclase activity was always significantly increased after chronic treatment of cells with TSH or forskolin. Treatment of cultured thyroid follicle membranes with [32P]NAD and cholera toxin resulted in labeling of the Gs alpha (45-52-kDa) component. Culturing follicles with TSH (0.001-1 milliunit/ml) or forskolin (0.01-10 microM) greatly affected the cholera toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation of the Gs alpha subunit. Gs alpha labeling increased progressively to level off at 1 milliunit/ml TSH or 1 microM forskolin (150-200%). Gs alpha immunoreactivity was increased in parallel (200-300%). The immunoreactivity of G beta subunits in cells cultured with TSH or forskolin was also increased compared with control cells. Cycloheximide abolished the effects of TSH and forskolin on the follicles, suggesting that new protein synthesis is required. These results indicate that Gs protein subunits are up-regulated by TSH and forskolin and suggest that their synthesis in thyroid cells is mediated, at least in part, by a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism. PMID:2174058

  13. The inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi) regulates the agonistic property of beta-adrenergic ligands in isolated rat adipocytes. Evidence for a priming effect of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Wesslau, C; Smith, U

    1992-01-01

    Prenalterol, an allegedly beta 1-selective adrenergic agonist with high intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), was shown to be weakly lipolytic in rat adipocytes. However, in pertussis-toxin-treated adipocytes, the ISA of prenalterol was markedly increased (from 10-20% to approx. 100% of that of isoprenaline). The cellular sensitivity was also increased (EC50 approx. 60 nM and approx. 3 microM in pertussis-toxin-treated and control cells respectively). A similar effect was seen for other partial agonists such as the beta 2-selective agonist terbutaline and for beta-adrenergic antagonists with some intrinsic activity (metoprolol, pindolol). There was no clear change in sensitivity to isoprenaline's ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase in adipocyte membranes from pertussis-toxin-treated animals but the cyclase activity was increased approx. 4-fold in the presence of 1 microM-GTP. Prenalterol stimulated lipolysis by only small increases in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels (less than 10% of that seen with isoprenaline). Basal lipolysis was increased in cells from pertussis-toxin-treated rats and the cellular sensitivity to the non-degradable cAMP analogue, N6-monobutyryl-cAMP, was increased. In control cells, a submaximal concentration of prenalterol (0.1 microM) increased the sensitivity to the cAMP analogues, N6-monobutyryl-cAMP and 8-bromo-cAMP. A low concentration (1 mM) of 8-bromo-cAMP also increased the effect of prenalterol. Similar effects were seen when the phosphodiesterase was inhibited. Thus (1) lipolysis is extremely sensitive to small increases in intracellular cAMP; (2) the degree of activation of adenylate cyclase and thus cAMP formation is the rate-limiting step for the biological response of partial agonists; (3) the inhibitory GTP-binding protein, Gi, is an important modulator ('tissue factor') of the beta-adrenergic agonistic property; (4) low levels of cAMP exert a priming effect on protein kinase A. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1280115

  14. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-01-01

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1. Images PMID:7971267

  15. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-10-25

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1. PMID:7971267

  16. Roles of Intracellular Cyclic AMP Signal Transduction in the Capacitation and Subsequent Hyperactivation of Mouse and Boar Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    HARAYAMA, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    It is not until accomplishment of a variety of molecular changes during the transit through the female reproductive tract that mammalian spermatozoa are capable of exhibiting highly activated motility with asymmetric whiplash beating of the flagella (hyperactivation) and undergoing acrosomal exocytosis in the head (acrosome reaction). These molecular changes of the spermatozoa are collectively termed capacitation and promoted by bicarbonate, calcium and cholesterol acceptors. Such capacitation-promoting factors can stimulate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction in the spermatozoa. Meanwhile, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction are essential to sperm fertilization with oocytes and are apparently triggered by a sufficient increase of intracellular Ca2+ in the sperm flagellum and head, respectively. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between cAMP signal transduction and calcium signaling cascades in the spermatozoa for the purpose of understanding the molecular basis of capacitation. In this review, I cover updated insights regarding intracellular cAMP signal transduction, the acrosome reaction and flagellar motility in mammalian spermatozoa and then account for possible roles of intracellular cAMP signal transduction in the capacitation and subsequent hyperactivation of mouse and boar spermatozoa. PMID:24162806

  17. Critical dependence of the NO-mediated component of cyclic AMP-induced vasorelaxation on extracellular L-arginine in pulmonary arteries of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Hucks, D; Ward, J P T

    2000-01-01

    A component of isoprenaline-mediated vasorelaxation in pulmonary arteries is mediated by nitric oxide (NO). We examined the effects of physiological concentrations (?400??M) of L-arginine on isoprenaline-induced relaxation in rat pulmonary arteries, and following inhibition of L-arginine uptake with L-lysine. In addition, we examined the role of the endothelium, and whether L-arginine affected acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation. Isoprenaline-induced relaxation was potentiated by 400??M L-arginine in pulmonary arteries; maximum relaxation was increased from 83±4% of initial tone to 94±4% (P<0.05). L-lysine (10?mM) not only abolished the potentiation by L-arginine, but suppressed relaxation compared to control (70±4%, P<0.05), even in the absence of L-arginine added to the bath. Blockade of NO synthase with 100??M L-NMMA or removal of the endothelium inhibited isoprenaline-induced relaxation to the same extent as L-lysine, and under these conditions the presence or absence of 400??M L-arginine made no difference. L-lysine had no additional effect when applied in combination with L-NMMA. The effect of extracellular L-arginine was concentration dependent, with an apparent EC50 of ?1–7??M. Relaxation to the membrane permeant cyclic AMP analogue CPT cyclic AMP was also potentiated by L-arginine and inhibited by L-lysine. There was however no difference in relaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in the presence of L-arginine or L-lysine, and isoprenaline-induced relaxation of mesenteric arteries was unaffected by L-arginine or L-lysine. These results strongly suggest that extracellular L-arginine is critically important for development of the NO- and endothelium-dependent component of cyclic AMP-induced vasorelaxation in rat pulmonary arteries, but is not required for ACh-induced relaxation. As the apparent EC50 for this effect is in the low micromolar range it is likely to be fully activated in vivo, as plasma L-arginine is >150??M. PMID:10882383

  18. Novel Mechanism Coupling Cyclic AMP-Protein Kinase A Signaling and Golgi Trafficking via Gyp1 Phosphorylation in Polarized Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haitao; Wang, Yan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling activates virulence expression during hyphal development in the fungal human pathogen Candida albicans. The hyphal growth is characterized by Golgi polarization toward the hyphal tips, which is thought to enhance directional vesicle transport. However, how the hypha-induction signal regulates Golgi polarization is unknown. Gyp1, a Golgi-associated protein and the first GTPase-activating protein (GAP) in the Rab GAP cascade, critically regulates membrane trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. Here, we report a novel pathway by which the cAMP-PKA signaling triggers Golgi polarization during hyphal growth. We demonstrate that Gyp1 plays a crucial role in actin-dependent Golgi polarization. Hyphal induction activates PKA, which in turn phosphorylates Gyp1. Phosphomimetic mutation of four PKA sites identified by mass spectrometry (Gyp14E) caused strong Gyp1 polarization to hyphal tips, whereas nonphosphorylatable mutations (Gyp14A) abolished it. Gyp14E exhibited enhanced association with the actin motor Myo2, while Gyp14A showed the opposite effect, providing a possible mechanism for Golgi polarization. A GAP-dead Gyp1 (Gyp1R292K) showed strong polarization similar to that seen with Gyp14E, indicating a role for the GAP activity. Mutating the PKA sites on Gyp1 also impaired the recruitment of a late Golgi marker, Sec7. Furthermore, proper PKA phosphorylation and GAP activity of Gyp1 are required for virulence in mice. We propose that the cAMP-PKA signaling directly targets Gyp1 to promote Golgi polarization in the yeast-to-hypha transition, an event crucial for C. albicans infection. PMID:25326521

  19. 19() /r~mlc,,,'urcl~ .:' i;-,( )!'~Ii ~ Stimuli that produce sensitization lead to elevation of cyclic AMP levels in tail

    E-print Network

    Byrne, John H.

    to elevation of cyclic AMP levels in tail sensory neurons of Aplysia KAREN A. OCORR, MINATO TABATA and JOHN H and motor neurons mediating the tail withdrawal reflex in Aplysia is produced by the modulatory effects stimuli delivered to the tail of a semi-intact preparation lead to elevation of cAMP levels in the tail

  20. Cross Talk between the Cell Wall Integrity and Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A Pathways in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Donlin, Maureen J.; Upadhya, Rajendra; Gerik, Kimberly J.; Lam, Woei; VanArendonk, Laura G.; Specht, Charles A.; Sharma, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen of immunocompromised people that causes fatal meningitis. The fungal cell wall is essential to viability and pathogenesis of C. neoformans, and biosynthesis and repair of the wall is primarily controlled by the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. Previous work has shown that deletion of genes encoding the four major kinases in the CWI signaling pathway, namely, PKC1, BCK1, MKK2, and MPK1 results in severe cell wall phenotypes, sensitivity to a variety of cell wall stressors, and for Mpk1, reduced virulence in a mouse model. Here, we examined the global transcriptional responses to gene deletions of BCK1, MKK2, and MPK1 compared to wild-type cells. We found that over 1,000 genes were differentially expressed in one or more of the deletion strains, with 115 genes differentially expressed in all three strains, many of which have been identified as genes regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Biochemical measurements of cAMP levels in the kinase deletion strains revealed significantly less cAMP in all of the deletion strains compared to the wild-type strain. The deletion strains also produced significantly smaller capsules than the wild-type KN99 strain did under capsule-inducing conditions, although the levels of capsule they shed were similar to those shed by the wild type. Finally, addition of exogenous cAMP led to reduced sensitivity to cell wall stress and restored surface capsule to levels near those of wild type. Thus, we have direct evidence of cross talk between the CWI and cAMP/PKA pathways that may have important implications for regulation of cell wall and capsule homeostasis. PMID:25118241

  1. Cyclic nucleotide responses and radiation-induced mitotic delay in Physarum polycephalum

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.W.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1984-02-01

    The response of the plasmodial levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in Physarum polycephalum to several putative phosphodiesterase inhibitors and to ionizing radiation has been measured. Isobutylmethylxanthine (2 mM) induces a rapid transient threefold elevation of cyclic AMP alone, with maximum response in about 10 min and return to the base line in about 30 min. Theophylline (2 mM) induces a rapid, sustained twofold elevation of cyclic GMP only. Caffeine (2mM) and Ro-20-1724 (18 ..mu..M) both elicit a rapid transient rise in cyclic AMP, resembling the isobutylmethylxanthine response, and a slow transient elevation of the cyclic GMP level. Of particular interest is the rapid threefold transient elevation of the cyclic AMP, but not of the cyclic GMP, level by ..gamma.. radiation.

  2. Identification of electrostatic interaction sites between the regulatory and catalytic subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, R. M.; Ji-Buechler, Y.; Taylor, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    Two classes of molecules inhibit the catalytic subunit (C) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) and the regulatory (R) subunits. Basic sites on C, previously identified as important for R/C interaction in yeast TPK1 and corresponding to Lys213, Lys217, and Lys189 in murine C alpha, were replaced with either Ala or Thr and characterized for their kinetic properties and ability to interact with RI and PKI. rC(K213A) and rC(K217A) were both defective in forming holoenzyme with RI but were inhibited readily with PKI. This contrasts with rC(R133A), which is defective in binding PKI but not RI (Wen & Taylor, 1994). Thus, the C-subunit employs two distinct electrostatic surfaces to achieve high-affinity binding with these two types of inhibitory molecules even though all inhibitors share a common consensus site that occupies the active site cleft. Unlike TPK1, mutation of Lys189 had no effect. The mutant C subunits that were defective in binding RI, rC(K213A) and rC(K217A), were then paired with three RI mutants, rRI(D140A), rRI(E143A), and rRI(D258A), shown previously to be defective in recognition of C. Although the mutations at Asp140 and Asp258 in RI were additive with respect to the C mutations. rC(K213A) and rRI(E143A) were compensatory, thus identifying a specific electrostatic interaction site between RI and C. The results are discussed in terms of the RI and C crystal structures and the sequence homology between the yeast and mammalian enzymes. PMID:9300482

  3. Spiral waves of cyclic amp in a model of slime mold aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, John J.; Alexander, Kevin A.; Manoranjan, V. S.; Murray, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    During the aggregation phase of their life cycle, Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae communicate with each other by traveling waves of cyclic AMP (cAMP). These waves often have the geometry of rotating spirals. We calculate the properties of these spiral waves, their rotation period, wavespeed, and shape, from a model of the synthesis and degradation of cAMP by Dictyostelium cells. Our model is based on kinetic rate laws developed by Martiel and Goldbeter to account for oscillations and signal relaying by Dictyostelium amoebae in well-stirred cell suspensions. We show that the model also describes in quantitative detail experimental observations of rotating spiral waves of cAMP in fields of amoebae distributed over an agar surface. Furthermore, our numerically calculated spiral waves agree quantitatively with the singular perturbation theory of rotating spirals developed by Keener and Tyson.

  4. Regulation of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase from Mucor rouxii by phosphorylation and proteolysis. Interrelationship of the activatable and insensitive forms of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, N; Moreno, S; Passeron, S

    1984-01-01

    DEAE-cellulose chromatography of mycelial extracts of Mucor rouxii grown to mid-exponential phase resolves two types of low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17; PDE): PDE I, highly activatable (4-6-fold) by phosphorylation or proteolysis, and PDE II, unresponsive to activation. The enzymic profile of PDE activity obtained from germlings shows only PDE I activity, whereas PDE activity from mycelia grown to stationary phase is eluted from the DEAE-cellulose column at the position of PDE II, and like PDE II is unresponsive to activation. Endogenous proteolysis or controlled trypsin treatment transforms PDE I into PDE II. The insensitive forms of PDE exhibit a slightly smaller sedimentation coefficient than the activatable forms, as judged by sucrose-gradient centrifugation. The basal activity of the highly activatable form of PDE is elevated almost to the value in the presence of trypsin on storage at 4 degrees C in the absence of proteinase inhibitors. Benzamidine, leupeptin, antipain or EGTA prevents the activation produced by storage. PDE I remains strongly activatable by phosphorylation and proteolysis after resolution by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. PMID:6326757

  5. Intracellular and Extracellular Cyclic Nucleotides in Wild-Type and White Collar Mutant Strains of Neurospora crassa: Temperature Dependent Efflux of Cyclic AMP from Mycelia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, N M; Harding, R W

    1987-02-01

    Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP were released into the growth medium of mycelia of Neurospora crassa wild-type strains St.L.74A and Em5297a and by white collar-1 and white collar-2 mutant strains. After growth for 6 days at 18 degrees C, there were 2.19 (St.L.74A), 5.83 (Em5297a), 1.38 (white collar-1), and 1.10 (white collar-2) nanomoles of cyclic AMP per gram dry weight of mycelia in the growth medium. These values corresponded to concentrations of cyclic AMP of between approximately 10 and 50 nanomolar. The corresponding values for extracellular cyclic GMP were typically less than 6% of the values for cyclic AMP. Following transfer to fresh medium, cyclic AMP efflux was demonstrated for each of the strains, and the amount of cyclic AMP exported into the fresh medium was greater at 25 degrees C than 6 degrees C. Intracellular cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP were also measured in each of the strains. The values for cyclic AMP were in the same range as those in the literature (approximately 0.5 to 1.5 nanomoles per gram dry weight of mycelia). However, the corresponding intracellular cyclic GMP values were less than 1% of the cyclic AMP values, i.e. more than 50 times lower than the value previously reported for the St.L.74A wild-type. Transfer of mycelia after 6 days at 18 degrees C to fresh media and incubation for 2 hours at 25 degrees C or 6 degrees C did not consistently affect the intracellular level of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP in the strains examined. We could detect no change in intracellular cyclic AMP when mycelia of the St.L.74A wild-type strain were irradiated with blue light for periods of up to 3.0 hours at 18 degrees C, or in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP for irradiation times of up to 1 minute at 6 degrees C. We propose that the plasma membrane of Neurospora crassa is permeable to cyclic nucleotides, and the export of cyclic nucleotides into the growth medium may be a means of regulating intracellular levels. We conclude that three factors that affect carotenogenesis in Neurospora crassa (blue light, temperature, and the white collar mutations) have no appreciable effect on the total measurable intracellular cyclic nucleotides in this organism. There was no extracellular or intracellular cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP in the crisp-1 mutant strain, which suggested either that adenylate cyclase (which is absent in crisp-1) catalyzes the synthesis of both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP or that the crisp-1 mutation somehow results in a deficiency of two enzymes (adenylate and guanylate cyclase). PMID:16665253

  6. GEMM-I riboswitches from Geobacter sense the bacterial second messenger cyclic AMP-GMP

    PubMed Central

    Kellenberger, Colleen A.; Wilson, Stephen C.; Hickey, Scott F.; Gonzalez, Tania L.; Su, Yichi; Hallberg, Zachary F.; Brewer, Thomas F.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Carlson, Hans K.; Hsieh, Yu-Fang; Hammond, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides are an expanding class of signaling molecules that control many aspects of bacterial physiology. A synthase for cyclic AMP-GMP (cAG, also referenced as 3?-5?, 3?-5? cGAMP) called DncV is associated with hyperinfectivity of Vibrio cholerae but has not been found in many bacteria, raising questions about the prevalence and function of cAG signaling. We have discovered that the environmental bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces cAG and uses a subset of GEMM-I class riboswitches (GEMM-Ib, Genes for the Environment, Membranes, and Motility) as specific receptors for cAG. GEMM-Ib riboswitches regulate genes associated with extracellular electron transfer; thus cAG signaling may control aspects of bacterial electrophysiology. These findings expand the role of cAG beyond organisms that harbor DncV and beyond pathogenesis to microbial geochemistry, which is important to environmental remediation and microbial fuel cell development. Finally, we have developed an RNA-based fluorescent biosensor for live-cell imaging of cAG. This selective, genetically encodable biosensor will be useful to probe the biochemistry and cell biology of cAG signaling in diverse bacteria. PMID:25848022

  7. Molecuar model of the DNA interaction site for the cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, M C; Amass, K; de Crombrugghe, B

    1981-01-01

    A topological model of the DNA binding site for the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is presented. A consensus sequence drawn from the known CRP binding sites has several symmetrical subregions that are spatially resolved onto different faces of the DNA helix. Consideration of available biochemical and genetic data suggest one particular choice among the possible symmetrical arrangements. In this case, the sequence of its helical form presents nearly the same pattern of exposed base pairs on two faces of the helix. These two faces are separated by a helix angle of 72 degrees; the similar sequences that are exposed in the grooves occur in opposite orientations on the two faces. We propose that this inverted symmetry arrangement provides each of the identical subunits of the CRP with a similar recognition region within the overall site. In gal and ara, the site appears to accommodate a single molecule of the CRP; in lac, the site repeats the symmetrical arrangement and should accommodate two molecules of the CRP. Images PMID:6941280

  8. A novel indirect sequence readout component in the E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein operator.

    PubMed

    Lindemose, Søren; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Møllegaard, Niels Erik

    2014-03-21

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) from Escherichia coli has been extensively studied for several decades. In particular, a detailed characterization of CRP interaction with DNA has been obtained. The CRP dimer recognizes a consensus sequence AANTGTGANNNNNNTCACANTT through direct amino acid nucleobase interactions in the major groove of the two operator half-sites. Crystal structure analyses have revealed that the interaction results in two strong kinks at the TG/CA steps closest to the 6-base-pair spacer (N6). This spacer exhibits high sequence variability among the more than 100 natural binding sites in the E. coli genome, but the exact role of the N6 region in CRP interaction has not previously been systematic examined. Here we employ an in vitro selection system based on a randomized N6 spacer region to demonstrate that CRP binding to the lacP1 site may be enhanced up to 14-fold or abolished by varying the N6 spacer sequences. Furthermore, on the basis of sequence analysis and uranyl (UO2(2+)) probing data, we propose that the underlying mechanism relies on N6 deformability. PMID:24387622

  9. Role of platelet activating factor in the intestinal epithelial secretory and Chinese hamster ovary cell cytoskeletal responses to cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Guerrant, R L; Fang, G D; Thielman, N M; Fonteles, M C

    1994-09-27

    With the recent heightened concern about cholera around the world come new questions about the mechanism by which cholera toxin causes diarrhea. Peterson and Ochoa have suggested that prostaglandin synthesis is key to both the intestinal epithelial secretory and the CHO cell responses to cholera toxin [Peterson, J. W. and Ochoa, G. (1989) Science 245, 857-859]. Because platelet activating factor (PAF) can be a potent stimulus for prostaglandin synthesis, we examined its role in the intestinal and tissue culture effects of cholera toxin. We report that the specific PAF receptor antagonists BN 52021 and SR 27417 inhibit the effects of cholera toxin on intestinal secretion in rabbit ileal loops in vivo and on the cytoskeleton of Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro. We also show that PAF itself can cause net fluid secretion in the rabbit model and that PAF potentiates the effects of cholera toxin on intestinal secretion. Finally, we demonstrate that cholera toxin stimulates significant PAF production (2.6-fold) in isolated T-84 intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that cholera toxin stimulates PAF production and that PAF is involved in both the secretory and cytoskeletal responses to cholera toxin. These findings further support the involvement of additional mediators of cholera toxin effects other than mucosal cell cyclic AMP and help explain the effects of cholera toxin on prostaglandin synthesis. PMID:7937824

  10. Characterization of the protein apparently responsible for the elevated tyrosine protein kinase activity in LSTRA cells.

    PubMed Central

    Voronova, A F; Buss, J E; Patschinsky, T; Hunter, T; Sefton, B M

    1984-01-01

    The LSTRA murine thymoma cell line contains an elevated level of tyrosine protein kinase activity. When a microsomal preparation from these cells is incubated in vitro with ATP, the principal tyrosine protein kinase substrate is a 56,000-dalton protein, p56. We have found that an activity phosphorylating p56 on tyrosine can also be detected at low levels in microsomes from most, but not all, T lymphoma cell lines and from normal thymic tissue. Only 1 of 30 other lymphoma cell lines was found to contain an elevated level of such a tyrosine protein kinase. An activity that phosphorylated p56 in vitro was not detectable in the cells of other hematopoietic lineages. Anti-peptide antibodies reactive with the site of in vitro tyrosine phosphorylation of p56 allowed us to determine that the apparent abundance of the p56 polypeptide parallels closely the level of the tyrosine protein kinase activity in the cell lines examined. This suggests that p56 is the protein kinase responsible for the elevated tyrosine protein kinase activity in LSTRA cells and that the phosphorylation of p56 observed in vitro results from autophosphorylation. Two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping revealed that p56 is distinct from the proteins encoded by the cellular genes which are the progenitors of retroviral tyrosine protein kinases, src, yes, fgr, abl, fes, and ros. Additionally, none of these proto-oncogenes was found to be transcribed at elevated levels in LSTRA or Thy19 cells. Like the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, the cellular and viral forms of p60src, and the protein phosphatase calcineurin B, p56 contains covalently bound fatty acid. Images PMID:6543243

  11. Cloning and expression of cDNA for a human low-K sub m , rolipram-sensitive cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Livi, G.P.; McHale, M.J.; Sathe, G.M.; Taylor, D.P. ); Kmetz, P.; Balcarek, J.M. ); Cieslinski, L.B.; Torphy, T.J. ); Davis, R.L. . Dept. of Cell Biology)

    1990-06-01

    The authors have isolated cDNA clones representing cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEases) from a human monocyte cDNA library. One cDNA clone (hPDE-1) defines a large open reading frame of ca. 2.1 kilobases, predicting a 686-amino-acid, ca. 77-kilodalton protein which contains significant homology to both rat brain and {ital Drosophila} cAMP PDEases, especially within an internal conserved domain of ca. 270 residues. Amino acid sequence divergence exists at the NH{sub 2} terminus and also within a 40- to 100-residue domain near the COOH-terminal end. hPDE-1 hybridizes to a major 4.8-kilobase mRNA transcript from both human monocytes and placenta. The coding region of hPDE-1 was engineered for expression in COS-1 cells, resulting in the overproduction of cAMP PDEase activity. The hPDE-1 recombinant gene product was identified as a low-{ital K{sub m}} cAMP phosphodiesterase on the basis of several biochemical properties including selective inhibition by the antidepressant drug rolipram. Known inhibitors of other PDEases (cGMP-specific PDEase, cGMP-inhibited PDEase) had little or no effect on the hPDE-1 recombinant gene product.

  12. Multiple treatments with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine modulate dopamine biosynthesis and neurotoxicity through the protein kinase A-transient extracellular signal-regulated kinase and exchange protein activation by cyclic AMP-sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun Hong; Park, Hyun Jin; Shin, Keon Sung; Lee, Myung Koo

    2014-12-01

    Multiple treatments with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA; 20 µM) induce neurite-like outgrowth and reduce dopamine biosynthesis in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC) 12 cells. We therefore investigated the effects of multiple treatments with L-DOPA (MT-LD) on cell survival and death over a duration of 6 days by using PC12 cells and embryonic rat midbrain primary cell cultures. MT-LD (10 and 20 µM) decreased cell viability, and both types of cells advanced to the differentiation process at 4-6 days. MT-LD induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation and exchange protein activation by cAMP (Epac) expression at 1-3 days, which led to transient extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in both cells. In these states, MT-LD activated cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB; Ser133) and tyrosine hydroxylase (Ser40) phosphorylation in PC12 cells, which led to an increase in intracellular dopamine levels. In contrast, MT-LD induced prolonged Epac expression at 4-5 days in both cells, which led to sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In these states, the dopamine levels were decreased in PC12 cells. In addition, MT-LD induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase1/2 phosphorylation and cleaved caspase-3 expression at 4-6 days in both cells. These results suggest that MT-LD maintains cell survival via PKA-transient ERK1/2 activation, which stimulates dopamine biosynthesis. In contrast, at the later time period, MT-LD induces differentiation via both prolonged Epac and sustained ERK1/2 activation, which subsequently leads to the cell death process. Our data demonstrate that L-DOPA can cause neurotoxicity by modulating the Epac-ERK pathways in neuronal and PC12 cells. PMID:25044243

  13. Phorbol ester stimulates secretory activity while inhibiting receptor-activated aminopyrine uptake by gastric glands

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.R.; Chew, C.S.

    1986-03-05

    Both cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent secretagogues stimulate pepsinogen release, respiration and H/sup +/ secretory activity (AP uptake) in rabbit gastric glands. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (T), a diacyglycerol analog, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and stimulates secretion in many systems. T stimulated respiration and pepsinogen release by glands and increased AP uptake by both glands and purified parietal cells. However, T reduced AP uptake by glands stimulated with carbachol (C) or histamine (H) with an apparent IC/sub 50/ of 1 nM. Preincubation with T for 30 min produced maximum inhibition which was not reversed by removal of T. T accelerated the decline of the transient C peak while the late steady state response to H was most inhibited. H-stimulated AP uptake was also inhibited by 50 ..mu..g/ml 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol, a reported PKC activator, but not by the inactive phorbol, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate. In contrast, T potentiated AP uptake by glands stimulated with submaximal doses of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results suggest inhibition by T is a specific effect of PKC activators. The differing effects of T on secretion indicators may result from a dual action of T on receptor and post-receptor intracellular events.

  14. Cyclic AMP levels during induction and repression of cellulase biosynthesis in Thermomonospora curvata

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.E.; Neubauer, D.G.; Stutzenberger, F.J.

    1984-12-01

    Specific cellulase production rates (SCPR) were compared with intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata, during growth on several carbon sources in a chemically defined medium. SCPR and cAMP levels were 0.03 U (endoglucanase (EG) units) and 2 pmol per mg of dry cells, respectively, during exponential growth on glucose. These values increased to about 6 and 25, respectively, during growth on cellulose. Detectable EG production ceased when cAMP levels dropped below 10. Cellobiose (usually considered to be a cellulase inducer) caused a sharp decrease in cAMP levels and repressed EG production when added to cellulose-grown cultures. 2-deoxy-D-glucose, although nometabolizable in T. curvata, depressed cAMP to levels observed with glucose, but unlike glucose, the 2DG effect persisted until cells were washed and transferred to fresh medium. SCPR values and cAMP levels in cells grown in continuous culture under conditions of cellobiose limitation were markedly influenced by dilution rate (D). The maxima for both occurred at D = 0.085 (culture generation time of 11.8 h). When D was held constant and cellobiose concentration was increased over a 14-fold range to support higher steady state population levels, SCPR values decreased about fivefold, indicating that extracellular catabolite accumulation may be a factor in EG repression. The role of cAMP in the mechanism of this repression appears to be neither simple nor direct, since large changes (up to 200-fold) in SCPR accompany relatively small changes (10-fold) in cellular cAMP levels.

  15. Biochem. J. (1987) 242, 645-653 (Printed in Great Britain) Probing the sequence-specific interaction of the cyclic AMP

    E-print Network

    Clore, G. Marius

    1987-01-01

    of transcription, as in the case of the lac operon, or in inhibition of transcription, as in the case of its own interaction of CRP with its DNA-binding site in the lac operon (Weber & Steitz, 1984; Ebright et al., 1984b-specific interaction of the cyclic AMP receptor protein with DNA by site-directed mutagenesis Manda E. GENT,* Angela M

  16. Phosphorylation of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit is induced by cyclic AMP deficiency and physiological stresses in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, Brittney; Mitchell, Jessica; Marcus, Stevan

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} cAMP deficiency induces phosphorylation of PKA catalytic subunit (Pka1) in S. pombe. {yields} Pka1 phosphorylation is further induced by physiological stresses. {yields} Pka1 phosphorylation is not induced in cells lacking the PKA regulatory subunit. {yields} Results suggest that cAMP-independent Pka1 phosphorylation is stimulatory in nature. -- Abstract: In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is not essential for viability under normal culturing conditions, making this organism attractive for investigating mechanisms of PKA regulation. Here we show that S. pombe cells carrying a deletion in the adenylate cyclase gene, cyr1, express markedly higher levels of the PKA catalytic subunit, Pka1, than wild type cells. Significantly, in cyr1{Delta} cells, but not wild type cells, a substantial proportion of Pka1 protein is hyperphosphorylated. Pka1 hyperphosphorylation is strongly induced in cyr1{Delta} cells, and to varying degrees in wild type cells, by both glucose starvation and stationary phase stresses, which are associated with reduced cAMP-dependent PKA activity, and by KCl stress, the cellular adaptation to which is dependent on PKA activity. Interestingly, hyperphosphorylation of Pka1 was not detected in either cyr1{sup +} or cyr1{Delta} S. pombe strains carrying a deletion in the PKA regulatory subunit gene, cgs1, under any of the tested conditions. Our results demonstrate the existence of a cAMP-independent mechanism of PKA catalytic subunit phosphorylation, which we propose could serve as a mechanism for inducing or maintaining specific PKA functions under conditions in which its cAMP-dependent activity is downregulated.

  17. Bryostatin-1 stimulates the transcription of cyclooxygenase-2: evidence for an activator protein-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2003-10-15

    Bryostatin-1 (bryostatin) is a macrocyclic lactone derived from Bugula neritina, a marine bryozoan. On the basis of the strength of in vitro and animal studies, bryostatin is being investigated as a possible treatment for a variety of human malignancies. Severe myalgias are a common dose-limiting side effect. Because cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandins can cause pain, we investigated whether bryostatin induced COX-2. Bryostatin (1-10 nM) induced COX-2 mRNA, COX-2 protein, and prostaglandin biosynthesis. These effects were observed in macrophages as well as in a series of human cancer cell lines. Transient transfections localized the stimulatory effects of bryostatin to the cyclic AMP response element of the COX-2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and supershift experiments revealed a marked increase in the binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1)(c-Jun/c-Fos) to the cyclic AMP response element of the COX-2 promoter. Pharmacological and transient transfection studies indicated that bryostatin stimulated COX-2 transcription via the protein kinase C-->mitogen-activated protein kinase-->AP-1 pathway. All-trans-retinoic acid, a prototypic AP-1 antagonist, blocked bryostatin-mediated induction of COX-2. Taken together, these results suggest that bryostatin-mediated induction of COX-2 can help to explain the myalgias that are commonly associated with treatment. Moreover, it will be worthwhile to evaluate whether the addition of a selective COX-2 inhibitor can increase the antitumor activity of bryostatin. PMID:14581379

  18. Suppression of Virulence of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae by Anethole through the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein Signaling System

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, M. Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chatterjee, Shruti; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Faruque, Shah M.; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Use of natural compounds as antivirulence drugs could be an alternative therapeutic approach to modify the outcome of bacterial infections, particularly in view of growing resistance to available antimicrobials. Here, we show that sub-bactericidal concentration of anethole, a component of sweet fennel seed, could suppress virulence potential in O1 El Tor biotype strains of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic. The expression of cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), the major virulence factors of V. cholerae, is controlled through a regulatory cascade involving activation of ToxT with synergistic coupling interaction of ToxR/ToxS with TcpP/TcpH. We present evidence that anethole inhibits in vitro expression of CT and TCP in a toxT-dependent but toxR/toxS-independent manner and through repression of tcpP/tcpH, by using bead-ELISA, western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a well-studied global signaling system in bacterial pathogens, and this complex is known to suppress expression of tcpP/tcpH in V. cholerae. We find that anethole influences the virulence regulatory cascade by over-expressing cyaA and crp genes. Moreover, suppression of toxigenic V. cholerae-mediated fluid accumulation in ligated ileum of rabbit by anethole demonstrates its potentiality as an antivirulence drug candidate against the diseases caused by toxigenic V. cholerae. Taken altogether, these results revealing a mechanism of virulence inhibition in V. cholerae by the natural compound anethole, may have relevance in designing antivirulence compounds, particularly against multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:26361388

  19. Suppression of Virulence of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae by Anethole through the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein Signaling System.

    PubMed

    Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chatterjee, Shruti; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Faruque, Shah M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Use of natural compounds as antivirulence drugs could be an alternative therapeutic approach to modify the outcome of bacterial infections, particularly in view of growing resistance to available antimicrobials. Here, we show that sub-bactericidal concentration of anethole, a component of sweet fennel seed, could suppress virulence potential in O1 El Tor biotype strains of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic. The expression of cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), the major virulence factors of V. cholerae, is controlled through a regulatory cascade involving activation of ToxT with synergistic coupling interaction of ToxR/ToxS with TcpP/TcpH. We present evidence that anethole inhibits in vitro expression of CT and TCP in a toxT-dependent but toxR/toxS-independent manner and through repression of tcpP/tcpH, by using bead-ELISA, western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a well-studied global signaling system in bacterial pathogens, and this complex is known to suppress expression of tcpP/tcpH in V. cholerae. We find that anethole influences the virulence regulatory cascade by over-expressing cyaA and crp genes. Moreover, suppression of toxigenic V. cholerae-mediated fluid accumulation in ligated ileum of rabbit by anethole demonstrates its potentiality as an antivirulence drug candidate against the diseases caused by toxigenic V. cholerae. Taken altogether, these results revealing a mechanism of virulence inhibition in V. cholerae by the natural compound anethole, may have relevance in designing antivirulence compounds, particularly against multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:26361388

  20. Cyclic AMP-mediated suppression of neutrophil extracellular trap formation and apoptosis by the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin.

    PubMed

    Eby, Joshua C; Gray, Mary C; Hewlett, Erik L

    2014-12-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) of Bordetella pertussis intoxicates target cells by generating supraphysiologic levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). Since ACT kills macrophages rapidly and potently, we asked whether ACT would also kill neutrophils. In fact, ACT prolongs the neutrophil life span by inhibiting constitutive apoptosis and preventing apoptosis induced by exposure to live B. pertussis. Imaging of B. pertussis-exposed neutrophils revealed that B. pertussis lacking ACT induces formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), whereas wild-type B. pertussis does not, suggesting that ACT suppresses NET formation. Indeed, ACT inhibits formation of NETs by generating cAMP and consequently inhibiting the oxidative burst. Convalescent-phase serum from humans following clinical pertussis blocks the ACT-mediated suppression of NET formation. These studies provide novel insight into the phagocyte impotence caused by ACT, which not only impairs neutrophil function but also inhibits death of neutrophils by apoptosis and NETosis. PMID:25287922

  1. Production and release of cyclic AMP by Daphnia pulex: implications of grazing activity

    SciTech Connect

    Francko, D.A.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1982-04-01

    Daphnia pulex, a common cladoceran zooplankton species, contains tissue cAMP concentrations similar to those found in algae, bacteria, and aquatic macrophytes. Daphnia release significant quantities of cAMP into the extracellular medium. Release of algal cellular cAMP as a result of digestive degradation of algal cells may also be an important source of dissolved cAMP in lakewater.

  2. Evidence that cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors suppress interleukin-2 release from murine splenocytes by interacting with a ‘low-affinity' phosphodiesterase 4 conformer

    PubMed Central

    Souness, John E; Houghton, Clare; Sardar, Nughat; Withnall, Michael T

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the suppressive effects of rolipram, RP 73401 (piclamilast) and other structurally diverse inhibitors of cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) on interleukin (IL)-2 generation from Balb/c mouse splenocytes exposed to the superantigen, Staphylococcocal enterotoxin-A (Staph. A). The purpose was to determine whether their potencies are more closely correlated with inhibition of PDE4 from CTLL cells, against which rolipram displays weak potency (low-affinity PDE4), or displacement of [3H]-(±)-rolipram from its high-affinity binding site (HARBS) in mouse brain cytosol. RP 73401 (IC50 0.46±0.07?nM, n=4) was a very potent inhibitor of Staph. A-induced IL-2 release from Balb/c mouse splenocytes, being >1100 fold more potent than (±)-rolipram (IC50 540±67?nM, n=3). A close correlation (r=0.95) was observed between suppression of IL-2 release by PDE inhibitors and inhibition of PDE4. In contrast, little correlation (r=0.39) was observed between suppression of IL-2 release and their affinities for the high-affinity rolipram binding site (HARBS). RP 73401 only inhibited partially (30–40%) Staph. A-induced incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into splenocyte DNA. The PDE3 inhibitor, siguazodan (10??M), had little or no effect on IL-2 release or DNA synthesis. This concentration of siguazodan did not enhance the inhibitory action of RP 73401 on IL-2 release but potentiated its effect on DNA synthesis, increasing potency and efficacy. Staph. A-induced DNA synthesis was only partially inhibited by anti-IL-2 neutralizing antibody, whereas dexamethazone (100?nM) and cyclosporine A (100?nM) completely blocked the response. RP 73401 (IC50 6.3±1.9?nM, n=4) was 140 fold more potent than rolipram (IC50 900±300?nM, n=3) in inhibiting Staph. A-induced [3H]-thymidine incorporation into splenocyte DNA. The results implicate a low-affinity form of PDE4 in the suppression of Staph. A-induced IL-2 release from murine splenocytes by PDE inhibitors. The data also indicate that mitogenic factors other than IL-2, whose elaboration or responses to which are regulated by PDE3 as well as PDE4, contribute to the superantigen-induced DNA synthesis. PMID:9208143

  3. Cyclic AMP functions as a primary sexual signal in gametes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    When Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gametes of opposite mating type are mixed together, they adhere by a flagella-mediated agglutination that triggers three rapid mating responses: flagellar tip activation, cell wall loss, and mating structure activation accompanied by actin polymerization. Here we show that a transient 10-fold elevation of intracellular cAMP levels is also triggered by sexual agglutination. We further show that gametes of a single mating type can be induced to undergo all three mating responses when presented with exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP). These events are also induced by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which elevate endogenous cAMP levels and act synergistically with db-cAMP. Non-agglutinating mutants of opposite mating type will fuse efficiently in the presence of db- cAMP. No activation of mating events is induced by calcium plus ionophores, 8-bromo-cGMP, dibutyryl-cGMP, nigericin at alkaline pH, phorbol esters, or forskolin. H-8, an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide- dependent protein kinase, inhibits mating events in agglutinating cells and antagonizes the effects of cAMP on non-agglutinating cells. Adenylate cyclase activity was detected in both the gamete cell body and flagella, with the highest specific activity displayed in flagellar membrane fractions. The flagellar membrane adenylate cyclase is preferentially stimulated by Mn++, unresponsive to NaF, GTP, GTP gamma S, AlF4-, and forskolin, and is inhibited by trifluoperazine. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity is also present in flagella. Our observations indicate that cAMP is a sufficient initial signal for all of the known mating reaction events in C. reinhardtii, and suggest that the flagellar cyclase and/or phosphodiesterase may be important loci of control for the agglutination-stimulated production of this signal. PMID:2824527

  4. Vasopressin and interactive calcium, cyclic AMP and purinergic signaling in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chebib, Fouad T.; Sussman, Caroline R.; Wang, Xiaofang; Harris, Peter C.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic kidney disease and the fourth leading cause of end-stage renal disease, responsible for 5–10% of cases. The disease is characterized by relentless development and growth of cysts causing progressive kidney enlargement associated with hypertension, pain, reduced quality of life, and eventually kidney failure. It is caused by mutations to PKD1 or PKD2, encoding polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively. Their function and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of polycystic kidney disease are not well understood. The objective of this review is to synthesize a large body of literature that examines how reduction of functional PC1 or PC2 at the primary cilia and/or the endoplasmic reticulum directly disrupts intracellular calcium signaling and indirectly disrupts calcium regulated cAMP and purinergic signaling. We propose a hypothetical model where dysregulated metabolism of cAMP and purinergic signaling increase the sensitivity of principal cells in collecting ducts and of tubular epithelial cells in the distal nephron to the constant tonic action of vasopressin. The resulting magnified response to vasopressin further enhances the disruption of calcium signaling initiated by mutations to PC1 or PC2 and activates downstream signaling pathways responsible for impaired tubulogenesis, cell proliferation, increased fluid secretion and interstitial inflammation. PMID:25870007

  5. Active Shooter Response Plan

    E-print Network

    're a threat ­ Follow directions exactly ­ You may have weapons pointed at you ­ Don't make sudden movements ­ Keep your hands empty and visible ­ You may be searched #12;Law Enforcement Response · Dealing

  6. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) Receptor Protein-cAMP Complex Regulates Heparosan Production in Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huihui; Bao, Feifei; Zhao, Liping; Yu, Yanying; Tang, Jiaqin; Zhou, Xianxuan

    2015-11-15

    Heparosan serves as the starting carbon backbone for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin, a widely used clinical anticoagulant drug. The availability of heparosan is a significant concern for the cost-effective synthesis of bioengineered heparin. The carbon source is known as the pivotal factor affecting heparosan production. However, the mechanism by which carbon sources control the biosynthesis of heparosan is unclear. In this study, we found that the biosynthesis of heparosan was influenced by different carbon sources. Glucose inhibits the biosynthesis of heparosan, while the addition of either fructose or mannose increases the yield of heparosan. Further study demonstrated that the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex binds to the upstream region of the region 3 promoter and stimulates the transcription of the gene cluster for heparosan biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRP binding site abolished its capability of binding CRP and eliminated the stimulative effect on transcription. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was further performed to determine the Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) heparosan structure and quantify extracellular heparosan production. Our results add to the understanding of the regulation of heparosan biosynthesis and may contribute to the study of other exopolysaccharide-producing strains. PMID:26319872

  7. Cyclic AMP concentrations in dendritic cells induce and regulate Th2 immunity and allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jihyung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Murray, Fiona; Li, Xiangli; Choi, Sara S.; Broide, David H.; Corr, Maripat; Lee, Jongdae; Webster, Nicholas J. G.; Insel, Paul A.; Raz, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    The inductive role of dendritic cells (DC) in Th2 differentiation has not been fully defined. We addressed this gap in knowledge by focusing on signaling events mediated by the heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins G?s, and G?i, which respectively stimulate and inhibit the activation of adenylyl cyclases and the synthesis of cAMP. We show here that deletion of Gnas, the gene that encodes G?s in mouse CD11c+ cells (Gnas?CD11c mice), and the accompanying decrease in cAMP provoke Th2 polarization and yields a prominent allergic phenotype, whereas increases in cAMP inhibit these responses. The effects of cAMP on DC can be demonstrated in vitro and in vivo and are mediated via PKA. Certain gene products made by Gnas?CD11c DC affect the Th2 bias. These findings imply that G protein-coupled receptors, the physiological regulators of G?s and G?i activation and cAMP formation, act via PKA to regulate Th bias in DC and in turn, Th2-mediated immunopathologies. PMID:25605931

  8. Cyclic AMP synergizes with butyrate in promoting ?-defensin 9 expression in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Lakshmi T; Zeng, Xiangfang; Curtis, Amanda R; Zhang, Guolong

    2014-02-01

    Host defense peptides (HDP) have both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties. Specific induction of endogenous HDP synthesis has emerged as a novel approach to antimicrobial therapy. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and butyrate have been implicated in HDP induction in humans. However, the role of cAMP signaling and the possible interactions between cAMP and butyrate in regulating HDP expression in other species remain unknown. Here we report that activation of cAMP signaling induces HDP gene expression in chickens as exemplified by ?-defensin 9 (AvBD9). We further showed that, albeit being weak inducers, cAMP agonists synergize strongly with butyrate or butyrate analogs in AvBD9 induction in macrophages and primary jejunal explants. Additionally, oral supplementation of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase agonist in the form of a Coleus forskohlii extract, was found to induce AvBD9 expression in the crop of chickens. Furthermore, feeding with both forskolin and butyrate showed an obvious synergy in triggering AvBD9 expression in the crop and jejunum of chickens. Surprisingly, inhibition of the MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway augmented the butyrate-FSK synergy, whereas blocking JNK or p38 MAPK pathway significantly diminished AvBD9 induction in chicken macrophages and jejunal explants in response to butyrate and FSK individually or in combination. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for concomitant use of butyrate and cAMP signaling activators in enhancing HDP expression, innate immunity, and disease resistance in both animals and humans. PMID:24141182

  9. Occupancy of adenosine receptors raises cyclic AMP alone and in synergy with occupancy of chemoattractant receptors and inhibits membrane depolarization.

    PubMed Central

    Cronstein, B N; Kramer, S B; Rosenstein, E D; Korchak, H M; Weissmann, G; Hirschhorn, R

    1988-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that adenosine, acting via adenosine A2 receptors, inhibits generation of superoxide anions (O2-) by stimulated neutrophils. To determine the mechanism(s) by which adenosine inhibits O2- generation stimulated by the chemoattractant N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), we examined cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations, stimulated membrane depolarization and Ca2+ movements. Neither adenosine nor 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), the most potent agonist at adenosine A2 receptors, increases neutrophil cAMP content. However in the presence of the non-methylxanthine phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Ro-20-1724, both adenosine and NECA elicit a reversible increase in intracellular cAMP concentration. The chemoattractant FMLP also elicits an increment in the neutrophil cAMP content. NECA, in the presence of Ro-20-1724, synergistically enhances the increment in cAMP following stimulation by FMLP. However Ro-20-1724 does not potentiate the inhibition of O2- generation by NECA. Unlike other agents which increase neutrophil cAMP concentrations, NECA, even in the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, only trivially inhibits degranulation. We also found that adenosine markedly inhibits stimulated membrane depolarization but does not affect the stimulated increment in free ionized intracellular calcium. Moreover, inhibition by adenosine of O2- generation does not vary with the concentration of extracellular calcium. These results fulfil the last criterion for the demonstration of an A2 receptor on human neutrophils, and indicate that adenosine occupies an A2 receptor on neutrophils to raise intracellular cAMP in synergy with occupancy of the FMLP receptor. The results reported here also indicate that cAMP is not the second messenger for inhibition of O2- generation by adenosine and its analogues. PMID:2844154

  10. Neural activation during response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, E.; Poldrack, R.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The flanker task, introduced by Eriksen and Eriksen [Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143--149], provides a means to selectively manipulate the presence or absence of response competition while keeping other task demands constant. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the flanker task. In accordance with previous behavioral studies, trials in which the flanking stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus were performed significantly more slowly than trials in which all the stimuli indicated the same response. This reaction time effect was accompanied by increases in activity in four regions: the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the left superior parietal lobe, and the left anterior parietal cortex. The increases were not due to changes in stimulus complexity or the need to overcome previously learned associations between stimuli and responses. Correspondences between this study and other experiments manipulating response interference suggest that the frontal foci may be related to response inhibition processes whereas the posterior foci may be related to the activation of representations of the inappropriate responses.

  11. D1 agonists suppress zero Mg(2+)-induced epileptiform activity in the rat cingulate cortex slice.

    PubMed

    Alam, A M; Starr, M S

    1993-10-25

    This study determined whether dopamine can influence epileptiform activity in vitro through an action at D1 receptors. Dopamine (50-1000 microM) and the selective D1 agonists SKF 38393, SKF 75670, SKF 80723 and SKF 82526 (10-250 microM) suppressed the paroxysmal discharges produced in rat cingulate cortex slices by the omission of Mg2+ from the bathing medium. These antiepileptic effects were mimicked by forskolin (10-100 microM), blocked by the D1 antagonist SCH 39166 (0.5 microM), facilitated by IBMX (500 microM) and unaffected by propranolol (2 microM), suggesting the participation of cyclic AMP in the D1 response. Possible mechanisms, including direct postsynaptic inhibition, modulatory enhancement of GABA activity and presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release are considered. PMID:7506591

  12. Supra-normal stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors in the prelimbic cortex blocks behavioral expression of both aversive and rewarding associative memories through a cyclic-AMP-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lauzon, Nicole M; Bechard, Melanie; Ahmad, Tasha; Laviolette, Steven R

    2013-04-01

    Dopamine (DA) receptor transmission through either D(1) or D(2)-like subtypes is involved critically in the processing of emotional information within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However the functional role of specific DA D(1)-like receptor transmission in the expression of emotionally salient associative memories (either aversive or rewarding) is not currently understood. Here we demonstrate that specific activation of DA D(1) receptors in the prelimbic (PLC) division of the mPFC causes a transient block in the behavioral expression of both aversive and rewarding associative memories. We report that intra-PLC microinfusions of a selective D(1) receptor agonist block the spontaneous expression of an associative olfactory fear memory, without altering the stability of the original memory trace. Furthermore, using an unbiased place conditioning procedure (CPP), intra-PLC D(1) receptor activation blocks the spontaneous expression of an associative morphine (5 mg/kg; i.p.) reward memory, while leaving morphine-primed memory expression intact. Interestingly, both intra-PLC D(1)-receptor mediated block of either fear-related or reward-related associative memories were dependent upon downstream cyclic-AMP (cAMP) signaling as both effects were rescued by co-administration of a cAMP signaling inhibitor. The blockade of both rewarding and aversive associative memories is mediated through a D(1)-specific signaling pathway, as neither forms of spontaneous memory expression were blocked by intra-PLC microinfusions of a D(2)-like receptor agonist. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous expression of either rewarding or aversive emotionally salient memories shares a common, D(1)-receptor mediated substrate within the mPFC. PMID:23164618

  13. The differential effect of cyclic AMP on lymphocyte stimulation by T- or B-cell mitogens.

    PubMed Central

    Vischer, T L

    1976-01-01

    Dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) added to mouse spleen cell cultures under serum free conditions inhibited the stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation induced by T-cell mitogens much more than the one induced by B-cell mitogens. The inhibition was most impressive with phytohaemagglutinin, followed by concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen and the specific antigen Keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). The response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was clearly less susceptible to suppression and the effect on the stimulation induced by trypsin and suramin, both B-cell mitogens, was marginal. Similar results were obtained by addition of isoproterenol or therophyllin to the cultures. PMID:179940

  14. Sustained signalling by PTH modulates IP3 accumulation and IP3 receptors via cyclic AMP junctions

    E-print Network

    Meena, Abha; Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2014-11-27

    , Inositol trisphosphate receptor, Parathyroid hormone INTRODUCTION Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the major endocrine regulator of plasma Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations and, with PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), it regulates bone remodelling (Potts and Gardella... need for activation of PKA. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials N-[2-[[3-(4-bromophenyl)-2-propenyl]amino]ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfon- amide dihydrochloride (H89) and 8-Br-cAMP were from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN). 29,59-dideoxyadenosine (DDA), N...

  15. Niflumic acid-sensitive ion channels play an important role in the induction of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by cyclic AMP in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, W.; Miki, T.; Ogura, T.; Zhang, M.; Seino, Y.; Satin, L. S.; Nakaya, H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We have previously reported that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is induced by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in mice lacking ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels (Kir6.2?/? mice [up-to-date symbol for Kir6.2 gene is Kcnj11]), in which glucose alone does not trigger insulin secretion. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the induction of GSIS by GLP-1. Methods Pancreas perfusion experiments were performed using wild-type (Kir6.2+/+) or Kir6.2?/? mice. Glucose concentrations were either changed abruptly from 2.8 to 16.7 mmol/l or increased stepwise (1.4 mmol/l per step) from 2.8 to 12.5 mmol/l. Electrophysiological experiments were performed using pancreatic beta cells isolated from Kir6.2?/? mice or clonal pancreatic beta cells (MIN6 cells) after pharmacologically inhibiting their KATP channels with glibenclamide. Results The combination of cyclic AMP plus 16.7 mmol/l glucose evoked insulin secretion in Kir6.2?/? pancreases where glucose alone was ineffective as a secretagogue. The secretion was blocked by the application of niflumic acid. In KATP channel-inactivated MIN6 cells, niflumic acid similarly inhibited the membrane depolarisation caused by cAMP plus glucose. Surprisingly, stepwise increases of glucose concentration triggered insulin secretion only in the presence of cAMP or GLP-1 in Kir6.2+/+, as in Kir6.2?/? pancreases. Conclusions/interpretation Niflumic acid-sensitive ion channels participate in the induction of GSIS by cyclic AMP in Kir6.2?/? beta cells. Cyclic AMP thus not only acts as a potentiator of insulin secretion, but appears to be permissive for GSIS via novel, niflumic acid-sensitive ion channels. This mechanism may be physiologically important for triggering insulin secretion when the plasma glucose concentration increases gradually rather than abruptly. PMID:19266181

  16. Long-Term Memory for Place Learning Is Facilitated by Expression of cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightwell, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clayton A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Colombo, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that the hippocampus is necessary for consolidation of long-term spatial memory in rodents. We reported previously that rats using a place strategy to solve a cross maze task showed sustained phosphorylation of hippocampus cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor implicated in…

  17. Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein.

    PubMed Central

    Dransfield, D T; Bradford, A J; Smith, J; Martin, M; Roy, C; Mangeat, P H; Goldenring, J R

    1997-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are responsible for the subcellular sequestration of the type II A-kinase. Previously, we identified a 78 kDa AKAP which was enriched in gastric parietal cells. We have now purified the 78 kDa AKAP to homogeneity from gastric fundic mucosal supernates using type II A-kinase regulatory subunit (RII) affinity chromatography. The purified 78 kDa AKAP was recognized by monoclonal antibodies against ezrin, the canalicular actin-associated protein. Recombinant ezrin produced in either Sf9 cells or bacteria also bound RII. Recombinant radixin and moesin, ezrin-related proteins, also bound RII in blot overlay. Analysis of recombinant truncations of ezrin mapped the RII binding site to a region between amino acids 373 and 439. This region contained a 14-amino-acid amphipathic alpha-helical putative RII binding region. A synthetic peptide containing the amphipathic helical region (ezrin409-438) blocked RII binding to ezrin, but a peptide with a leucine to proline substitution at amino acid 421 failed to inhibit RII binding. In mouse fundic mucosa, RII immunoreactivity redistributed from a predominantly cytosolic location in resting parietal cells, to a canalicular pattern in mucosa from animals stimulated with gastrin. These results demonstrate that ezrin is a major AKAP in gastric parietal cells and may function to tether type II A-kinase to a region near the secretory canaliculus. PMID:9009265

  18. Cyclic AMP Mimics the Anti-ageing Effects of Calorie Restriction by Up-Regulating Sirtuin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuoran; Zhang, Lu; Liang, Yaru; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Zhiyu; Zhang, Lang; Fuji, Ryosuke; Mu, Wei; Li, Liyuan; Jiang, Junjun; Ju, Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays an important role in many biological processes as a second messenger, and cAMP treatment has been reported to extend the lifespan of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Our study showed that exogenous cAMP improved ageing-related phenotypes by increasing the protein level of Sirtuins, which prevented metabolic disorders to mimic the effect of calorie restriction. Experiments in vitro showed that cAMP directly bound to SIRT1 and SIRT3 and consequently increased their activity. These findings suggest that cAMP slows the ageing process and is a good candidate to mimic calorie restriction. Our research provides a promising therapeutic strategy to target metabolic disorder-induced ageing-related diseases. PMID:26153625

  19. Binding of regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to cyclic CMP agarose.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Andreas; Chatterji, Bijon; Zeiser, Johannes; Schröder, Anke; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Pich, Andreas; Kaever, Volkhard; Schwede, Frank; Wolter, Sabine; Seifert, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial adenylyl cyclase toxins CyaA from Bordetella pertussis and edema factor from Bacillus anthracis as well as soluble guanylyl cyclase ?(1)?(1) synthesize the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotide cCMP. These data raise the question to which effector proteins cCMP binds. Recently, we reported that cCMP activates the regulatory subunits RI? and RII? of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In this study, we used two cCMP agarose matrices as novel tools in combination with immunoblotting and mass spectrometry to identify cCMP-binding proteins. In agreement with our functional data, RI? and RII? were identified as cCMP-binding proteins. These data corroborate the notion that cAMP-dependent protein kinase may serve as a cCMP target. PMID:22808067

  20. Cyclic AMP efflux, via MRPs and A1 adenosine receptors, is critical for bovine sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Osycka-Salut, Claudia; Diez, Federico; Burdet, Juliana; Gervasi, María Gracia; Franchi, Ana; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Sperm capacitation has been largely associated with an increase in cAMP, although its relevance in the underlying mechanisms of this maturation process remains elusive. Increasing evidence shows that the extrusion of cAMP through multidrug resistance associated protein 4 (MRP4) regulates cell homeostasis not only in physiological but also in pathophysiological situations and studies from our laboratory strongly support this assumption. In the present work we sought to establish the role of cAMP efflux in the regulation of sperm capacitation. Sperm capacitation was performed in vitro by exposing bovine spermatozoa to bicarbonate 40 and 70 mM; cAMP; probenecid (a MRPs general inhibitor) and an adenosine type 1 receptor (A1 adenosine receptor) selective antagonist (DPCPX). Capacitation was assessed by chlortetracycline assay and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction assessed by PSA-FITC staining. Intracellular and extracellular cAMP was measured by radiobinding the regulatory subunit of PKA under the same experimental conditions. MRP4 was detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Results showed that the inhibition of soluble adenylyl cyclase significantly inhibited bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. Furthermore, in the presence of 40 and 70 mM bicarbonate bovine spermatozoa synthesized and extruded cAMP. Interestingly, in the absence of IBMX (a PDEs inhibitor) cAMP efflux still operated in sperm cells, suggesting that cAMP extrusion would be a physiological process in the spermatozoa complementary to the action of PDE. Blockade of MRPs by probenecid abolished the efflux of the cyclic nucleotide resulting not only in the accumulation of intracellular cAMP but also in the inhibition of bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. The effect of probenecid was abolished by exposing sperm cells to cAMP. The high-affinity efflux pump for cAMP, MRP4 was expressed in bovine spermatozoa and localized to the midpiece of the tail as previously reported for soluble adenylyl cyclase and A1 adenosine receptor. Additionally, blockade of A1 adenosine receptor abolished not only bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation but also that stimulated by cAMP. Present findings strongly support that cAMP efflux, presumably through MRP4, and the activation of A1 adenosine receptor regulate some events associated with bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation, and further suggest a paracrine and/or autocrine role for cAMP. PMID:23907162

  1. Cyclic AMP and phorbol ester-stimulated transcription mediated by similar DNA elements that bind distinct proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, P.J.; Hoeffler, J.P.; Jameson, J.L.; Habener, J.F. )

    1988-11-01

    cAMP and phorbol esters mediate cellular metabolism by the activation of distinct signal transduction pathways consisting of a cascade of sequential protein phosphorylations. An important consequence of the activation of these pathways is the stimulation of gene transcription by way of interactions of specific proteins with DNA control elements. The 8-base-pair (bp) DNA consensus sequence TGACGTCA (cAMP response element (cAMP-RE)) has been shown to confer cAMP responsivity on transcription from various promoters, and the closely related 7-bp consensus sequence TGA-(C or G)TCA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate response element (PMA-RE)) lends transcriptional responsiveness to phorbol esters. In the JEG-3 placental cell line the authors find that several variants of the cAMP-REs fused to a gonadotropin {alpha} promoter chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene mediate responsiveness to cAMP but not to phorbol esters. The PMA-RE is responsive to phorbol esters but also imparts submaximal sensitivity to cAMP in the JEG-3 cells and in the Hep G2 hepatoma cell line. The two signaling agents together display a supraadditive effect on reporter genes containing active PMA-REs but not cAMP-REs. Gel-mobility-shift and UV cross-linking analyses show that distinct proteins bind to the two control elements.

  2. Appetitive Cue-Evoked ERK Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Requires NMDA and D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation and Regulates CREB Phosphorylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschmann, Erin K. Z.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Willis, Cory M.; Foster, Rebecca L.; Chipman, Amanda M.; Thiels, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned stimuli (CS) can modulate reward-seeking behavior. This modulatory effect can be maladaptive and has been implicated in excessive reward seeking and relapse to drug addiction. We previously demonstrated that exposure to an appetitive CS causes an increase in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP

  3. Deciphering Dynamic Dose Responses of Natural Promoters and Single cis Elements upon Osmotic and Oxidative Stress in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dolz-Edo, Laura; Rienzo, Alessandro; Poveda-Huertes, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Fine-tuned activation of gene expression in response to stress is the result of dynamic interactions of transcription factors with specific promoter binding sites. In the study described here we used a time-resolved luciferase reporter assay in living Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells to gain insights into how osmotic and oxidative stress signals modulate gene expression in a dose-sensitive manner. Specifically, the dose-response behavior of four different natural promoters (GRE2, CTT1, SOD2, and CCP1) reveals differences in their sensitivity and dynamics in response to different salt and oxidative stimuli. Characteristic dose-response profiles were also obtained for artificial promoters driven by only one type of stress-regulated consensus element, such as the cyclic AMP-responsive element, stress response element, or AP-1 site. Oxidative and osmotic stress signals activate these elements separately and with different sensitivities through different signaling molecules. Combination of stress-activated cis elements does not, in general, enhance the absolute expression levels; however, specific combinations can increase the inducibility of the promoter in response to different stress doses. Finally, we show that the stress tolerance of the cell critically modulates the dynamics of its transcriptional response in the case of oxidative stress. PMID:23530054

  4. Transforming growth factor beta decreases the rate of proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells by extending the G2 phase of the cell cycle and delays the rise in cyclic AMP before entry into M phase.

    PubMed Central

    Grainger, D J; Kemp, P R; Witchell, C M; Weissberg, P L; Metcalfe, J C

    1994-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) decreased the rate of proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with serum showing a maximal effect at > 5 ng/ml (200 pM). However, it did not reduce the proportion of cells which passed through S phase (> 90%) and entry into S phase was delayed by less than 3 h. The proportion of cells passing through M phase (> 90%) was also unaffected, but entry into mitosis was delayed by approx. 24 h. This increase in cell cycle time was therefore due mainly to an increase in the G2 to mitotic metaphase period. Addition of TGF-beta 1 late in G1 or late in S phase failed to delay the onset of mitosis, but the presence of TGF-beta 1 between 0 and 12 h after the addition of serum to quiescent cells was sufficient to cause the maximal delay in mitosis of approx. 24 h. The role of cyclic AMP in the mechanism of the TGF-beta 1 effects on the cell cycle was examined. Entry into mitosis was preceded by a transient 2-fold increase in cyclic AMP concentration and TGF-beta 1 delayed both this increase in cyclic AMP and entry into mitosis to the same extent. Addition of forskolin or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cyclic AMP to cells 30 h after stimulation with serum completely reversed the increase in duration of G2 in the presence of TGF-beta 1, suggesting that the rise in cyclic AMP levels which precedes mitosis might trigger entry of the VSMCs into M phase. Addition of forskolin late in S phase (26 h after stimulation with serum) advanced the entry of the cells into M phase and they divided prematurely. This effect was unaffected by the addition of cycloheximide with the forskolin; however, the effect of forskolin on cell division was completely inhibited when cycloheximide was added late in G1. TGF-beta 1 prevented the loss of smooth-muscle-specific myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), which occurs in primary VSMC cultures in the presence or absence of serum, and the cells proliferated while maintaining a differentiated phenotype. However, TGF-beta 1 did not cause re-differentiation of subcultured VSMCs which contained very low amounts of SM-MHC and the effect of TGF-beta 1 in extending the G2 phase of the cell cycle is exerted independently of its effect on differentiation. Images Figure 3 PMID:8166645

  5. Bronchial responsiveness in active steelworkers.

    PubMed

    Corhay, J L; Bury, T; Louis, R; Delavignette, J P; Kayembe, J M; Weber, G; Albert, A; Radermecker, M F

    1998-02-01

    Coke-oven workers are exposed to dust and irritant gases. Therefore they are at risk of developing lung diseases including chronic bronchitis. Nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) has been advocated as a potential risk factor predisposing to the development of chronic bronchitis. In a previous study, we showed that prevalence of BHR was higher in retired coke-oven workers than in retired blast furnace workers. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of BHR in active steelworkers. Thus, 137 coke-oven workers and 150 blast furnace workers underwent clinical examination, a standardized questionnaire for the study of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function testing and methacholine aerosol challenge. The study demonstrates a higher prevalence and degree of BHR [provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20) < or = 8 mg x mL(-1)] in coke-oven workers than in blast furnace workers (31.4 versus 6.7%; p<0.001). Moreover, the frequency of respiratory symptoms and basal bronchial obstruction were greater among coke-oven workers with BHR in nonresponders. The basal maximum expiratory flow from 25-75% of forced vital capacity and the respiratory symptoms were correlated with bronchial responsiveness. The lack of correlation observed between BHR and the intensity of smoking or years spent in coke-oven environment may be explained by the high proportion of smokers, the worker turnover in the steel plant, and the "healthy worker effect". In conclusion, the higher prevalence and degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in coke-oven workers suggests that coke-oven pollutants are more intense irritants than those that escape from blast furnaces. PMID:9551724

  6. ResponseCard NXT New Clicker Activation

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    #12;#12;ResponseCard® NXT #12;#12;#12;#12;New Clicker Activation Turning Point @ Boise State University #12;New Clicker Activation Turning Point @ Boise State University #12;New Clicker Activation Turning Point @ Boise State University #12;New Clicker Activation Turning Point @ Boise State University

  7. Effect of Increased Cyclic AMP Concentration on Muscle Protein Synthesis and Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Vaughn, J. R.; Bridge, K. Y.; Smith, C. K.

    1998-01-01

    Analogies of epinephrine are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle when fed to animals. These compounds presumably exert their physiological action through interaction with the P-adrenergic receptor. Since the intracellular signal generated by the Beta-adrenergic receptor is cyclic AMP (cAMP), experiments were initiated in cell culture to determine if artificial elevation of cAMP by treatment with forskolin would alter muscle protein metabolism and P-adrenergic receptor expression. Chicken skeletal muscle cells after 7 days in culture were treated with 0.2-30 micrometers forskolin for a total of three days. At the end of the treatment period, both the concentration of cAMP and the quantity of myosin heavy chain (MHC) were measured. Concentration of cAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 10-fold in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, the quantity of MHC was increased approximately 50% above control cells at 0.2 micrometers forskolin, but exhibited a gradual decline at higher levels of forskolin so that the quantity of MHC in cells treated with 30 micrometers forskolin was not significantly different from controls. Curiously, the intracellular concentration of cAMP which elicited the maximum increase in the quantity of MHC was only 40% higher than cAMP concentration in control cells.

  8. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli and DNA bending at the P4 promoter of pBR322.

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, I; Hoggett, J G

    1992-01-01

    The binding of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) to its specific site on the P4 promoter of pBR322 has been studied by gel electrophoresis. Binding to the P4 site was about 40-50-fold weaker than to the principal CRP site on the lactose promoter at both low (0.01 M) and high (0.1 M) ionic strengths. CRP-induced bending at the P4 site was investigated from the mobilities of CRP bound to circularly permuted P4 fragments. The estimated bending angle, based on comparison with Zinkel & Crothers [(1990) Biopolymers 29, 29-38] A-tract bending standards, was found to be approximately 96 degrees, similar to that found for binding to the lac site. These observations suggest that there is not a simple relationship between strength of CRP binding and the extent of induced bending for different CRP sites. The apparent centre of bending in P4 is displaced about 6-8 bp away from the conserved TGTGA sequence and the P4 transcription start site. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1322129

  9. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli and DNA bending at the P4 promoter of pBR322.

    PubMed

    Brierley, I; Hoggett, J G

    1992-07-01

    The binding of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) to its specific site on the P4 promoter of pBR322 has been studied by gel electrophoresis. Binding to the P4 site was about 40-50-fold weaker than to the principal CRP site on the lactose promoter at both low (0.01 M) and high (0.1 M) ionic strengths. CRP-induced bending at the P4 site was investigated from the mobilities of CRP bound to circularly permuted P4 fragments. The estimated bending angle, based on comparison with Zinkel & Crothers [(1990) Biopolymers 29, 29-38] A-tract bending standards, was found to be approximately 96 degrees, similar to that found for binding to the lac site. These observations suggest that there is not a simple relationship between strength of CRP binding and the extent of induced bending for different CRP sites. The apparent centre of bending in P4 is displaced about 6-8 bp away from the conserved TGTGA sequence and the P4 transcription start site. PMID:1322129

  10. Effect of beta-ADrenergic Agonist on Cyclic AMP Synthesis in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Because it seems logical that these agonists exert their action on muscle through stimulation of cAMP synthesis, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of cAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of cAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax levels were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of cAMP synthesis. In addition, the EC50 values for isoproterenol, cimaterol, clenbuterol, epinephrine, and albuterol were 360 nM, 630 nM, 900 nM, 2,470 nM, and 3,650 nM, respectively. Finally, dose response curves show that the concentrations of cimaterol and clenbuterol in culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals had no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP accumulation in chicken skeletal muscle cells.

  11. Alpha 2 adrenoceptor potentiates glycine receptor-mediated taurine response through protein kinase A in rat substantia nigra neurons.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, J; Omura, T; Akaike, N

    1996-10-01

    1. The modulatory effect of alpha 2 adrenoceptor on the taurine response was investigated in substantia nigra (SN) neurons acutely dissociated from the rat using a nystatin perforated-patch recording mode under voltage-clamp conditions. 2. Complete cross-desensitization was observed between 10(-3) M glycine and 3 x 10(-3) M taurine-induced currents. Both currents were antagonized by 10(-6) M strychnine, thus indicating that taurine acts on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor on the SN neurons. 3. The simultaneous application of norepinephrine (NE) with prazosin (10(-5) M) and propranolol (10(-5) M) potentiated the taurine response (Itau) in an NE concentration-dependent manner at a holding potential (VH) of -40 mV. Clonidine mimicked the NE effect on the Itau, thus indicating the involvement of alpha 2 adrenoceptor activation in the potentiation of Itau. 4. Alpha 2 adrenoceptor activation by NE with prazosin and propranolol significantly potentiated the peak amplitude of Itau without shifting the taurine concentration-response relationships either to left or right side. The respective concentrations of taurine for the threshold, half maximal and maximal responses in the presence of 10(-4) M NE with prazosin (10(-5) M) and propranolol (10(-5) M) were 3 x 10(-5) M, 3.1 x 10(-4) M, and 3 x 10(-3) M. The same concentrations in the absence of NE were 3 x 10(-5) M, 3.2 x 10(-4) M, and 3 x 10(-3) M, respectively. 5. The reversal potentials of Itau with and without NE were very close to the theoretical Cl- equilibrium potential, thus indicating that the potentiation of Itau by alpha 2 adrenoceptor activation was due to an increase in the taurine-induced Cl- currents. 6. Forskolin (3 x 10(-5) M) and isobutylmethylxanthine (3 x 10(-5) M) suppressed the peak amplitude of Itau. In the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10(-4) M), which also suppressed Itau, alpha 2 adrenoceptor activation failed to potentiate Itau. 7. N-[2(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline sulfonamide dihydrochloride (H-89) mimicked the effect of alpha 2 adrenoceptor activation on Itau. In addition, the potentiation of Itau by alpha 2 adrenoceptor was not observed in the presence of 10(-6) M H-89. 8. The treatment of SN neurons with pertussis toxin (500 ng/ ml) for 18 h completely abolished the facilitatory effect of alpha 2 adrenoceptor on Itau. 9. These results suggest that the activation of alpha 2 adrenoceptor coupled with IAP-sensitive GTP binding protein decreases the intracellular cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, thus resulting in the potentiation of glycine receptor-mediated taurine response in rat SN neurons. PMID:8899617

  12. Regulation of Cardiac Calcium Channels in the Fight-or-Flight Response

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium transients generated by activation of voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels generate local signals, which initiate physiological processes such as secretion, synaptic transmission, and excitation-contraction coupling. Regulation of calcium entry through CaV channels is crucial for control of these physiological processes. In this article, I review experimental results that have emerged over several years showing that cardiac CaV1.2 channels form a local signaling complex, in which their proteolytically processed distal C-terminal domain, an A-Kinase Anchoring Protein, and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) interact directly with the transmembrane core of the ion channel through the proximal C-terminal domain. This signaling complex is the substrate for ?-adrenergic up-regulation of the CaV1.2 channel in the heart during the fight-or-flight response. Protein phosphorylation of two sites at the interface between the distal and proximal C-terminal domains contributes importantly to control of basal CaV1.2 channel activity, and phosphorylation of Ser1700 by PKA at that interface up-regulates CaV1.2 activity in response to ?-adrenergic signaling. Thus, the intracellular C-terminal domain of CaV1.2 channels serves as a signaling platform, mediating beat-to-beat physiological regulation of channel activity and up-regulation by ?-adrenergic signaling in the fight-or-flight response. PMID:25966697

  13. Adenosine receptor-induced cAMP changes in D384 astrocytoma cells and the effect of bradykinin thereon.

    PubMed

    Altiok, N; Balmforth, A J; Fredholm, B B

    1992-01-01

    In human D384 astrocytoma cells, cyclic AMP accumulation can be conveniently studied after labelling of the adenosine triphosphate pool (15 fmol cell-1) with [3H]adenine. In this study, adenosine had a biphasic effect on cyclic AMP accumulation, which was scarcely altered by blocking adenosine uptake and metabolism. Low concentrations of adenosine led to an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation, and higher concentrations led to stimulation. No effect of adenosine on cyclic AMP was observed unless phosphodiesterase was inhibited by rolipram. The A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX attenuated the inhibitory phase of adenosine response, and enhanced the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by adenosine analogues. The cyclic AMP accumulation was stimulated by NECA greater than ADO greater than CGS 21680 greater than CV 1808 greater than CPA greater than or equal to CHA, indicating mediation by A2 receptors. The stimulatory effect of NECA was much more effectively blocked by the combined A1 and A2 receptor antagonist CGS 15943 (KB 4 nmol l-1) than by the A1 antagonist DPCPX (KB 110 nmol l-1). Treatment of the cells with pertussis toxin (0.2 microgram ml-1 for 2.5 h) potentiated the cyclic AMP response to adenosine analogues significantly. The cyclic AMP response to NECA was enhanced by the protein kinase C activator phorbol dibutyrate even after pertussis toxin treatment. By contrast, nanomolar concentrations of bradykinin, which increases Ca(2+)-levels and protein kinase C activity in D384 cells, reduced NECA-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in control and pertussis toxin-treated cells. Thus, D384 cells possess both A1 and A2 adenosine receptors influencing cyclic AMP in opposite directions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1317654

  14. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population is Up-Regulated by Increased Cyclic Amp Concentration in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Vaughn, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is promoted in vivo by administration of beta-drenergic receptor (bAR) agonists. Chicken skeletal muscle cells were treated with 1 (mu)M isoproterenol, a strong bAR agonist, between days 7 and 10 in culture. bAR population increased by approximately 40% during this treatment; however, the ability of the cells to synthesize cyclic AMP (cAMP) was diminished by two-fold. The quantity of myosin heavy chain (MHC) was not affected. To understand further the relationship between intracellular cAMP levels, bAR population, and muscle protein accumulation, intracellular cAMP levels were artificially elevated by treatment with 0-10 uM forskolin for up to three days. The basal concentration of CAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 7-fold in a dose dependent manner. Increasing concentrations of forskolin also led to an increase in bAR population, with a maximum increase of approximately 40-60% at 10 uM forskolin. A maximum increase of 40-50% in the quantity of MHC was observed at 0.2 uM forskolin, but higher concentrations of forskolin reduced the quantity of MHC back to control levels. At 0.2 uM forskolin, intracellular levels of cAMP were higher by approximately 35%, and the (beta)AR population was higher by approximately 30%. Neither the number of muscle nuclei fused into myotubes nor the percentage of nuclei in myotubes were affected by forskolin at any of the concentrations studied.

  15. Activating transcription factor 2 controls Bcl-2 promoter activity in growth plate chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin; Li, Xinying; Vale-Cruz, Dustin; Brown, Mark L; Beier, Frank; LuValle, Phyllis

    2007-05-15

    Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) is expressed ubiquitously in mammals. Mice deficient in ATF-2 (ATF-2 m/m) are slightly smaller than their normal littermates at birth. Approximately 50% of mice born mutant in both alleles die within the first month. Those that survive develop a hypochondroplasia-like dwarfism, characterized by shortened growth plates and kyphosis. Expression of ATF-2 within the growth plate is limited to the resting and proliferating zones. We have previously shown that ATF-2 targets the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoters of cyclin A and cyclin D1 in growth plate chondrocytes to activate their expression. Here, we demonstrate that Bcl-2, a cell death inhibitor that regulates apoptosis, is expressed within the growth plate in proliferative and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. However, Bcl-2 expression declines in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The Bcl-2 promoter contains a CRE at -1,552 bp upstream of the translation start. Mutations within this CRE cause reduced Bcl-2 promoter activity. We show here that the absence of ATF-2 in growth plate chondrocytes corresponds to a decline in Bcl-2 promoter activity, as well as a reduction in Bcl-2 protein levels. In addition, we show that ATF-2 as well as CREB, a transcription factor that can heterodimerize with ATF-2, bind to the CRE within the Bcl-2 promoter. These data identify the Bcl-2 gene as a novel target of ATF-2 and CREB in growth plate chondrocytes. PMID:17219413

  16. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  17. 1. Emergency Management Plan ACTIVE SHOOTER RESPONSE

    E-print Network

    cell phone when semester starts ­ Inside.mines.edu ­ Updating our system ­ Update information a lockdown or evacuation. #12;What is an Active Shooter? Suspect(s) activity is immediately causing death to the following response actions, including: EVACUATE (RUN)EVACUATE (RUN)EVACUATE (RUN)EVACUATE (RUN

  18. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Fujioka, Hitomi; Kimura, Fukuko; Akema, Tatsuo; Funabashi, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation), gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol), and diet (i.e., western-style diet) vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day), but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females. PMID:25870535

  19. Comparison of cellular responses induced by low level light in different cell types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Wu, Qiuhe; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    Discoveries are rapidly being made in multiple laboratories that shed "light" on the fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the use of low level light therapy (LLLT) in vitro, in animal models and in clinical practice. Increases in cellular levels of respiration, in cytochrome c oxidase activity, in ATP levels and in cyclic AMP have been found. Increased expression of reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide have also been shown. In order for these molecular changes to have a major effect on cell behavior, it is likely that various transcription factors will be activated, possibly via different signal transduction pathways. In this report we compare and contrast the effects of LLLT in vitro on murine embryonic fibroblasts, primary cortical neurons, cardiomyocytes and bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. We also examined two human cell lines, HeLa cancer cells and HaCaT keratinocytes. The effects of 810-nm near-infra-red light delivered at low and high fluences were addressed. Reactive oxygen species generation, transcription factor activation and ATP increases are reported. The data has led to the hypothesis that cells with a high level of mitochondrial activity (mitochondrial membrane potential) have a higher response to light than cells with low mitochondrial activity.

  20. Active flutter and gust response control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oli, Muluneh

    1990-01-01

    After a short recall concerning the aeroelastic equations, active control law based on optimal stochastic control theory is synthesized for a wing flutter and gust response. Robustness of the control system due to structured and unstructured uncertainties is considered. Robustness recovery technique is applied to improve the stability margin.

  1. Effect of captopril on ocular irritative response to topical neutral formaldehyde and YAG-laser capsulotomy in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Krootila, K; Oksala, O; Von Dickhoff, K; Palkama, A; Uusitalo, H

    1995-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) -inhibitors inhibit degradation of inflammatory mediators substance P (SP) and bradykinin, which may further stimulate the synthesis of prostaglandins. The resulting increase in inflammatory mediators in tissues is suggested to be the reason for the dry cough, involving sensory C-fiber activation, among patients receiving ACE-inhibitor therapy. In the present study, the effect of an ACE-inhibitor, captopril, on ocular irritative responses was studied in the rabbit. Intravenous captopril decreased markedly the blood pressure and the intraocular pressure (IOP) modestly. Topical neutral formaldehyde elicits an irritative response in the eye mediated through sensory neuropeptides SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Following topical neutral formaldehyde, the increase in IOP and breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier were inhibited by captopril, while miosis was not affected. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) content in the aqueous humour was increased by captopril, and this increase was inhibited by indomethacin. Following YAG-laser anterior capsulotomy, captopril inhibited the increase in IOP, breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier and miosis. The present study demonstrates that use of short-term administration of captopril prior to sensory nerve stimulation or YAG laser anterior capsulotomy does not enhance the ocular responses to these stimuli in the rabbit. In the present study, captopril inhibited these responses, at least partly by decreasing the blood pressure. PMID:8590256

  2. L E T T E R S AKAP-Lbc enhances cyclic AMP control of the ERK1/2

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    -kinase-anchoring protein AKAP-Lbc and the scaffolding protein kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR-1) form the core (Epacs) for the Ras-like small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2 (refs 10, 11). As A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs and John D. Scott1,5 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades propagate a variety of cellular

  3. Boron and silicon: Effects on growth, plasma lipids, urinary cyclic AMP and bone and brain mineral composition of male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborn, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H. . Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    Because boron resembles silicon in its chemical properties, an experiment was performed to determine if excessive dietary boron would affect the response to silicon deprivation and, conversely, if silicon would influence the effects of an excessive intake of boron. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups of 6 or 12 in a two-by-two factorially arranged experiment. Supplemented to a ground corn/casein diet containing 1.2 [mu]g silicon and 3 [mu]g boron per gram were silicon as sodium metasilicate at 0 or 50 [mu]g/g and boron as orthoboric acid at 0 or 500 [mu]g/g diet. At nine weeks, animals fed high dietary boron had significantly decreased final body weights, liver-weight-to-body-weight ratios, urinary cAMP concentrations, plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, glycine, valine, leucine, and lysine concentrations and skull copper, sodium, and manganese concentrations. High dietary boron also significantly increased brain-weight-to-body-weight ratios, magnesium concentrations of femur, brain, and plasma, zinc concentration of femur, and iron concentration of skull. The bone mineral findings suggest that excess dietary boron exerts subtle effects on bone composition. Dietary silicon affected blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the concentrations of plasma threonine and aspartic acid in animals fed excess boron. Depression of the testes-weight-to-body-weight ratio of animals fed 500 [mu]g boron per gram diet was most marked in animals not fed silicon. Although excessive dietary boron did not markedly enhanced the response of rats to silicon deprivation, dietary silicon affected their response to high dietary boron. Thus, dietary silicon apparently can influence boron toxicity.

  4. Identification and Functional Characterization of Rca1, a Transcription Factor Involved in both Antifungal Susceptibility and Host Response in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Pradervand, Sylvain; Ischer, Françoise; Coste, Alix T.; Ferrari, Sélène; Harshman, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The identification of novel transcription factors associated with antifungal response may allow the discovery of fungus-specific targets for new therapeutic strategies. A collection of 241 Candida albicans transcriptional regulator mutants was screened for altered susceptibility to fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine. Thirteen of these mutants not yet identified in terms of their role in antifungal response were further investigated, and the function of one of them, a mutant of orf19.6102 (RCA1), was characterized by transcriptome analysis. Strand-specific RNA sequencing and phenotypic tests assigned Rca1 as the regulator of hyphal formation through the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathway and the transcription factor Efg1, but also probably through its interaction with a transcriptional repressor, most likely Tup1. The mechanisms responsible for the high level of resistance to caspofungin and fluconazole observed resulting from RCA1 deletion were investigated. From our observations, we propose that caspofungin resistance was the consequence of the deregulation of cell wall gene expression and that fluconazole resistance was linked to the modulation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our large-scale screening of a C. albicans transcription factor mutant collection allowed the identification of new effectors of the response to antifungals. The functional characterization of Rca1 assigned this transcription factor and its downstream targets as promising candidates for the development of new therapeutic strategies, as Rca1 influences host sensing, hyphal development, and antifungal response. PMID:22581526

  5. Schistosoma mansoni activates host microvascular endothelial cells to acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Trottein, F; Descamps, L; Nutten, S; Dehouck, M P; Angeli, V; Capron, A; Cecchelli, R; Capron, M

    1999-07-01

    Since endothelial cells (ECs) play a key role in immune defense mechanisms and in immunopathology, we investigated whether the intravascular helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni could interact with and activate resting ECs in vitro. Microscopic analysis revealed that the lung-stage schistosomula specifically attached to microvascular ECs. This adherence was associated to active cellular processes involving actin filament formation. Since variation of permeability of cultured capillary brain ECs is a good marker for endothelial activation, the transendothelial passage of a low-molecular-weight molecule (inulin) on monolayers of bovine brain capillary ECs (BBCEC) was measured in response to parasites. Schistosomula induced a dramatic decrease in transendothelial permeability, a characteristic marker for the generation of an anti-inflammatory phenotype to ECs. This paracellular barrier enhancing effect on endothelial monolayers was due to a soluble substance(s) (below 1 kDa in size) secreted from S. mansoni schistosomula and not by mechanisms associated to adherence between parasites and ECs. The reinforcement of the endothelial barrier function was accompanied by an elevation of intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP). The use of specific kinase inhibitors confirms that schistosomula activate ECs through a cAMP/protein kinase A pathway that leads to an increased phosphorylation of the myosin light-chain kinase. These combined findings suggest that the secretory/excretory products from schistosomula possess anti-inflammatory factor(s) that signal host microvascular endothelium. The immunological consequences of such activation are discussed. PMID:10377119

  6. Schistosoma mansoni Activates Host Microvascular Endothelial Cells To Acquire an Anti-Inflammatory Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Trottein, Francois; Descamps, Laurence; Nutten, Sophie; Dehouck, Marie-Pierre; Angeli, Veronique; Capron, Andre; Cecchelli, Romeo; Capron, Monique

    1999-01-01

    Since endothelial cells (ECs) play a key role in immune defense mechanisms and in immunopathology, we investigated whether the intravascular helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni could interact with and activate resting ECs in vitro. Microscopic analysis revealed that the lung-stage schistosomula specifically attached to microvascular ECs. This adherence was associated to active cellular processes involving actin filament formation. Since variation of permeability of cultured capillary brain ECs is a good marker for endothelial activation, the transendothelial passage of a low-molecular-weight molecule (inulin) on monolayers of bovine brain capillary ECs (BBCEC) was measured in response to parasites. Schistosomula induced a dramatic decrease in transendothelial permeability, a characteristic marker for the generation of an anti-inflammatory phenotype to ECs. This paracellular barrier enhancing effect on endothelial monolayers was due to a soluble substance(s) (below 1 kDa in size) secreted from S. mansoni schistosomula and not by mechanisms associated to adherence between parasites and ECs. The reinforcement of the endothelial barrier function was accompanied by an elevation of intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP). The use of specific kinase inhibitors confirms that schistosomula activate ECs through a cAMP/protein kinase A pathway that leads to an increased phosphorylation of the myosin light-chain kinase. These combined findings suggest that the secretory/excretory products from schistosomula possess anti-inflammatory factor(s) that signal host microvascular endothelium. The immunological consequences of such activation are discussed. PMID:10377119

  7. Gating of heteromeric retinal rod channels by cyclic AMP: role of the C-terminal and pore domains.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Nelly; Ildefonse, Michèle; Pagès, Frédérique; Ragno, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels are tetramers composed of homologous alpha and beta subunits. C-terminal truncation mutants of the alpha and beta subunits of the retinal rod channel were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and analyzed for cGMP- and cAMP-induced currents (single-channel records and macroscopic currents). When the alpha subunit truncated downstream of the cGMP-binding site (alpha D608stop) is co-injected with truncated beta subunits, the heteromeric channels present a drastic increase of cAMP sensitivity. A partial effect is observed with heteromeric alpha R656stop-containing channels, while alpha K665stop-containing channels behave like alpha wt/beta wt. The three truncated alpha subunits have wild-type activity when expressed alone. Heteromeric channels composed of alpha wt or truncated alpha subunits and chimeric beta subunits containing the pore domain of the alpha subunit have the same cAMP sensitivity as alpha-only channels. The results disclose the key role of two domains distinct from the nucleotide binding site in the gating of heteromeric channels by cAMP: the pore of the beta subunit, which has an activating effect, and a conserved domain situated downstream of the cGMP-binding site in the alpha subunit (I609-K665), which inhibits this effect. PMID:12124274

  8. Strain activation of bovine aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and alignment: study of strain dependency and the role of protein kinase A and C signaling pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, I.; Cohen, C. R.; Kamal, K.; Li, G.; Shin, T.; Du, W.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype can be altered by physical forces as demonstrated by cyclic strain-induced changes in proliferation, orientation, and secretion of macromolecules. However, the magnitude of strain required and the intracellular coupling pathways remain ill defined. To examine the strain requirements for SMC proliferation, we selectively seeded bovine aortic SMC either on the center or periphery of silastic membranes which were deformed with 150 mm Hg vacuum (0-7% center; 7-24% periphery). SMC located in either the center or peripheral regions showed enhanced proliferation compared to cells grown under the absence of cyclic strain. Moreover, SMC located in the center region demonstrated significantly (P < 0.005) greater proliferation as compared to those in the periphery. In contrast, SMC exposed to high strain (7-24%) demonstrated alignment perpendicular to the strain gradient, whereas SMC in the center (0-7%) remained aligned randomly. To determine the mechanisms of these phenomena, we examined the effect of cyclic strain on bovine aortic SMC signaling pathways. We observed strain-induced stimulation of the cyclic AMP pathway including adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic AMP accumulation. In addition, exposure of SMC to cyclic strain caused a significant increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity and enzyme translocation from the cytosol to a particulate fraction. Further study was conducted to examine the effect of strain magnitude on signaling, particularly protein kinase A (PKA) activity as well as cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein levels. We observed significantly (P < 0.05) greater PKA activity and CRE binding protein levels in SMC located in the center as compared to the peripheral region. However, inhibition of PKA (with 10 microM Rp-cAMP) or PKC (with 5-20 ng/ml staurosporine) failed to alter either the strain-induced increase in SMC proliferation or alignment. These data characterize the strain determinants for activation of SMC proliferation and alignment. Although strain activated both the AC/cAMP/PKA and the PKC pathways in SMC, singular inhibition of PKA and PKC failed to prevent strain-induced alignment and proliferation, suggesting either their lack of involvement or the multifactorial nature of these responses.

  9. Transcriptional Activation by NF-?B Requires Multiple Coactivators

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Kelly-Ann; Rose, David W.; Haque, Zaffar K.; Kurokawa, Riki; McInerney, Eileen; Westin, Stefan; Thanos, Dimitris; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Glass, Christopher K.; Collins, Tucker

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in inflammation and cell survival. In this report we demonstrate that NF-?B recruits a coactivator complex that has striking similarities to that recruited by nuclear receptors. Inactivation of either cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP), members of the p160 family of coactivators, or the CBP-associated factor (p/CAF) by nuclear antibody microinjection prevents NF-?B-dependent transactivation. Like nuclear receptor-dependent gene expression, NF-?B-dependent gene expression requires specific LXXLL motifs in one of the p160 family members, and enhancement of NF-?B activity requires the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p/CAF but not that of CBP. This coactivator complex is differentially recruited by members of the Rel family. The p50 homodimer fails to recruit coactivators, although the p50-p65 heterodimeric form of the transcription factor assembles the integrator complex. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into how this family of dimeric transcription factors has a differential effect on gene expression. PMID:10454583

  10. Regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by extracellular pyrophosphate homeostasis: synergistic modulation by cyclic AMP and hyperphosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Prosdocimo, Domenick A.; Wyler, Steven C.; Romani, Andrea M.; O'Neill, W. Charles

    2010-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a multifaceted process involving gain of calcification inducers and loss of calcification inhibitors. One such inhibitor is inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and regulated generation and homeostasis of extracellular PPi is a critical determinant of soft-tissue mineralization. We recently described an autocrine mechanism of extracellular PPi generation in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that involves both ATP release coupled to the ectophosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase ENPP1 and efflux of intracellular PPi mediated or regulated by the plasma membrane protein ANK. We now report that increased cAMP signaling and elevated extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) act synergistically to induce calcification of these VSMC that is correlated with progressive reduction in ability to accumulate extracellular PPi. Attenuated PPi accumulation was mediated in part by cAMP-dependent decrease in ANK expression coordinated with cAMP-dependent increase in expression of TNAP, the tissue nonselective alkaline phosphatase that degrades PPi. Stimulation of cAMP signaling did not alter ATP release or ENPP1 expression, and the cAMP-induced changes in ANK and TNAP expression were not sufficient to induce calcification. Elevated extracellular Pi alone elicited only minor calcification and no significant changes in ANK, TNAP, or ENPP1. In contrast, combined with a cAMP stimulus, elevated Pi induced decreases in the ATP release pathway(s) that supports ENPP1 activity; this resulted in markedly reduced rates of PPi accumulation that facilitated robust calcification. Calcified VSMC were characterized by maintained expression of multiple SMC differentiation marker proteins including smooth muscle (SM) ?-actin, SM22?, and calponin. Notably, addition of exogenous ATP (or PPi per se) rescued cAMP + phosphate-treated VSMC cultures from progression to the calcified state. These observations support a model in which extracellular PPi generation mediated by both ANK- and ATP release-dependent mechanisms serves as a critical regulator of VSMC calcification. PMID:20018951

  11. PAC1hop, null and hip receptors mediate differential signaling through cyclic AMP and calcium leading to splice variant-specific gene induction in neural cells

    PubMed Central

    Holighaus, Yvonne; Mustafa, Tomris; Eiden, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-mediated activation of its G protein-coupled receptor PAC1 results in activation of the two G proteins Gs and Gq to alter second messenger generation and gene transcription in the nervous system, important for homeostatic responses to stress and injury. Heterologous expression of the three major splice variants of the rat PAC1 receptor, PAC1hop, null and hip, in neural NG108-15 cells conferred PACAP-mediated intracellular cAMP generation, while elevation of [Ca2+]i occurred only in PAC1hop-, and to a lesser extent in PAC1null-expressing cells. Induction of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and stanniocalcin 1 (STC1), two genes potentially involved in PACAP’s homeostatic responses, was examined as a function of the expressed PAC1 variant. VIP induction was greatest in PAC1hop-expressing cells, suggesting that a maximal transcriptional response requires combinatorial signaling through both cAMP and Ca2+. STC1 induction was similar for all three receptor splice variants and was mimicked by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, indicating that cAMP elevation is sufficient to induce STC1. The degree of activation of two different second messenger pathways appears to determine the transcriptional response, suggesting that cellular responses to stressors are fine-tuned through differential receptor isoform expression. Signaling to the VIP gene proceeded through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) in these cells, independently of the MAP kinase ERK1/2. STC1 gene induction by PACAP was dependent on cAMP and ERK1/2, independently of PKA. Differential gene induction via different cAMP dependent signaling pathways potentially provides further targets for the design of treatments for stress-associated disorders. PMID:21693142

  12. The phospholipase B homolog Plb1 is a mediator of osmotic stress response and of nutrient-dependent repression of sexual differentiation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Yang, P.; Du, H.; Hoffman, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Although phospholipase B (PLB) enzymes have been described in eukaryotes from yeasts to mammals, their biological functions are poorly understood. Here we describe the characterization of plb1, one of five genes predicted to encode PLB homologs in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The plb1 gene is dispensable under normal growth conditions but required for viability in high-osmolarity media and for normal osmotic stress-induced gene expression. Unlike mutants defective in function for the stress-activated MAP kinase Spc1, plb1? cells are not hypersensitive to oxidative or temperature stresses, nor do they undergo a G2-specific arrest in response to osmotic stress. In addition to defects in osmotic stress response, plb1? cells exhibit a cold-sensitive defect in nutrient-mediated mating repression, a phenotype reminiscent of mutants in the cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway. We show that, like plb1? cells, mutants in the cAMP pathway are defective for growth in high-osmolarity media, demonstrating a previously unrecognized role for the cAMP pathway in osmotic stress response. Furthermore, we show that gain-of function in the cAMP pathway can rescue the osmosensitive growth defect of plb1? cells, suggesting that the cAMP pathway is a potential downstream target of the actions of Plb1 in S. pombe. PMID:12715160

  13. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK). Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress. PMID:26649137

  14. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK). Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress. PMID:26649137

  15. Identification and functional characterisation of the cellular activating transcription factor 43 (ATF-43) protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, H C; Totty, N F; Jones, N C

    1991-01-01

    The promoter motif CGTCA binds multiple cellular factors that mediate a variety of inducible events, including positive responses to raised cellular levels of cAMP and to the Adenovirus E1a protein. To date, at least ten mammalian cDNA clones have been isolated that encode distinct proteins capable of binding to this motif. However, in most cases the precise stimuli that may regulate these different factors have yet to be determined. We have previously shown that the abundant Hela protein ATF-43 forms a complex in vivo with the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). In this report we definitively show that ATF-43 is the product of the two published cDNA clones, ATF1 and TREB 36. We confirm that ATF1 efficiently heterodimerises with CREB and demonstrate that even though ATF1 and CREB homodimers, as well as the ATF1/CREB heterodimer efficiently bind to the CGTCA motif, the resulting DNA-protein complexes have significantly different stabilities. A region outside the DNA binding domain of ATF1 contributes to the instability of its interaction with DNA. We further show that despite ATF1's homology to CREB, it responds poorly to activation by protein kinase A. In light of our finding that in Hela cells the majority of CREB protein is heterodimerised with ATF1, we speculate on the functional significance of such heterodimers. Images PMID:1653949

  16. Combinatorial regulation of a signal-dependent activator by phosphorylation and acetylation.

    PubMed

    Paz, Jose C; Park, Sangho; Phillips, Naomi; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Tsai, Wen-Wei; Kasper, Lawryn; Brindle, Paul K; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Wright, Peter E; Montminy, Marc

    2014-12-01

    In the fasted state, increases in catecholamine signaling promote adipocyte function via the protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). CREB activity is further up-regulated in obesity, despite reductions in catecholamine signaling, where it contributes to the development of insulin resistance. Here we show that obesity promotes the CREB binding protein (CBP)-mediated acetylation of CREB at Lys136 in adipose. Under lean conditions, CREB acetylation was low due to an association with the energy-sensing NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SirT1; amounts of acetylated CREB were increased in obesity, when SirT1 undergoes proteolytic degradation. Whereas CREB phosphorylation stimulated an association with the KIX domain of CBP, Lys136 acetylation triggered an interaction with the CBP bromodomain (BRD) that augmented recruitment of this coactivator to the promoter. Indeed, coincident Ser133 phosphorylation and Lys136 acetylation of CREB stimulated the formation of a ternary complex with the KIX and BRD domains of CBP by NMR analysis. As disruption of the CREB:BRD complex with a CBP-specific BRD inhibitor blocked effects of CREB acetylation on target gene expression, our results demonstrate how changes in nutrient status modulate cellular gene expression in response to hormonal signals. PMID:25404345

  17. The serotonergic anxiolytic buspirone attenuates circadian responses to light.

    PubMed

    Smith, Victoria M; Iannatonne, Stephanie; Achal, Sanjay; Jeffers, Ryan T; Antle, Michael C

    2014-11-01

    Serotonergic drugs modify circadian responses to light, with agonists attenuating and some partial agonists or antagonists potentiating photic phase shifts. The anxiolytic buspirone is a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist. Given that buspirone is used therapeutically to manage generalised anxiety disorder, it would be useful to understand if and how this drug may modify circadian responses to light, not only to help manage side effects, but also to examine its potential use as a chronobiotic. Here we examined behavioral and molecular responses to phase-shifting light in mice and hamsters treated with buspirone. Phase advances to late subjective night light pulses in hamsters and wildtype mice were significantly attenuated by buspirone. 5-HT1A receptor knockout mice exhibited potentiated photic phase shifts when pretreated with buspirone. In wildtype mice, the attenuated phase shifts were accompanied by increased cFos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, whereas potentiated phase shifts in knockouts were accompanied by increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and decreased cFos expression. Attenuated photic phase shifts in buspirone-treated hamsters were accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of ERK and CREB. Chronic buspirone treatment decreased the amplitude of wheel-running rhythms, lengthened the duration of the active phase and advanced the phase angle of entrainment. Buspirone administration at midday produced non-photic phase advances in wildtype but not 5-HT1A receptor knockout mice. These findings suggest that buspirone affected the circadian system in a manner similar to the 5-HT1A/7 agonist (±)-8-Hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide, primarily through the 5-HT1A receptor, and suggest that therapeutic use of buspirone to manage anxiety may impact circadian function. PMID:25195769

  18. Diverse signaling systems activated by the sweet taste receptor in human GLP-1-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Takeda, Shigeki; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Kojima, Itaru

    2014-08-25

    Sweet taste receptor regulates GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine L-cells. We investigated the signaling system activated by this receptor using Hutu-80 cells. We stimulated them with sucralose, saccharin, acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin. These sweeteners stimulated GLP-1 secretion, which was attenuated by lactisole. All these sweeteners elevated cytoplasmic cyclic AMP ([cAMP]c) whereas only sucralose and saccharin induced a monophasic increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]c). Removal of extracellular calcium or sodium and addition of a Gq/11 inhibitor greatly reduced the [Ca(2+)]c responses to two sweeteners. In contrast, acesulfame K induced rapid and sustained reduction of [Ca(2+)]c. In addition, glycyrrhizin first reduced [Ca(2+)]c which was followed by an elevation of [Ca(2+)]c. Reductions of [Ca(2+)]c induced by acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin were attenuated by a calmodulin inhibitor or by knockdown of the plasma membrane calcium pump. These results indicate that various sweet molecules act as biased agonists and evoke strikingly different patterns of intracellular signals. PMID:25017733

  19. Control of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels by depolarizing agents in fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Trevillyan, J M; Pall, M L

    1979-01-01

    It has been reported that diverse treatments which depolarize the plasma membrane of Neurospora crassa produce rapid increases in cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels. In the current study, membrane active antibiotics, which are known or putative depolarizing agents, were found to produce similar cyclic AMP increases, not only in N. crassa, but also in the distantly related fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mucor racemosus. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, which have been found to depolarize Neurospora, also produced cyclic AMP increases in all three fungi. The time course of the cyclic AMP response to these various treatments was similar in all three fungi. The fungal studies and studies on depolarized central nervous tissue suggest that cyclic AMP increases may be produced in response to plasma membrane depolarization in diverse eucaryotic cells. A model is proposed for eucaryotic microorganisms in which membrane depolarization serves as a signal of breakdown of the plasma membrane integrity. The subsequent cyclic AMP increase, in turn, may mediate cellular response to help protect the plasma membrane from chemical and mechanical threats to its integrity. PMID:220213

  20. Cyclic AMP regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone. cap alpha. -subunit gene is mediated by an 18-base-pair element

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, B.J.; Bokar, J.A.; Virgin, J.B.; Vallen, E.A.; Milsted, A.; Nilson, J.H.

    1987-04-01

    cAMP regulates transcription of the gene encoding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the choriocarcinoma cells (BeWo). To define the sequences required for regulation by cAMP, the authors inserted fragments from the 5' flanking region of the ..cap alpha..-subunit gene into a test vector containing the simian virus 40 early promoter (devoid of its enhancer) linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Results from transient expression assays in BeWo cells indicated that a 1500-base-pair (bp) fragment conferred cAMP responsiveness on the CAT gene regardless of position or orientation of the insert relative to the viral promoter. A subfragment extending from position -169 to position -100 had the same effect on cAMP-induced expression. Furthermore, the entire stimulatory effect could be achieved with an 18-bp synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to a direct repeat between position -146 and -111. In the absence of cAMP, the ..cap alpha..-subunit 5' flanking sequence also enhanced transcription from the simian virus 40 early promoter. They localized this enhancer activity to the same -169/-100 fragment containing the cAMP response element. The 18-bp element alone, however, had no effect on basal expression. Thus, this short DNA sequence serves as a cAMP response element and also functions independently of other promoter-regulatory elements located in the 5' flanking sequence of the ..cap alpha..-subunit gene.

  1. Multiple signaling pathways are responsible for prostaglandin E2-induced murine keratinocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Kausar M.; Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Although prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown by pharmacological and genetic studies to be important in skin cancer, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it contributes to tumor growth is not well understood. In this study we investigated the mechanisms by which PGE2 stimulates murine keratinocyte proliferation using in vitro and in vivo models. In primary mouse keratinocyte (PMK) cultures, PGE2 activated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling pathways as well as increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and activated the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). EGFR activation was not significantly inhibited by pretreatment with a c-src inhibitor (PP2), nor by a protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89). However, PGE2-stimulated extracellularly-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was completely blocked by EGFR, ERK1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway inhibitors. In addition, these inhibitors attenuated the PGE2-induced proliferation, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and CREB binding to the promoter regions of the cyclin D1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes and expression of cyclin D1 and VEGF in PMKs. Similarly, in vivo, we found that wild type (WT) mice treated with PGE2 and untreated COX-2 overexpressing transgenic mice had higher levels of cell proliferation and expression of cyclin D1 and VEGF, as well as higher levels of activated EGFR, NF-?B, AP-1 and CREB, than vehicle-treated WT mice. Our findings provide evidence for a link between COX-2 overexpression and EGFR-, ERK-, PI3-K-, cAMP-mediated cell proliferation, and the tumor promoting activity of PGE2 in mouse skin. PMID:18567804

  2. Helping Your Child Learn Responsible Behavior (with Activities for Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Edwin J.; Delattre, Alice B.

    This generously illustrated booklet offers practical suggestions for helping young children appreciate the importance of acting responsibly in their everyday lives, and provides ideas and activities for parents to help encourage responsible behavior in their children. After defining responsible behavior and suggesting how parents can encourage it,…

  3. A PKA activity sensor for quantitative analysis of endogenous GPCR signaling via 2-photon FRET-FLIM imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Saulnier, Jessica L.; Yellen, Gary; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulators have profound effects on behavior, but the dynamics of their intracellular effectors has remained unclear. Most neuromodulators exert their function via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One major challenge for understanding neuromodulator action is the lack of dynamic readouts of the biochemical signals produced by GPCR activation. The adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) module is a central component of such biochemical signaling. This module is regulated by several behaviorally important neuromodulator receptors. Furthermore, PKA activity is necessary for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. In order to monitor PKA activity in brain tissue, we have developed a 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2pFLIM) compatible PKA sensor termed FLIM-AKAR, which is based on the ratiometric FRET sensor AKAR3. FLIM-AKAR shows a large dynamic range and little pH sensitivity. In addition, it is a rapidly diffusible cytoplasmic protein that specifically reports net PKA activity in situ. FLIM-AKAR expresses robustly in various brain regions with multiple transfection methods, can be targeted to genetically identified cell types, and responds to activation of both endogenous GPCRs and spatial-temporally specific delivery of glutamate. Initial experiments reveal differential regulation of PKA activity across subcellular compartments in response to neuromodulator inputs. Therefore, the reporter FLIM-AKAR, coupled with 2pFLIM, enables the study of PKA activity in response to neuromodulator inputs in genetically identified neurons in the brain, and sheds light on the intracellular dynamics of endogenous GPCR activation. PMID:24765076

  4. Induction of 5-deiodinase activity in astroglial cells by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and fibroblast growth factors.

    PubMed

    Courtin, F; Liva, P; Gavaret, J M; Toru-Delbauffe, D; Pierre, M

    1991-04-01

    In the brain, 5'-deiodinase (5'-D) is responsible for the metabolic activation of thyroxine (T4) into 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and 5-deiodinase (5-D) deiodinates T4 and T3 into inactive metabolites. This study examines the effects of factors known to induce astroglial 5'-D activity on the 5-D activity in cultured rat astroglial cells. The potencies of these factors were compared after 8 h of incubation, when stimulations by these factors near their maximal effects. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) at 10(-7) M was a potent inducer of 5-D activity, producing a 30- to 80-fold increase after 8 h. The maximal effect of TPA was observed after about 14 h. The TPA stimulation of 5-D activity was not dependent on glucocorticoids, unlike 5'-D activity. In comparison with TPA, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (10(-3) M) was a poor inducer of 5-D activity whereas it is an excellent inducer of 5'-D activity. It produced a 2- to 20-fold increase in 5-D activity after 8 h. Natural acidic fibroblast growth factor (20 ng/ml) produced a degree of stimulation similar to that of TPA after 8 h. The maximal effect of acidic fibroblast growth factor was observed after about 16 h (until a 120-fold increase). Recombinant acidic fibroblast growth factor also induced 5-D activity. Basic fibroblast growth factor was less potent than acidic fibroblast growth factor for increasing 5-D activity (maximal increase by 40- to 50-fold after 8 h).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2002332

  5. Heterozygous mutations in cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D) and protein kinase A (PKA) provide new insights into the molecular pathology of acrodysostosis.

    PubMed

    Kaname, Tadashi; Ki, Chang-Seok; Niikawa, Norio; Baillie, George S; Day, Jonathan P; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Ohta, Tohru; Nishimura, Gen; Mastuura, Nobuo; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Sohn, Young Bae; Kim, Hyun Woo; Cho, Sung Yoon; Ko, Ah-Ra; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Hyun Wook; Ryu, Sung Ho; Rhee, Hwanseok; Yang, Kap-Seok; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung; Kim, Chi Hwa; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Dongsan; Yanagi, Kumiko; Naritomi, Kenji; Yoshiura, Ko-Ichiro; Kondoh, Tatsuro; Nii, Eiji; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Houslay, Miles D; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Acrodysostosis without hormone resistance is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by brachydactyly, nasal hypoplasia, mental retardation and occasionally developmental delay. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D) have been reported to cause this rare condition but the pathomechanism has not been fully elucidated. To understand the pathogenetic mechanism of PDE4D mutations, we conducted 3D modeling studies to predict changes in the binding efficacy of cAMP to the catalytic pocket in PDE4D mutants. Our results indicated diminished enzyme activity in the two mutants we analyzed (Gly673Asp and Ile678Thr; based on PDE4D4 residue numbering). Ectopic expression of PDE4D mutants in HEK293 cells demonstrated this reduction in activity, which was identified by increased cAMP levels. However, the cells from an acrodysostosis patient showed low cAMP accumulation, which resulted in a decrease in the phosphorylated cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein (pCREB)/CREB ratio. The reason for this discrepancy was due to a compensatory increase in expression levels of PDE4A and PDE4B isoforms, which accounted for the paradoxical decrease in cAMP levels in the patient cells expressing mutant isoforms with a lowered PDE4D activity. Skeletal radiographs of 10-week-old knockout (KO) rats showed that the distal part of the forelimb was shorter than in wild-type (WT) rats and that all the metacarpals and phalanges were also shorter in KO, as the name acrodysostosis implies. Like the G-protein ?-stimulatory subunit and PRKAR1A, PDE4D critically regulates the cAMP signal transduction pathway and influences bone formation in a way that activity-compromising PDE4D mutations can result in skeletal dysplasia. We propose that specific inhibitory PDE4D mutations can lead to the molecular pathology of acrodysostosis without hormone resistance but that the pathological phenotype may well be dependent on an over-compensatory induction of other PDE4 isoforms that can be expected to be targeted to different signaling complexes and exert distinct effects on compartmentalized cAMP signaling. PMID:25064455

  6. Solar activity, the QBO, and tropospheric responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, Brian A.; Brown, Geoffrey M.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    1989-01-01

    The suggestion that galactic cosmic rays (GCR) as modulated by the solar wind are the carriers of the component of solar variability that affects weather and climate has been discussed in the literature for 30 years, and there is now a considerable body of evidence that supports it. Variations of GCR occur with the 11 year solar cycle, matching the time scale of recent results for atmospheric variations, as modulated by the quasibiennial oscillation of equatorial stratospheric winds (the QBO). Variations in GCR occur on the time scale of centuries with a well defined peak in the coldest decade of the little ice age. New evidence is presented on the meteorological responses to GCR variations on the time scale of a few days. These responses include changes in the vertical temperature profile in the troposphere and lower stratosphere in the two days following solar flare related high speed plasma streams and associated GCR decreases, and in decreases in Vorticity Area Index (VAI) following Forbush decreases of GCR. The occurrence of correlations of GCR and meteorological responses on all three time scales strengthens the hypothesis of GCR as carriers of solar variability to the lower atmosphere. Both short and long term tropospheric responses are understandable as changes in the intensity of cyclonic storms initiated by mechanisms involving cloud microphysical and cloud electrification processes, due to changes in local ion production from changes in GCR fluxes and other high energy particles in the MeV to low GeV range. The nature of these mechanisms remains undetermined. Possible stratospheric wind (particularly QBO) effects on the transport of HNO3 and other constituents incorporated in cluster ions and possible condensation and freezing nuclei are considered as relevant to the long term variations.

  7. Differences in Adiposity in Cushing Syndrome Caused by PRKAR1A Mutations: Clues for the Role of Cyclic AMP Signaling in Obesity and Diagnostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rothenbuhler, Anya; Lodish, Maya; Gourgari, Evgenia; Keil, Meg; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; de la Luz Sierra, Maria; Patronas, Nicolas; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The cAMP signaling pathway is implicated in bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias. Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia is often associated with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) and may be caused by mutations in genes such as PRKAR1A, which is responsible for primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PRKAR1A regulates cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), an essential enzyme in the regulation of adiposity. Although CS is invariably associated with obesity, its different forms, including those associated with PKA defects, have not been compared. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotypic and molecular differences in periadrenal adipose tissue (PAT) between patients with CS with and without PRKAR1A mutations. Design and Setting: Samples from adrenalectomies of 51 patients were studied: patients with CS with (n = 13) and without (n = 32) PRKAR1A mutations and a comparison group with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) (n = 6). In addition, clinical data from a larger group of patients with Cushing disease (n = 89) and hyperaldosteronism (n = 26) were used for comparison. Methods: Body mass index (BMI), abdominal computed tomography scans, and cortisol data were collected preoperatively. PAT was assayed for PKA activity, cAMP levels, and PKA subunit expression. Results: BMI was lower in adult patients with CS with PRKAR1A mutations. cAMP and active PKA levels in PAT were elevated in patients with CS with PRKAR1A mutations. Conclusions: Increased PKA signaling in PAT was associated with lower BMI in CS. Differences in fat distribution may contribute to phenotypic differences between patients with CS with and without PRKAR1A mutations. The observed differences are in agreement with the known roles of cAMP signaling in regulating adiposity, but this is the first time that germline defects of PKA are linked to variable obesity phenotypes in humans. PMID:24248186

  8. Cyclic AMP-induced forkhead transcription factor, FKHR, cooperates with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta in differentiating human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Christian, Mark; Zhang, Xiaohui; Schneider-Merck, Tanja; Unterman, Terry G; Gellersen, Birgit; White, John O; Brosens, Jan J

    2002-06-01

    Decidual transformation of human endometrial stromal (ES) cells requires sustained activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. In a search for novel transcriptional mediators of this process, we used differential display PCR analysis of undifferentiated primary ES cells and cells stimulated with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP). We now report on the role of forkhead homologue in rhabdomyosarcoma (FKHR), a recently described member of the forkhead/winged-helix transcription factor family, as a mediator of endometrial differentiation. Sustained 8-Br-cAMP stimulation resulted in the induction and nuclear accumulation of FKHR in differentiating ES cells. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that endometrial stromal expression of FKHR in vivo is confined to decidualizing cells during the late secretory phase of the cycle and coincides with the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta). Reporter gene studies showed that FKHR potently enhances PKA-dependent activation of the tissue-specific decidual prolactin (dPRL) promoter, a major differentiation marker in human ES cells. Transcriptional augmentation by FKHR was effected through functional cooperation with C/EBPbeta and binding to a composite FKHR-C/EBPbeta response unit in the proximal promoter region. Furthermore, FKHR and C/EBPbeta were shown to interact directly in a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay. These results provide the first evidence of regulated expression of FKHR and demonstrate that FKHR has an integral role in PKA-dependent endometrial differentiation through its ability to bind and functionally cooperate with C/EBPbeta. PMID:11893744

  9. Ser203 as well as Ser204 and Ser207 in fifth transmembrane domain of the human ?2-adrenoceptor contributes to agonist binding and receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Taku; Kurose, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    We examined the contribution of Ser203 of the human ?2-adrenoceptor (?2-AR) to the interaction with isoprenaline. The affinity of (?)-isoprenaline was reduced by substitution of an alanine for Ser203, as well as for Ser204 and Ser207. An (?)-isoprenaline derivative with only one hydroxyl group, at the meta-position, showed reduced affinity for wild-type ?2-AR and S207A-?2-AR and even lower affinities for S203A-?2-AR and S204A-?2-AR. By contrast, an (?)-isoprenaline derivative with only a para-hydroxyl group showed reduced affinity for wild-type ?2-AR but the serine to alanine mutations did not cause further decreases. The EC50 value for cyclic AMP generation in response to (?)-isoprenaline was increased, by about 120 fold, for each alanine-substituted ?2-AR mutant. These results suggest that Ser203 of the human ?2-AR is important for both ligand binding and receptor activation. PMID:10510435

  10. Regulation by intracellular Ca sup 2+ and cyclic AMP of the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Yoshihiko Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Medical Science ); Nishida, Eisuke; Sakai, Hikoichi ); Koyasu, Shigeo; Yahara, Ichiro )

    1989-04-01

    Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce formation of ruffling membranes and stimulate the fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. An increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration by treatment with A23187, a calcium ionophore, or an increase in intracellular cAMP level by treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin almost completely inhibited the insulin-, IGF-I-, or EGF-induced formation of ruffling membranes. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} or cAMP concentration also inhibited almost completely the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis elicited by these growth factors. These results suggest that the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis have a common regulatory mechanism involving intracellular concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP. {sup 125}I-EGF binding assays and immunoprecipitation experiments with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that treatment of KB cells with A23187, dibutyryl cAMP, or forskolin did not inhibit the EGF binding to the cells nor subsequent tyrosine autophosphorylation of its receptors. These results indicate that Ca{sup 2+}- and/or cAMP-sensitive intracellular reactions exist downstream from the receptor kinase activation in the process of these early cellular responses.

  11. George Arcement Explains USGS Flood Response Activities

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement explains USGS' activities during the 2011 to WAFB Meteorologist Jay Grymes. USGS has crews measuring streamflow, sediment and water quality throughout South Louisiana, including daily measurements at the Morganza and Bonnet Carre Spillways...

  12. Rotor Flapping Response to Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rotor active control using higher harmonic blade pitch has been proposed as a means to reduce both rotor radiated noise and airframe vibration and to enhance rotor performance. The higher harmonic input, however, can affect rotor thrust and cyclic flapping - the basic trim characteristics of the rotor. Some of the trim changes can negate the active control benefits. For example, wind tunnel test results of a full scale BO-105 rotor with individual-blade control indicate some rotor performance improvements, accompanied with changes in rotor trim, using two-per-rev blade pitch input. The observed performance benefits could therefore be a simple manifestation of the trim change rather than an efficient redistribution of the rotor airloads. More recently, the flight test of the BO-105 helicopter equip,ped with individual-blade-control actuators also reported trim changes whenever the two-per-rev blade pitch for noise reduction was activated. The pilot had to adjust the trim control to maintain the aircraft under a constant flight path. These two cases highlight the, importance of trim considerations in the application of active control to rotorcraft.

  13. Response-restriction analysis: II. Alteration of activity preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Gregory P; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Thompson, Rachel H; Lindberg, Jana S

    2003-01-01

    We used response-restriction (RR) assessments to identify the preferences of 7 individuals with mental retardation for a variety of vocational and leisure activities. We subsequently increased their engagement in nonpreferred activities using several procedures: response restriction per se versus a Premack-type contingency (Study 1), supplemental reinforcement for engagement in target activities (Study 2), and noncontingent pairing of reinforcers with nonpreferred activities (Study 3). Results indicated that preferences are not immutable and can be altered through a variety of relatively benign interventions and that the results of RR assessments may be helpful in determining which types of procedures may be most effective on an individual basis. PMID:12723867

  14. A specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (DDA) and a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (H-89) block the action of equine growth hormone on in vitro maturation of equine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Lorenzo, Pedro Luis; Carneiro, Gustavo Ferrer; Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie; Kastelic, John; Liu, Irwin K M

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were firstly to determine whether the stimulatory function of equine growth hormone (eGH) on equine oocyte maturation in vitro is mediated via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); and secondly if the addition of eGH in vitro influences oocyte nuclear maturation and if this effect is removed when GH inhibitors are added to the culture. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from follicles <25 mm in diameter and randomly allocated as follows: (i) control (no additives); and (ii) 400 ng/ml of eGH. A specific inhibitor against cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (H-89; 10-9, 10-11 or 10-15 M concentration) and a specific adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA; 10-8, 10-10 or 10-14 M concentration) were used to observe whether they could block the eGH effect. After 30 h of in vitro maturation at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 in air, oocytes were stained with 10 ?g/ml of Hoechst to evaluate nuclear status. More mature oocytes (P < 0.05) were detected when COCs were incubated with eGH (29 of 84; 34.5%) than in the control group (18 of 82; 21.9%). The H-89 inhibitor used at a concentration of 10-9 M (4 of 29; 13.8%) decreased (P < 0.05) the number of oocytes reaching nuclear maturation when compared with eGH (11 of 29; 38%). The DDA inhibitor at a concentration of 10-8 M (2 of 27; 7.4%) also reduced (P < 0.05) the number of oocytes reaching maturity when compared with the eGH group (9 of 30; 30%). Results from the present study show that H-89 and DDA can be used in vitro to block the eGH effect on equine oocyte maturation. PMID:25257826

  15. Pythium infection activates conserved plant defense responses in mosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens (P. patens) is a useful model to study abiotic stress responses since it is highly tolerant to drought, salt and osmotic stress. However, little is known about the defense mechanisms activated in this moss after pathogen assault. Here the induction of defense responses...

  16. Changes in cAMP-dependent and Ca2(+)-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase activities in suspension cultures of porcine thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Breton, M F; Haye, B; Denef, J F; Pavlovic-Hournac, M

    1990-07-01

    The morphological and functional characteristics and the activities of cyclic AMP- (PKA I and PKA II) and calcium and phospholipid-dependent (PKC) protein kinases were studied in 2-day-old suspension cultures of porcine thyroid cells and were compared with those in freshly dissociated cells and intact glands. Thyroid cell morphology changed during the 2-day culture in the absence of specific regulators. This is characterized by a loss of cellular polarity, exo- and endocytotic vesicles and membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and an increase in the number of lysosomes, pseudomyelinic structures, lipidic inclusions and free ribosomes. Functional changes are characterized by a progressive decrease in protein iodination and its sensitivity to TSH stimulation. The total PKA activity in the cytosols of these cultures was slightly greater than that of freshly prepared tissue, due to the selective and significant accumulation of PKA I in cultured cells. In the particulate fraction the PKA activity was unchanged. PKC is the major kinase activity in porcine thyroids, and remains so in cultured cells. The slight drop in its activity in cytosols was offset by a significant increase in the particulate fraction, suggesting an intracellular redistribution of this kinase in cultured cells. The PKC activity is also partly activated in both the cytosol and particulate fraction, which results in an increased basal activity. The changes in PKA and PKC activities greatly modified the PKC/PKA ratios in the cytosols and the particulate fractions of cultured cells. These modifications could be partly responsible for the changes in sensitivity of cultured cells to the agents which control their activity. PMID:2170212

  17. Long-term effect of forskolin on the activation of adenylyl cyclase in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    el Jamali, A; Rachdaoui, N; Jacquemin, C; Corrèze, C

    1996-12-01

    Long-term (48-h) forskolin treatment of rat astroglial cells led to a slight decrease (30-40%) in the response to isoproterenol, vasoactive-intestinal peptide, guanyl 5'-(beta gamma-imido)diphosphate, guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) [GTP(S)], and AIF4- in crude membrane fractions. In contrast, the acute stimulatory effect of forskolin was increased by 1.25-1.5-fold. These two opposite effects of forskolin were mediated by a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism. No changes in Gs alpha, Gi alpha, or G beta protein levels could be determined by immunoblotting using specific antisera. No significant differences were observed in the ability of G proteins extracted from control and forskolin-treated cells to reconstitute a full adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes from S49 cyc- cells, lacking Gs alpha protein. Gs alpha proteins were detected in two pools of membranes, one in the heavy sucrose fractions and the other in light sucrose fractions. Forskolin treatment of the cells shifted Gs alpha protein toward the light-density membranes. We did not find any significant change in the distribution of adenylyl cyclase. In contrast to the decreased stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by agonists acting via Gs alpha, observed in the crude membrane fraction, the responses of adenylyl cyclase to forskolin as well as to GTP(S) were increased in the purified plasma membrane fractions. These results may indicate that sensitization of the catalyst appears to be the dominant component in the astroglial cell response to long-term treatment by forskolin. PMID:8931487

  18. Discriminating between latent and active tuberculosis with multiple biomarker responses

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, Marc; Goswami, Neela D.; Owzar, Kouros; Hecker, Emily; Mosher, Ann; Cadogan, Emily; Nahid, Payam; Ferrari, Guido; Stout, Jason E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We sought to identify biomarker responses to tuberculosis specific antigens which could 1) improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection and 2) allow the differentiation of active and latent infections. Seventy subjects with active tuberculosis (N=12), latent tuberculosis (N=32), or no evidence of tuberculosis infection (N=26) were evaluated. We used the Luminex Multiplexed Bead Array platform to simultaneously evaluate 25 biomarkers in the supernatant of whole blood samples following overnight stimulation using the Quantiferon® Gold In-Tube kit. We defined the response to stimulation as the difference (within an individual patient) between the response to the pooled tuberculosis antigens and the negative control. IP-10 response was significantly higher in tuberculosis-infected (active or latent) subjects compared to the uninfected group (p <0.0001). Among the 25 parameters, expression levels of IL-15 and MCP-1 were found to be significantly higher in the active tuberculosis group compared to the latent tuberculosis group (p = 0.0006 and 0.0030, respectively). When combined, IL-15 and MCP-1 accurately identified 83% of active and 88% of latent infections. The combination of IL-15 and MCP-1 responses was accurate in distinguishing persons with active tuberculosis from persons with latent tuberculosis in this study. PMID:21393062

  19. Cholera toxin induces synthesis of phospholipase A2-activating protein.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, J W; Saini, S S; Dickey, W D; Klimpel, G R; Bomalaski, J S; Clark, M A; Xu, X J; Chopra, A K

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of cholera toxin (CT)-stimulated arachidonate metabolism was evaluated. CT caused rapid in vitro synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in murine smooth muscle-like cells (BC3H1), reaching maximal levels within 3 to 4 min. In comparison, cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were unchanged, and addition of dibutyryl cAMP did not affect PGE2 synthesis. CT-induced PGE2 synthesis was prevented by actinomycin D or cycloheximide, indicating a need for de novo protein synthesis. Northern blot analysis of total RNA from BC3H1 cells revealed that exposure to CT resulted in an increase in abundance of mRNA encoding phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-activating protein (PLAP). PLAP is a regulatory protein that increases the enzymatic activity of cellular PLA(2), which in turn causes increased hydrolysis of arachidonate from membrane phospholipids. Furthermore, CT evoked the accumulation of PLAP mRNA in J774 (murine monocyte/macrophage) and Caco-2 (human intestinal epithelial) cells in vitro, but the responses were more delayed than that of BC3H1 cells. A protein band of approximately 35 kDa, which corresponded to the size of PLAP, was observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of Caco-2 cells by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis using affinity-purified antibodies to PLAP synthetic peptides. Synthesis of PLAP protein was increased after 2 h of exposure to CT. Exposure of mouse intestinal loops to either CT or live Salmonella typhimurium for 3 h increased mucosal PLAP mRNA levels. The role of PLAP in CT-induced PGE2 synthesis provides an attractive explanation for the reported suppression of CT-induced intestinal secretion by inhibitors of protein synthesis. PMID:8675318

  20. Participation in Peer Response as Activity: An Examination of Peer Response Stances from an Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Wei; Mitchell, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a case study that examined English as a Second Language students' peer response stances from an activity theory perspective. More specifically, the study was guided by the constructs of activity and motive/object in Leont'ev's theory. Multiple sources of data were collected from two native Spanish-speaking students enrolled in…

  1. An Active Metamaterial Platform for Chiral Responsive Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Lan, Shoufeng; Cui, Yonghao; Rodrigues, Sean P; Liu, Yongmin; Werner, Douglas H; Cai, Wenshan

    2015-08-01

    Chiral-selective non-linear optics and optoelectronic signal generation are demonstrated in an electrically active photonic metamaterial. The metamaterial reveals significant chiroptical responses in both harmonic generation and the photon drag effect, correlated to the resonance behavior in the linear regime. The multifunctional chiral metamaterial with dual electrical and optical functionality enables transduction of chiroptical responses to electrical signals for integrated photonics. PMID:26095640

  2. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Synergize p300 Autoacetylation that Regulates Its Transactivation Activity and Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dongming; Jiang, Yubao; Sang, Nianli

    2015-01-01

    p300/cyclic AMP–responsive element binding protein–binding protein (CBP) are general coactivators for multiple transcription factors involved in various cellular processes. Several highly conserved domains of p300/CBP serve as interacting sites for transcription factors and regulatory proteins. Particularly, the intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and transactivation domains (TAD) play essential roles for their coactivating function. Autoacetylation of p300/CBP is commonly observed in cell-free HAT assays and has been implicated in the regulation of their HAT activity. Here, we show that six lysine-rich regions in several highly conserved functional domains of p300 are targeted by p300HAT for acetylation in cell-free systems. We show that p300 is susceptible to acetylation in cultured tumor cells and that its acetylation status is affected by histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. We further show that either treatment with deacetylase inhibitors or coexpression of Gal4-p300HAT, which alone has no transactivation activity, stimulates the activity of the COOH-terminal TAD of p300 (p300C-TAD). We have defined the minimal p300C-TAD and show that it is sufficient to respond to deacetylase inhibitors and is a substrate for p300HAT. Finally, we show that acetylated p300 possesses enhanced ability to interact with p53. Taken together, our data suggest that acetylation regulates p300C-TAD and that acetylation of p300/CBP may contribute to the dynamic regulation of their complex formation with various interacting partners. PMID:17332356

  3. Baseline Brain Activity Predicts Response to Neuromodulatory Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Sherlin, Leslie H.; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D.; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Design Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Methods Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). Results As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. Conclusions The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. PMID:25287554

  4. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Unveils the Mechanism for the Phosphodiesterase 4B Control of Glucocorticoid Response in B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Rai, Deepak; Aguiar, Ricardo C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Resistance to glucocorticoid (GC) is a significant problem in the clinical management of lymphoid malignancies. Addressing this issue via a mechanistic understanding of relevant signaling pathways is more likely to yield positive outcomes. Experimental Design We used gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), multiple genetic models of gain and loss of function in B-cell lymphoma cell lines, in vitro and in vivo, and primary patient samples to characterize a novel relationship between the cyclic AMP/phosphodiesterase 4B (cAMP/PDE4B), AKT/ mTOR activities, and GC responses. Results Starting from the GSEA, we found that overexpression of the PDE4B in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) impinge on the same genes/pathways that are abnormally active in GC-resistant tumors. We used genetically modified cell lines to show that PDE4B modulates cAMP inhibitory activities toward the AKT/mTOR pathway and defines GC resistance in DLBCL. In agreement with these data, pharmacologic inhibition of PDE4 in a xenograft model of human lymphoma unleashed cAMP effects, inhibited AKT, and restored GC sensitivity. Finally, we used primary DLBCL samples to confirm the clinical relevance and biomarker potential of AKT/mTOR regulation by PDE4B. Conclusions Together, these data mechanistically elucidated how cAMP modulates GC responses in lymphocytes, defined AKT as the principal transducer of the growth inhibitory effects of cAMP in B cells, and allowed the formulation of genomics-guided clinical trials that test the ability of PDE4 inhibitors to restore GC sensitivity and improve the outcome of patients with B-cell malignancies. PMID:21742807

  5. Patterning of sympathetic nerve activity in response to vestibular stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; McAllen, R. M.; Yates, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for the vestibular system in regulation of autonomic outflow during postural adjustments. In the present paper we review evidence for the patterning of sympathetic nerve activity elicited by vestibular stimulation. In response to electrical activation of vestibular afferents, firing of sympathetic nerves located throughout the body is altered. However, activity of the renal nerve is most sensitive to vestibular inputs. In contrast, high-intensity simultaneous activation of cutaneous and muscle inputs elicits equivalent changes in firing of the renal, superior mesenteric and lumbar colonic nerves. Responses of muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) efferents to vestibular stimulation are either inhibitory (Type I) or are comprised of a combination of excitation and inhibition (Type II). Interestingly, single MVC units located in the hindlimb exhibited predominantly Type I responses while those located in the forelimb and face exhibited Type II responses. Furthermore, brachial and femoral arterial blood flows were dissociated in response to vestibular stimulation, such that brachial vascular resistance increased while femoral resistance decreased. These studies demonstrate that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned according to both the anatomical location and innervation target of a particular sympathetic nerve, and can lead to distinct changes in local blood flow.

  6. Transonic calculation of airfoil stability and response with active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, J. T.; Ynag, T. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Transonic aeroelastic stability and response analyses are performed for the MBB A-3 supercritical airfoil. Three degrees of freedom are considered: plunge, pitch, and aileron pitch. The control of airfoil stability and response in transonic flow are studied. Stability analyses are performed using a Pade aeroelastic model based on the use of LTRAN2-NLR transonic small disturbance finite difference computer code. Response analyses are performed by coupling the structural equations of motion to the unsteady aerodynamic forces of LTRAN2-NLR. The focus is on transonic time marching transient response solutions using modal identification to determine stability. Frequency and damping of these modes are directly compared in the complex s-plane with Pade model eigenvalues. Transonic stability and response characteristics of 2-D airfoils are discussed and comparisons are made. Application of the Pade aeroelastic model and time marching analyses to flutter suppression using active controls is demonstrated.

  7. Early effect of BCNU on rat astrocytes. Inhibition of S6 kinase activation by growth factors.

    PubMed

    Pierre, M; Pomerance, M; Gavaret, J M; Mousset, S; Toru-Delbauffe, D; Pierre, J

    1991-07-15

    In primary cultures of astrocytes, methylmethane, 2-N-methyl 9-hydroxy-ellepticinium acetate, ditercalinium, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea and 1,3 bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) blocked to various extents the activation of S6 kinase by acidic fibroblast growth factor and insulin [or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)]. The effects of the most active agent, BCNU, were time and concentration dependent. Pretreatment of cells with 50 microM BCNU for 1 hr completely prevented S6 kinase activation by growth factors for at least 2 days. The S6 kinase activity of unstimulated cells was slightly affected. S6 kinase activation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13 acetate was also strongly impaired by treating cells with BCNU whereas activation by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP was slightly reduced. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and phospholipid and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase were unaffected. BCNU had no direct effect on IGF1 binding to cell surface receptors or on the S6 kinase activity of cell cytosols. PMID:1713461

  8. CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE INDUCTION BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) STIMULATES CREB PHOSPHORYLATION VIA A CALCIUM-DEPENDENT, PKC-INDEPENDENT PATHWAY IN CORTICAL NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254), increases the phosphorylated form of CREB (pCREB), the cAMP-responsive element binding protein. This transcription factor is important in nervous system development and plasticity. Phosphorylation
    of C...

  9. The CREB, ATF-1, and ATF-2 transcription factors from bovine leukemia virus-infected B lymphocytes activate viral expression.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, E; Kerkhofs, P; Mammerickx, M; Burny, A; Kettman, R; Willems, L

    1996-01-01

    Efficient transcription and replication of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome require both the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and the virus-coded transcriptional activator Tax, which functions through a 21-bp sequence (Tax-responsive element [TxRE]) which is repeated three times within the LTR. Since Tax does not bind directly to DNA, host cell transcription factors play a central role in BLV expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts prepared with infected bovine B lymphocytes revealed five TxRE-specific complexes (C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5). Here, by using a UV-induced indirect labeling technique (UV cross-linking) in conjunction with mobility shift assays, eight major polypeptides of 31, 33, 42, 46, 51, 57, 87, and 119 kDa were identified within these five complexes. Immunoprecipitation experiments identified the 57- and 119-kDa proteins as cyclic AMP response element-binding (CREB) proteins, the 46- and 51-kDa proteins as activating transcription factor-1 (ATF-1), and the 87-kDa as protein ATF-2. All of these proteins (except the ATF-1 protein of 51 kDa) belong to the complex C1, which is the major complex identified in freshly isolated BLV-infected lymphocytes from cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. In transient-cotransfection experiments, these three transcription factors were able to activate LTR-directed gene expression in the presence of protein kinase A or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. CREB protein, ATF-1, and ATF-2 thus appear to be the major transcription factors involved in the early stages of viral expression. PMID:8627725

  10. Evidence that M1 muscarinic receptors enhance noradrenaline release in mouse atria by activating protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.; Barrington, M.; Majewski, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The M1 selective muscarinic agonist, McNeil A 343, enhanced the electrically evoked release of noradrenaline from postganglionic sympathetic nerves in mouse atria. This has been found previously to be due to activation of muscarinic receptors of the M1 subtype, probably located on sympathetic nerve terminals. The present study investigated the signal transduction mechanisms involved in the release-enhancing effects of McNeil A 343. The release of noradrenaline from mouse atria was assessed by measuring the electrically-induced (3 Hz, 60 s) outflow of radioactivity from atria which had been pre-incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline. 2. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the presence of IBMX was used to enhance maximally S-I noradrenaline release through cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms. However, the facilitatory effect of McNeil A 343 (10 microM) was not different from the effect in the absence of these drugs, suggesting that McNeil A 343 enhances noradrenaline release independently of the cyclic AMP system. Furthermore, the release-enhancing effect of McNeil A 343 (10 microM) on noradrenaline release was also not altered by the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW A4C. 3. The facilitatory effect of McNeil A 343 was not altered in the presence of drugs (trifluoperazine, W7, and calmidazolium) which inhibit calmodulin-dependent processes, suggesting that the mechanisms of action of McNeil A 343 does not depend on calmodulin. 4. It was considered likely that the facilitatory effect of McNeil A 343 on noradrenaline release may be due to activation of protein kinase C, since activators of protein kinase C enhance noradrenaline release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7694761

  11. Angelica sinensis polysaccharides promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via CREB-regulated caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-Jie; Wang, Sheng; Hu, Zhuang; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Song, Cai-Juan

    2015-11-20

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) is purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS). This traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years for treating gynecological diseases and used in functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. The antitumor activity of ASP is related to its biological activities, because it suppresses a variety of pro-proliferative or anti-apoptotic factors that are dramatically expressed in cancer cells of given types. In this study, we show that angelica sinensis polysaccharide induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells of T47D over-expressing the Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), inducing apoptosis-related signaling pathway activity. The result also found that ASP caused cell death was linked to caspase activity, accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. We found that ASP significantly affected the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and apoptotic protease activating facter-1 (Apaf1) protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DAPI staining and Flow cytometry were used to analyze apoptosis. The nude mice xenograft model was used to evaluate the antitumor effect of ASP in vivo. ASP has profound antitumor effect on T47D cells, probably by inducing apoptosis through CREB signaling pathway. Thus, these results suggest that ASP would be a promising therapeutic agent for breast cancer. PMID:26431878

  12. Activation of hepatic CREBH and Insig signaling in the anti-hypertriglyceridemic mechanism of R-?-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xuedong; Christian, Patricia; Zhao, Miaoyun; Wang, Hai; Moreau, Regis; Su, Qiaozhu

    2015-09-01

    The activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) is regulated by insulin-induced genes 1 and 2 (Insig-1 and Insig-2) and SCAP. We previously reported that feeding R-?-lipoic acid (LA) to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats improves severe hypertriglyceridemia. In this study, we investigated the role of cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein H (CREBH) in the lipid-lowering mechanism of LA and its involvement in the SREBP-1c and Insig pathway. Incubation of McA cells with LA (0.2 mM) or glucose (6 mM) stimulated activation of CREBH. LA treatment further induced mRNA expression of Insig-1 and Insig-2a, but not Insig-2b, in glucose-treated cells. In vivo, feeding LA to obesity-induced hyperlipidemic ZDF rats activated hepatic CREBH and stimulated transcription and translation of Insig-1 and Insig-2a. Activation of CREBH and Insigs induced by LA suppressed processing of SREBP-1c precursor into nuclear SREBP-1c, which subsequently inhibited expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, including FASN, ACC and SCD-1, and reduced triglyceride (TG) contents in both glucose-treated cells and ZDF rat livers. Additionally, LA treatment also decreased abundances of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-associated apolipoproteins, apoB100 and apoE, in glucose-treated cells and livers of ZDF rats, leading to decreased secretion of VLDL and improvement of hypertriglyceridemia. This study unveils a novel molecular mechanism whereby LA lowers TG via activation of hepatic CREBH and increased expression of Insig-1 and Insig-2a to inhibit de novo lipogenesis and VLDL secretion. These findings provide novel insight into the therapeutic potential of LA as an anti-hypertriglyceridemia dietary molecule. PMID:26007286

  13. Responses of wintering bald eagles to boating activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Richard L.; Knight, Susan K.

    1984-01-01

    Wintering populations of bald eagles show a close association with open water (Spencer 1976, Steenhof 1978). With the dramatic increase in the use of waterways for recreational activity in recent decades (Brockman and Merriam 1973, Jensen 1973), concern has arisen regarding the effects of boating activity on wintering eagles (Stalmaster 1980). Boating activity can be detrimental because it disrupts feeding activity and affects large areas in short periods of time (Skagen 1980, Stalmaster 1980). Disturbance may result in increased energy expenditures due to avoidance flights and decreased energy intake due to interference with feeding activity (Stalmaster 1980). In this paper we examine flushing responses and flight distances of wintering bald eagles to a canoe of two adjacent rivers with widely disparate levels of boating activity. We examine individual and interactive effects of eagle age, behavior, and social grouping.

  14. Thyrotropin but not epidermal growth factor down-regulates the isozyme I (PKa I) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in dog thyroid cells in primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Breton, M F; Roger, P P; Omri, B; Dumont, J E; Pavlovic-Hournac, M

    1989-01-01

    The activity of the two cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKa I and PKa II) was evaluated in dog thyroid cells in primary cultures after a 6-day growth period induced by either thyrotropin (TSH) or epidermal growth factor (EGF). Although the total PKa activity was not affected in cells cultured in the presence of TSH or EGF, their actions on the PKa I and PKa II expressions were significantly different. The activity of PKa I was strongly inhibited by TSH (70-80%) while with EGF it was either stimulated or unaffected with respect to controls. The two mitogens did not have a significant effect on the activity of PKa II. Forskolin (Fk) mimicked the effect of TSH. The expression of the two regulatory subunits (R I and R II), evaluated by the covalent binding of 8-azido-cAMP, was similar to the expression of the corresponding catalytic activities, suggesting a coregulation of the catalytic and regulatory subunits from the same isozyme. After chronic stimulation by TSH, differentiated dog thyroid cells are almost completely deprived of PKa I. PMID:2545480

  15. IP receptor-dependent activation of PPAR{gamma} by stable prostacyclin analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Falcetti, Emilia; Flavell, David M.; Staels, Bart; Tinker, Andrew; Haworth, Sheila G.; Clapp, Lucie H. . E-mail: l.clapp@ucl.ac.uk

    2007-09-07

    Stable prostacyclin analogues can signal through cell surface IP receptors or by ligand binding to nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). So far these agents have been reported to activate PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{delta} but not PPAR{gamma}. Given PPAR{gamma} agonists and prostacyclin analogues both inhibit cell proliferation, we postulated that the IP receptor might elicit PPAR{gamma} activation. Using a dual luciferase reporter gene assay in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the IP receptor or empty vector, we found that prostacyclin analogues only activated PPAR{gamma} in the presence of the IP receptor. Moreover, the novel IP receptor antagonist, RO1138452, but not inhibitors of the cyclic AMP pathway, prevented activation. Likewise, the anti-proliferative effects of treprostinil observed in IP receptor expressing cells, were partially inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist, GW9662. We conclude that PPAR{gamma} is activated through the IP receptor via a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism and contributes to the anti-growth effects of prostacyclin analogues.

  16. Viral and Cellular Genomes Activate Distinct DNA Damage Responses.

    PubMed

    Shah, Govind A; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2015-08-27

    In response to cellular genome breaks, MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) activates a global ATM DNA damage response (DDR) that prevents cellular replication. Here, we show that MRN-ATM also has critical functions in defending the cell against DNA viruses. We reveal temporally distinct responses to adenovirus genomes: a critical MRN-ATM DDR that must be inactivated by E1B-55K/E4-ORF3 viral oncoproteins and a global MRN-independent ATM DDR to viral nuclear domains that does not impact viral replication. We show that MRN binds to adenovirus genomes and activates a localized ATM response that specifically prevents viral DNA replication. In contrast to chromosomal breaks, ATM activation is not amplified by H2AX across megabases of chromatin to induce global signaling and replicative arrest. Thus, ?H2AX foci discriminate "self" and "non-self" genomes and determine whether a localized anti-viral or global ATM response is appropriate. This provides an elegant mechanism to neutralize viral genomes without jeopardizing cellular viability. PMID:26317467

  17. ON THE ACTIVE RESPONSE OF SOFT LIVING TISSUES P. Nardinocchi

    E-print Network

    produc- ing heartbeats; the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle influence the distribution the contraction of muscle fibres is well understood. The excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in cardiac muscular incompressible (visco-) elastic response; a key issue is the active nature of muscle fibres, in other words

  18. Dynamics of lung macrophage activation in response to helminth infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of our understanding of the development and phenotype of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) has been obtained from studies investigating the response of bone marrow- and peritoneal-derived cells to IL-4 or IL-13 stimulation. Comparatively little is known about the development of the AAM...

  19. Educating for Political Activity: A Younger Generational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a response to Professor Chitty's "Educational Review" Guest Lecture article, "Educating for political activity". I address the three sections of his paper: a global and national-based politics of war, corporate manipulation and parliamentary scandals. This provides a basis to draw upon empirical material from a recent critical…

  20. Invited Review Dendritic cell activation and function in response

    E-print Network

    , linking innate and adaptive immunity. Their central role in the activation of nai¨ve T cells gives DC, specialised in both the initiation and polarisation of adaptive immunity (Banchereau et al., 2000; Moser a strategic position in the control of immune responses. While the mechanisms by which viral, bacterial

  1. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses. PMID:26656575

  2. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. PMID:26555621

  3. Photoactivated Spatiotemporally-Responsive Nanosensors of in Vivo Protease Activity.

    PubMed

    Dudani, Jaideep S; Jain, Piyush K; Kwong, Gabriel A; Stevens, Kelly R; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-12-22

    Proteases play diverse and important roles in physiology and disease, including influencing critical processes in development, immune responses, and malignancies. Both the abundance and activity of these enzymes are tightly regulated and highly contextual; thus, in order to elucidate their specific impact on disease progression, better tools are needed to precisely monitor in situ protease activity. Current strategies for detecting protease activity are focused on functionalizing synthetic peptide substrates with reporters that emit detection signals following peptide cleavage. However, these activity-based probes lack the capacity to be turned on at sites of interest and, therefore, are subject to off-target activation. Here we report a strategy that uses light to precisely control both the location and time of activity-based sensing. We develop photocaged activity-based sensors by conjugating photolabile molecules directly onto peptide substrates, thereby blocking protease cleavage by steric hindrance. At sites of disease, exposure to ultraviolet light unveils the nanosensors to allow proteases to cleave and release a reporter fragment that can be detected remotely. We apply this spatiotemporally controlled system to probe secreted protease activity in vitro and tumor protease activity in vivo. In vitro, we demonstrate the ability to dynamically and spatially measure metalloproteinase activity in a 3D model of colorectal cancer. In vivo, veiled nanosensors are selectively activated at the primary tumor site in colorectal cancer xenografts to capture the tumor microenvironment-enriched protease activity. The ability to remotely control activity-based sensors may offer a valuable complement to existing tools for measuring biological activity. PMID:26565752

  4. Characterizing wind turbine system response to lightning activity

    SciTech Connect

    McNiff, B.; LaWhite, N.; Muljadi, E.

    1998-07-01

    A lightning protection research program was instituted by National Renewable Energy Laboratory to minimize lightning damage to wind turbines and to further the understanding of effective damage mitigation techniques. To that end, a test program is under way to observe lightning activity, protection system response, and damage at a wind power plant in the Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Turbine Verification Program. The authors installed Lightning activated surveillance cameras along with a special storm tracking device to observe the activity in the wind plant area. They instrumented the turbines with lightning and ground current detection devices to log direct and indirect strike activity at each unit. They installed a surge monitor on the utility interface to track incoming activity from the transmission lines. Maintenance logs are used to verify damage and determine downtime and repair costs. Actual strikes to turbines were recorded on video and ancillary devices. The test setup and some results are discussed in this paper.

  5. Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.

    PubMed

    Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-10-01

    Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8?kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122?dB re: 1??Pa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well. PMID:25324099

  6. Mistargeted mitochondrial proteins activate a proteostatic response in the cytosol.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Lidia; Topf, Ulrike; Bragoszewski, Piotr; Wiese, Sebastian; Sztolsztener, Malgorzata E; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Varabyova, Aksana; Lirski, Maciej; Chroscicki, Piotr; Mroczek, Seweryn; Januszewicz, Elzbieta; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Koblowska, Marta; Warscheid, Bettina; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2015-08-27

    Most of the mitochondrial proteome originates from nuclear genes and is transported into the mitochondria after synthesis in the cytosol. Complex machineries which maintain the specificity of protein import and sorting include the TIM23 translocase responsible for the transfer of precursor proteins into the matrix, and the mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly (MIA) machinery required for the biogenesis of intermembrane space proteins. Dysfunction of mitochondrial protein sorting pathways results in diminishing specific substrate proteins, followed by systemic pathology of the organelle and organismal death. The cellular responses caused by accumulation of mitochondrial precursor proteins in the cytosol are mainly unknown. Here we present a comprehensive picture of the changes in the cellular transcriptome and proteome in response to a mitochondrial import defect and precursor over-accumulation stress. Pathways were identified that protect the cell against mitochondrial biogenesis defects by inhibiting protein synthesis and by activation of the proteasome, a major machine for cellular protein clearance. Proteasomal activity is modulated in proportion to the quantity of mislocalized mitochondrial precursor proteins in the cytosol. We propose that this type of unfolded protein response activated by mistargeting of proteins (UPRam) is beneficial for the cells. UPRam provides a means for buffering the consequences of physiological slowdown in mitochondrial protein import and for counteracting pathologies that are caused or contributed by mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26245374

  7. PL2-49, a monoclonal antibody against glycoprotein IIb which is a platelet activator.

    PubMed

    Morel, M C; Lecompte, T; Champeix, P; Favier, R; Potevin, F; Samama, M; Salmon, C; Kaplan, C

    1989-01-01

    PL2-49 is a murine monoclonal IgG1 antibody obtained after immunization of Balb/c mice with EDTA washed platelets. Binding could be detected on Zwa(+) as well as Zwa(-) platelets, but not on type I Glanzmann's thrombasthenia platelets using an ELISA screening test. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that PL2-49 bound to glycoprotein IIb when the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex dissociation was performed after the monoclonal antibody binding. Experiments with a human alloantibody against Zwa antigen were run in parallel to control the complex dissociation. Ascitic fluid, as well as the purified antibody, induced activation and aggregation of washed platelets and ATP release. PL2-49-induced aggregation did not require exogenous fibrinogen and was inhibited, partially, in the presence of aspirin, apyrase, isosorbide dinitrate. Raising intra-platelet cyclic AMP with a stable PGI2 analogue, iloprost, and/or a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, RA 233, suppressed the responses to PL2-49. F(ab')2 fragments did not induce aggregation of normal platelets but inhibited the response to the whole immunoglobulin. Finally PL2-49 was shown to induce aequorin-detected elevations in intraplatelet Ca++ levels. Thus PL2-49 seems to differ from monoclonal antibodies so far described, since it binds to glycoprotein IIb in a complex-dependent manner at least under our experimental conditions for immunoprecipitation studies, and it induces platelet Ca++ mobilization and platelet aggregation after a lag-time. These reactions depend both on Fab and Fc domains of the antibody and require neither complement nor exogenous fibrinogen. PMID:2917129

  8. Electrically active bioceramics: a review of interfacial responses.

    PubMed

    Baxter, F R; Bowen, C R; Turner, I G; Dent, A C E

    2010-06-01

    Electrical potentials in mechanically loaded bone have been implicated as signals in the bone remodeling cycle. Recently, interest has grown in exploiting this phenomenon to develop electrically active ceramics for implantation in hard tissue which may induce improved biological responses. Both polarized hydroxyapatite (HA), whose surface charge is not dependent on loading, and piezoelectric ceramics, which produce electrical potentials under stress, have been studied in order to determine the possible benefits of using electrically active bioceramics as implant materials. The polarization of HA has a positive influence on interfacial responses to the ceramic. In vivo studies of polarized HA have shown polarized samples to induce improvements in bone ingrowth. The majority of piezoelectric ceramics proposed for implant use contain barium titanate (BaTiO(3)). In vivo and in vitro investigations have indicated that such ceramics are biocompatible and, under appropriate mechanical loading, induce improved bone formation around implants. The mechanism by which electrical activity influences biological responses is yet to be clearly defined, but is likely to result from preferential adsorption of proteins and ions onto the polarized surface. Further investigation is warranted into the use of electrically active ceramics as the indications are that they have benefits over existing implant materials. PMID:20198510

  9. Potential role of cAMP response element-binding protein in ethanol-induced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit gene transcription in fetal mouse cortical cells.

    PubMed

    Rani, C S Sheela; Qiang, Mei; Ticku, Maharaj K

    2005-06-01

    We have shown previously that long-term ethanol treatment causes an up-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 2B subunit (NR2B) number and function in cultured fetal mouse cortical neurons. To examine the intracellular signaling pathways involved in this NR2B gene transcription, we have subjected fetal cortical neurons to long-term treatment with ethanol and studied its effect on cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) levels by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We find a significant increase in phosphorylated CREB, without change in total CREB protein, in cells treated with ethanol for 5 days. Long-term ethanol treatment did not increase levels of both total and phospho-ERK in serum-free medium, whereas it did increase ERK phosphorylation in medium containing serum, without affecting total ERK levels. CREB phosphorylation was increased by ethanol treatment in both media, irrespective of the presence of serum. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using a 25-base pair (bp) double-stranded DNA fragment containing the cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-like sequence of the NR2B promoter as (32)P-labeled probe, showed an increase in specific CRE binding to nuclear proteins isolated from cells undergoing long-term ethanol treatment. A 467-bp DNA fragment of the NR2B promoter containing the CRE sequence cloned into the luciferase vector exhibited high reporter activity in transient cotransfection assay of mouse cortical neurons, and ethanol treatment increased this activity. Introducing site-directed mutation in the CRE sequence significantly reduced the reporter activity relative to the wild-type construct, and it also abolished the stimulatory effect by ethanol. Our results indicate that CREB is probably involved in mediating ethanol-induced up-regulation of NR2B gene. PMID:15774772

  10. Testosterone activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and the cAMP response element binding

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    Testosterone activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and the cAMP response element binding for review January 23, 2004) The androgen testosterone is essential for the Sertoli cell to support- latory elements and is able to stimulate gene transcription. Here, we demonstrate that testosterone can

  11. Response Activation in Overlapping Tasks and the Response-Selection Bottleneck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Torsten; Fischer, Rico; Stelzel, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of response activation on dual-task performance by presenting a subliminal prime before the stimulus in Task 2 (S2) of a psychological refractory period (PRP) task. Congruence between prime and S2 modulated the reaction times in Task 2 at short stimulus onset asynchrony despite a PRP effect. This Task 2…

  12. Synergistic neuroprotection by epicatechin and quercetin: Activation of convergent mitochondrial signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Nichols, M; Zhang, J; Polster, B M; Elustondo, P A; Thirumaran, A; Pavlov, E V; Robertson, G S

    2015-11-12

    In view of evidence that increased consumption of epicatechin (E) and quercetin (Q) may reduce the risk of stroke, we have measured the effects of combining E and Q on mitochondrial function and neuronal survival following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Relative to mouse cortical neuron cultures pretreated (24h) with either E or Q (0.1-10?M), E+Q synergistically attenuated OGD-induced neuronal cell death. E, Q and E+Q (0.3?M) increased spare respiratory capacity but only E+Q (0.3?M) preserved this crucial parameter of neuronal mitochondrial function after OGD. These improvements were accompanied by corresponding increases in cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and the expression of CREB-target genes that promote neuronal survival (Bcl-2) and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1?). Consistent with these findings, E+Q (0.1 and 1.0?M) elevated mitochondrial gene expression (MT-ND2 and MT-ATP6) to a greater extent than E or Q after OGD. Q (0.3-3.0?M), but not E (3.0?M), elevated cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) spikes and the mitochondrial membrane potential. Conversely, E and E+Q (0.1 and 0.3?M), but not Q (0.1 and 0.3?M), activated protein kinase B (Akt). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition with L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (1.0?M) blocked neuroprotection by E (0.3?M) or Q (1.0?M). Oral administration of E+Q (75mg/kg; once daily for 5days) reduced hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. These findings suggest E and Q activate Akt- and Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathways that converge on NOS and CREB resulting in synergistic improvements in neuronal mitochondrial performance which confer profound protection against ischemic injury. PMID:26363153

  13. Photodynamic therapy for cancer and activation of immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT for cancer due to the acute inflammatory response, exposure and presentation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins and other danger signals. Nevertheless effective, powerful tumor-specific immune response in both animal models and also in patients treated with PDT for cancer, is the exception rather than the rule. Research in our laboratory and also in others is geared towards identifying reasons for this sub-optimal immune response and discovering ways of maximizing it. Reasons why the immune response after PDT is less than optimal include the fact that tumor-antigens are considered to be self-like and poorly immunogenic, the tumor-mediated induction of CD4+CD25+foxP3+ regulatory T-cells (T-regs), that are able to inhibit both the priming and the effector phases of the cytotoxic CD8 T-cell anti-tumor response and the defects in dendritic cell maturation, activation and antigen-presentation that may also occur. Alternatively-activated macrophages (M2) have also been implicated. Strategies to overcome these immune escape mechanisms employed by different tumors include combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments such as products obtained from pathogenic microorganisms against which mammals have evolved recognition systems such as PAMPs and toll-like receptors (TLR). This paper will cover the use of CpG oligonucleotides (a TLR9 agonist found in bacterial DNA) to reverse dendritic cell dysfunction and methods to remove the immune suppressor effects of T-regs that are under active study.

  14. Rapid glucocorticoid inhibition of vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced cyclic AMP accumulation and prolactin release in rat pituitary cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rotsztejn, W H; Dussaillant, M; Nobou, F; Rosselin, G

    1981-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates both adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and prolactin release in normal rat pituitary cells in culture. cAMP accumulation is significant (P less than 0.01) at VIP concentrations as low as 1 nM and reaches a maximum with 0.1 microM. Addition of dexamethasone as early as 15 min before VIP inhibits VIP stimulation of both cAMP production and PRL secretion. The rapid inhibition is dose-dependent: it appears at doses as low as 0.01 pM and is complete at 1 pM dexamethasone. Increasing concentrations of dexamethasone induce a noncompetitive type of inhibition, as shown by the decrease in Vmax with no change in the apparent Km for VIP. Cycloheximide (1 mM) counteracts the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on VIP-induced cAMP production, which suggests the involvement of a rapid protein synthesis mechanism. Ru-26988, a specific glucocorticoid devoid of any mineralocorticoid activity and which does not bind to intracellular transcortin-like component, also produces an inhibition of VIP-induced cAMP accumulation. Corticosterone also inhibits VIP-induced cAMP production but at concentrations higher than those of dexamethasone. In contrast, aldosterone, progesterone, estradiol, and testosterone have no effect. These results demonstrate that, in normal rat pituitary cells in culture, glucocorticoids at physiological concentrations rapidly inhibit the cAMP production and prolactin release induced by VIP by acting through specific glucocorticoid receptors. PMID:6278481

  15. Direct regulation of the natural competence regulator gene tfoX by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in Vibrios

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rui; Zhao, Meng; Li, Jing; Gao, He; Kan, Biao; Liang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    TfoX (Sxy) and CRP are two important competence activators. The link between tfoX and CRP has been shown in H. influenza but lacking evidence of direct interaction. Recently a Sxy-dependent CRP (CRP-S) site autoregulating Sxy was reported in E. coli. Here, we show that the cAMP-CRP complex transcriptionally regulates tfoX expression through multiple canonical CRP (CRP-N) sites in Vibrios. This conclusion is supported by an analysis of the tfoX mRNA levels and tfoX transcriptional reporter fusions. The reduced expression of tfoXVC was restored by trans-complementation of crp in ?crp and by exogenous cAMP in ?cya. A promoter deletion analysis and the site-directed mutagenesis of the putative CRP-N sites revealed the presence of two functional CRP-N sites. The direct binding of cAMP-CRP to the tfoXVCpromoter was demonstrated by EMSA assays. Additionally, the transcriptional start site (TSS) of tfoXVF in V. fluvialis was determined, and ?10/?35 regions were predicted. Further comparison of the tfoX promoter in Vibrios revealed the existence of similar ?10 motifs and putative CRP-N sites, indicating the conserved mechanism of CRP regulation on tfoX. Our study demonstrates the direct binding of the cAMP-CRP complex to tfoX promoter, and broadens the understanding of the molecular mechanism regulating tfoX in Vibrios. PMID:26442598

  16. Transonic calculation of airfoil stability and response with active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, J. T.; Yang, T. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Transonic aeroelastic stability and response analyses are performed for the MBB A-3 supercritical airfoil. Three degrees of freedom are considered: plunge, pitch, and aileron pitch. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the control of airfoil stability and response in transonic flow. Stability analyses are performed using a Padeaeroelastic model based on the use of the LTRAN2-NLR transonic small-disturbance finite-difference computer code. Response analyses are performed by coupling the structural equations of motion to the unsteady aerodynamic forces of LTRAN2-NLR. The focus of the present effort is on transonic time-marching transient response solutions using modal identification to determine stability. Frequency and damping of these modes are directly compared in the complex s-plane with Pademodel eigenvalues. Transonic stability and response characteristics of two-dimensional airfoils are discussed and comparisons are made. Application of the Padeaeroelastic model and time-marching analyses to flutter suppression using active controls is demonstrated.

  17. Gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors can activate P21 activated kinase 2 in pancreatic acinar cells by novel mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Jensen, R T

    2015-10-01

    P-21-activated kinases (PAKs) are serine/threonine kinases comprising six isoforms divided in two groups, group-I (PAK1-3)/group-II (PAK4-6) which play important roles in cell cytoskeletal dynamics, survival, secretion and proliferation and are activated by diverse stimuli. However, little is known about PAKs ability to be activated by gastrointestinal (GI) hormones/neurotransmitters/growth-factors. We used rat pancreatic acini to explore the ability of GI-hormones/neurotransmitters/growth-factors to activate Group-I-PAKs and the signaling cascades involved. Only PAK2 was present in acini. PAK2 was activated by some pancreatic growth-factors [EGF, PDGF, bFGF], by secretagogues activating phospholipase-C (PLC) [CCK, carbachol, bombesin] and by post-receptor stimulants activating PKC [TPA], but not agents only mobilizing cellular calcium or increasing cyclic AMP. CCK-activation of PAK2 required both high- and low-affinity-CCK1-receptor-state activation. It was partially reduced by PKC- or Src-inhibition, but not with PI3K-inhibitors (wortmannin, LY294002) or thapsigargin. IPA-3, which prevents PAK2 binding to small-GTPases partially inhibited PAK2-activation, as well as reduced CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation and amylase release induced by CCK or bombesin. This study demonstrates pancreatic acini, possess only one Group-I-PAK, PAK2. CCK and other GI-hormones/neurotransmitters/growth-factors activate PAK2 via small GTPases (CDC42/Rac1), PKC and SFK but not cytosolic calcium or PI3K. CCK-activation of PAK2 showed several novel features being dependent on both receptor-activation states, having PLC- and PKC-dependent/independent components and small-GTPase-dependent/independent components. These results show that PAK2 is important in signaling cascades activated by numerous pancreatic stimuli which mediate their various physiological/pathophysiological responses and thus could be a promising target for the development of therapies in some pancreatic disorders such as pancreatitis. PMID:25979836

  18. Phosphodiesterase profile of human B lymphocytes from normal and atopic donors and the effects of PDE inhibition on B cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Gantner, Florian; Götz, Christine; Gekeler, Volker; Schudt, Christian; Wendel, Albrecht; Hatzelmann, Armin

    1998-01-01

    CD19+ B lymphocytes were purified from the peripheral blood of normal and atopic subjects to analyse and compare the phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity profile, PDE mRNA expression and the importance of PDE activity for the regulation of B cell function.The majority of cyclic AMP hydrolyzing activity of human B cells was cytosolic PDE4, followed by cytosolic PDE7-like activity; marginal PDE3 activity was found only in the particulate B cell fraction. PDE1, PDE2 and PDE5 activities were not detected.By cDNA-PCR analysis mRNA of the PDE4 subtypes A, B (splice variant PDE4B2) and D were detected. In addition, a weak signal for PDE3A was found.No differences in PDE activities or mRNA expression of PDE subtypes were found in B cells from either normal or atopic subjects.Stimulation of B lymphocytes with the polyclonal stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a proliferative response in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, which was increased in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4). PDE4 inhibitors (rolipram, piclamilast) led to an increase in the cellular cyclic AMP concentration and to an augmentation of proliferation, whereas a PDE3 inhibitor (motapizone) was ineffective, which is in accordance with the PDE profile found. The proliferation enhancing effect of the PDE4 inhibitors was partly mimicked by the cyclic AMP analogues dibutyryl (db) cyclic AMP and 5,6-dichloro-1-?-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole-3?,5?-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (dcl-cBIMPS), respectively. However, at concentrations exceeding 100??M db-cyclic AMP suppressed B lymphocyte proliferation, probably as a result of cytotoxicity. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 1??M) and forskolin (10??M) did not affect B cell proliferation, even when given in combination with rolipram.Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by differentially acting selective inhibitors (KT 5720, Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPS) decreased the proliferative response of control cells and reversed the proliferation enhancing effects of rolipram.Importantly, PDE4 activity in LPS/IL-4-activated B lymphocytes decreased by about 50% compared to unstimulated control values.We conclude that an increase in cyclic AMP, mediated by down-regulation of PDE4 activity, is involved in the stimulation of B cell proliferation in response to LPS/IL-4. B cell proliferation in response to a mitogenic stimulus can be further enhanced by pharmacological elevation of cyclic AMP. PMID:9559883

  19. AMP-activated protein kinase, stress responses and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Shaobin; SONG, Ping; ZOU, Ming-Hui

    2012-01-01

    AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is one of the key players in maintaining intracellular homoeostasis. AMPK is well known as an energy sensor and can be activated by increased intracellular AMP levels. Generally, the activation of AMPK turns on catabolic pathways that generate ATP, while inhibiting cell proliferation and biosynthetic processes that consume ATP. In recent years, intensive investigations on the regulation and the function of AMPK indicates that AMPK not only functions as an intracellular energy sensor and regulator, but is also a general stress sensor that is important in maintaining intracellular homoeostasis during many kinds of stress challenges. In the present paper, we will review recent literature showing that AMPK functions far beyond its proposed energy sensor and regulator function. AMPK regulates ROS (reactive oxygen species)/redox balance, autophagy, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, cellular polarity, mitochondrial function and genotoxic response, either directly or indirectly via numerous downstream pathways under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:22390198

  20. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  1. Lysyl oxidase activity regulates oncogenic stress response and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wiel, C; Augert, A; Vincent, D F; Gitenay, D; Vindrieux, D; Le Calvé, B; Arfi, V; Lallet-Daher, H; Reynaud, C; Treilleux, I; Bartholin, L; Lelievre, E; Bernard, D

    2013-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a stable proliferation arrest, is induced in response to various stresses. Oncogenic stress-induced senescence (OIS) results in blocked proliferation and constitutes a fail-safe program counteracting tumorigenesis. The events that enable a tumor in a benign senescent state to escape from OIS and become malignant are largely unknown. We show that lysyl oxidase activity contributes to the decision to maintain senescence. Indeed, in human epithelial cell the constitutive expression of the LOX or LOXL2 protein favored OIS escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize OIS. The relevance of these in vitro observations is supported by in vivo findings: in a transgenic mouse model of aggressive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), increasing lysyl oxidase activity accelerates senescence escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize senescence, delay tumorigenesis, and increase survival. Mechanistically, we show that lysyl oxidase activity favors the escape of senescence by regulating the focal-adhesion kinase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that lysyl oxidase activity participates in primary tumor growth by directly impacting the senescence stability. PMID:24113189

  2. [Natural killer lymphocyte activation in response to stress].

    PubMed

    Toubert, A; Dulphy, N; Tieng, V; Tamouza, R; Charron, D

    2003-06-01

    Function of T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes is tightly controlled by the balance of activating and inhibitory signals. NK receptors belong to different families: KIRs ("Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor") and ILTs ("Immunoglobulin-like Transcript"), mainly inhibitory which binds to HLA class I alleles; C-type lectin NK receptors such as CD94/NKG2A which is inhibitory and binds to HLA-E; NCR ("Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors") which directly activate NK cells. These include molecules NKp30, NKp44, NKp46 et NKG2D. Cellular stress (viral and bacterial infections, tumours) may modulate NK function by different mechanisms: decrease in HLA class I molecules expression resulting in the lack of engagement of the inhibitory receptors and ultimately NK cell activation; modulation of CD94/NKG2A inhibitory function through expression of peptides presented by HLA-E as for instance from heat shock proteins; NK activation through NCR expression. Among these, NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed by NK cells and subsets of alphabeta and gammadelta and T cells. Major NKG2D ligands in humans are MIC ("MHC class I related") molecules which are stress-inducible during a viral (CMV) or bacterial infection (M. tuberculosis, E. coli). They may also be expressed by tumors. Therefore, they could play a role in activating NK and/or T lymphocyte responses in these conditions. PMID:12798842

  3. Physiologic Responses Produced by Active and Passive Personal Cooling Vests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Luna, Bernadette

    2000-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to document and compare the subjects' response to three cooling vests in their recommended configurations. The Life Enhancement Tech (LET) lightweight active cooling vest with cap, the MicroClimate Systems Change of Phase garment (MCS), and the Steele Vest were each used to cool the chest regions of 12 male and 8 female Healthy subjects (21 to 69 yr.) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx. 22 C), were tested for 60 min. with one of the cooling garments. The LET active garment had an initial coolant fluid inlet temperature of 60 F, and was ramped down to 50 F. Oral, right and left ear canal temperatures were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; and respiration were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. For men, all three vests had similar, significant cooling effects. Decreases in the average rectal temperature, oral temperature, and ear canal temperatures were approximately 0.2 C, 0.2 C and 0.1 C, respectively. In contrast to the men, the female subjects wearing the MCS and Steel vests had similar cooling responses in which the core temperature remained elevated and oral and ear canal temperatures did not drop. The LET active garment cooled most of the female subjects in this study; rectal, oral and ear temperature decreased about 0.2 C, 0.3 C and 0.3 C, respectively. These results show that the garment configurations tested do not elicit a similar thermal response in all subjects. A gender difference is evident. The LET active garment configuration was most effective in decreasing temperatures of the female subjects; the MCS vest was least effective. For male subjects, the three vests appear to be more nearly equivalent. The active garment system under study included a cooling cap, which may account for some of the difference in response.

  4. Behavioral responses of north American Elk to recreational activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naylor, L.M.; Wisdom, M.J.; Anthony, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Off-road recreation on public lands in North America has increased dramatically in recent years. Wild ungulates are sensitive to human activities, but the effect of off-road recreation, both motorized and nonmotorized, is poorly understood. We measured responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to recreational disturbance in northeast Oregon, USA, from April to October, 2003 and 2004. We subjected elk to 4 types of recreational disturbance: all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding, mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Motion sensors inside radiocollars worn by 13 female elk recorded resting, feeding, and travel activities at 5-minute intervals throughout disturbance and control periods. Elk fed and rested during control periods, with little time spent traveling. Travel time increased in response to all 4 disturbances and was highest in mornings. Elk travel time was highest during ATV exposure, followed by exposure to mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Feeding time decreased during ATV exposure and resting decreased when we subjected elk to mountain biking and hiking disturbance in 2003. Our results demonstrated that activities of elk can be substantially affected by off-road recreation. Mitigating these effects may be appropriate where elk are a management priority. Balancing management of species like elk with off-road recreation will become increasingly important as off-road recreational uses continue to increase on public lands in North America.

  5. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is activated during normal lens development

    PubMed Central

    Firtina, Zeynep; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2010-01-01

    The lens of the eye is a transparent structure responsible for focusing light onto the retina. It is composed of two morphologically different cell types, epithelial cells found on the anterior surface and the fiber cells that are continuously formed by the differentiation of epithelial cells at the lens equator. The differentiation of an epithelial precursor cell into a fiber cell is associated with a dramatic increase in membrane protein synthesis. How the terminally differentiating fiber cells cope with the increased demand on the endoplasmic reticulum for this membrane protein synthesis is not known. In the present study, we have found evidence of Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) activation during normal lens development and differentiation in the mouse. The ER-resident chaperones, immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), were expressed at high levels in the newly forming fiber cells of embryonic lenses. These fiber cells also expressed the UPR-associated molecules; XBP1, ATF6, phospho-PERK and ATF4 during embryogenesis. Moreover, spliced XBP1, cleaved ATF6, and phospho-eIF2 were detected in embryonic mouse lenses suggesting that UPR pathways are active in this tissue. These results propose a role for UPR activation in lens fiber cell differentiation during embryogenesis. PMID:21044701

  6. Overexpression of Pto activates defense responses and confers broad resistance.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Xie, M; Kim, Y J; Zhou, J; Klessig, D F; Martin, G B

    1999-01-01

    The tomato disease resistance (R) gene Pto specifies race-specific resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato carrying the avrPto gene. Pto encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that is postulated to be activated by a physical interaction with the AvrPto protein. Here, we report that overexpression of Pto in tomato activates defense responses in the absence of the Pto-AvrPto interaction. Leaves of three transgenic tomato lines carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S::Pto transgene exhibited microscopic cell death, salicylic acid accumulation, and increased expression of pathogenesis-related genes. Cell death in these plants was limited to palisade mesophyll cells and required light for induction. Mesophyll cells of 35S::Pto plants showed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds, callose deposition, and lignification. When inoculated with P. s. tomato without avrPto, all three 35S::Pto lines displayed significant resistance and supported less bacterial growth than did nontransgenic lines. Similarly, the 35S::Pto lines also were more resistant to Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Cladosporium fulvum. These results demonstrate that defense responses and general resistance can be activated by the overexpression of an R gene. PMID:9878629

  7. Direct response to Notch activation: signaling crosstalk and incoherent logic.

    PubMed

    Krejcí, Alena; Bernard, Fred; Housden, Ben E; Collins, Stephanie; Bray, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    Notch is the receptor in one of a small group of conserved signaling pathways that are essential at multiple stages in development. Although the mechanism of transduction impinges directly on the nucleus to regulate transcription through the CSL [CBF-1/Su(H)/LAG-1] [corrected] DNA binding protein, there are few known direct target genes. Thus, relatively little is known about the immediate cellular consequences of Notch activation. We therefore set out to determine the genome-wide response to Notch activation by analyzing the changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and the sites of CSL occupancy within 30 minutes of activating Notch in Drosophila cells. Through combining these data, we identify high-confidence direct targets of Notch that are implicated in the maintenance of adult muscle progenitors in vivo. These targets are enriched in cell morphogenesis genes and in components of other cell signaling pathways, especially the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. Also evident are examples of incoherent network logic, where Notch stimulates the expression of both a gene and the repressor of that gene, which may result in a transient window of competence after Notch activation. Furthermore, because targets comprise both positive and negative regulators, cells become poised for both outcomes, suggesting one mechanism through which Notch activation can lead to opposite effects in different contexts. PMID:19176515

  8. The visual accommodation response during concurrent mental activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malmstrom, F. V.; Randle, R. J.; Bendix, J. S.; Weber, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of the human visual accommodation response during concurrent mental activity are investigated. Subject focusing responses to targets at distances of 0.0 D, 3.0 D and an indeterminate distance were monitored by means of an optometer during the performance of a backwards counting task and a visual imagery task (thinking near and thinking far). In both experiments a shift in accommodation towards the visual far point is observed particularly for the near target, which increases with the duration of the task. The results can be interpreted in terms of both the capacity model of Kahneman (1973) and the autonomic arousal model of Hess and Polt (1964), and are not inconsistent with the possibility of an intermediate resting position.

  9. Activity enhances dopaminergic long-duration response in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Auinger, Peggy; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Mendis, Tilak

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dopamine-dependent motor learning mechanism underlies the long-duration response to levodopa in Parkinson disease (PD) based on our studies in a mouse model. By data-mining the motor task performance in dominant and nondominant hands of the subjects in a double-blind randomized trial of levodopa therapy, the effects of activity and dopamine therapy were examined. Methods: We data-mined the Earlier versus Later Levodopa Therapy in Parkinson's Disease (ELLDOPA) study published in 2005 and performed statistical analysis comparing the effects of levodopa and dominance of handedness over 42 weeks. Results: The mean change in finger-tapping counts from baseline before the initiation of therapy to predose at 9 weeks and 40 weeks increased more in the dominant compared to nondominant hand in levodopa-treated subjects in a dose-dependent fashion. There was no significant difference in dominant vs nondominant hands in the placebo group. The short-duration response assessed by the difference of postdose performance compared to predose performance at the same visit did not show any significant difference between dominant vs nondominant hands. Conclusions: Active use of the dominant hand and dopamine replacement therapy produces synergistic effect on long-lasting motor task performance during “off” medication state. Such effect was confined to dopamine-responsive symptoms and not seen in dopamine-resistant symptoms such as gait and balance. We propose that long-lasting motor learning facilitated by activity and dopamine is a form of disease modification that is often seen in trials of medications that have symptomatic effects. PMID:22459675

  10. Active microwave responses - An aid in improved crop classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, W. D.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    A study determined the feasibility of using visible, infrared, and active microwave data to classify agricultural crops such as corn, sorghum, alfalfa, wheat stubble, millet, shortgrass pasture and bare soil. Visible through microwave data were collected by instruments on board the NASA C-130 aircraft over 40 agricultural fields near Guymon, OK in 1978 and Dalhart, TX in 1980. Results from stepwise and discriminant analysis techniques indicated 4.75 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 0.4 GHz cross-polarized microwave frequencies were the microwave frequencies most sensitive to crop type differences. Inclusion of microwave data in visible and infrared classification models improved classification accuracy from 73 percent to 92 percent. Despite the results, further studies are needed during different growth stages to validate the visible, infrared, and active microwave responses to vegetation.

  11. Mammalian target of rapamycin and protein kinase A signaling mediate the cardiac transcriptional response to glutamine.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Wen, Hong Y; Young, Martin E; Guthrie, Patrick H; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Kellems, Rodney E

    2003-04-11

    The addition of glutamine as a major nutrient to cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes produced an increase in myocyte size and the organization of actin into myofibrillar arrays. The cellular response was associated with increased abundance of the mRNAs encoding the contractile proteins, alpha-myosin heavy chain and cardiac alpha-actin, and the metabolic enzymes, muscle carnitine palmitoyl transferase I and muscle adenylosuccinate synthetase (ADSS1). Adss1 gene expression was induced approximately 5-fold in glutamine-treated rat neonatal cardiac myocytes. The induction was mediated through the protein kinase A and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways and required a cyclic AMP response element associated with the promoter region of the Adss1 gene. These results highlight glutamine as a major nutrient regulator of cardiac gene expression and identify protein kinase A and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways as mediators of the cardiomyocyte transcriptional response. PMID:12522136

  12. 77 FR 60715 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities...regulations under 30 CFR Part 254, ``Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities...INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 254, Oil-Spill Response Requirements for...

  13. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...regulations under ``30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for...

  14. 75 FR 54354 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ...Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...regulations under 30 CFR part 253, ``Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for...

  15. 77 FR 33479 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ...Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities...regulations under Part 254, ``Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities...INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 254, Oil-Spill Response Requirements for...

  16. Development of Antiproliferative Phenylmaleimides that Activate the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Muus, Ulrike; Hose, Curtis; Yao, Wei; Kosakowska-Cholody, Teresa; Farnsworth, David; Dyba, Marzena; Lountos, George T.; Waugh, David S.; Monks, Anne; Burke, Terrence R.; Michejda, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The current paper presents the synthesis and evaluation of a series of maleimides that were designed to inhibit the Cdc25 phosphatase by alkylation of catalytically essential cysteine residues. Although in HepB3 cell culture assays the analogues did exhibit antiproliferative IC50 values ranging from sub-micromolar to greater than 100 µM, inhibition of Cdc25 through cysteine alkylation could not be demonstrated. It was also found that analysis using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) following treatment with the most potent analogue (1t) did not provide data consistent with inhibition at one specific point in the cell cycle, as would be expected if Cdc25A were inhibited. Further studies with a subset of analogues resulted in a correlation of antiproliferative potencies with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is a regulatory pathway that temporarily suspends protein production when misfolding of proteins occurs within the endoplastic reticulum (ER). In addition, ER chaperones that promote proper refolding become upregulated. If cellular damage cannot be resolved by these mechanisms, then the UPR can initiate apoptosis. The current study indicates that these maleimide analogues lead to UPR activation, which is predictive of the selective antiproliferative activity of the series. PMID:20472436

  17. Scutellarein Reduces Inflammatory Responses by Inhibiting Src Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Nak Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant pigments that have been demonstrated to exert various pharmacological effects including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the molecular mechanisms in terms of exact target proteins of flavonoids are not fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of scutellarein (SCT), a flavonoid isolated from Erigeron breviscapus, Clerodendrum phlomidis and Oroxylum indicum Vent that have been traditionally used to treat various inflammatory diseases in China and Brazil. For this purpose, a nitric oxide (NO) assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nuclear fractionation, immunoblot analysis, a kinase assay, and an overexpression strategy were employed. Scutellarein significantly inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the mRNA expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, SCT also dampened nuclear factor (NF)-?B-driven expression of a luciferase reporter gene upon transfection of a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-? (TRIF) construct into Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells; similarly, NF-? B nuclear translocation was inhibited by SCT. Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of various upstream signaling enzymes involved in NF-?B activation were decreased by SCT treatment in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Finally, SCT strongly inhibited Src kinase activity and also inhibited the autophosphorylation of overexpressed Src. Therefore, our data suggest that SCT can block the inflammatory response by directly inhibiting Src kinase activity linked to NF-?B activation. PMID:26330757

  18. Listening as a Perceived and Interactive Activity: Understanding the Impact of Verbal Listening Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Bradford

    2012-01-01

    This sequenced activity encourages active engagement with the idea that listening and speaking are not inherently separate or one-way activities. Listening involves both verbal, and nonverbal responses and perceptions of effective listening are tied to these patterns of response. These patterns of response impact both the immediate communication…

  19. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 ; Tao, Shasha; Lian, Fangru; Chau, Binh T.; Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan; Fang, Deyu; Lantz, R. Clark; Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 ; Zhang, Donna D.

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ? Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ? Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ? Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ? Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  20. A supramolecular microgel glutathione peroxidase mimic with temperature responsive activity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yanzhen; Jiao, Shufei; Lang, Chao; Liu, Junqiu

    2014-05-21

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) protects cells from oxidative damage by scavenging surplus reactive oxygen species (ROS). Commonly, an appropriate amount of ROS acts as a signal molecule in the metabolism. A smart artificial GPx exhibits adjustable catalytic activity, which can potentially reduce the amount of ROS to an appropriate degree and maintain its important physiological functions in metabolism. To construct an optimum and excellent smart artificial GPx, a novel supramolecular microgel artificial GPx (SM-Te) was prepared based on the supramolecular host-guest interaction employing the tellurium-containing guest molecule (ADA-Te-ADA) and the cyclodextrin-containing host block copolymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-[polyacrylamides-co-poly(6-o-(triethylene glycol monoacrylate ether)-?-cyclodextrin)], PPAM-CD) as building blocks. Subsequently, based on these building blocks, SM-Te was constructed and the formation of its self-assembled structure was confirmed by dynamic light scattering, NMR, SEM, TEM, etc. Typically, benefitting from the temperature responsive properties of the PNIPAM scaffold, SM-Te also exhibited similar temperature responsive behaviour. Importantly, the GPx catalytic rates of SM-Te displayed a noticeable temperature responsive characteristic. Moreover, SM-Te exhibited the typical saturation kinetics behaviour of a real enzyme catalyst. It was proved that the changes of the hydrophobic microenvironment and the pore size in the supramolecular microgel network of SM-Te played significant roles in altering the temperature responsive catalytic behaviour. The successful construction of SM-Te not only overcomes the insurmountable disadvantages existing in previous covalent bond crosslinked microgel artificial GPx but also bodes well for the development of novel intelligent antioxidant drugs. PMID:24652520

  1. The relationship between the agonist-induced activation and desensitization of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maudsley, S; Gent, J P; Findlay, J B C; Donnelly, D

    1998-01-01

    Repeated applications of neurokinin?A (NKA) to oocytes injected with 25?ng wild-type hNK2 receptor cRNA caused complete attenuation of second and subsequent NKA-induced responses while analogous experiments using repeated applications of GR64349 and [Nle10]NKA(4–10) resulted in no such desensitization. This behaviour has been previously attributed to the ability of the different ligands to stabilize different active conformations of the receptor that have differing susceptibilities to receptor kinases (Nemeth & Chollet, 1995).However, for Xenopus oocytes injected (into the nucleus) with 10?ng wild-type hNK2 receptor cDNA, a single 100?nM concentration of any of the three ligands resulted in complete desensitization to further concentrations.On the other hand, none of the ligands caused any desensitization in oocytes injected with 0.25?ng wild-type hNK2 receptor cRNA, even at concentrations up to 10??M.The two N-terminally truncated analogues of neurokinin?A have a lower efficacy than NKA and it is likely that it is this property which causes the observed differences in desensitization, rather than the formation of alternative active states of the receptor.The peak calcium-dependent chloride current is not a reliable measure of maximal receptor stimulation and efficacy is better measured in this system by studying agonist-induced desensitization.The specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 can enhance NKA and GR64349-mediated desensitization which suggests that agonist-induced desensitization involves the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and the subsequent down-regulation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, possibly by cross-talk to a second signalling pathway. PMID:9690859

  2. Topiramate protects against glutamate excitotoxicity via activating BDNF/TrkB-dependent ERK pathway in rodent hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Cao, Yong-Gang; Ji, Zhong; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Sun, Hong-Li

    2015-07-01

    Topiramate (TPM) was previously found to have neuroprotection against neuronal injury in epileptic and ischemic models. However, whether TPM protects against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in hippocampal neurons is elusive. Our present work aimed to evaluate the protective effect of TPM against glutamate toxicity in hippocampal neurons and further figure out the potential molecular mechanisms. The in vitro glutamate excitotoxic model was prepared with 125?M glutamate for 20min. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis and Hoechst 33342 staining were conducted to detect neuronal survival. The protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK), cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), Bcl-2, Bax and ?-actin were detected via Western blot assay. Our results demonstrated that TPM protected hippocampal neurons from glutamate toxicity. Meanwhile, the pretreatment of TPM for 10min significantly prevented the down-regulation of BDNF and the phosphorylation of TrkB. Furthermore, the elevation of phosphorylated EKR expression was significantly inhibited after blockade of TrkB by TrkB IgG, while no alterations of phosphorylated JNK and p38 MAPK were found in the cultured hippocampal neurons. Besides, it was also found that the enhanced phosphorylation of CREB was evidently reversed under excitotoxic conditions after treating with U0126 (the selective inhibitor of ERK). The protein level of Bcl-2 was also observed to be remarkably increased after TPM treatment. In conclusion, these findings implicate that TPM exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate excitotoxicity in hippocampal neurons and its protection may be modulated through BDNF/TrkB-dependent ERK pathway. PMID:25661849

  3. Temporal response of ectopic activity in guinea pig ventricular myocardium in response to isoproterenol and acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Greer-Short, Amara; Poelzing, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Both ? adrenergic and muscarinic receptor stimulation independently potentiate arrhythmogenesis. However, the effect of simultaneous stimulation on arrhythmogenesis is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal response of arrhythmia risk to individual and combined autonomic agonists. Guinea pig hearts were excised and Langendorff-perfused. The ? adrenergic receptor and muscarinic receptor agonists were isoproterenol (ISO, 0.6 ?M) and acetylcholine (ACh, 10 ?M), respectively. All measurements with agonists occurred over 21 min. ISO induced ectopic activity for the first 8 min. ISO also transiently shortened and then prolonged R-R interval over a similar time course. ACh added after ISO transiently induced ectopic activity for 12 min, while R-R interval invariantly prolonged. ACh alone produced few ectopic beats, while invariantly prolonging R-R interval. In contrast to ISO alone, ISO following ACh significantly increased ectopic activity and shortened R-R interval for the duration of the experiment. Animals aged 17–19 months exhibited sustained arrhythmogenesis while those aged 11–14 did not. When ACh was removed in older hearts while ISO perfused, a transient increase in ectopic activity and decreased R-R interval was observed, similar to ISO alone. These data suggest that pre-treating with and maintaining ACh perfusion can sustain ISO sensitivity, in contrast to ISO perfusion alone. PMID:26539122

  4. Two Chromatin Remodeling Activities Cooperate during Activation of Hormone Responsive Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Nacht, A. Silvina; Li, Ang; Font-Mateu, Jofre; Le Dily, Francois; Vermeulen, Michiel; Mann, Matthias; Beato, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormones regulate gene expression by interaction of their receptors with hormone responsive elements (HREs) and recruitment of kinases, chromatin remodeling complexes, and coregulators to their target promoters. Here we show that in breast cancer cells the BAF, but not the closely related PBAF complex, is required for progesterone induction of several target genes including MMTV, where it catalyzes localized displacement of histones H2A and H2B and subsequent NF1 binding. PCAF is also needed for induction of progesterone target genes and acetylates histone H3 at K14, an epigenetic mark that interacts with the BAF subunits by anchoring the complex to chromatin. In the absence of PCAF, full loading of target promoters with hormone receptors and BAF is precluded, and induction is compromised. Thus, activation of hormone-responsive promoters requires cooperation of at least two chromatin remodeling activities, BAF and PCAF. PMID:19609353

  5. Active disaster response system for a smart building.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Yen; Chu, Edward T-H; Ku, Lun-Wei; Liu, Jane W S

    2014-01-01

    Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS), which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m. PMID:25237897

  6. Active Disaster Response System for a Smart Building

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Yen; Chu, Edward T.-H; Ku, Lun-Wei; Liu, Jane W. S.

    2014-01-01

    Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS), which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m. PMID:25237897

  7. Translocation-independent activation of protein kinase C by platelet-activating factor, thrombin and prostacyclin. Lack of correlation with polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in rabbit platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Salari, H; Duronio, V; Howard, S; Demos, M; Pelech, S L

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis and protein kinase C (PKC) activation was explored in rabbit platelets treated with the agonists platelet-activating factor (PAF), thrombin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), and with the anti-aggregant prostacyclin (PGI2). Measurement of the hydrolysis of radiolabelled inositol-containing phospholipids relied upon the separation of the products [3H]inositol mono-, bis- and tris-phosphates by Dowex-1 chromatography. PKC activity, measured in platelet cytosolic and Nonidet-P40-solubilized particulate extracts that were fractionated by MonoQ chromatography, was based upon the ability of the enzyme to phosphorylate either histone H1 in the presence of the activators Ca2+, diacylglycerol and phosphatidylserine, or protamine in the absence of Ca2+ and lipid. Treatment of platelets for 1 min with PAF (2 nM) or thrombin (2 units/ml) led to the rapid hydrolysis of inositol-containing phospholipids, a 2-3-fold stimulation of both cytosolic and particulate-derived PKC activity, and platelet aggregation. Exposure to TPA (200 nM) for 5 min did not stimulate formation of phosphoinositides, but translocated more than 95% of cytosolic PKC into the particulate fraction, and induced a slower rate of aggregation. PGI2 (1 microgram/ml) did not enhance phosphoinositide production, and at higher concentrations (50 micrograms/ml) it antagonized the ability of PAF, but not that of thrombin, to induce inositol phospholipid turnover, even though platelet aggregation in response to both agonists was blocked by PGI2. On the other hand, PGI2 alone also appeared to activate (by 3-5-fold) cytosolic and particulate PKC by a translocation-independent mechanism. The activation of PKC by PGI2 was probably mediated via cyclic AMP (cAMP), as this effect was mimicked by the cAMP analogue 8-chlorophenylthio-cAMP. It is concluded that this novel mechanism of PKC regulation by platelet agonists may operate independently of polyphosphoinositide turnover, and that activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase represents another route leading to PKC activation. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2160234

  8. Stress responses in flavivirus-infected cells: activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is based on endoplasmic reticulum-derived structures. Membrane remodeling and accumulation of viral factors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that results in activation of a cellular signaling response termed unfolded protein response (UPR), which can be modulated by the viruses for their own benefit. Concomitant with the activation of the UPR, an upregulation of the autophagic pathway in cells infected with different flaviviruses has also been described. This review addresses the current knowledge of the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress, UPR, and autophagy in flavivirus-infected cells and the growing evidences for an involvement of these cellular pathways in the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses. PMID:24917859

  9. Dermatophytes activate skin keratinocytes via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and induce immune responses.

    PubMed

    Achterman, Rebecca R; Moyes, David L; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R; Blair, Kris M; White, Theodore C; Naglik, Julian R

    2015-04-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-?B and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  10. Dermatophytes Activate Skin Keratinocytes via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Induce Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Achterman, Rebecca R.; Moyes, David L.; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R.; Blair, Kris M.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-?B and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  11. Physcomitrella patens Activates Defense Responses against the Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Reboledo, Guillermo; Del Campo, Raquel; Alvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos; Mara, Héctor; Ponce de León, Inés

    2015-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is a suitable model plant to analyze the activation of defense mechanisms after pathogen assault. In this study, we show that Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from symptomatic citrus fruit infects P. patens and cause disease symptoms evidenced by browning and maceration of tissues. After C. gloeosporioides infection, P. patens reinforces the cell wall by the incorporation of phenolic compounds and induces the expression of a Dirigent-protein-like encoding gene that could lead to the formation of lignin-like polymers. C. gloeosporioides-inoculated protonemal cells show cytoplasmic collapse, browning of chloroplasts and modifications of the cell wall. Chloroplasts relocate in cells of infected tissues toward the initially infected C. gloeosporioides cells. P. patens also induces the expression of the defense genes PAL and CHS after fungal colonization. P. patens reporter lines harboring the auxin-inducible promoter from soybean (GmGH3) fused to ?-glucuronidase revealed an auxin response in protonemal tissues, cauloids and leaves of C. gloeosporioides-infected moss tissues, indicating the activation of auxin signaling. Thus, P. patens is an interesting plant to gain insight into defense mechanisms that have evolved in primitive land plants to cope with microbial pathogens. PMID:26389888

  12. Active Ageing in CIS Countries: Semantics, Challenges, and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sidorenko, Alexandre; Zaidi, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Although the CIS countries are connected together by the legacy of breaking away from the Soviet Union, they have had a distinctive transition course and are rather diverse in terms of the population ageing challenges and policy responses in place. The commonality is that a comprehensive national strategy on ageing is lacking, and many of necessary reforms were put aside owing to political uncertainties, lack of societal consensus, and financial instability. The notion of active ageing is associated with the term “accelerated ageing,” which is understood to be an individual living a life under harsh living conditions or a society experiencing rapid increases in the relative number of older persons, and therefore it carries a negative connotation. Yet, in the same spirit as the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations 2012, the CIS countries have initiated sectoral programmes towards enhancing employment of older workers, social participation of older people in the society in a wider sense and also measures promoting health and independent living of older persons. PMID:23346109

  13. Physcomitrella patens Activates Defense Responses against the Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    Reboledo, Guillermo; del Campo, Raquel; Alvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos; Mara, Héctor; Ponce de León, Inés

    2015-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is a suitable model plant to analyze the activation of defense mechanisms after pathogen assault. In this study, we show that Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from symptomatic citrus fruit infects P. patens and cause disease symptoms evidenced by browning and maceration of tissues. After C. gloeosporioides infection, P. patens reinforces the cell wall by the incorporation of phenolic compounds and induces the expression of a Dirigent-protein-like encoding gene that could lead to the formation of lignin-like polymers. C. gloeosporioides-inoculated protonemal cells show cytoplasmic collapse, browning of chloroplasts and modifications of the cell wall. Chloroplasts relocate in cells of infected tissues toward the initially infected C. gloeosporioides cells. P. patens also induces the expression of the defense genes PAL and CHS after fungal colonization. P. patens reporter lines harboring the auxin-inducible promoter from soybean (GmGH3) fused to ?-glucuronidase revealed an auxin response in protonemal tissues, cauloids and leaves of C. gloeosporioides-infected moss tissues, indicating the activation of auxin signaling. Thus, P. patens is an interesting plant to gain insight into defense mechanisms that have evolved in primitive land plants to cope with microbial pathogens. PMID:26389888

  14. Activated human neutrophil response to perfluorocarbon nanobubbles: oxygen-dependent and -independent cytotoxic responses.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Fang, Chia-Lang; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Yang, Li-Jia; Fang, Jia-You

    2011-06-10

    Nanobubbles, a type of nanoparticles with acoustically active properties, are being utilized as diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles to better understand, detect, and treat human diseases. The objective of this work was to prepare different nanobubble formulations and investigate their physicochemical characteristics and toxic responses to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-activated human neutrophils. The nanobubbles were prepared using perfluoropentane and coconut oil as the respective core and shell, with soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and/or cationic surfactants as the interfacial layers. The cytotoxic effect of the nanobubbles on neutrophils was determined by extracellular O?(.)? release, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and elastase release. Particle sizes of the nanobubbles with different percentages of perfluorocarbon, oil, and surfactants in ranged 186-432 nm. The nanobubbles were demonstrated to inhibit the generation of superoxide and intracellular ROS. The cytotoxicity of nanobubbles may be mainly associated with membrane damage, as indicated by the high LDH leakage. Systems with Forestall (FE), a cationic surfactant, or higher SPC contents exhibited the greatest LDH release by 3-fold compared to the control. The further addition of an oil component reduced the cytotoxicity induced by the nanobubbles. Exposure to most of the nanobubble formulations upregulated elastase release by activated neutrophils. Contrary to this result, stearylamine (SA)-containing systems slightly but significantly suppressed elastase release. FE and SA in a free form caused stronger responses by neutrophils than when they were incorporated into nanobubbles. In summary, exposure to nanobubbles resulted in a formulation-dependent toxicity toward human neutrophils that was associated with both oxygen-dependent and -independent pathways. Clinicians should therefore exercise caution when using nanobubbles in patients for diagnostic and drug targeting aims. PMID:21439357

  15. Cannabinoid Regulation of Serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) Receptor Signaling

    E-print Network

    Franklin, Jade Marie

    2013-08-31

    are positively coupled to the Extracellular Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling cascade which has been shown to regulate transcription factors, such as cyclic AMP response binding protein (CREB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), which have consensus sequences...

  16. Adrenalectomy mediated alterations in adrenergic activation of adenylate cyclase in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refai, M.; Chan, T.

    1986-05-01

    Adrenalectomy caused a large increase in the number of ..beta..-adrenergic binding sites on liver plasma membranes as measured by /sup 125/I-iodocyanopindolol (22 and 102 fmol/mg protein for control and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats). Concomitantly an increase in the number of binding sites for /sup 3/H-yohimbine was also observed (104 and 175 fmol/mg protein for control and adx membranes). Epinephrine-stimulated increase in cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated hepatocytes were greater in cells from ADX rats. This increase in ..beta..-adrenergic mediated action was much less than what may be expected as a result of the increase in the ..beta..-adrenergic binding in ADX membranes. In addition phenoxybenzamine (10 ..mu..M) further augmented this action of epinephrine in both control and ADX cells. To test the hypothesis that the increase in the number of the inhibitory ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in adrenalectomy is responsible for the muted ..beta..-adrenergic response, the authors injected rats with pertussis toxin (PT). This treatment may cause the in vivo ribosylation of the inhibitory binding protein (Ni). Adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in liver plasma membranes prepared from treated and untreated animals was measured. In contrast with control rats, treatment of ADX rats with PT resulted in a significant increase in the basal activity of AC (5.5 and 7.7 pmol/mg protein/min for untreated and treated rats respectively). Isoproterenol (10 ..mu..M), caused AC activity to increase to 6.5 and 8.4 pmol/mg protein/min for membranes obtained from ADX untreated and ADX treated rats respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists had no significant effect on the ..beta..-adrenergic-mediated activation of AC in liver plasma membranes from PT treated control and ADX rats. The authors conclude that the ..beta..-adrenergic activation of AC is attenuated by Ni protein both directly and as a result of activation of ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors.

  17. Regional brain activation and affective response to physical activity among healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Margaret; Graham, Dan; Grant, Arthur; King, Pamela; Cooper, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that frontal brain activation, assessed via electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts the post-exercise affective response to exercise among adults. Building on this evidence, the present study investigates the utility of resting cortical asymmetry for explaining variance in the affective response both during and after exercise at two different intensities among healthy adolescents. Resting EEG was obtained from 98 adolescents (55% male), who also completed two 30-minute exercise tasks on a cycle ergometer at a moderate and hard intensity. Affect (as measured by the Feeling Scale) was assessed prior to exercise, every 10 minutes during exercise, immediately post-exercise, and 10 minutes post-exercise. When moderate exercise was performed first, resting frontal cortical asymmetry was related to the affective response to moderate exercise, such that left-dominant adolescents reported more positive affect compared to right-dominant adolescents. When hard exercise was performed first, the association was not significant. The results are interpreted in light of current theory related to affect in response to exercise. PMID:19686800

  18. Title: Training Effects on Emergency Management Activation Response Subject Area: Social

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Title: Training Effects on Emergency Management Activation Response Subject Area: Social Keyword considered whether local and long-term emergency management training could produce different behavioral training on emergency management behavioral response. Individuals with higher levels of training engaged

  19. Neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex in response to male faces increases during the follicular phase

    E-print Network

    James, Thomas

    also demon- strated increased limbic system activation in response to erotic videos during mid. These increases in neural responses to appetitive stimuli such as money and erotic videos (Dreher et al., 2007

  20. 14-Deoxyandrographolide alleviates ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis through stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Samir; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Bandhopadhyay, Sukdeb; Sen, Gargi; Biswas, Tuli

    2014-03-01

    Andrographis paniculata (AP) is a traditional medicinal plant of Ayurveda. It grows widely in Asia and is prescribed in the treatment of liver diseases. Here we have investigated the beneficial role of 14-deoxyandrographolide (14-DAG), a bioactive diterpenoid from AP, against alcoholic steatosis in rats. 14-DAG was extracted from aerial parts (leaves and stems) of AP. Rats were fed with ethanol for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with 14-DAG during the last 4 weeks of ethanol treatment. In vitro studies were undertaken in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line culture. Hepatosteatosis was assessed from histopathological studies of liver sections. Acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and triglyceride contents were determined using commercially available kits. Fatty acid synthesis was evaluated from incorporation of 1-(14)C acetate. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis were monitored with immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation studies. Ethanol exposure led to hepatotoxicity, as evident from the marked enhancement in the levels of AST and ALT. The values decreased almost to control levels in response to 14-DAG treatment. Results showed that ethanol feeding induced deactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that led to enhanced lipid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation, culminating in hepatic fat accumulation. Treatment with 14-DAG activated AMPK through induction of cyclic AMP-protein kinase A pathway. Activation of AMPK was followed by down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase, leading to suppression of lipogenesis. This was associated with up-regulation of sirtuin 1 and depletion of malonyl-CoA, in favor of increased fatty acid oxidation. 14-DAG controlled ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis by interfering with dysregulation of lipid metabolism. In conclusion, our results indicated that 14-DAG was capable of preventing the development of fatty liver through AMPK-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism. This finding supported the hepatoprotective role of 14-DAG, which might serve as a therapeutic option to alleviate hepatosteatosis in chronic alcoholism. PMID:24507479

  1. 20 CFR 665.320 - May other activities be undertaken as part of rapid response?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management, review and evaluation of rapid response and layoff aversion efforts in the State. (c) Participate in capacity building activities, including providing information about innovative and...

  2. The Effect of Tip Geometry on Active-Twist Rotor Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2005-01-01

    A parametric examination of the effect of tip geometry on active-twist rotor system response is conducted. Tip geometry parameters considered include sweep, taper, anhedral, nonlinear twist, and the associated radial initiation location for each of these variables. A detailed study of the individual effect of each parameter on active-twist response is presented, and an assessment offered of the effect of combining multiple tip shape parameters. Tip sweep is shown to have the greatest affect on active-twist response, significantly decreasing the response available. Tip taper and anhedral are shown to increase moderately the active-twist response, while nonlinear twist is shown to have a minimal effect. A candidate tip shape that provides active-twist response equivalent to or greater than a rectangular planform blade is presented.

  3. Non-Critical-Care Nurses' Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Rapid Response Team Activation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sheryl Henry; Astroth, Kim Schafer; Woith, Wendy Mann

    2015-01-01

    Rapid response teams can save lives but are only effective when activated. We surveyed 50 nurses for their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to activation. Findings showed that participants need more education on their role and when to activate the rapid response team. Nurses who comprise the team need help building their communication skills. We recommend nursing professional development specialists increase the frequency of offerings and expand the focus on roles, activation criteria, and communication skills. PMID:26381336

  4. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS RESPONSE CRITERIA AND PATIENT-REPORTED IMPROVEMENT IN ARTHRITIS ACTIVITY: Is an ACR20 Response Meaningful to Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Michael M.; Guthrie, Lori C.; Alba, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response criteria (ACR20, ACR50, ACR70) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria with patient-reported improvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity. Methods We studied 250 patients with active RA before and after escalation of anti-rheumatic treatment in a prospective longitudinal study. We asked patients to report if they subjectively judged if they had experienced important improvement with treatment, and compared the proportion that reported improvement with the proportion that met ACR20, ACR50, ACR70, and EULAR responses. Results Improvement in overall arthritis status was reported by 167 patients (66.8%), while 107 patients (42.8%) had an ACR20 response, 52 (20.8%) had an ACR50 response, 24 (9.6%) had an ACR70 response, and 136 (54.4%) had a EULAR moderate/good response. An ACR20 response had a sensitivity of 0.57 and a specificity of 0.85 for clinically important improvement as judged by patients. Sensitivities of the ACR50, ACR70, and EULAR moderate/good responses were 0.30, 0.14, and 0.68, respectively, while their specificities were 0.97, 0.99, and 0.73, respectively. The ACR hybrid score with the highest sensitivity and specificity for important improvement was 19.99%. Conclusions Among patients with active RA, ACR20 responses are highly specific measures of improvement as judged by patients, but exclude a substantial proportion of patients who consider themselves improved. Response criteria are associated with, but not equivalent to, patient-perceived improvement. PMID:24838475

  5. Identification of a large bent DNA domain and binding sites for serum response factor adjacent to the NFI repeat cluster and enhancer region in the major IE94 promoter from simian cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y N; Jeang, K T; Chiou, C J; Chan, Y J; Pizzorno, M; Hayward, G S

    1993-01-01

    The major immediate-early (MIE) transactivator proteins of cytomegaloviruses (CMV) play a pivotal role in the initiation of virus-host cell interactions. Therefore, cis- and trans-acting factors influencing the expression of these proteins through their upstream promoter-enhancer regions are important determinants of the outcome of virus infection. S1 nuclease analysis and in vitro transcription assays with the MIE (or IE94) transcription unit of simian CMV (SCMV) (Colburn) revealed a single prominent mRNA start site associated with a canonical TATATAA motif. This initiator region lies adjacent to a 2,400-bp 5'-upstream noncoding sequence that encompasses a newly identified 1,000-bp (A+T)-rich segment containing intrinsically bent DNA (domain C), together with the previously described proximal cyclic AMP response element locus (domain A) and a tandemly repeated nuclear factor I binding site cluster (domain B). Deleted MIE reporter gene constructions containing domain A sequences only yield up to 4-fold stronger basal expression in Vero cells than the intact simian virus 40 promoter-enhancer region, and sequences from position -405 to -69 (ENH-A1) added to a minimal heterologous promoter produced a 50-fold increase of basal expression in an enhancer assay. In contrast, neither the nuclear factor I cluster nor the bent DNA region possessed basal enhancer properties and neither significantly modulated the basal activity of the ENH-A1 segment. A second segment of domain A from position -580 to -450 was also found to possess basal enhancer activity in various cell types. This ENH-A2 region contains three copies of a repeated element that includes the 10-bp palindromic sequence CCATATATGG, which resembles the core motif of serum response elements and proved to bind specifically to the cellular nuclear protein serum response transcription factor. Reporter gene constructions containing four tandem copies of these elements displayed up to 13-fold increased basal enhancer activity and 18-fold tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate responsiveness in U937 cells, but an ENH-A2 DNA segment encompassing two of the core serum response transcription factor binding sites failed to respond to serum induction in NIH 3T3 cells. Although there are overall similarities in the organizations of both the MIE enhancers and MIE transcription units among human CMV, SCMV, and murine CMV, the specific arrangements of repetitive motifs are quite different, and the bent DNA and ENH-A2 domains appear to be unique to SCMV. Images PMID:8380090

  6. Structure of catabolite activator protein with cobalt(II) and sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Ramya R.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2014-04-15

    The crystal structure of E. coli catabolite activator protein with bound cobalt(II) and sulfate ions at 1.97 Å resolution is reported. The crystal structure of cyclic AMP–catabolite activator protein (CAP) from Escherichia coli containing cobalt(II) chloride and ammonium sulfate is reported at 1.97 Å resolution. Each of the two CAP subunits in the asymmetric unit binds one cobalt(II) ion, in each case coordinated by N-terminal domain residues His19, His21 and Glu96 plus an additional acidic residue contributed via a crystal contact. The three identified N-terminal domain cobalt-binding residues are part of a region of CAP that is important for transcription activation at class II CAP-dependent promoters. Sulfate anions mediate additional crystal lattice contacts and occupy sites corresponding to DNA backbone phosphate positions in CAP–DNA complex structures.

  7. The influence of sensor orientation on activity-based rate responsive pacing. Sensor Orientation Study Group.

    PubMed

    Theres, H; Philippon, F; Melzer, C; Combs, W; Prest-Berg, K

    1998-11-01

    Piezoelectric activity-based rate responsive pacemakers are commonly implanted with the sensor facing inward. This study was conducted to assess the safe and effective rate response of an activity-based rate responsive pacemaker implanted with the sensor facing outward. A comparison were made to a previously studied patient group with sensor facing inward. Patient and pacemaker data was collected at predischarge and 2-month follow-up. Two-minute hall walks in conjunction with programmer-assisted rate response assessment were utilized to standardize initial rate response parameter settings for both patient groups. At 2-month follow-up, sensor rate response to a stage 3 limited CAEP protocol was recorded. Adequate sensor rate response was achieved for both patient groups. No difference was noted in reported patient complications for both groups. A statistically significant difference in programmed rate response curve setting and activity threshold for the two groups was noted at 2-month follow-up. Adequate sensor rate response was achieved for a patient population implanted with an activity-based rate responsive pacemaker with sensor facing outward. In this orientation, one higher rate response curve setting and an activity threshold one value more sensitive were required on average when compared to the normal sensor orientation group. PMID:9826862

  8. The Ability To Activate and Inhibit Speeded Responses: Separate Developmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Band, Guido P. H.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Overtoom, Carin C. E.; Verbaten, Marinus N.

    2000-01-01

    Compared 5-, 8-, and 11-year-olds and young adults on 6 speeded performance tasks, 4 requiring an inhibition of response activation. Analyzed reaction and inhibition times; found support for hypothesis of generalized developmental changes in response activation, but revealed less pronounced development of inhibition. Concluded that a nonselective…

  9. Photosynthetic activity of US biomes: responses to the spatial variability and seasonality of precipitation

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    Photosynthetic activity of US biomes: responses to the spatial variability and seasonality­2000) for six biomes in the conterminous United States. We focused on within- and across-biome variance in long activity. Forested and nonforested biomes differed sharply in their response to spatial gradients

  10. Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator in stress responsivity during acute cocaine withdrawal in mice

    E-print Network

    Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator in stress responsivity during acute cocaine withdrawal to stress responsivity during cocaine withdrawal (WD). Recent studies suggest that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the CeA is a downstream effector protein for CRF after acute "binge" cocaine

  11. 29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities. (a) Section 7(o)(3)(A) of the FLSA provides that an employee... response activity” as used in section 7(o)(3)(A) of the Act includes dispatching of emergency vehicles and... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPublic safetyâ, âemergency responseâ, and...

  12. 29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities. (a) Section 7(o)(3)(A) of the FLSA provides that an employee... response activity” as used in section 7(o)(3)(A) of the Act includes dispatching of emergency vehicles and... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPublic safetyâ, âemergency responseâ, and...

  13. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  14. Direct activation of the Mauthner cell by electric field pulses drives ultrarapid escape responses

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Kathryn M.; Bergeron, Sadie A.; Horstick, Eric J.; Jordan, Diana C.; Aho, Vilma; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Haspel, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Rapid escape swims in fish are initiated by the Mauthner cells, giant reticulospinal neurons with unique specializations for swift responses. The Mauthner cells directly activate motoneurons and facilitate predator detection by integrating acoustic, mechanosensory, and visual stimuli. In addition, larval fish show well-coordinated escape responses when exposed to electric field pulses (EFPs). Sensitization of the Mauthner cell by genetic overexpression of the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN5 increased EFP responsiveness, whereas Mauthner ablation with an engineered variant of nitroreductase with increased activity (epNTR) eliminated the response. The reaction time to EFPs is extremely short, with many responses initiated within 2 ms of the EFP. Large neurons, such as Mauthner cells, show heightened sensitivity to extracellular voltage gradients. We therefore tested whether the rapid response to EFPs was due to direct activation of the Mauthner cells, bypassing delays imposed by stimulus detection and transmission by sensory cells. Consistent with this, calcium imaging indicated that EFPs robustly activated the Mauthner cell but only rarely fired other reticulospinal neurons. Further supporting this idea, pharmacological blockade of synaptic transmission in zebrafish did not affect Mauthner cell activity in response to EFPs. Moreover, Mauthner cells transgenically expressing a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel retained responses to EFPs despite TTX suppression of action potentials in the rest of the brain. We propose that EFPs directly activate Mauthner cells because of their large size, thereby driving ultrarapid escape responses in fish. PMID:24848468

  15. Direct activation of the Mauthner cell by electric field pulses drives ultrarapid escape responses.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Kathryn M; Bergeron, Sadie A; Horstick, Eric J; Jordan, Diana C; Aho, Vilma; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Haspel, Gal; Burgess, Harold A

    2014-08-15

    Rapid escape swims in fish are initiated by the Mauthner cells, giant reticulospinal neurons with unique specializations for swift responses. The Mauthner cells directly activate motoneurons and facilitate predator detection by integrating acoustic, mechanosensory, and visual stimuli. In addition, larval fish show well-coordinated escape responses when exposed to electric field pulses (EFPs). Sensitization of the Mauthner cell by genetic overexpression of the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN5 increased EFP responsiveness, whereas Mauthner ablation with an engineered variant of nitroreductase with increased activity (epNTR) eliminated the response. The reaction time to EFPs is extremely short, with many responses initiated within 2 ms of the EFP. Large neurons, such as Mauthner cells, show heightened sensitivity to extracellular voltage gradients. We therefore tested whether the rapid response to EFPs was due to direct activation of the Mauthner cells, bypassing delays imposed by stimulus detection and transmission by sensory cells. Consistent with this, calcium imaging indicated that EFPs robustly activated the Mauthner cell but only rarely fired other reticulospinal neurons. Further supporting this idea, pharmacological blockade of synaptic transmission in zebrafish did not affect Mauthner cell activity in response to EFPs. Moreover, Mauthner cells transgenically expressing a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel retained responses to EFPs despite TTX suppression of action potentials in the rest of the brain. We propose that EFPs directly activate Mauthner cells because of their large size, thereby driving ultrarapid escape responses in fish. PMID:24848468

  16. Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.

    PubMed

    Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

    2014-07-01

    Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

  17. Assessment of response fluctuations in Parkinson's disease by ambulatory wrist activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    van Hilten, J J; Kabel, J F; Middelkoop, H A; Kramer, C G; Kerkhof, G A; Roos, R A

    1993-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of response fluctuations with dyskinesia on the 24-h motor activity pattern and measures of diurnal and nocturnal activity and immobility. Motor activity was recorded during 5 successive days in 5 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) suffering from severe response fluctuations with dyskinesia, as well as in 10 PD patients with a stable levodopa response and 10 healthy subjects. The 24-h motor activity pattern of the patients with response fluctuations provides insight into the relationship between the therapeutic regimen and 1) the frequency and duration of "on" and "off" periods, 2) the severity of the dyskinesias, and 3) the degree of sleep disruption. In accordance with the severity of their motor fluctuations, patients with response fluctuations showed a large intra- and interindividual variability of diurnal motor activity measures. Overall, the nocturnal motor activity measures in the patients with response fluctuations indicated a severely disturbed sleep when compared with the two control groups. Factors as simplicity and the potential to record unrestrained motor activity for several days continuously in all settings, make activity monitoring a welcomed acquisition in the assessment of response fluctuations in PD. PMID:8475685

  18. WATER: Water Activities Teaching Environmental Responsibility: Teacher Resource, Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Ed, Ed.; And Others

    This activity book was developed as part of an effort to protect water quality of the Stillwater River, Ohio, through a Watershed Protection Project. It is designed to raise teachers' and students' awareness and trigger a sense of stewardship towards the preservation of water resources. The activities are generally appropriate for elementary age…

  19. Methods to detect cell surface expression and constitutive activity of GPR6

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Balakrishna M.; Hollins, Bettye; Lambert, Nevin A.

    2014-01-01

    GPR6 is a constitutively active Gs-coupled receptor that can signal from intracellular compartments. We present different methods used to study cell surface expression of receptors and other membrane proteins. A comparison of these methods shows that methods based on susceptibility to proteolytic enzymes are more efficient at providing estimates of cell surface expression than the commonly used cell-surface biotinylation method. We also present different methods that can be used to detect constitutive activity of Gs-coupled receptors. Imaging based assays to detect intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation are well suited to study signaling at a single cell level. These assays are particularly useful when the cells of interest form a small fraction of the culture such as primary cultures with low transfection efficiency. PMID:21036233

  20. Antithrombotic activity of BMY-43351, a new imidazoquinoline with enhanced aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J S; Buchanan, J O; Seiler, S M; Meanwell, N A

    1991-07-01

    BMY-43351 is a new broad-spectrum inhibitor of platelet aggregation with greater aqueous solubility than earlier analogs from the imidazoquinoline series. This report compares the antithrombotic activity of BMY-43351 to that of two other imidazoquinolines: BMY-20844, a simply-substituted compound, and BMY-21638, a more potent ether-linked side chain analog. All of these compounds act, at least in part, via inhibition of platelet low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Antithrombotic activity was assessed in the rabbit ear chamber-biolaser preparation, an animal model of small vessel thrombosis, and in the canine coronary artery stenosis-occlusion model of large vessel thrombosis. BMY-43351 was found to be remarkably potent in the biolaser model, with an EDso of 0.074 mg/kg p.o. In comparison, compounds such as aspirin, ticlopidine, sulfinpyrazone, and dipyridamole demonstrate little or no activity at much higher doses, (eg. 100 mg/kg p.o.). Other inhibitors of platelet low Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase are active but substantially weaker than BMY-43351. Similarly, in the coronary artery stenosis-occlusion model, BMY-43351 demonstrated impressive activity, significantly inhibiting arterial thrombosis at intraduodenal doses as low as 1 micrograms/kg. The potential use of BMY-43351 as adjunct therapy in thrombolysis was suggested in a series of experiments where this drug was used in combination with a thrombolytic regimen of stretokinase plus heparin. In this experimental setting, time to reperfusion was reduced from 42 +/- 5 minutes to 11 +/- 5 minutes, and reocclusion was totally inhibited. PMID:1948816

  1. Plantar Temperature Response to Walking in Diabetes with and without Acute Charcot: The Charcot Activity Response Test.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Bijan; Wrobel, James S; Grewal, Gurtej; Menzies, Robert A; Talal, Talal K; Zirie, Mahmoud; Armstrong, David G

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Asymmetric plantar temperature differences secondary to inflammation is a hallmark for the diagnosis and treatment response of Charcot foot syndrome. However, little attention has been given to temperature response to activity. We examined dynamic changes in plantar temperature (PT) as a function of graduated walking activity to quantify thermal responses during the first 200 steps. Methods. Fifteen individuals with Acute Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) and 17 non-CN participants with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy were recruited. All participants walked for two predefined paths of 50 and 150 steps. A thermal image was acquired at baseline after acclimatization and immediately after each walking trial. The PT response as a function of number of steps was examined using a validated wearable sensor technology. The hot spot temperature was identified by the 95th percentile of measured temperature at each anatomical region (hind/mid/forefoot). Results. During initial activity, the PT was reduced in all participants, but the temperature drop for the nonaffected foot was 1.9 times greater than the affected side in CN group (P = 0.04). Interestingly, the PT in CN was sharply increased after 50 steps for both feet, while no difference was observed in non-CN between 50 and 200 steps. Conclusions. The variability in thermal response to the graduated walking activity between Charcot and non-Charcot feet warrants future investigation to provide further insight into the correlation between thermal response and ulcer/Charcot development. This stress test may be helpful to differentiate CN and its response to treatment earlier in its course. PMID:22900177

  2. Cyclic AMP regulation of messenger RNA level of the stimulatory GTP-binding protein Gs alpha. Isoproterenol, forskolin and 8-bromoadenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate increase the level of Gs alpha mRNA in cultured astroglial cells.

    PubMed

    Dib, K; el Jamali, A; Jacquemin, C; Corrèze, C

    1994-01-15

    The existence of a cAMP-dependent regulation of the expression of the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gs) in a well characterized astroglial cells culture was established. The culture of astroglial cells for 3-6 h with isoproterenol (10 microM) or forskolin (10 microM) (a cAMP-inducing agent) increased (200-400%) the response of adenylylcyclase to agents which bypass the receptor; GTP, GTP[S] or forskolin. For prolonged exposure times (15 h or more) to isoproterenol or forskolin, the adenylycyclase activity decreased to the value observed in control cells. The same biphasic response of adenylylcyclase to isoproterenol (10 microM) plus GTP (10 microM) occurred in membrane fractions from cells cultured with forskolin, whereas a diminished response to isoproterenol was observed in isoproterenol-treated cells, indicating that the beta-adrenergic receptor was desensitized. To understand the molecular mechanism of these phenomena, we measured the levels of the alpha subunits of the guanine-nucleotide binding protein (Gs and Gi) by Western-blot analysis. The culture of astroglial cells with isoproterenol or forskolin (3-24 h) resulted in a transient increase of both the Gs alpha and the Gi alpha protein levels, while the level of G beta subunits was unaffected. We also identified Gs alpha protein (about 40% of the total cellular protein) in the supernatant fraction of astroglial cells but its level was not modified by the stimulation of cells by forskolin. The level of Gs alpha mRNA measured by Northern-blot analysis was transiently increased (200%) after stimulation of astroglial cells with isoproterenol or forskolin for an incubation period of 6-9 h, then returned to that of control cells for longer period of time. In addition, the Gs alpha mRNA level was threefold increased when cells were cultured for 2-6 h with 8-bromoadenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (10 microM), a permeant analogue of cAMP. These results indicate that cAMP induces a time-dependent increase of Gs alpha mRNA. The half-life of Gs alpha protein and Gs alpha mRNA were determined. Pulse-chase studies revealed that the decay of Gs alpha protein was clearly biphasic with an early phase (5-6 h) and a slower second phase (20-25 h) but the treatment of cells with forskolin did not accelerate or slow down the turnover of Gs alpha protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7508389

  3. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  4. Temporal coupling between stimulus-evoked neural activity and hemodynamic responses from individual cortical columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyns-Haylett, Michael; Zheng, Ying; Berwick, Jason; Jones, Myles

    2010-04-01

    Using previously published data from the whisker barrel cortex of anesthetized rodents (Berwick et al 2008 J. Neurophysiol. 99 787-98) we investigated whether highly spatially localized stimulus-evoked cortical hemodynamics responses displayed a linear time-invariant (LTI) relationship with neural activity. Presentation of stimuli to individual whiskers of 2 s and 16 s durations produced hemodynamics and neural activity spatially localized to individual cortical columns. Two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy (2D-OIS) measured hemoglobin responses, while multi-laminar electrophysiology recorded neural activity. Hemoglobin responses to 2 s stimuli were deconvolved with underlying evoked neural activity to estimate impulse response functions which were then convolved with neural activity evoked by 16 s stimuli to generate predictions of hemodynamic responses. An LTI system more adequately described the temporal neuro-hemodynamics coupling relationship for these spatially localized sensory stimuli than in previous studies that activated the entire whisker cortex. An inability to predict the magnitude of an initial 'peak' in the total and oxy- hemoglobin responses was alleviated when excluding responses influenced by overlying arterial components. However, this did not improve estimation of the hemodynamic responses return to baseline post-stimulus cessation.

  5. Factors Predicting Behavioral Response to a Physical Activity Intervention among Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…

  6. Programmable Downregulation of Enzyme Activity Using a Fever and NIR-Responsive Molecularly Imprinted Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Faming; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-12-01

    A fever and NIR-responsive molecularly imprinted nanocomposite is designed for programmable downregulation of enzyme activity. The target enzyme can be captured specifically and its activity can be downregulated only when body temperature increases abnormally. Upon NIR irradiation, the temperature of the destination region can increase accordingly inducing a further decrease in the enzyme activity. PMID:26488826

  7. Leadership Opportunities in the Context of Responsiveness to Intervention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehren, Tom C.; Whitmire, Kathleen A.

    2005-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in the schools have been responsible for the evaluation and treatment of students with language disabilities. Treatment has been primarily provided outside of the classroom in small groups. Regular educators and SLPs have not generally collaborated about students who have not already been identified as…

  8. Dorsal cochlear nucleus response properties following acoustic trauma: Response maps and spontaneous activity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-Li Diana; Young, Eric D.

    2006-01-01

    Recordings from single neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) of unanesthetized (decerebrate) cats were done to characterize the effects of acoustic trauma. Trauma was produced by a 250 Hz band of noise centered at 10 kHz, presented at 105–120 dB SPL for 4 h. After a one-month recovery period, neurons were recorded in the DCN. The threshold shift, determined from compound action-potential audiograms, showed a sharp threshold elevation of about 60 dB at BFs above an edge frequency of 5–10 kHz. The response maps of neurons with best frequencies (BFs) above the edge did not show the typical organization of excitatory and inhibitory areas seen in the DCN of unexposed animals. Instead, neurons showed no response to sound, weak responses that were hard to tune and characterize, or “tail” responses, consisting of broadly-tuned, predominantly excitatory responses, with a roughly low-pass shape similar to the tuning curves of auditory nerve fibers with similar threshold shifts. In some tail responses whose BFs were near the edge of the threshold elevation, a second weak high-frequency response was seen that suggests convergence of auditory nerve inputs with widely separated BFs on these cells. Spontaneous rates among neurons with elevated thresholds were not increased over those in populations of principal neurons in unexposed animals. PMID:16630701

  9. Nonconscious activation of placebo and nocebo pain responses

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Karin B.

    The dominant theories of human placebo effects rely on a notion that consciously perceptible cues, such as verbal information or distinct stimuli in classical conditioning, provide signals that activate placebo effects. ...

  10. Bald Eagle response to boating activity in northcentral Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    I examined the effects of weekend and weekday boating activity on Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) use of three lakes in northcentral Florida during 1988-89. On Lake Lochloosa, which had the highest number of boats of the three lakes, boating activity significantly reduced the numbers of all age classes of eagles using the lake (P < 0.025). Increased boating activity on Lake Wauberg was not related to use by eagles (P = 0.06) likely because boating activity was concentrated during midday while eagles typically foraged early and late in the day. On Newnan's Lake, the number of eagles observed also was not different between weekends and weekdays (P = 0.20). Weekend boating activity did not relate to perch use, habitat use, interactions or age distribution indicating no alteration of eagle behavior patterns. Flush distance did not vary between weekends and weekdays (P = 0.96), but did vary by month (P = 0.0001), with a greater flush distance during months with highest boating activity. Minimal flush distances (x?? = 53m) and lack of measurable effects on behavior suggested that eagles in my study area were tolerant of boat disturbance.

  11. 75 FR 17710 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ...This document announces the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) responses to Agency Clearance requests, in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et. seq.). An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for EPA regulations are......

  12. 76 FR 55664 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...This document announces the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) responses to Agency Clearance requests, in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for EPA regulations are......

  13. 77 FR 56200 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ...This document announces the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) responses to Agency Clearance requests, in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for EPA regulations are......

  14. 75 FR 68354 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...This document announces the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) responses to Agency Clearance requests, in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for EPA regulations are......

  15. 75 FR 25850 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...This document announces the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) responses to Agency Clearance requests, in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et. Seq.). An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for EPA regulations are......

  16. 75 FR 6654 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...This document announces the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) responses to Agency Clearance requests, in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for EPA regulations are......

  17. 77 FR 1065 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ...This document announces the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) responses to Agency Clearance requests, in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for EPA regulations are......

  18. Mechanical response to noradrenaline in calcium-free solution in the rat vas deferens.

    PubMed Central

    Ashoori, F; Tomita, T

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical responses to noradrenaline (NA) were investigated in the rat vas deferens exposed to Ca-free solution containing 0.5 mM-EGTA. A tonic response was produced in Ca-free solution at the epididymal portion, while almost no response could be observed at the prostatic portion. In most experiments NA (10(-4) M) was applied for 4 min, every 20 min. The absolute tension development in Ca-free solution was usually 60-80% of the control tonic response in the presence of 2.4 mM-Ca. The response could be produced repeatedly, even after exposure to Ca-free solution for more than 20 hr, without a significant decrease. During the first hour of exposure to Ca-free solution, the rate of rise and the magnitude of the NA contraction increased and then remained constant, though the relaxation became slow. Transient treatment with 2.4 mM-Ca slightly suppressed the subsequent NA response in Ca-free solution. Similarly, the NA response was smaller during readmission of 0.2-0.5 mM-Ca than that obtained before Ca readmission. A high concentration of verapamil (2 X 10(-4) M) reversibly reduced the NA response by about 70% after 30 min. Theophylline (10 mM) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10(-4) M) also reversibly suppressed the NA response, the suppression being about 80%. None of these substances produced a tension change by themselves. The suppressing effect may be mediated via an increase of intracellular cyclic AMP which reduces phosphorylation of myosin. Caffeine (10 mM) and dibutyryl cyclic GMP (10(-4) M) had similar but much weaker effects than theophylline and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. A calmodulin antagonist, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulphonamide (W-7) slowly reduced the NA response. The block was nearly complete after 30 min treatment with 3 X 10(-4) M-W-7, and the recovery was very poor after prolonged exposure. This effect of W-7, which is the same in the presence and absence of Ca, suggests that a Ca-calmodulin reaction is involved in the NA response in Ca-free solution. Fluoride at a concentration higher than 3 mM increased the muscle tone in the absence of external Ca, and transiently potentiated the NA response. In the presence of F-, the relaxation of the NA response was incomplete and the muscle tone increased stepwise after each NA application. When the muscle tone became higher than the NA response in the absence of F-, the NA response was abolished. The action of several metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonylcyanide chlorophenyl hydrazone, NaCN, monoiodoacetate) was similar to that of F-, suggesting that they release Ca from mitochondria, causing tension development. The observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the contraction of the vas deferens caused by NA in the absence of external Ca depends on the availability of intracellular Ca, stored in mitochondria and released by NA. PMID:6308244

  19. [A model for studying the transmission of information produced by certain growth factors: activation mechanisms of S6 kinase in cultured astrocytes].

    PubMed

    Toru-Delbauffe, D; Gavaret, J M; Matricon, C; Pomerance, M; Jacquemin, C; Pierre, M

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of cultured astrocytes from 2-day-old rat cerebral hemispheres with insulin, somatomedin C (IGF1), thrombin and acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors promoted a rapid activation of a cytosolic protein kinase (S6 kinase) which phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6. The phorbol ester (TPA) also triggered a rapid increase in S6 kinase activity. Two agonists of adenylate cyclase activity (forskolin and isoproterenol) and the cyclic AMP analog (dibutyryl cAMP) also stimulated the same S6 kinase. These observations support the idea that several pathways might promote the activation of the same entity that is regarded as one of the primary targets of signals elicited by growth factors. PMID:2629775

  20. Some experiences with active control of aeroelastic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Abel, I.

    1981-01-01

    Flight and wind tunnel tests were conducted and multidiscipline computer programs were developed as part of investigations of active control technology conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Unsteady aerodynamics approximation, optimal control theory, optimal controller design, and the Delta wing and DC-10 models are described. The drones for aerodynamics and structural testing (DAST program) for evaluating procedures for aerodynamic loads prediction and the design of active control systems on wings with significant aeroelastic effects is described as well as the DAST model used in the wind tunnel tests.

  1. Manatee response to boating activity in a thermal refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckingham, C.A.; Lefebvre, L.W.; Schaefer, J.M.; Kochman, H.I.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal refuges are important for the endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) during winter cold periods in temperate latitudes. However, little research has examined impacts on manatees from human disturbance during these critical periods. We studied the effect of recreational boating activity on manatee use of established sanctuaries in the natural thermal refuge created by warm-water springs in Kings Bay, Crystal River, Florida. We examined the relationship among manatee use of the study area and sanctuaries, temperature, and level of boating activity. Manatees continued to use the Bay regardless of the number of boats present; however, their use of sanctuaries in the southern portion of the Bay increased (P<0.001) as number of boats increased. Temperature, as expected, was inversely related to manatee use of the study area. Human activity patterns were variable, with significantly greater numbers of boats in the study area on weekends (x??=32.7, SE=2.71) than on weekdays (x??=10.7, SE=1.23). We concluded that recreational boating influenced manatee distribution, sanctuaries are important to manatees in Kings Bay, and sanctuaries are an effective management tool to reduce the impact of boating activities on manatees.

  2. ISS Update: Active Response Gravity Offload System -- 08.24.12 - Duration: 5 minutes, 35 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks to the Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) Project Manager Larry Dungan in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center in Hou...

  3. Spatial and temporal winter territory use and behavioral responses of whooping cranes to human activities 

    E-print Network

    LaFever, Kristin E.

    2009-06-02

    I investigated spatial and temporal winter behavior and behavioral responses of 5 territorial whooping crane families to human activities at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge during winters 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. Adult and juvenile cranes spent...

  4. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial... Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities.'' DATES: Submit written comments... collection of information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill...

  5. Differential activation of bovine T lymphocyte subpopulations in response to mitogen and superantigen stimulation 

    E-print Network

    Keahey, Jennifer Leigh

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the response of bovine CD4?, CD8?, and TCR ?[] T lymphocytes to activation with the mitogens concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and the superantigens Staphylococcus enterotoxin A (SEA...

  6. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of estrogen responsive genes in breast cancer cells 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chien-Cheng

    2009-06-02

    Estrogen receptor (ER) acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes. The genomic mechanisms of ER action include ligand-induced dimerization of ER which binds estrogen responsive ...

  7. Complexity of the primary genetic response to mitogenic activation of human T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zipfel, P F; Irving, S G; Kelly, K; Siebenlist, U

    1989-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of more than 60 novel cDNA clones that constitute part of the immediate genetic response to resting human peripheral blood T cells after mitogen activation. This primary response was highly complex, both in the absolute number of inducible genes and in the diversity of regulation. Although most of the genes expressed in activated T cells were shared with the activation response of normal human fibroblasts, a significant number were more restricted in tissue specificity and thus likely encode or effect the differentiated functions of activated T cells. The activatable genes could be further differentiated on the basis of kinetics of induction, response to cycloheximide, and sensitivity to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. It is of note that cyclosporin A inhibited the expression of more than 10 inducible genes, which suggests that this drug has a broad genetic mechanism of action. Images PMID:2498643

  8. Complexity of the primary genetic response to mitogenic activation of human T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zipfel, P.F.; Siebenlist, U. ); Irving, S.G.; Kelly, K. )

    1989-03-01

    The authors describe the isolation and characterization of more than 60 novel cDNA clones that constitute part of the immediate genetic response to resting human peripheral blood T cells after mitogen activation. This primary response was highly complex, both in the absolute number of inducible genes and in the diversity of regulation. Although most of the genes expressed in activated T cells were shared with the activation response of normal human fibroblasts, a significant number were more restricted in tissue specificity and thus likely encode or effect the differentiated functions of activated T cells. The activatable genes could be further differentiated on the basis of kinetics of induction, response to cycloheximide, and sensitivity to the immunosuppressive drug cylcosporin A. It is of note that cyclosporin A inhibited the expression of more than 10 inducible genes, which suggests that this drug has a broad genetic mechanism of action.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate mediates activation of the carbohydrate responsive binding protein (ChREBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming V.; Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 ; Chen, Weiqin; Harmancey, Romain N.; Nuotio-Antar, Alli M.; Imamura, Minako; Saha, Pradip; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chan, Lawrence; Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030; St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX 77030

    2010-05-07

    Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a Mondo family transcription factor that activates a number of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose stimulation. We have previously reported that high glucose can activate the transcriptional activity of ChREBP independent of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated increase in nuclear entry and DNA binding. Here, we found that formation of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) is essential for glucose activation of ChREBP. The glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP is attenuated by D-mannoheptulose, a potent hexokinase inhibitor, as well as over-expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase); kinetics of activation of GAL4-ChREBP can be modified by exogenously expressed GCK. Further metabolism of G-6-P through the two major glucose metabolic pathways, glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway, is not required for activation of ChREBP; over-expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) diminishes, whereas RNAi knockdown of the enzyme enhances, the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP, respectively. Moreover, the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), which is phosphorylated by hexokinase, but not further metabolized, effectively upregulates the transcription activity of ChREBP. In addition, over-expression of phosphofructokinase (PFK) 1 and 2, synergistically diminishes the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP. These multiple lines of evidence support the conclusion that G-6-P mediates the activation of ChREBP.

  10. Hemoglobin Receptor Protein from Porphyromonas gingivalis Induces Interleukin-8 Production in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells through Stimulation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and NF-?B Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yuki; Nakayama, Masaaki; Naito, Mariko; Yamachika, Eiki; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Nakayama, Koji; Iida, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of polymicrobial origin affecting the tissues supporting the tooth. The oral anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is implicated as an important pathogen for chronic periodontitis, triggers a series of host inflammatory responses that promote the destruction of periodontal tissues. Among the virulence factors of P. gingivalis, hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR) is a major protein found in culture supernatants. In this study, we investigated the roles of HbR in the production of inflammatory mediators. We found that HbR induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in the human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) were activated in HbR-stimulated Ca9-22 cells. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580) and Erk1/2 (PD98059) blocked HbR-induced IL-8 production. Additionally, HbR stimulated the translocation of NF-?B-p65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-?B pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) or cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) inhibited HbR-induced IL-8 production. Moreover, pretreatment with SB203580 and PD98059 reduced HbR-induced phosphorylation of CREB and ATF-2, respectively. Combined pretreatment with an inhibitor of NF-?B (BAY11-7082) and SB203580 was more efficient in inhibiting the ability of HbR to induce IL-8 production than pretreatment with either BAY11-7082 or SB203580 alone. Thus, in Ca9-22 cells, the direct activation of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 by HbR caused the activation of the transcription factors ATF-2, CREB, and NF-?B, thus resulting in the induction of IL-8 production. PMID:24126532

  11. Neuropathic pain in aged rats: behavioral responses and astrocytic activation.

    PubMed

    Stuesse, S L; Crisp, T; McBurney, D L; Schechter, J B; Lovell, J A; Cruce, W L

    2001-03-01

    We used the Bennett and Xie (1988) model of chronic neuropathic pain to study the effect of age on thermal and tactile sensitivity and on astrocytic activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord after nerve injury. Fischer 344 FBNF1 hybrid rats in three age groups, 4-6, 14-16, and 24-26 months, were studied. Rats were either unligated (day 0, control) or the left sciatic nerve was loosely ligated to cause a chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI causes a neuropathic pain condition characterized by tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Rats were behaviorally assessed for tactile and thermal sensitivity of their ligated and unligated hind paws up to 35 days postligation. Rats were sacrificed before or at various days postligation, and activated astrocytes were identified at the L4-L5 levels of their spinal cords by use of an antibody to glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). The number of GFAP-ir astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the control, uninjured condition decreased with age (P < or = 0.001) but increased after CCI in all three age groups. After CCI, astrocytic activation in the cord was less robust in aged rats than in younger ones (P < or = 0.01). Not all the CCI rats displayed hyperalgesia to touch and to heat. Rats with an increased sensitivity to heat had increased levels of GFAP-ir in their cords; however, rats with decreased thermal sensitivity also displayed increased GFAP-ir. Thus the presence of activated astrocytes was not correlated with a single behavioral manifestation of neuropathic pain. PMID:11315551

  12. The Response of US College Enrollment to Unexpected Changes in Macroeconomic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Kris M.; Beckert, Kim A.; Ewing, Bradley T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the extent and magnitude of US college and university enrollment responses to unanticipated changes in macroeconomic activity. In particular, we consider the relationship between enrollment, economic growth, and inflation. A time series analysis known as a vector autoregression is estimated and impulse response functions are…

  13. ENDOCRINE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND DOSE-RESPONSE FOR INDIVIDUALS AND POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine Active Substances and Dose-Response for Individuals and Populations
    Hugh A. Barton

    Abstract for IUPAC-SCOPE article

    Dose-response characteristics for endocrine disruption have been major focuses in efforts to understand potential impacts on human and ec...

  14. The Responses of Preschoolers with Cochlear Implants to Musical Activities: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraer-Joiner, Lyn E.; Chen-Hafteck, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the musical experiences of preschool cochlear implant users. Research objectives were to examine: (1) musical, social and emotional responses to activities; and (2) whether length of experience with the implant influenced responses. Participants were three prelingually deafened children, age 4,…

  15. How to Stop and Change a Response: The Role of Goal Activation in Multitasking

    E-print Network

    Logan, Gordon D.

    How to Stop and Change a Response: The Role of Goal Activation in Multitasking Frederick Verbruggen Multitasking was studied in the stop-change paradigm, in which the response for a primary GO1 task had inhibition, executive control, goals, stop-signal paradigm, dual-task performance Multitasking is a common

  16. Tissue plasminogen activator modulates the cellular and behavioral response to cocaine

    E-print Network

    Tissue plasminogen activator modulates the cellular and behavioral response to cocaine Rajani, 2008 (received for review April 6, 2008) Cocaine exposure induces long-lasting molecular and structural protease involved in neuronal plasticity, modulates the biochemical and behavioral response to cocaine

  17. 34 CFR 1100.31 - Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship... LITERACY NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY: LITERACY LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Fellow? § 1100.31 Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship activities? (a) All...

  18. 34 CFR 1100.31 - Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship... LITERACY NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY: LITERACY LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Fellow? § 1100.31 Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship activities? (a) All...

  19. 34 CFR 1100.31 - Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship... LITERACY NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY: LITERACY LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Fellow? § 1100.31 Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship activities? (a) All...

  20. Resting lateralized activity predicts the cortical response and appraisal of emotions: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Grippa, Elisabetta; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs negative stimuli (IAPS). Lateralized index response during resting state, LI (lateralized index) during emotional processing and self-assessment manikin rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore, resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. PMID:25862673

  1. Vitamer Levels, Stress Response, Enzyme Activity, and Gene Regulation of Arabidopsis Lines Mutant in the

    E-print Network

    Daub, Margaret

    in plants. In this study, we determined the phenotype, stress responses, vitamer levels, and regulation, vitamin B6 has been linked to resis- tance to oxidative and environmental stresses and is an efficientVitamer Levels, Stress Response, Enzyme Activity, and Gene Regulation of Arabidopsis Lines Mutant

  2. Response of Solar Wind on Extreme Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T. K.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate how the mass loss by the solar wind depends on the solar activity levels, particularly focusing on the solar wind during extremely high activity. We perform forward-type magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) numerical experiments for Alfvén wave-driven solar winds with a wide range of the input Poynting flux from the photosphere. Increasing the magnetic field strength and the turbulent velocity at the solar photosphere from the current solar level, the mass loss rate rapidly increases at first owing to the suppression of the reflection of the Alfvén waves. The surface materials are lifted up by the magnetic pressure associated with the Alfvén waves, and the cool dense chromosphere is extended to ? 10% of the stellar radius. The dense atmospheres enhance the radiative losses and eventually most of the input Poynting energy from the surface escapes by the radiation. As a result, there is no more sufficient energy remained for the kinetic energy of the wind; the solar wind saturates for the extreme activity level, as observed in Wood et al. The saturation level is positively correlated with the average magnetic field strength contributed from open flux tubes. If the field strength is a few times larger than the present level, the mass loss rate could be as high as 1000 times.

  3. Aberrant mTOR activation in senescence and aging: A mitochondrial stress response?

    PubMed

    Nacarelli, Timothy; Azar, Ashley; Sell, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Unexpected activation of mTOR signaling, measured by ribosomal S6 phosphorylation or ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) activity, has been reported in aging-related settings. Evidence of elevated mTOR activity has been reported in the heart and muscle tissue in aged mice and humans, mouse models of progeria, and senescent human fibroblasts. We explore these reports and the possibility that activation of the mTOR/p70S6K kinase pathway may represent a ROS-mediated response to mitochondrial stress leading to the activation of senescence. This activation is a hallmark of both aged tissue and senescent human cells. PMID:25449851

  4. Paradoxical response of Enterococcus faecalis to the bactericidal activity of penicillin is associated with reduced activity of one autolysin.

    PubMed

    Fontana, R; Boaretti, M; Grossato, A; Tonin, E A; Lleò, M M; Satta, G

    1990-02-01

    Ten clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis were examined for susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of penicillin. Four of these had MBCs of penicillin equal to 2 to 4 x the MIC, and six exhibited a paradoxical response to penicillin, i.e., the bactericidal activity of the antibiotic had a concentration optimum at 2 to 4 x the MIC and decreased significantly at concentrations above this. We found that the paradoxical response to penicillin was an intrinsic and stable property of a strain, but that its phenotypic expression was not homogeneous; only a fraction of the cell population that died at low concentrations was able to survive at high penicillin concentrations. The size of this fraction increased with increasing antibiotic concentration and reached a maximum in the late-log phase of growth. All 10 strains produced a lytic enzyme that was active on Micrococcus luteus heat-killed cells, whereas only some strains lysed E. faecalis heat-killed cells. Strains producing large amounts of the latter enzyme did not show the paradoxical response to penicillin, whereas mutants of these strains that lacked this enzymatic activity paradoxically responded to the antibiotic activity. In addition, from strains that showed paradoxical response to penicillin and produced only the enzyme that was active on M. luteus, it was possible to isolate mutants that were also capable of lysing E. faecalis cells and that were killed with similar efficiency by all concentrations above the MBC. On the basis of these findings, the paradoxical response to penicillin is explained as a property of certain strains of E. faecalis; this property is genetically characterized by alterations in synthesis or activity of one autolysin but phenotypically expressed only by a few cells that are in a particular physiological condition when exposed to high concentrations of antibiotics. PMID:2109578

  5. Activation of lipid peroxidation: a mechanism triggering the autoimmune response.

    PubMed

    Prilipko, L L; Savov, V M; Kagan, V E

    1983-01-01

    Emotional-pain stress leads to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in rat brain tissues and to an increase in the number of antibrain antibodies against water-soluble and membrane-bound antigens in rat blood. An injection of the free radical scavenger, 4-methyl-2.6-di-tert-butylphenol to experimental animals eliminates the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products "in vivo" and completely prevents the appearance of antibrain antibodies. The activation of lipid peroxidation under stress may be regarded as a possible cause of the brain-specific antibodies release into the blood flow. PMID:6687140

  6. Delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy induces cell proliferation through stabilization of cAMP responsive element binding protein in the rat model of MCAo-induced ischemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jun; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Rolland, William B.; Krafft, Paul R.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Treatments that could extend the therapeutic window of opportunity for stroke patients are urgently needed. Early administration of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been proven neuroprotective in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rodents. Our aim was to determine: 1) whether delayed HBOT after permanent MCAo (pMCAo) can still convey neuroprotection and restorative cell proliferation, and 2) whether these beneficial effects rely on HBO-induced activation of protein phosphatase-1? (PP1-?) leading to a decreased phosphorylation and ubiquitination of CREB and hence its stabilization. The experiments were performed in one hundred thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats with the body weight ranging from 240 to 270 g. Permanent MCAo was induced with the intraluminal filament occluding the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). In the first experiment, HBOT (2.5 ATA, 1 hr daily for 10 days) was started 48 hrs after pMCAo. Neurobehavioral deficits and infarct size as well as cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) expression and BrdU-DAB staining in the hippocampus and the peri-infarct region were evaluated on day 14 and day 28 post-MCAo. In the second experiment, HBOT (2.5 ATA, 1 hr) was started 3 hrs after pMCAo. The effects of CREB siRNA or PP1-? siRNA on HBO-induced infarct size alterations and target proteins expression were studied. HBOT started with 48 hr delay reduced infarct size, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits and increased protein expression of CREB, resulting in increased cell proliferations in the hippocampus and peri-infarct region, on day 14 and day 28 post-MCAo. In the acute experiment pMCAo resulted in cerebral infarction and functional deterioration and reduced brainexpression of PP1-?, which led to increased phosphorylation and ubiquitination of CREB 24 hrs after MCAo. However HBOT administered 3 hrs after ischemia reversed these molecular events and resulted in CREB stabilization, infarct size reduction and neurobehavioral improvement. Gene silencing with CREB siRNA or PP1-? siRNA reduced acute beneficial effects of HBO. In conclusion, delayed daily HBOT presented as potent neuroprotectant in pMCAo rats, increased CREB expression and signaling activity, and bolstered regenerative type cell proliferation in the injured brain. As shown in the acute experiment these effects of HBO were likely to be mediated by reducing ubiquitin-dependent CREB degradation owing to HBO-induced activation of PP1?. PMID:23146993

  7. Giant nonlinear optical response application for nanoporous titanium dioxide photocatalytic activity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayvoronsky, V.; Timoshenko, V.; Brodyn, M.; Galas, A.; Nepijko, S. A.; Dittrich, Th.; Koch, F.; Petrik, I.; Smirnova, N.; Eremenko, A.; Klimenkov, M.

    2005-06-01

    Giant nonlinear optical response has been observed for nanoparticle TiO2 (anatase modification) layers within sub-gap photon energy excitation in picosecond range. The obtained effective cubic optical nonlinearity value (3)eff 10-5 esu is six orders of magnitude higher than the bulk response in transparency range. The effect can be explained with resonant excitation of oxygen vacancies and related defect states , which also act as photocatalytic active centers at the nanoparticle surface. The magnitude of the nonlinear optical response correlates with the photocatalytic activity and depends on the samples preparation conditions.

  8. Candida albicans Czf1 and Efg1 Coordinate the Response to Farnesol during Quorum Sensing, White-Opaque Thermal Dimorphism, and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Melanie L.; Hargarten, Jessica C.; Patefield, Krista D.; Marta, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Jill R.; Fanning, Saranna; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing by farnesol in Candida albicans inhibits filamentation and may be directly related to its ability to cause both mucosal and systemic diseases. The Ras1-cyclic AMP signaling pathway is a target for farnesol inhibition. However, a clear understanding of the downstream effectors of the morphological farnesol response has yet to be unraveled. To address this issue, we screened a library for mutants that fail to respond to farnesol. Six mutants were identified, and the czf1?/czf1? mutant was selected for further characterization. Czf1 is a transcription factor that regulates filamentation in embedded agar and also white-to-opaque switching. We found that Czf1 is required for filament inhibition by farnesol under at least three distinct environmental conditions: on agar surfaces, in liquid medium, and when embedded in a semisolid agar matrix. Since Efg1 is a transcription factor of the Ras1-cyclic AMP signaling pathway that interacts with and regulates Czf1, an efg1?/efg1? czf1?/czf1? mutant was tested for filament inhibition by farnesol. It exhibited an opaque-cell-like temperature-dependent morphology, and it was killed by low farnesol levels that are sublethal to wild-type cells and both efg1?/efg1? and czf1?/czf1? single mutants. These results highlight a new role for Czf1 as a downstream effector of the morphological response to farnesol, and along with Efg1, Czf1 is involved in the control of farnesol-mediated cell death in C. albicans. PMID:23873867

  9. 34 CFR 1100.31 - Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is responsible for oversight of fellowship activities? 1100.31 Section 1100.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... services, to assume direct supervision of the fellowship activities. (b) Fellows may be assigned a...

  10. The response of the near earth magnetotail to substorm activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; McPherron, R. L.; Thompson, S.; Khurana, K. K.; Weygand, J. M.; Balogh, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The large scale structure of the current sheet in the terrestrial magnetotail is often represented as the superposition of a constant northward-oriented magnetic field component (B(sub z)) and a component along the Earth-Sun direction (B(sub x)) that varies with distance from the center of the sheet (z(sub o) in GSM) as in a Hams neutral sheet. The latter implies that B(sub x) = B(sub Lx) tanh((z - z(sub o))/h) where B(sub Lx) is the magnitude of the B(sub x) component in the northern lobe. Correspondingly, the cross-tail current should be approximated by J(sub y) = (B(sub Lx)/h) sech(sup 2)((z - z(sub o))/h). Using data from the fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) on the Cluster I1 spacecraft tetrad, we have used measured fields and currents to ask if this model represents the large-scale properties of the system. During very quiet crossings of the plasmasheet, we find that the model gives a reasonable estimate of the trend of the average current and field distributions, but during disturbed intervals, the best fit fails to represent the data. If, however, the parameters z(sub o) and h of the model are taken as variable functions of time, the fits can be reasonably good. The temporal variation of the fit parameter h that characterizes the thickness of the current sheet can be interpreted in terms of thinning during the growth phase of a substorm and thickening following the expansion phase. Ground signatures that give insight into the local time of substorm onset can be used to interpret the response of the plasmasheet to substorm related changes of the global system. During a substorm, the field magnitude in the central plasmasheet fluctuates at the period of Pi2 pulsations.

  11. Influence of activated carbon characteristics on toluene and hexane adsorption: Application of surface response methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Mª Teresa; de Yuso, Alicia Martínez; Valenciano, Raquel; Rubio, Begoña; Pino, Mª Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of toluene and hexane over activated carbons prepared according an experimental design, considering as variables the activation temperature, the impregnation ratio and the activation time. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the adsorption capacity of the carbons regarding the preparation conditions that determine the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons. The methodology of preparation produced activated carbons with surface areas and micropore volumes as high as 1128 m2/g and 0.52 cm3/g, respectively. Moreover, the activated carbons exhibit mesoporosity, ranging from 64.6% to 89.1% the percentage of microporosity. The surface chemistry was characterized by TPD, FTIR and acid-base titration obtaining different values of surface groups from the different techniques because the limitation of each technique, but obtaining similar trends for the activated carbons studied. The exhaustive characterization of the activated carbons allows to state that the measured surface area does not explain the adsorption capacity for either toluene or n-hexane. On the other hand, the surface chemistry does not explain the adsorption results either. A compromise between physical and chemical characteristics can be obtained from the appropriate activation conditions, and the response surface methodology gives the optimal activated carbon to maximize adsorption capacity. Low activation temperature, intermediate impregnation ratio lead to high toluene and n-hexane adsorption capacities depending on the activation time, which a determining factor to maximize toluene adsorption.

  12. Global changes in biogeochemical cycles in response to human activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Melillo, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of our research was to characterize biogeochemical cycles at continental and global scales in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This characterization applied to both natural ecosystems and those disturbed by human activity. The primary elements of interest were carbon and nitrogen and the analysis sought to quantify standing stocks and dynamic cycling processes. The translocation of major nutrients from the terrestrial landscape to the atmosphere (via trace gases) and to fluvial systems (via leaching, erosional losses, and point source pollution) were of particular importance to this study. Our aim was to develop the first generation of Earth System Models. Our research was organized around the construction and testing of component biogeochemical models which treated terrestrial ecosystem processes, aquatic nutrient transport through drainage basins, and trace gas exchanges at the continental and global scale. A suite of three complementary models were defined within this construct. The models were organized to operate at a 1/2 degree latitude by longitude level of spatial resolution and to execute at a monthly time step. This discretization afforded us the opportunity to understand the dynamics of the biosphere down to subregional scales, while simultaneously placing these dynamics into a global context.

  13. Responsiveness of G protein-coupled odorant receptors is partially attributed to the activation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiqun; de March, Claire A; Ni, Mengjue J; Adipietro, Kaylin A; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Ma, Minghong

    2015-12-01

    Mammals detect and discriminate numerous odors via a large family of G protein-coupled odorant receptors (ORs). However, little is known about the molecular and structural basis underlying OR response properties. Using site-directed mutagenesis and computational modeling, we studied ORs sharing high sequence homology but with different response properties. When tested in heterologous cells by diverse odorants, MOR256-3 responded broadly to many odorants, whereas MOR256-8 responded weakly to a few odorants. Out of 36 mutant MOR256-3 ORs, the majority altered the responses to different odorants in a similar manner and the overall response of an OR was positively correlated with its basal activity, an indication of ligand-independent receptor activation. Strikingly, a single mutation in MOR256-8 was sufficient to confer both high basal activity and broad responsiveness to this receptor. These results suggest that broad responsiveness of an OR is at least partially attributed to its activation likelihood. PMID:26627247

  14. IRAK-4 kinase activity is required for IRAK-4-dependent innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lye, Elizabeth; Dhanji, Salim; Calzascia, Thomas; Elford, Alisha R; Ohashi, Pamela S

    2008-03-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-4 is a serine-threonine kinase that plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. While the requirement of IRAK-4 kinase activity has been studied in the context of IL-1R signaling, it is not clear whether IRAK-4 requires its kinase function for all of its roles in the immune system. IRAK-4 kinase-dead knock-in (IRAK-4KD/KD) mice were generated to further elucidate whether IRAK-4 kinase activity is required for IRAK-4 to induce cytokine production. IRAK-4KD/KD mice were impaired in their ability to produce cytokines in response to in vivo challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent TLR4 ligand. Cytokine production was also reduced in macrophages and dendritic cells from IRAK-4KD/KD mice in response to LPS and other TLR ligands. In addition, adaptive immune responses were impaired in IRAK-4KD/KD mice. Although in vitro T cell proliferation in response to TCR activation was unaffected in IRAK-4-deficient mice, in vivo T cell responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitits virus infection were significantly impaired in IRAK-4-knockout mice or mice expressing the kinase-dead mutant of IRAK-4. Collectively, these results indicate that IRAK-4 kinase activity is required for IRAK-4-dependent signaling in innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:18286567

  15. Rhythmic Auditory Cortex Activity at Multiple Timescales Shapes Stimulus–Response Gain and Background Firing

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Caroline; Safaai, Houman; Sakata, Shuzo; Panzeri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The phase of low-frequency network activity in the auditory cortex captures changes in neural excitability, entrains to the temporal structure of natural sounds, and correlates with the perceptual performance in acoustic tasks. Although these observations suggest a causal link between network rhythms and perception, it remains unknown how precisely they affect the processes by which neural populations encode sounds. We addressed this question by analyzing neural responses in the auditory cortex of anesthetized rats using stimulus–response models. These models included a parametric dependence on the phase of local field potential rhythms in both stimulus-unrelated background activity and the stimulus–response transfer function. We found that phase-dependent models better reproduced the observed responses than static models, during both stimulation with a series of natural sounds and epochs of silence. This was attributable to two factors: (1) phase-dependent variations in background firing (most prominent for delta; 1–4 Hz); and (2) modulations of response gain that rhythmically amplify and attenuate the responses at specific phases of the rhythm (prominent for frequencies between 2 and 12 Hz). These results provide a quantitative characterization of how slow auditory cortical rhythms shape sound encoding and suggest a differential contribution of network activity at different timescales. In addition, they highlight a putative mechanism that may implement the selective amplification of appropriately timed sound tokens relative to the phase of rhythmic auditory cortex activity. PMID:25995464

  16. Activation of defense response pathways by OGs and Flg22 elicitors in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Denoux, Carine; Galletti, Roberta; Mammarella, Nicole; Gopalan, Suresh; Werck, Danièle; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M; Dewdney, Julia

    2008-05-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10-d-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Flg22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose-dependent, but, even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of amino-cyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response. PMID:19825551

  17. Activation of defense response pathways by OGs and Flg22 elicitors in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Denoux, Carine; Galletti, Roberta; Mammarella, Nicole; Gopalan, Suresh; Werck, Danièle; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Dewdney, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10 day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Flg22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose dependent, but even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of aminocyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response. PMID:19825551

  18. Cross-Polarized Reflected Light Measurement of Fast Optical Responses Associated with Neural Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xin-Cheng; Foust, Amanda; Rector, David M.; Barrowes, Benjamin; George, John S.

    2005-01-01

    We developed an optical probe for cross-polarized reflected light measurements and investigated optical signals associated with electrophysiological activation in isolated lobster nerves. The cross-polarized baseline light intensity (structural signal) and the amplitude of the transient response to stimulation (functional signal) measured in reflected mode were dependent on the orientation of the nerve axis relative to the polarization plane of incident light. The maximum structural signal and functional response amplitude were observed at 45°, and the ratio of functional to structural signals was approximately constant across orientations. Functional responses were measured in single trials in both transmitted and reflected geometries and responses had similar waveforms. Both structural and functional signals were an order of magnitude smaller in reflected than in transmitted light measurements, but functional responses had similar signal/noise ratios. We propose a theoretical model based on geometrical optics that is consistent with experimental results. In the model, the cross-polarized structural signal results from light reflection from axonal fibers and the transient functional response arises from axonal swelling associated with neural activation. Polarization-sensitive reflected light measurements could greatly enhance in vivo imaging of neural activation since cross-polarized responses are much larger than scattering signals now employed for dynamic functional neuroimaging. PMID:15805175

  19. A Neural Mechanism for Nonconscious Activation of Conditioned Placebo and Nocebo Responses.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karin B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Chen, Xiaoyan; Kirsch, Irving; Ingvar, Martin; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental aspects of human behavior operate outside of conscious awareness. Yet, theories of conditioned responses in humans, such as placebo and nocebo effects on pain, have a strong emphasis on conscious recognition of contextual cues that trigger the response. Here, we investigated the neural pathways involved in nonconscious activation of conditioned pain responses, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy participants. Nonconscious compared with conscious activation of conditioned placebo analgesia was associated with increased activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, a structure with direct connections to affective brain regions and basic reward processing. During nonconscious nocebo, there was increased activation of the thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. In contrast to previous assumptions about conditioning in humans, our results show that conditioned pain responses can be elicited independently of conscious awareness and our results suggest a hierarchical activation of neural pathways for nonconscious and conscious conditioned responses. Demonstrating that the human brain has a nonconscious mechanism for responding to conditioned cues has major implications for the role of associative learning in behavioral medicine and psychiatry. Our results may also open up for novel approaches to translational animal-to-human research since human consciousness and animal cognition is an inherent paradox in all behavioral science. PMID:25452576

  20. A Neural Mechanism for Nonconscious Activation of Conditioned Placebo and Nocebo Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Karin B.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Chen, Xiaoyan; Kirsch, Irving; Ingvar, Martin; Gollub, Randy L.; Kong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of human behavior operate outside of conscious awareness. Yet, theories of conditioned responses in humans, such as placebo and nocebo effects on pain, have a strong emphasis on conscious recognition of contextual cues that trigger the response. Here, we investigated the neural pathways involved in nonconscious activation of conditioned pain responses, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy participants. Nonconscious compared with conscious activation of conditioned placebo analgesia was associated with increased activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, a structure with direct connections to affective brain regions and basic reward processing. During nonconscious nocebo, there was increased activation of the thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. In contrast to previous assumptions about conditioning in humans, our results show that conditioned pain responses can be elicited independently of conscious awareness and our results suggest a hierarchical activation of neural pathways for nonconscious and conscious conditioned responses. Demonstrating that the human brain has a nonconscious mechanism for responding to conditioned cues has major implications for the role of associative learning in behavioral medicine and psychiatry. Our results may also open up for novel approaches to translational animal-to-human research since human consciousness and animal cognition is an inherent paradox in all behavioral science. PMID:25452576

  1. Semi-active damping control of suspension systems for specified operational response mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Chong-Won

    2003-02-01

    A practical and effective semi-active on-off damping control law using semi-active actuators is developed for vibration attenuation of a natural, multi-degree-of-freedom suspension system, when its operational response mode is specified. It does not need the accurate system parameters and semi-active actuator dynamics. It reduces the total vibratory energy of the system including the work done by external disturbances and the maximum energy dissipation direction of the semi-active actuator is tuned to the operational response mode of the structure. The effectiveness of the control law using a single semi-active linear mount is illustrated with a three-degree-of-freedom excavator cabin suspension model.

  2. Predictive Factors of Clinical Response of Infliximab Therapy in Active Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiming; Liao, Zetao; Huang, Jianlin; Ai, Maixing; Pan, Yunfeng; Wu, Henglian; Lu, Jun; Cao, Shuangyan; Li, Li; Wei, Qiujing; Tang, Deshen; Wei, Yanlin; Li, Tianwang; Wu, Yuqiong; Xu, Manlong; Li, Qiuxia; Jin, Ou; Yu, Buyun; Gu, Jieruo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the efficiency and the predictive factors of clinical response of infliximab in active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis patients. Methods. Active nonradiographic patients fulfilling ESSG criteria for SpA but not fulfilling modified New York criteria were included. All patients received infliximab treatment for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was ASAS20 response at weeks 12 and 24. The abilities of baseline parameters and response at week 2 to predict ASAS20 response at weeks 12 and 24 were assessed using ROC curve and logistic regression analysis, respectively. Results. Of 70 axial SpA patients included, the proportions of patients achieving an ASAS20 response at weeks 2, 6, 12, and 24 were 85.7%, 88.6%, 87.1%, and 84.3%, respectively. Baseline MRI sacroiliitis score (AUC = 0.791; P = 0.005), CRP (AUC = 0.75; P = 0.017), and ASDAS (AUC = 0.778, P = 0.007) significantly predicted ASAS20 response at week 12. However, only ASDAS (AUC = 0.696, P = 0.040) significantly predicted ASAS20 response at week 24. Achievement of ASAS20 response after the first infliximab infusion was a significant predictor of subsequent ASAS20 response at weeks 12 and 24 (wald ?2 = 6.87, P = 0.009, and wald ?2 = 5.171, P = 0.023). Conclusions. Infliximab shows efficiency in active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis patients. ASDAS score and first-dose response could help predicting clinical efficacy of infliximab therapy in these patients. PMID:26273654

  3. Sustained wash-resistant receptor activation responses of GPR119 agonists.

    PubMed

    Hothersall, J Daniel; Bussey, Charlotte E; Brown, Alastair J; Scott, James S; Dale, Ian; Rawlins, Philip

    2015-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is involved in regulating metabolic homoeostasis, with GPR119 agonists targeted for the treatment of type-2 diabetes and obesity. Using the endogenous agonist oleoylethanolamide and a number of small molecule synthetic agonists we have investigated the temporal dynamics of receptor signalling. Using both a dynamic luminescence biosensor-based assay and an endpoint cAMP accumulation assay we show that agonist-driven desensitization is not a major regulatory mechanism for GPR119 despite robust activation responses, regardless of the agonist used. Temporal analysis of the cAMP responses demonstrated sustained signalling resistant to washout for some, but not all of the agonists tested. Further analysis indicated that the sustained effects of one synthetic agonist AR-231,453 were consistent with a role for slow dissociation kinetics. In contrast, the sustained responses to MBX-2982 and AZ1 appeared to involve membrane deposition. We also detect wash-resistant responses to AR-231,453 at the level of physiologically relevant responses in an endogenous expression system (GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag cells). In conclusion, our findings indicate that in a recombinant expression system GPR119 activation is sustained, with little evidence of pronounced receptor desensitization, and for some ligands persistent agonist responses continue despite removal of excess agonist. This provides novel understanding of the temporal responses profiles of potential drug candidates targetting GPR119, and highlights the importance of carefully examining the the mechanisms through which GPCRs generate sustained responses. PMID:26101059

  4. Differentiation expression during proliferative activity induced through different pathways: in situ hybridization study of thyroglobulin gene expression in thyroid epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    In canine thyrocytes in primary culture, our previous studies have identified three mitogenic agents and pathways: thyrotropin (TSH) acting through cyclic AMP (cAMP), EGF and its receptor tyrosine protein kinase, and the phorbol esters that stimulate protein kinase C. TSH enhances, while EGF and phorbol esters inhibit, the expression of differentiation. Given that growth and differentiation expression are often considered as mutually exclusive activities of the cells, it was conceivable that the differentiating action of TSH was restricted to noncycling (Go) cells, while the inhibition of the differentiation expression by EGF and phorbol esters only concerned proliferating cells. Therefore, the capacity to express the thyroglobulin (Tg) gene, the most prominent marker of differentiation in thyrocytes, was studied in proliferative cells (with insulin) and in quiescent cells (without insulin). Using cRNA in situ hybridization, we observed that TSH (and, to a lesser extent, insulin and insulin-like growth factor I) restored or maintained the expression of the Tg gene. Without these hormones, the Tg mRNA content became undetectable in most of the cells. EGF and 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) inhibited the Tg mRNA accumulation induced by TSH (and/or insulin). Most of the cells (up to 90%) responded to both TSH and EGF. Nevertheless, the range of individual response was quite variable. The effects of TSH and EGF on differentiation expression were not dependent on insulin and can therefore be dissociated from their mitogenic effects. Cell cycling did not affect the induction of Tg gene. Indeed, the same cell distribution of Tg mRNA content was observed in quiescent cells stimulated by TSH alone, or in cells approximately 50% of which had performed one mitotic cycle in response to TSH + insulin. Moreover, after proliferation in "dedifferentiating" conditions (EGF + serum + insulin), thyrocytes had acquired a fusiform fibroblast-like morphology, and responded to TSH by regaining a characteristic epithelial shape and high Tg mRNA content. 32 h after the replacement of EGF by TSH, cells in mitosis presented the same distribution of the Tg mRNA content as the rest of the cell population. This implies that cell cycling (at least 27 h, as previously shown) did not affect the induction of the Tg gene which is clearly detectable after a time lag of at least 24 h. The data unequivocally show that the reexpression of differentiation and proliferative activity are separate but fully compatible processes when induced by cAMP in thyrocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2199463

  5. Asian Dust Particles Induce Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Higashisaka, Kazuma; Fujimura, Maho; Taira, Mayu; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Baba, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Asian dust is a springtime meteorological phenomenon that originates in the deserts of China and Mongolia. The dust is carried by prevailing winds across East Asia where it causes serious health problems. Most of the information available on the impact of Asian dust on human health is based on epidemiological investigations, so from a biological standpoint little is known of its effects. To clarify the effects of Asian dust on human health, it is essential to assess inflammatory responses to the dust and to evaluate the involvement of these responses in the pathogenesis or aggravation of disease. Here, we investigated the induction of inflammatory responses by Asian dust particles in macrophages. Treatment with Asian dust particles induced greater production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) compared with treatment with soil dust. Furthermore, a soil dust sample containing only particles ?10??m in diameter provoked a greater inflammatory response than soil dust samples containing particles >10??m. In addition, Asian dust particles-induced TNF-? production was dependent on endocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the activation of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Together, these results suggest that Asian dust particles induce inflammatory disease through the activation of macrophages. PMID:24987712

  6. Delineation of Diverse Macrophage Activation Programs in Response to Intracellular Parasites and Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyi; Kim, Charles C.; Batra, Sajeev; McKerrow, James H.; Loke, P'ng

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability to reside and proliferate in macrophages is characteristic of several infectious agents that are of major importance to public health, including the intracellular parasites Trypanosoma cruzi (the etiological agent of Chagas disease) and Leishmania species (etiological agents of Kala-Azar and cutaneous leishmaniasis). Although recent studies have elucidated some of the ways macrophages respond to these pathogens, the relationships between activation programs elicited by these pathogens and the macrophage activation programs elicited by bacterial pathogens and cytokines have not been delineated. Methodology/Principal Findings To provide a global perspective on the relationships between macrophage activation programs and to understand how certain pathogens circumvent them, we used transcriptional profiling by genome-wide microarray analysis to compare the responses of mouse macrophages following exposure to the intracellular parasites T. cruzi and Leishmania mexicana, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the cytokines IFNG, TNF, IFNB, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17. We found that LPS induced a classical activation state that resembled macrophage stimulation by the Th1 cytokines IFNG and TNF. However, infection by the protozoan pathogen L. mexicana produced so few transcriptional changes that the infected macrophages were almost indistinguishable from uninfected cells. T. cruzi activated macrophages produced a transcriptional signature characterized by the induction of interferon-stimulated genes by 24 h post-infection. Despite this delayed IFN response by T. cruzi, the transcriptional response of macrophages infected by the kinetoplastid pathogens more closely resembled the transcriptional response of macrophages stimulated by the cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 than macrophages stimulated by Th1 cytokines. Conclusions/Significance This study provides global gene expression data for a diverse set of biologically significant pathogens and cytokines and identifies the relationships between macrophage activation states induced by these stimuli. By comparing macrophage activation programs to pathogens and cytokines under identical experimental conditions, we provide new insights into how macrophage responses to kinetoplastids correlate with the overall range of macrophage activation states. PMID:20361029

  7. Responsibility modulates pain-matrix activation elicited by the expressions of others in pain

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fang; Abdelgabar, Abdel-Rahman; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine whether brain responses to dynamic facial expressions of pain are influenced by our responsibility for the observed pain. Participants played a flanker task with a confederate. Whenever either erred, the confederate was seen to receive a noxious shock. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that regions of the functionally localized pain-matrix of the participants (the anterior insula in particular) were activated most strongly when seeing the confederate receive a noxious shock when only the participant had erred (and hence had full responsibility). When both or only the confederate had erred (i.e. participant's shared or no responsibility), significantly weaker vicarious pain-matrix activations were measured. PMID:25800210

  8. Overview of the Temperature Response in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere to Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beig, Gufran; Scheer, Juergen; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Keckhut, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The natural variability in the terrestrial mesosphere needs to be known to correctly quantify global change. The response of the thermal structure to solar activity variations is an important factor. Some of the earlier studies highly overestimated the mesospheric solar response. Modeling of the mesospheric temperature response to solar activity has evolved in recent years, and measurement techniques as well as the amount of data have improved. Recent investigations revealed much smaller solar signatures and in some case no significant solar signal at all. However, not much effort has been made to synthesize the results available so far. This article presents an overview of the energy budget of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) and an up-to-date status of solar response in temperature structure based on recently available observational data. An objective evaluation of the data sets is attempted and important factors of uncertainty are discussed.

  9. A Central Regulatory System Largely Controls Transcriptional Activation and Repression Responses to Phosphate Starvation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Regla; Castrillo, Gabriel; Linhares, Francisco; Puga, María Isabel; Rubio, Vicente; Pérez-Pérez, Julian; Solano, Roberto; Leyva, Antonio; Paz-Ares, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Plants respond to different stresses by inducing or repressing transcription of partially overlapping sets of genes. In Arabidopsis, the PHR1 transcription factor (TF) has an important role in the control of phosphate (Pi) starvation stress responses. Using transcriptomic analysis of Pi starvation in phr1, and phr1 phr1-like (phl1) mutants and in wild type plants, we show that PHR1 in conjunction with PHL1 controls most transcriptional activation and repression responses to phosphate starvation, regardless of the Pi starvation specificity of these responses. Induced genes are enriched in PHR1 binding sequences (P1BS) in their promoters, whereas repressed genes do not show such enrichment, suggesting that PHR1(-like) control of transcriptional repression responses is indirect. In agreement with this, transcriptomic analysis of a transgenic plant expressing PHR1 fused to the hormone ligand domain of the glucocorticoid receptor showed that PHR1 direct targets (i.e., displaying altered expression after GR:PHR1 activation by dexamethasone in the presence of cycloheximide) corresponded largely to Pi starvation-induced genes that are highly enriched in P1BS. A minimal promoter containing a multimerised P1BS recapitulates Pi starvation-specific responsiveness. Likewise, mutation of P1BS in the promoter of two Pi starvation-responsive genes impaired their responsiveness to Pi starvation, but not to other stress types. Phylogenetic footprinting confirmed the importance of P1BS and PHR1 in Pi starvation responsiveness and indicated that P1BS acts in concert with other cis motifs. All together, our data show that PHR1 and PHL1 are partially redundant TF acting as central integrators of Pi starvation responses, both specific and generic. In addition, they indicate that transcriptional repression responses are an integral part of adaptive responses to stress. PMID:20838596

  10. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles.

    PubMed

    Varn, Frederick S; Andrews, Erik H; Mullins, David W; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  11. Activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors inhibits regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreflex.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2012-09-01

    Previously we have shown that adenosine operating via the A(1) receptor subtype may inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the baroreflex arc within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and differentially increase renal (RSNA), preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA>RSNA?LSNA). Since the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex and the arterial baroreflex are mediated via similar medullary pathways, and glutamate is a primary transmitter in both pathways, it is likely that adenosine operating via A(1) receptors in the NTS may differentially inhibit regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors. Therefore, in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 37) we compared regional sympathoinhibition evoked by the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (activated with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT(3) receptor agonist phenylbiguanide, PBG, 1-8 ?g/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors [microinjections of N(6)-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), 0.033-330 pmol/50 nl]. Activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors evoked differential, dose-dependent sympathoinhibition (RSNA>ASNA>LSNA), and decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. These differential sympathetic responses were uniformly attenuated in dose-dependent manner by microinjections of CPA into the NTS. Volume control (n = 11) and blockade of adenosine receptor subtypes in the NTS via 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 1 nmol in 100 nl) (n = 9) did not affect the reflex responses. We conclude that activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors uniformly inhibits neural and cardiovascular cardiopulmonary chemoreflex responses. A(1) adenosine receptors have no tonic modulatory effect on this reflex under normal conditions. However, when adenosine is released into the NTS (i.e., during stress or severe hypotension/ischemia), it may serve as negative feedback regulator for depressor and sympathoinhibitory reflexes integrated in the NTS. PMID:22814665

  12. Expression profile of heat shock response factors during hookworm larval activation and parasitic development.

    PubMed

    Gelmedin, Verena; Delaney, Angela; Jennelle, Lucas; Hawdon, John M

    2015-07-01

    When organisms are exposed to an increase in temperature, they undergo a heat shock response (HSR) regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1). The heat shock response includes the rapid changes in gene expression initiated by binding of HSF-1 to response elements in the promoters of heat shock genes. Heat shock proteins function as molecular chaperones to protect proteins during periods of elevated temperature and other stress. During infection, hookworm infective third stage larvae (L3) undergo a temperature shift from ambient to host temperature. This increased temperature is required for the resumption of feeding and activation of L3, but whether this increase initiates a heat shock response is unknown. To investigate the role of the heat shock in hookworm L3 activation and parasitic development, we identified and characterized the expression profile of several components of the heat shock response in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. We cloned DNAs encoding an hsp70 family member (Aca-hsp-1) and an hsp90 family member (Aca-daf-21). Exposure to a heat shock of 42°C for one hour caused significant up-regulation of both genes, which slowly returned to near baseline levels following one hour attenuation at 22°C. Neither gene was up-regulated in response to host temperature (37°C). Conversely, levels of hsf-1 remained unchanged during heat shock, but increased in response to incubation at 37°C. During activation, both hsp-1 and daf-21 are down regulated early, although daf-21 levels increase significantly in non-activated control larvae after 12h, and slightly in activated larvae by 24h incubation. The heat shock response modulators celastrol and KNK437 were tested for their effects on gene expression during heat shock and activation. Pre-incubation with celastrol, an HSP90 inhibitor that promotes heat shock gene expression, slightly up-regulated expression of both hsp-1 and daf-21 during heat shock. KNK437, an inhibitor of heat shock protein expression, slightly down regulated both genes under similar conditions. Both modulators inhibited activation-associated feeding, but neither had an effect on hsp-1 levels in activated L3 at 16h. Both celastrol and KNK437 prevent the up-regulation of daf-21 and hsf-1 seen in non-activated control larvae during activation, and significantly down regulated expression of the HSF-1 negative regulator Aca-hsb-1 in activated larvae. Expression levels of heat shock response factors were examined in developing Ancylostoma ceylanicum larvae recovered from infected hosts and found to differ significantly from the expression profile of activated L3, suggesting that feeding during in vitro activation is regulated differently than parasitic development. Our results indicate that a classical heat shock response is not induced at host temperature and is suppressed during larval recovery and parasitic development in the host, but a partial heat shock response is induced after extended incubation at host temperature in the absence of a developmental signal, possibly to protect against heat stress. PMID:26296769

  13. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis activate distinct patterns of defence responses in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Farace, Giovanni; Fernandez, Olivier; Jacquens, Lucile; Coutte, François; Krier, François; Jacques, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid Ait; Jacquard, Cédric; Dorey, Stéphan

    2015-02-01

    Non-self-recognition of microorganisms partly relies on the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and leads to the activation of an innate immune response. Bacillus subtilis produces three main families of cyclic lipopeptides (LPs), namely surfactins, iturins and fengycins. Although LPs are involved in induced systemic resistance (ISR) activation, little is known about defence responses induced by these molecules and their involvement in local resistance to fungi. Here, we showed that purified surfactin, mycosubtilin (iturin family) and plipastatin (fengycin family) are perceived by grapevine plant cells. Although surfactin and mycosubtilin stimulated grapevine innate immune responses, they differentially activated early signalling pathways and defence gene expression. By contrast, plipastatin perception by grapevine cells only resulted in early signalling activation. Gene expression analysis suggested that mycosubtilin activated salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, whereas surfactin mainly induced an SA-regulated response. Although mycosubtilin and plipastatin displayed direct antifungal activity, only surfactin and mycosubtilin treatments resulted in a local long-lasting enhanced tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea in grapevine leaves. Moreover, challenge with specific strains overproducing surfactin and mycosubtilin led to a slightly enhanced stimulation of the defence response compared with the LP-non-producing strain of B.?subtilis. Altogether, our results provide the first comprehensive view of the involvement of LPs from B.?subtilis in grapevine plant defence and local resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Bo.?cinerea. Moreover, this work is the first to highlight the ability of mycosubtilin to trigger an immune response in plants. PMID:25040001

  14. Cognitive emotion regulation enhances aversive prediction error activity while reducing emotional responses.

    PubMed

    Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Schmid, Gabriele; Doll, Anselm; Schilbach, Leonhard; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation is a powerful way of modulating emotional responses. However, despite the vital role of emotions in learning, it is unknown whether the effect of cognitive emotion regulation also extends to the modulation of learning. Computational models indicate prediction error activity, typically observed in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, as a critical neural mechanism involved in associative learning. We used model-based fMRI during aversive conditioning with and without cognitive emotion regulation to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation would affect prediction error-related neural activity in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, reflecting an emotion regulation-related modulation of learning. Our results show that cognitive emotion regulation reduced emotion-related brain activity, but increased prediction error-related activity in a network involving ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, insula and ventral striatum. While the reduction of response activity was related to behavioral measures of emotion regulation success, the enhancement of prediction error-related neural activity was related to learning performance. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral tegmental area and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, an area involved in regulation, was specifically increased during emotion regulation and likewise related to learning performance. Our data, therefore, provide first-time evidence that beyond reducing emotional responses, cognitive emotion regulation affects learning by enhancing prediction error-related activity, potentially via tegmental dopaminergic pathways. PMID:26306990

  15. Development of CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotides for Effective Activation of Rabbit TLR9 Mediated Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Lai, Chao-Yang; Tseng, Ping-Hui; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Hsu, Li-Chung

    2014-01-01

    CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are potent immune stimuli being developed for use as adjuvants in different species. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is the cellular receptor for CpG-ODN in mammalian cells. The CpG-ODN with 18–24 deoxynucleotides that are in current use for human and mouse cells, however, have low activity with rabbit TLR9. Using a cell-based activation assay, we developed a type of CpG-ODN containing a GACGTT or AACGTT motif in 12 phosphorothioate-modified deoxynucleotides with potent stimulatory activity for rabbit TLR9. The developed CpG-ODN have higher activities than other developed CpG-ODN in eliciting antigen-nonspecific immune responses in rabbit splenocytes. When mixed with an NJ85 peptide derived from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, they had potent activities to boost an antigen-specific T cell activation and antibody production in rabbits. Compared to Freund’s adjuvant, the developed CpG-ODN are capable of boosting a potent and less toxic antibody response. The results of this study suggest that both the choice of CpG-motif and its length are important factors for CpG-ODN to effectively activate rabbit TLR9 mediated immune responses. PMID:25269083

  16. Relation of obesity to neural activation in response to food commercials

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja; Stice, Eric; Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but the neural response to food advertising and its association with obesity is largely unknown. This study is the first to examine how neural response to food commercials differs from other stimuli (e.g. non-food commercials and television show) and to explore how this response may differ by weight status. The blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging activation was measured in 30 adolescents ranging from lean to obese in response to food and non-food commercials imbedded in a television show. Adolescents exhibited greater activation in regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. occipital gyrus), attention (e.g. parietal lobes), cognition (e.g. temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellar lobe), movement (e.g. anterior cerebellar cortex), somatosensory response (e.g. postcentral gyrus) and reward [e.g. orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] during food commercials. Obese participants exhibited less activation during food relative to non-food commercials in neural regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. cuneus), attention (e.g. posterior cerebellar lobe), reward (e.g. ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ACC) and salience detection (e.g. precuneus). Obese participants did exhibit greater activation in a region implicated in semantic control (e.g. medial temporal gyrus). These findings may inform current policy debates regarding the impact of food advertising to minors. PMID:23576811

  17. Response frequency and Exner's active-passive ratio as Rorschach indicators of flexibility.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Lawrence

    2010-10-01

    Among 75 college students, response frequency from the Rorschach correlated significantly at .21 with Alternate Uses and at .20 with Match Problems (measures of divergent thinking), but not significantly (r = .07) with the Questionnaire (a self-report measure of flexibility) from the Test of Behavioral Rigidity. Contrary to hypothesis, the Active-Passive Movement Ratio from the Comprehensive System did not correlate significantly with any of these tests (r = .04-.11). Whereas Response Frequency can be seen as another reflection of ideational fluency or productivity, as long has been speculated, the conceptual and empirical links between flexibility and the ratio of active to passive movement are dubious. PMID:21162456

  18. Medical Rapid Response in Psychiatry: Reasons for Activation and Immediate Outcome.

    PubMed

    Manu, Peter; Loewenstein, Kristy; Girshman, Yankel J; Bhatia, Padam; Barnes, Maira; Whelan, Joseph; Solderitch, Victoria A; Rogozea, Liliana; McManus, Marybeth

    2015-12-01

    Rapid response teams are used to improve the recognition of acute deteriorations in medical and surgical settings. They are activated by abnormal physiological parameters, symptoms or clinical concern, and are believed to decrease hospital mortality rates. We evaluated the reasons for activation and the outcome of rapid response interventions in a 222-bed psychiatric hospital in New York City using data obtained at the time of all activations from January through November, 2012. The primary outcome was the admission rate to a medical or surgical unit for each of the main reasons for activation. The 169 activations were initiated by nursing staff (78.7 %) and psychiatrists (13 %) for acute changes in condition (64.5 %), abnormal physiological parameters (27.2 %) and non-specified concern (8.3 %). The most common reasons for activation were chest pain (14.2 %), fluctuating level of consciousness (9.5 %), hypertension (9.5 %), syncope or fall (8.9 %), hypotension (8.3 %), dyspnea (7.7 %) and seizures (5.9 %). The rapid response team transferred 127 (75.2 %) patients to the Emergency Department and 46 (27.2 %) were admitted to a medical or surgical unit. The admission rates were statistically similar for acute changes in condition, abnormal physiological parameters, and clinicians' concern. In conclusion, a majority of rapid response activations in a self-standing psychiatric hospital were initiated by nursing staff for changes in condition, rather than for policy-specified abnormal physiological parameters. The findings suggest that a rapid response system may empower psychiatric nurses to use their clinical skills to identify patients requiring urgent transfer to a general hospital. PMID:25796608

  19. Phosphatidylinositol response and proliferation of oxidative enzyme-activated human T lymphocytes: suppression by plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Akeson, A.L.; Scupham, D.W.; Harmony, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PI) response and DNA synthesis of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase (NAGO)-stimulated human T lymphocytes are suppressed by low density lipoproteins (LDL). To understand the mechanism of lymphocyte activation more fully, the PI response and DNA synthesis and suppression of these events by LDL in NAGO-stimulated T lymphocytes were characterized. Between 30 min and 6 hr after NAGO stimulation, there was an increase of /sup 32/Pi incorporation into PI without increased incorporation into the phosphorylated forms of PI or into other phospholipids. DNA synthesis as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation depended on the lymphocyte-accessory monocyte ratio and total cell density. Optimal stimulation of the PI response and DNA synthesis occurred at the same concentration of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase. While the PI response was only partially suppressed by LDL with optimal suppression at 10 to 20 micrograms of protein/ml, DNA synthesis was completely suppressed although at much higher LDL concentrations, greater than 100 micrograms protein/ml. As monocyte numbers are increased, LDL suppression of DNA synthesis is decreased. The ability of NAGO to stimulate the PI response and DNA synthesis in a similar way, and the suppression of both events by LDL, suggests the PI response is important for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Stimulation of human T lymphocytes by oxidative mitogens, neuraminidase, and galactose oxidase caused increased phosphatidylinositol metabolism and increased DNA synthesis. Both responses were suppressed by low density lipoproteins.

  20. Persistent Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Adult Drosophila Following Radiation Exposure During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Sudmeier, Lisa J.; Samudrala, Sai-Suma; Howard, Steven P.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for pediatric central nervous system malignancies, but survivors often suffer from neurological and neurocognitive side effects that occur many years after radiation exposure. Although the biological mechanisms underlying these deleterious side effects are incompletely understood, radiation exposure triggers an acute inflammatory response that may evolve into chronic inflammation, offering one avenue of investigation. Recently, we developed a Drosophila model of the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure. Here we use this model to investigate the role of the innate immune system in response to radiation exposure. We show that the innate immune response and NF-?B target gene expression is activated in the adult Drosophila brain following radiation exposure during larval development, and that this response is sustained in adult flies weeks after radiation exposure. We also present preliminary data suggesting that innate immunity is radioprotective during Drosophila development. Together our data suggest that activation of the innate immune response may be beneficial initially for survival following radiation exposure but result in long-term deleterious consequences, with chronic inflammation leading to impaired neuronal function and viability at later stages. This work lays the foundation for future studies of how the innate immune response is triggered by radiation exposure and its role in mediating the biological responses to radiation. These studies may facilitate the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious side effects of CRT. PMID:26333838

  1. Neurochemical factors underlying individual differences in locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioral responses in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Muraleetharan, Arrujyan; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Variation among individuals may arise for several reasons, and may have diverse underlying mechanisms. Individual differences have been studied in a variety of species, but recently a new model organism has emerged in this field that offers both sophistication in phenotypical characterization and powerful mechanistic analysis. Recently, zebrafish, one of the favorites of geneticists, have been shown to exhibit consistent individual differences in baseline locomotor activity. In the current study, we further explore this finding and examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity correlate with anxiety-like behavioral measures and with levels of dopamine, serotonin and the metabolites of these neurotransmitters. In addition, we examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity are also associated with reactivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of and neurochemical responses to acute ethanol exposure (30min long, 1% v/v ethanol bath application). Principal component analyses revealed a strong association among anxiety-like responses, locomotor activity, serotonin and dopamine levels. Furthermore, ethanol exposure was found to abolish the locomotion-dependent anxiety-like behavioral and serotonergic responses suggesting that this drug also engages a common underlying pathway. Overall, our results provide support for an important role of the serotonergic system in mediating individual differences in anxiety-like responses and locomotor activity in zebrafish and for a minor modulatory role of the dopaminergic system. PMID:26316057

  2. Comparison of Brain Activation in Response to Two Dimensional and Three Dimensional On-Line Games

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo Hyun; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study assessed the difference in the brain activity of professional gamers (excessive players, but not addicts) in response to playing a 3-dimensional online game with an improved interface. Methods Twenty-three StarCraft I pro gamers and 16 StarCraft II pro gamers were recruited at Chung Ang University Medical Center. Brain activity in response to StarCraft I or II cues was assessed with a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner. Results StarCraft I pro gamers showed significantly greater activity in 4 clusters in response to the video game cues compared to StarCraft II pro gamers: right superior frontal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right occipital lobe, and left medial frontal gyrus. StarCraft II pro gamers showed significantly greater activity in 3 clusters in response to the video game cues compared to StarCraft I pro gamers: left middle frontal gyrus, left temporal fusiform gyrus and left cerebellum. Discussion This is the first study to show the difference in brain activity between gamers playing either a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional online game. Current brain imaging studies may confirm the pro gamers' experience when playing StarCraft II, a 3-dimensional game with an improved interface, relative to playing StarCraft I. PMID:23798958

  3. Phosphorylation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Contributes to Interferon ? Production in Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pasquinelli, Virginia; Rovetta, Ana I.; Alvarez, Ivana B.; Jurado, Javier O.; Musella, Rosa M.; Palmero, Domingo J.; Malbrán, Alejandro; Samten, Buka; Barnes, Peter F.; García, Verónica E.

    2013-01-01

    Immune control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on interferon ? (IFN-?)–producing CD4+ lymphocytes. Previous studies have shown that T cells from patients with tuberculosis produce less IFN-?, compared with healthy donors, in response to mycobacterial antigens, although IFN-? responses to mitogens are preserved. In this work, we found that M. tuberculosis–induced IFN-? production by human T cells correlated with phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38. Moreover, the majority of IFN-?–producing T cells expressed signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), and SLAM activation further increased ERK phosphorylation. Interestingly, patients with tuberculosis had delayed activation of ERK and p38, and this was most marked in patients with the poorest IFN-? responses (ie, low responders). Besides, SLAM signaling failed to phosphorylate ERK in low responders. Our findings suggest that activation of p38 and ERK, in part through SLAM, mediates T-cell IFN-? production in response to M. tuberculosis, a pathway that is defective in patients with tuberculosis. PMID:23125442

  4. HIN-200 proteins regulate caspase activation in response to foreign cytoplasmic DNA.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tara L; Idris, Adi; Dunn, Jasmyn A; Kelly, Greg M; Burnton, Carol M; Hodgson, Samantha; Hardy, Lani L; Garceau, Valerie; Sweet, Matthew J; Ross, Ian L; Hume, David A; Stacey, Katryn J

    2009-02-20

    The mammalian innate immune system is activated by foreign nucleic acids. Detection of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the cytoplasm triggers characteristic antiviral responses and macrophage cell death. Cytoplasmic dsDNA rapidly activated caspase 3 and caspase 1 in bone marrow-derived macrophages. We identified the HIN-200 family member and candidate lupus susceptibility factor, p202, as a dsDNA binding protein that bound stably and rapidly to transfected DNA. Knockdown studies showed p202 to be an inhibitor of DNA-induced caspase activation. Conversely, the related pyrin domain-containing HIN-200 factor, AIM2 (p210), was required for caspase activation by cytoplasmic dsDNA. This work indicates that HIN-200 proteins can act as pattern recognition receptors mediating responses to cytoplasmic dsDNA. PMID:19131592

  5. Response to Arsenate Treatment in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the Role of Its Arsenate Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Matia-González, Ana M.; Sotelo, Jael; Zarco-Fernández, Sonia; Muñoz-Olivas, Riansares; Cámara, Carmen; Rodríguez-Gabriel, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity has been studied for a long time due to its effects in humans. Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated multiple effects in human physiology, there are many open questions about the cellular targets and the mechanisms of response to arsenic. Using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as model system, we have been able to demonstrate a strong activation of the MAPK Spc1/Sty1 in response to arsenate. This activation is dependent on Wis1 activation and Pyp2 phosphatase inactivation. Using arsenic speciation analysis we have also demonstrated the previously unknown capacity of S. pombe cells to reduce As (V) to As (III). Genetic analysis of several fission yeast mutants point towards the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25 as a possible candidate to carry out this arsenate reductase activity. We propose that arsenate reduction and intracellular accumulation of arsenite are the key mechanisms of arsenate tolerance in fission yeast. PMID:22912829

  6. A novel peroxisome proliferator response element modulates hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor gene transcription in response to PPAR? activation.

    PubMed

    Shende, Vikram R; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-12-15

    The hepatic expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) gene is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level by a sterol-regulatory element (SRE) in its proximal promoter region which is the site of action of SRE-binding protein 2 (SREBP2). However whether additional cis-regulatory elements contribute to LDLR transcription has not been fully explored. We investigated the function of a putative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-response element (PPRE) sequence motif located at -768 to -752 bases upstream of the transcription start site of human LDLR gene in response to PPAR? activation. Promoter luciferase reporter analyses showed that treating HepG2 cells with PPAR? agonist L165041 markedly increased the activity of a full-length LDLR promoter construct (pLDLR-1192) without any effects on the shorter promoter reporter pLDLR-234 that contains only the core regulatory elements SRE-1 and SP1 sites. Importantly, mutation of the PPRE sequence greatly attenuated the induction of the full-length LDLR promoter activity by L165041 without affecting rosuvastatin (RSV)-mediated transactivation. EMSA and ChIP assay further confirmed the binding of PPAR? to the LDLR-PPRE site. Treating HepG2 cells with L165041 elevated the mRNA and protein expressions of LDLR without affecting the LDLR mRNA decay rate. The induction of LDLR expression by PPAR? agonist was further observed in liver tissue of mice and hamsters treated with L165041. Altogether, our studies identify a novel PPRE-mediated regulatory mechanism for LDLR transcription and suggest that combined treatment of statin with PPAR? agonists may have advantageous effects on LDLR expression. PMID:26443862

  7. No Evidence for Activity Adjustment in Response to Increased Density in Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Sereni, Laura; Einum, Sigurd

    2015-01-01

    Increased population density may lead to a decrease in energy available for growth and reproduction via effects on the activity level of individuals. Whilst this may be of particular importance for organisms that compete for defendable resources and/or have a high frequency of social interactions, it is less obvious how individual activity should covary with population density when food resources are not defendable or direct interactions among individuals are negligible. Based on observations that there is a general negative relationship between population density and metabolism it has been suggested that organisms actively reduce activity under increased density to accommodate an expected decrease in food availability. However, in the absence of direct activity measurements the validity of this hypothesis is unclear. Here we test for such anticipatory adjustments of activity levels in the planktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus, a filter feeder whose food resources are not defendable, meaning that density responses can be evaluated in the absence of direct interactions. We tested for changes in activity in response to two separate density cues, one being the direct physical and visual stimuli resulting from being in the vicinity of conspecifics (‘direct density experiment’), and the other being the detection of olfactory cues in their environment (‘olfactory cue experiment’). Ten genetically distinct clones were used to evaluate the potential for genetic variation in these responses. Our measures of activity were highly repeatable, and there was significant variation in activity among clones. Furthermore, this clonal variation was consistent in the ‘direct density’ and ‘olfactory cue’ experiments. The estimated evolvability of the trait (1.3–3.2%) was within the range typically observed in behavioural traits. However, there was no indication that the activity level of individuals respond to population density, either directly to actual density or to olfactory cues representing high density. In this case, the energetic influence of density on population dynamics is sufficiently described by effects on per capita resource availability. PMID:26649427

  8. Thermally activated post-glitch response of the neutron star inner crust and core. I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Bennett

    2014-07-10

    Pinning of superfluid vortices is predicted to prevail throughout much of a neutron star. Based on the idea of Alpar et al., I develop a description of the coupling between the solid and liquid components of a neutron star through thermally activated vortex slippage, and calculate the response to a spin glitch. The treatment begins with a derivation of the vortex velocity from the vorticity equations of motion. The activation energy for vortex slippage is obtained from a detailed study of the mechanics and energetics of vortex motion. I show that the 'linear creep' regime introduced by Alpar et al. and invoked in fits to post-glitch response is not realized for physically reasonable parameters, a conclusion that strongly constrains the physics of a post-glitch response through thermal activation. Moreover, a regime of 'superweak pinning', crucial to the theory of Alpar et al. and its extensions, is probably precluded by thermal fluctuations. The theory given here has a robust conclusion that can be tested by observations: for a glitch in the spin rate of magnitude ??, pinning introduces a delay in the post-glitch response time. The delay time is t{sub d} = 7(t{sub sd}/10{sup 4} yr)((??/?)/10{sup –6}) d, where t{sub sd} is the spin-down age; t{sub d} is typically weeks for the Vela pulsar and months in older pulsars, and is independent of the details of vortex pinning. Post-glitch response through thermal activation cannot occur more quickly than this timescale. Quicker components of post-glitch response, as have been observed in some pulsars, notably, the Vela pulsar, cannot be due to thermally activated vortex motion but must represent a different process, such as drag on vortices in regions where there is no pinning. I also derive the mutual friction force for a pinned superfluid at finite temperature for use in other studies of neutron star hydrodynamics.

  9. Relating Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Activity to the Timing and Amplitude of Conditioned Eyelid Responses

    PubMed Central

    Khilkevich, Andrei; Mauk, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    How Purkinje cell (PC) activity may be altered by learning is central to theories of the cerebellum. Pavlovian eyelid conditioning, because of how directly it engages the cerebellum, has helped reveal many aspects of cerebellar learning and the underlying mechanisms. Theories of cerebellar learning assert that climbing fiber inputs control plasticity at synapses onto PCs, and thus PCs control the expression of learned responses. We tested this assertion by recording 184 eyelid PCs and 240 non-eyelid PCs during the expression of conditioned eyelid responses (CRs) in well trained rabbits. By contrasting the responses of eyelid and non-eyelid PCs and by contrasting the responses of eyelid PCs under conditions that produce differently timed CRs, we test the hypothesis that learning-related changes in eyelid PCs contribute to the learning and adaptive timing of the CRs. We used a variety of analyses to test the quantitative relationships between eyelid PC responses and the kinematic properties of the eyelid CRs. We find that the timing of eyelid PC responses varies systematically with the timing of the behavioral CRs and that there are differences in the magnitude of eyelid PC responses between larger-CR, smaller-CR, and non-CR trials. However, eyelid PC activity does not encode any single kinematic property of the behavioral CRs at a fixed time lag, nor does it linearly encode CR amplitude. Even so, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that learning-dependent changes in PC activity contribute to the adaptively timed expression of conditioned eyelid responses. PMID:25995469

  10. Regulation of Gene Expression in Response to Oxygen in Rhizobium etli: Role of FnrN in fixNOQP Expression and in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Oswaldo; Morera, Claudia; Miranda-Rios, Juan; Girard, Lourdes; Romero, David; Soberón, Mario

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we reported finding duplicated fixNOQP operons in Rhizobium etli CFN42. One of these duplicated operons is located in the symbiotic plasmid (fixNOQPd), while the other is located in a cryptic plasmid (fixNOQPf). Although a novel FixL-FixKf regulatory cascade participates in microaerobic expression of both fixNOQP duplicated operons, we found that a mutation in fixL eliminates fixNOQPf expression but has only a moderate effect on expression of fixNOQPd. This suggests that there are differential regulatory controls. Interestingly, only the fixNOQPd operon was essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (L. Girard, S. Brom, A. Dávalos, O. Lopez, M. Soberón, and D. Romero, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 13:1283–1292, 2000). Searching for potential candidates responsible for the differential expression, we characterized two fnrN homologs (encoding transcriptional activators of the cyclic AMP receptor protein [CRP]-Fnr family) in R. etli CFN42. One of these genes (fnrNd) is located on the symbiotic plasmid, while the other (fnrNchr) is located on the chromosome. Analysis of the expression of the fnrN genes using transcriptional fusions with lacZ showed that the two fnrN genes are differentially regulated, since only fnrNd is expressed in microaerobic cultures of the wild-type strain while fnrNchr is negatively controlled by FixL. Mutagenesis of the two fnrN genes showed that both genes participate, in conjunction with FixL-FixKf, in the microaerobic induction of the fixNOQPd operon. Participation of these genes is also seen during the symbiotic process, in which mutations in fnrNd and fnrNchr, either singly or in combination, lead to reductions in nitrogen fixation. Therefore, R. etli employs a regulatory circuit for induction of the fixNOQPd operon that involves at least three transcriptional regulators of the CRP-Fnr family. This regulatory circuit may be important for ensuring optimal production of the cbb3, terminal oxidase during symbiosis. PMID:11717256

  11. Cutaneous Immune Activity, but Not Innate Immune Responsiveness, Covaries with Mass and Environment in Nestling House Wrens

    E-print Network

    Sakaluk, Scott

    response, which includes both innate and the more costly adaptive components. Both cutaneous immune. 2008a). However, vertebrate immunity is divided into two major branches, innate and adaptive512 Cutaneous Immune Activity, but Not Innate Immune Responsiveness, Covaries with Mass

  12. When conditioned responses "fire back": bidirectional cross-activation creates learning opportunities in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, B; Rothen, N

    2007-07-13

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, the letter "c" printed in black may be experienced as red, but typically the color red does not trigger the experience of the letter "c." Therefore, at the level of subjective experience, cross-activation is usually unidirectional. However, recent evidence from digit-color synesthesia suggests that at an implicit level bidirectional cross-activation can occur. Here we demonstrate that this finding is not restricted to this specific type of synesthesia. We introduce a new method that enables the investigation of bidirectionality in other types of synesthesia. We found that a group of grapheme-color synesthetes, but not a control group, showed a startle in response to a color-inducing grapheme after a startle response was conditioned to the specific corresponding color. These results implicate that when the startle response was associated with the real color an association between shock and the grapheme was also established. By this mechanism (i.e. implicit cross-activation) the conditioned response to the real color generalized to the synesthetic color. We suggest that parietal brain areas are responsible for this neural backfiring. PMID:17570599

  13. Stimulus-response incompatibility activates cortex proximate to three eye fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, E. P.; Colby, C. L.; Thulborn, K. R.; Luna, B.; Olson, C. R.; Sweeney, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate cortical activation during the performance of three oculomotor tasks that impose increasing levels of cognitive demand. (1) In a visually guided saccade (VGS) task, subjects made saccades to flashed targets. (2) In a compatible task, subjects made leftward and rightward saccades in response to foveal presentation of the uppercase words "LEFT" or "RIGHT." (3) In a mixed task, subjects made rightward saccades in response to the lowercase word "left" and leftward saccades in response to the lowercase word "right" on incompatible trials (60%). The remaining 40% of trials required compatible responses to uppercase words. The VGS and compatible tasks, when compared to fixation, activated the three cortical eye fields: the supplementary eye field (SEF), the frontal eye field (FEF), and the parietal eye field (PEF). The mixed task, when compared to the compatible task, activated three additional cortical regions proximate to the three eye fields: (1) rostral to the SEF in medial frontal cortex; (2) rostral to the FEF in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC); (3) rostral and lateral to the PEF in posterior parietal cortex. These areas may contribute to the suppression of prepotent responses and in holding novel visuomotor associations in working memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Transcription activation at class II CRP-dependent promoters: the role of different activating regions.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodius, V A; West, D M; Webster, C L; Busby, S J; Savery, N J

    1997-01-01

    Transcription activation by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) at Class II promoters is dependent on direct interactions between two surface-exposed activating regions (AR1 and AR2) and two contact sites in RNA polymerase. The effects on transcription activation of disrupting either AR1 or AR2 have been measured at different Class II promoters. AR2 but not AR1 is essential for activation at all the Class II promoters that were tested. The effects of single positive control substitutions in AR1 and AR2 vary from one promoter to another: the effects of the different substitutions are contingent on the -35 hexamer sequence. Abortive initiation assays have been used to quantify the effects of positive control substitutions in each activating region on the kinetics of transcription initiation at the Class II CRP- dependent promoter pmelRcon. At this promoter, the HL159 substitution in AR1 results in a defect in the initial binding of RNA polymerase whilst the KE101 substitution in AR2 reduces the rate of isomerization from the closed to the open complex. PMID:9016561

  15. Gamma Band Unit Activity and Population Responses in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Hayar, Abdallah

    system (RAS). The studies described tested the hypothesis that single unit and/or population responses waking and paradoxical sleep (Steriade and McCarley 1990), is part of the reticular activating system (RAS) that modulates ascending projections through the thalamus and descending pro- jections through

  16. Activity of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Habituation

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    than rover (forR ) larvae. We used rover and sitter adult flies to test whether PKG activity affects (1 in the for gene, we also tested fors2 , a sitter mutant produced on a rover genetic background. We found in sensory responsiveness and habituation to sucrose stimuli in the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

  17. Cortisol Response to Physical Activity in African American Toddlers Attending Full-Time Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Sarah J.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American toddlers' cortisol response to acute physical play activity within a full-time subsidized day care environment. Saliva samples were taken from participants (N = 22, ages 26-45.5 months) before and after physical play and control play conditions at the same time of day. Actiheart[TM]monitors…

  18. ATP binding by NLRP7 is required for inflammasome activation in response to bacterial lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    Radian, Alexander D; Khare, Sonal; Chu, Lan H; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in innate immune responses. NLRs encode a central nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) consisting of the NAIP, CIITA, HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) domain and the NACHT associated domain (NAD), which facilitates receptor oligomerization and downstream inflammasome signaling. The NBD contains highly conserved regions, known as Walker motifs, that are required for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. The NLR containing a PYRIN domain (PYD) 7 (NLRP7) has been recently shown to assemble an ASC and caspase-1-containing high molecular weight inflammasome complex in response to microbial acylated lipopeptides and Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for NLRP7 inflammasome activation is still elusive. Here we demonstrate that the NBD of NLRP7 is an ATP binding domain and has ATPase activity. We further show that an intact nucleotide-binding Walker A motif is required for NBD-mediated nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, oligomerization, and NLRP7 inflammasome formation and activity. Accordingly, THP-1 cells expressing a mutated Walker A motif display defective NLRP7 inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL)-1? release and pyroptosis in response to acylated lipopeptides and S. aureus infection. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the mechanism of NLRP7 inflammasome assembly. PMID:26143398

  19. MODELING AND EXPERIMENTS OF THE HYSTERETIC RESPONSE OF AN ACTIVE HYDROFOIL ACTUATED BY SMA

    E-print Network

    MODELING AND EXPERIMENTS OF THE HYSTERETIC RESPONSE OF AN ACTIVE HYDROFOIL ACTUATED BY SMA LINE with the first three being the most common. These materials most commonly develop strains or, more applicably of these material types indicates that SMAs are the most appropriate candidates for the present application where

  20. Surveillance-Activated Defenses Block the ROS–Induced Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Runkel, Eva D.; Liu, Shu; Baumeister, Ralf; Schulze, Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance of cellular functions results in the activation of stress-signaling pathways that aim at restoring homeostasis. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify components of the signal transduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) to a nuclear chaperone promoter. We used the ROS generating complex I inhibitor paraquat to induce the UPRmt, and we employed RNAi exposure post-embryonically to allow testing genes whose knockdown results in embryonic lethality. We identified 54 novel regulators of the ROS–induced UPRmt. Activation of the UPRmt, but not of other stress-signaling pathways, failed when homeostasis of basic cellular mechanisms such as translation and protein transport were impaired. These mechanisms are monitored by a recently discovered surveillance system that interprets interruption of these processes as pathogen attack and depends on signaling through the JNK-like MAP-kinase KGB-1. Mutation of kgb-1 abrogated the inhibition of ROS–induced UPRmt, suggesting that surveillance-activated defenses specifically inhibit the UPRmt but do not compromise activation of the heat shock response, the UPR of the endoplasmic reticulum, or the SKN-1/Nrf2 mediated response to cytosolic stress. In addition, we identified PIFK-1, the orthologue of the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive (FWD), and found that it is the only known factor so far that is essential for the unfolded protein responses of both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that both UPRs may share a common membrane associated mechanism. PMID:23516373

  1. Multivariate inference of pathway activity in host immunity and response to therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Gautam; Conway, Kara L.; Jaeger, Martin; Netea, Mihai G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2014-01-01

    Developing a quantitative view of how biological pathways are regulated in response to environmental factors is central for understanding of disease phenotypes. We present a computational framework, named Multivariate Inference of Pathway Activity (MIPA), which quantifies degree of activity induced in a biological pathway by computing five distinct measures from transcriptomic profiles of its member genes. Statistical significance of inferred activity is examined using multiple independent self-contained tests followed by a competitive analysis. The method incorporates a new algorithm to identify a subset of genes that may regulate the extent of activity induced in a pathway. We present an in-depth evaluation of specificity, robustness, and reproducibility of our method. We benchmarked MIPA's false positive rate at less than 1%. Using transcriptomic profiles representing distinct physiological and disease states, we illustrate applicability of our method in (i) identifying gene–gene interactions in autophagy-dependent response to Salmonella infection, (ii) uncovering gene–environment interactions in host response to bacterial and viral pathogens and (iii) identifying driver genes and processes that contribute to wound healing and response to anti-TNF? therapy. We provide relevant experimental validation that corroborates the accuracy and advantage of our method. PMID:25147207

  2. Glucose-responsive insulin activity by covalent modification with aliphatic phenylboronic acid conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Danny Hung-Chieh; Webber, Matthew J.; Tang, Benjamin C.; Lin, Amy B.; Thapa, Lavanya S.; Deng, David; Truong, Jonathan V.; Cortinas, Abel B.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Since its discovery and isolation, exogenous insulin has dramatically changed the outlook for patients with diabetes. However, even when patients strictly follow an insulin regimen, serious complications can result as patients experience both hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic states. Several chemically or genetically modified insulins have been developed that tune the pharmacokinetics of insulin activity for personalized therapy. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for the chemical modification of insulin intended to promote both long-lasting and glucose-responsive activity through the incorporation of an aliphatic domain to facilitate hydrophobic interactions, as well as a phenylboronic acid for glucose sensing. These synthetic insulin derivatives enable rapid reversal of blood glucose in a diabetic mouse model following glucose challenge, with some derivatives responding to repeated glucose challenges over a 13-h period. The best-performing insulin derivative provides glucose control that is superior to native insulin, with responsiveness to glucose challenge improved over a clinically used long-acting insulin derivative. Moreover, continuous glucose monitoring reveals responsiveness matching that of a healthy pancreas. This synthetic approach to insulin modification could afford both long-term and glucose-mediated insulin activity, thereby reducing the number of administrations and improving the fidelity of glycemic control for insulin therapy. The described work is to our knowledge the first demonstration of a glucose-binding modified insulin molecule with glucose-responsive activity verified in vivo. PMID:25675515

  3. Evaluating the Responsiveness of Accelerometry to Detect Change in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoye, Alexander H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Suton, Darijan; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    The responsiveness to change of the Actical and ActiGraph accelerometers was assessed in children and adolescents. Participants (N = 208) aged 6 to 16 years completed two simulated free-living protocols, one with primarily light-to-moderate physical activity (PA) and one with mostly moderate-to-vigorous PA. Time in sedentary, light, moderate, and…

  4. Magnetic field activated lipidpolymer hybrid nanoparticles for stimuli-responsive drug release

    E-print Network

    Siegel, Paul H.

    Magnetic field activated lipid­polymer hybrid nanoparticles for stimuli-responsive drug release nanoparticles Magnetic beads Drug delivery Controlled drug release a b s t r a c t Stimuli of human diseases [1­7]. Nanopar- ticle-based drug delivery is of particular interest for cancer treat

  5. CHANGES IN GAPE FREQUENCY, SIPHON ACTIVITY AND THERMAL RESPONSE IN THE FRESHWATER BIVALVES

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    CHANGES IN GAPE FREQUENCY, SIPHON ACTIVITY AND THERMAL RESPONSE IN THE FRESHWATER BIVALVES ANODONTA; accepted 3 October 2008) ABSTRACT Physiologically-driven rhythms in bivalve molluscs are predicted to vary in laboratory aquaria. The bivalves Anodonta cygnea and Margaritifera falcata were used to evaluate the effect

  6. MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX ACTIVITY CAN DISRUPT THE EXPRESSION OF STRESS RESPONSE HABITUATION

    E-print Network

    Spencer, Robert L.

    with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder may contribute to impaired expression of stress- cially strong adverse relationship between stress and some psychiatric disorders such as major depressionMEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX ACTIVITY CAN DISRUPT THE EXPRESSION OF STRESS RESPONSE HABITUATION M. S

  7. Diet, activity patterns, foraging movement and responses to deforestation of the aquatic tenrec Limnogale mergulus

    E-print Network

    Benstead, Jon

    Diet, activity patterns, foraging movement and responses to deforestation of the aquatic tenrec of aquatic tenrec populations to catchment deforestation. Faecal analysis indicated that the diet for traditional slash-and-burn (tavy) agricul- ture (Green & Sussman, 1990; Benstead et al., 2000). Deforestation

  8. Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli, 1999 To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought

  9. EFFECTS OF TWO PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES ON MOTOR ACTIVITY AND THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize the behavioral toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides, comparisons were made of the effects of cismethrin and deltamethrin exposure on motor activity and the acoustic startle response in male Long-Evans rats. Acute dose-effect, acute time course, and 30-day re...

  10. ACUTE EFFECTS OF AMITRAZ ON THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE AND MOTOR ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To characterize further the behavioral toxicity of amitraz, comparisons were made between the effects of amitraz on motor activity, the acoustic startle response, body temperature, and body weight in male Long-Evans rats. cute dosage-effect and time-course determinations of motor...

  11. Role of acid sphingomyelinase bioactivity in human CD4+ T-cell activation and immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Bai, A; Kokkotou, E; Zheng, Y; Robson, S C

    2015-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), a lipid hydrolase enzyme, has the potential to modulate various cellular activation responses via the generation of ceramide and by interaction with cellular receptors. We have hypothesized that ASM modulates CD4+ T-cell receptor activation and impacts immune responses. We first observed interactions of ASM with the intracellular domains of both CD3 and CD28. ASM further mediates T-cell proliferation after anti-CD3/CD28 antibody stimulation and alters CD4+ T-cell activation signals by generating ceramide. We noted that various pharmacological inhibitors of ASM or knockdown of ASM using small hairpin RNA inhibit CD3/CD28-mediated CD4+ T-cell proliferation and activation. Furthermore, such blockade of ASM bioactivity by biochemical inhibitors and/or molecular-targeted knockdown of ASM broadly abrogate T-helper cell responses. In conclusion, we detail immune, pivotal roles of ASM in adaptive immune T-cell responses, and propose that these pathways might provide novel targets for the therapy of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26203857

  12. Far tail (255 RE) fast response to very weak magnetic activity J.A. Sauvaud,1

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Far tail (255 RE) fast response to very weak magnetic activity J.A. Sauvaud,1 A. Opitz,1 L. Palin,1 present an original study of the dynamical changes measured in the far tail at XGSM -255 RE, onboard are well correlated with motions of the far tail in which the spacecraft passes from the lobe

  13. Dose-Response Issues Concerning the Relations between Regular Physical Activity and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2002-01-01

    This paper categorizes the many benefits of physical activity, offering information concerning the type of dose necessary to get that benefit. In 2000, Health Canada and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with other agencies, sponsored a symposium to determine whether there was a dose-response relationship between…

  14. Behavioral responses of goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) to parasitic activity of botflies.

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavioral responses of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to hypodermic botfly (family Hypodermatidae) activity in the naturally arid conditions of Kazakhstan. We found that the reactions of goitered gazelles are very similar to the insect-repelling behaviors of other ruminants and that most behavioral responses of goitered gazelles, such as frantic running, tail movements, and grooming, are not specific to botflies. The seasonal and diurnal changes in the intensity of the behavioral responses of the goitered gazelles coincided with the parasitic activities of botfly maggots. Surprisingly, the group size of the goitered gazelles decreased during the breeding of these parasitic insects instead of increasing, as was expected according to our predictions. As an alternative, the goitered gazelles chose an opposite strategy of dispersion throughout the area to avoid infestation. This strategy is well-known for other species of ungulates and was quite effective, because their infestation rate was relatively low. PMID:24171698

  15. The absolute CBF response to activation is preserved during elevated perfusion: Implications for neurovascular coupling measures.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Joseph R; Driver, Ian D; Bright, Molly G; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in which the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to a neural stimulus are measured, can be used to estimate the fractional increase in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) that accompanies evoked neural activity. A measure of neurovascular coupling is obtained from the ratio of fractional CBF and CMRO2 responses, defined as n, with the implicit assumption that relative rather than absolute changes in CBF and CMRO2 adequately characterise the flow-metabolism response to neural activity. The coupling parameter n is important in terms of its effect on the BOLD response, and as potential insight into the flow-metabolism relationship in both normal and pathological brain function. In 10 healthy human subjects, BOLD and CBF responses were measured to test the effect of baseline perfusion (modulated by a hypercapnia challenge) on the coupling parameter n during graded visual stimulation. A dual-echo pulsed arterial spin labelling (PASL) sequence provided absolute quantification of CBF in baseline and active states as well as relative BOLD signal changes, which were used to estimate CMRO2 responses to the graded visual stimulus. The absolute CBF response to the visual stimuli were constant across different baseline CBF levels, meaning the fractional CBF responses were reduced at the hyperperfused baseline state. For the graded visual stimuli, values of n were significantly reduced during hypercapnia induced hyperperfusion. Assuming the evoked neural responses to the visual stimuli are the same for both baseline CBF states, this result has implications for fMRI studies that aim to measure neurovascular coupling using relative changes in CBF. The coupling parameter n is sensitive to baseline CBF, which would confound its interpretation in fMRI studies where there may be significant differences in baseline perfusion between groups. The absolute change in CBF, as opposed to the change relative to baseline, may more closely match the underlying increase in neural activity in response to a stimulus. PMID:26477657

  16. Bilirubin mediated oxidative stress involves antioxidant response activation via Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Qaisiya, Mohammed; Coda Zabetta, Carlos Daniel; Bellarosa, Cristina; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) is responsible for neonatal jaundice and high level of free bilirubin (Bf) can lead to kernicterus. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress is a critical component of UCB-induced neurotoxicity. The Nrf2 pathway is a powerful sensor for cellular redox state and is activated directly by oxidative stress and/or indirectly by stress response protein kinases. Activated Nrf2 translocates to nucleus, binds to Antioxidant Response Element (ARE), and enhances the up-regulation of cytoprotective genes that mediate cell survival. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 pathway in cell response to bilirubin mediated oxidative stress in the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Cells exposed to a toxic concentration of UCB (140 nM Bf) showed an increased intracellular ROS levels and enhanced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 protein. UCB stimulated transcriptional induction of ARE-GFP reporter gene and induced mRNA expression of multiple antioxidant response genes as: xCT, Gly1, ?GCL-m, ?GCL-c, HO-1, NQO1, FTH, ME1, and ATF3. Nrf2 siRNA decreased UCB induced mRNA expression of HO1 (75%), NQO1 (54%), and FTH (40%). The Nrf2-related HO-1 induction was reduced to 60% in cells pre-treated with antioxidant (NAC) or specific signaling pathway inhibitors for PKC, P38? and MEK1/2 (80, 40 and 25%, respectively). In conclusion, we demonstrated that SH-SY5Y cells undergo an adaptive response against UCB-mediated oxidative stress by activation of multiple antioxidant response, in part through Nrf2 pathway. PMID:24308969

  17. Immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jiabin; Lu, Yahong; Gong, Yongchang; Zhu, Min; Chen, Fei; Liang, Zi; Zhu, Liyuan; Kuang, Sulan; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-06-01

    The JAK/STAT, Toll, Imd, and RNAi pathways are the major signaling pathways associated with insect innate immunity. To explore the different immune signaling pathways triggered in response to pathogenic micro-organism infections in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the expression levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (BmSTAT), spatzle-1 (Bmspz-1), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LB (BmPGRP-LB), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LE (BmPGRP-LE), argonaute 2 (Bmago2), and dicer-2 (Bmdcr2) genes after challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli), Serratiamarcescens (Sm), Bacillus bombyseptieus (Bab), Beauveriabassiana (Beb), nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), cypovirus (BmCPV), bidensovirus (BmBDV), or Nosemabombycis (Nb) were determined using real-time PCR. We found that the JAK/STAT pathway could be activated by challenge with BmNPV and BmBDV, the Toll pathway could be most robustly induced by challenge with Beb, the Imd pathway was mainly activated in response to infection by E. coli and Sm, and the RNAi pathway was not activated by viral infection, but could be triggered by some bacterial infections. These findings yield insights into the immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in the silkworm. PMID:25745806

  18. Effect of Passive Pile on 3D Ground Deformation and on Active Pile Response

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bingxiang; Teng, Jun; Peng, Tao; Feng, Zhongwen

    2014-01-01

    Using a series of model tests, this study investigated the effect of a passive pile on 3D ground deformation around a laterally loaded pile and on that laterally loaded pile's response in sand. The active pile head was subjected to lateral loads, and the passive pile was arranged in front of the active pile. In the model tests, the distance between the two pile centers was set to zero (i.e., a single pile test), 2.5, 4, and 6 times the pile width (B). The 3D ground surface deformations around the active and passive piles were obtained using a newly developed Stereo-PIV technique. The experimental results showed that the ground surface movements were restrained by the passive pile when the pile spacing was less than 6B. The response of the active pile was affected by the passive pile when the pile spacing was less than 4B. This study combined the response of the active pile and surrounding 3D ground deformation to investigate the effect of the passive pile, which is useful to further understand the pile-soil-pile interactions and to enhance pile foundation design in engineering practice. PMID:25250391

  19. Activation of immature microglia in response to stab wound in embryonic quail retina.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Ana M; Cuadros, Miguel A; Calvente, Ruth; Tassi, Mohamed; Marín-Teva, José L; Navascués, Julio

    2005-11-01

    Activation of mature (ramified) microglia in response to injury in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is well documented. However, the response of immature (ameboid) microglia to injury in the developing CNS has received little attention. In this study, a stab wound was made in embryonic quail retinas at incubation days 7 and 9, and the response of retinal microglial cells was analyzed at different times between days 1 and 37 postinjury. The appearance of microglial cells within the wound occurred at the same time as the arrival of the first migrating ameboid microglial cells at an equivalent area in control retinas. Therefore, no specific attraction of microglia toward the wound was observed. Microglial cells in the wound had phenotypic features similar to those of activated microglia in the adult CNS. Thus, their shape was more compact compared with microglial cells outside the wound, expression of the molecule recognized by the QH1 antibody was up-regulated, and their lysosomal compartment was markedly increased. Transitional forms between normal ameboid and activated-like microglial cells were seen at the wound edge, supporting the view that ameboid microglia become activated when they contact the wound during the normal course of their migration in the retina. The microglial reaction was maintained within the wound at 37 days postinjury. In addition to the stab wound, secondary damage areas were found in experimental retinas. Activated cells could still be observed in these areas at 37 days postinjury. PMID:16175556

  20. Distinct biological activity of threonine monophosphorylated MAPK isoforms during the stress response in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Beatriz; Soto, Teresa; Del Dedo, Javier Encinar; Franco, Alejandro; Vicente, Jero; Hidalgo, Elena; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José; Madrid, Marisa

    2015-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) define a specific group of eukaryotic protein kinases which regulate a number of cellular functions by transducing extracellular signals to intracellular responses. Unlike other protein kinases, catalytic activation of MAPKs by MAPKKs depends on dual phosphorylation at two tyrosine and threonine residues within the conserved TXY motif, and this has been proposed to occur in an ordered fashion, where the initial phosphorylation on tyrosine is followed by phosphorylation at the threonine residue. However, monophosphorylated MAPKs also exist in vivo, and although threonine phosphorylated isoforms retain some catalytic activity, their functional significance remains to be further elucidated. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe MAPKs Sty1 and Pmk1 control multiple aspects of fission yeast life cycle, including morphogenesis, cell cycle, and cellular response to a variety of stressful situations. In this work we show that a trapping mechanism increases MAPKK binding and tyrosine phosphorylation of both Sty1 and Pmk1 when subsequent phosphorylation at threonine is hampered, indicating that a sequential and likely processive mechanism might be responsible for MAPK activation in this simple organism. Whereas threonine-monophosphorylated Sty1 showed a limited biological activity particularly at the transcriptional level, threonine-monophosphorylated Pmk1 was able to execute most of the biological functions of the dually phosphorylated kinase. Thus, threonine monophosphorylated MAPKs might display distinct functional relevance among eukaryotes. PMID:26432170

  1. Failure of cAMP agonists to activate rescued deltaF508 CFTR in CFBE41o- airway epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bebok, Zsuzsa; Collawn, James F; Wakefield, John; Parker, William; Li, Yao; Varga, Karoly; Sorscher, Eric J; Clancy, J P

    2005-12-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel. Mutations in the CFTR gene result in cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common mutation, deltaF508, results in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) of CFTR. DeltaF508 CFTR has been described as a temperature-sensitive mutation that can be rescued following growth at 27 degrees C. In order to study the processing and function of wild-type and rescued deltaF508 CFTR at the cell surface under non-polarized and polarized conditions, we developed stable cell lines expressing deltaF508 or wild-type CFTR. CFBE41o- is a human airway epithelial cell line capable of forming high resistance, polarized monolayers when cultured on permeable supports, while HeLa cells are normally grown under non-polarizing conditions. Immunoprecipitation, cell surface biotinylation, immunofluorescence, and functional assays confirmed the presence of deltaF508 CFTR at the cell surface in both cell lines after incubating the cells for 48 h at 27 degrees C. However, stimulators of wild-type CFTR such as forskolin, beta2-adrenergic or A2B-adenosine receptor agonists failed to activate rescued deltaF508 CFTR in CFBE41o- monolayers. Rescued deltaF508 CFTR could be stimulated with genistein independent of pretreatment with cAMP signalling agonists. Interestingly, rescued deltaF508 CFTR in HeLa cells could be efficiently stimulated with either forskolin or genistein to promote Cl- transport. These results indicate that deltaF508 CFTR, when rescued in CFBE41o- human airway epithelial cells, is poorly responsive to signalling pathways known to regulate wild-type CFTR. Furthermore, the differences in rescue and activation of deltaF508 CFTR in the two cell lines suggest that cell-type specific differences in deltaF508 CFTR processing are likely to complicate efforts to identify potentiators and/or correctors of the deltaF508 defect. PMID:16210354

  2. Structural determinants of arylacetic acid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs necessary for binding and activation of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2.

    PubMed

    Hata, Aaron N; Lybrand, Terry P; Marnett, Lawrence J; Breyer, Richard M

    2005-03-01

    The chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates chemotaxis of inflammatory cells in response to prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is hypothesized to play a role in Th2-mediated allergic disease. In addition to PGD2, CRTH2 can be activated by indomethacin, a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor and widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). To evaluate the structural features that confer CRTH2 binding selectivity, structure-activity relationship analysis of arylacetic acid class NSAIDs as CRTH2 receptor ligands was performed. Indomethacin, sulindac sulfide, and zomepirac displaced [3H]PGD2 binding at the mouse CRTH2 receptor (mCRTH2) with comparable affinity (Ki = 1.5 +/- 0.1, 2.5 +/- 0.4, and 3.3 +/- 0.3 microM, respectively). The indomethacin metabolite 5'-O-desmethyl indomethacin (5'-DMI) possessed binding affinity similar to indomethacin; however, elimination of the 2-methyl substituent on the indole ring resulted in a 10-fold decrease in binding affinity. No binding was detected for indole acetic acid and indole derivatives such as tryptophan, serotonin, and 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid, demonstrating the importance of the N-acyl moiety of indomethacin. Neutral derivatives of indomethacin also failed to bind to mCRTH2, suggesting that the negatively charged carboxylate moiety participates in a key ligand-receptor interaction. Despite similar binding affinities, NSAID-type mCRTH2 ligands exhibited variable potencies as mCRTH2 agonists. Sulindac sulfide and 5'-DMI inhibited intracellular cyclic AMP ([cAMP]i) generation and stimulated cell migration comparable with indomethacin. In contrast, zomepirac did not inhibit [cAMP]i generation or stimulate cell migration but weakly antagonized the effects of indomethacin on [cAMP]i. Together, these results reveal structural features of arylacetic acid NSAIDs that may be exploited for the development of selective CRTH2 ligands. PMID:15563582

  3. In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease: activation of the adenylate cyclase system influences JHM virus expression in explanted rat oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Beushausen, S; Narindrasorasak, S; Sanwal, B D; Dales, S

    1987-01-01

    The specificity of JHM virus (JHMV) tropism for rat oligodendrocytes, as one of the primary host cells in the central nervous system, is maintained after explanation (S. Beushausen and S. Dales, Virology 141:89-101, 1985). The temporal correlation between onset of resistance to JHMV infection in vivo, completion of myelination, and maturation of the central nervous system can be simulated in vitro by inducers of oligodendrocyte differentiation (Beushausen and Dales, Virology, 1985). Stimulation of differentiation through the elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels suggests a possible connection between activation of the adenylate cyclase system and coronavirus expression. Chromatographic analysis of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in cytosol extracts prepared from astrocytes or oligodendrocytes revealed that both glial cell types were deficient in protein kinase I, indicating that expression of coronavirus in differentiated cells was not contingent upon the presence of protein kinase I. However, treatment with N6,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) resulted in a severalfold enhancement of the free regulatory subunit (RI) in oligodendrocytes but not in astrocytes. The RII subunit in both neural cell types was relatively unaffected. Rapid increase in RI due to dbcAMP treatment was correlated with inhibition of JHMV expression. Other differentiation inducers, including 8-Br cAMP and forskolin which, by contrast, caused a decrease in detectable RI, also blocked JHMV expression. This apparent anomaly can be attributed to an increased turnover of RI due to destabilization of the molecule which occurs upon site-specific binding of the cyclic nucleotides. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that the state of oligodendrocyte differentiation manifested with the modulation of RI regulates JHMV expression. The differentiation process did not affect either virus adsorption or sequestration but appeared to inhibit the expression of viral RNA and proteins, implying that replication was inhibited at some step between penetration and initiation of genomic functions, perhaps at the stage of uncoating. We therefore examined the possibility that protein kinases and phosphatases, which influence cellular regulation during cAMP-induced differentiation, may be responsible for the phenomenon of coronavirus suppression in oligodendrocytes. Evidence was obtained indicating that normal processing of the phosphorylated nucleocapsid protein is inhibited in differentiated oligodendrocytes, consistent with the notion that JHMV replication might be arrested during uncoating. Images PMID:2824815

  4. Brain activity during sympathetic response in anticipation and experience of pain.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Frank; Schuberth, Nadine; De Col, Roberto; Peltz, Elena; Nickel, Florian T; Maihöfner, Christian

    2013-08-01

    Pain is a multidimensional phenomenon with sensory, affective, and autonomic components. Here, we used parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to correlate regional brain activity with autonomic responses to (i) painful stimuli and to (ii) anticipation of pain. The autonomic parameters used for correlation were (i) skin blood flow (SBF) and (ii) skin conductance response (SCR). During (i) experience of pain and (ii) anticipation of pain, activity in the insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), thalamus, and midbrain correlated with sympathetic outflow. A conjunction analysis revealed a common central sympathetic network for (i) pain experience and (ii) pain anticipation with similar correlations between brain activity and sympathetic parameters in the anterior insula, prefrontal cortex, thalamus, midbrain, and temporoparietal junction. Therefore, we here describe shared central neural networks involved in the central autonomic processing of the experience and anticipation of pain. PMID:22438199

  5. Online detection of an emotional response of a horse during physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jansen, F; Van der Krogt, J; Van Loon, K; Avezzù, V; Guarino, M; Quanten, S; Berckmans, D

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method to detect an emotional response of a horse to novelty during physical activity. Two horses performed 20 trials each, in which the horse's heart rate (HR) and physical activity were continuously measured. The relationship between the horse's physical activity and HR was described by a mathematical model allowing online decomposition of the horse's HR into a physical component and a component containing information about its emotional state. Exposure to the novel object resulted in an increase in the emotional component of HR, which allowed automatic detection of an emotional response of the horse in 33/40 trials. In the remaining seven trials no stable model could be built or data were missing. The results show that model-based decomposition of HR can be a useful tool for quantification of certain aspects of temperament. PMID:19375961

  6. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jong W.; Hoffman, Sandy; Beal, Allison M.; Dykon, Angela; Ringenberg, Michael A.; Hughes, Anna C.; Dare, Lauren; Anderson, Amber D.; Finger, Joshua; Kasparcova, Viera; Rickard, David; Berger, Scott B.; Ramanjulu, Joshi; Emery, John G.; Gough, Peter J.; Bertin, John; Foley, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-?B through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 protease inhibitors with suitable pharmacologic properties. To fully investigate the role of MALT1 protease activity, we generated mice homozygous for a protease-dead mutation in MALT1. We found that some, but not all, MALT1 functions in immune cells were dependent upon its protease activity. Protease-dead mice had defects in the generation of splenic marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells displayed decreased T cell receptor-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production while B cell receptor-stimulated proliferation was partially dependent on protease activity. In dendritic cells, stimulation of cytokine production through the Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle C-type lectin receptors was also found to be partially dependent upon protease activity. In vivo, protease-dead mice had reduced basal immunoglobulin levels, and showed defective responses to immunization with T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Surprisingly, despite these decreased responses, MALT1 protease-dead mice, but not MALT1 null mice, developed mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates in multiple organs, suggesting MALT1 protease activity plays a role in immune homeostasis. These findings highlight the importance of MALT1 protease activity in multiple immune cell types, and in integrating immune responses in vivo. PMID:25965667

  7. Transposable Elements Contribute to Activation of Maize Genes in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Makarevitch, Irina; Waters, Amanda J.; West, Patrick T.; Stitzer, Michelle; Hirsch, Candice N.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of the genome in many eukaryotic species. Despite their reputation as “junk” DNA or genomic parasites deleterious for the host, TEs have complex interactions with host genes and the potential to contribute to regulatory variation in gene expression. It has been hypothesized that TEs and genes they insert near may be transcriptionally activated in response to stress conditions. The maize genome, with many different types of TEs interspersed with genes, provides an ideal system to study the genome-wide influence of TEs on gene regulation. To analyze the magnitude of the TE effect on gene expression response to environmental changes, we profiled gene and TE transcript levels in maize seedlings exposed to a number of abiotic stresses. Many genes exhibit up- or down-regulation in response to these stress conditions. The analysis of TE families inserted within upstream regions of up-regulated genes revealed that between four and nine different TE families are associated with up-regulated gene expression in each of these stress conditions, affecting up to 20% of the genes up-regulated in response to abiotic stress, and as many as 33% of genes that are only expressed in response to stress. Expression of many of these same TE families also responds to the same stress conditions. The analysis of the stress-induced transcripts and proximity of the transposon to the gene suggests that these TEs may provide local enhancer activities that stimulate stress-responsive gene expression. Our data on allelic variation for insertions of several of these TEs show strong correlation between the presence of TE insertions and stress-responsive up-regulation of gene expression. Our findings suggest that TEs provide an important source of allelic regulatory variation in gene response to abiotic stress in maize. PMID:25569788

  8. Teaching children with autism to use photographic activity schedules: maintenance and generalization of complex response chains.

    PubMed Central

    MacDuff, G S; Krantz, P J; McClannahan, L E

    1993-01-01

    We used a graduated guidance procedure to teach 4 boys with autism to follow photographic activity schedules to increase on-task and on-schedule behavior. The multiple baseline across participants design included baseline, teaching, maintenance, resequencing of photographs, and generalization to novel photographs phases. The results indicated that photographic activity schedules (albums depicting after-school activities) produced sustained engagement, and skills generalized to a new sequence of photographs and to new photographs. The acquisition of schedule-following skills enabled these children with severe developmental disabilities to display lengthy response chains, independently change activities, and change activities in different group home settings in the absence of immediate supervision and prompts from others. PMID:8473261

  9. Prefrontal cortex activity during response selection predicts processing speed impairment in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Neil D.; Duffy-Alberto, Brittney; Karbasforoushan, Haleh

    2014-01-01

    Processing speed is the most impaired neuropsychological domain in schizophrenia and a robust predictor of functional outcome. Determining the specific cognitive operations underlying processing speed dysfunction and indentifying their neural correlates may assist in developing pro-cognitive interventions. Response selection, the process of mapping stimuli onto motor responses, correlates with neuropsychological tests of processing speed and may contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationship between behavioral and neural measures of response selection, and a neuropsychological index of processing speed in schizophrenia. 26 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning during performance of 2 and 4-choice-reaction time (RT) tasks and completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS) Processing Speed Index (PSI). Response selection, defined as RT slowing between 2 and 4-choice RT, was impaired in schizophrenia and correlated with psychometric processing speed. Greater activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed in schizophrenia and correlated with poorer WAIS PSI scores. Deficient response selection and abnormal recruitment of the dorsolateral PFC during response selection contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. Interventions that improve response selection and normalize dorsolateral PFC function may improve processing speed in schizophrenia. PMID:23816240

  10. P-Them Response for Geologically Active and Non-Active Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2011-12-01

    Time Domain Electromagnetic air-borne systems are widely used in geological exploration for minerals associated with conductive rocks, underground water resources and geological underground mapping. The newly designed P-THEM system has been test-flown at the Reid Mahaffy geological test site in Northern Ontario, Canada; and then over an area near Newmarket, north of Toronto. While the flight in Reid Mahaffy was made to verify real characteristics of the system: stability and repeatability of results, the flight over the Newmarket area was made to verify correct operation of the EM system with a magnetometer and gamma-ray spectrometer. Interesting and significant response of the TDEM observations to geological, agricultural and engineering objects were observed during the test flights. These results demonstrate a possibility of TDEM method for mineral research and environmental tasks. The Reid Mahaffy Test Site is located in the Abitibi Subprovince, immediately east of the Mattagami River Fault in Ontario, Canada. The test site was created in 1999 by the Ontario Geological Survey, initially to enable various airborne geophysical systems to demonstrate their basic performance capabilities. The general geology of the site contains known overburden thickness based on almost 50 diamond drill holes, with geological logs available for these. The survey flights over Reid Mahaffy test site were performed in April 2010. The altitude and direction tests were flown on three lines over the test survey area. The response of early times represents overburden and correlates with its known thickness. The conductive body appears on later time channels and remains detectable over noise level. The electrical inversion of the results allows distinguishing a structure of several vertical conductor slices, forming the conductive body. The Newmarket area selected for tests in June 2010 is a highly developed urban zone in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada. Geologically, the area is represented with Quadrennial sediments with underlying bedrocks of the Ordovician formation. The main area is represented with sand and gravel of Glacial lake, River and Moraine deposits. The main purpose of the test flights was to check the functional integration of the P-THEM system with a Magnetometer and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer system. The results indicated a very good agricultural response of the P-THEM system after the interpretation of the observed data. The salty soils along roads, where the salt is spread during winter time, the grounded industrial constructions and powerline towers can be observed on the mapped data (see image). The achieved results of the survey show the possibility of the TDEM airborne system for applications in characterization of environmental and engineering properties, such as detection of surface and near surface pollution, grounding of metal constructions and other, over large areas of interest.

  11. Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS and the signal molecule cAMP are the major players in the regulation of transcription under such conditions; however, their interaction is still not fully understood. Therefore, during growth of E. coli in carbon-limited chemostat culture at different dilution rates, the transcriptomes, expression of periplasmic proteins and catabolomes of strains lacking one of these global regulators, either rpoS or adenylate cyclase (cya), were compared to those of the wild-type strain. The inability to synthesize cAMP exerted a strong negative influence on the expression of alternative carbon source uptake and degradation systems. In contrast, absence of RpoS increased the transcription of genes belonging to high-affinity uptake systems and central metabolism, presumably due to reduced competition of ?D with ?S. Phenotypical analysis confirmed this observation: The ability to respire alternative carbon substrates and to express periplasmic high-affinity binding proteins was eliminated in cya and crp mutants, while these properties were not affected in the rpoS mutant. As expected, transcription of numerous stress defence genes was negatively affected by the rpoS knock-out mutation. Interestingly, several genes of the RpoS stress response regulon were also down-regulated in the cAMP-negative strain indicating a coordinated global regulation. The results demonstrate that cAMP is crucial for catabolic flexibility during slow, carbon-limited growth, whereas RpoS is primarily involved in the regulation of stress response systems necessary for the survival of this bacterium under hunger conditions. PMID:26204448

  12. Brain activation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction in internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated neural substrates related to the loss of control in college students with internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that deficit in response inhibition under gaming cue distraction was the possible mechanism for the loss of control internet use. Eleven cases of IGD and 11 controls performed Go/NoGo tasks with/without gaming distraction in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. When the gaming picture was shown as background while individuals were performing Go/NoGo tasks, the IGD group committed more commission errors. The control group increased their brain activations more over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal lobe under gaming cue distraction in comparison with the IGD group. Furthermore, brain activation of the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe were negatively associated with performance of response inhibition among the IGD group. The results suggest that the function of response inhibition was impaired under gaming distraction among the IGD group, and individuals with IGD could not activate right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe to keep cognitive control and attention allocation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction. This mechanism should be addressed in any intervention for IGD. PMID:24388058

  13. Promoting student-centered active learning in lectures with a personal response system.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Sally A; Dantas, Arianne M; Williams, David A; Kemm, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    We investigated whether an active learning approach, facilitated by a personal response system, would lead to improved student engagement and learning outcomes in large-group physiology lectures for undergraduate science students. We focused on encouraging students' active learning in lectures, whereas previous studies have made more use of audience response technology during lectures for formative or summative assessment. Students voluntarily answered questions posed during lectures with their personal response system (clickers), with individual answers automatically collated for immediate histogram display. This feedback then dictated the focus of followup discussions in the lecture. Student and instructor attitudes were surveyed through voluntary interviews with student responses correlated with their degree of clicker participation and individual exam results. Active lectures were found to increase both student motivation and engagement. Students who participated in answering questions achieved better results than students who chose not to. Students with the lowest scores in a prerequisite course (previous semester physiology exam marks of < 60%) showed significantly better outcomes from the use of clickers than both middle-achieving (60-75%) and high-achieving (>75%) entry students. Significant improvement was evident in both mid- and end-semester exam results compared with student cohorts from preceding years, although this could also be influenced by many other factors. Increased student engagement and the immediate feedback obtained during lectures were advantages commonly noted by lecturing staff. PMID:19261762

  14. CD73-TNAP crosstalk regulates the hypertrophic response and cardiomyocyte calcification due to ?1 adrenoceptor activation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiaohong Tracey; Taniai, Seiichi; Zhao, Ganjian; Huang, Cathy X; Velenosi, Thomas J; Xue, Jenny; Urquhart, Bradley L; Karmazyn, Morris

    2014-09-01

    Cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73) is an ecto-5' nucleotidase which catalyzes the conversion of AMP to adenosine. One of the many functions of adenosine is to suppress the activity of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), an enzyme important in regulating intracellular calcification. Since myocardial calcification is associated with various cardiac disease states, we studied the individual roles and crosstalk between CD73 and TNAP in regulating myocyte responses to the ?1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine in terms of calcification and hypertrophy. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with 10 µM phenylephrine for 24 h in the absence or presence of the stable adenosine analog 2-chloro-adenosine, the TNAP inhibitor tetramisole or the CD73 inhibitor ?,?-methylene ADP. Phenylephrine produced marked hypertrophy as evidenced by significant increases in myocyte surface area and ANP gene expression, as well as calcification determined by Alizarin Red S staining. These responses were associated with reduced CD73 gene and protein expression and CD73 activity. Conversely, TNAP expression and activity were significantly increased although both were suppressed by 2-chloro-adenosine. CD73 inhibition alone significantly reduced myocyte-derived adenosine levels by >50 %, and directly induced hypertrophy and calcification in the absence of phenylephrine. These responses and those to phenylephrine were abrogated by TNAP inhibition. We conclude that TNAP contributes to the hypertrophic effect of phenylephrine, as well as its ability to produce cardiomyocyte calcification. These responses are minimized by CD73-dependent endogenously produced adenosine. PMID:24894822

  15. Escape from harm: linking affective vision and motor responses during active avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    When organisms confront unpleasant objects in their natural environments, they engage in behaviors that allow them to avoid aversive outcomes. Here, we linked visual processing of threat to its behavioral consequences by including a motor response that terminated exposure to an aversive event. Dense-array steady-state visual evoked potentials were recorded in response to conditioned threat and safety signals viewed in active or passive behavioral contexts. The amplitude of neuronal responses in visual cortex increased additively, as a function of emotional value and action relevance. The gain in local cortical population activity for threat relative to safety cues persisted when aversive reinforcement was behaviorally terminated, suggesting a lingering emotionally based response amplification within the visual system. Distinct patterns of long-range neural synchrony emerged between the visual cortex and extravisual regions. Increased coupling between visual and higher-order structures was observed specifically during active perception of threat, consistent with a reorganization of neuronal populations involved in linking sensory processing to action preparation. PMID:24493849

  16. Inhibition of TGFbeta1 Signaling Attenutates ATM Activity inResponse to Genotoxic Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam B.; Lavin, Martin J.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}), which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}1 null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17 and p53, reduced {gamma}H2AX radiation-induced foci, and increased radiosensitivity compared to TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM that directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate and tissue integrity. Thus, TGF{beta}1, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  17. Responsibility, capability, and Active SETI: Policy, law, ethics, and communication with extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2011-02-01

    With recently growing interest in the Active Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), in which humankind would send intentional signals to extraterrestrial civilizations, there have been increased concerns about appropriate policy, as well as the role of space law and ethics in guiding such activities. Implicit in these discussions are notions of responsibility and capability that affect judgments about whether humans or other civilizations should initiate transmissions. Existing protocols that guide SETI research address transmissions from Earth, but there is debate over whether these guidelines should inform de novo transmissions as well. Relevant responsibilities to address include (1) looking out for the interests of humankind as a whole, (2) being truthful in interstellar messages, and (3) benefiting extraterrestrial civilizations. Our capabilities as a species and a civilization affect how well we can fulfill responsibilities, as seen when we consider whether we will be able to reach consensus about message contents (and whether that would be desirable), and whether we have the capacity to decode messages from beings that rely on different sensory modalities. The interplay of these responsibilities and capabilities suggests that humankind should place increased emphasis on Active SETI.

  18. Brain Activations Related to Saccadic Response Conflict are not Sensitive to Time on Task

    PubMed Central

    Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz; Fafrowicz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e., a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to