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1

Physical activity elicits sustained activation of the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the rat hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in physical activity-induced beneficial effects on brain function, we studied in rats the influence of voluntary running on the activation in the hippocampus of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)\\/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). These are signaling molecules that play critical roles in synaptic plasticity, including learning and memory. Exercise

H Shen; L Tong; R Balazs; C. W Cotman

2001-01-01

2

Calcium-mediated enhancement of the cyclic AMP response in cultured bone cells.  

PubMed

We have examined the influence of extracellular Ca2+ on cyclic AMP metabolism in an osteoblast-enriched population of bone cells isolated from the calvaria of rat fetuses. The cyclic AMP response to stimulators of cyclic AMP formation (PTH and PGE2), but not basal cyclic AMP levels, increased progressively as the extracellular Ca2+ concentration was raised from 0.2 to 4.0 mM. The response to changes in extracellular Ca2+ were rapid (within 3.5 min), and the level of responsivity that characterized each Ca2+ concentration persisted for at least 6 h when the Ca2+ concentration was kept constant. The effect of Ca2+ spanned the entire time course of PTH action, was not accompanied by altered excretion of cyclic AMP from the cells, and was evident at low as well as at high hormone concentrations. Ca2+ augmented the action of PTH in the presence as well as in the absence of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and failed to decrease cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in the short term. Mn2+ and, to a smaller degree, Ba2+ substituted for Ca2+ in promoting the cyclic AMP response to PTH. Verapamil, an inhibitor of Ca2+ penetration, blunted the Ca2+-mediated increments in the cyclic AMP response, and the divalent cation ionophore A23187 enhanced these increments. These results indicate that Ca2+ and other cations are positive effectors of the stimulated cyclic AMP response in isolated bone cells. Accumulation into an as yet unknown cellular compartment may be required for the cation effect. The data are most consistent with enhancement of adenylate cyclase reactivity as the mode of cation action. PMID:6271356

Peck, W A; Kohler, G; Barr, S

1981-01-01

3

A Drosophila CREB/CREM homolog encodes multiple isoforms, including a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-responsive transcriptional activator and antagonist.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a Drosophila gene that is a highly conserved homolog of the mammalian cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive transcription factors CREB and CREM. Uniquely among Drosophila genes characterized to date, it codes for a cAMP-responsive transcriptional activator. An alternatively spliced product of the same gene is a specific antagonist of cAMP-inducible transcription. Analysis of the splicing pattern of the gene suggests that the gene may be the predecessor of the mammalian CREB and CREM genes.

Yin, J C; Wallach, J S; Wilder, E L; Klingensmith, J; Dang, D; Perrimon, N; Zhou, H; Tully, T; Quinn, W G

1995-01-01

4

Novel interactions between human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax and activating transcription factor 3 at a cyclic AMP-responsive element.  

PubMed Central

Human proenkephalin gene transcription is transactivated by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax in human Jurkat T lymphocytes. This transactivation was further enhanced in Jurkat cells treated with concanavalin A, cyclic AMP, or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Deletion and cis-element transfer analyses of the human proenkephalin promoter identified a cyclic AMP-responsive AP-1 element (-92 to -86) as both necessary and sufficient to confer Tax-dependent transactivation. Different AP-1 or cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins which bind this element were expressed in murine teratocarcinoma F9 cells to identify those capable of mediating Tax-dependent transactivation of human proenkephalin gene transcription. Although CREB, c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunD did not have significant effects, JunB inhibited the Tax-dependent transactivation. In contrast, ATF3 dramatically induced Tax-dependent transactivation, which was further enhanced by protein kinase A. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with recombinant fusion proteins expressed and purified from bacteria indicate that the DNA-binding activity of ATF3 is also dramatically enhanced by Tax. Chimeric fusion proteins consisting of the DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor Gal4 and the amino-terminal domain (residues 1 to 66) of ATF3 were able to mediate Tax-dependent transactivation of a Gal4-responsive promoter, which suggests a direct involvement of this region of ATF3. Recombinant fusion proteins of glutathione S-transferase with either the amino- or carboxy-terminal (residues 139 to 181) domain of ATF3 were able to specifically interact with Tax. Furthermore, specific antisera directed against Tax coimmunoprecipitated ATF3 only in the presence of Tax. Images

Low, K G; Chu, H M; Schwartz, P M; Daniels, G M; Melner, M H; Comb, M J

1994-01-01

5

Mutants of PC12 cells with altered cyclic AMP responses  

SciTech Connect

PCl2 cells, derived from a rat pheochromocytoma, were mutagenized and selected in media containing agents known to elevate intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP). More than 40 clones were isolated by selection with cholera toxin or 2-chloroadenosine or both. The variants that were deficient in accumulating cAMP were obtained by using a protocol in which 1 ..mu..m 8-bromo-cAMP was included in addition to the agonist. Certain of these variants were partially characterized with respect to the site of altered cAMP metabolism. The profiles of adenylate cyclase activity responsiveness of certain variants to guanosine-5'-(BETA,..gamma..-imido) triphosphate and to forskolin resembled those of UNC and cyc phenotypes of S49 lymphoma cells, which are functionally deficient in the GTP-sensitive coupling protein, N/sub s/. Other variants were characterized by increased cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity at low substrate concentration. Diverse morphological traits were observed among the variants, but it was not possible to assign them to a particular cAMP phenotype. Two revertants of a PCl2 mutant were isolated and observed to have regained a cellular cAMP response to 2-chloroadenosine and to forskolin. It is hoped that these PCl2 mutants will have utility for defining cAMP-mediated functions, including any links to the action of nerve growth factor, in cells derived from the neural crest.

Block, T.; Kon, C.; Breckenridge, B.M.

1984-10-01

6

Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by ginsenoside Rd via activation of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins and cyclic AMP response binding protein  

SciTech Connect

Panax ginseng is a widely used herbal medicine in East Asia and is reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Here we show a unique effect of ginsenoside Rd (Rd) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Rd (100 {mu}g/ml), but not other ginsenosides induced COX-2 and increased prostaglandin E{sub 2} production. Gel shift and Western blot analyses using nuclear fractions revealed that Rd increased both the DNA binding of and the nuclear levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP){alpha}/{beta} and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), but not of p65, in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Rd increased the luciferase reporter gene activity in cells transfected with a 574-bp mouse COX-2 promoter construct. Site-specific mutation analyses confirmed that Rd-mediated transcriptional activation of COX-2 gene was regulated by C/EBP and CREB. These results provide evidence that Rd activated C/EBP and CREB, and that the activation of C/EBP and CREB appears to be essential for induction of COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells.

Jeong, Hye Gwang [BK21 Project Team, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Pokharel, Yuba Raj [BK21 Project Team, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Hee [BK21 Project Team, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [BK21 Project Team, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, South Korea (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

2007-07-20

7

Termination and activation of store-operated cyclic AMP production  

PubMed Central

Diverse pathophysiological processes (e.g. obesity, lifespan determination, addiction, and male fertility) have been linked to the expression of specific isoforms of the adenylyl cyclases (AC1-AC10), the enzymes that generate cyclic AMP (cAMP). Our lab recently discovered a new mode of cAMP production, prominent in certain cell types, that is stimulated by any maneuver causing reduction of free [Ca2+] within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store. Activation of this “store-operated” pathway requires the ER Ca2+ sensor, STIM1, but the identity of the enzymes responsible for cAMP production and how this process is regulated is unknown. Here we used sensitive FRET-based sensors for cAMP in single cells combined with silencing and overexpression approaches to show that store-operated cAMP production occurred preferentially via the isoform AC3 in NCM460 colonic epithelial cells. Ca2+ entry via the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel, Orai1, suppressed cAMP production, independent of store refilling. These findings are an important first step towards defining the functional significance and to identify the protein composition of this novel Ca2+/cAMP crosstalk system.

Maiellaro, Isabella; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Moyer, Mary Pat; Curci, Silvana; Hofer, Aldebaran M.

2012-01-01

8

Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Cyclic Amp Response Element-Binding Protein in Synaptic Plasticity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current evidence supports a critical role for cAMP in synaptic plasticity. Forskolin increases adenylyl cyclase activity to generate cAMP which induces a long-lasting potentiation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocaznpal dentate gyrus to ...

P. J. Voulalas

1997-01-01

9

Growth Suppression of Lung Cancer Cells by Targeting Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes regulated by cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) have been reported to suppress apoptosis, induce cell proliferation, and mediate inflammation and tumor metastasis. However, it is not clear whether CREB is critically involved in lung carcinogenesis. We found that non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines exhibited elevated constitutive activity in CREB, in its immediate upstream kinases (ribosomal s6

Sita Aggarwal; Seung-Wook Kim; Seung-Hee Ryu; Wen-Cheng Chung; Ja Seok Koo

2008-01-01

10

PRETREATMENT WITH A SINGLE ESTRADIOL-17? BOLUS ACTIVATES CYCLIC-AMP RESPONSE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN AND PROTECTS CA1 NEURONS AGAINST GLOBAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA  

PubMed Central

Estradiol-17? is released from the ovaries in a cyclic manner during the normal estrous cycle in rats. During the transition from the diestrous to proestrous stage, the 17?-estradiol increases in blood circulation. We hypothesized that a higher serum level of endogenous 17?-estradiol would protect hippocampal pyramidal neurons against global cerebral ischemia via activation of the cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB)–mediated signaling cascade. Furthermore, we asked if a single 17?-estradiol bolus provides protection against ischemia in the absence of endogenous estradiol. To test these hypotheses, rats were subjected to global cerebral ischemia at different stages of the estrous cycle. Ischemia was produced by bilateral carotid occlusion and systemic hypotension. Brains were examined for histopathology at 7 days of reperfusion. Higher serum levels of 17?-estradiol (at proestrus and estrus stages) correlated with increased immunoreactivity of pCREB in hippocampus and ischemic tolerance. At diestrus, when circulating gonadal hormone concentrations were lowest, the pCREB protein content of hippocampus was reduced and showed the least number of normal neurons after ischemia compared to other stages of the estrous cycle. A similar phosphorylation pattern was also observed for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and calcium–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) in hippocampus. The cyclic variation in ovarian hormones did not reflect phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt). To test the efficacy of a single bolus of 17?-estradiol before ischemia, ovariectomized rats were treated with 17?-estradiol (5/10/50 µg/kg) or vehicle (oil) and 48/72/96 h later rats were exposed to cerebral ischemia. A single 17?-estradiol bolus treatment in ovariectomized rats significantly increased CREB mRNA activation and protected CA1 pyramidal neurons against ischemia. These results suggest that an exogenous bolus of 17?-estradiol to ovariectomized rats protects hippocampus against ischemia via activation of the CREB pathway in a manner similar to the endogenous estrous cycle.

Raval, A. P.; Saul, I.; Dave, K. R.; Defazio, R. A.; Perez-Pinzon, M. A.; Bramlett, H.

2009-01-01

11

Repeated predictable or unpredictable stress: effects on cocaine-induced locomotion and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity.  

PubMed

Stressful experiences appear to have a strong influence on susceptibility to drug taking behavior. Cross-sensitization between stress and drug-induced locomotor response has been found. Locomotor response to novelty or cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in the nucleus accumbens and basal corticosterone levels were evaluated in male adult rats exposed to acute and chronic predictable or unpredictable stress. Rats exposed to a 14-day predictable stress showed increased locomotor response to novelty and to cocaine, whereas rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress demonstrated increased cyclic AMP-dependent PKA activity in the nucleus accumbens. Both predictable and unpredictable stress increased basal corticosterone plasma levels. These experiments demonstrated that stress-induced early cocaine sensitization depends on the stress regime and is apparently dissociated from stress-induced changes in cyclic AMP-dependent PKA activity and corticosterone levels. PMID:12642178

Araujo, Ana Paula N; DeLucia, Roberto; Scavone, Cristoforo; Planeta, Cleopatra S

2003-02-17

12

ACTH, Prolactin, Corticosterone and Pituitary Cyclic AMP Responses to Repeated Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present experiment was conducted to determine whether the plasma hormonal and pituitary cyclic AMP responses observed following a single exposure to an acute stressor would diminish following re-exposures to the same stressor. Fifteen-min stress expos...

E. H. Mougey G. J. Kant J. L. Meyerhoff

1989-01-01

13

Stress relaxation of fibroblasts activates a cyclic AMP signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Mechanical force regulates gene expression and cell proliferation in a variety of cell types, but the mechanotransducers and signaling mechanisms involved are highly speculative. We studied the fibroblast signaling mechanism that is activated when cells are switched from mechanically stressed to mechanically relaxed conditions, i.e., stress relaxation. Within 10 min after initiation of stress relaxation, we observed a transient 10-20-fold increase in cytoplasmic cyclic AMP (cAMP) and a threefold increase in protein kinase A activity. The increase in cAMP depended on stimulation of adenylyl cyclase rather than inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Generation of cAMP was inhibited by indomethacin, and release of arachidonic acid was found to be an upstream step of the pathway. Activation of signaling also depended on influx of extracellular Ca2+ because addition of EGTA to the incubations at concentrations just sufficient to exceed Ca2+ in the medium inhibited the stress relaxation-dependent increase in free arachidonic acid and cAMP. This inhibition was overcome by adding CaCl2 to the medium. On the other hand, treating fibroblasts in mechanically stressed cultures with the calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated arachidonic acid and cAMP production even without stress relaxation. In summary, our results show that fibroblast stress relaxation results in activation of a Ca(2+)-dependent, adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway. Overall, the effect of stress relaxation on cAMP and PKA levels was equivalent to that observed after treatment of cells with forskolin.

1994-01-01

14

Low-Power Laser Irradiation Suppresses Inflammatory Response of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Modulating Intracellular Cyclic AMP Level and NF-?B Activity  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tissue regeneration is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating damaged tissues. However, the inflammatory microenvironment that exists at a local injury site might restrict reconstruction. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been widely applied to retard the inflammatory reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of LPLI on human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in an inflammatory environment. We showed that the hADSCs expressed Toll-like Receptors (TLR) 1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR6 and that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), Interleukin-1? (IL-1?), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Interleukin-8 (IL-8)). LPLI markedly inhibited LPS-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at an optimal dose of 8 J/cm2. The inhibitory effect triggered by LPLI might occur through an increase in the intracellular level of cyclic AMP (cAMP), which acts to down-regulate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcriptional activity. These data collectively provide insight for further investigations of the potential application of anti-inflammatory treatment followed by stem cell therapy.

Wang, Chau-Zen; Ho, Mei-Ling; Yeh, Ming-Long; Wang, Yan-Hsiung

2013-01-01

15

CyclicAMP Response Element-Based Signaling Assays for Characterization of Trk Family Tyrosine Kinases Modulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotrophins (NTs) induce gene transcription by binding their high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors and initiating intracellular signal transduction cascades. In particular, activation of the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoters of target genes serves as surrogate markers for Trk receptor activation as demonstrated in both in vivo and in vitro systems. We used a HEK293 cell line stably

Jie Zhang; Diana Chen; Xiaohai Gong; Huaiping Ling; Guoming Zhang; Andrew Wood; Julia Heinrich; Seongeun Cho

2006-01-01

16

Repeated predictable or unpredictable stress: effects on cocaine-induced locomotion and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stressful experiences appear to have a strong influence on susceptibility to drug taking behavior. Cross-sensitization between stress and drug-induced locomotor response has been found. Locomotor response to novelty or cocaine (10 mg\\/kg, i.p.), cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in the nucleus accumbens and basal corticosterone levels were evaluated in male adult rats exposed to acute and chronic predictable or

Ana Paula N Araujo; Roberto DeLucia; Cristoforo Scavone; Cleopatra S Planeta

2003-01-01

17

Cell behavior in Dictyostelium discoideum: preaggregation response to localized cyclic AMP pulses  

PubMed Central

The motion of cells in the aggregation phase of Dictyostelium discoideum development is complex. To probe its mechanisms we applied precisely timed (+/- 1 s) and positioned (+/-2 micrometers) pulses of cyclic AMP to fields of cells of moderate density using a micropipette. We recorded cell behavior by time lapse microcinematography and extracted cell motion data from the film with our Galatea computer system. Analysis of these data reveals: (a) Chemotaxis lasts only about as long as the cyclic AMP signal; in particular, brief pulses (approximately 5 s) do not induce chemotaxis. (b) Chemotactic competence increases gradually from within an hour after the initiation of development (starvation) to full competence at approximately 15 h when aggregation begins under our conditions. (c) Cell motion reverses rapidly (within 20 s) when the external gradient is reversed. There is no refractory period for motion. We present a new description of the process of aggregation consistent with our result and other recent findings. (d) The behavioral response to cyclic AMP includes a phenomenon we call "cringing." In a prototypical cringe the cell speed drops within 3 s after a brief cyclic AMP stimulus, and the cell stops and rounds and then resumes motion after 25 s. (e) The development of the speed response in cringing as the cells age closely parallels the development of the cyclic AMP-induced light-scattering response of cells in suspension. (f) Cringing occurs in natural populations during weak oriented movement. The computerized analysis of cell behavior proves to be a powerful technique which can reveal significant phenomena that are not apparent to the eye even after repeated examination of the film.

1982-01-01

18

Cyclic AMP and CaS -activated K transport in a human colonic epithelial cell line  

SciTech Connect

Addition of either vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or the CaS ionophore, A23187, to confluent monolayers of the T84 epithelial cell line derived from a human colon carcinoma increased the rate of YWRb or USK efflux from preloaded cells. The effect of A23187 required extracellular CaS , while that of VIP correlated with its known effect on cyclic AMP production. Other agents which increased cyclic AMP production or mimicked its effect also increased YWRb efflux. VIP- or A23187-stimulated efflux was inhibited by 5 mM BaS or 1 mM quinidine, but not by 20 mM tetraethylammonium, 4 mM 4-aminopyridine, or 1 microM apamin. Under appropriate conditions, VIP and A23187 also increased the rate of YWRb or USK uptake. Stimulation of the initial rate of uptake by either agent required high intracellular K and was not markedly affected by the imposition of transcellular pH gradients. The effect of A23187, but not VIP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, was refractory to depletion of cellular energy stores. A23187-stimulated uptake was not significantly affected by anion substitution, however, stimulation of uptake by VIP required the presence of a permeant anion. This result may be due to the simultaneous activation of a cyclic AMP-dependent Cl transport system. The kinetics of both VIP- and A23187-stimulated uptake and efflux were consistent with a channel-rather than a carrier-mediated K transport mechanism. The results also suggest that cyclic AMP and CaS may activate two different kinds of K transport systems. Finally, both transport systems have been localized to the basolateral membrane of T84 monolayers, a result compatible with their possible regulatory role in hormone-activated electrogenic Cl secretion.

McRoberts, J.A.; Beuerlein, G.; Dharmsathaphorn, K.

1985-11-15

19

A unique enhancer element for the trans activator (p40 sup tax ) of human T-cell leukemia virus type I that is distinct from cyclic AMP- and 12-O-tetradecanoylphobol-13-acetate-responsive elements  

SciTech Connect

The trans activator (p40{sup tax}) of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is a transcriptional factor that activates the long terminal repeat (LTR) of HTLV-I and interleukin-2 receptor {alpha}. The authors examined the HTLV-I enhancer responsible for tax-mediated trans activation and identified (A/T)(G/C)(G/C)CNNTGACG(T/A) as a plausible tax-responsive element (TRE). The putative TRE in the LTR was found to be different from the elements required for activation by cyclic AMP and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, although these elements overlapped each other. The TRE was also different from a binding site of N-{kappa}B-like factor that was identified was identified in the interleukin-2 receptor {alpha} promoter and human immunodeficiency virus LTR as a TRE. The latter result was further demonstrated by the failure of the NF-{kappa}B sequence to compete with the TRE of the LTR in a protein-binding assay. These findings indicate that tax function and its cascade can modulate activities of various enhancer sequences, which are probably regulated by distinct DNA-binding factors.

Fujisawa, Junichi; Toita, Masami; Yoshida, Mitsuaki (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

1989-08-01

20

Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 (Cb1r) Disrupts Hepatic Insulin Receptor Signaling via Cyclic AMP-response Element-binding Protein H (Crebh)-mediated Induction of Lipin1 Gene*  

PubMed Central

Activation of hepatic cannabinoid 1 receptor (Cb1r) signaling has been implicated in the development of phenotypes associated with fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance. In the current study, we have elucidated the critical role of endoplasmic reticulum-bound transcription factor cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein H (Crebh) in mediating activated Cb1r signaling in inducing phosphatidic acid phosphatase Lipin1 gene expression and subsequently deregulating hepatic insulin receptor signaling. Cb1r agonist (2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)) treatment induced Lipin1 gene expression in a Crebh-dependent manner via recruiting CREBH to the endogenous Lipin1 gene promoter. Adenoviral overexpression of Crebh or 2-AG treatment in mice induced Lipin1 gene expression to increase the hepatic diacylglycerol (DAG) level and phosphorylation of protein kinase C? (PKC?). This in turn inhibited hepatic insulin receptor signaling. Knockdown of Crebh or Cb1r antagonism attenuated 2-AG-mediated induction of Lipin1 gene expression and decreased DAG production in mouse liver and subsequently restored insulin receptor signaling. Similarly, knockdown of Lipin1 attenuated the 2-AG-induced increase in the DAG level and PKC? phosphorylation. Finally, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Crebh partially but significantly blunted Lipin1 expression and the DAG level in db/db mice. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which Cb1r signaling induces Lipin1 gene expression and increases DAG production by activating Crebh, thereby deregulating insulin receptor signaling pathway and lipid homeostasis.

Chanda, Dipanjan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Min-Woo; Lee, Su-Yeon; Park, Tae-Sik; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

2012-01-01

21

Microinjection of macromolecules into normal murine lymphocytes by means of cell fusion. II. Enhancement and suppression of mitogenic responses by microinjection of monoclonal anti-cyclic AMP into B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Reproducible methods are now available for introducing protein molecules such as antibodies into normal murine lymphocytes by fusion with protein molecule-containing erythrocyte ghosts. Monoclonal antibodies against cyclic AMP were raised by hybridoma technique and packed into erythrocyte ghosts. Then, monoclonal anti-cyclic AMP containing ghosts were fused with splenic B lymphocytes by polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion at various intervals after LPS stimulation. This method made it possible for us to quantitatively microinject antibodies into B lymphocytes. Microinjection of anti-cyclic AMP antibody molecules into lymphocytes at a very early stage of LPS stimulation resulted in a marked enhancement of DNA synthetic responses as well as increased numbers of plaque-forming cells. Intracellular cyclic AMP levels were found to be markedly decreased after microinjection of monoclonal anti-cyclic AMP, suggesting that lowering the intracellular cyclic-AMP level in the B lymphocytes at an early stage of stimulation might have induced the enhanced proliferative as well as differentiative responses to LPS. Similar enhancing effects on cell proliferation were obtained when antibodies were injected 18 hr after stimulation. Microinjection of anti-cyclic AMP at 12 hr after culture, however, inhibited the DNA synthetic responses, and induction of plaque-forming cells was suppressed when anti-cyclic AMP was injected 6 hr after LPS stimulation. The present data suggest the biphasic regulatory roles of cyclic AMP at the early stage of B lymphocyte activation. This approach may be useful in identifying regulatory molecules in B lymphocyte induced by mitogenic or antigenic stimulation. PMID:6286758

Ohara, J; Sugi, M; Fujimoto, M; Watanabe, T

1982-09-01

22

The yeast ras/cyclic AMP pathway induces invasive growth by suppressing the cellular stress response.  

PubMed

Haploid yeast cells are capable of invading agar when grown on rich media. Cells of the Sigma1278b genetic background manifest this property, whereas other laboratory strains are incapable of invasive growth. We show that disruption of the RAS2 gene in the Sigma1278b background significantly reduces invasive growth but that expression of a constitutively active Ras2p (Ras2(Val19)p) in this strain has a minimal effect on its invasiveness. On the other hand, expression of Ras2(Val19)p in another laboratory strain, SP1, rendered it invasive. These results suggest that a hyperactive Ras2 pathway induces invasive growth and that this pathway might be overactive in the Sigma1278b genetic background. Indeed, cells of the Sigma1278b are defective in the induction of stress-responsive genes, while their Gcn4 target genes are constitutively transcribed. This pattern of gene expression was previously shown to be associated with an active Ras/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway. We show that suppression of stress-related genes in Sigma1278b cells is a result of their inability to activate transcription through the stress response element (STRE). Disruption of RAS2, which abolished invasiveness, induced an increase in STRE activity. Further, in the SP1 genetic background, disruption of either the MSN2/4 genes (encoding activators of STRE) or the yAP-1 gene was sufficient to restore invasive growth in ras2Delta cells. We conclude that Ras2-mediated suppression of the stress response is sufficient to induce invasiveness. Accordingly, the fact that the stress response is suppressed in Sigma1278b background explains its invasiveness. It seems that invasiveness is a phenotype related to unregulated growth and is therefore manifested by cells harboring an overactive Ras/cAMP cascade. In this respect, invasiveness in yeast is reminiscent of the property of ras-transformed fibroblasts to invade soft agar. PMID:10523641

Stanhill, A; Schick, N; Engelberg, D

1999-11-01

23

Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability. PMID:22538662

Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

2012-04-01

24

The relationship between some beta-adrenergic mediated responses and plasma concentrations of adrenaline and cyclic AMP in man.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that increments in plasma cyclic AMP during beta-adrenergic stimulation reflect integrated second messenger function of the tissues activated by the agonist, graded adrenaline infusion resulting in plasma adrenaline concentrations within the physiological range was performed in 8 healthy subjects with and without concomitant beta-adrenoceptor blockade by iv propranolol. A significant correlation was found between increments in plasma adrenaline and plasma cyclic AMP in the experiments without beta-blockade; during concomitant beta-blockade the increase in plasma cyclic AMP concentrations at low adrenaline infusion rates was prevented, whereas a small increase in cyclic AMP was found at high adrenaline infusion rates, probably owing to incomplete beta-receptor blockade. Likewise, the adrenaline-induced increments in blood substrates (glucose, lactate, glycerol and beta hydroxybutyric acid) were significantly reduced but not completely prevented by beta-blockade. We conclude that an altered relationship between beta-agonist concentrations and plasma cyclic AMP may provide evidence for the existence of differences in beta-adrenergic sensitivity in man. PMID:1968306

Philipsen, E K; Myhre, J; Larsen, S; Damkjaer Nielsen, M; Holst, J J; Hilsted, J

1990-01-01

25

The serum response factor nuclear localization signal: general implications for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in control of nuclear translocation.  

PubMed Central

We have identified a basic sequence in the N-terminal region of the 67-kDa serum response factor (p67SRF or SRF) responsible for its nuclear localization. A peptide containing this nuclear localization signal (NLS) translocates rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) into the nucleus as efficiently as a peptide encoding the simian virus 40 NLS. This effect is abolished by substituting any two of the four basic residues in this NLS. Overexpression of a modified form of SRF in which these basic residues have been mutated confirms the absolute requirement for this sequence, and not the other basic amino acid sequences adjacent to it, in the nuclear localization of SRF. Since this NLS is in close proximity to potential phosphorylation sites for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase), we further investigated if A-kinase plays a role in the nuclear location of SRF. The nuclear transport of SRF proteins requires basal A-kinase activity, since inhibition of A-kinase by using either the specific inhibitory peptide PKIm or type II regulatory subunits (RII) completely prevents the nuclear localization of plasmid-expressed tagged SRF or an SRF-NLS-IgG conjugate. Direct phosphorylation of SRF by A-kinase can be discounted in this effect, since mutation of the putative phosphorylation sites in either the NLS peptide or the encoded full-length SRF protein had no effect on nuclear transport of the mutants. Finally, in support of an implication of A-kinase-dependent phosphorylation in a more general mechanism affecting nuclear import, we show that the nuclear transport of a simian virus 40-NLS-conjugated IgG or purified cyclin A protein is also blocked by inhibition of A-kinase, even though neither contains any potential sites for phosphorylation by A-kinase or can be phosphorylated by A-kinase in vitro.

Gauthier-Rouviere, C; Vandromme, M; Lautredou, N; Cai, Q Q; Girard, F; Fernandez, A; Lamb, N

1995-01-01

26

Modulation of neutrophil phospholipase C activity and cyclic AMP levels by fMLP-OMe analogues.  

PubMed

The N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP)-OMe (1) analogues for-Thp-Leu-Ain-OMe (2), for-Thp-Leu-Phe-OMe (3), for-Met-Leu-Ain-OMe (4), for-Met-Delta(z)Leu-Phe-OMe (5), for-Met-Lys-Phe-For-Met-Lys-Phe (6), for-Met-Leu-Pheol-COMe (7), and for-Nle-Leu-Phe-OMe (8) have been studied. Some of these have been found selective towards the activation of different biological responses of human neutrophils. In particular, peptides 2 and 3, which evoke only chemotaxis, are ineffective in enhancing inositol phosphate, as well as cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. On the contrary, analogues 5 and 7, which induce superoxide anion production and degranulation, but not chemotaxis, significantly increase the levels of the two intracellular messengers, as is the case of the full agonists 1 and 6. The Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 also activates phospholipase C (PLC) and increases the nucleotide levels; when tested in combination with peptide 1 or 5, a supra-additive enhancement of cAMP concentration is obtained. The PLC blocker, U-73122, inhibits the formylpeptide-induced inositol phosphate formation, as well as cAMP increase. Moreover, this drug drastically reduces superoxide anion release triggered by 1 or 5, whereas it inhibits to a much lesser extent neutrophil chemotaxis induced by 1 or 2. Our results suggest that: (i) PLC stimulation is involved in cAMP enhancement by formylpeptides; (ii) the activation of PLC by formylpeptides, in conditions of increased Ca(2+) influx, induces a supra-additive enhancement of the nucleotide; (iii) the inability of pure chemoattractants to significantly alter the PLC activity or cAMP level, differently from full agonists or peptides specific in inducing superoxide anion release, appears as a general property. Thus, the activation of neutrophil PLC seems essential for superoxide anion release, but less involved in the chemotactic response. PMID:11306240

Ferretti, M E; Nalli, M; Biondi, C; Colamussi, M L; Pavan, B; Traniello, S; Spisani, S

2001-04-01

27

Bacterial Cyclic AMP-Phosphodiesterase Activity Coordinates Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Biofilm-related infections are a major contributor to human disease, and the capacity for surface attachment and biofilm formation are key attributes for the pathogenesis of microbes. Serratia marcescens type I fimbriae-dependent biofilms are coordinated by the adenylate cyclase, CyaA, and the cyclic 3?,5?-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. This study uses S. marcescens as a model system to test the role of cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity in controlling biofilm formation. Herein we describe the characterization of a putative S. marcescens cAMP-phosphodiesterase gene (SMA3506), designated as cpdS, and demonstrated to be a functional cAMP-phosphodiesterase both in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of cpdS resulted in defective biofilm formation and reduced type I fimbriae production, whereas multicopy expression of cpdS conferred a type I fimbriae-dependent hyper-biofilm. Together, these results support a model in which bacterial cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity modulates biofilm formation.

Kalivoda, Eric J.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Stella, Nicholas A.; Schmitt, Matthew J.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

2013-01-01

28

Adenosine-mediated cyclic AMP-dependent inhibition of ciliary activity in rabbit tracheal epithelium.  

PubMed

We wished to determine whether adenosine, a purine nucleotide, modulates activity of respiratory cilia and, to this end, we studied cultured rabbit tracheal epithelium in response to adenosine and related substances in vitro. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) as determined by a photoelectric method was depressed by adenosine (10(-3) M), the maximal decrease from the baseline value (965 +/- 29 beats/min, mean +/- SE) being 31.6 +/- 5.0% (p less than 0.001). The adenosine A2-receptor agonist N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine had only a small effect on ciliary activity, whereas other adenosine analogs elicited decreases in CBF in a dose-dependent fashion. The order of potency of cilia-inhibitory action was N-cyclohexyladenosine (an agonist for adenosine A1-receptor) greater than phenylisopropyladenosine greater than adenosine greater than N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine. Intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were decreased by 10(-3) M adenosine from 39.2 +/- 6.5 to 25.3 +/- 4.8 pM/mg protein (p less than 0.05). The effect of adenosine on CBF was enhanced by dipyridamole, an adenosine uptake inhibitor, and by deoxycoformycin, an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. The adenosine-induced decreases in CBF and cAMP content were reversed by 8-phenyltheophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist. These results suggest that there is an adenosine A1-receptor on rabbit tracheal epithelium that inhibits adenylate cyclase, which may result in the impairment of respiratory ciliary activity, and that adenosine-induced ciliary inhibition may be modulated by adenosine uptake and its catabolism by airway epithelial cells. PMID:2536529

Tamaoki, J; Kondo, M; Takizawa, T

1989-02-01

29

Phorbol esters modulate cyclic AMP accumulation in porcine thyroid cells  

SciTech Connect

In cultured porcine thyroid cells, during 60 min incubation phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on basal cyclic AMP accumulation and slightly stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or forskolin. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was significantly stimulated by PMA. On the other hand, cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by prostaglandin E/sub 1/ or E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/) was markedly depressed by simultaneous addition of PMA. These opposing effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by PGE and cholera toxin were observed in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximal effect of around 10/sup -9/ M in either case. The almost same effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation in basal and stimulated conditions were also observed in freshly prepared thyroid cells. The present study was performed in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), indicating that PMA affected adenylate cyclase activity. Therefore, it is suggested that PMA may modulate the production of cyclic AMP in response to different stimuli, possibly by affecting several sites in the adenylate cyclase complex in thyroid cells.

Emoto, T.; Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Shimoda, S.

1988-01-01

30

Activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is required for long-term enhancement at corticostriatal synapses in rats.  

PubMed

The induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at corticostriatal synapses is dependent on the activation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, but the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of LTP are not known. We report here that forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, induces a lasting enhancement of the corticostriatal synaptic response. This enhancement is associated with a lasting decrease in paired-pulse ratio, and is blocked by inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), but not by a PKA inhibitor injected into the postsynaptic cell. Tetanically-induced LTP is also associated with a decrease in paired-pulse ratio and partially occludes the subsequent action of forskolin. Our results suggest that activation of presynaptic PKA can enhance neurotransmission at corticostriatal synapses; a mechanism required for the expression of LTP at these synapses. PMID:12165416

Spencer, Jonathan P; Murphy, Kerry P S J

2002-08-30

31

Diazepam increases the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity by a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that diazepam behaves as a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE 4) inhibitor. It has been reported that PDE-4 inhibitors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in the rat. In the present study we have examined whether activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is involved in the effect of diazepam on basal HPA axis activity. Acute systemic administration of diazepam (10?mg?kg?1 i.p.) was found to increase the basal HPA axis activity, increasing the plasma concentrations of corticotrophin (ACTH) and corticosterone 30?min post injection. Diazepam also elevated cyclic AMP content of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment of the animals with dexamethasone (1?mg?kg?1 s.c.) for 3 days completely abolished the effect of diazepam on HPA axis activity. The antagonists of central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, flumazenil (10?mg?kg?1 i.p.) and PK 11195 (5?mg?kg?1 i.p.) did not affect the diazepam induced increase of HPA axis activity nor did they have an effect per se. The increase in ACTH and corticosterone levels was significantly reduced by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, H-89, given either subcutaneously (5?mg?kg?1 s.c.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.; 28??g in 10??l). The results indicate that diazepam can stimulate basal HPA axis activity in the rat by a cyclic AMP-dependent PKA mediated pathway.

Vargas, M Luisa; Abella, Cristina; Hernandez, Jesus

2001-01-01

32

Identification of a signal transduction response sequence element necessary for induction of a Dictyostelium discoideum gene by extracellular cyclic AMP.  

PubMed Central

The signal transduction pathways that lead to gene induction are being intensively investigated in Dictyostelium discoideum. We have identified by deletion and transformation analysis a sequence element necessary for induction of a gene coding for uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (UDPGP1) of D. discoideum in response to extracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). This regulatory element is located 380 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site and contains a G+C-rich partially palindromic sequence. It is not required for transcription per se but is required for induction of the gene in response to the stimulus of extracellular cAMP. The cAMP response sequence is also required for induction of the gene during normal development. A second A+T-rich cis-acting region located immediately downstream of the cAMP response sequence appears to be essential for the basal level of expression of the UDPGP1 gene. The position of the cAMP response element coincides with a DNase I-hypersensitive site that is observed when the UDPGP1 gene is actively transcribed. Images

Pavlovic, J; Haribabu, B; Dottin, R P

1989-01-01

33

PACAP-induced formation of cyclic AMP in the chicken brain: regional variations and the effect of melatonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP27 and PACAP38) on cyclic AMP formation in chick brain, and the action of melatonin upon the PACAP-evoked effects. PACAP stimulated cyclic AMP production in the hypothalamus>cerebral cortex>pineal gland>optic lobes. In the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, the rank-order of both PACAP forms and VIP in evoking the cyclic AMP response

Jerzy Z Nowak; Katarzyna Kuba; Jolanta B Zawilska

1999-01-01

34

Stimulus-specific deactivation of chemotactic factor-induced cyclic AMP response and superoxide generation by human neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

The responses of isolated human peripheral neutrophils to either simultaneous or sequential additions of two chemotactic factors were studied. Simultaneous additions of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (10-100 nM) and the fifth component of complement, C5a (1-10 microliters/ml), evoked partially additive responses of membrane depolarization as measured by the fluorescent dye 3,3'-dipropyl-thiocarbocyanine, a transient elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP), and superoxide (O2-) generation as assessed by ferricytochrome c reduction. Preincubation of the cells with either formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or C5a alone caused dose-dependent inhibition of the depolarization, the cAMP increase, and O2- release induced by a subsequent exposure to an optimal dose of the same stimulus, i.e., deactivation occurred. In contrast, when cells were treated with one chemotactic factor and then exposed to the other stimulus, the cells exhibited a normal response of peak depolarization, the rise in cAMP, and O2-0 production i.e., cross-deactivation failed to occur. The results imply that deactivation of these phenomena is stimulus specific. Further, these observations are consistent with the hypothesis that cross-deactivation of chemotaxis is mediated by one or more processes that are irrelevant to O2- generation, and that occur distal to the depolarization and cAMP steps in the sequence of neutrophil activation: possibly microtubule polymerization and orientation.

Simchowitz, L; Atkinson, J P; Spilberg, I

1980-01-01

35

Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein prevents endothelial permeability increase through transcriptional controlling p190RhoGAP expression  

PubMed Central

Increased endothelial permeability contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, including acute lung injury. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcriptional factor induces genes that regulate inflammation and vascular remodeling. However, the role of CREB in regulating endothelial barrier function is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CREB maintains basal endothelial barrier function and suppresses endothelial permeability increase by diverse agonists such as thrombin, lipopolysaccharide, histamine, and VEGF. We show that CREB transcriptionally controls the expression of p190RhoGAP-A, a GTPase-activating protein that inhibits small GTPase RhoA. Impairing CREB function using small interfering RNA or dominant-negative (dn)–CREB mutant (dn-CREB) markedly suppressed p190RhoGAP-A expression, increased RhoA activity, induced actin stress fiber formation, and produced an amplified and protracted increase in endothelial permeability in response to thrombin. Rescuing p190RhoGAP-A expression restored the permeability defect in dn-CREB–transducing endothelial cells. These findings were recapitulated in vivo because dn-CREB expression in mice vasculature increased basal lung microvessel permeability and exaggerated permeability increase induced by thrombin and lipopolysaccharide. Inhibiting RhoA signaling restored endothelial barrier dysfunction in the dn-CREB–expressing lung microvasculature. These results uncover a pivotal role of CREB in regulating endothelial barrier function by restricting RhoA signaling through controlling p190RhoGAP-A expression.

Chava, Koteswara Rao; Tauseef, Mohammad; Sharma, Tiffany

2012-01-01

36

Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion  

SciTech Connect

Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells.

Mukai, Atsushi [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 36-3 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 36-3 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: nao@nils.go.jp

2008-01-15

37

Enhanced phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in Brain of mice following repetitive hypoxic exposure  

SciTech Connect

Cerebral ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning (I/HPC) is a phenomenon of endogenous protection that renders Brain tolerant to sustained ischemia/hypoxia. This profound protection induced by I/HPC makes it an attractive target for developing potential clinical therapeutic approaches. However, the molecular mechanism of I/HPC is unclear. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), a selective nuclear transcriptional factor, plays a key role in the neuronal functions. Phosphorylation of CREB on Ser-133 may facilitate its transcriptional activity in response to various stresses. In the current study, we observed the changes in CREB phosphorylation (Ser-133) and protein expression in Brain of auto-hypoxia-induced HPC mice by using Western blot analysis. We found that the levels of phosphorylated CREB (Ser-133), but not protein expression of CREB, increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex of mice after repetitive hypoxic exposure (H2-H4, n = 6 for each group), when compared to that of the normoxic (H0, n = 6) or hypoxic exposure once group (H1, n = 6). In addition, a significant enhancement (p < 0.05) of CREB phosphorylation (Ser-133) could also be found in the nuclear extracts from the whole hippocampus of hypoxic preconditioned mice (H2-H4, n = 6 for each group). These results suggest that the phosphorylation of CREB might be involved in the development of cerebral hypoxic preconditioning.

Gao Yanan [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Gao Ge [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Long Caixia [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Han Song [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Zu Pengyu [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Fang Li [Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0517 (United States)]. E-mail: lfang@utmb.edu; Li Junfa [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China)]. E-mail: junfali@cpums.edu.cn

2006-02-10

38

Enhancement of peripheral nerve regeneration by pharmacological activation of the cyclic AMP second messenger system.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the history of attempts to study peripheral nerve regeneration, focusing upon pharmacologic agents that may prove to be useful clinically. In particular, forskolin is described as a model for such an agent, and its mechanism of action, as a stimulator of the cyclic AMP second messenger system, is described. PMID:2549330

Klein, H W; Kilmer, S; Carlsen, R C

1989-01-01

39

Activation of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway (AC) in endothelial cells (EC) exposed to different levels of mechanical strain. Bovine aortic EC were seeded to confluence on flexible membrane-bottom wells. The membranes were deformed with either 150 mm Hg (average 10% strain) or 37.5 mm Hg (average 6% strain) vacuum at 60 cycles per minute (0.5 s strain; 0.5 s relaxation) for 0-60 min. The results demonstrate that at 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain) there was a 1.5- to 2.2-fold increase in AC, cAMP, and PKA activity by 15 min when compared to unstretched controls. Further studies revealed an increase in cAMP response element binding protein in EC subjected to the 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain). These data support the hypothesis that cyclic strain activates the AC/cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathway in EC which may occur by exceeding a strain threshold and suggest that cyclic strain may stimulate the expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive promoter elements.

Cohen, C. R.; Mills, I.; Du, W.; Kamal, K.; Sumpio, B. E.

1997-01-01

40

Adenosine-sensitive ventricular tachycardia: evidence suggesting cyclic AMP-mediated triggered activity.  

PubMed

Catecholamine-induced triggered activity is thought to be caused by intracellular calcium overload mediated by elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). Although shown to occur in isolated preparations, evidence supporting its clinical existence has been lacking. Electrophysiologic studies were performed in four patients with structurally normal hearts who had exertionally related sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). Programmed stimulation reproducibly initiated and terminated VT in all patients. Induction of tachycardia was also facilitated by infusion of isoproterenol. Adenosine, an endogenous nucleoside, whose only known electrophysiologic effect on ventricular myocardium and Purkinje fibers is antagonism of catecholamine-induced stimulation of intracellular cAMP production, reproducibly terminated all episodes of VT. The tachycardia was also terminated by intravenous verapamil and by the Valsalva maneuver and/or carotid sinus massage. Beta-Adrenergic receptor blockade with propranolol either terminated or prevented induction of VT during programmed stimulation or catecholamine challenge. Adenosine was also administered during VT to 14 patients whose arrhythmias fulfilled standard criteria for reentry, two of whom also had exercise-induced VT. Adenosine, at a dose (112.5 to 225 micrograms/kg iv) sufficient to cause either sinus slowing/arrest or ventriculoatrial block during ventricular pacing, failed to slow or terminate any episode of VT in these patients. Verapamil and autonomic modulation were also ineffective in this group of patients. Adenosine, verapamil, vagal maneuvers (acetylcholine), and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade are all known to decrease the slow-inward calcium current either directly by modulating calcium channels or indirectly by inhibiting production of cellular cAMP. Therefore the observation in this study that interventions that lower intracellular cAMP either terminate or prevent induction of VT in patients with structurally normal hearts and exercise-induced VT suggests that the mechanism of tachycardia may be cAMP-mediated triggered activity. PMID:3015453

Lerman, B B; Belardinelli, L; West, G A; Berne, R M; DiMarco, J P

1986-08-01

41

Cyclic AMP enhancement of depolarization-induced NAD(P)H changes in brain cortical slices.  

PubMed

The increased levels of NAD(P)H effected by electrical depolarization are markedly augmented in the presence of cyclic AMP, isoproterenol, or RO 20-1724, agents known to elevate cyclic AMP in rat brain slices. The data presented indicate that the cyclic AMP effect on an important component of intermediate metabolism is not an enhancement of a basal response but a separate response that is activated by depolarization, is Ca2+-dependent, regulates cytochrome a-a3 independently of its effects on NAD(P)H levels, and is dependent on a substrate other than glucose. PMID:6255098

Keller, E; Cummins, J T

1980-12-01

42

Platelet cyclic AMP in essential hypertension.  

PubMed

Various abnormalities in platelet metabolism, including increased sensitivity to several aggregating agents, have been described in essential hypertension. Platelet response is controlled by Ca2+ and cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms (stimulatory and inhibitory, respectively) which oppose one another. In the present study, the cyclic AMP contents of unstimulated platelets were measured by radio-immunoassay and observed to be lower in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects, either in the basal state or after prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) stimulation. In the presence of 7-bromo-1,5,dihydro-3,6-dimethylimidazo [2,1-b] quinazolin-2(3H)-one (Ro 15-2041), a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, the increases in cyclic AMP content were similar in platelets from both groups, indicating that this enzyme was not responsible for the alterations in cyclic AMP metabolism observed in hypertension. Low external Ca2+ reduced basal and PGE1-stimulated cyclic AMP content in both normotensive and hypertensive groups but cyclic AMP levels remained lower in hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, indicating that Ca2+ influx is not responsible for this altered metabolism of cyclic AMP in hypertension. These data suggest that the reduced platelet cAMP content may participate in the hyperreactivity to various aggregating agents previously reported to accompany essential hypertension. PMID:2550542

Mazeaud, M M; Le Quan Sang, K H; Devynck, M A

1989-06-01

43

Separate purinoceptors mediate enhancement by adenosine of concanavalin A-induced mediator release and the cyclic AMP response in rat mast cells.  

PubMed

Adenosine caused a concentration-related enhancement of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from rat purified peritoneal mast cells. This was accompanied by an enhancement and prolongation of the cyclic AMP response to Con A. The cyclic AMP response but not enhancement of 5-HT release was blocked by 8-phenyltheophylline suggesting the two events to be unrelated. The effects of AMP and ADP, adenosine analogues and adenosine uptake inhibitors suggest the enhancement of 5-HT release to be mediated by a P1-cell surface purinoceptor which does not show the characteristics of either A1 or A2 subtypes. PMID:3014845

Hughes, P J; Church, M K

1986-04-01

44

Cyclic AMP response in cells exposed to electric fields of different frequencies and intensities.  

PubMed

The action on intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) of therapeutically used 4000-Hz electric fields was investigated and compared with 50-Hz data. Cultured mouse fibroblasts were exposed for 5 minutes to 4000-Hz sine wave internal electric fields between 3 mV/m and 30 V/m applied within culture medium. A statistically significant decrease in cellular cAMP concentration relative to unexposed cells was observed for fields higher than 10 mV/m. The drop in cAMP was most pronounced at lower field strengths (71% of controls at 30 mV/m) and tended to disappear at higher field strengths. An increase of cAMP content was observed with 50-Hz electric fields, as was also the case when 4000-Hz fields were modulated with certain low frequencies. PMID:7938437

Knedlitschek, G; Noszvai-Nagy, M; Meyer-Waarden, H; Schimmelpfeng, J; Weibezahn, K F; Dertinger, H

1994-01-01

45

Subcellular localization of cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-regulated transcription coactivator 2 provides a link between obesity and breast cancer in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic evidence supports a correlation between obesity and breast cancer in women. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important role in energy homeostasis and inhibits the actions of cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2). In postmenopausal women, the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-dependent regulation of aromatase is a determinant of breast tumor formation through local production of estrogens. The present work aimed to examine the effect of adipokines on aromatase expression and identify additional mechanisms by which prostaglandin E(2) causes increased aromatase expression in human breast adipose stromal cells. Treatment of human adipose stromal cells with forskolin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), to mimic prostaglandin E(2), resulted in nuclear translocation of CRTC2. Aromatase promoter II (PII) activity assays showed that CRTC2 in addition to forskolin/PMA treatment significantly increased PII-induced activity. CRTC2 binding to PII was examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and forskolin/PMA treatment was associated with increased binding to PII. Treatment of human adipose stromal cells with leptin significantly up-regulated aromatase expression associated with nuclear translocation of CRTC2 and increased binding of CRTC2 to PII. Adiponectin treatment significantly decreased forskolin/PMA-stimulated aromatase expression, consistent with the decreased nuclear translocation of CRTC2 and the decreased binding of CRTC2 to PII. The expression and activity of the AMP-activated protein kinase LKB1 was examined and found to be significantly decreased following either forskolin/PMA or leptin treatment. In contrast, adiponectin significantly increased LKB1 expression and activity. In conclusion, the regulation of aromatase by CRTC2, in response to the altered hormonal milieu associated with menopause and obesity, provides a critical link between obesity and breast cancer. PMID:19509226

Brown, Kristy A; McInnes, Kerry J; Hunger, Nicole I; Oakhill, Jonathan S; Steinberg, Gregory R; Simpson, Evan R

2009-07-01

46

A cDNA for a human cyclic AMP response element-binding protein which is distinct from CREB and expressed preferentially in brain.  

PubMed Central

The cyclic AMP response element (CRE) is found in many cellular genes regulated by cyclic AMP, and similar elements are present in the early genes of adenovirus that are activated by E1A. The transcription factor CREB has previously been shown to bind this site, and cDNAs for CREB have recently been characterized. We report here the isolation of a cDNA encoding a human DNA-binding protein that also recognizes this motif in cellular and viral promoters. This protein, HB16, displays structural similarity to CREB and to c-Jun and c-Fos, which bind the related 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate response element (TRE). HB16 contains a highly basic, putative DNA-binding domain and a leucine zipper structure thought to be involved in dimerization. Deletional analysis of HB16 demonstrated that the leucine zipper is required for its interaction with DNA. In addition, HB16 could form a complex with c-Jun but not with c-Fos. Despite its structural similarity to c-Jun and c-Fos and its interaction with c-Jun, HB16 had approximately a 10-fold-lower affinity for the TRE sequence than for the CRE sequence. Although HB16 and CREB both recognized the CRE motif, an extensive binding analysis of HB16 revealed differences in the fine specificity of binding of the two proteins. HB16 mRNA was found at various levels in many human tissues but was most abundant in brain, where its expression was widespread. The existence of more than one CRE-binding protein suggests that the CRE motif could serve multiple regulatory functions. Images

Kara, C J; Liou, H C; Ivashkiv, L B; Glimcher, L H

1990-01-01

47

Decreased arterial responsiveness to multiple cyclic AMP-generating receptor agonists in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed Central

1. Arterial relaxant responses via beta-adrenoceptors are decreased in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) when compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Recent studies from this laboratory proposed that a reduced function of stimulatory guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein (Gs) is responsible for the decreased beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness in the SHR femoral artery. Since the Gs is common to all tissues, as opposed to receptors, which are tissue specific, the reduced function of Gs should lead to resistance to multiple receptors that act by activating adenylate cyclase (AC). To test this hypothesis, relaxant responses via beta-adrenoceptors, A2-adenosine, H2-histamine and D1-dopamine receptors were compared between arterial strips from 13 week-old WKY and age-matched SHR. 2. The relaxant responses to noradrenaline (NA) via beta-adrenoceptors in femoral, mesenteric, renal and carotid arteries were significantly decreased in the SHR, when compared with the respective arteries from WKY. 3. However, under the same conditions arterial relaxant responses to forskolin, an activator of AC, were not significantly different between the WKY and SHR. 4. The relaxant responses due to activation of A2-adenosine. H2-histamine and D1-dopamine receptors were significantly decreased in the SHR arteries. 5. Nitroprusside and nifedipine, agents which are independent of the Gs.AC system, produced similar arterial relaxations in the WKY and SHR. 6. These results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of Gs in the SHR is responsible for the decreased arterial responsiveness to a variety of receptor agonists whose mechanism of action involves AC activation.

Masuzawa, K.; Matsuda, T.; Asano, M.

1989-01-01

48

Osthole reverses beta-amyloid peptide cytotoxicity on neural cells by enhancing cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Accumulation of ?-amyloid peptide (A?) in the brain plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective role of osthole against oxygen and glucose deprivation in cortical neurons. However, the effects of osthole on A?-induced neurotoxicity in neural cells have rarely been reported. The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of osthole on a cell model of AD insulted by exogenous A?25-35 and the potential mechanism(s). In this study, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, immunofluorescence analysis, apoptosis assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used in primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. Our data showed that osthole reduced intracellular A? levels in neural cells, which was associated with decreased BACE1 protein; osthole reversed exogenous A?25-35-induced cell viability loss, apoptosis, and synapsin-1 reduction, which was related to the reestablishment of phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The collective evidence indicates that osthole possesses the ability to protect cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells against A? injury, and the underlying mechanism may be attributed to the enhancement of CREB phosphorylation. PMID:24432380

Hu, Yu; Wen, Qingping; Liang, Wenbo; Kang, Tingguo; Ren, Lu; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Dong; Yang, Jingxian

2013-01-01

49

Cyclic AMP affects the haemocyte responses of larval Galleria mellonella to selected antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal transduction of the innate immediate responses of insect haemocytes to foreign matter is rarely considered. Herein using a combination of adenylate cyclase inhibitors and activators and phosphodiesterase inhibitors we determined that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) at high levels normally impairs non-self response. Haemocyte contact with glass and bacteria lowered cAMP in vitro. Inactive phosphodiesterases, including type 4, impaired haemocyte

David Marin; Gary B. Dunphy; Craig A. Mandato

2005-01-01

50

Cyclic AMP-mediated enhancement of high-affinity choline transport and acetylcholine synthesis in brain.  

PubMed

Intracerebroventricular administration of N6, 2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (db-cyclic AMP) to mice increased high-affinity choline transport (HAChT) into synaptosomal preparations from the hippocampus, striatum, and frontal cortex in a time- dose-, and brain region-dependent manner. Similar observations were made when the cyclic AMP analogue 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine were administered. Inhibition of phosphatase 1 and 2A, with okadaic acid, increased basal choline transport and enhanced the response to db-cyclic AMP. The early increase of HAChT activity induced by db-cyclic AMP was blocked by H-7 and H-89, protein kinase A inhibitors, but not by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Kinetic analysis of the early changes of HAChT revealed an increase in the apparent Vmax without a change of the Km for choline. Hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding was not altered when studied 1 h after db-cyclic AMP administration. In contrast, HC-3 binding and HAChT activity were both elevated when estimated 3 h after the treatment, and pretreatment with cycloheximide partially prevented the db-cyclic AMP-induced HAChT rise. As evidence that enhanced HAChT is associated with a direct action of cyclic AMP-dependent pathways on the cholinergic nerve terminals, addition of 8-bromocyclic AMP to isolated hippocampal synaptosomes induced an increase of HAChT that was prevented by H-89. Choline acetyltransferase activity was not affected at any time during the studies. The synthesis of acetylcholine, however, was enhanced 1 h after db-cyclic AMP addition. Our studies show that cyclic AMP-mimetic compounds appear to modulate the choline carrier by a dual mode: an early increase of the maximal velocity without a change of the number of HC-3 binding sites and a late rise of transport that is accompanied by an increase of HC-3 binding. We postulate that HAChT and consequently acetylcholine synthesis in vivo is modulated, in part, by protein kinase A. PMID:9048751

Vogelsberg, V; Neff, N H; Hadjiconstantinou, M

1997-03-01

51

Ethanolamine base exchange enzymatic activities in spontaneous transformed glial cell lines. Effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP treatment.  

PubMed

Cultured astrocytes derived from neonatal rats (normal cells) displayed maximal ethanolamine base exchange enzymatic activity (EBEE) when cultures reached confluency and cells almost ceased to divide. At this stage, ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EPT) and choline base exchange enzyme (CBEE) activities reached a plateau. In spontaneously transformed glial cells, no differential activity variation either between EPT and CBEE, or between EPT and EBEE was observed. The EBEE activity was mainly localized in the microsomal fraction and was completely absent from plasma membranes. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP) treatment of the transformed cells reversed the pattern of these activities to that of normal cells. Moreover, treatment of the transformed cells with medium conditioned by normal astroblasts markedly increased EBEE activity. This study demonstrates that (i) variation of EBEE activity during cell growth differs in normal and in transformed cultured glial cells. (ii) EBEE activity may be modulated via both db-cAMP and normal cell conditioned medium. Our findings suggest a possible implication of EBEE in the maturation and contact inhibition of cell growth. PMID:2846358

el-Achkar, P; Mandel, P; Mersel, M

1988-11-01

52

Interdependence of Activation at rhaSR by Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein, the RNA Polymerase Alpha Subunit C-Terminal Domain, and RhaR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Escherichia coli rhaSR operon encodes two AraC family transcription activators, RhaS and RhaR, and is activated by RhaR in the presence of L-rhamnose. b-Galactosidase assays of various rhaS-lacZ promoter fusions combined with mobility shift assays indicated that a cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) site located at 2111.5 is also required for full activation of rhaSR expression. To address the

CAROLYN C. HOLCROFT; SUSAN M. EGAN

2000-01-01

53

Calspermin gene transcription is regulated by two cyclic AMP response elements contained in an alternative promoter in the calmodulin kinase IV gene.  

PubMed Central

The transcript for the high-affinity Ca2+/calmodulin-binding protein calspermin is generated from the gene encoding Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV only in postmeiotic germ cells during spermatogenesis. We demonstrate that this testis-specific calspermin transcript can be produced in heterologous cells by utilization of a promoter located in an intron of the calmodulin (CaM) kinase IV gene. Critical motifs within this promoter are two cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-like sequences located about -70 and -50 bp upstream of the transcriptional initiation site. Both CRE motifs are footprinted by the authentic testis-specific transcriptional activator CREM tau or by CREM tau present in adult testis nuclear extract. Whereas a 2.1-kb DNA fragment containing the calspermin promoter is inactive when transfected into NIH 3T3 cells, activity can be restored by cotransfection of CREM tau and protein kinase A or CaM kinase IV but not CaM kinase II alpha. Restoration of activity is greatly reduced by mutation of the two CRE motifs. Since CRE-like motifs have been identified in many genes uniquely expressed in postmeiotic germ cells, which contain abundant CREM tau protein, we suggest that CREM tau may function as one transcription factor responsible for the expression of postmeiotic germ cell-specific genes.

Sun, Z; Sassone-Corsi, P; Means, A R

1995-01-01

54

Role of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in insulin-like growth factor-i receptor up-regulation by sex steroids in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) overexpression may play a role in prostate cancer progression. We found previously that, in prostate cancer cells, IGF-IR is up-regulated by both androgens and estrogens via a nongenotropic pathway. We now show that, in prostate cancer cells, stimulation with either androgens or estrogens up-regulates IGF-IR by inducing cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation. Both sex steroids phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) in a dose-dependent manner in androgen receptor (AR)-positive LNCaP cells, whereas only estrogens phosphorylated CREB in AR-negative PC3 cells. CREB phosphorylation involved c-Src-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation, but not protein kinase A, protein kinase C, or calmodulin-dependent kinase II, and occurred also in cells transfected with AR or estrogen receptor mutants that do not localize into the nucleus. CREB silencing abrogated IGF-IR up-regulation and promoter activation. We also showed that CREB binds to IGF-IR promoter region and identified the relevant CREB-binding site at the 5'-untranslated region fragment of IGF-IR promoter. In conclusion, we describe a novel mechanism of IGF-IR up-regulation and promoter activity by CREB activation, induced by sex steroids, through a nongenotropic signaling. PMID:19738069

Genua, Marco; Pandini, Giuseppe; Sisci, Diego; Castoria, Gabriella; Maggiolini, Marcello; Vigneri, Riccardo; Belfiore, Antonino

2009-09-15

55

Selective enhancement by serum factors of cyclic AMP accumulation in rat microglial cultures.  

PubMed

Using purified microglial cultures obtained from the neonatal rat brain we found that media containing fetal calf serum (as well as human, horse and goat sera) enhanced by about 3-fold the accumulation of cyclic AMP induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol and did not affect in a significant way that induced by the direct adenylyl cyclase stimulator forskolin. The effect of fetal calf serum was (i) dose dependent, and statistically significant also at serum concentrations below 1%; (ii) rapidly lost (half life of about 15 min) when the serum-containing medium was exposed to microglia, astrocytes or neuroblastoma cells; (iii) present also when cyclic AMP accumulation was enhanced by prostaglandin E2 or by cholera toxin; (iv) absent on basal cyclic AMP levels. When media containing fetal calf serum or the other mammalian sera mentioned above were tested on astrocyte cultures, an inhibitory, rather than enhancing activity on cyclic AMP levels was observed, indicating that the facilitatory factor(s) present in serum acts specifically on microglial cells. Moreover, in astrocytes the effect of serum was identical when tested on basal and on isoproterenol or forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels. Thus, the mechanism of cyclic AMP inhibition in astrocytes is unrelated to the mechanism of activation in microglia. Our observations suggest that serum contains factor(s), promptly cleared by different cell types. Such factors may interact with so far unidentified microglial receptors responsible for a facilitation of G protein-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase. Regulation of the cyclic AMP cascade at this step has not been described previously, and may be important for the modulation of microglial functions controlled by the cyclic nucleotide. PMID:8808793

Patrizio, M; Riitano, D; Costa, T; Levi, G

1996-07-01

56

Differential modulation of the adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP stimulatory pathway by protein kinase C activation in rat adipose tissue and isolated fat cells. Influence of collagenase digestion.  

PubMed

Exposure of rat epididymal fat pad to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, results in an 85% increase in isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, an effect which was antagonized by H7, a protein kinase C inhibitor. This promoting action of TPA appears to be related to (i) an increase in the catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase, (ii) an increase in the maximal response of adenylate cyclase to fluoride and guanylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp) with no change in the EC50 value for GppNHp, and (iii) a reduction of the isoproterenol-stimulated low-Km cAMP phosphodiesterase activity present in the 30,000 g pellet of fat pad homogenates. In contrast with fat pads, exposure of isolated rat fat cells to TPA failed to influence their adenylate cyclase response to GppNHp and their cAMP accumulation and lipolysis. However, the other alterations caused by TPA in fat pads were still observed in fat cells. These results suggest that (i) the major alteration responsible for the promoted isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP response observed in fat pads after exposure to TPA is an increased interaction between the alpha s subunit of Gs and the catalytic site of adenylate cyclase and (ii) this increased interaction is dependent on protein kinase C activation and is abolished by collagenase digestion. PMID:1656998

de Mazancourt, P; Darimont, C; Giot, J; Giudicelli, Y

1991-10-01

57

Cyclic AMP Enhances TGF? Responses of Breast Cancer Cells by Upregulating TGF? Receptor I Expression  

PubMed Central

Cellular functions are regulated by complex networks of many different signaling pathways. The TGF? and cAMP pathways are of particular importance in tumor progression. We analyzed the cross-talk between these pathways in breast cancer cells in 2D and 3D cultures. We found that cAMP potentiated TGF?-dependent gene expression by enhancing Smad3 phosphorylation. Higher levels of total Smad3, as observed in 3D-cultured cells, blocked this effect. Two Smad3 regulating proteins, YAP (Yes-associated protein) and T?RI (TGF? receptor 1), were responsive to cAMP. While YAP had little effect on TGF?-dependent expression and Smad3 phosphorylation, a constitutively active form of T?RI mimicked the cAMP effect on TGF? signaling. In 3D-cultured cells, which show much higher levels of T?RI and cAMP, T?RI was unresponsive to cAMP. Upregulation of T?RI expression by cAMP was dependent on transcription. A proximal T?RI promoter fragment was moderately, but significantly activated by cAMP suggesting that cAMP increases T?RI expression at least partially by activating T?RI transcription. Neither the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) nor the T?RI-regulating transcription factor Six1 was required for the cAMP effect. An inhibitor of histone deacetylases alone or together with cAMP increased T?RI expression by a similar extent as cAMP alone suggesting that cAMP may exert its effect by interfering with histone acetylation. Along with an additive stimulatory effect of cAMP and TGF? on p21 expression an additive inhibitory effect of these agents on proliferation was observed. Finally, we show that mesenchymal stem cells that interact with breast cancer cells can simultaneously activate the cAMP and TGF? pathways. In summary, these data suggest that combined effects of cAMP and TGF?, as e.g. induced by mesenchymal stem cells, involve the upregulation of T?RI expression on the transcriptional level, likely due to changes in histone acetylation. As a consequence, cancer cell functions such as proliferation are affected.

Oerlecke, Ilka; Bauer, Elke; Dittmer, Angela; Leyh, Benjamin; Dittmer, Jurgen

2013-01-01

58

The cyclic AMP response element modulator regulates transcription of the TCR zeta-chain.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus T cells display decreased amounts of TCR zeta mRNA that results in part from limited binding of the transcriptional enhancer Elf-1 to the TCR zeta promoter. We have identified a new cis-binding site for the cAMP response element (CRE) modulator (CREM) on the TCR zeta promoter, centered on the -390 nucleotide. Transfection of T cells with an antisense CREM alpha plasmid reduced the binding of CREM to the TCR zeta promoter, as shown by chromatin and reporter chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and enhanced the production of TCR zeta mRNA and protein. Mutagenesis of the -390 CRE site prevented the binding of CREM to the TCR zeta promoter. The mechanism of CREM-mediated repression appears to be chromatin dependent, because antisense CREM promotes the acetylation of histones on the TCR zeta promoter. Finally, we established an enhanced binding of CREM to the TCR zeta-chain promoter in systemic lupus erythematosus cells compared with control T cells. Our studies demonstrate that CREM alpha binds to the TCR zeta promoter and repress its activity. PMID:16237091

Tenbrock, Klaus; Kyttaris, Vasileios C; Ahlmann, Martina; Ehrchen, Jan Mauno; Tolnay, Mate; Melkonyan, Harutyun; Mawrin, Christian; Roth, Johannes; Sorg, Clemens; Juang, Yuang-Taung; Tsokos, George C

2005-11-01

59

Cell differentiation by 3',5'-cyclic AMP in a lower plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYCLIC AMP evokes or mediates a multitude of responses in animals and microorganisms1,2. Whereas the occurrence and regulatory role of cyclic AMP in these organisms is well established, little is known about its role in plants. Cyclic AMP has been reported to mimic certain effects of gibberellins, indoleacetic acid (IAA) and phytochrome in higher plants but in no case has

Avtar Krishan Handa; M. M. Johri

1976-01-01

60

Lysophosphatidic acid-induced neurite retraction in PC12 cells: neurite-protective effects of cyclic AMP signaling.  

PubMed

Effects of the cyclic AMP second messenger system were studied on the retraction of neurites elicited by the phospholipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in PC12 cells. LPA stimulation inhibited adenylyl cyclase, indicating that the LPA receptor couples to the heterotrimeric Gi proteins. However, pertussis toxin or expression of dominant negative Ras did not prevent neurite retraction. In contrast, cholera toxin, forskolin, and application of dibutyryl-cyclic AMP prevented neurite retraction. The neurite-protective effect of forskolin was blocked by Rp-adenosine 3',5'-phosphorothioate. Forskolin and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP both failed to protect neurites in A126-1B2 and 123.7 cells, which lack cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase. Data indicate that elevation of cyclic AMP levels triggers a cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism that opposes the functioning of the morphoregulatory signaling activated by LPA. ADP-ribosylation of Rho by the Clostridium botulinum C-3 toxin in 123.7 cells caused neuronal differentiation, indicated by neurite extension, and blocked LPA-induced neurite retraction. LPA activates Gq- and Gi-linked signaling in parallel; therefore, a morphoregulatory signaling network hypothesis is proposed versus the simplistic approach of a signaling pathway. The signaling network integrates the receptor-activated individual, sequential, and parallel signaling events into an interactive network whose individual components may fulfill required and permissive functions encoding the cellular response. PMID:8592124

Tigyi, G; Fischer, D J; Sebök, A; Marshall, F; Dyer, D L; Miledi, R

1996-02-01

61

Responsiveness of Immature versus Adult Male Rat Hypothalami to Dibutyryl Cyclic AMP and Forskolin-Induced LHRH Release in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we have investigated the effects of intermittent dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP, 5 × 10–8 M), butyrate (5 × 10–8 M) and forskolin (10–4 M) on immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release from superfused hypothalamic fragments from intact male rats of age 25, 30, 45, or 60–75 day (adult). The results indicate that at 25 days of

Daryl E. Hartter; Victor D. Ramirez

1985-01-01

62

Terminal neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate carcinoma cells in response to increased intracellular cyclic AMP.  

PubMed Central

Recent clinicopathologic studies have shown that many prostatic adenocarcinomas express focal neuroendocrine differentiation and that neuroendocrine differentiation is most apparent in advanced anaplastic tumors. While studying growth-regulatory signal transduction events in human prostate carcinoma cell lines, we found that in two of four cell lines, the androgen-sensitive line LNCaP and the highly metastatic androgen-independent line PC-3-M, elevation of cAMP through addition of cAMP analogues or phosphodiesterase inhibitors induced a markedly neuronal morphology. Also in LNCaP cells ultrastructural analysis showed that cAMP induced the appearance of neurosecretory cell-like dense-core granules. Phenotypic analysis of untreated LNCaP and PC-3-M cells showed that both cell lines express markers of the neural crest including S-100, chromogranin A, pp60c-src, and neuron-specific enolase as well as the epithelial marker KS1/4 and stage-specific embryonic antigen 4. In PC-3-M cells, cAMP markedly elevated neuron-specific enolase protein and caused an increase in the specific activity of the neuroendocrine marker pp60c-src, and in both cell lines expression of KS1/4 and stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 was down-regulated. In addition to effects on lineage markers, cAMP treatment induced G1 synchronization, growth arrest, and loss of clonogenicity, indicating terminal differentiation. Our data provide direct evidence of plasticity in the lineage commitment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. We have shown that cell-permeant cAMP analogues can induce terminal differentiation, suggesting that hydrolysis-resistant cyclic nucleotides may present an additional approach to the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Images

Bang, Y J; Pirnia, F; Fang, W G; Kang, W K; Sartor, O; Whitesell, L; Ha, M J; Tsokos, M; Sheahan, M D; Nguyen, P

1994-01-01

63

Frequency and amplitude enhancement of calcium transients by cyclic AMP in hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Interactions between signalling pathways such as the cyclic AMP and the Ca2+/phosphatidylinositol pathway may occur and be of major relevance in the regulation of cell function. We demonstrate here that cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms cause a marked increase in frequency and peak free Ca2+ of alpha 1-receptor-induced Ca2+ transients in single hepatocytes and lower the threshold for alpha 1-receptor agonists. Adrenaline at low physiological concentrations generates alpha 1-receptor-induced Ca2+ transients, which requires activation of the beta 2-receptor signalling pathway. We conclude that an interaction between the alpha 1-receptor signalling pathway and cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms activated by beta 2-receptor occupation is crucial to elicit a complete adrenergic response to adrenaline at physiological concentrations in rat hepatocytes. PMID:1847625

Schöfl, C; Sanchez-Bueno, A; Brabant, G; Cobbold, P H; Cuthbertson, K S

1991-02-01

64

Frequency and amplitude enhancement of calcium transients by cyclic AMP in hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

Interactions between signalling pathways such as the cyclic AMP and the Ca2+/phosphatidylinositol pathway may occur and be of major relevance in the regulation of cell function. We demonstrate here that cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms cause a marked increase in frequency and peak free Ca2+ of alpha 1-receptor-induced Ca2+ transients in single hepatocytes and lower the threshold for alpha 1-receptor agonists. Adrenaline at low physiological concentrations generates alpha 1-receptor-induced Ca2+ transients, which requires activation of the beta 2-receptor signalling pathway. We conclude that an interaction between the alpha 1-receptor signalling pathway and cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms activated by beta 2-receptor occupation is crucial to elicit a complete adrenergic response to adrenaline at physiological concentrations in rat hepatocytes.

Schofl, C; Sanchez-Bueno, A; Brabant, G; Cobbold, P H; Cuthbertson, K S

1991-01-01

65

Role of Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Activation of the Cyclic AMP Pathway and HWP1 Gene Expression in Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in gene expression during reversible bud-hypha transitions of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans permit adaptation to environmental conditions that are critical for proliferation in host tissues. Our previous work has shown that the hypha-specific adhesin gene HWP1 is up-regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway. However, little is known about the potential influences of determinants of cell

Michael J. Wolyniak; Paula Sundstrom

2007-01-01

66

Rap1-Mediated Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases by Cyclic AMP Is Dependent on the Mode of Rap1 Activation  

PubMed Central

Like other small G proteins of the Ras superfamily, Rap1 is activated by distinct guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in response to different signals to elicit cellular responses. Activation of Rap1 by cyclic AMP (cAMP) can occur via cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-independent and PKA-dependent mechanisms. PKA-independent activation of Rap1 by cAMP is mediated by direct binding of cAMP to Rap1-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Rap1-GEFs) Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1) and Epac2 (Epac1 and Epac2 are also called cAMP-GEFI and -GEFII). The availability of cAMP analogues that selectively activate Epacs, but not PKA, provides a specific tool to activate Rap1. It has been argued that the inability of these analogues to regulate extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) signaling despite activating Rap1 provides evidence that Rap1 is incapable of regulating ERKs. We confirm that the PKA-independent activation of Rap1 by Epac1 activates a perinuclear pool of Rap1 and that this does not result in ERK activation. However, we demonstrate that this inability to regulate ERKs is not a property of Rap1 but is rather a property of Epacs themselves. The addition of a membrane-targeting motif to Epac1 (Epac-CAAX) relocalizes Epac1 from its normal perinuclear locale to the plasma membrane. In this new locale it is capable of activating ERKs in a Rap1- and cAMP-dependent manner. Rap1 activation by Epac-CAAX, but not wild-type Epac, triggers its association with B-Raf. Therefore, we propose that its intracellular localization prevents Epac1 from activating ERKs. C3G (Crk SH3 domain Guanine nucleotide exchanger) is a Rap1 exchanger that is targeted to the plasma membrane upon activation. We show that C3G can be localized to the plasma membrane by cAMP/PKA, as can Rap1 when activated by cAMP/PKA. Using a small interfering RNA approach, we demonstrate that C3G is required for the activation of ERKs and Rap1 by cAMP/PKA. This activation requires the GTP-dependent association of Rap1 with B-Raf. These data demonstrate that B-Raf is a physiological target of Rap1, but its utilization as a Rap1 effector is GEF specific. We propose a model that specific GEFs activate distinct pools of Rap1 that are differentially coupled to downstream effectors.

Wang, Zhiping; Dillon, Tara J.; Pokala, Viji; Mishra, Snigdha; Labudda, Kirstin; Hunter, Brian; Stork, Philip J. S.

2006-01-01

67

Enhancement of cyclic AMP modulated salivary amylase secretion by protein kinase C activators.  

PubMed

The effect of protein kinase C activators on isoproterenol-induced amylase secretion were investigated in isolated rat parotid cells. Pretreatment with phorbol dibutyrate potentiated isoproterenol-induced amylase secretion. This effect of phorbol dibutyrate was mimicked by dioctanoylglycerol or carbachol. Phorbol dibutyrate also potentiated secretion evoked by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and by dibutyryl cAMP. Neither phorbol dibutyrate nor carbachol enhanced isoproterenol-induced cAMP accumulation. The present study reveals a coordinate interaction between cAMP and protein kinase C at a step in the secretory mechanism distal to cAMP generation. PMID:2462421

McKinney, J S; Rubin, R P

1988-12-01

68

Montelukast inhibits neutrophil pro-inflammatory activity by a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, montelukast (0.1–2 µmol·L?1), on Ca2+-dependent pro-inflammatory activities, cytosolic Ca2+ fluxes and intracellular cAMP in isolated human neutrophils activated with the chemoattractants, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (1 µmol·L?1) and platelet-activating factor (200 nmol·L?1). Experimental approach Generation of reactive oxygen species was measured by lucigenin- and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, elastase release by a colourimetric assay, leukotriene B4 and cAMP by competitive binding ELISA procedures, and Ca2+ fluxes by fura-2/AM-based spectrofluorimetric and radiometric (45Ca2+) procedures. Key results Pre-incubation of neutrophils with montelukast resulted in dose-related inhibition of the generation of reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4 by chemoattractant-activated neutrophils, as well as release of elastase, all of which were maximal at 2 µmol·L?1 (mean percentages of the control values of 30 ± 1, 12 ± 3 and 21 ± 3 respectively; P < 0.05). From a mechanistic perspective, treatment of chemoattractant-activated neutrophils with montelukast resulted in significant reductions in both post-peak cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations and store-operated Ca2+ influx. These montelukast-mediated alterations in Ca2+ handling by the cells were associated with a significant elevation in basal cAMP levels, which resulted from inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Conclusions and implications Montelukast, primarily a cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT1) receptor antagonist, exhibited previously undocumented, secondary, neutrophil-directed anti-inflammatory properties, which appeared to be cAMP-dependent.

Anderson, Ronald; Theron, Annette J; Gravett, Cornelia M; Steel, Helen C; Tintinger, Gregory R; Feldman, Charles

2009-01-01

69

Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887.  

PubMed

A frequent cellular response to organismal stress is the increase in ligand binding by beta-adrenergic receptors. The extracellular signal is amplified by intracellular increases in cyclic AMP and the ensuing activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK). The molecular mechanisms involve the binding of cyclic AMP to regulatory (R) subunits of cAPK, thus freeing the catalytic subunit for protein phosphorylation. This study was carried out to determine the cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 mission. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particulate cell fractions with an [32P]-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP was followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. The results showed that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins showed some variability in tissues of individual animals, but exhibited no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. These findings indicate that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions. There is, however, what appears to be an adaptive molecular response which can be detected using microanalytical methods, indicating that a major hormone regulated mechanism may be affected during some phase of travel in space. PMID:1662483

Mednieks, M I; Popova, I A; Grindeland, R E

1991-10-01

70

Prostacyclin increases cyclic AMP levels and adenylate cyclase activity in platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROSTACYCLIN (PGX) (ref. 1) is the name proposed for the metabolic product of a recently discovered enzymic transformation of the prostaglandin endoperoxides PGG2 and PGH2 (refs 2-4). Prostacyclin synthetase, the enzyme which catalyses this conversion, is particularly active in the microsomal fraction of blood vessel walls3,4 although there is evidence that it is also present in the rat stomach fundus3.

L. C. Best; T. J. Martin; R. G. G. Russell; F. E. Preston

1977-01-01

71

Effect of cyclic AMP on placental active transport of amino acid in rats.  

PubMed

In pursuit of the probable relationship of cAMP to the placental active transport of amino acids as suggested by our previous human data, experiments were done in this study with dibutyryl cAMP and theophylline loaded in pregnant rats to examine the changes in level of 14C-lysine in the maternal liver, placenta and fetus. The results are: (1) Loading of dibutyryl cAMP had no effect on the uptake of 14C-lysine in the maternal liver, placenta or fetus, except that the correction of the values with its concentration in the maternal blood revealed only a slightly significant elevation in the value in each of them 30 min after the loading. (2) Loading of theophylline significantly increased the uptake of 14C-lysine in all these organs. (3) The content of cAMP in the placenta significantly increased with the loading of theophylline. These results have led the authors to believe that endogenous cAMP is significantly linked with the placental active transport of amino acids, though there is no apparent contribution to it by exogenous cAMP. PMID:205013

Yamaguchi, R; Matsuda, T; Nakano, Y; Kyuma, M; Nishikawa, Y

1978-03-01

72

Cyclic AMP Levels, Adenylyl Cyclase Activity, and Their Stimulation by Serotonin Quantif ied in Intact Neurons  

PubMed Central

In molluscan central neurons that express cAMP-gated Na+ current (INa,cAMP), estimates of the cAMP binding affinity of the channels have suggested that effective native intracellular cAMP concentrations should be much higher than characteristic of most cells. Using neurons of the marine opisthobranch snail Pleurobranchaea californica, we applied theory and conventional voltage clamp techniques to use INa,cAMP to report basal levels of endogenous cAMP and adenylyl cyclase, and their stimulation by serotonin. Measurements were calibrated to iontophoretic cAMP injection currents to enable expression of the data in molar terms. In 30 neurons, serotonin stimulated on average a 23-fold increase in submembrane [cAMP], effected largely by an 18-fold increase in adenylyl cyclase activity. Serotonin stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and [cAMP] was inversely proportional to cells' resting adenylyl cyclase activity. Average cAMP concentration at the membrane rose from 3.6 to 27.6 ?M, levels consistent with the expected cAMP dissociation constants of the INa,cAMP channels. These measures confirm the functional character of INa,cAMP in the context of high levels of native cAMP. Methods similar to those employed here might be used to establish critical characters of cyclic nucleotide metabolism in the many cells of invertebrates and vertebrates that are being found to express ion currents gated by direct binding of cyclic nucleotides.

Sudlow, Leland C.; Gillette, Rhanor

1997-01-01

73

Mlc Is a Transcriptional Activator with a Key Role in Integrating Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Integration Host Factor Regulation of Leukotoxin RNA Synthesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans  

PubMed Central

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, synthesizes leukotoxin (LtxA), a protein that helps the bacterium evade the host immune response. Transcription of the ltxA operon is induced during anaerobic growth. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) indirectly increases ltxA expression, but the intermediary regulator is unknown. Integration host factor (IHF) binds to and represses the leukotoxin promoter, but neither CRP nor IHF is responsible for the anaerobic induction of ltxA RNA synthesis. Thus, we have undertaken studies to identify other regulators of leukotoxin transcription and to demonstrate how these proteins work together to modulate leukotoxin synthesis. First, analyses of ltxA RNA expression from defined leukotoxin promoter mutations in the chromosome identify positions ?69 to ?35 as the key control region and indicate that an activator protein modulates leukotoxin transcription. We show that Mlc, which is a repressor in Escherichia coli, functions as a direct transcriptional activator in A. actinomycetemcomitans; an mlc deletion mutant reduces leukotoxin RNA synthesis, and recombinant Mlc protein binds specifically at the ?68 to ?40 region of the leukotoxin promoter. Furthermore, we show that CRP activates ltxA expression indirectly by increasing the levels of Mlc. Analyses of ?mlc, ?ihf, and ?ihf ?mlc strains demonstrate that Mlc can increase RNA polymerase (RNAP) activity directly and that IHF represses ltxA RNA synthesis mainly by blocking Mlc binding. Finally, a ?ihf ?mlc mutant still induces ltxA during anaerobic growth, indicating that there are additional factors involved in leukotoxin transcriptional regulation. A model for the coordinated regulation of leukotoxin transcription is presented.

Childress, Catherine; Feuerbacher, Leigh A.; Phillips, Linda; Burgum, Alex

2013-01-01

74

The cyclic AMP system and Drosophila learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic AMP (cAMP) system plays a critical role in olfactory learning in the fruit fly,Drosophila melanogaster, as evidenced by the following: [1] The dunce gene encodes a form of cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE). Flies carrying mutations at this gene show reduced PDE activity, high cAMP levels, and deficits in olfactory learning and memory [2]. The rutabaga gene encodes one type

Ronald L. Davis; Jim Cherry; Brigitte Dauwalder; Pyung-Lim Han; Efthimios Skoulakis

1995-01-01

75

Adenosine A1 receptors mediate chronic ethanol-induced increases in receptor-stimulated cyclic AMP in cultured hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

Cellular responses to adenosine depend on the distribution of the two adenosine receptor subclasses. In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, adenosine receptors were coupled to adenylate cyclase via A1 and A2 receptors which inhibit and stimulate cyclic AMP production respectively. R-(-)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine (R-PIA), the adenosine A1 receptor-selective agonist, inhibited glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP production with an IC50 of 19 nM. This inhibition was blocked by the A1-specific antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPDX). 5'-N- Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), an agonist which stimulates A2 receptors, increased cyclic AMP production with an EC50 of 0.6 microM. Treatment of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes with 100 mM ethanol for 48 h decreases the quantity and function of the inhibitory guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein (G(i)), resulting in a sensitization of receptor-stimulated cyclic AMP production [Nagy and deSilva (1992) Biochem. J. 286, 681-686]. When cells were cultured with 2 units/ml adenosine deaminase, to degrade extracellular adenosine, ethanol-induced increases in cyclic AMP production were completely prevented. Moreover, the specific A1-receptor antagonist, CPDX, also blocked the chronic effects of ethanol on receptor-stimulated cyclic AMP production. Treatment with adenosine deaminase or CPDX also prevented the decrease in quantity of the alpha subunit protein of G(i) observed in hepatocytes after chronic treatment with ethanol. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of adenosine A1 receptors on primary cultures of hepatocytes is involved in the development of chronic ethanol-induced sensitization of receptor-stimulated cyclic AMP production. Images Figure 3

Nagy, L E; DeSilva, S E

1994-01-01

76

Ethanol enhancement of isoproterenol-stimulated melatonin and cyclic AMP release from cultured pineal glands.  

PubMed

Norepinephrine stimulates the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. The action of norepinephrine is believed to be mediated primarily by beta adrenergic receptors, and involves activation of adenylate cyclase. Ethanol, 25 to 50 mM, added to cultured pineal glands in vitro, enhanced isoproterenol-induced stimulation of cyclic AMP and melatonin production. The action of ethanol was observed only at doses of isoproterenol that produced a submaximal effect, and ethanol alone had no effect on cyclic AMP or melatonin release. Butanol, at a concentration of 2 mM, was as effective as 50 mM ethanol in increasing isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP and melatonin release, indicating that the response to alcohols was not due simply to changes in osmolarity, and may reflect a hydrophobic interaction of the alcohols with the cell membrane. The effects of ethanol on pineal cyclic AMP and melatonin release were reversible after a 15-min preincubation, but not after a 2-hr preincubation, suggesting that, over a long incubation period, ethanol may sensitize the pineal beta adrenergic receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system to isoproterenol. The findings in this study are consistent with earlier work showing that ethanol increases cerebral cortical beta adrenergic receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase activity, and demonstrate that the effect of ethanol on the receptor-effector system can result in an endocrinological response. PMID:2540311

Chung, C T; Tamarkin, L; Hoffman, P L; Tabakoff, B

1989-04-01

77

Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle by isoproterenol, dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and theophylline.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle produced by isoproterenol or cyclic AMP is mediated by membrane hyperpolarization. The current study investigates the possibility that this hyperpolarization, and hence the relaxation, may be produced by activation of the electrogenic sodium pump. Rat and pig tail artery strips were placed in a 1.0-mM potassium solution for 15 min. This procedure results in a decrease in the activity of the sodium pump. The strips were then made to contract in response to norepinephrine. Two minutes later, the concentration of potassium was increased to 6.0 mM and a relaxation occurred. The amplitude of this relaxation reflects the activity of the sodium pump. Either isoproterenol or dibutyryl-cyclic AMP causes an enhancement (time or degree) of potassium-induced relaxation. Theophylline potentiated potassium-induced relaxation in pig arteries but not in rat arteries. The relaxant action of isoproterenol on 1.0 mM barium contractures of rat arteries was inhibited by treatment with ouabain or with potassium-free solution. Ouabain inhibited the relaxant action of isoproterenol in pig arteries contracted with depolarizing potassium solution but not in rat tail arteries. Dibutyryl-cyclic AMP, theophylline and nitroprusside caused relaxation of serotonin-induced contractions; however, in rat arteries these responses were not inhibited by ouabain or by the absence of potassium. Similar studies on tail arteries from baboons, dogs, pigs and cats showed that relaxation by dibutyryl-cyclic AMP or by theophylline had some dependency on the activity of the sodium pump. These observations are consistent with the following conclusions: 1) isoproterenol and cyclic AMP potentiate the electrogenic pumping of sodium and potassium responsible for potassium-induced relaxation; 2) the relaxing action of isoproterenol, dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and theophylline are dependent upon experimental conditions and the species from which the vascular tissue is obtained; and 3) there is a component of isoproterenol- and cyclic AMP-induced relaxation which is not altered by inhibition of the electrogenic sodium pump in the rat. PMID:6259328

Webb, R C; Bohr, D F

1981-04-01

78

Serotonin-stimulated cyclic AMP synthesis in the rabbit corneal epithelium.  

PubMed

Serotonin increases the level of cyclic AMP in incubated rabbit corneas; the concentration of agonist producing half-maximal stimulation is approximately 1.5 microM. Nialamide, an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, potentiates the response to serotonin but not to epinephrine. Amitriptyline, an inhibitor of neuronal uptake of serotonin, does not potentiate the stimulation of cyclic AMP synthesis. Lysergic acid diethylamide, but not timolol, antagonizes the response to serotonin; the half-maximal inhibitory concentration is approximately 6 nM lysergic acid diethylamide. A comparison of the time course of the increase in cyclic AMP synthesis after addition of serotonin or epinephrine to the incubation media indicates that serotonin, but not epinephrine, must penetrate a barrier to its free diffusion. We conclude that the corneal epithelium contains specific serotonergic receptors that, upon activation, cause the synthesis of cyclic AMP, which mediates the stimulation of chloride transport (c.f. companion article, Klyce et al.). The serotonergic receptors must be at a location posterior to the beta-adrenergic receptors, which are on the anterior-surface of the apical cells. PMID:6178712

Neufeld, A H; Ledgard, S E; Jumblatt, M M; Klyce, S D

1982-08-01

79

Cyclic AMP-Rap1A signaling activates RhoA to induce ?2c-adrenoceptor translocation to the cell surface of microvascular smooth muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Intracellular signaling by the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) activates the Ras-related small GTPase Rap1 through the guanine exchange factor Epac. This activation leads to effector protein interactions, activation, and biological responses in the vasculature, including vasorelaxation. In vascular smooth muscle cells derived from human dermal arterioles (microVSM), Rap1 selectively regulates expression of G protein-coupled ?2C-adrenoceptors (?2C-ARs) through JNK-c-jun nuclear signaling. The ?2C-ARs are generally retained in the trans-Golgi compartment and mobilize to the cell surface and elicit vasoconstriction in response to cellular stress. The present study used human microVSM to examine the role of Rap1 in receptor localization. Complementary approaches included murine microVSM derived from tail arteries of C57BL6 mice that express functional ?2C-ARs and mice deficient in Rap1A (Rap1A-null). In human microVSM, increasing intracellular cAMP by direct activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin (10 ?M) or selectively activating Epac-Rap signaling by the cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2?-O-Me-cAMP (100 ?M) activated RhoA, increased ?2C-AR expression, and reorganized the actin cytoskeleton, increasing F-actin. The ?2C-ARs mobilized from the perinuclear region to intracellular filamentous structures and to the plasma membrane. Similar results were obtained in murine wild-type microVSM, coupling Rap1-Rho-actin dynamics to receptor relocalization. This signaling was impaired in Rap1A-null murine microVSM and was rescued by delivery of constitutively active (CA) mutant of Rap1A. When tested in heterologous HEK293 cells, Rap1A-CA or Rho-kinase (ROCK-CA) caused translocation of functional ?2C-ARs to the cell surface (?4- to 6-fold increase, respectively). Together, these studies support vascular bed-specific physiological role of Rap1 and suggest a role in vasoconstriction in microVSM.

Jeyaraj, Selvi C.; Unger, Nicholas T.; Eid, Ali H.; Mitra, Srabani; Paul El-Dahdah, N.; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Flavahan, Nicholas A.

2012-01-01

80

Evidence for a "mute" catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from rat muscle and its mode of activation.  

PubMed Central

An isoenzyme of the catalytic subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from rat muscle is reported which coelutes with the classical catalytic subunit but differs from it in isoelectric point (pI 8.7 vs pI 9.1) and is enzymmatically inactive. After reaction with a heat- and acid-stable component of the protein kinase modulator fraction from the same tissue, the "mute" isoenzyme displays a high activity when assayed on isoelectric focusing gels. This activation process does not occur through proteolytic degradation and is not characteristic of a turnover-type reaction. The data imply direct interaction between the isoenzyme and a modulating protein which may subsequently be separated from the enzyme without reversal of the activation. The modulator protein thus appears to act as a template, inducing a conformational change. The implications of such a mute isoenzyme and its control through small modulator proteins are discussed. Images

Gagelmann, M; Reed, J; Kubler, D; Pyerin, W; Kinzel, V

1980-01-01

81

Enhanced leptin sensitivity, reduced adiposity, and improved glucose homeostasis in mice lacking exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP isoform 1.  

PubMed

The prototypic second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) is essential for controlling cellular metabolism, including glucose and lipid homeostasis. In mammals, the majority of cAMP functions are mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epacs). To explore the physiological functions of Epac1, we generated Epac1 knockout mice. Here we report that Epac1 null mutants have reduced white adipose tissue and reduced plasma leptin levels but display heightened leptin sensitivity. Epac1-deficient mice are more resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperleptinemia, and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of Epac by use of an Epac-specific inhibitor reduces plasma leptin levels in vivo and enhances leptin signaling in organotypic hypothalamic slices. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Epac1 plays an important role in regulating adiposity and energy balance. PMID:23263987

Yan, Jingbo; Mei, Fang C; Cheng, Hongqiang; Lao, Dieu Hung; Hu, Yaohua; Wei, Jingna; Patrikeev, Igor; Hao, Dapeng; Stutz, Sonja J; Dineley, Kelly T; Motamedi, Massoud; Hommel, Jonathan D; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Chen, Ju; Cheng, Xiaodong

2013-03-01

82

Relaxation of guinea-pig trachea by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors and their enhancement by sodium nitroprusside.  

PubMed

1. The effects of agents that elevate either cyclic AMP (the phosphodiesterase (PDE) III inhibitor siguazodan, salbutamol) or cyclic GMP (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) on the relaxant activity of the PDE IV inhibitor, rolipram, were investigated in carbachol (0.1 microM) precontracted guinea-pig tracheal sheets. 2. Rolipram, siguazodan and SNP caused concentration-related reductions in tone of tissues precontracted with 0.1 microM carbachol (EC50 values 12.5; 2.73 and 0.35 microM respectively). Whilst the concentration-response relationship for the PDE III inhibitor, siguazodan, was monophasic that of the PDE IV inhibitor, rolipram, was biphasic. 3. The relaxant activity of rolipram was markedly enhanced in the presence of 10 microM siguazodan (EC50 < 0.01 microM), 0.1 microM salbutamol (EC50 0.03 microM) and 0.3 microM SNP (EC50 0.03 microM). In contrast, the relaxant activity of siguazodan was unaffected by SNP and only modestly enhanced by rolipram (10 microM) and salbutamol (0.1 microM). 4. The relaxant activity of SNP was enhanced by the PDE V inhibitor SK&F 96231 (30 microM: EC50 0.06 microM) and rolipram (30 microM, EC50 0.08 microM) but was unaffected by 30 microM siguazodan. 5. At concentrations up to 10 microM, neither siguazodan nor rolipram elevated tracheal cyclic AMP levels. However, the combination of 10 microM rolipram and siguazodan caused a two fold increase in the cyclic AMP content (from 2.19 to 4.36 pmol cyclic AMP mg-1 protein). SNP (0.1-10 microM) failed to produce a significant increase in tracheal cyclic AMP levels. At 0.1 microM the effect of SNP on tracheal cyclic AMP levels was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the presence of rolipram but not siguadozan. 6. The results indicate that the relaxant effects of rolipram are markedly enhanced by agents that inhibit PDE III activity or elevate cyclic GMP. They support the hypothesis that SNP potentiates the effects of rolipram via the inhibitory action of cyclic GMP on hydrolysis of cyclic AMP by PDE III. The findings also suggest that whilst PDE III may be more significant in regulating basal smooth muscle tone in the absence of any exogenous stimulus to cyclic AMP accumulation, PDE IV activity may be more tightly coupled to the pool of adenylyl cyclase stimulated by beta2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:8032589

Turner, N C; Lamb, J; Worby, A; Murray, K J

1994-04-01

83

The effect of cyclic-AMP on the regulation of c-myc expression in T lymphoma cells.  

PubMed Central

Myc is implicated in the control of growth in a variety of cell types. I investigated c-myc gene expression in several lymphoid cell lines to determine the response to cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP causes a precipitous decline in c-myc message concentration that precedes G1 cell cycle arrest in wild type S49 cells but not in KIN- cells that lack cAMP dependent PKA activity. In wild-type S49 cells washout of cyclic AMP restores c-myc message levels within 2 h but does not relieve the G1 arrest until 10 h later. Transcription runoff studies demonstrate inhibition of both transcriptional initiation and prolongation of initiated transcripts. However, the degree of inhibition is insufficient to explain the absence of detectable myc message suggesting that the predominant effect of cyclic AMP is to destabilize the c-myc message. In contrast to wild-type cells, the "Deathless" mutant S49 cell line is viable when arrested in G1 by exposure to cyclic AMP and has preserved c-myc expression. Thus, in S49 cells down regulation of c-myc expression appears to be associated with loss of viability rather than G1 cell cycle arrest. Interestingly, CEM human T lymphoma cells do not arrest in G1 phase when exposed to cyclic AMP in spite of losing detectable c-myc gene expression. This suggests that in some T lymphoma cells c-myc gene expression may not be necessary for cell cycle progression and proliferation. Images

Albert, D A

1995-01-01

84

Cyclic AMP\\/GMP-dependent modulation of Ca2+ channels sets the polarity of nerve growth-cone turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signalling by intracellular second messengers such as cyclic nucleotides and Ca2+ is known to regulate attractive and repulsive guidance of axons by extracellular factors. However, the mechanism of interaction among these second messengers in determining the polarity of the guidance response is largely unknown. Here, we report that the ratio of cyclic AMP to cyclic GMP activities sets the polarity

Makoto Nishiyama; Akemi Hoshino; Lily Tsai; John R. Henley; Yoshio Goshima; Marc Tessier-Lavigne; Mu-ming Poo; Kyonsoo Hong

2003-01-01

85

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Novel Roles of the Ras and Cyclic AMP Signaling Pathways in Environmental Stress Response and Antifungal Drug Sensitivity in Cryptococcus neoformans ? †  

PubMed Central

The cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway plays a central role in the growth, differentiation, and virulence of pathogenic fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans. Three upstream signaling regulators of adenylyl cyclase (Cac1), Ras, Aca1, and Gpa1, have been demonstrated to control the cAMP pathway in C. neoformans, but their functional relationship remains elusive. We performed a genome-wide transcriptome analysis with a DNA microarray using the ras1?, gpa1?, cac1?, aca1?, and pka1? pka2? mutants. The aca1?, gpa1?, cac1?, and pka1? pka2? mutants displayed similar transcriptome patterns, whereas the ras1? mutant exhibited transcriptome patterns distinct from those of the wild type and the cAMP mutants. Interestingly, a number of environmental stress response genes are modulated differentially in the ras1? and cAMP mutants. In fact, the Ras signaling pathway was found to be involved in osmotic and genotoxic stress responses and the maintenance of cell wall integrity via the Cdc24-dependent signaling pathway. Notably, the Ras and cAMP mutants exhibited hypersensitivity to a polyene drug, amphotericin B, without showing effects on ergosterol biosynthesis, which suggested a novel method of antifungal combination therapy. Among the cAMP-dependent gene products that we characterized, two small heat shock proteins, Hsp12 and Hsp122, were found to be involved in the polyene antifungal drug susceptibility of C. neoformans.

Maeng, Shinae; Ko, Young-Joon; Kim, Gyu-Bum; Jung, Kwang-Woo; Floyd, Anna; Heitman, Joseph; Bahn, Yong-Sun

2010-01-01

86

Cyclic AMP selectively enhances bradykinin receptor synthesis and expression in cultured arterial smooth muscle. Inhibition of angiotensin II and vasopressin response.  

PubMed Central

Bradykinin receptors on vascular smooth muscle may play an important role in regulating the endogenous effects of the vascular kallikrein-kinin system. The present study examined the effect of cyclic nucleotides on bradykinin-stimulated responses in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells. Short term stimulation (1 min) with cyclic AMP produced a variable inhibition of bradykinin-stimulated calcium mobilization which was lost in later passaged cells. However, long-term stimulation (24 h) produced a consistent increase in bradykinin-stimulated calcium mobilization in both early and late passaged cells. Further analysis demonstrated that chronic exposure to cAMP produced a twofold increase in both the number of cell surface bradykinin receptors and in bradykinin-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The increase in bradykinin receptors was time dependent (> 7 h) and blocked by protein synthesis inhibitors, suggesting that cAMP enhanced the synthesis of new bradykinin receptors. The increase in bradykinin receptor binding and calcium mobilization was also stimulated by cholera toxin, forskolin, and isobutylmethylxanthine, but not isoproterenol or prostaglandin E2. Of considerable interest, prolonged exposure to cAMP inhibited both angiotensin II and arginine vasopressin-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular calcium mobilization. In summary, prolonged treatment with cAMP selectively stimulates the synthesis and expression of bradykinin receptors on arterial smooth muscle while decreasing the responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agonists such as angiotensin II and vasopressin. Images

Dixon, B S

1994-01-01

87

Possible relationship between cyclic AMP and idiophasic metabolism in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed Central

In the hymenomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a 10-fold increase in intracellular cyclic AMP preceded the onset of the two idiophasic activities, lignin degradation and veratryl alcohol production. Further, addition of L-glutamate during this period reduced cyclic AMP levels and suppressed ligninolytic activity.

MacDonald, M J; Paterson, A; Broda, P

1984-01-01

88

Rapid non-genomic activation of cytosolic cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity and [Ca2+]i by 17?-oestradiol in female rat distal colon  

PubMed Central

In this study, the effect of 17?-oestradiol on adenosine 3??:?5?-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity was investigated. Rapid (within 15?min) activation of basal PKA activity was observed in cytosolic fractions by 17?-oestradiol but not by 17?-oestradiol, progesterone or testosterone. This stimulation was abolished by the specific PKA inhibitor PKI but not by the classical oestrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. 17?-Oestradiol did not stimulate basal PKA activity in membrane fractions or in cytosolic fractions from male rats. The increase in cytosolic PKA activity was indirect as (i) it was inhibited by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536, (ii) it was mimicked by forskolin and (iii) 17?-oestradiol did not cause a stimulation of basal PKA activity in either type?I or type?II commercially available PKA holoenzymes. Protein kinase?C? (PKC?) was directly activated by 17?-oestradiol. The specific PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide?I (GF 109203X), abolished the 17?-oestradiol-induced PKA activation. 17?-Oestradiol stimulated an increase in free intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) in isolated female but not male rat colonic crypts. This was inhibited by verapamil, nifedipine and zero extracellular [Ca2+] but unaffected by tamoxifen. 17?-Oestradiol, testosterone and progesterone failed to increase [Ca2+]i. PKC and PKA inhibitors abolished the 17?-oestradiol-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. These results demonstrate the existence of a novel 17?-oestradiol-specific PKA and Ca2+ signalling pathway, which is both sex steroid- and gender-specific, in rat distal colonic epithelium.

Doolan, Christina M; Condliffe, Steven B; Harvey, Brian J

2000-01-01

89

Stimulation of GCMa Transcriptional Activity by Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A Signaling Is Attributed to CBP-Mediated Acetylation of GCMa†  

PubMed Central

Human GCMa is a zinc-containing transcription factor primarily expressed in placenta. GCMa regulates expression of syncytin gene, which encodes for a placenta-specific membrane protein that mediates trophoblastic fusion and the formation of syncytiotrophoblast layer required for efficient fetal-maternal exchange of nutrients and oxygen. The adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulates syncytin gene expression and cell fusion in cultured placental cells. Here we present evidence that cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway activates the syncytin gene expression by regulating GCMa activity. We found that forskolin and protein kinase A (PKA) enhances GCMa-mediated transcriptional activation. Furthermore, PKA treatment stimulates the association of GCMa with CBP and increases GCMa acetylation. CBP primarily acetylates GCMa at lysine367, lysine406, and lysine409 in the transactivation domain (TAD). We found that acetylation of these residues is required to protect GCMa from ubiquitination and increases the TAD stability with a concomitant increase in transcriptional activity, supporting the importance of acetylation in PKA-dependent GCMa activation. Our results reveal a novel regulation of GCMa activity by cAMP-dependent protein acetylation and provide a molecular mechanism by which cAMP signaling regulates trophoblastic fusion.

Chang, Ching-Wen; Chuang, Hsiao-Ching; Yu, Chenchou; Yao, Tso-Pang; Chen, Hungwen

2005-01-01

90

Role of Inositol 1,4,5Triphosphate and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Granulocytes in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner: An Age-Related Phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is generally agreed that elderly subjects undergo progressive deterioration of their immune responsiveness, which leads to an increased susceptibility to autoimmune processes, neoplasm and inflammation. Thus there is a general consensus that regulation of inflammation results from a balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the possible alterations of cyclic AMP\\/protein kinase

Míriam Martins Chaves; Daniela Caldeira Costa; Cristina Costa Telhado Pereira; Thiago Rabelo Andrade; Bernardo Coelho Horta; José Augusto Nogueira-Machado

2007-01-01

91

Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in turkey cerebral cortex: characterization by [ 125I]VIP binding and effects on cyclic AMP synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in turkey cerebral cortex were characterized using two approaches: (1) in vitro radioreceptor binding of [125I]-VIP, and (2) effects of peptides from the PACAP\\/VIP\\/secretin family on cyclic AMP formation. The binding of [125I]-VIP to turkey cortical membranes was rapid, stable, and reversible. Saturation analysis resulted in a linear

Jolanta B. Zawilska; Pawe? Niewiadomski; Jerzy Z. Nowak

2004-01-01

92

Identification of calcium-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involved in polychlorinated biphenyl-induced cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation in developing cortical neurons 1 1 This article has been reviewed by the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, and is approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor important in developing nervous system cells and is activated by a variety of signaling molecules. Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, perturbs Ca2+ homeostasis and increases CREB phosphorylation in rat neonatal cortical cell cultures in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The present experiments determined that the cell type responding

J. R Inglefield; W. R Mundy; C. A Meacham; T. J Shafer

2002-01-01

93

Interdependence of Activation at rhaSR by Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein, the RNA Polymerase Alpha Subunit C-Terminal Domain, and RhaR  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli rhaSR operon encodes two AraC family transcription activators, RhaS and RhaR, and is activated by RhaR in the presence of l-rhamnose. ?-Galactosidase assays of various rhaS-lacZ promoter fusions combined with mobility shift assays indicated that a cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) site located at ?111.5 is also required for full activation of rhaSR expression. To address the mechanisms of activation by CRP and the RNA polymerase ?-subunit C-terminal domain (?-CTD) at rhaSR, we tested the effects of alanine substitutions in CRP activating regions 1 and 2, overexpression of a truncated version of ? (?-?235), and alanine substitutions throughout ?-CTD. We found that DNA-contacting residues in ?-CTD are required for full activation, and for simplicity, we discuss ?-CTD as a third activator of rhaSR. CRP and RhaR could each partially activate transcription in the absence of the other two activators, and ?-CTD was not capable of activation alone. In the case of CRP, this suggests that this activation involves neither an ?-CTD interaction nor cooperative binding with RhaR, while in the case of RhaR, this suggests the likelihood of direct interactions with core RNA polymerase. We also found that CRP, RhaR, and ?-CTD each have synergistic effects on activation by the others, suggesting direct or indirect interactions among all three. We have some evidence that the ?-CTD–CRP and ?-CTD–RhaR interactions might be direct. The magnitude of the synergistic effects was usually greater with just two activators than with all three, suggesting possible redundancies in the mechanisms of activation by CRP, ?-CTD, and RhaR.

Holcroft, Carolyn C.; Egan, Susan M.

2000-01-01

94

cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production  

SciTech Connect

Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-time for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.

Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

1987-03-01

95

Expression of phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in melanin-concentrating hormone neurons and orexin neurons in male and female rats during ad-libitum feeding.  

PubMed

Using phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) as a marker of neural activity, we previously suggested that orexin neurons and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons play distinct roles in feeding behavior. In the present study, we examined the expression of pCREB during ad-libitum feeding; previously, only fasted animals were examined. MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed pCREB during spontaneous food intake. The induction of pCREB expression did not differ by sex, but attenuation seemed to occur faster in females than in males. On the basis of the results of the present study, we speculate that MCH neurons respond to nutrition-related feeding, but the feeding-related activity of orexin was not evident unless hunger was accompanied by stress, such as the stress caused by the absence of food in the case of fasting. Therefore, the desire to eat under normal conditions does not drive orexin neurons, but it does drive MCH neurons. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of consuming glucose or saccharin, a nonmetabolized sweetener, in fasted male and female rats. Glucose and saccharin were equally effective in reducing pCREB expression in the orexin neurons of female rats. In MCH neurons, glucose attenuated the expression of pCREB, but saccharin had no effect, irrespective of sex. Taken together, the results indicate that MCH and orexin peptides play physiologically distinct roles in feeding behavior. PMID:24780894

Fukushima, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Kimura, Fukuko; Akema, Tatsuo; Funabashi, Toshiya

2014-07-01

96

Catabolite repression in Escherichia coli mutants lacking cyclic AMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of catabolite repression of ß-galactosidase has been studied in Escherichia coli mutants deleted for the adenyl cyclase gene (cya?), and thus unable to synthesize cyclic AMP. It has been found that, provided a second mutation occurs either in the crp gene coding for the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) or in the Lactose region, these mutants exhibit catabolite

Alain Dessein; Maxime Schwartz; Agnès Ullmann

1978-01-01

97

Role of Dynamics in the Autoinhibition and Activation of the Exchange Protein Directly Activated by Cyclic AMP (EPAC)*  

PubMed Central

The exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) is a key receptor of cAMP in eukaryotes and controls critical signaling pathways. Currently, no residue resolution information is available on the full-length EPAC dynamics, which are known to be pivotal determinants of allostery. In addition, no information is presently available on the intermediates for the classical induced fit and conformational selection activation pathways. Here these questions are addressed through molecular dynamics simulations on five key states along the thermodynamic cycle for the cAMP-dependent activation of a fully functional construct of EPAC2, which includes the cAMP-binding domain and the integral catalytic region. The simulations are not only validated by the agreement with the experimental trends in cAMP-binding domain dynamics determined by NMR, but they also reveal unanticipated dynamic attributes, rationalizing previously unexplained aspects of EPAC activation and autoinhibition. Specifically, the simulations show that cAMP binding causes an extensive perturbation of dynamics in the distal catalytic region, assisting the recognition of the Rap1b substrate. In addition, analysis of the activation intermediates points to a possible hybrid mechanism of EPAC allostery incorporating elements of both the induced fit and conformational selection models. In this mechanism an entropy compensation strategy results in a low free-energy pathway of activation. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that the autoinhibitory interactions of EPAC are more dynamic than previously anticipated, leading to a revised model of autoinhibition in which dynamics fine tune the stability of the autoinhibited state, optimally sensitizing it to cAMP while avoiding constitutive activation.

VanSchouwen, Bryan; Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; Fogolari, Federico; Melacini, Giuseppe

2011-01-01

98

Role of dynamics in the autoinhibition and activation of the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (EPAC).  

PubMed

The exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) is a key receptor of cAMP in eukaryotes and controls critical signaling pathways. Currently, no residue resolution information is available on the full-length EPAC dynamics, which are known to be pivotal determinants of allostery. In addition, no information is presently available on the intermediates for the classical induced fit and conformational selection activation pathways. Here these questions are addressed through molecular dynamics simulations on five key states along the thermodynamic cycle for the cAMP-dependent activation of a fully functional construct of EPAC2, which includes the cAMP-binding domain and the integral catalytic region. The simulations are not only validated by the agreement with the experimental trends in cAMP-binding domain dynamics determined by NMR, but they also reveal unanticipated dynamic attributes, rationalizing previously unexplained aspects of EPAC activation and autoinhibition. Specifically, the simulations show that cAMP binding causes an extensive perturbation of dynamics in the distal catalytic region, assisting the recognition of the Rap1b substrate. In addition, analysis of the activation intermediates points to a possible hybrid mechanism of EPAC allostery incorporating elements of both the induced fit and conformational selection models. In this mechanism an entropy compensation strategy results in a low free-energy pathway of activation. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that the autoinhibitory interactions of EPAC are more dynamic than previously anticipated, leading to a revised model of autoinhibition in which dynamics fine tune the stability of the autoinhibited state, optimally sensitizing it to cAMP while avoiding constitutive activation. PMID:21873431

VanSchouwen, Bryan; Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; Fogolari, Federico; Melacini, Giuseppe

2011-12-01

99

Chlorotoxin does not inhibit volume-regulated, calcium-activated and cyclic AMP-activated chloride channels  

PubMed Central

It was the aim of this study to look for a high-affinity and selective polypeptide toxin, which could serve as a probe for the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) or the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We have partially purified chlorotoxin, including new and homologous short chain insectotoxins, from the crude venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (Lqq) by means of gel filtration chromatography. Material eluting between 280 and 420?min, corresponding to fractions 15–21, was lyophilized and tested on VRAC and CaCC, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We have also tested the commercially available chlorotoxin on VRAC, CaCC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and on the glioma specific chloride channel (GCC). VRAC and the correspondent current, ICl,swell, was activated in Cultured Pulmonary Artery Endothelial (CPAE) cells by a 25% hypotonic solution. Neither of the fractions 16–21 significantly inhibited ICl,swell (n=4–5). Ca2+-activated Cl? currents, ICl,Ca, activated by loading T84 cells via the patch pipette with 1??M free Ca2+, were not inhibited by any of the tested fractions (15–21), (n=2–5). Chlorotoxin (625?nM) did neither effect ICl,swell nor ICl,Ca (n=4–5). The CFTR channel, transiently transfected in COS cells and activated by a cocktail containing IBMX and forskolin, was not affected by 1.2??M chlorotoxin (n=5). In addition, it did not affect currents through GCC. We conclude that submicromolar concentrations of chlorotoxin do not block volume-regulated, Ca2+-activated and CFTR chloride channels and that it can not be classified as a general chloride channel toxin.

Maertens, Chantal; Wei, Lin; Tytgat, Jan; Droogmans, Guy; Nilius, Bernd

2000-01-01

100

Regulation by dibutyryl cyclic AMP of carnosine synthesis in astroglia-rich primary cultures kept in serum-free medium.  

PubMed

The synthesis of carnosine (beta-Ala-His) by astroglia-rich primary cultures was much higher if the cells were cultivated in Ham's nutrient mixture F-12 than if they were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. Carnosine synthesis was not affected by the presence of insulin, transferrin, phorbol myristate acetate, or dexamethasone. However, dibutyryl cyclic AMP and other agents that can, directly or indirectly, activate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases strongly lower the rate of carnosine synthesis. The depression of carnosine synthesis was dependent on the concentration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The effect was maximal (approximately 80% inhibition) in cultures preincubated with 1 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP for 4 days. The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP caused the same depression as dibutyryl cyclic AMP, whereas neither butyrate nor dibutyryl cyclic GMP elicited any effect. PMID:2462017

Schulz, M; Hamprecht, B; Kleinkauf, H; Bauer, K

1989-01-01

101

Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP is involved in the regulation of adipogenic genes during 3T3-L1 fibroblasts differentiation.  

PubMed

Adipogenesis is stimulated in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by a combination of insulin, dexamethasone and isobutylmethylxanthine, IBMX, (I+D+M). Two transcription factors are important for the acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, C/EBP beta (CCAT enhancer-binding protein beta) and PPAR gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma). IBMX increases cAMP content, which can activate protein kinase A (PKA) and/or EPAC (exchange protein activated by cAMP). To investigate the importance of IBMX in the differentiation mixture, we first evaluated the effect of the addition of IBMX on the increase of C/EBP beta and PPAR gamma and found an enhancement of the amount of both proteins. IBMX addition (I+D+M) or its replacement with a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl-cAMP or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2-O'-methyl-cAMP (8CPT-2-Me-cAMP), the latter activates EPAC and not PKA, remarkably increased PPAR gamma mRNA. However, neither I+D nor any of the inducers alone, increased PPAR gamma mRNA to a similar extent, suggesting the importance of the presence of both IBMX and I+D. It was also found that the addition of IBMX or 8CPT-2-Me-cAMP was able to increase the content of C/EBP beta with respect to I+D. In agreement with these findings, a microarray analysis showed that the presence of either 8CPT-2-Me-cAMP or IBMX in the differentiation mixture was able to upregulate PPAR gamma and PPAR gamma-activated genes as well as other genes involved in lipid metabolism. Our results prove the involvement of IBMX-cAMP-EPAC in the regulation of adipogenic genes during differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and therfore contributes to elucidate the role of cyclic AMP in this process. PMID:24444094

Gabrielli, Matías; Martini, Claudia N; Brandani, Javier N; Iustman, Laura J R; Romero, Damián G; del C Vila, María

2014-02-01

102

Cyclic AMP signalling through PKA but not Epac is essential for neurturin-induced biphasic ERK1/2 activation and neurite outgrowths through GFR?2 isoforms.  

PubMed

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and neurotrophic factors are known to interact closely to promote neurite outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its family member neurturin (NTN) transduce signal through a multi-component receptor complex consisting of GDNF family receptor alpha 2 (GFR?2) and Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. Neurons from GFR?2-deficient mice do not promote axonal initiation when stimulated by NTN, consistent with the role of GFR?2 in neuronal outgrowth. Multiple alternatively spliced isoforms of GFR?2 are known to be expressed in the nervous system. GFR?2a and GFR?2c but not GFR?2b promoted neurite outgrowth. It is currently unknown if cAMP signalling is differentially regulated by these isoforms. In this study, NTN activation of GFR?2a and GFR?2c but not GFR?2b induced biphasic ERK1/2 activation and phosphorylation of the major cAMP target CREB. Interestingly, inhibition of cAMP signalling significantly impaired GFR?2a and GFR?2c-mediated neurite outgrowth while cAMP agonists cooperated with GFR?2b to induce neurite outgrowth. Importantly, the specific cAMP effector PKA but not Epac was essential for NTN-induced neurite outgrowth, through transcription and translation-dependent activation of late phase ERK1/2. Taken together, these results not only demonstrated the essential role of cAMP-PKA signalling in NTN-induced biphasic ERK1/2 activation and neurite outgrowth, but also suggested cAMP-PKA signalling as a hitherto unrecognized underlying mechanism contributing to the differential neuritogenic activities of GFR?2 isoforms. PMID:21723942

Wan, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lihan; Lim, Qing 'En; Wong, Yung Hou; Too, Heng-Phon

2011-11-01

103

Regulation of Adrenal Ornithine Decarboxylase by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

Adrenal ornithine decarboxylase activity was stimulated in a dose-related manner after administration of ACTH or dibutyryl (6N-2?-O-dibutyryl) cyclic AMP to hypophysectomized rats. Little effect was observed for 2 h, but striking increases in enzyme activity were observed 4 h after administration of these substances. Effects of ACTH and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were not secondary to stimulation of steroidogenesis, since hydrocortisone had no effect on adrenal ornithine decarboxylase although it did stimulate activity of the enzyme in the liver and kidney. ACTH, given subcutaneously to hypophysectomized rats, induced striking increases in adrenal cyclic AMP levels within 15-30 min with a fall towards the base line in 1 h. Increases in ornithine decarboxylase activity lag several hours after this endogenous cyclic AMP peak, in contrast to the stimulatin of steroidogenesis by the nucleotide that requires only 2-3 min. After graded doses of ACTH, increases in adrenal cyclic AMP levels at 30 min were paralleled by proportional increases in adrenal ornithine decarboxylase activity 4 h after hormone treatment. Whereas maximal levels of adrenal steroidogenesis have been observed at tissue cyclic AMP levels of 6 nmol/g. ACTH is capable of inducing increases in nucleotide levels up to 200 nmol/g or more. These high tissue levels of cyclic AMP, although unneccessary for maximal steroidogenesis, appear to stimulate adrenal ornithine decarboxylase activity. Several results in addition to the time lag in the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity suggest a mechanism involving accumulation of the enzyme or some factor needed for its activity rather than direct activation of the enzyme by cyclic AMP. Thus, the addition of cyclic AMP directly to the ornithine decarboxylase assay mixture in vitro was without stimulatory effect. In addition, actinomycin D or cycloheximide in doses sufficient to block adrenal RNA and protein synthesis, respectively inhibited the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity by ACTH in vivo. An adrenocortical cancer was found to maintain ornithine decarboxylase activity at very high levels, but did so at much lower cyclic AMP levels than those of ACTH-stimulated adrenals. It is concluded that ACTH stimulates adrenal ornithine decarboxylase activity and that this effect may be mediated by cyclic AMP. However, cyclic AMP be mediated by appear to be a determinant of the high level of enzyme activity found in adrenocortical cancer.

Richman, R.; Dobbins, C.; Voina, S.; Underwood, L.; Mahaffee, D.; Gitelman, H. J.; Van Wyk, J.; Ney, R. L.

1973-01-01

104

Activity of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases and adenylyl cyclase in peripheral nerve after crush and permanent transection injuries.  

PubMed

Recent studies demonstrate that cAMP levels are tightly controlled during demyelination and remyelination in Schwann cells as cAMP decreases to 8-10% of normal following both sciatic nerve crush or permanent transection injury and only begins to increase in the crushed nerve after remyelination (Poduslo, J. F., Walikonis, R. S., Domec, M., Berg, C. T., and Holtz-Heppelmann, C. J. (1995) J. Neurochem. 65, 149-159). To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this change in cAMP levels, cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) and adenylyl cyclase activities were determined before and after sciatic nerve injury. Basal cAMP PDE activity in soluble endoneurial homogenates of normal nerve was 34.9 +/- 1.9 pmol/mg of protein/min (chi +/- S.E.; n = 10). This activity increased about 3-fold within 6 days following both injuries. Basal PDE activity remained elevated in the transected nerve, but declined to 70 pmol/mg of protein/min in the crushed nerve at 21 and 35 days following injury. Isozyme-specific inhibitors and stimulators were used to identify the PDE families in the sciatic nerve. The low Km cAMP-specific (PDE4) and the Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated (PDE1) families were found to predominate in assays using endoneurial homogenates. The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram also increased cAMP levels significantly after incubation of endoneurial tissue with various isozyme-specific inhibitors, indicating that PDE4 plays a major role in determining cAMP levels. PDE4 mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization to cells identified as Schwann cells by colabeling of S100, a Schwann cell specific protein. Adenylyl cyclase activity declined following injury, from 3.7 pmol/mg of protein/min in normal nerve to 0.70 pmol/mg/min by 7 days following injury. Both decreased synthesis and increased degradation contribute, therefore, to the reduced levels of cAMP following peripheral nerve injury and are likely critical to the process of Wallerian degeneration. PMID:9535895

Walikonis, R S; Poduslo, J F

1998-04-10

105

The dual-specificity protein phosphatase Yvh1p regulates sporulation, growth, and glycogen accumulation independently of catalytic activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase cascade.  

PubMed

Yvh1p, a dual-specific protein phosphatase induced specifically by nitrogen starvation, regulates cell growth as well as initiation and completion of sporulation. We demonstrate that yvh1 disruption mutants are also unable to accumulate glycogen in stationary phase. A catalytically inactive variant of yvh1 (C117S) and a DNA fragment encoding only the Yvh1p C-terminal 159 amino acids (which completely lacks the phosphatase domain) complement all three phenotypes as well as the wild-type allele; no complementation occurs with a fragment encoding only the C-terminal 74 amino acids. These observations argue that phosphatase activity is not required for the Yvh1p functions we measured. Mutations which decrease endogenous cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels partially suppress the sporulation and glycogen accumulation defects. In addition, reporter gene expression supported by a DRR2 promoter fragment, containing two stress response elements known to respond to cAMP-protein kinase A, decreases in a yvh1 disruption mutant. Therefore, our results identify three cellular processes that both require Yvh1p and respond to alterations in cAMP, and they lead us to suggest that Yvh1p may be a participant in and/or a contributor to regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase cascade. The fact that decreasing the levels of cAMP alleviates the need for Yvh1p function supports this suggestion. PMID:10852885

Beeser, A E; Cooper, T G

2000-06-01

106

Mitotic activation of the DISC1-inducible cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D9 (PDE4D9), through multi-site phosphorylation, influences cell cycle progression.  

PubMed

In Rat-1 cells, the dramatic decrease in the levels of both intracellular cyclic 3'5' adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP; cAMP) and in the activity of cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) observed in mitosis was paralleled by a profound increase in cAMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) activity. The decrease in PKA activity, which occurs during mitosis, was attributable to PDE4 activation as the PDE4 selective inhibitor, rolipram, but not the phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE3) inhibitor, cilostamide, specifically ablated this cell cycle-dependent effect. PDE4 inhibition caused Rat-1 cells to move from S phase into G2/M more rapidly, to transit through G2/M more quickly and to remain in G1 for a longer period. Inhibition of PDE3 elicited no observable effects on cell cycle dynamics. Selective immunopurification of each of the four PDE4 sub-families identified PDE4D as being selectively activated in mitosis. Subsequent analysis uncovered PDE4D9, an isoform whose expression can be regulated by Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) complex, as the sole PDE4 species activated during mitosis in Rat-1 cells. PDE4D9 becomes activated in mitosis through dual phosphorylation at Ser585 and Ser245, involving the combined action of ERK and an unidentified 'switch' kinase that has previously been shown to be activated by H2O2. Additionally, in mitosis, PDE4D9 also becomes phosphorylated at Ser67 and Ser81, through the action of MK2 (MAPKAPK2) and AMP kinase (AMPK), respectively. The multisite phosphorylation of PDE4D9 by all four of these protein kinases leads to decreased mobility (band-shift) of PDE4D9 on SDS-PAGE. PDE4D9 is predominantly concentrated in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but with a fraction distributed asymmetrically at the cell margins. Our investigations demonstrate that the diminished levels of cAMP and PKA activity that characterise mitosis are due to enhanced cAMP degradation by PDE4D9. PDE4D9, was found to locate primarily not only in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but also at the cell margins. We propose that the sequestration of PDE4D9 in a specific complex together with AMPK, ERK, MK2 and the H2O2-activatable 'switch' kinase allows for its selective multi-site phosphorylation, activation and regulation in mitosis. PMID:24815749

Sheppard, Catherine L; Lee, Louisa C Y; Hill, Elaine V; Henderson, David J P; Anthony, Diana F; Houslay, Daniel M; Yalla, Krishna C; Cairns, Lynne S; Dunlop, Allan J; Baillie, George S; Huston, Elaine; Houslay, Miles D

2014-09-01

107

Regional profiles of steady-state levels of cyclic nucleotides, cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, and guanylate cyclase activities during late stages of unilateral ischemia in gerbil forebrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was an extension of earlier work regarding the role of cyclic nucleotides and related enzymes during cerebral ischemia in the gerbil. Following unilateral carotid occlusion, levels of cyclicAMP and cyclicGMP were measured in four rapidly inactivated brain regions at 3, 6, and 24 hr after permanent occlusion and at 2hr of occlusion plus 1 hr of reflow.

G. C. Palmer; B. C. Christie-Pope; M. A. Medina; P. M. Colombo; S. J. Palmer

1988-01-01

108

Enhancement of in-vitro translation of eukaryotic RNAs by cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

Addition of cyclic AMP to normal rabbit reticulocyte lysate brings about substantial increase in protein synthesis programmed by both nuclear and polysomal eukaryotic RNAs. The increase in synthesis is largely nonspecific and the in-vitro translation system is rendered viable for longer periods of time than in the absence of cyclic AMP. This stimulation of translation could be due to the inhibition of protein kinases that are initially activated by secondary structure of RNAs. However, the ability of cyclic AMP to further stimulate methyl mercury or heat denatured RNA indicates that additional mechanisms may be involved in the enhancement of translation. PMID:6191449

John, M E; Knöchel, W

1983-01-01

109

Role of ischemia-reperfusion on myocardial cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase: effects of amrinone on regional myocardial force and shortening.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that a reperfused ischemic myocardial region of the dog heart would be unable to increase its function in response to amrinone, a specific cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE) inhibitor, due to loss of cAMP-PDE activity in the region. The global contractility (+dp/dtmax), regional percent shortening (ultrasonic crystals), and developed force (miniature force gauge) were measured on a continuous basis throughout a 6-hour experiment and regional blood flow (radioactive microspheres) in open-chest pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was isolated and ligated for 2 hours and allowed to reperfuse for 4 hours. This myocardial region was compared to a nonischemic region supplied by the circumflex artery. At the end of the 4-hour reperfusion period, 9 dogs were treated with amrinone (5 mg/kg) and three dogs were not treated with amrinone. The hearts were rapidly excised and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Cyclic AMP and cAMP-PDE activity was determined in homogenates of myocardial tissue. Blood flow decreased during occlusion in the LAD region and returned toward control with reperfusion. Flow increased nonsignificantly with amrinone. the basal cyclic AMP content of the two regions was not different. The cAMP-PDE activity was reduced 24% in the LAD region compared to the control region. There were no ischemia-induced changes in the enzyme characteristics. These experiments demonstrated increased global function in the ischemic reperfused myocardium after amrinone was administered (dP/dtmax: 2092 +/- 538 to 3277 +/- 688 mmHg/sec).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8268438

Tse, J; Cimini, C; Kedem, J; Rodriquez, E; Gonzalez, M; Weiss, H R

1993-10-01

110

Involvement of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in the signal transduction pathway for interleukin-1.  

PubMed Central

Expression of a highly specific protein inhibitor for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in interleukin-1 (IL-1)-responsive cells blocked IL-1-induced gene transcription that was driven by the kappa immunoglobulin enhancer or the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat. This inhibitor did not affect protein kinase C-mediated gene transcription, suggesting that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases are involved in the signal transduction pathway for IL-1 in a number of responsive cell types.

Chedid, M; Mizel, S B

1990-01-01

111

Endogenous adenosine regulates neutrophil pro-inflammatory activities by cyclic AMP-dependent accelerated clearance of cytosolic calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and design: To identify the involvement of adenosine in restoration of Ca2+ homeostasis to activated human neutrophils.¶Materials: Neutrophils were isolated from venous blood taken from healthy, adult, human volunteers.¶Treatment: The cells were exposed to adenosine deaminase (ADA, 0.1-2 units\\/ml) for 10 min at 37°C prior to activation with N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP, 1 7M).¶Methods: Cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations and transmembrane fluxes of

A. J. Theron; H. C. Steel; G. R. Tintinger; R. Anderson

2002-01-01

112

Effects of cyclic AMP, glucocorticoids and insulin on the activities of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, tyrosine aminotransferase and glycerol kinase in isolated rat hepatocytes in relation to the control of triacylglycerol synthesis and gluconeogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Rat hepatocytes were incubated in monolayer culture in modified Leibovitz L-15 medium containing either 10% (v/v) newborn-calf serum or 0.2% (w/v) fatty-acid-poor bovine serum albumin. The addition of 100 nM-dexamethasone increased the activities of both phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and tyrosine aminotransferase by about 3.5-fold after 8h, and these activities continued to rise until at least 24h. Incubating the hepatocytes in the albumin-containing medium with 10 microM- or 100 microM-8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate increased the activities of the phosphohydrolase and aminotransferase by 2.6- and 3.4-fold respectively after 8h. These increases were blocked by actinomycin D. The increases in the activities that were produced by the cyclic AMP analogue and dexamethasone were independent and approximately additive. Insulin when added alone did not alter the phosphohydrolase activity, but it increased the aminotransferase activity by 34%. The dexamethasone-induced increase in the phosphohydrolase activity was completely blocked by 7-144 microM-insulin, whereas that of the aminotransferase was only partly suppressed. Insulin had no significant Effects on the increases in the activities of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and tyrosine aminotransferase that were produced by the cyclic AMP analogue, but this may be because the analogue is fairly resistant to degradation by the phosphodiesterase. The activity of glycerol kinase was not significantly changed by incubating the hepatocytes with insulin, dexamethasone and the cyclic AMP analogue alone or in combinations. It is proposed that high concentrations of cyclic AMP and glucocorticoids increase the total activity of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in the liver and provide it with an increased capacity for synthesizing triacylglycerols and very-low-density lipoproteins, which is expressed when the availability of fatty acids is high. There appears to be a co-ordinated hormonal control of triacyglycerol synthesis and gluconeogenesis in diabetes and in metabolic stress to enable the liver to supply other organs with energy.

Pittner, R A; Fears, R; Brindley, D N

1985-01-01

113

Characteristics of cyclic AMP enhancement of retinoic acid induction of increased transglutaminase activity in HL60 cells.  

PubMed

When the human myeloid leukemia cell line (HL60) is induced to differentiate with retinoic acid (RA), there is a concentration-dependent increase in transglutaminase (TGase) activity which peaks on day 5. While dibutyryl 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) alone produced only a slight increase in TGase activity in HL60 cells, the concomitant addition of db-cAMP (100 microM) with RA (10(-12)-10(-4) M) potentiates RA induction of TGase activity. Maximal increases in TGase activity (2- to 10-fold) were observed with 10(-4)-10(-7) M RA and when db-cAMP was present from 24 to 48 h after the addition of RA. The cyclic nucleotide enhancement was dose-dependent from 10 to 100 microM of cAMP. Less marked increases were observed with 8-bromo-cAMP and with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor theophylline. Although the simultaneous addition of PGE1 or PGE2 (10(-8)-10(-6) M) produced no enhancement of RA-induced TGase activity, adding PGE1 or PGE2 24 or 48 h following RA treatments produced an enhancement of TGase activity. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor potentiated the increases produced by db-cAMP and the prostaglandins. Dibutyryl cAMP enhanced the ability of RA to induce the cells to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), a functional measure of differentiation, at lower concentrations of RA and with shorter treatment durations. cAMP potentiates RA-induced TGase activity in HL60 cells and the combination appears to be associated with enhanced RA-induced differentiation. PMID:2903078

Maddox, A M; Haddox, M K

1988-01-01

114

PGI 2 opens potassium channels in retinal pericytes by cyclic AMP-stimulated, cross-activation of PKG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pericytes exert an important influence on the control of retinal blood flow; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of retinal pericyte excitability. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the signaling pathway of how prostacyclin (PGI2), an important endogenous regulator of retinal blood flow, stimulates potassium channel activity in retinal pericytes. Retinal pericytes were isolated from porcine

Jason O. Burnette; Richard E. White

2006-01-01

115

Cyclic AMP production and insulin releasing activity of synthetic fragment peptides of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide.  

PubMed

Synthetic fragment peptides of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were evaluated for their ability to elevate cellular cAMP production and stimulate insulin secretion. In GIP receptor transfected CHL cells, GIP(4-42) and GIP(17-30) dose-dependently inhibited GIP-stimulated cAMP production (40 +/- 8%; p<0.01 and 15 +/- 6%; p<0.05, respectively), while GIP(1-16) exerted very weak agonist effects on cAMP production. In the clonal pancreatic beta-cell line, BRIN-BD11, GIP(1-16) demonstrated weak insulin releasing activity compared with native GIP. In contrast, GIP(4-42) and GIP (17-30) weakly antagonized the insulin releasing activity of the native peptide (23 +/- 6%; p<0.05 and 11 +/- 3%, respectively). These data demonstrate the critical role of the N-terminus and the involvement of regions of the C-terminal domain in generating full biological potency of GIP. PMID:12635849

Gault, V A; Harriott, P; Flatt, P R; O'Harte, F P M

2002-01-01

116

Novel epinephrine and cyclic AMP-mediated activation of BCAM/Lu-dependent sickle (SS) RBC adhesion.  

PubMed

The vasoocclusive crisis is the major clinical feature of sickle cell anemia, which is believed to be initiated or sustained by sickle (SS) red blood cell (RBC) adhesion to the vascular wall. SS RBCs, but not unaffected (AA) RBCs, adhere avidly to multiple components of the vascular wall, including laminin. Here we report a novel role for epinephrine and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the regulation of human SS RBC adhesiveness via the laminin receptor, basal cell adhesion molecule/Lutheran (BCAM/Lu). Our data demonstrate that peripheral SS RBCs contain greater than 4-fold more cAMP than AA RBCs under basal conditions. Forskolin or the stress mediator epinephrine further elevates cAMP in SS RBCs and increases adhesion of SS RBCs to laminin in a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner, with the low-density population being the most responsive. Epinephrine-stimulated adhesion to laminin, mediated primarily via the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, occurred in SS RBC samples from 46% of patients and was blocked by recombinant, soluble BCAM/Lu, implicating this receptor as a target of cAMP signaling. Thus, these studies demonstrate a novel, rapid regulation of SS RBC adhesion by a cAMP-dependent pathway and suggest that components of this pathway, particularly PKA, the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, and BCAM/Lu, should be further explored as potential therapeutic targets to inhibit SS RBC adhesion. PMID:12506027

Hines, Patrick C; Zen, Qin; Burney, Sharran N; Shea, Deborah A; Ataga, Kenneth I; Orringer, Eugene P; Telen, Marilyn J; Parise, Leslie V

2003-04-15

117

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptors mediate cyclic AMP-dependent enhancement of neuronal acetylcholine sensitivity.  

PubMed

Nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (AChRs) on ciliary ganglion neurons are positively regulated by elevated cAMP levels. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can act as a first messenger in the regulation, because application of 1 microM VIP rapidly increases both neuronal cAMP levels and ACh sensitivity. We now report that high affinity receptors for a close VIP relative, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), are present on ciliary ganglion neurons and mediate the cAMP-dependent modulation of AChRs. Consistent with the presence of PACAP type I receptors, binding studies revealed sites on the neurons having approximately 1000-fold higher affinity for the 38- and 27-amino acid forms of PACAP than for VIP, and cAMP radio-immunoassays demonstrated that PACAP38 and PACAP27 are approximately 600-fold more potent agonists for mobilizing neuronal cAMP than is VIP. In accord with their higher affinity and potency, PACAP38 and -27 (both at 10 nM) increased neuronal ACh sensitivity by approximately 50% within 10 min, whereas VIP at the same low concentration was ineffective. The increased ACh sensitivity induced by 10 nM PACAP38 or PACAP27 or 1 microM VIP depends on coincident increases in cAMP levels, because treatment of neurons with adenylate cyclase inhibitors blocked both effects. The findings demonstrate the presence of functional PACAP type I receptors on ciliary ganglion neurons that preferentially recognize PACAP38 and -27 over VIP and act via adenylate cyclase to initiate cAMP-dependent enhancement of AChR function. Finally, we detected PACAP38-like material in ciliary ganglia, suggesting a role for the peptide in modulating neuronal AChRs in vivo. PMID:7623776

Margiotta, J F; Pardi, D

1995-07-01

118

Relaxation of guinea-pig trachea by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors and their enhancement by sodium nitroprusside.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of agents that elevate either cyclic AMP (the phosphodiesterase (PDE) III inhibitor siguazodan, salbutamol) or cyclic GMP (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) on the relaxant activity of the PDE IV inhibitor, rolipram, were investigated in carbachol (0.1 microM) precontracted guinea-pig tracheal sheets. 2. Rolipram, siguazodan and SNP caused concentration-related reductions in tone of tissues precontracted with 0.1 microM carbachol (EC50 values 12.5; 2.73 and 0.35 microM respectively). Whilst the concentration-response relationship for the PDE III inhibitor, siguazodan, was monophasic that of the PDE IV inhibitor, rolipram, was biphasic. 3. The relaxant activity of rolipram was markedly enhanced in the presence of 10 microM siguazodan (EC50 < 0.01 microM), 0.1 microM salbutamol (EC50 0.03 microM) and 0.3 microM SNP (EC50 0.03 microM). In contrast, the relaxant activity of siguazodan was unaffected by SNP and only modestly enhanced by rolipram (10 microM) and salbutamol (0.1 microM). 4. The relaxant activity of SNP was enhanced by the PDE V inhibitor SK&F 96231 (30 microM: EC50 0.06 microM) and rolipram (30 microM, EC50 0.08 microM) but was unaffected by 30 microM siguazodan. 5. At concentrations up to 10 microM, neither siguazodan nor rolipram elevated tracheal cyclic AMP levels. However, the combination of 10 microM rolipram and siguazodan caused a two fold increase in the cyclic AMP content (from 2.19 to 4.36 pmol cyclic AMP mg-1 protein). SNP (0.1-10 microM) failed to produce a significant increase in tracheal cyclic AMP levels. At 0.1 microM the effect of SNP on tracheal cyclic AMP levels was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the presence of rolipram but not siguadozan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Turner, N. C.; Lamb, J.; Worby, A.; Murray, K. J.

1994-01-01

119

Mutations in the cyclic AMP binding site of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Mutants in the cyclic AMP binding site of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) of Escherichia coli have been constructed by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. They have been phenotypically characterized and their ability to enhance the expression of catabolite-repressible operons has been tested. In addition, the binding of cyclic nucleotides to the mutants has been investigated. It is shown that the six mutants made fall into one of three classes: (i) those that bind cyclic AMP better than the wild type protein (Ser-62----Ala) and result in greater transcription enhancement; (ii) those that bind cyclic AMP similarly to wild type (Ser-83----Ala, Ser-83----Lys, Thr-127----Ala, Ser-129----Ala); and (iii) those that do not bind cyclic AMP at all (Arg-82----Leu). Implications of these findings with respect to present models of the cyclic nucleotide binding pocket of CRP are discussed. Images Fig. 1.

Gronenborn, A M; Sandulache, R; Gartner, S; Clore, G M

1988-01-01

120

Effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ in rat skin  

SciTech Connect

The effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ in rat skin were investigated using (/sup 125/I) bovine serum albumin (/sup 125/I-BSA). Forskolin, forskolin 7-ethyl carbonate and 7-desacetylforskolin, which are potent activators of adenylate cyclase, greatly potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited the prostaglandin E/sub 1/-induced response. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ZK 627ll, dipyridamole, HL 725, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited and prostaglandin E/sub 1/-induced response. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the doses of 0.01 to 1 ..mu..g potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation, but had no effect at doses of 10 and 100 ..mu..g. 8-bromo cyclic AMP at all doses significantly inhibited the prostaglandin E/sub 1/-induced response. The results suggest that the effects of forskolin and its analogs on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ in rat skin derive from activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems.

Sugio, K.; Daly, J.W.

1984-01-09

121

Relaxing and inotropic effects of cyclic AMP on skinned cardiac cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE positive inotropic effect of catecholamines in cardiac muscle is assumed to result from an increase in the intracellular level of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate)1,2. Cyclic AMP may enhance the contraction by increasing the trans-sarcolemmal flux of Ca2+ during the plateau of the action potential3,4, but the flux seems insufficient to activate directly the myofilaments and it is generally assumed

Alexandre Fabiato; Francoise Fabiato

1975-01-01

122

Accumulations of cyclic AMP and inositol phosphates in guinea pig cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes: enhancement by agents acting at sodium channels.  

PubMed

Activation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine in guinea pig cortical synaptoneurosomes augments accumulations of cyclic AMP elicited by 2-chloroadenosine and concomitantly increases formation of inositol phosphates. Various agents that affect calcium channels or sites of action of calcium have little or no effect on cyclic AMP accumulation elicited either with 2-chloroadenosine, or with a 2-chloroadenosine/norepinephrine combination, nor did they markedly affect formation of inositol phosphates elicited by norepinephrine. However, EGTA reduces both cyclic AMP accumulation and inositol phosphate formation. Agents such as batrachotoxin, scorpion (Leiurus) venom and pumiliotoxin B that are active at voltage-dependent sodium channels enhance accumulations of cyclic AMP and inositol phosphates. These effects are blocked by tetrodotoxin. It is proposed that enhanced influx of sodium ions increases phosphatidylinositol metabolism, resulting in formation of diacylglycerols and inositol phosphates, and that the former, through activation of protein kinase, causes an enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulations in brain tissue. PMID:2425852

Hollingsworth, E B; Sears, E B; de la Cruz, R A; Gusovsky, F; Daly, J W

1986-08-01

123

Effects of cyclic AMP and analogues on neurogenic transmission in the rat tail artery.  

PubMed Central

1 The effects of two 8-substituted analogues of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) were compared with those of forskolin and isoprenaline on [3H]-noradrenaline release and vasoconstriction induced by electrical field stimulation (24 pulses at 0.4 Hz, 200 mA, 0.3 ms duration) in the rat tail artery, in the absence and in the presence of protein kinase inhibitors. 2 8-Bromo-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-bromo-cyclic AMP, 10-300 microM), 8-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)-adenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (8-pCPT-cyclic AMP, 3-300 microM), forskolin (0.3-10 microM) and isoprenaline (1 nM-1 microM) all concentration-dependently enhanced stimulation-induced [3H]-noradrenaline release. The effect of cyclic AMP analogues was larger (2.5 fold at 300 microM) than those of cyclic AMP elevating drugs (1.6 fold at 10 microM for forskolin and 1.5 fold at 30 nM for isoprenaline). 3 At concentrations active at the prejunctional level, the four drugs had differential effects on stimulation-induced vasoconstriction, which was enhanced by the two cyclic AMP analogues, decreased by forskolin and not significantly altered by isoprenaline. 4 The [3H]-noradrenaline release-enhancing effects of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, forskolin and isoprenaline were significantly decreased by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor (N-[2-((3-(4-bromophenyl)-2-propenyl)-amino)-ethyl]-5- isoquinolinesulphonamide, di-hydrochloride) (H-89; 100 nM). By contrast they were unaffected by the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor, 8-bromo-guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-8-bromo-cyclic GMPS; 10 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Ouedraogo, S.; Stoclet, J. C.; Bucher, B.

1994-01-01

124

Enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation mediated by 5-HT after chronic amitriptyline treatment in NG 108-15 cells.  

PubMed

1. The effects of chronic in vitro administration of amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor-mediated adenylyl cyclase activity was studied in the neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell line, NG 108-15. 2. Treatment of NG 108-15 cells with 8 microM amitriptyline for 3 days increased forskolin-stimulated (0.1 microM) adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation. Addition of 5-HT (0.1-100 microM) increased forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, 5-HT did not affect forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in untreated cells. 3. The 5-HT4 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine, significantly enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells. In contrast, amitriptyline treatment failed to modify 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine) tetralin-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. 4. Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin did not affect the 5-HT-induced enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation. 5. The 5-HT-induced enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells was attenuated by the 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, GR 113808 and ICS 205-930, with relatively low potency. However, spiperone, SCH 23390, and pindolol were completely ineffective against this 5-HT-induced enhancement. 6. Chronic treatment with amitriptyline did not modify the cyclic AMP production stimulated by prostaglandin E1 or cholera toxin. This treatment also had no effect on GTP gamma S-, NaF-, and Mn(2+)-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated cell membranes. 7. Chronic treatment with the 5-HT receptor antagonists, pindolol or ICS 205-930, did not inhibit the 5-HT-induced enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation.8. Chronic treatment with other antidepressant drugs, imipramine, mianserin or paroxetine, elicited the 5-HT-induced enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation.9. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic amitriptyline treatment of NG 108-15 cells causes 5-HT to enhance forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation by enhancing 5-HT receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and not by reducing 5-HT-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. The 5-HT-induced enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells may result from changes at the level of the 5-HT receptor rather than at the level of G, proteins or adenylyl cyclase. It is unlikely that this enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation is caused by long-term antagonism of the 5-HT receptor by amitriptyline. PMID:7620719

Shimizu, M; Nishida, A; Fukuda, H; Saito, H; Yamawaki, S

1995-03-01

125

mXBP/CRE-BP2 and c-Jun form a complex which binds to the cyclic AMP, but not to the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, response element.  

PubMed Central

Proto-oncogene products c-Fos and c-Jun form a complex which binds with high affinity to the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) response DNA element and which stimulates transcription of phorbol ester- inducible genes. We have previously identified, by screening a lambda gt11 expression library, murine protein mXBP, which binds to a sequence which overlaps the 3' end of the murine class II major histocompatibility complex A alpha gene X box, a conserved transcription element found upstream of all class II genes. Here, we demonstrate that the target sequence for mXBP is a consensus cyclic AMP response element (CRE). mXBP is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins and has significant homology to oncoproteins c-Fos and c-Jun. The inferred amino acid sequence of mXBP shows near identity to human CRE-BP1, except it does not contain an internal proline-rich domain. Immunoprecipitation and glutaraldehyde cross-linking studies show that mXBP/CRE-BP2 can form a complex with c-Jun. Complex formation is dependent on intact leucine zipper domains in both proteins. mXBP-c-Jun complexes can coexist with c-Fos-c-Jun complexes and can bind with high affinity to CRE, but not to TPA response DNA element, sequences. These results suggest that changes in the expression of mXBP/CRE-BP2, c-Fos, and c-Jun, which alter the ratio of mXBP-c-Jun to c-Fos-c-Jun complexes, would affect the relative expression of cyclic AMP and phorbol ester-responsive genes. This provides support for a combinatorial model of gene regulation, whereby protein-protein interactions which alter the DNA binding specificity of protein complexes can expand the flexibility of cellular transcriptional responses. Images

Ivashkiv, L B; Liou, H C; Kara, C J; Lamph, W W; Verma, I M; Glimcher, L H

1990-01-01

126

The promoter-regulatory region of the major immediate-early gene of human cytomegalovirus responds to T-lymphocyte stimulation and contains functional cyclic AMP-response elements.  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have demonstrated that a small proportion of blood lymphocytes from patients with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection express only the viral immediate-early (IE) genes (L. Einhorn and A. Ost, J. Infect. Dis. 149:207-214, 1984; G. P. A. Rice, R. D. Schrier, and M. B. A. Oldstone, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:6134-6138, 1984). The present studies demonstrate that the IE genes of HCMV are transcribed in Jurkat cells (T lymphocytes) only after activation of the cells with mitogens. Transcription of the IE genes is from an upstream enhancer promoter-regulatory region containing several different repeated sequence motifs. Chimeric plasmids were constructed with just a single copy or three copies of a synthetic oligonucleotide sequence of either the 16-, 18-, 19-, or 21-base-pair (bp) repeat elements upstream of the minimal wild-type promoter sequence to drive expression of the indicator gene, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). The 18- or 19-bp motifs in the enhancer region were found to be important in mediating the effect of the mitogens. However, the CAT activity detected with the 19-bp repeat was always significantly higher than that found with the 18-bp repeat. There was an additive effect by multiple copies of the 18- or 19-bp repeat sequences on gene expression. The 19-bp repeat contains a sequence identical to that described for a cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element, and plasmids containing only this sequence and the minimal promoter sequences upstream of the CAT gene respond to agents which increase intracellular cAMP. Functional cAMP response elements are present in the wild-type promoter-regulatory region and are associated with the 19-bp repeat sequences. It is proposed that activation of lymphocytes results in expression of the IE genes of HCMV, in part via the activation of cellular trans-acting factors which interact with the 18- and 19-bp motifs in the HCMV IE promoter-regulatory region. The 19-bp repeat is the major contributor to the strength of this enhancer-containing promoter-regulatory region. Images

Hunninghake, G W; Monick, M M; Liu, B; Stinski, M F

1989-01-01

127

Plasma membrane cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation system in L6 myoblasts.  

PubMed

Plasma membranes can be isolated without disruption of cells by the plasma membrane vesiculation technique (Scott, R.E. (1976) Science 194, 743-745). A major advantage of this technique is that it avoids contamination of plasma membranes with intracellular membrane components. Using this method, we prepared plasma membranes from L6 myoblasts grown in tissue culture and studied the characteristics of the protein phosphorylation system. We found that these plasma membrane preparations contain protein kinase which is tightly bound to the membrane and cannot be removed by washing in EDTA or in high ionic strength salt solutions. This protein kinase activity can catalyze the phosphorylation of several exogenous substrates with decreasing efficiency as acceptors of phosphate: calf thymus histones f2b, protamine and caseine. Cyclic AMP causes a dose-dependent stimulation of protein kinase activity; the highest stimulation (4-fold) is achieved at concentration 10(-5) M cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP-dependent stimulation can be completely inhibited by heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. On the other hand, cyclic GMP does not affect the activity of protein kinase. Plasma membrane-bound protein kinase also catalyzes the phosphorylation of endogenous membrane protein substrates and this is also stimulated by addition of cyclic AMP. Analysis of plasma membrane proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that specific polypeptides are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent and by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase systems. The results of these studies demonstrate the presence of endogenous cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent protein phosphorylating systems (enzyme activity and substrates) in purified plasma membrane preparations. These data provide a basis for further investigations on the role of plasma membrane phosphorylation as a regulator of membrane functions including those that may control cellular differentiation. PMID:207325

Scott, R E; Dousa, T P

1978-06-01

128

Salivary gland ultrastructure and cyclic AMP-dependent reactions in Spacelab 3 rats  

SciTech Connect

Environmental stimuli influencing catecholamine levels induce changes in cyclic AMP-dependent reactions and cell morphology in the rat parotid. Responses of salivary glands to spaceflight were determined by measurement of cyclic AMP-mediated reactions in fresh-frozen salivary glands and by microscopic evaluation of ultrastructure in fixed parotid glands. Decreased cell-free protein phosphorylation, determined by autoradiography, occurred in parotid glands in three of five flight animals. Protein kinase activity ratios were decreased in the soluble and increased in the particulate fractions of Spacelab 3 (SL-3) rat sublingual glands, compared with ground controls. Biochemical analyses show that effects of space flight on salivary glands are similar to those induced experimentally by physiological manipulation or alteration of catecholamine levels. Morphological evaluation of three SL-3 rat parotid glands showed increased numbers of lysosomes, autophagic vacuoles containing degenerating secretory product, and accumulation of lipid droplets. Since these animals lost weight, consistent with disruption of food and water consumption, morphological changes may in part be due to decreased masticatory stimulation, as occurs with reduced food intake or a liquid diet. The observed changes may reflect physiological responses of the gastrointestinal and autonomic systems to effects of spaceflight.

Mednieks, M.I.; Hand, A.R.

1987-02-01

129

Regulation of Cyclic GMP, Cyclic amp and Lactate Dehydrogenase by Putative Neutrotransmitters in the C6 Rat Glioma Cell Line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In C6 cells norepinephrine and dopamine caused transient increases in cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP, as well as an induction of lactate dehydrogenase. All of these responses were blocked by 1-propranolol, suggesting mediation by a beta -receptor. Phentolamine...

J. E. Bottenstein J. de Vellis

1977-01-01

130

Enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation mediated by 5-HT after chronic amitriptyline treatment in NG 108-15 cells.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of chronic in vitro administration of amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor-mediated adenylyl cyclase activity was studied in the neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell line, NG 108-15. 2. Treatment of NG 108-15 cells with 8 microM amitriptyline for 3 days increased forskolin-stimulated (0.1 microM) adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation. Addition of 5-HT (0.1-100 microM) increased forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, 5-HT did not affect forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in untreated cells. 3. The 5-HT4 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine, significantly enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells. In contrast, amitriptyline treatment failed to modify 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine) tetralin-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. 4. Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin did not affect the 5-HT-induced enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation. 5. The 5-HT-induced enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells was attenuated by the 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, GR 113808 and ICS 205-930, with relatively low potency. However, spiperone, SCH 23390, and pindolol were completely ineffective against this 5-HT-induced enhancement. 6. Chronic treatment with amitriptyline did not modify the cyclic AMP production stimulated by prostaglandin E1 or cholera toxin. This treatment also had no effect on GTP gamma S-, NaF-, and Mn(2+)-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated cell membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Shimizu, M; Nishida, A; Fukuda, H; Saito, H; Yamawaki, S

1995-01-01

131

Genetic characterization of transactivation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 promoter: Binding of Tax to Tax-responsive element 1 is mediated by the cyclic AMP-responsive members of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors.  

PubMed Central

To achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of transactivation by Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax-responsive element 1 (TRE-1), we developed a genetic approach with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a yeast reporter strain containing the lacZ gene under the control of the CYC1 promoter associated with three copies of TRE-1. Expression of either the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) or CREB fused to the GAL4 activation domain (GAD) in this strain did not modify the expression of the reporter gene. Tax alone was also inactive. However, expression of the reporter gene was induced by coexpression of Tax and CREB. This effect was stronger with the GAD-CREB fusion protein. Analysis of different CREB mutants with this genetic system indicated that the C-terminal 92 amino acid residues, which include the basic domain and the leucine zipper, are necessary and sufficient to mediate transactivation by Tax. To identify cellular proteins binding to TRE-1 in a Tax-dependent manner, this strain was also used to screen a library of human cDNAs fused to GAD. Of five positive clones isolated from 0.75 x 10(6) yeast colonies, four were members of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF) family: CREB, two isoforms of the cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and ATF-1. Interestingly, these three proteins can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A and thus form a particular subgroup within the CREB/ATF family. Expression of ATF-2 in S. cerevisiae did not activate TRE-1 in the presence of Tax. This shows that in a eukaryotic nucleus, Tax specifically interacts with the basic domain-leucine zipper region of ATF-1, CREB, and CREM. The fifth clone identified in this screening corresponded to the Ku autoantigen p70 subunit. When fused to GAD, the C-terminal region of Ku was able to activate transcription via TRE-1 but this activation was not dependent on Tax.

Bantignies, F; Rousset, R; Desbois, C; Jalinot, P

1996-01-01

132

Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP concentrations in serum- and density-restricted fibroblast cultures.  

PubMed Central

Mouse fibroblasts transformed by simian virus 40 (SV3T3 cells) are characterized by cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels, respectively, about half and twice those found in growing untransformed 3T3 cells. Density-dependent inhibition of growth is correlated with reduced cyclic GMP concentrations in 3T3 and four different density-restricted revertant lines derived from SV3T3. The levels of cyclic AMP are not increased at confluence. Upon serum restriction, serum-dependent cell lines show a greater increase in intracellular cAMP than serum-insensitive lines. Cyclic GMP levels are greatly reduced, even in serum-insensitive density revertants, but not in SV3T3. Serum readdition to all serum-dependent lines is followed by a rapid decrease in cyclic AMP and increase in cyclic GMP concentrations. The magnitude of these responses is decreased in SV3T3 and density revertants.

Moens, W; Vokaer, A; Kram, R

1975-01-01

133

Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP concentrations in serum- and density-restricted fibroblast cultures.  

PubMed

Mouse fibroblasts transformed by simian virus 40 (SV3T3 cells) are characterized by cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels, respectively, about half and twice those found in growing untransformed 3T3 cells. Density-dependent inhibition of growth is correlated with reduced cyclic GMP concentrations in 3T3 and four different density-restricted revertant lines derived from SV3T3. The levels of cyclic AMP are not increased at confluence. Upon serum restriction, serum-dependent cell lines show a greater increase in intracellular cAMP than serum-insensitive lines. Cyclic GMP levels are greatly reduced, even in serum-insensitive density revertants, but not in SV3T3. Serum readdition to all serum-dependent lines is followed by a rapid decrease in cyclic AMP and increase in cyclic GMP concentrations. The magnitude of these responses is decreased in SV3T3 and density revertants. PMID:165482

Moens, W; Vokaer, A; Kram, R

1975-03-01

134

An AP-2 element acts synergistically with the cyclic AMP- and Phorbol ester-inducible enhancer of the human proenkephalin gene  

SciTech Connect

An enhancer with two DNA elements, one containing the sequence CGTCA, is required for cyclic AMP-and phorbol ester-inducible transcription of the human proenkephalin gene. The authors report that an AP-2 element located adjacent to the enhancer acts synergistically with it to confer maximal response to cyclic AMP and phorbol esters.

Hyman, S.E.; Comb, M.; Pearlberg, J.; Goodman, H.M.

1989-01-01

135

Chloride permeability regulation via a cyclic AMP pathway in cultured human sweat duct cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Isolated coiled reabsorptive sweat ducts from normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were cultured in vitro. Cells were harvested and plated onto permeable supports to form confluent cell sheets. The Ussing chamber technique was used to study pharmacological regulation of the transepithelial ion transport in these membranes. 2. Addition of a stable cyclic AMP analogue, 8-Br-cyclic AMP, to normal cell cultures resulted in a decrease of the transepithelial potential difference (PD). 3. Forskolin exposure resulted in a similar PD decrease, which was augmented by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). 4. Exposure to isoprenaline, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and phenylephrine resulted in a response mimicking the forskolin-induced response, that was also amplified by IBMX. 5. Pre-incubation with cholera toxin abolished the isoprenaline response and reduced the control resistance. 6. Propranolol abolished the responses induced by isoprenaline and phenylephrine, whereas phentolamine had no effect. PGE2-induced responses were inert to both types of blockers. 7. Indomethazine addition to an unstimulated membrane resulted in a weak PD increase, i.e. a response opposite to that induced by isoprenaline. 8. IBMX addition to an unstimulated membrane resulted in a weak isoprenaline-like response. When the cells were pre-treated with indomethazine this IBMX response was absent. 9. Unidirectional Cl- isotope flux studies demonstrated a large increase of net Cl- reabsorption in response to isoprenaline and PGE2. 10. Mannitol isotope flux studies revealed that the paracellular permeability was unaffected by isoprenaline exposure. 11. Membranes derived from CF patients did not respond similarly to any of these agents. However, a weak spike, occasionally followed by a gradual increase of the short-circuit current (Iscc), was observed in both normal subjects and CF patients. 12. It is concluded that the primary effect on ion transport of factors increasing the cyclic AMP in normal cultured sweat duct cells is an activation of a transcellular Cl- permeability. This effect was missing in cells derived from CF patients.

Pedersen, P S

1990-01-01

136

Induction of Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE1) activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and by the selective overexpression of protein kinase C isoforms.  

PubMed Central

The cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity of CHO cells was unaffected by the addition of Ca2+ +calmodulin (CaM), indicating the absence of any PDE1 (Ca2+/CaM-stimulated PDE) activity. Treatment with the tumour promoting phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) led to the rapid transient induction of PDE1 activity which attained a maximum value after about 13 h before slowly decreasing. Such induction was attenuated by actinomycin D. PCR primers were designed to hybridize with two regions identified as being characteristic of PDE1 forms found in various species and predicted to amplify a 601 bp fragment. RT-PCR using degenerate primers allowed an approx. 600 bp fragment to be amplified from RNA preparations of rat brain but not from CHO cells unless they had been treated with PMA. CHO cells transfected to overexpress protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and PKC-epsilon, but not those transfected to overexpress PKC-beta I or PKC-gamma, exhibited a twofold higher PDE activity. They also expressed a PDE1 activity, with Ca2+/CaM effecting a 1.8-2.8-fold increase in total PDE activity. RT-PCR, with PDE1-specific primers, identified an approx. 600 bp product in CHO cells transfected to overexpress PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon, but not in those overexpressing PKC-beta I or PKC-gamma. Treatment of PKC-alpha transfected cells with PMA caused a rapid, albeit transient, increase in PDE1 activity, which reached a maximum some 1 h after PMA challenge, before returning to resting levels some 2 h later. The residual isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX)-insensitive PDE activity was dramatically reduced (approx. 4-fold) in the PKC-gamma transfectants, suggesting that the activity of the cyclic AMP-specific IBMX-insensitive PDE7 activity was selectively reduced by overexpression of this particular PKC isoform. These data identify a novel point of 'cross-talk' between the lipid and cyclic AMP signalling systems where the action of specific PKC isoforms is shown to cause the induction of Ca2+/CaM-stimulated PDE (PDE1) activity. It is suggested that this protein kinase C-mediated process might involve regulation of PDE1 gene expression by the AP-1 (fos/jun) system. Images Figure 3 Figure 4

Spence, S; Rena, G; Sweeney, G; Houslay, M D

1995-01-01

137

Effect of adenosine receptor agonists and other compounds on cyclic AMP accumulation in forskolin-treated hippocampal slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The effect of adenosine analogues and some putative neurotransmitters have been studied on cyclic AMP accumulation in rat hippocampal slices treated with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin.2.The effects of PGE2 and histamine were potentiated by forskolin (0.1 µM). Isoprenaline and NECA had essentially additive effects with 0.1 µM forskolin and serotonin (above 10-4 M) inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation.3.The A1-adenosine

Bertil B. Fredholm; Bror Jonzon; Karin Lindström

1986-01-01

138

Stress-induced increase of extracellular levels of cyclic AMP in rat cortex.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that stress may increase levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the brain but these findings have been controversial due to the use of stressful procedures to inactivate brain enzymes. The present experiment therefore used a non-stressful technique, microdialysis, to assay extracellular levels of cAMP in the rat cortex after stress. Experiments were conducted 2 days after implantation of probes in the frontal cortex. Significant increases were found after the mild stressors of restraint or intraperitoneal injection of saline suggesting that increased tissue levels of cAMP had occurred. These responses were potentiated by local infusion of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, rolipram. It is concluded that one or more adenylate cyclase-coupled receptors in the cortex is activated by mild stress and that this activation can be detected in vivo by microdialysis. PMID:1335818

Stone, E A; John, S M

1992-11-27

139

Dibutyryl cyclic AMP-induced enhancement of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 expression and its possible relation to the invasive activity of the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5.  

PubMed

The effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) on tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase (TIMP) expression were studied in the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5 with relation to the invasive activity of the cells. Messenger RNA expression levels of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9, and TIMP-1, 2 and 3 in the cells were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MMP-9 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression were not detectable in the cells with or without DBcAMP treatment. Relative MMP-2 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression levels in the cells were not affected by DBcAMP, whereas TIMP-3 mRNA expression was enhanced by DBcAMP. This stimulatory effect of DBcAMP on TIMP-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA and intracellular protein levels by Northern and Western blotting, respectively. Invasive activity of PLC/PRF/5 cells was determined using the in vitro Matrigel (extracellular matrix extract) invasion model. DBcAMP inhibited the invasive activity of the cells, and this effect was eliminated by addition of an antisense oligonucleotides corresponding to TIMP-3 mRNA. These results suggested that TIMP-3 expression is enhanced by DBcAMP and may play a role in inhibition of the invasive activity of hepatoma cells. PMID:10697530

Okamoto, Y; Nakano, H

1999-01-01

140

Induction of the nag regulon of Escherichia coli by N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine: role of the cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein complex in expression of the regulon.  

PubMed

The divergent nag regulon located at 15.5 min on the Escherichia coli map encodes genes necessary for growth on N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine. Full induction of the regulon requires both the presence of N-acetylglucosamine and a functional cyclic AMP (cAMP)-catabolite activator protein (CAP) complex. Glucosamine produces a lower level of induction of the regulon. A nearly symmetric consensus CAP-binding site is located in the intergenic region between nagE (encoding EIINag) and nagB (encoding glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase). Expression of both nagE and nagB genes is stimulated by cAMP-CAP, but the effect is more pronounced for nagE. In fact, very little expression of nagE is observed in the absence of cAMP-CAP, whereas 50% maximum expression of nagB is observed with N-acetylglucosamine in the absence of cAMP-CAP. Two mRNA 5' ends separated by about 100 nucleotides were located before nagB, and both seem to be similarly subject to N-acetylglucosamine induction and cAMP-CAP stimulation. To induce the regulon, N-acetylglucosamine or glucosamine must enter the cell, but the particular transport mechanism used is not important. PMID:2158978

Plumbridge, J A

1990-05-01

141

Cyclic-AMP and bacterial cyclic-AMP receptor proteins revisited: adaptation for different ecological niches?  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli cyclic-AMP receptor protein (CRP) represents one of the paradigms of bacterial gene regulation. Yet despite decades of intensive study, new information continues to emerge that prompts reassessment of this classic regulatory system. Moreover, in recent years CRPs from several other bacterial species have been characterized, allowing the general applicability of the CRP paradigm to be tested. Here the properties of the E. coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pseudomonas putida CRPs are considered in the context of the ecological niches occupied by these bacteria. It appears that the cyclic-AMP-CRP regulatory system has been adapted to respond to distinct external and internal inputs across a broad sensitivity range that is, at least in part, determined by bacterial lifestyles.

Green, Jeffrey; Stapleton, Melanie R; Smith, Laura J; Artymiuk, Peter J; Kahramanoglou, Christina; Hunt, Debbie M; Buxton, Roger S

2014-01-01

142

Transcriptional regulation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene by glucocorticoid and cyclic AMP  

SciTech Connect

Glucocorticoid and cyclic AMP increase tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and mRNA levels in pheochromocytoma cultures. The transcriptional activity of the TH gene, as measured by nuclear run-on assay, is also increased when cultures are treated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone or agents that increase intracellular cyclic AMP, such as forskolin and 8-BrcAMP. Both inducers effect transcriptional changes within 10 min after treatment and are maximal after 30 min for forskolin and after 60 min for dexamethasone. The 5' flanking sequences of the TH gene were fused to the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and the hybrid gene was transfected into pheochromocytoma cultures and GH/sub 4/ pituitary cells. In both cell lines, a region of the TH gene containing bases -272 to +27 conferred induction of CAT by cyclic AMP, but not by glucocorticoid. The same results were found when a region of the TH gene containing -773 to + 27 was used. Thus, the sequences required for induction of TH by cyclic AMP are contained within 272 bases of 5' flanking sequence, but sequences sufficient for glucocorticoid regulation are not contained with 773 bases.

Lewis, E.J.; Harrington, C.A.; Chikaraishi, D.M.

1987-06-01

143

Earl Sutherland (1915-1974) [corrected] and the discovery of cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

In 1945, Earl Sutherland (1915-1974) [corrected] and associates began studies of the mechanism of hormone-induced glycogen breakdown in the liver. In 1956, their efforts culminated in the identification of cyclic AMP, an ancient molecule generated in many cell types in response to hormonal and other extracellular signals. Cyclic AMP, the original "second messenger," transmits such signals through pathways that regulate a diversity of cellular functions and capabilities: metabolic processes such as lipolysis and glycogenolysis; hormone secretion; the permeability of ion channels; gene expression; cell proliferation and survival. Indeed, it can be argued that the discovery of cyclic AMP initiated the study of intracellular signaling pathways, a major focus of contemporary biomedical inquiry. This review presents relevant details of Sutherland's career; summarizes key contributions of his mentors, Carl and Gerti Cori, to the knowledge of glycogen metabolism (contributions that were the foundation for his own research); describes the experiments that led to his identification, isolation, and characterization of cyclic AMP; assesses the significance of his work; and considers some aspects of the impact of cyclic nucleotide research on clinical medicine. PMID:22643761

Blumenthal, Stanley A

2012-01-01

144

Forskolin enhancement of acetylcholine-evoked cyclic AMP formation and catecholamine release in perfused dog adrenals.  

PubMed

Unstimulated efflux of cyclic AMP from perfused dog adrenal glands was not altered by 0.1 microM of forskolin and was slightly increased by 0.3 and 1.0 microM of forskolin. ACh stimulated efflux of cyclic AMP which preceded CA release and the efflux was dose-dependently enhanced by forskolin. Forskolin did not affect the spontaneous CA release but enhanced ACh-evoked catecholamine (CA) release. There was a close correlation between the dose relationship of forskolin enhancement of stimulated-cyclic AMP efflux and that of evoked-CA release. ACh-evoked CA release in the presence of forskolin was further potentiated by R020-1724, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. CA release evoked by excess K+, or by caffeine in the presence or absence of external Ca2+ was also potentiated by forskolin. These results suggests that cyclic AMP generation may increase in response to stimulation of adrenal chromaffin cells and that the resulting increase of the nucleotide may function as a facilitating modulator of CA release. PMID:3023549

Dohi, T; Morita, K; Kitayama, S; Tsujimoto, A

1986-01-01

145

Regulation of depolarization-dependent release of neurotransmitters by adenosine: cyclic AMP-dependent enhancement of release from PC12 cells.  

PubMed

We have used pheochromocytoma cells, clone PC12, as a model system for studying the effects of adenosine on neurosecretion. Exposure of the cells to adenosine or 2-chloroadenosine caused immediate activation of adenylate cyclase, increases in cellular cyclic AMP content, and inhibition of SAM-dependent phospholipid N-methylation and protein carboxymethylation. However, the effects on methylation were only observed with concentrations of adenosine 100 times greater than those that elevated cyclic AMP. Exposure of the cells to adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine did not alter the release of [3H]norepinephrine [(3H]NE) in the absence of depolarization. However, depolarization-dependent release of [3H]NE was markedly elevated by short (1-20 min) pretreatments with adenosine or 2-chloroadenosine. The enhancement of release was observed irrespective of the nature of the depolarizing stimulus (elevated K+, carbamylcholine, or veratridine). Release of [3H]acetylcholine in response to elevated K+ also was increased by adenosine pretreatment. These effects of adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine on neurotransmitter release closely paralleled elevation of cellular cyclic AMP but not inhibition of methylation. Taken together, the results show that adenosine, probably acting through adenosine receptors coupled to stimulation of adenylate cyclase, is able to modulate the neurosecretory process in PC12 cells. Furthermore, the enhancement of release occurred even though the extent of depolarization (measured as 86Rb+ flux through the acetylcholine receptor channel) and the amount of 45Ca2+ which entered upon depolarization were unchanged. Therefore, the enhancement of release produced by elevated cyclic AMP appeared to reflect increased efficiency of the stimulus-secretion coupling process. PMID:6139415

Rabe, C S; McGee, R

1983-12-01

146

Dose and time effects of estrogen on expression of neuron-specific protein and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and brain region volume in the medial amygdala of ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Although estrogen has been shown to be neuroprotective, studies concerning its effect on some behaviors are contradictory, reporting both ameliorative and detrimental effects. A factor involved in hormone efficacy is the estrogen regimen. We reported an effect of 10 microg estrogen for 14 days on the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in rat medial amygdala (MeA). To determine the effects of estrogen on neuronal numbers and brain region volume in MeA and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), we used stereology to test the effect of various estrogen regimens on the number of neuron-specific protein (NeuN)-labeled neurons and brain region volume of MeA and CeA. Ovariectomized rats were injected with vehicle for 14 days, 2.5 microg estradiol benzoate (E2) for 4 or 14 days, or 10 microg estrogen for 14 days. Because NeuN-labeled neuronal number may be related to neuronal survival and upregulation of CREB signaling, we tested the effect of these regimens on levels of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) labeling in the MeA and CeA. The 2.5 microg estrogen for 14 days regimen increased the mean number of NeuN-labeled neurons and pCREB-labeled cells in the MeA compared to vehicle or 2.5 microg for 4 days. There was an increase in volume of the MeA with 2.5 microg estrogen for 14 days compared to vehicle or 2.5 microg for 4 days. No differences in these parameters were seen in CeA. These data indicate a neuroanatomical heterogeneity of a time effect of estrogen on cells expressing NeuN and pCREB in the MeA versus CeA. PMID:18446018

Fan, Lu; Hanbury, Rose; Pandey, Subhash C; Cohen, Rochelle S

2008-01-01

147

GABAB receptor-mediated enhancement of vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated cyclic AMP production in slices of rat cerebral cortex.  

PubMed

Basal and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated accumulations of cyclic AMP were measured in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Neither gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) nor the selective GABAB receptor agonist (-)-baclofen stimulated basal cyclic AMP accumulation, whereas VIP caused a large dose-dependent increase in cyclic AMP levels. However, in the presence of 100 microM (-)-baclofen, the effects of VIP on cyclic AMP accumulation were significantly enhanced, with the responses to 1 microM and 10 microM VIP being approximately doubled. The enhancing effects of (-)-baclofen was dose related (1-1,000 microM), but an enhancing effect was not observed with 100 microM (+)-baclofen. In the presence of the GABA uptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (1 mM), GABA caused a similar dose-related enhancement of the VIP response. The ability of either GABA or (-)-baclofen to augment VIP-stimulated production of cyclic AMP was not mimicked by the GABAA, agonists isoguvacine and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) and was not antagonized by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. The putative GABAB antagonist 5-aminovaleric acid (1 mM) significantly reduced the effect of (-)-baclofen. The ability of (-)-baclofen to enhance VIP-stimulated accumulation of cyclic AMP was observed in slices of rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. These results indicate that GABA and (-)-baclofen can enhance VIP-stimulated accumulation of cyclic AMP in rat brain slices via an interaction with specific GABAB receptors. PMID:3009716

Watling, K J; Bristow, D R

1986-06-01

148

Multiple control of flagellum biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: role of H-NS protein and the cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein complex in transcription of the flhDC master operon.  

PubMed

Little is known about the molecular mechanism by which histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein and cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein (CAP) complex control bacterial motility. In the present paper, we show that crp and hns mutants are nonmotile due to a complete lack of flagellin accumulation. This results from a reduced expression in vivo of fliA and fliC, which encode the specific flagellar sigma factor and flagellin, respectively. Overexpression of the flhDC master operon restored, at least in part, motility in crp and hns mutant strains, suggesting that this operon is the main target for both regulators. Binding of H-NS and CAP to the regulatory region of the master operon was demonstrated by gel retardation experiments, and their DNA binding sites were identified by DNase I footprinting assays. In vitro transcription experiments showed that CAP activates flhDC expression while H-NS represses it. In agreement with this observation, the activity of a transcriptional fusion carrying the flhDC promoter was decreased in the crp strain and increased in the hns mutant. In contrast, the activity of a transcriptional fusion encompassing the entire flhDC regulatory region extending to the ATG translational start codon was strongly reduced in both hns and crp mutants. These results suggest that the region downstream of the +1 transcriptional start site plays a crucial role in the positive control by H-NS of flagellum biosynthesis in vivo. Finally, the lack of complementation of the nonmotile phenotype in a crp mutant by activation-deficient CAP mutated proteins and characterization of cfs, a mutation resulting in a CAP-independent motility behavior, demonstrate that CAP activates flhDC transcription by binding to its promoter and interacting with RNA polymerase. PMID:10601207

Soutourina, O; Kolb, A; Krin, E; Laurent-Winter, C; Rimsky, S; Danchin, A; Bertin, P

1999-12-01

149

Non-competitive antagonism of beta(2)-agonist-mediated cyclic AMP accumulation by ICI 118551 in BC3H1 cells endogenously expressing constitutively active beta(2)-adrenoceptors.  

PubMed

Constitutive activity of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor, which is sensitive to inhibition by an inverse agonist such as ICI 118551, has been readily demonstrated in recombinant systems expressing constitutively-active mutant receptors or over-expressing the wild-type beta(2)-adrenoceptor. Here we demonstrate the presence of constitutive beta(2)-adrenoceptor activity in BC3H1 cells which endogenously express this receptor. In BC3H1 cells, only ICI 118551 behaved as an inverse agonist at beta(2)-adrenoceptors, while propranolol, ICI 118551, atenolol and, to a lesser extent, alprenolol exhibited inverse agonism in CHO-beta(2)4 cells transfected with cDNA for the human beta(2)-adrenoceptor (310 fmol. mg protein(-1)). The level of expression of beta2-adrenoceptors in BC3H1 cells was not high (78 fmol.mg protein-1) and the efficiency of receptor - effector coupling in this cell line was much lower than in the recombinant CHO-beta(2)4 cells (as judged by the partial agonist nature of both salbutamol and clenbuterol). ICI 118551 (log K(D)-9.73+/-0.07) and propranolol (log K(D)-9.25+/-0.12) both behaved as conventional competitive antagonists of isoprenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in high expressing CHO-beta(2)4 cells. In contrast, ICI 118551 appeared to act as a non-competitive antagonist in BC3H1 cells and in low expressing CHO-beta(2)6 cells (50 fmol.mg protein(-1)). This non-competitive effect of ICI 118551 in BC3H1 cells was also observed when either salbutamol was used as agonist, or the incubation period with isoprenaline was extended to 30 min. The possibility that these effects of ICI 118551 are due to an interaction with different affinity states (R, R* and R') of the receptor is discussed. PMID:10960078

Hopkinson, H E; Latif, M L; Hill, S J

2000-09-01

150

21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

151

21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...overactivity of the parathyroid gland). Cyclic AMP measurements may also be used in the diagnosis and treatment of Graves' disease (a disorder of the thyroid) and in the differentiation of causes of hypercalcemia (elevated levels of serum...

2010-04-01

152

The ? opioid agonist morphine modulates potentiation of capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 responses through a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) is critical in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Several receptors including G-protein coupled prostaglandin receptors have been reported to functionally interact with the TRPV1 through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway to potentiate TRPV1-mediated capsaicin responses. Such regulation may have significance in inflammatory pain. However, few functional receptor interactions that inhibit PKA-mediated potentiation

Irina Vetter; Bruce D Wyse; Gregory R Monteith; Sarah J Roberts-Thomson; Peter J Cabot

2006-01-01

153

Tachykinins alter inositol phosphate formation, but not cyclic AMP levels, in primary cultures of neonatal rat spinal neurons through activation of neurokinin receptors.  

PubMed

The naturally occurring tachykinins, substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B, induce the formation of inositol phosphates or cAMP in a variety of tissues but their effects on neurons have not been resolved. We used primary cultures of neonatal rat spinal cord to determine whether neurokinin receptors mediate changes in these second messengers in spinal neurons. We found that substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B induced the formation of inositol phosphates in a concentration-dependent manner with similar potencies (EC50S: 3.6, 5.7 and 21.3 nM, respectively), but at concentrations tested (0.1-1.0 microM) these peptides had no effect on cAMP levels. All three tachykinins induced the formation of inositol phosphates predominately by activation of neurokinin1 receptors. CP-96,345 and WIN 51,708, neurokinin1 receptor antagonists, attenuated the response to substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B. GR 103,537, a neurokinin2 receptor antagonist, had no effect on the responses induced by any of the tachykinins. Furthermore, the selective neurokinin1 receptor agonist, GR-73632, induced the formation of inositol phosphates in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the selective neurokinin2 receptor agonist, GR-64349, generated inositol phosphates only at the highest concentration tested (10 microM). Senktide, a neurokinin3 receptor agonist, did not induce the formation of inositol phosphates at any of the concentrations tested (0.01-10 microM). Inositol phosphate formation appeared to be due to a direct effect of the tachykinins on neuronal neurokinin1 receptors. These results suggest that biological responses in spinal neurons following activation of neurokinin1 receptors are mediated mainly by the hydrolysis of phosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to form inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. It remains to be determined which of these second messengers mediates the increased neuronal excitability and depolarization that occurs in response to substance P. PMID:8577379

Parsons, A M; el-Fakahany, E E; Seybold, V S

1995-10-01

154

Overexpression of Inducible Cyclic AMP Early Repressor Inhibits Transactivation of Genes and Cell Proliferation in Pancreatic ? Cells  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional control mediated by the cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE) represents an important mechanism of gene regulation. To test our hypothesis that increased inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER) I? inhibits function of CRE-binding proteins and thus disrupts CRE-mediated transcription in pancreatic ? cells, we generated transgenic mice with ?-cell-directed expression of ICER I?, a powerful repressor that is greatly increased in diabetes. Three transgenic lines clearly show that increased ICER I? expression in ? cells results in early severe diabetes. From birth islets were severely disorganized with a significantly increased proportion of ? cells throughout the islet. Diabetes results from the combined effects of impaired insulin expression and a decreased number of ? cells. The decrease in ? cells appears to result from impaired proliferation rather than from increased apoptosis after birth. Cyclin A gene expression is impaired by the strong inhibition of ICER; the suppression of cyclin A results in a substantially decreased proliferation of ? cells in the postnatal period. These results suggest that CRE and CRE-binding factors have an important role in pancreatic ?-cell physiology not only directly by regulation of gene trans-activation but also indirectly by regulation of ?-cell mass.

Inada, Akari; Hamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Tsuura, Yoshiyuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ihara, Yu; Nagai, Koichiro; Yamada, Yuichiro; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Seino, Yutaka

2004-01-01

155

Cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) protein acts as a positive regulator of SOX3 gene expression in NT2/D1 cells.  

PubMed

SOX3 is one of the earliest neural markers in vertebrates, playing the role in specifying neuronal fate. In this study we have established first functional link between CREB and human SOX3 gene which both have important roles in the nervous system throughout development and in the adulthood. Here we demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that CREB binds to CRE half-site located -195 to -191 within the human SOX3 promoter. Overexpression studies with CREB or its dominant-negative inhibitor A-CREB indicate that this transcription factor acts as a positive regulator of basal SOX3 gene expression in NT2/D1 cells. This is further confirmed by mutational analysis where mutation of CREB binding site results in reduction of SOX3 promoter activity. Our results point at CREB as a positive regulator of SOX3 gene transcription in NT2/D1 cells, while its contribution to RA induction of SOX3 promoter is not prominent. PMID:24257117

Kovacevic-Grujicic, Natasa; Mojsin, Marija; Popovic, Jelena; Petrovic, Isidora; Topalovic, Vladanka; Stevanovic, Milena

2014-04-01

156

Salmeterol, a long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist mediating cyclic AMP accumulation in a neuronal cell line.  

PubMed Central

1. The accumulation of cyclic AMP stimulated by salmeterol, a long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist and by isoprenaline, a non-selective beta-adrenoceptor agonist have been compared in the B50 neuroblastoma cell line. 2. Salmeterol produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of total [3H]-cyclic AMP in B50 cells yielding an EC50 value of 37 nM which was lower than that obtained with isoprenaline (294 nM). The maximum response to salmeterol was only 46% of that obtained with isoprenaline. 3. The beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118551, inhibited the responses to both salmeterol (apparent KD 2.2 nM) and isoprenaline (apparent KD 1.6 nM). However, the beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, atenolol, produced no significant effect at concentrations up to 100 microM. 4. Salmeterol (1 microM) changed the concentration-response curve of isoprenaline in the manner of a partial agonist interacting with a full agonist. The KD of salmeterol obtained from the interaction was 55.6 nM. 5. Whereas salmeterol has a slow onset of action in airway smooth muscle compared to other beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, in B50 monolayers both salmeterol and isoprenaline produced a rapid increase in cyclic AMP accumulation (t1/2 1.1 min and 0.4 min respectively). 6. Despite the existence of cyclic AMP efflux mechanisms that exist in this cell line it was possible to investigate the duration of agonist action by measuring intracellular levels of the second messenger. Replacement of drug-containing medium with fresh buffer led to a rapid reduction in intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in isoprenaline-stimulated cells whereas cyclic AMP accumulation was sustained for much longer periods in salmeterol-stimulated cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

McCrea, K. E.; Hill, S. J.

1993-01-01

157

Essential roles of dopamine D4 receptors and the type 1 adenylyl cyclase in photic control of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells  

PubMed Central

Light and dopamine regulate many physiological functions in the vertebrate retina. Light exposure decreases cyclic AMP formation in photoreceptor cells. Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) activation promotes light adaptation and suppresses the light-sensitive pool of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells. The key signaling pathways involved in regulating cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells have not been identified. In the present study, we show that the light- and D4R-signaling pathways converge on the type 1 Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC1) to regulate cyclic AMP synthesis in photoreceptor cells. In addition, we present evidence that D4R activation tonically regulates the expression of AC1 in photoreceptors. In retinas of mice with targeted deletion of the gene (Adcy1) encoding AC1, cyclic AMP levels and Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity are markedly reduced, and cyclic AMP accumulation is unaffected by either light or D4R activation. Similarly, in mice with disruption of the gene (Drd4) encoding D4R, cyclic AMP levels in the dark-adapted retina are significantly lower compared to wild-type retina and are unresponsive to light. These changes in Drd4-/- mice were accompanied by significantly lower Adcy1 mRNA levels in photoreceptor cells and lower Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in retinal membranes compared with wild-type controls. Reduced levels of Adcy1 mRNA were also observed in retinas of wild-type mice treated chronically with a D4R antagonist, L-745,870. Thus, activation of D4R is required for normal expression of AC1 and for the regulation of its catalytic activity by light. These observations illustrate a novel mechanism for cross-talk between dopamine and photic signaling pathways regulating cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells.

Jackson, Chad R.; Chaurasia, Shyam S.; Zhou, Hong; Haque, Rashidul; Storm, Daniel R.

2009-01-01

158

Cellular regulation of basal and FSH-stimulated cyclic AMP production in irradiated rat testes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) productions by seminiferous tubular segments from irradiated adult rats were investigated at defined stages of the epithelial cycle when specific spermatogenic cells were low in number. Seven days post-irradiation, depletion of spermatogonia did not influence the basal cAMP production, but FSH response increased in stages II-VIII. Seventeen days post-irradiation when spermatocytes were

Marko Kangasniemi; Antti Kaipia; Jorma Toppari; Pekka Mali; Ilpo Huhtaniemi; Martti Parvinen

1990-01-01

159

Cyclic AMP Mediates Serotonin-Induced Synaptic Enhancement of Lateral Giant Interneuron of the Crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic AMP mediates serotonin-induced synaptic enhancement of lateral giant interneuron of the crayfish. J Neurophysiol 94: 2644-2652, 2005; doi:10.1152\\/jn.00502.2005. The lateral giant (LG)- mediated escape behavior of the crayfish habituates readily on repet- itive sensory stimulation. Recent studies suggested that the biogenic amines serotonin and octopamine modulate the time course of recov- ery and\\/or re-depression of the LG response after

Makoto Araki; Toshiki Nagayama; Jordanna Sprayberry

2005-01-01

160

The (R)-enantiomer of CE3F4 is a preferential inhibitor of human exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP isoform 1 (Epac1).  

PubMed

Isoform 1 and isoform 2 of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac1 and Epac2) contribute to cAMP signaling in numerous cellular processes. Their guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity toward the small GTP-binding protein Rap1 is stimulated by the agonist cAMP. CE3F4, a tetrahydroquinoline analog, prevents Epac1 activation in vitro and in living cultured cells by inhibiting the GEF activity of Epac1. However, the activity of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of CE3F4, as well as the ability of CE3F4 and its analogs to inhibit Epac2 GEF activity, have not yet been investigated. In this study, we report that (R)-CE3F4 is a more potent cAMP antagonist than racemic CE3F4 and (S)-CE3F4, inhibiting the GEF activity of Epac1 with 10-times more efficiency than (S)-CE3F4. Epac2, in contrast to Epac1, is activated more efficiently by cAMP than by 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (007), an Epac-selective cAMP analog. (R)-CE3F4 displays Epac isoform preference, with 10-fold selectivity for Epac1 over Epac2. Deletion of the N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of Epac2 does not affect the characteristics of activation of Epac2 by cAMP and by 007, nor its inhibition by CE3F4. Finally, the evaluation of a series of CE3F4 structural analogs as GEF inhibitors allowed identifying structural features that are important for high Epac1 inhibitory activity of CE3F4. We conclude that the (R)-enantiomer of CE3F4 is a preferential inhibitor of Epac1 with high potency in the low micromolar range, and we suggest that this compound may be a useful pharmacological tool for investigating the functional role of Epac1 in cAMP signaling. PMID:24099776

Courilleau, Delphine; Bouyssou, Pascal; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Blondeau, Jean-Paul

2013-10-25

161

Pituitary adenylate cyclase polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates cyclic AMP formation in pituitary fibroblasts and 3T3 tumor fibroblasts: lack of enhancement by protein kinase C activation.  

PubMed

A number of neuropeptides were shown to produce potent mitogenic effects on Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts by activating the phospholipase C pathway. Here we provide evidence for the activation by PACAP of the adenylate cyclase pathway in 3T3, as well as in non-tumoral pituitary fibroblasts, similarly to what was seen in pituitary endocrine cells. In these cells, PACAP triggered elevation of both intracellular and extracellular contents of cAMP and the effect was time- and dose-dependent, with half-maximal stimulations being induced with about 0.1 nM. Following activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), PACAP-induced cAMP production was amplified in pituitary endocrine cells, but was either unchanged or dampened in 3T3 and pituitary fibroblasts, respectively. Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin (PT) failed to change the effect of PMA on PACAP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, irrespective of the cell type being used. However, PT dramatically reduced the potentiation by PMA of cAMP production enhanced by forskolin in 3T3 cells. These results provide new evidence pointing to the presence in fibroblasts of receptors for PACAP, coupled to cAMP production, which may play a role in the modulation of the mitogenic signal. They also indicate that, compared with pituitary endocrine cells, PKC activation in fibroblasts differentially affected PACAP-induced cAMP formation and that these effects were unaltered upon inhibition by PT of Gi-like proteins. PMID:1280235

Koch, B; Lutz-Bucher, B

1992-09-01

162

Stimulation of GCMa Transcriptional Activity by Cyclic AMP\\/Protein Kinase A Signaling Is Attributed to CBP-Mediated Acetylation of GCMa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human GCMa is a zinc-containing transcription factor primarily expressed in placenta. GCMa regulates expression of syncytin gene, which encodes for a placenta-specific membrane protein that mediates tropho- blastic fusion and the formation of syncytiotrophoblast layer required for efficient fetal-maternal exchange of nutrients and oxygen. The adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulates syncytin gene expression and cell fusion in cultured placental cells.

Ching-Wen Chang; Hsiao-Ching Chuang; Chenchou Yu; Tso-Pang Yao; Hungwen Chen

2005-01-01

163

Selective precipitation of 32Pi onto filter papers. Application to ATPase and cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase determination.  

PubMed

A simple and selective method is described for the isolation of 32Pi based on the precipitation of the phosphomolybdate complex with triethylamine. Precipitation takes place on filter paper, which are then washed with a solution containing ammonium molybdate and triethylamine to remove other radioactive phosphates. Very large numbers of samples and very small sample volumes can be accommodated easily. The use of this method to measure ATPase and cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity is demonstrated. PMID:207336

Reimann, E M; Umfleet, R A

1978-04-12

164

Differential phosphorylation of multiple sites in protein 4. 1 and protein 4. 9 by phorbol ester-activated and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases  

SciTech Connect

The phosphorylation of the membrane skeleton components protein 4.1 and protein 4.9 in intact erythrocytes is shown to increase in the presence of either 1 microM 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate or 2 mM dibutyryl cAMP. The phosphorylation induced by these protein kinase activators is compared by two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping. In both proteins, the pattern of peptides phosphorylated in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate differs from the pattern of peptides phosphorylated in the presence of dibutyryl cAMP. The relative locations of the phosphorylated sites on protein 4.1 have been determined using limited proteolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin.

Horne, W.C.; Leto, T.L.; Marchesi, V.T.

1985-08-05

165

Enhancement of quantal transmitter release and mediatophore expression by cyclic AMP in fibroblasts loaded with acetylcholine.  

PubMed

Neuronal properties such as neurotransmitter uptake and release can be expressed in non-neuronal cells. We show here that fibroblasts-mouse cell line L-M(TK-)-are able to take up acetylcholine from the external medium and to release it in response to a calcium influx. Release was assessed biochemically by a luminescence method, but it was also elicited from individual fibroblasts and recorded in real-time using a Xenopus myocyte as an acetylcholine detector. After treatment for three to six days with dibutyryl-cyclic AMP, the cells changed their shape and acetylcholine release was greatly enhanced. Surprisingly, in differentiated fibroblasts the time-course transmitter release exhibited a high degree of variability even for the successive responses evoked from the same cell; many currents recorded in myocytes on electrical stimulation of fibroblasts had an extremely long duration (up to 1 s or more). This suggested that the release sites were kept open for a very long time. Cyclic AMP treatment also caused a marked increase in the expression of mediatophore 16,000 mol. wt proteolipid in fibroblast membranes. Mediatophore is an acetylcholine-translocating protein which is abundant in cholinergic presynaptic plasma membranes. It is concluded that cyclic AMP differentiation of fibroblasts prolongs the duration of acetylcholine release at individual sites and enhances the expression of the 16,000 mol. wt proteolipid-forming mediatophore. PMID:8931002

Falk-Vairant, J; Israel, M; Bruner, J; Stinnakre, J; Meunier, F M; Gaultier, P; Meunier, F A; Lesbats, B; Synguelakis, M; Correges, P; Dunant, Y

1996-11-01

166

Enhancement by dibutyryl cyclic AMP of voltage-dependent Ca2+ and K+ currents in the guinea-pig vas deferens.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate a possible role for intracellular cyclic AMP involved in agonist-induced changes in electrical activity of smooth muscle of the guinea-pig vas deferens. The action of dibutyryl adenosine 3', 5'-phosphate (dibutyryl cyclic AMP) (up to 30 microM) was examined in current- and voltage-clamp, using the double sucrose gap method. Under current-clamp, dibutyryl cyclic AMP clearly shortens the duration of action potential by hastening the rates of depolarization and of repolarization and increases the peak amplitude. Under voltage-clamp, dibutyryl cyclic AMP enhances the maximum ICa by increasing the conductance (ga), but without affecting its reversal potential (Ea) and kinetics in preparations in normal Krebs solution as well as in preparations in tetraethylammonium chloride loading solution. In normal Krebs solution, dibutyryl cyclic AMP also enhances the peak (Ib') and late outward K+ currents (Ib) by increasing the conductances (gb') and (gb), respectively. These results indicate that in vas deferens smooth muscle intracellular cyclic AMP may be of functional significance for activation of voltage-dependent peak and late IK channels as well as activation of voltage-dependent ICa channel. PMID:9130373

Ji, J J; Inomata, H

1996-12-01

167

The Cyclic AMP Phenotype of Fragile X and Autism  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger involved in many processes including mnemonic processing and anxiety. Memory deficits and anxiety are noted in the phenotype of fragile X (FX), the most common heritable cause of mental retardation and autism. Here we review reported observations of altered cAMP cascade function in FX and autism. Cyclic AMP is a potentially useful biochemical marker to distinguish autism comorbid with FX from autism per se and the cAMP cascade may be a viable therapeutic target for both FX and autism.

Kelley, Daniel J; Bhattacharyya, Anita; Lahvis, Garet P; Yin, Jerry CP; Malter, Jim; Davidson, Richard J

2008-01-01

168

Studies on the receptor mediating cyclic AMP-independent enhancement by adenosine of IgE-dependent mediator release from rat mast cells.  

PubMed Central

Adenosine produced a concentration-related enhancement of antigen-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from rat serosal mast cells. This potentiation was maximal following the simultaneous addition of adenosine with antigen. Enhancement of 5-HT release was accompanied by potentiation of the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) response to challenge. The cyclic AMP response, which was antagonized by 8-phenyltheophylline, was characterized as an A2-purinoceptor-mediated effect by the use of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine (NECA) and L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (L-PIA). Enhancement of 5-HT release, conversely, was not blocked by 8-phenyltheophylline suggesting it to be mediated by a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism. The effect of adenosine on 5-HT release was not reduced by the inhibition of the facilitated uptake of adenosine with dipyridamole, hexobendine or p-nitrobenzylthioguanosine, therefore, suggesting it to be mediated by a cell surface receptor. The receptor mediating enhancement of 5-HT does not appear to belong to the P2-purinoceptor subtype as adenosine was more potent than both adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and alpha, beta-methylene ATP was inactive. Furthermore, the effects of AMP were blocked by alpha, beta-methylene ADP, which inhibits the conversion of AMP to adenosine. Adenosine, NECA, L- and D-PIA were all of equal potency in enhancing 5-HT release. Inosine and 3-deazaadenosine were also active. The rank order of potency of these adenosine analogues is not consistent with an effect at A1- or A2-purinoceptors. There appear to be two adenosine receptors on rat mast cells, an A2-purinoceptor which stimulates adenylate cyclase and a separate purinoceptor, stimulation of which produces enhancement of mediator release by an unknown mechanism. The effects mediated by these receptors appear to be independent of each other.

Church, M. K.; Hughes, P. J.; Vardey, C. J.

1986-01-01

169

Studies on the receptor mediating cyclic AMP-independent enhancement by adenosine of IgE-dependent mediator release from rat mast cells.  

PubMed

Adenosine produced a concentration-related enhancement of antigen-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from rat serosal mast cells. This potentiation was maximal following the simultaneous addition of adenosine with antigen. Enhancement of 5-HT release was accompanied by potentiation of the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) response to challenge. The cyclic AMP response, which was antagonized by 8-phenyltheophylline, was characterized as an A2-purinoceptor-mediated effect by the use of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine (NECA) and L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (L-PIA). Enhancement of 5-HT release, conversely, was not blocked by 8-phenyltheophylline suggesting it to be mediated by a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism. The effect of adenosine on 5-HT release was not reduced by the inhibition of the facilitated uptake of adenosine with dipyridamole, hexobendine or p-nitrobenzylthioguanosine, therefore, suggesting it to be mediated by a cell surface receptor. The receptor mediating enhancement of 5-HT does not appear to belong to the P2-purinoceptor subtype as adenosine was more potent than both adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and alpha, beta-methylene ATP was inactive. Furthermore, the effects of AMP were blocked by alpha, beta-methylene ADP, which inhibits the conversion of AMP to adenosine. Adenosine, NECA, L- and D-PIA were all of equal potency in enhancing 5-HT release. Inosine and 3-deazaadenosine were also active. The rank order of potency of these adenosine analogues is not consistent with an effect at A1- or A2-purinoceptors. There appear to be two adenosine receptors on rat mast cells, an A2-purinoceptor which stimulates adenylate cyclase and a separate purinoceptor, stimulation of which produces enhancement of mediator release by an unknown mechanism. The effects mediated by these receptors appear to be independent of each other. PMID:2420400

Church, M K; Hughes, P J; Vardey, C J

1986-01-01

170

Alterations in Cyclic AMP Generation and G Protein Subunits Following Transient Ischemia inGerbil Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We examined alterations in the cyclic AMP generating system and G protein subunits in gerbil hippocampus following 10 min of transient ischemia. In hippo-campal slices, basal and isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulations were markedly increased at 6 and 24 h after ischemia. Interestingly, both the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP and the potentiation of ?-adrenoceptor-stimulated cyclic AMP by

Kazuhiko Suyama; Kuniaki Saito; Guang Chen; Bai-Shen Pan; Husseini K. Manji; William Z. Potter

1995-01-01

171

Development of new wound dressing composed of spongy collagen sheet containing dibutyryl cyclic AMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al though cyclic AMP has been considered to regulate cell proliferation, the mechanism of this function is largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that cyclic AMP promotes the proliferation of skin cells in a dose-dependent manner. An ointment containing dibutyryl cyclic AMP has been used in the treatment of skin ulcers and found to be effective in promoting tissue repair. To

Hirotatsu Shibata; Nobuyuki Shioya; Yoshimitsu Kuroyanagi

1997-01-01

172

A possible cyclic AMP-mediated regulation of microsomal fatty acyl-CoA desaturation system in Tetrahymena microsomes.  

PubMed

Profound alterations in the microsomal fatty acyl-CoA desaturase activities and cyclic AMP production of a unicellular eukaryote, Tetrahymena pyriformis NT-1, originally grown in the glucose-deficient medium, were observed, following the administration of glucose or beta-adrenergic agonists such as epinephrine and isoproterenol. There was a great increase of stearoyl-CoA (delta 8) desaturase activity coincident with a 2-fold decrease of oleoyl-CoA (delta 12) desaturase activity over the first 2 h after administration of these compounds. During this period of time, it was found that the production in vivo of labeled oleic acid from [14C]acetic or [3H]palmitic acid increases 2-fold and the formation in vivo of each labeled linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids drastically decreases. Glucose or beta-adrenergic agonists caused an increase of stearoyl-CoA-stimulated reoxidation rate of NADH-reduced cytochrome b5 but depressed oleoyl-CoA-stimulated reoxidation rate of b5, indicating that both desaturase activities are controlled by the respective terminal components of the desaturase system. A significant and reproducible increase of adenylate cyclase activity and a slight decrease of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity were observed to occur within the first 2 h after the addition of these compounds, when cyclic AMP content in Tetrahymena cell rose by 3-4-fold. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, abolished the effects of glucose or beta-adrenergic agonists on the activities of fatty acyl-CoA desaturases and the terminal components as well as cyclic AMP production of cells. These results suggest that glucose and beta-adrenergic agonists may modulate the microsomal fatty acyl-CoA desaturase system in Tetrahymena by acting through the increase of intracellular cyclic AMP content. PMID:2861855

Umeki, S; Nozawa, Y

1985-07-31

173

Transcription of the yeast mitochondrial genome requires cyclic AMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using various mutant strains and nutritional manipulations, we investigated a potential role for cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the regulation of mitochondrial (mt) gene expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In RAS mutants known to have either abnormally low or high cellular levels of this nucleotide, we show that both mt transcription rate and overall mt transcript levels vary directly with

Catherine M. McEntee; Robin Cantwell; Mahboob U. Rahman; Alan P. Hudson

1993-01-01

174

Electrical Stimulation Decreases Coupling Efficiency Between Beta-Adrenergic Receptors and Cyclic AMP Production in Cultured Muscle Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle cells in culture is an effective way to simulate the effects of muscle contraction and its effects on gene expression in muscle cells. Expression of the beta-adrenergic receptor and its coupling to cyclic AMP synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, and the goal of this project was to determine if electrical stimulation altered the beta-adrenergic response in muscle cells. Chicken skeletal muscle cells that had been grown for seven days in culture were subjected to electrical stimulation for an additional two days at a pulse frequency of 0.5 pulses/sec and a pulse duration of 200 msec. At the end of this two-day stimulation period, beta-adrenergic receptor population was measured by the binding of tritium-labeled CGP-12177 to muscle cells, and coupling to cAMP synthesis was measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) after treating the cells for 10 min with the potent (beta)AR agonist, isoproterenol. The number of beta adrenergic receptors and the basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP were not affected by electrical stimulation. However, the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was reduced by approximately 50%. Thus, an enhanced level of contraction reduces the coupling efficiency of beta-adrenergic receptors for cyclic AMP production.

Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

1999-01-01

175

The effects of histamine and prostaglandin D2 on rat mast-cell cyclic AMP and mediator release  

SciTech Connect

The possibility that histamine may play a functional role in modulating mast-cell secretion, as has been suggested for basophil degranulation, has both physiologic and pharmacologic implications. Therefore the capacity of histamine to influence rat peritoneal mast-cell (RPMC) cyclic AMP levels and reversed anaphylatic degranulation as reflected in the release of 3H-serotonin (5-HT) was examined. To ascertain that RPMC were functionally responsive to exogenous hormonal stimulation, assessment of prostaglandin (PG) D2 effects on cyclic AMP and 5-HT release were determined in parallel. Although PGD2 (100 microM) increased cyclic AMP and inhibited 5-HT release in the presence of 50 microM aminophylline, histamine (up to 1000 microM) was ineffective was ineffective in both. However, 1000 microM histamine in the presence of 500 microM aminophylline was capable of transiently increasing RPMC cyclic AMP (for 15 to 30 sec) and under these conditions of suppressing 5-HT release. The receptor subtype involved in the suppressive actions of histamine appeared to be of the H-1 type as reflected in the capacity of specific H-1 agonists to reproduce the inhibition of 5-HT release, whereas neither H-2 agonists nor H-2 antagonists had any influence. Thus, under conditions in which phosphodiesterase enzymatic action is impaired, histamine in extremely high concentrations is able to modulate mast-cell secretion. However, it seems very unlikely that this action of histamine has any physiologic significance.

Wescott, S.; Kaliner, M.

1981-11-01

176

Enhancement of depolarization-dependent neurosecretion from PC12 cells by forskolin-induced elevation of cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

The effects of elevated intracellular cyclic AMP on the release of neurotransmitters was studied using the clonal pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12, and forskolin, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase. Intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations ranging from 8 to 400 times basal levels were achieved with 0.1 to 100 uM forskolin. Unstimulated release of neurotransmitters was unchanged by any concentration of forskolin. However, K+-stimulated release of both norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine was enhanced by 0.1 to 10 uM forskolin. Release of NE elicited by depolarization with carbachol and veratridine also was enhanced by 1 uM forskolin. Enhancement of release was reversed by higher concentrations of forskolin, especially in the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (RO 20-1724) which caused very large increases in cyclic AMP content. The enhancement of transmitter release from the PC12 cells occurred without concomitant changes in agonist-stimulated ion flux through the acetylcholine receptor ion channel, or in depolarization-dependent uptake of 45Ca++. Thus, increasing the cyclic AMP content of PC12 cells fails to initiate neurosecretion but appears to facilitate some element in the secretion process subsequent to Ca++ influx. PMID:6136536

Rabe, C S; Schneider, J; McGee, R

1982-01-01

177

Regulation of GH3-cell function via adenosine A1 receptors. Inhibition of prolactin release, cyclic AMP production and inositol phosphate generation.  

PubMed Central

We examined the mechanism by which adenosine inhibits prolactin secretion from GH3 cells, a rat pituitary tumour line. Prolactin release is enhanced by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which increases cyclic AMP, and by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which increases inositol phosphates (IPx). Analogues of adenosine decreased prolactin release, VIP-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and TRH-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and IPx generation. Inhibition of InsP3 production by R-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) was rapid (15 s) and was not affected by the addition of forskolin or the removal of external Ca2+. Addition of adenosine deaminase or the potent adenosine-receptor antagonist, BW-A1433U, enhanced the accumulation of cyclic AMP by VIP, indicating that endogenously produced adenosine tonically inhibits adenylate cyclase. The potency order of adenosine analogues for inhibition of cyclic AMP and IPx responses (measured in the presence of adenosine deaminase) was N6-cyclopentyladenosine greater than R-PIA greater than 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine. This rank order indicates that inhibitions of both cyclic AMP and InsP3 production are mediated by adenosine A1 receptors. Responses to R-PIA were blocked by BW-A1433U (1 microM) or by pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin. A greater amount of toxin was required to eliminate the effect of R-PIA on inositol phosphate than on cyclic AMP accumulation. These data indicate that adenosine, in addition to inhibiting cyclic AMP accumulation, decreases IPx production in GH3 cells, possibly by directly inhibiting phosphoinositide hydrolysis.

Delahunty, T M; Cronin, M J; Linden, J

1988-01-01

178

Regulation of rat hepatocyte function by P2Y receptors: focus on control of glycogen phosphorylase and cyclic AMP by 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-diphosphate.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte function is regulated by several P2Y receptor subtypes. Here we report that 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-diphosphate (2-MeSADP), an agonist at P2Y(1), P2Y(12), and P2Y(13) receptors, potently (threshold 30 nM) stimulates glycogen phosphorylase in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Antagonism by N(6)-methyl 2'-deoxyadenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate (MRS 2179) confirms that this response is mediated by P2Y(1) receptors. In addition, in these cells, both 2-MeSADP and UTP inhibited glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. This inhibitory effect of 2-MeSADP was not reversed by the P2Y(1) antagonists, adenosine-3'-phosphate-5'-phosphate (A3P5P) or MRS 2179, both in the range 1 to 300 microM, indicating that it was not mediated by P2Y(1) receptors. This contrasts with the increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) induced by 2-MeSADP, which has shown to be inhibited by A3P5P. Pertussis toxin abolished the inhibitory effect of both UTP and 2-MeSADP. After culture of cells for 48 h, the ability of 2-MeSADP to inhibit cyclic AMP accumulation was greatly diminished. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that during this culture period, there was a decline in the ability to detect transcripts for P2Y(12) and P2Y(13) receptors, both of which are activated by 2-MeSADP and negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase. However, in freshly isolated cells, the P2Y(12) and P2Y(13) receptor antagonist, 2-propylthio-beta,gamma-dichloromethylene-d-ATP (AR-C67085) (10 nM to 300 microM) did not alter the ability of 2-MeSADP to inhibit glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. We conclude that 2-MeSADP regulates rat hepatocyte glycogen phosphorylase by acting on P2Y(1) receptors coupled to raised [Ca(2+)](c), and by inhibiting cyclic AMP levels by an unknown G(i)-coupled receptor subtype, distinct from P2Y(1), P2Y(12), or P2Y(13) receptors. PMID:15152027

Dixon, C Jane; Hall, John F; Webb, Tania E; Boarder, Michael R

2004-10-01

179

Inhibitory effects of cyclic AMP elevating agents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microvascular permeability change in mouse skin  

PubMed Central

Anti-inflammatory effects of cyclic AMP elevating agents were examined in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microvascular permeability change. Vascular permeability on the back skin was measured by the local accumulation of Pontamine sky blue (PSB) after subcutaneous injection of LPS (400??g site?1) from Salmonella typhimurium. Dye leakage in the skin was significantly increased 2?h after injection of LPS. This LPS-induced dye leakage was suppressed by phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including pentoxifylline (160?mg?kg?1), milrinone (5?–?10?mg?kg?1), rolipram (0.5?–?10?mg?kg?1) and zaprinast (5?–?10?mg?kg?1). The dye leakage was also inhibited by ?-adrenoceptor agonists, including isoproterenol (0.5?–?5?mg?kg?1) and salbutamol (0.05?–?5?mg?kg?1), an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin (5?mg?kg?1), and a cell permeable cyclic AMP analogue, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP, 10?mg?kg?1). LPS caused a transient increase in serum TNF-? level peaking at 1?h after the injection. This increase in serum TNF-? was completely blocked by a pretreatment with pentoxifylline (160?mg?kg?1), milrinone (5?mg?kg?1), rolipram (1?mg?kg?1), zaprinast (10?mg?kg?1), salbutamol (0.5?mg?kg?1), forskolin (1?mg?kg?1) and 8-Br-cAMP (10?mg?kg?1). LPS caused an increase in serum IL-1? level peaking at 3?h after injection. This increase in serum IL-1? was not significantly suppressed by the cyclic AMP elevating agents. Our study suggests that cyclic AMP elevating agents attenuate LPS-induced microvascular permeability change by suppressing TNF-? up regulation.

Irie, Kaoru; Fujii, Emiko; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Wada, Keiji; Suganuma, Taiyo; Nishikori, Tomohiro; Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Muraki, Takamura

2001-01-01

180

Phosphorylation of pig brain microtubule proteins. General properties and partial characterization of endogenous substrate and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.  

PubMed Central

1. A simple purification procedure for microtubule proteins is described, which involves a single assembly step in vitro in the absence of glycerol, followed by centrifugation through sucrose. 2. The preparation contains 80% tubulin (mol.wt. 54000), 15-20% of a 280000-mol.wt. protein and several other minor components of intermediate molecular weight after polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and 2-mercaptoethanol. 3. In the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, [32P]phosphate was incorporated into the 280000-mol.wt. component reaching half-maximal incorporation at 1-2 min, but no phosphorylation of tubulin was detected. Cyclic AMP (Km 0.8 micrometer) increased both the initial rate and the extent of incorporation of [32P]phosphate into this component. 4. About half of the endogenous protein kinase activity did not require cyclic AMP and was not inhibited by a heat-stable inhibitor protein from muscle. The remainder of the activity was cyclic AMP-dependent and sensitive to the inhibitor protein. A regulatory subunit was not dissociable from microtubules assembled in vitro in the presence of saturating concentrations of cyclic AMP. 5. The endogenous substrate and the endogenous protein kinase activity could be partially resolved chromatography on phosphocellulose. 6. The data show that cyclic AMP can moduate the activity of an endogenous protein kinase(s) with unusual properties and which phosphorylates a prominent microtubule-associated protein.

Sheterline, P

1977-01-01

181

Interplay between cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein and cyclic di-GMP signaling in Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is a facultative human pathogen. The ability of V. cholerae to form biofilms is crucial for its survival in aquatic habitats between epidemics and is advantageous for host-to-host transmission during epidemics. Formation of mature biofilms requires the production of extracellular matrix components, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) and matrix proteins. Biofilm formation is positively controlled by the transcriptional regulators VpsR and VpsT and is negatively regulated by the quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator HapR, as well as the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) regulatory complex. Transcriptome analysis of cyaA (encoding adenylate cyclase) and crp (encoding cAMP receptor protein) deletion mutants revealed that cAMP-CRP negatively regulates transcription of both VPS biosynthesis genes and genes encoding biofilm matrix proteins. Further mutational and expression analysis revealed that cAMP-CRP negatively regulates transcription of vps genes indirectly through its action on vpsR transcription. However, negative regulation of the genes encoding biofilm matrix proteins by cAMP-CRP can also occur independent of VpsR. Transcriptome analysis also revealed that cAMP-CRP regulates the expression of a set of genes encoding diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases. Mutational and phenotypic analysis of the differentially regulated DGCs revealed that a DGC, CdgA, is responsible for the increase in biofilm formation in the Deltacrp mutant, showing the connection between of cyclic di-GMP and cAMP signaling in V. cholerae. PMID:18708497

Fong, Jiunn C N; Yildiz, Fitnat H

2008-10-01

182

Dictyostelium discoideum lipids modulate cell-cell cohesion and cyclic AMP signaling.  

PubMed Central

During Dictyostelium discoideum development, cell-cell communication is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced cAMP synthesis and secretion (cAMP signaling) and cell-cell contact. Cell-cell contact elicits cAMP secretion and modulates the magnitude of a subsequent cAMP signaling response (D. R. Fontana and P. L. Price, Differentiation 41:184-192, 1989), demonstrating that cell-cell contact and cAMP signaling are not independent events. To identify components involved in the contact-mediated modulation of cAMP signaling, amoebal membranes were added to aggregation-competent amoebae in suspension. The membranes from aggregation-competent amoebae inhibited cAMP signaling at all concentrations tested, while the membranes from vegetative amoebae exhibited a concentration-dependent enhancement or inhibition of cAMP signaling. Membrane lipids inhibited cAMP signaling at all concentrations tested. The lipids abolished cAMP signaling by blocking cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation. The membrane lipids also inhibited amoeba-amoeba cohesion at concentrations comparable to those which inhibited cAMP signaling. The phospholipids and neutral lipids decreased cohesion and inhibited the cAMP signaling response. The glycolipid/sulfolipid fraction enhanced cohesion and cAMP signaling. Caffeine, a known inhibitor of cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation, inhibited amoeba-amoeba cohesion. These studies demonstrate that endogenous lipids are capable of modulating amoeba-amoeba cohesion and cAMP-induced activation of the adenylyl cyclase. These results suggest that cohesion may modulate cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation. Because the complete elimination of cohesion is accompanied by the complete elimination of cAMP signaling, these results further suggest that cohesion may be necessary for cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation in D. discoideum.

Fontana, D R; Luo, C S; Phillips, J C

1991-01-01

183

Cyclic AMP-Mediated Cyst Expansion  

PubMed Central

In polycystic kidney disease (PKD), intracellular cAMP promotes cyst enlargement by stimulating mural epithelial cell proliferation and transepithelial fluid secretion. The proliferative effect of cAMP in PKD is unique in that cAMP is anti-mitogenic in normal renal epithelial cells. This phenotypic difference in the proliferative response to cAMP appears to involve cross-talk between cAMP and Ca2+ signaling to B-Raf, a kinase upstream of the MEK/ERK pathway. In normal cells, B-Raf is repressed by Akt (protein kinase B), a Ca2+-dependent kinase, preventing cAMP activation of ERK and cell proliferation. In PKD cells, disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis due to mutations in the PKD genes relieves Akt inhibition of B-Raf, allowing cAMP stimulation of B-Raf, ERK and cell proliferation. Fluid secretion by cystic cells is driven by cAMP-dependent transepithelial Cl? secretion involving apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl? channels. This review summarizes the current knowledge of cAMP-dependent cyst expansion, focusing on cell proliferation and Cl?-dependent fluid secretion, and discusses potential therapeutic approaches to inhibit renal cAMP production and its downstream effects on cyst enlargement.

Wallace, Darren P.

2010-01-01

184

Cyclic AMP-mediated cyst expansion.  

PubMed

In polycystic kidney disease (PKD), intracellular cAMP promotes cyst enlargement by stimulating mural epithelial cell proliferation and transepithelial fluid secretion. The proliferative effect of cAMP in PKD is unique in that cAMP is anti-mitogenic in normal renal epithelial cells. This phenotypic difference in the proliferative response to cAMP appears to involve cross-talk between cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling to B-Raf, a kinase upstream of the MEK/ERK pathway. In normal cells, B-Raf is repressed by Akt (protein kinase B), a Ca(2+)-dependent kinase, preventing cAMP activation of ERK and cell proliferation. In PKD cells, disruption of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis due to mutations in the PKD genes relieves Akt inhibition of B-Raf, allowing cAMP stimulation of B-Raf, ERK and cell proliferation. Fluid secretion by cystic cells is driven by cAMP-dependent transepithelial Cl(-) secretion involving apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels. This review summarizes the current knowledge of cAMP-dependent cyst expansion, focusing on cell proliferation and Cl(-)-dependent fluid secretion, and discusses potential therapeutic approaches to inhibit renal cAMP production and its downstream effects on cyst enlargement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Polycystic Kidney Disease. PMID:21118718

Wallace, Darren P

2011-10-01

185

cap alpha. â-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha..â-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (³H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha..â-adrenergic receptor-mediated

S. B. Jones; M. L. Toews; J. T. Turner; D. B. Bylund

1987-01-01

186

Characterization of a calmodulin-dependent high-affinity cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase from male mouse germ cells.  

PubMed Central

Two cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activities were separated by ion-exchange chromatography of cytosol from male mouse germ cells. A form eluted at low salt concentration showed high affinity (Km congruent to 2 microM) and low affinity (Km congruent to 20 microM) for cyclic AMP, and high affinity (Km congruent to 3.5 microM) for cyclic GMP. A second form, eluted at high salt concentration, showed high affinity (Km congruent to 5 microM) for cyclic AMP and was similar to a phosphodiesterase activity described in rat germ cells. The present study was performed to characterize the first form, which represents most of the phosphodiesterase activity in mouse germ cells. The enzyme was sensitive to Ca2+ and calmodulin stimulation, which increased its activity 3-4-fold. Calmodulin stimulation depended on direct interaction of the activator with the enzyme, as indicated by the reversible changes in the chromatographic elution pattern in the presence of Ca2+, as well as by the increase in the sedimentation coefficient in the presence of calmodulin. Reciprocal inhibition kinetics between cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP for the calmodulin-dependent form demonstrated a non-competitive inhibition between the two substrates, suggesting the presence of separate catalytic sites. This is in agreement with kinetic parameters and different thermal stabilities of cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-hydrolysing activities. Furthermore, the relevant change in s value, depending on the absence or presence of Ca2+ and calmodulin, suggested that the enzyme is composed of subunits, which aggregate in the presence of the activator. A model for catalytic site composition and reciprocal interaction is also proposed.

Geremia, R; Rossi, P; Mocini, D; Pezzotti, R; Conti, M

1984-01-01

187

Relation between catecholamine-induced cyclic AMP changes and hyperpolarization in isolated rat sympathetic ganglia  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of catecholamines on cyclic adenosine 3?5?-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) production in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia has been measured under experimental conditions in which they also produce ganglion hyperpolarization. 2. (±)Isoprenaline (1 ?M) increased cyclic AMP levels by 8-100 times after 15 min incubation at 25 °C. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at about 0.03 ?M. This was due to stimulation of ?-receptors, since it was prevented by 1 ?M-propranolol but not by 1 ?M-phentolamine. 3. The ?-agonists phenylephrine (100 ?M), dopamine (100 ?M) and clonidine (1 ?M) did not produce a detectable increase in ganglionic cyclic AMP. Dopamine (100 ?M) was also ineffective at 37 °C in the presence of 10 mM-theophylline. 4. Exogenous cyclic AMP (0.01-1 mM) hyperpolarized the ganglion. This effect was replicated by other adenosine compounds, most effectively by adenosine and by adenosine 5?-monophosphate, and was antagonized by theophylline. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP was weaker than cyclic AMP. 5. Neither theophylline nor the non-xanthine phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Ro 20-1724, enhanced the hyperpolarizing actions of noradrenaline or dopamine. 6. Since catecholamine-induced hyperpolarization of the isolated rat ganglion is induced via ?-receptors, whereas cyclic AMP-production is induced via ?-receptors, it is concluded that cyclic AMP is unlikely to mediate the hyperpolarization. The effect of exogenous cyclic AMP may be due to an action on external adenosine-receptors.

Kirby, P. J.; Brown, D. A.; Caulfield, M. P.

1979-01-01

188

Calcium- and cyclic AMP-dependent chloride secretion in human colonic epithelia.  

PubMed

Three stable epithelial cell lines (HCA-7, HCA-7-Col 1 and HCA-7-Col 3) all derived from the same human adenocarcinoma have been cultured on collagen-coated Millipore filters. These epithelial monolayers have been used to record short circuit current (SCC) in response to of secretagogues. Similar monolayers, but grown on plastic dishes, were used for measurements of tissue cyclic AMP. Lysylbradykinin, applied to either side of the monolayers, increased SCC in HCA-7 cells but had little effect on the other two lines. The responses showed rapid desensitization, which could be prevented by cooling to 4 degrees C. Responses to kinin were not significantly attenuated by piroxicam, an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase. Other secretagogues, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and carbachol also increased SCC in monolayers. The responses to VIP were greatest in HCA-7-Col 1 monolayers while responses were virtually absent in HCA-7-Col 3. A similar profile was seen with carbachol except that responses of HCA-7 and HCA-7-Col 1 monolayers were more equal. With one exception the responses to VIP and carbachol showed sidedness, acting only from the basolateral side. The effects of the secretagogues were inhibited by piretanide, a loop diuretic, applied basolaterally. It is presumed that SCC responses represent electrogenic chloride secretion. Treatment with forskolin increased SCC in HCA-7 and HCA-7-Col 1 monolayers with little effect in HCA-7-Col 3. Nevertheless cyclic AMP levels were elevated most in HCA-7-Col 3 and least in HCA-7-Col 1 monolayers, in reciprocal relationship to the functional response. A23187 increased SCC when applied to HCA-7 and HCA-7-Col 3 monolayers with little effect on HCA-7-Col 1. The differential responses of the three human cell lines provide unique opportunities to discover the functional responsibilities of entities involved in the chloride secretory process. HCA-7-Col 3 cells which generate high levels of cyclic AMP in response to forskolin but which fail to show a substantial chloride secretory response may be a useful model of some disease conditions. PMID:3038239

Cuthbert, A W; Egléme, C; Greenwood, H; Hickman, M E; Kirkland, S C; MacVinish, L J

1987-07-01

189

Insulin alters the target size of the peripheral cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase but not the integral cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in liver plasma membranes  

SciTech Connect

Radiation inactivation of the two high affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in liver plasma membranes afforded an estimation of their molecular target sizes in situ. The activity of the peripheral plasma membrane PDE decayed as a single exponential with a target size corresponding to a monomer of circa 54 kDa. The integral, cyclic GMP-stimulated PDE decayed as a dimer of circa 125 kDa. Preincubation of plasma membranes with insulin (10nM), prior to irradiation, caused the target size of only the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to increase. We suggest that insulin addition causes the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to alter its coupling to an integral plasma membrane protein with a target size of circa 90 kDa.

Wallace, A.V.; Martin, B.R.; Houslay, M.D.

1990-06-15

190

Alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation, but not muscarinic stimulation, increases cyclic AMP accumulation in brain slices due to protein kinase C mediated enhancement of adenosine receptor effects.  

PubMed

In the present study, using rat hippocampal slices, we have further examined the stimulatory effect of alpha 1-adrenoceptors on the accumulation of cyclic AMP, which is known to depend on calcium and adenosine. The addition of noradrenaline (NA) stimulated the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates in [3H]inositol-treated slices. This effect was shared by carbachol (10-100 mumol l-1) but not by the adenosine receptor agonist 2-chloroadenosine (100 mumol l-1). The stimulatory effect of the alpha-agonists (phenylephrine or NA + propranolol) on cyclic AMP was shared by a diacylglycerol derivative, sn-1-oleyl-2-acetyl glycerol (OAG), and by the tumour-promoting phorbol esters phorboldibutyrate (PDiBu) and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). PDiBu caused a translocation of protein kinase C from soluble to particulate fractions. The effects of PDiBu and alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation on cyclic AMP were not additive. Surprisingly, carbachol (1-1000 mumol l-1) did not stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation in rat hippocampal slices either in the presence or in the absence of an adenosine receptor agonist. The results are compatible with the opinion that alpha-adrenoceptor stimulating drugs enhance the formation of inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol, which synergistically activate protein kinase C, which in turn augments the stimulation of cyclic AMP formation. Thus, a neurotransmitter whose principal biological effect is to stimulate inositol phosphate formation can influence cyclic AMP formation by virtue of an interaction with the actions of the ubiquitous neuromodulator adenosine. The fact that the effect of the alpha-receptor stimulation was not mimicked by a muscarinic agonist could indicate that other factors besides activation of inositol phospholipid hydrolys are important for this receptor-receptor interaction. PMID:2894742

Fredholm, B B; Lindgren, E; Lindström, K; Nordstedt, C

1987-12-01

191

In Melanoma, RAS Mutations Are Accompanied by Switching Signaling from BRAF to CRAF and Disrupted Cyclic AMP Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanocytes require the RAS\\/RAF\\/MEK\\/ERK and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathways to maintain the fine balance between proliferation and differentiation. We have investigat- ed how cross-talk between these pathways affects melanoma progression. We show that cAMP suppresses CRAF activity in melanocytes and that this is essential to suppress the oncogenic potential of CRAF in these cells. As a consequence, BRAF

Nicolas Dumaz; Robert Hayward; Jan Martin; Lesley Ogilvie; Douglas Hedley; John A. Curtin; Boris C. Bastian; Caroline Springer; Richard Marais

2006-01-01

192

Effects of parathyroid hormone on cyclic-AMP concentrations of in vitro Necturus maculosus gastric antrum.  

PubMed

The effects of bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH1-84) on the stimulation of intracellular cyclic-AMP [cAMP] were investigated in an in vitro preparation of Necturus maculosus antral mucosa. When the antrum was exposed to 1, 5, 10, or 100 nM bPTH1-84, there was an approximately 2-fold nonlinear increase in tissue [cAMP] over basal values. The pretreatment of the antral mucosa with 1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) increased with detectability of mucosal [cAMP]. The addition of 1, 5, 10, or 100 nM bPTH1-84 to tissues pretreated with IBMX resulted in an approximately 3.5-fold linear increase in mucosal [cAMP] over basal values. The time course of the generation of mucosal cAMP to 10 nM bPTH1-84 resulted in a small but significant transient increase at 2.5 min after the addition of bPTH1-84 but no change in the medium [cAMP]. In tissues pretreated with 1 mM IBMX the response to 10 nM bPTH1-84 was a large biphasic increase of [cAMP] at 2.5 min that progressively declined to near basal values by 15 min. There was also a significant sustained increase in the [cAMP] in the bathing medium at 2.5 min of tissues pretreated with IBMX followed by 10 nM bPTH1-84. These results suggest the presence of an adenylate cyclase that can be activated by a mammalian bPTH1-84 in elevating intracellular cAMP levels in the N. maculosus antral mucosa. PMID:2478416

Rutten, M J; Chern, H T; Moore, C D; Hamilton, J; Cheung, L Y

1989-08-01

193

Calcium-dependent enhancement by carbachol of the VIP-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in cat submandibular gland.  

PubMed

The interaction of two coexisting transmitters in the cat submandibular gland has been elucidated by studying effects of VIP and carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated acini from the gland. Carbachol was found to potentiate the cyclic AMP increase induced by VIP by an atropine sensitive mechanism. The effect of carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation was abolished by including EGTA in the incubation medium as was the carbachol mediated potentiation of VIP responses. The calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine had a similar, but less marked effect. The effect of carbachol was mimicked by phenylephrine (30 microM) and by the calcium inophore A 23187 (3 microM), and also by ethanol in a concentration reported to enhance membrane fluidity. The phospholipase A2 inhibitor, mepacrine, tended to decrease carbachol actions. Our results show that the potentiation of VIP responses in feline submandibular gland is calcium-dependent. The mechanism could involve a calcium-calmodulin-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase or calcium-induced change in membrane phospholipid metabolism. PMID:6091414

Enyedi, P; Fredholm, B B

1984-04-01

194

Localization of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent. Protein kinase in cultured cells using a specific antibody  

PubMed Central

We developed a specific antibody to the catalytic subunit (C-subunit) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and used it to localize C- subunit in cultured cells. C-subunit antigen was purified from bovine cardiac muscle and cross-linked to hemocyanin with glutaraldehyde. Immunized goat serum showed a low titer of antibody after boosting; it was enriched 100-fold by affinity chromatography on catalytic subunit- Sepharose. The antibody immunoprecipitated C-subunit from type I and type II holoenzyme and depleted enzymatic activity from solution. At 12.5 nM antigen, 1 microgram antibody immunoprecipitated 10 ng of C- subunit. Immunoprecipitation of 35S-labeled cell extracts and 125I- antibody detection on nitrocellulose paper revealed that the antibody specifically reacts with C-subunit in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) whole cell extracts. Using indirect immunofluorescence to localize C-subunit, we found a pattern of diffuse staining in the cytoplasm of CHO cells with little or no nuclear staining. A similar distribution of the enzyme was observed in Swiss 3T3 cells, bovine endothelial tracheal cells, human lung fibroblasts and NRK cells. Treatment of CHO cells with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP produced no change in the pattern or intensity of immunofluorescence. We conclude that the majority of C-subunit is localized in cytoplasm and that in cultured fibroblasts exposure to cyclic AMP analogues causes no apparent redistribution of catalytic subunit.

1982-01-01

195

Adenosine inhibits the accumulation of cyclic AMP in cultured brain cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADENOSINE stimulates the accumulation of cyclic AMP in some tissues and cell types, but has inhibitory or biphasic effects on the accumulation of cyclic AMP in other cells. Londos and Wolff1 have attempted to explain these diverse effects by the existence of two adenosine reactive sites on adenylate cyclase. The first is the R-site, occupancy of which usually leads to

Dietrich Van Calker; Margarete Müller; Bernd Hamprecht

1978-01-01

196

The Small Molecule Triclabendazole Decreases the Intracellular Level of Cyclic AMP and Increases Resistance to Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The Ras-adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A nutrient-sensing pathway controls metabolism, proliferation and resistance to stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genetic disruption of this pathway increases resistance to a variety of stresses. We show here that the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by the drug triclabendazole increases resistance to oxidants, heat stress and extends the chronological life. Evidence is presented that triclabendazole decreases the intracellular level of cyclic AMP by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase and triggers the parallel rapid translocation of the stress-resistance transcription factor Msn2 from the cytosol into the nucleus, as deduced from experiments employing a strain in which MSN2 is replaced with MSN2-GFP (GFP, green fluorescent protein). Msn2 and Msn4 are responsible for activating the transcription of numerous genes that encode proteins that protect cells from stress. The results are consistent with triclabendazole either inhibiting the association of Ras with adenylyl cyclase or directly inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, which in turn triggers Msn2/4 to enter the nucleus and activate stress-responsible element gene expression.

Lee, Yong Joo; Shi, Runhua; Witt, Stephan N.

2013-01-01

197

Cyclic AMP-dependent cell shape changes induced by mechanical forces.  

PubMed

Biomaterials used in some biomedical devices are exposed to flow of physiological fluids. The flow-induced forces may influence the morphological and the biochemical responses of adhering cells. The objective of this work is to examine the capacity of a mechanical stress to cause changes in cell/substratum and cell/cell interactions via the second messenger cAMP pathway (cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate). Cyclic AMP is known to modulate cell shape, cell adhesion and intercellular communication in static conditions. A specially designed flow chamber was used to analyze the responses of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts spread on biocompatible substrata and submitted to controlled shear stresses. A 1.1-Pa shear stress induced: cell rounding, disruption of vitronectin receptors clusters and clustering of connexins 43 at cell-cell apposition points. These cell responses were cAMP-dependent. These investigations should help provide a better understanding of the early biochemical events triggered by mechanical forces. PMID:12454426

Chotard-Ghodsnia, R; Drochon, A; Faucheux, N; Nagel, M-D; Grebe, R

2003-01-01

198

Timing of single daily meal influences relations among human circadian rhythms in urinary cyclic AMP and hemic glucagon, insulin and iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Relations among circadian rhythms in serum iron, glucagon and insulin and urinary cyclic AMP excretion differ drastically when diurnally active, nocturnally resting human adults consume all daily food for one week as breakfast only and for another week as dinner only—a finding of interest to diverse fields, e.g., for optimizing certain kinds of therapy or for a better utilization

F. Goetz; J. Bishop; F. Halberg; R. B. Sothern; R. Brunning; B. Senske; B. Greenberg; D. Minors; P. Stoney; I. D. Smith; G. D. Rosen; D. Cressey; E. Haus; M. Apfelbaum

1976-01-01

199

Chemoresistant KM12C Colon Cancer Cells Are Addicted to Low Cyclic AMP Levels in a Phosphodiesterase 4-Regulated Compartment via Effects on Phosphoinositide 3Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in treating colon cancer is chemoresistance to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. There is therefore a need to devise new strategies to inhibit colon cancer cell growth and survival. Here, we show that a combi- nation of low doses of the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin together with the specific cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiester- ase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram,

David G. McEwan; Valerie G. Brunton; George S. Baillie; Nicholas R. Leslie

2007-01-01

200

Drugs of abuse modulate the phosphorylation of ARPP-21, a cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein enriched in the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

ARPP-21 is a cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of M(r) 21 kDa that is enriched in the cell bodies and terminals of medium-sized spiny neurons in the basal ganglia. Using a new phosphorylation state-specific antibody selective for the detection of ARPP-21 phosphorylated on Ser(55), we have demonstrated that activation of dopamine D1 receptors increased the level of ARPP-21 phosphorylation in mouse striatal slices. Conversely, activation of D2 receptors caused a large decrease in ARPP-21 phosphorylation. Treatment of mice with either methamphetamine or cocaine resulted in increased ARPP-21 phosphorylation in vivo. Studies using specific inhibitors of protein phosphatases and experiments in mice bearing a targeted deletion of the gene for DARPP-32, a dopamine-activated inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, indicated that protein phosphatase-2A is primarily responsible for dephosphorylation of ARPP-21 in mouse striatum. These results demonstrate that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of ARPP-21 are tightly regulated in the striatum. We speculate that ARPP-21 might mediate some of the physiologic effects of dopamine and certain drugs of abuse in the basal ganglia. PMID:10854908

Caporaso, G L; Bibb, J A; Snyder, G L; Valle, C; Rakhilin, S; Fienberg, A A; Hemmings, H C; Nairn, A C; Greengard, P

2000-07-10

201

Regulation of synthesis of a major outer membrane protein: cyclic AMP represses Escherichia coli protein III synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP is the effector molecule for both positive and negative control of synthesis of several Escherichia coli proteins. Among the latter is the major outer membrane protein III. The control mechanism occurs at the level of transcription and involves the cyclic AMP receptor protein. The repressing system is saturated at lower concentrations of cyclic AMP than is the positive control system. Images

Mallick, U; Herrlich, P

1979-01-01

202

Cyclic AMP induces metallothionein gene expression in rat hepatocytes but not in rat kidney.  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP analogues induced expression of metallothionein-I (MT-I) mRNA in adult rat liver and in rat hepatocytes cultured in serum-free medium. This induction occurred via an increased rate of transcription of the MT-I gene. The effect of cyclic AMP analogues was tissue-specific since no induction of MT-I mRNA occurred in rat kidney. Induction of MT-I mRNA by a combination of cyclic AMP analogue and dexamethasone was additive in liver and cultured hepatocytes, indicating that induction occurred via independent regulatory pathways. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Nebes, V L; DeFranco, D; Morris, S M

1988-01-01

203

Effect of thyroid state on cyclic AMP-mediated induction of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.  

PubMed

Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is significantly increased in the hyperthyroid starved rat, and moderately decreased in the hypothyroid starved rat. As tri-iodothyronine by itself has only a small and sustained effect on the induction of this enzyme, as was previously shown in the isolated perfused organ, the effect of hypo- and hyper-thyroidism on the increase in cytosolic PEPCK provoked by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Bt2cAMP) was investigated in vivo and in the isolated perfused liver. Compared with euthyroid fed controls, in hypothyroid fed rats Bt2cAMP provoked in 2 h only a small increase in translatable mRNA coding for PEPCK. In contrast, in hyperthyroid animals PEPCK mRNA as measured by translation in vitro was already increased in the fed state, and further enhanced by Bt2cAMP injection to values as in euthyroid controls. Under all thyroid states a close correlation between PEPCK mRNA activity and PEPCK synthesis was observed. In the isolated perfused liver from the hyperthyroid fed rat, the increase in PEPCK provoked by Bt2cAMP or Bt2cAMP + isobutylmethylxanthine was considerably enhanced compared with those obtained in livers of hypothyroid rats. Also, adrenaline provoked a stimulated induction of PEPCK in hyperthyroid rats compared with hypothyroid rats. To summarize, our data indicate that the primary action of thyroid hormones on the synthesis of hepatic cytosolic PEPCK is to accelerate the cyclic AMP- or adrenaline-induction of the enzyme, acting primarily at a pretranslational level. PMID:2983686

Höppner, W; Süssmuth, W; Seitz, H J

1985-02-15

204

Cyclic AMP Control Measured in Two Compartments in HEK293 Cells: Phosphodiesterase KM Is More Important than Phosphodiesterase Localization  

PubMed Central

The intracellular second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) is degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDE). The knowledge of individual families and subtypes of PDEs is considerable, but how the different PDEs collaborate in the cell to control a cAMP signal is still not fully understood. In order to investigate compartmentalized cAMP signaling, we have generated a membrane-targeted variant of the cAMP Bioluminiscence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) sensor CAMYEL and have compared intracellular cAMP measurements with it to measurements with the cytosolic BRET sensor CAMYEL in HEK293 cells. With these sensors we observed a slightly higher cAMP response to adenylyl cyclase activation at the plasma membrane compared to the cytosol, which is in accordance with earlier results from Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. We have analyzed PDE activity in fractionated lysates from HEK293 cells using selective PDE inhibitors and have identified PDE3 and PDE10A as the major membrane-bound PDEs and PDE4 as the major cytosolic PDE. Inhibition of membrane-bound or cytosolic PDEs can potentiate the cAMP response to adenylyl cyclase activation, but we see no significant difference between the potentiation of the cAMP response at the plasma membrane and in cytosol when membrane-bound and cytosolic PDEs are inhibited. When different levels of stimulation were tested, we found that PDEs 3 and 10 are mainly responsible for cAMP degradation at low intracellular cAMP concentrations, whereas PDE4 is more important for control of cAMP at higher concentrations.

Matthiesen, Karina; Nielsen, Jacob

2011-01-01

205

Gating by Cyclic AMP: Expanded Role for an Old Signaling Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The intracellular signal transduction pathway that utilizes cyclic AMP as a key messenger was the first such pathway to be described and has served as a model for many other transducing systems. Now Iyengar illustrates how this classic pathway has yet another function--in a number of different biological systems, the cyclic AMP pathway appears to gate (either negatively or positively) other signal transduction pathways.

Ravi Iyengar (City University of New York;Department of Pharmacology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine)

1996-01-26

206

Transcription-translation coupling and polarity: a possible role of cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

Using specific mutants exhibiting altered translational rates we found that when the rate of protein synthesis is reduced the polarity of the lactose and galactose operons is increased. This polarity is in part relieved by cyclic AMP. On the basis of in vitro hybridization experiments were propose that the cyclic AMP-CAP complex and the ribosomes display similar functions, namely destabilization of the RNA-DNA hybrid formed during transcription. PMID:6263357

Danchin, A; Dondon, L; Joseph, E; Ullmann, A

1981-01-01

207

Histamine-induced cyclic AMP formation in the chick hypothalamus: interaction with vasoactive intestinal peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of histamine (HA) on cyclic AMP production and its action upon the effects evoked by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were studied in the chick hypothalamus. HA (0.1-1000 M) potently stimulated cyclic AMP formation in the hypothalamic slices, reaching maximal effect (2.5-3.5-fold increase) at a 100 M concentration, and displaying an EC value of approximately 6.5 M. The stimulatory action

Jolanta B. Zawilska; Hanna Gendek-Kubiak; Agata Woldan-Tambor; Anna Wiktorowska-Owczarek; Jerzy Z. Nowak

208

Histamine-stimulated cyclic AMP formation in the chick pineal gland: Role of protein kinase C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in histamine (HA)-stimulated cyclic AMP formation in intact chick pineal glands was investigated. In the pineal gland of chick HA, 2-methylHA, 4-methylHA, and N?,N?-dimethylHA potently increased cyclic AMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of intact glands with PKC inhibitors, i.e. chelerythrine and staurosporine, reduced the stimulatory effect of the HA-ergic compounds on

Jolanta B. Zawilska; Agata Woldan-Tambor; Jerzy Z. Nowak

1997-01-01

209

Adenylate cyclase and the cyclic AMP receptor protein modulate stress resistance and virulence capacity of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In many bacteria, the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) interacts with the transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP), forming active cAMP-CRP complexes that can control a multitude of cellular activities, including expanded carbon source utilization, stress response pathways, and virulence. Here, we assessed the role of cAMP-CRP as a regulator of stress resistance and virulence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the principal cause of urinary tract infections worldwide. Deletion of genes encoding either CRP or CyaA, the enzyme responsible for cAMP synthesis, attenuates the ability of UPEC to colonize the bladder in a mouse infection model, dependent on intact innate host defenses. UPEC mutants lacking cAMP-CRP grow normally in the presence of glucose but are unable to utilize alternate carbon sources like amino acids, the primary nutrients available to UPEC within the urinary tract. Relative to the wild-type UPEC isolate, the cyaA and crp deletion mutants are sensitive to nitrosative stress and the superoxide generator methyl viologen but remarkably resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and acid stress. In the mutant strains, H(2)O(2) resistance correlates with elevated catalase activity attributable in part to enhanced translation of the alternate sigma factor RpoS. Acid resistance was promoted by both RpoS-independent and RpoS-dependent mechanisms, including expression of the RpoS-regulated DNA-binding ferritin-like protein Dps. We conclude that balanced input from many cAMP-CRP-responsive elements, including RpoS, is critical to the ability of UPEC to handle the nutrient limitations and severe environmental stresses present within the mammalian urinary tract. PMID:23115037

Donovan, Grant T; Norton, J Paul; Bower, Jean M; Mulvey, Matthew A

2013-01-01

210

Cyclic AMP negatively regulates prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens  

PubMed Central

Many Serratia marcescens strains produce the red pigment prodigiosin, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumor properties. Previous reports suggest that cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a positive regulator of prodigiosin production. Supporting this model, the addition of glucose to growth medium inhibited pigment production in rich and minimal media. Unexpectedly, we observed highly elevated levels of prodigiosin production in isogenic strains with mutations in genes involved in cAMP production (cyaA and crr) and in cAMP-dependent transcriptional signaling (crp). Multicopy expression of the Escherichia coli camp phosphodiesterase gene, cpdA, also conferred a striking increase in prodigiosin production. Exogenous cAMP decreased both pigment production and pigA-lacZ transcription in the wild-type (WT) strain, and pigA-lacZ transcription was significantly increased in a crp mutant relative to WT. Suppressor and epistasis analysis indicate that the hyperpigment phenotype was dependent upon pigment biosynthetic genes (pigA, pigB, pigC, pigD and pigM). These experiments establish cAMP as a negative regulator of prodigiosin production in S. marcescens.

Kalivoda, Eric J.; Stella, Nicholas A.; Aston, Marissa A.; Fender, James E.; Thompson, Paul P.; Kowalski, Regis P.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

2010-01-01

211

Involvement of Microtubules in the Regulation of Bcl2 Phosphorylation and Apoptosis through Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase  

PubMed Central

The Bcl2 family of proteins plays a significant role in regulation of apoptosis. In this study, the microtubule-damaging drugs paclitaxel, vincristine, and vinblastine induced Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation and apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and reduced Bcl2-Bax dimerization. Paclitaxel or vincristine induced increased expression of Bax, while overexpression of Bcl2 in these cell lines counteracted the effects of low doses of these drugs. In addition, paclitaxel- and vincristine-induced activation of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]) induced Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation and apoptosis, which were blocked by the PKA inhibitor Rp diastereomers of cAMP (Rp-cAMP). This finding suggests that activation of PKA due to microtubule damage is an important event in Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation and induction of apoptosis. These microtubule-damaging drugs caused growth arrest in G2-M phase of the cell cycle and had no effect on p53 induction, suggesting that hyperphosphorylation mediated inactivation of Bcl2 and apoptosis without the involvement of p53. By comparison, the DNA-damaging drugs methotrexate and doxorubicin had no effect on Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation but induced p53 expression. Interestingly, paclitaxel or vincristine induced activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase downstream of Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation. These data suggest that there may be a signaling cascade induced by agents that disrupt or damage the cytoskeleton that is distinct from (i.e., p53 independent), but perhaps related to (i.e., involves kinase activation and leads to apoptosis), the cellular response to DNA damage.

Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Srivastava, Aparna R.; Korsmeyer, Stanley J.; Nesterova, Maria; Cho-Chung, Yoon S.; Longo, Dan L.

1998-01-01

212

Regulation of the sodium/potassium/chloride cotransporter by calcium and cyclic AMP in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

The activity of the Na/K/Cl cotransporter in smooth muscle cells cultured from rat aorta was assayed by measuring the initial rate of furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx or efflux. Five uM furosemide or 0.2 uM bumetanide inhibited influx by 50%. Furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx depended on the presence of all 3 ions in the external medium. The dependence on Na and K was hyperbolic with apparent Km values of 45 and 5 mM, respectively. The dependence on Cl was sigmoidal. Assuming a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 for Na:K:Cl, a Km for Cl of 60 mM was obtained from a Hofstee plot of the data. Rapidly growing cells had 3 fold higher cotransport activity than quiescent cells. Angiotensin II (ANG) stimulated furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb efflux by 2 fold. An ANG receptor antagonist prevented ANG from increasing cotransport activity. Two calcium ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, increased cotransport activity by 2 fold. Phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on cotransport activity. Isoproterenol, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cholera toxin, or methylisobutylxanthine inhibited furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by 35 to 50%. From these findings they conclude that increasing cytoplasmic free calcium stimulates cotransport activity, whereas increasing cellular cyclic AMP inhibits the cotransporter.

Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.; Smith, J.B.

1987-05-01

213

Activation of Cyclic AMP Signaling Leads to Different Pathway Alterations in Lesions of the Adrenal Cortex Caused by Germline PRKAR1A Defects versus Those due to Somatic GNAS Mutations  

PubMed Central

Context: The overwhelming majority of benign lesions of the adrenal cortex leading to Cushing syndrome are linked to one or another abnormality of the cAMP or protein kinase pathway. PRKAR1A-inactivating mutations are responsible for primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, whereas somatic GNAS activating mutations cause macronodular disease in the context of McCune-Albright syndrome, ACTH-independent macronodular hyperplasia, and, rarely, cortisol-producing adenomas. Objective and Design: The whole-genome expression profile (WGEP) of normal (pooled) adrenals, PRKAR1A- (3) and GNAS-mutant (3) was studied. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were used to validate WGEP findings. Results: MAPK and p53 signaling pathways were highly overexpressed in all lesions against normal tissue. GNAS-mutant tissues were significantly enriched for extracellular matrix receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways when compared with PRKAR1A-mutant (fold enrichment 3.5, P < 0.0001 and 2.1, P < 0.002, respectively). NFKB, NFKBIA, and TNFRSF1A were higher in GNAS-mutant tumors (P < 0.05). Genes related to the Wnt signaling pathway (CCND1, CTNNB1, LEF1, LRP5, WISP1, and WNT3) were overexpressed in PRKAR1A-mutant lesions. Conclusion: WGEP analysis revealed that not all cAMP activation is the same: adrenal lesions harboring PRKAR1A or GNAS mutations share the downstream activation of certain oncogenic signals (such as MAPK and some cell cycle genes) but differ substantially in their effects on others.

Almeida, Madson Q.; Azevedo, Monalisa F.; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Bimpaki, Eirini I.; Horvath, Anelia; Collins, Michael T.; Karaviti, Lefkothea P.; Jeha, George S.; Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Cheadle, Chris; Watkins, Tonya; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Nesterova, Maria

2012-01-01

214

Orexins\\/Hypocretins Acting at G i Protein-Coupled OX 2 Receptors Inhibit Cyclic AMP Synthesis in the Primary Neuronal Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orexins A and B are newly discovered neuropeptides with pleiotropic activity. They signal through two G protein-coupled receptors:\\u000a OX1 and OX2. In this study, we examined the expression of orexin receptors and effects of the receptors’ activation on cyclic AMP formation\\u000a in the primary neuronal cell cultures from rat cerebral cortex. Both types of orexin receptors were expressed in rat

Anna Urba?ska; Paulina Soko?owska; Agata Woldan-Tambor; Kaja Biega?ska; Britta Brix; Olaf Jöhren; Magdalena Namieci?ska; Jolanta Barbara Zawilska

215

Cyclic AMP and cell division in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

We examined several aspects of cell division regulation in Escherichia coli which have been thought to be controlled by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and its receptor protein (CAP). Mutants lacking adenyl cyclase (cya) or CAP (crp) were rod shaped, not spherical, during exponential growth in LB broth or glucose-Casamino Acids medium, and lateral wall elongation was normal; in broth, stationary-phase cells became ovoid. Cell mass was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, but it remained appropriate for their slower growth rate and thus probably does not reflect early (uncontrolled) septation. The slow growth did not seem to reflect a gross metabolic disorder, since the mutants gave a normal yield on limiting glucose; surprisingly, however, the cya mutant (unlike crp) was unable to grow anaerobically on glucose, suggesting a role for cAMP (but not for CAP) in the expression of some fermentation enzyme. Both cya and crp mutants are known to be resistant to mecillinam, an antibiotic which inhibits penicillin-binding protein 2 (involved in lateral wall elongation) and also affects septation. This resistance does not reflect a lack of PBP2. Furthermore, it was not simply the result of slow growth and small cell mass, since small wild-type cells growing in acetate remained sensitive. The cAMP-CAP complex may regulate the synthesis of some link between PBP2 and the septation apparatus. The ftsZ gene, coding for a cell division protein, was expressed at a higher level in the absence of cAMP, as measured with an ftsZ::lacZ fusion, but the amount of protein per cell, shown by others to be invariable over a 10-fold range of cell mass, was independent of cAMP, suggesting that ftsZ expression is not regulated by the cAMP-CAP complex. PMID:2826407

D'Ari, R; Jaffé, A; Bouloc, P; Robin, A

1988-01-01

216

Cyclic AMP and cell division in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

We examined several aspects of cell division regulation in Escherichia coli which have been thought to be controlled by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and its receptor protein (CAP). Mutants lacking adenyl cyclase (cya) or CAP (crp) were rod shaped, not spherical, during exponential growth in LB broth or glucose-Casamino Acids medium, and lateral wall elongation was normal; in broth, stationary-phase cells became ovoid. Cell mass was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, but it remained appropriate for their slower growth rate and thus probably does not reflect early (uncontrolled) septation. The slow growth did not seem to reflect a gross metabolic disorder, since the mutants gave a normal yield on limiting glucose; surprisingly, however, the cya mutant (unlike crp) was unable to grow anaerobically on glucose, suggesting a role for cAMP (but not for CAP) in the expression of some fermentation enzyme. Both cya and crp mutants are known to be resistant to mecillinam, an antibiotic which inhibits penicillin-binding protein 2 (involved in lateral wall elongation) and also affects septation. This resistance does not reflect a lack of PBP2. Furthermore, it was not simply the result of slow growth and small cell mass, since small wild-type cells growing in acetate remained sensitive. The cAMP-CAP complex may regulate the synthesis of some link between PBP2 and the septation apparatus. The ftsZ gene, coding for a cell division protein, was expressed at a higher level in the absence of cAMP, as measured with an ftsZ::lacZ fusion, but the amount of protein per cell, shown by others to be invariable over a 10-fold range of cell mass, was independent of cAMP, suggesting that ftsZ expression is not regulated by the cAMP-CAP complex. Images

D'Ari, R; Jaffe, A; Bouloc, P; Robin, A

1988-01-01

217

Effects of a new 1,3-thiazole Derivative ZSY-39 on force of contraction and cyclic AMP content in canine ventricular muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A newly synthesized 1,3-thiazole derivative ZSY-39 increased the force of contraction in a concentrationdependent manner in association with elevation of tissue cyclic AMP levels in the isolated canine ventricular trabeculae electrically driven at 0.5 Hz at 37°C. ZSY-39 shortened the duration of isometric contractions mainly by abbreviation of the relaxation time. The maximal response to and EC50 of ZSY-39

Masao Endoh; Hiroshi Satoh; Ikuo Norota; Katsuhisa Hirano

1990-01-01

218

Intracellular cyclic AMP inhibits native and recombinant volume-regulated chloride channels from mammalian heart  

PubMed Central

ClC-3 encodes a volume-regulated Cl? channel (ICl,vol) in heart. We studied the regulation of native and recombinant cardiac ICl,vol by intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMPi). Symmetrical high Cl? concentrations were used to effectively separate outwardly rectifying ICl,vol from other non-rectifying Cl? currents, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Ca2+-activated Cl? currents (ICl,CFTR and ICl,Ca, respectively), which are concomitantly expressed in cardiac myocytes. 8-Bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP) significantly inhibited ICl,vol in most guinea-pig atrial myocytes. In ?30 % of the atrial myocytes examined, 8-Br-cAMP increased macroscopic Cl? currents. However, the 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated difference currents exhibited a linear current-voltage (I–V) relation, consistent with activation of ICl,CFTR, not ICl,vol. In canine atrial myocytes, isoprenaline (1 ?M) consistently reduced ICl,vol in Ca2+-free hypotonic bath solutions with strong intracellular Ca2+ (Cai2+) buffering. In Ca2+-containing hypotonic bath solutions with weak Cai2+ buffering, however, isoprenaline increased net macroscopic Cl? currents. Isoprenaline-stimulated difference currents were not outwardly rectifying, consistent with activation of ICl,Ca, not ICl,vol. In NIH/3T3 cells transfected with gpClC-3 (the gene encoding ICl,vol), 8-Br-cAMP consistently inhibited ICl,ClC-3. These effects were prevented by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720, or by mutation of a single consensus protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site (S51A) on the N-terminus of ClC-3, which also mediates PKC inhibition of ICl,ClC-3. We conclude that cAMPi causes inhibition of ICl,vol in mammalian heart due to cross-phosphorylation of the same PKC consensus site on ClC-3 by PKA. Our results suggest that contamination of macroscopic ICl,vol by ICl,CFTR and/or ICl,Ca may account for some of the inconsistent and controversial effects of cAMPi on ICl,vol previously reported in native cardiac myocytes.

Nagasaki, Masaaki; Ye, Lingyu; Duan, Dayue; Horowitz, Burton; Hume, Joseph R

2000-01-01

219

Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide, angiotensin, cyclic AMP, and potassium on protein phosphorylation in adrenal glomerulosa cells  

SciTech Connect

Bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells were incubated with /sup 32/PO/sub 4/ and angiotensin II (AII), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (rat(8-33)), N/sup 6/,O/sup 2'/-dibutyryl cyclic AMP, or elevated potassium. Solubilized cells were analyzed by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, autoradiography, and laser densitometry. AII and dibutyryl cyclic AMO increased labeling of 17.6 kd protein. Elevated potassium did not alter labeling of this protein. ANP inhibited labeling, whether basal or stimulated by AII, and to a lesser extent that stimulated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Similar dose-response curves were obtained for the effect of AII on labeling of the 17.6 Kd band and on aldosterone synthesis; ANP had a similar inhibitory effect on AII-stimulated phosphorylation and aldosterone synthesis. Effects of AII and ANP were apparent after 15 minutes of hormone treatment. Fractionation of labeled cells showed that the 17.6 Kd protein was not in cytosol, mitochondria, or endoplasmic reticulum, but was enriched in a crude nuclear fraction. These results suggest AII and ANP affect aldosterone synthesis at the level of protein phosphorylation. 30 references, 5 figures, 1 table

Elliott, M.E.; Goodfriend, T.L.

1987-12-07

220

Changes in sodium, potassium-ATPase induced by repeated fencamfamine: the roles of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and the nitric oxide–cyclic GMP pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fencamfamine (FCF) is an indirect dopamine agent with effects similar to amphetamine and cocaine. In the present study, we investigate changes in Na,K-ATPase, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and cyclic GMP levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum (ST) of animals acutely or repeatedly treated with FCF (3.5 mg\\/kg). Na,K-ATPase had a similar

Carolina Demarchi Munhoz; Isaias Glezer; Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto; Ana Paula Natalini Araújo; Lucília B Lepscha; Cleopatra S Planeta; Roberto DeLucia; Cristoforo Scavone

2003-01-01

221

Cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein as a repressor of transcription of the spf gene of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The spf gene of Escherichia coli encodes an unstable 109-nucleotide RNA, spot 42 RNA; the level of this RNA was reduced three- to fivefold when cells were grown in the presence of 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP). We show that this regulation occurs through reduction in transcription and depends on both cAMP and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) but is independent of the de novo protein synthesis. Through deletion analysis of the spf gene promoter, we have identified sequences that are important in the synthesis of spot 42 RNA. Deletion of sequences upstream of -77 completely eliminated the negative control of cAMP-CRP and resulted in high constitutive levels of transcription. This region contained a sequence that both conformed to the consensus binding site for cAMP-CRP in positively regulated promoters and acted as a cAMP-CRP binding site in a gel retardation assay. Deletion of sequences between positions -77 and -60 greatly reduced the level of transcription in the presence or absence of cAMP-CRP, indicating that at least part of this region is a binding site for a positive-acting transcription factor (or RNA polymerase itself). We propose that the proximity of the two sites defined here allows for the negative control of spf gene transcription by cAMP-CRP. In particular, if only one site at a time can be occupied, the binding of cAMP-CRP would interfere with the binding of a transcription factor. Images

Polayes, D A; Rice, P W; Garner, M M; Dahlberg, J E

1988-01-01

222

The rapid desensitization of glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase is a cyclic AMP-independent process that can be mimicked by hormones which stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of intact hepatocytes with glucagon, TH-glucagon [( 1-N-alpha-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]glucagon), angiotensin or vasopressin led to a rapid time- and dose-dependent loss of the glucagon-stimulated response of the adenylate cyclase activity seen in membrane fractions isolated from these cells. Intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations were only elevated with glucagon. All ligands were capable of causing both desensitization/loss of glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and stimulation of inositol phospholipid metabolism in the intact hepatocytes. Maximally effective doses of angiotensin precluded any further inhibition/desensitizing action when either glucagon or TH-glucagon was subsequently added to these intact cells, as has been shown previously for the phorbol ester TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate) [Heyworth, Wilson, Gawler & Houslay (1985) FEBS Lett. 187, 196-200]. Treatment of intact hepatocytes with these various ligands caused a selective loss of the glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a washed membrane fraction and did not alter the basal, GTP-, NaF- and forskolin-stimulated responses. Angiotensin failed to inhibit glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity when added directly to a washed membrane fraction from control cells. Glucagon GR2 receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase is suggested to undergo desensitization/uncoupling through a cyclic AMP-independent process, which involves the stimulation of inositol phospholipid metabolism by glucagon acting through GR1 receptors. This action can be mimicked by other hormones which act on the liver to stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism. As the phorbol ester TPA also mimics this process, it is proposed that protein kinase C activation plays a pivotal role in the molecular mechanism of desensitization of glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase. The site of the lesion in desensitization is shown to be at the level of coupling between the glucagon receptor and the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gs, and it is suggested that one or both of these components may provide a target for phosphorylation by protein kinase C.

Murphy, G J; Hruby, V J; Trivedi, D; Wakelam, M J; Houslay, M D

1987-01-01

223

Two Phosphodiesterase Genes, PDEL and PDEH, Regulate Development and Pathogenicity by Modulating Intracellular Cyclic AMP Levels in Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling plays an important role in regulating multiple cellular responses, such as growth, morphogenesis, and/or pathogenicity of eukaryotic organisms such as fungi. As a second messenger, cAMP is important in the activation of downstream effector molecules. The balance of intracellular cAMP levels depends on biosynthesis by adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and hydrolysis by cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEases). The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae contains a high-affinity (PdeH/Pde2) and a low-affinity (PdeL/Pde1) PDEases, and a previous study showed that PdeH has a major role in asexual differentiation and pathogenicity. Here, we show that PdeL is required for asexual development and conidial morphology, and it also plays a minor role in regulating cAMP signaling. This is in contrast to PdeH whose mutation resulted in major defects in conidial morphology, cell wall integrity, and surface hydrophobicity, as well as a significant reduction in pathogenicity. Consistent with both PdeH and PdeL functioning in cAMP signaling, disruption of PDEH only partially rescued the mutant phenotype of ?magB and ?pka1. Further studies suggest that PdeH might function through a feedback mechanism to regulate the expression of pathogenicity factor Mpg1 during surface hydrophobicity and pathogenic development. Moreover, microarray data revealed new insights into the underlying cAMP regulatory mechanisms that may help to identify potential pathogenicity factors for the development of new disease management strategies.

Zhang, Haifeng; Liu, Kaiyue; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Wei; Wang, Jiansheng; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qian; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

2011-01-01

224

Dicentrine, a novel antiplatelet agent inhibiting thromboxane formation and increasing the cyclic AMP level of rabbit platelets.  

PubMed

Dicentrine is an antiplatelet agent isolated from the Chinese herb Lindera megaphylla. We examined the in vitro effects of dicentrine on various aspects of platelet reactivity. Dicentrine inhibited the aggregation and ATP release of washed rabbit platelets induced by arachidonic acid (AA), collagen, ADP, platelet-activating factor (PAF), thrombin and U46619. Dicentrine also inhibited the thromboxane B2 formation caused by AA, collagen and thrombin in washed intact platelets or that induced by AA in lysed platelet homogenate, while prostaglandin D2 formation caused by AA was not increased. The generation of inositol monophosphates (in the presence of indomethacin) caused by thrombin, collagen and PAF was not suppressed significantly, nor did dicentrine suppress fibrinogen-induced aggregation of elastase-treated platelets. Dicentrine inhibited the intracellular Ca2+ increase in quin-2/AM-loaded platelets caused by thrombin, PAF, collagen and AA. The cyclic AMP level was elevated by dicentrine in a concentration-dependent manner. These data indicate that the inhibitory effect of dicentrine on platelet aggregation and ATP release was due to the inhibition of thromboxane formation and the elevation of the level of cyclic AMP. PMID:1310852

Yu, S M; Chen, C C; Ko, F N; Huang, Y L; Huang, T F; Teng, C M

1992-01-22

225

19F n.m.r. studies of conformational changes accompanying cyclic AMP binding to 3-fluorophenylalanine-containing cyclic AMP receptor protein from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

A fluorine-containing analogue of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) from Escherichia coli was prepared by biosynthetic incorporation of 3-fluorophenylalanine (3-F-Phe). 19F n.m.r. studies on this protein have provided direct evidence for cAMP-induced conformational changes not only within the cAMP-binding domain but also within the hinge region connecting the cAMP-binding domain to the DNA-binding headpiece. At 313 K, the 19F n.m.r. spectrum of [3-F-Phe]CRP showed five signals corresponding to the five phenylalanine residues as expected for a symmetrical dimer. Proteolysis of [3-F-Phe]CRP with subtilisin produced a fragment (the alpha-fragment) containing the cAMP-binding domain. The alpha-fragment contains all the phenylalanines except for Phe-136, a residue located in the hinge region. By comparing the 19F spectra of [3-F-Phe]CRP and its alpha-fragment, the signal for Phe-136 was assigned. The chemical shifts of the corresponding signals in the two spectra are similar, indicating that the alpha-fragment retains the structure it has in the intact protein. The largest cAMP-induced shift was observed for the signal from Phe-136 providing direct evidence for a conformational change in the hinge region. However, whereas binding of a single cAMP molecule to a CRP dimer is known to be sufficient to activate the DNA binding, the n.m.r. data indicate that the hinge region does not have the same conformation in both subunits when only one cAMP molecule is bound.

Hinds, M G; King, R W; Feeney, J

1992-01-01

226

Cyclic AMP compartmentation due to increased cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity in transgenic mice with a cardiac-directed expression of the human adenylyl cyclase type 8 (AC8)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hearts from AC8TG mice develop a higher contractility (LVSP) and larger Ca2 transients than NTG mice, with (surprisingly) no modification in L-type Ca2 channel current (ICa,L) (1). In this study, we examined the cardiac response of AC8TG mice to -ad- renergic and muscarinic agonists and IBMX, a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor. Stimula- tion of LVSP and ICa,L by isoprenaline

MARIE GEORGET; PHILIPPE MATEO; GREGOIRE VANDECASTEELE; LARISSA LIPSKAIA; NICOLE DEFER; JACQUES HANOUNE; JACQUELINE HOERTER; CLAIRE LUGNIER; RODOLPHE FISCHMEISTER

2003-01-01

227

Opposing actions of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and GMP on temperature in conscious guinea-pigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the intracerebroventricular administration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Db-cAMP) induced hyperthermia in guinea pigs which was not mediated through prostaglandins or norepinephrine since a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor and an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking agent did not antagonize the hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to Db-cAMP was attenuated by the central administration of a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, which indicates that cAMP may be involved, through beta-adrenergic receptors, in the central regulation of heat production and conservation. The central administration of Db-cGMP produced hypothermia which was not mediated via histamine H1 or H2 receptors and serotonin. The antagonism of hypothermia induced by Db-cGMP and acetylcholine + physostigmine by central administration of a cholinergic muscarine receptor antagonist and not by a cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist suggests that cholinoceptive neurons and endogenous cGMP may regulate heat loss through cholinergic muscarine receptors. It is concluded that these results indicate a regulatory role in thermoregulation provided by a balance between opposing actions of cAMP and cGMP in guinea pigs.

Kandasamy, S. B.; Williaes, B. A.

1983-01-01

228

Transcriptional Network of Multiple Capsule and Melanin Genes Governed by the Cryptococcus neoformans Cyclic AMP Cascade  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that elaborates several virulence attributes, including a polysaccharide capsule and melanin pigments. A conserved G? protein/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway controls melanin and capsule production. To identify targets of this pathway, we used an expression profiling approach to define genes that are transcriptionally regulated by the G? protein Gpa1. This approach revealed that Gpa1 transcriptionally regulates multiple genes involved in capsule assembly and identified two additional genes with a marked dependence on Gpa1 for transcription. The first is the LAC1 gene, encoding the laccase enzyme that catalyzes a rate-limiting step in diphenol oxidation and melanin production. The second gene identified (LAC2) is adjacent to the LAC1 gene and encodes a second laccase that shares 75% nucleotide identity with LAC1. Similar to the LAC1 gene, LAC2 is induced in response to glucose deprivation. However, LAC2 basal transcript levels are much lower than those for LAC1. Accordingly, a lac2 mutation results in only a modest delay in melanin formation. LAC2 overexpression suppresses the melanin defects of gpa1 and lac1 mutants and partially restores virulence of these strains. These studies provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of capsule and melanin production by the C. neoformans cAMP pathway and demonstrate that multiple laccases contribute to C. neoformans melanin production and pathogenesis.

Pukkila-Worley, Read; Gerrald, Quincy D.; Kraus, Peter R.; Boily, Marie-Josee; Davis, Matthew J.; Giles, Steven S.; Cox, Gary M.; Heitman, Joseph; Alspaugh, J. Andrew

2005-01-01

229

Potent constitutive cyclic AMP-generating activity of XL?s implicates this imprinted GNAS product in the pathogenesis of McCune-Albright Syndrome and fibrous dysplasia of bone  

PubMed Central

Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), characterized primarily by hyperpigmented skin lesions, precocious puberty, and fibrous dyslasia of bone, carry postzygotic heterozygous mutations of GNAS causing constitutive cAMP signaling. GNAS encodes the ?-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs?), as well as a large variant (XL?s) derived from the paternal allele. The mutations causing MAS affect both GNAS products, but whether XL?s, like Gs?, can be involved in the pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated biopsy samples from four previously reported and eight new patients with MAS. Activating mutations of GNAS (Arg201 with respect to the amino acid sequence of Gs?) were present in all the previously reported and five of the new cases. The mutation was detected within the paternally expressed XL?s transcript in five and the maternally expressed NESP55 transcript in four cases. Tissues carrying paternal mutations appeared to have higher XL?s mRNA levels than maternal mutations. The human XL?s mutant analogous to Gs?-R201H (XL?s-R543H) showed markedly higher basal cAMP accumulation than wild-type XL?s in transfected cells. Wild-type XL?s demonstrated higher basal and isoproterenol-induced cAMP signaling than Gs? and co-purified with G?1?2 in transduced cells. XL?s mRNA was measurable in mouse calvarial cells, with its level being significantly higher in undifferentiated cells than those expressing preosteoblastic markers osterix and alkaline phosphatase. XL?s mRNA was also expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells and preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that constitutive XL?s activity adds to the molecular pathogenesis of MAS and fibrous dysplasia of bone.

Mariot, Virginie; Wu, Joy Y.; Aydin, Cumhur; Mantovani, Giovanna; Mahon, Matthew J.; Linglart, Agnes; Bastepe, Murat

2010-01-01

230

Dynamic Fluctuations Provide the Basis of a Conformational Switch Mechanism in Apo Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli cyclic AMP Receptor Protein (CRP) undergoes conformational changes with cAMP binding and allosterically promotes CRP to bind specifically to the DNA. In that, the structural and dynamic properties of apo CRP prior to cAMP binding are of interest for the comprehension of the activation mechanism. Here, the dynamics of apo CRP monomer/dimer and holo CRP dimer were studied by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Gaussian Network Model (GNM). The interplay of the inter-domain hinge with the cAMP and DNA binding domains are pre-disposed in the apo state as a conformational switch in the CRP's allosteric communication mechanism. The hinge at L134-D138 displaying intra- and inter-subunit coupled fluctuations with the cAMP and DNA binding domains leads to the emergence of stronger coupled fluctuations between the two domains and describes an on state. The flexible regions at K52-E58, P154/D155 and I175 maintain the dynamic coupling of the two domains. With a shift in the inter-domain hinge position towards the N terminus, nevertheless, the latter correlations between the domains loosen and become disordered; L134-D138 dynamically interacts only with the cAMP and DNA binding domains of its own subunit, and an off state is assumed. We present a mechanistic view on how the structural dynamic units are hierarchically built for the allosteric functional mechanism; from apo CRP monomer to apo-to-holo CRP dimers.

Aykac Fas, Burcu; Tutar, Yusuf; Haliloglu, Turkan

2013-01-01

231

The cyclic AMP receptor protein modulates colonial morphology in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Inactivation of the quorum-sensing regulator HapR causes Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype strain C7258 to adopt a rugose colonial morphology that correlates with enhanced biofilm formation. V. cholerae mutants lacking the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) produce very little HapR, which results in elevated expression of Vibrio exopolysaccharide (vps) genes and biofilm compared to the wild type. However, Deltacrp mutants still exhibited smooth colonial morphology and expressed reduced levels of vps genes compared to isogenic hapR mutants. In this study we demonstrate that deletion of crp and cya (adenylate cyclase) converts a rugose DeltahapR mutant to a smooth one. The smooth DeltahapR Deltacrp and DeltahapR Deltacya double mutants could be converted back to rugose by complementation with crp and cya, respectively. CRP was found to enhance the expression of VpsR, a strong activator of vps expression, but to diminish transcription of VpsT. Ectopic expression of VpsR in smooth DeltahapR Deltacrp and DeltahapR Deltacya double mutants restored rugose colonial morphology. Lowering intracellular cAMP levels in a DeltahapR mutant by the addition of glucose diminished VpsR expression and colonial rugosity. On the basis of our results, we propose a model for the regulatory input of CRP on exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:17921282

Liang, Weili; Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A

2007-11-01

232

Trafficking and Gating of Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channels Are Regulated by Interaction with Tetratricopeptide Repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting Protein (TRIP8b) and Cyclic AMP at Distinct Sites*  

PubMed Central

Ion channel trafficking and gating are often influenced by interactions with auxiliary subunits. Tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) is an auxiliary subunit for neuronal hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. TRIP8b interacts directly with two distinct sites of HCN channel pore-forming subunits to control channel trafficking and gating. Here we use mutagenesis combined with electrophysiological studies to define and distinguish the functional importance of the HCN/TRIP8b interaction sites. Interaction with the last three amino acids of the HCN1 C terminus governed the effect of TRIP8b on channel trafficking, whereas TRIP8b interaction with the HCN1 cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) affected trafficking and gating. Biochemical studies revealed that direct interaction between TRIP8b and the HCN1 CNBD was disrupted by cAMP and that TRIP8b binding to the CNBD required an arginine residue also necessary for cAMP binding. In accord, increasing cAMP levels in cells antagonized the up-regulation of HCN1 channels mediated by a TRIP8b construct binding the CNBD exclusively. These data illustrate the distinct roles of the two TRIP8b-HCN interaction domains and suggest that TRIP8b and cAMP may directly compete for binding the HCN CNBD to control HCN channel gating, kinetics, and trafficking.

Han, Ye; Noam, Yoav; Lewis, Alan S.; Gallagher, Johnie J.; Wadman, Wytse J.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Chetkovich, Dane M.

2011-01-01

233

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase interferes with GTP. gamma. S stimulated IP sub 3 formation in differentiated HL-60 cell membranes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of addition of activated cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on the function of islet-activating protein (IAP)-sensitive GTP-binding (G) protein were studied in the plasma membranes of {sup 3}H-inositol-labeled differentiated human leukemic (HL-60) cells. Pretreatment of the membranes with activated PKA in the presence of MgATP for 15 min. at 37{degree}C decreased GTP {gamma}S-stimulated inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) formation by about 30%, but had no influence on Ca{sup 2+}-stimulated IP{sub 3} formation. And autoradiography in the phosphorylation experiments of solubilized HL-60 cell membranes by PKA showed some {sup 32}P incorporated bands, and among them one of the major bands showed the migration at 40 kDa supporting that the G protein coupling with PI response was phosphorylated by PKA. These results showed that pretreatment with activated PKA inhibited the mediating function of the G protein between the fMLP receptor and phospholipase C by its phosphorylation.

Misaki, Naoyuki; Imaizumi, Taro; Watanabe, Yashuiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan))

1989-01-01

234

Cyclic AMP-elevating agents down-regulate the oxidative burst induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in adherent neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

Human neutrophils, plated on fibronectin-precoated wells, were found to release large quantities of superoxide anion (O2-) in response to GM-CSF. O2- production was reduced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the phosphodiesterase type IV (PDE IV) inhibitor RO 20-1724. Both agents are known to increase intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels by inducing its production (PGE2) or blocking its catabolism (RO 20-1724). When added in combination, PGE2 and RO 20-1724 had a marked synergistic inhibitory effect, which was reproduced by replacing PGE2 with a direct activator of adenylate cyclase, i.e. forskolin (FK). Moreover, the neutrophil response to GM-CSF was inhibited by a membrane-permeable analogue of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. As GM-CSF and PGE2 are known to be generated at tissue sites of inflammation, the results suggest the existence of a PGE2-dependent regulatory pathway potentially capable of controlling the neutrophil response to GM-CSF, in turn limiting the risk of local oxidative tissue injury. Moreover, owing to its susceptibility to amplification by RO 20-1724, the PGE2-dependent pathway and in particular PDE-IV may represent a pharmacological target to reduce the generation of histotoxic oxidants by GM-CSF-responding neutrophils.

Ottonello, L; Morone, M P; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

1995-01-01

235

Cyclic nucleotides of cone-dominant retinas. Reduction of cyclic AMP levels by light and by cone degeneration.  

PubMed

Dark-adapted retinas or whole eyes of 13-line ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus) and western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) contain higher levels of cyclic AMP than of cyclic GMP. In these cone-dominant retinas, light reduces cyclic AMP content selectively. Freezing of dark- or light-adapted retinas or eyes also reduces cyclic AMP content, with only minimal changes in cyclic GMP levels. In addition, exposure of frozen retinas of dark-adapted ground squirrel to light results in a significant decrease in cyclic AMP content. The destruction of cone visual cells of ground squirrel retina by iodoacetic acid injection decreases the cyclic nucleotide content of the dark-adapted retina. Considering the relative loss of cyclic nucleotides from cone degeneration, we estimate that the content of cyclic AMP in visual cells of ground squirrel retina is about four times greater than that of cyclic GMP. PMID:6256308

Farber, D B; Souza, D W; Chase, D G; Lolley, R N

1981-01-01

236

The structure of the promoter and amino terminal region of the pH 2.5 acid phosphatase structural gene (appA) of E. coli: a negative control of transcription mediated by cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

The regulatory and promoter regions of the gene for acid phosphatase of optimum pH 2.5 (appA) of Escherichia coli has been characterized by constructing appA-lacZ protein fusions. Monitoring of beta-galactosidase activity showed that the cloned fragment harbored a region that was responsible for a negative control of transcription mediated by the cAMP-cAMP receptor (CAP) complex. The nucleotide sequence of the segment was determined. A region containing a putative CAP binding site, overlapping the -10 region of the promoter was found. Deletion analysis around the promoter region, using appA-lacZ protein fusions substantiated the hypothesis for a role of the 'consensus' sequence in the negative control mediated by cyclic AMP. In addition, the coding sequence revealed the likely existence of a signal peptide similar to the one found for other exported proteins, upstream from the phosphatase protein sequence. PMID:3038201

Touati, E; Danchin, A

1987-03-01

237

Cyclic AMP receptor protein regulates pheromone-mediated bioluminescence at multiple levels in Vibrio fischeri ES114.  

PubMed

Bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri ES114 is activated by autoinducer pheromones, and this regulation serves as a model for bacterial cell-cell signaling. As in other bacteria, pheromone concentration increases with cell density; however, pheromone synthesis and perception are also modulated in response to environmental stimuli. Previous studies suggested that expression of the pheromone-dependent bioluminescence activator LuxR is regulated in response to glucose by cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) (P. V. Dunlap and E. P. Greenberg, J. Bacteriol. 164:45-50, 1985; P. V. Dunlap and E. P. Greenberg, J. Bacteriol. 170:4040-4046, 1988; P. V. Dunlap, J. Bacteriol. 171:1199-1202, 1989; and W. F. Friedrich and E. P. Greenberg, Arch. Microbiol. 134:87-91, 1983). Consistent with this model, we found that bioluminescence in V. fischeri ES114 is modulated by glucose and stimulated by cAMP. In addition, a ?crp mutant was ?100-fold dimmer than ES114 and did not increase luminescence in response to added cAMP, even though cells lacking crp were still metabolically capable of producing luminescence. We further discovered that CRP regulates not only luxR but also the alternative pheromone synthase gene ainS. We found that His-tagged V. fischeri CRP could bind sequences upstream of both luxR and ainS, supporting bioinformatic predictions of direct regulation at both promoters. Luminescence increased in response to cAMP if either the ainS or luxR system was under native regulation, suggesting cAMP-CRP significantly increases luminescence through both systems. Finally, using transcriptional reporters in transgenic Escherichia coli, we elucidated two additional regulatory connections. First, LuxR-independent basal transcription of the luxI promoter was enhanced by CRP. Second, the effect of CRP on the ainS promoter depended on whether the V. fischeri regulatory gene litR was also introduced. These results suggest an integral role for CRP in pheromone signaling that goes beyond sensing cell density. PMID:23995643

Lyell, Noreen L; Colton, Deanna M; Bose, Jeffrey L; Tumen-Velasquez, Melissa P; Kimbrough, John H; Stabb, Eric V

2013-11-01

238

Opposing roles of cyclic AMP in the vascular control of edema formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight agents that increase the intracellu- lar concentration of cyclic AMP were tested for their effect on edema formation. The specificity of the agents for vascular smooth muscle or the endothelium was deter- mined by measuring vasodilation with a laser Doppler flow probe and cAMP production by endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. The agents were injected

JOHN B. WARREN; J. WILSON; RASHPAL K. LOl; MARGARET L COUGHLAN

239

Cellular regulation of basal and FSH-stimulated cyclic AMP production in irradiated rat testes  

SciTech Connect

Basal and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) productions by seminiferous tubular segments from irradiated adult rats were investigated at defined stages of the epithelial cycle when specific spermatogenic cells were low in number. Seven days post-irradiation, depletion of spermatogonia did not influence the basal cAMP production, but FSH response increased in stages II-VIII. Seventeen days post-irradiation when spermatocytes were low in number, there was a small increase in basal cAMP level in stages VII-VIII and FSH-stimulated cAMP production increased in stages VII-XII and XIII-I. At 38 days when pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids (steps 1-6) were low in number, a decreased basal cAMP production was measured in stages II-VI and IX-XII. FSH-stimulated cAMP output increased in stages VII-XII but decreased in stages II-VI. At 52 days when all spermatids were low in number, basal cAMP levels decreased in all stages of the cycle, whereas FSH response was elevated only in stages VII-XII. All spermatogenic cell types seem to have an effect on cAMP production by the seminiferous tubule in a stage-specific fashion. Germ cells appear to regulate Sertoli cell FSH response in a paracrine way, and a part of cAMP may originate from spermatids stimulated by an unknown FSH-dependent Sertoli cell factor. The FSH-dependent functions may control such phenomena as spermatogonial proliferation, final maturation of spermatids, and onset of meiosis.

Kangasniemi, M.; Kaipia, A.; Toppari, J.; Mali, P.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Parvinen, M. (Univ. of Turku (Finland))

1990-05-01

240

Carbachol and bradykinin elevate cyclic AMP and rapidly deplete ATP in cultured rat sympathetic neurons.  

PubMed Central

The agonists carbachol (CCh) and bradykinin (BK) and 54 mM KCl (high K+) were among the most potent stimulants of cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in cultured rat sympathetic neurons, measured with the use of a high-fidelity assay developed for small samples. The rise in cAMP evoked by CCh (through muscarinic receptors), BK, and high K+ was inhibited in Ca2(+)-depleted medium (1.3 mM Ca2+ and 2 mM BAPTA or EGTA), which also prevented the sustained rise in [Ca2+]i evoked by each of these stimuli, showing that elevation of cAMP requires extracellular Ca2+ and, possibly, Ca2+ influx. Preliminary results obtained with the novel calmodulin inhibitor CGS 9343B, which blocked the elevation of cAMP, and with the cyclogenase inhibitor indomethacin, which partially blocked the actions of the agonists but not those of high K+, suggest that calmodulin and arachidonate metabolites may be two components of the signaling pathway. In addition to their effects on cAMP metabolism, CCh, muscarine, and BK, but not nicotine, caused a 30-40% decrease in ATP levels. This effect was much greater than that evoked by high K+ and was largely inhibited by CGS 9343B but slightly enhanced in the Ca(+)-depleted medium, showing that agonists are still active in the absence of [Ca2+]o. Thus, agonists that activate phosphoinositide metabolism can also increase cAMP production and substantially deplete cells of ATP. These novel actions may have to be taken into account when the mechanisms by which such agonists regulate cell function are being considered.

Suidan, H S; Murrell, R D; Tolkovsky, A M

1991-01-01

241

In vivo and in vitro assessment of the cardiovascular effects of 8-(benzylthio)-N6-n-butyl-cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

In the canine heart-lung preparation (HLP) and the anesthetized open-chest dog, both 8-(Benzylthio)-N6-n-butyl-cyclic AMP (BTB-cyclic AMP) (10 times more potent) and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (DB-cyclic AMP) produced a definite positive inotropic effect (PIE) and an increase in the coronary blood flow with either no change (HLP) or a slight increase (anesthetized animal) (BTB-cyclic AMP) and a definite increase in the heart rate (DB-cyclic AMP). In the isolated atrial preparations of the guinea pig (AG), BTB-cyclic AMP produced a slight PIE at 3 X 10(-5) M and a negative chronotropic effect at 3 X 10(-4) M. Aminophylline reversed the latter to the positive one, while potentiating the former. At 10(-3) M marked positive inotropic and chronotropic effects were observed. DB-cyclic AMP was without effects. In the right ventricular papillary muscle preparations of the guinea pig (PMG), both compounds produced PIE. BTB-cyclic AMP initiated a contraction (AG) and a "slow" action potential (PMG) in partially depolarized preparations. Both of these effects were abolished by diltiazem. BTB-cyclic AMP (10(-3) M) suppressed the heart rate increase induced by isoproterenol in right AG. It was concluded that BTB-cyclic AMP was a cardiotonic agent with a relatively weak positive chronotropic effect and that the cardiotonic effect was ascribable to the initiation of slow action potentials and related contractions. PMID:2413293

Nakazawa, M; Takeda, K; Nakagawa, Y; Tamatsu, H; Matsui, K; Nakahara, H; Kimura, T; Kawada, T; Imai, S

1985-01-01

242

Isolation and characterization of glucocorticoid- and cyclic AMP-induced genes in T lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids and cyclic AMP exert dramatic effects on the proliferation and viability of murine T lymphocytes through unknown mechanisms. To identify gene products which might be involved in glucocorticoid-induced responses in lymphoid cells, we constructed a lambda cDNA library prepared from murine thymoma WEHI-7TG cells treated for 5 h with glucocorticoids and forskolin. The library was screened with a subtracted cDNA probe enriched for sequences induced by the two drugs, and cDNA clones representing 11 different inducible genes were isolated. The pattern of expression in BALB/c mouse tissues was examined for each cDNA clone. We have identified two clones that hybridized to mRNAs detected exclusively in the thymus. Other clones were identified that demonstrated tissue-specific gene expression in heart, brain, brain and thymus, or lymphoid tissue (spleen and thymus). The kinetics of induction by dexamethasone and forskolin were examined for each gene. The majority of the cDNA clones hybridized to mRNAs that were regulated by glucocorticoids and forskolin, two were regulated only by glucocorticoids, and three hybridized to mRNAs that required both drugs for induction. Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide resulted in the induction of all mRNAs that were inducible by glucocorticoids. Preliminary sequence analysis of four of the 11 cDNAs suggests that two cDNAs represent previously undescribed genes while two others correspond to the mouse VL30 retrovirus-like element and the mouse homolog of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Images

Harrigan, M T; Baughman, G; Campbell, N F; Bourgeois, S

1989-01-01

243

Dibutyryl cyclic AMP-induced enhancement of RB protein degradation in human hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) was previously reported to enhance the down-regulation of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein during G1 phase in proliferating primary rat hepatocytes, but to inhibit their entry into S phase and RB phosphorylation. In the present study, DBcAMP was also found to enhance the down-regulation of RB protein in the human hepatoma cells PLC/PRF/5 after hydroxyurea-induced synchronization at G1/S phase. One hour after synchronization, CPP32 activity was detected in the cells and was further enhanced in the presence of DBcAMP. CPP32-specific cleavage of the RB protein was also detected and enhanced by the addition of DBcAMP in a dose-dependent manner. DNA analysis by flow cytometry after serum starvation-induced synchronization at G0/G1 phase revealed that DBcAMP elicited an apoptotic peak after the S phase. Based on these findings, DBcAMP was suspected of inducing apoptosis by RB protein degradation during G1/S transition and thereby inhibit the growth of PLC/PRF/5 cells. Under serum-deficient culture conditions, addition of the CPP32 inhibitor DEVD or the ICE inhibitor YVAD enhanced cell growth but did not abolish the DBcAMP-induced growth inhibition. On the other hand, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against Bcl-2 mRNA showed a growth inhibitory effect on PLC/PRF/5 cells, but did not show an additive effect on the DBcAMP-induced growth inhibition. DBcAMP itself inhibited bcl-2 protein expression. DBcAMP-induced growth inhibition may be mediated by different mechanisms, including apoptosis. PMID:10697531

Okamoto, Y

1999-01-01

244

The role of cyclic AMP signaling in promoting axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The failure of axons to regenerate after spinal cord injury remains one of the greatest challenges facing both medicine and neuroscience, but in the last 20 years there have been tremendous advances in the field of spinal cord injury repair. One of the most important of these has been the identification of inhibitory proteins in CNS myelin, and this has led to the development of strategies that will enable axons to overcome myelin inhibition. Elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) has been one of the most successful of these strategies, and in this review we examine how cAMP signaling promotes axonal regeneration in the CNS. Intracellular cAMP levels can be increased through a peripheral conditioning lesion, administration of cAMP analogues, priming with neurotrophins or treatment with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram, and each of these methods has been shown to overcome myelin inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. It is now known that the effects of cAMP are transcription dependent, and that cAMP-mediated activation of CREB leads to upregulated expression of genes such as arginase I and interleukin-6. The products of these genes have been shown to directly promote axonal regeneration, which raises the possibility that other cAMP-regulated genes could yield additional agents that would be beneficial in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Further study of these genes, in combination with human clinical trials of existing agents such as rolipram, would allow the therapeutic potential of cAMP to be fully realized. PMID:17720160

Hannila, Sari S; Filbin, Marie T

2008-02-01

245

Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 ? M) had mixed effects (?20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence.

Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

2014-01-01

246

Endogenous expression of histamine H1 receptors functionally coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in C6 glioma cells: regulation by cyclic AMP.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on phospholipid hydrolysis in rat-derived C6 glioma cells have been investigated. 2. Histamine H1 receptor-stimulation caused a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of total [3H]-inositol phosphates in cells prelabelled with [3H]-myo-inositol. The rank order of agonist potencies was histamine (EC50 = 24 microM) > N alpha-methylhistamine (EC50 = 31 microM) > 2-thiazolylethylamine (EC50 = 91 microM). 3. The response to 0.1 mM histamine was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by the H1-antagonists, mepyramine (apparent Kd = 1 nM) and (+)-chlorpheniramine (apparent Kd = 4 nM). In addition, (-)-chlorpheniramine was more than two orders of magnitude less potent than its (+)-stereoisomer. 4. Elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation with forskolin (10 microM, EC50 = 0.3 microM), isoprenaline (1 microM, EC50 = 4 nM) or rolipram (0.5 mM), significantly reduced the histamine-mediated (0.1 mM) inositol phosphate response by 37%, 43% and 26% respectively. In contrast, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin did not increase cyclic AMP accumulation and had no effect on the phosphoinositide response to histamine. 5. These data indicate the presence of functionally coupled, endogenous histamine H1 receptors in C6 glioma cells. Furthermore, the results also indicate that H1 receptor-mediated phospholipid hydrolysis is inhibited by the elevation of cyclic AMP levels in these cells.

Peakman, M C; Hill, S J

1994-01-01

247

Cyclic AMP enhances the sexual agglutinability of Chlamydomonas flagella.  

PubMed

Sexual adhesion between Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gametes elicits a rise in intracellular cAMP levels, and exogenous elevation of intracellular cAMP levels in gametes of a single mating type induces such mating responses as cell wall loss, flagellar tip activation, and mating structure activation (Pasquale, S. M., and U. W. Goodenough. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:2279-2292). Here evidence is presented that sexual adhesion mobilizes agglutinin to the flagellar surface, and that this mobilization can be induced by exogenous presentation of cAMP to gametes of a single mating type. It is proposed that Chlamydomonas adhesion entails a positive feedback system--initial contacts stimulate the presentation of additional agglutinin--and that this feedback is mediated by adhesion-induced cAMP generation. PMID:2473079

Goodenough, U W

1989-07-01

248

3':5'Cyclic AMP and Hormonal Control of Puparium Formation in the Fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) into larvae of the fly Sarcophaga bullata 3-4 hr before the beginning of puparium formation (red-spiracle stage) greatly accelerates the onset of tanning without affecting initiation of puparium formation (anterior retraction). Accelerated tanning resembles real tanning in two important respects: the solubility of cuticular proteins becomes reduced and [U-14C]tyrosine is incorporated into the cuticle. Of

G. Fraenkel; Ann Blechl; James Blechl; Paul Herman; Morris I. Seligman

1977-01-01

249

The Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Modulates Colonial Morphology in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inactivation of the quorum-sensing regulator HapR causes Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype strain C7258 to adopt a rugose colonial morphology that correlates with enhanced biofilm formation. V. cholerae mutants lacking the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) produce very little HapR, which results in elevated expression of Vibrio exopolysaccharide (vps) genes and biofilm compared to the wild type. However, crp

Weili Liang; Anisia J. Silva; Jorge A. Benitez

2007-01-01

250

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Controls Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that infects the human central nervous system. This pathogen elaborates two specialized virulence factors: the antioxidant melanin and an antiphagocytic immunosuppressive polysaccharide capsule. A signaling cascade controlling mating and virulence was iden- tified. The PKA1 gene encoding the major cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit was identified and disrupted. pka1 mutant strains

CLETUS A. D'SOUZA; J. ANDREW ALSPAUGH; CHANGLI YUE; TOSHIAKI HARASHIMA; GARY M. COX; JOHN R. PERFECT; JOSEPH HEITMAN

2001-01-01

251

Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

1991-01-01

252

Involvement of cyclic AMP, iodide and metabolites of arachidonic acid in the regulation of cell proliferation of isolated porcine thyroid follicles.  

PubMed

Experiments with primary cultures of isolated porcine thyroid follicles were performed in serum-free well-defined medium to investigate different pathways that may be involved in the regulation of thyroid cell growth. The incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA within 72 h was about 25-fold with fetal calf serum (FCS, 1%), 20-fold with epidermal growth factor (EGF, 1 ng/ml) and 3.5-fold with insulin (10 micrograms/ml) as compared to controls. Bovine TSH significantly reduced the basal and insulin-induced growth rate at concentrations of 10(-6) to 10(-4) U/ml and 10(-4) U/ml, respectively. Forskolin stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in thyroid cells and significantly reduced FCS-, EGF- or insulin-induced growth. In contrast, a 2- to 7-fold increase in FCS-, insulin- or EGF-induced growth rate was found, when cyclic AMP formation was inhibited by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA). Iodide was stimulatory at low concentrations (1 microM) and inhibitory at higher concentrations (40-80 microM) on FCS-induced growth rate. The inhibitory effect of iodide was blocked by propylthiouracil (PTU), indicating that an iodinated compound is responsible for this effect. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, did not inhibit EGF- and insulin-induced growth up to a concentration of 100 microM. However, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and BW-755C, which are lipoxygenase inhibitors, strongly inhibited the growth of thyroid cells at micromolar concentrations. These data clearly show that (1) bovine TSH is not a growth factor for isolated thyroid cells in vitro, (2) thyroid cell proliferation, induced by FCS, EGF and insulin is under negative control of cyclic AMP. (3) Iodide controls dose-dependently thyroid cell growth by iodinated metabolites, probably modulating 2 different pathways: (a) at low iodide concentrations, an iodinated compound enhances the growth rate by inhibition of cyclic AMP formation, and (b) at high concentrations, iodide diminishes the growth rate by inhibiting the response to growth factors. (4) Metabolite(s) of lipoxygenase appear to be involved in intracellular signal transduction evoked by growth factors in thyroid cells. PMID:2998905

Gärtner, R; Greil, W; Demharter, R; Horn, K

1985-09-01

253

A Gs protein couples P2-purinergic stimulation to cardiac Ca channels without cyclic AMP production  

PubMed Central

P2-purinergic stimulation of the L-type Ca current induced by the external application of 100 microM ATP gamma S was investigated in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The purinergic-induced increase in ICa was slow and monophasic and reached a steady state within 3 min. In contrast to beta-adrenergic stimulation, after a brief agonist application the current did not continue to increase on washout; recovery started immediately after agonist removal. The P2-purinergic increase in ICa was significantly less in the presence of GDP beta S, but it occurred much faster and was twice as large when a low dose of GTP gamma S (100 microM) was added to a GTP-containing internal medium. This suggests that the ICa increase was mediated by a G protein. Based on electrophoretic mobility and susceptibility to cholera toxin and anti-G alpha s serum, it is proposed that the G protein involved during purinergic-induced ICa stimulation is an isoform of Gs not coupled to the adenylyl cyclase, since the cyclic AMP level was unaffected. High intracellular GTP gamma S (1 mM) maximally activated ICa so that neither beta-adrenergic nor P2- purinergic agonists further increased ICa. In the absence of GTP and an ATP-regenerating system, GTP gamma S was much more potent in increasing basal ICa and supporting purinergic stimulation. This indicates that a nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity might replenish endogenous GTP; GTP exchange with GTP gamma S on the G protein was promoted by the P2- purinergic stimulation and led to a reversible and reproducible increase in ICa. In the presence of 3 mM internal ATP gamma S, the P2- purinergic stimulation was also reversible and reproducible. Moreover, under these conditions (ATP gamma S or GTP gamma S) the increase in ICa was not maintained during prolonged agonist application. Such an inhibition occurred slowly and irreversibly; it might be related to the threefold increase in cyclic GMP. In conclusion, we propose that extracellular ATP induces both a stimulatory and an inhibitory effect on ICa, probably mediated by subtypes of P2-purinergic receptors. An isoform of the Gs protein is likely to mediate the stimulation.

1992-01-01

254

Cyclic AMP Effectors in African Trypanosomes Revealed by Genome-Scale RNA Interference Library Screening for Resistance to the Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor CpdA  

PubMed Central

One of the most promising new targets for trypanocidal drugs to emerge in recent years is the cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity encoded by TbrPDEB1 and TbrPDEB2. These genes were genetically confirmed as essential, and a high-affinity inhibitor, CpdA, displays potent antitrypanosomal activity. To identify effectors of the elevated cAMP levels resulting from CpdA action and, consequently, potential sites for adaptations giving resistance to PDE inhibitors, resistance to the drug was induced. Selection of mutagenized trypanosomes resulted in resistance to CpdA as well as cross-resistance to membrane-permeable cAMP analogues but not to currently used trypanocidal drugs. Resistance was not due to changes in cAMP levels or in PDEB genes. A second approach, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) library screen, returned four genes giving resistance to CpdA upon knockdown. Validation by independent RNAi strategies confirmed resistance to CpdA and suggested a role for the identified cAMP Response Proteins (CARPs) in cAMP action. CARP1 is unique to kinetoplastid parasites and has predicted cyclic nucleotide binding-like domains, and RNAi repression resulted in >100-fold resistance. CARP2 and CARP4 are hypothetical conserved proteins associated with the eukaryotic flagellar proteome or with flagellar function, with an orthologue of CARP4 implicated in human disease. CARP3 is a hypothetical protein, unique to Trypanosoma. CARP1 to CARP4 likely represent components of a novel cAMP signaling pathway in the parasite. As cAMP metabolism is validated as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei, cAMP effectors highly divergent from the mammalian host, such as CARP1, lend themselves to further pharmacological development.

Gould, Matthew K.; Bachmaier, Sabine; Ali, Juma A. M.; Alsford, Sam; Tagoe, Daniel N. A.; Munday, Jane C.; Schnaufer, Achim C.; Horn, David

2013-01-01

255

Molecular cloning of gene sequences transcriptionally regulated by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cyclic AMP in cultured mouse teratocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

F9 mouse teratocarcinoma stem cells differentiate into primitive endoderm cells in response to retinoic acid (RA). A cDNA library, synthesized from RA and dibutyryl cyclic AMP-treated F9 teratocarcinoma cells, has been screened for gene sequences regulated by RA. By hybridization-selection and in vitro translation, the pcJ6, pcJ31, and pcF117 homologous mRNAs encode polypeptides of 40,000; 35,000-37,000; and 24,000 Da respectively. The pcI56 and pcI5 homologous mRNAs encode laminin B and collagen IV (S-Y. Wang and L. J. Gudas, 1983, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5880-5884). Prior to RA addition, these gene sequences correspond to low-abundance mRNAs (less than 0.05% of total cellular mRNAs). Within 24 hr after the addition of RA (5 X 10(-7) M) to F9 cells, the expression of these sequences increases dramatically, and at 72 hr after drug addition, a 5- to 30-fold induction of these genes can be attained. Addition of lower concentrations of RA results in a smaller increase in the expression of these genes. If the F9 cells are treated with both RA (5 X 10(-7) M) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (but2cAMP), the levels of mRNA specific for these five inducible genes are further increased by approximately 30- to 110-fold over those in the stem cells; but2cAMP alone does not induce the expression of these genes. The expression of J6 and J31, but not I56 (laminin) and 15 (collagen IV), is also regulated by RA in the P19 teratocarcinoma stem cell line, which differentiates into a fibroblastic cell type in response to RA. In vitro transcription experiments demonstrate that laminin and collagen IV are transcriptionally regulated by RA; but2cAMP also enhances the rate of transcription of these genes in F9 cells. PMID:2981185

Wang, S Y; LaRosa, G J; Gudas, L J

1985-01-01

256

Effect of cyclic GMP-dependent vasodilators on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in vascular smooth muscle cells: role of cyclic AMP.  

PubMed Central

1. In the present study we examined whether interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) increases the activity of adenylyl cyclase in vascular smooth muscle cells and determined its role in the cytokine-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B). In addition the interaction between cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-elevating agonists on the IL-1 beta-stimulated expression of iNOS was examined. 2. Exposure of vascular smooth muscle cells to IL-1 beta stimulated the formation of cyclic AMP but not of cyclic GMP. The intracellular level of cyclic AMP reached a maximum within 1 h and then gradually declined over the next 5 h. This IL-1 beta (60 u ml-1)-stimulated formation of cyclic AMP was modest (about 3 fold at 60 u ml-1 for 1 h) compared to that evoked by isoprenaline (about 9 fold at 3 x 10(-6) M for 2 min). 3. The IL-1 beta (60 u ml-1 for 24 h)-stimulated accumulation of nitrite, which was taken as an index of NO production, was concentration-dependently increased by preferential inhibitors of cyclic AMP-dependent phosphodiesterases (rolipram and trequinsin). This effect was reproduced by a specific activator of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) A, Sp-8-CPT-cAMPS (10(-4) M) but was prevented by a specific inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) A, Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (10(-4) M). These compounds alone [rolipram (10(-6) M), trequinsin (3 x 10(-6) M) and Sp-8-CPT-cAMPS (10(-4) M)] slightly but significantly increased the release of nitric oxide while Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS elicited no such effect. 4. Inducible NOS protein was expressed in IL-1 beta (30 u ml-1, 24 h)-stimulated smooth muscle cells as assessed by Western blot analysis. The level of iNOS protein was markedly increased in smooth muscle cells which had been exposed to IL-1 beta in combination with either rolipram (3 x 10(-6) M) or Sp-8-CPT-cAMPS (10(-4) M) but was reduced in those exposed to IL-1 beta and Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (10(-4) M). A weak expression of iNOS protein was found in smooth muscle cells which had been exposed to either Sp-8-CPT-cAMPS or rolipram alone for 24 h while Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS elicited no such effect. 5. Exposure of smooth muscle cells to IL-1 beta (30 u ml-1) for 30 min increased the level of NF-kappa B-DNA complexes in nuclear extracts as detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Similar levels of NF-kappa B-DNA complexes were found in cells which had been exposed to IL-1 beta in combination with either Sp-8-CPT-cAMPS (10(-4) M), trequinsin (10(-6) M) or rolipram (10(-6) M). None of the modulators alone affected the basal level of NF-kappa B binding activity. 6. NO-donors [sodium nitroprusside (SNP) 10(-4) M; dinitrosyl-iron-di-L-cysteine-complex (DNIC), 10(-4) M; 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1), 10(-4) M] and atrial natriuretic factor (10(-6) M) significantly increased the IL-1 beta (30 or 60 u ml-1, 24 h)-stimulated expression of iNOS protein and activity as assessed indirectly by the conversion of oxyhaemoglobin to methaemoglobin. In the absence of IL-1 beta, SNP (10(-4) M, 24 h) but not the other cyclic GMP-dependent vasodilators caused a modest expression of iNOS protein. No such effect was found in smooth muscle cells exposed to SNP in combination with Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (10(-4) M) while an increased level of iNOS protein was found in those exposed to SNP in combination with either Sp-8-CPT-cAMPS (10(-4) M) or rolipram (3 x 10(-6) M). 7. Exposure of vascular smooth muscle cells to either S-nitroso-L-cysteine (Cys-SNO, 10(-4) M), SNP (10(-4) M) or SIN-1 (10(-4) M) for 35 min affected minimally the basal activation of NF-kappa B but abolished that evoked by IL-1 beta (30 u ml-1 added during the last 30 min). However, addition of Cys-SNO following the stimulation with IL-1 beta (during the last 5 min of the 30 min exposure period) reduced the level of NF-kappa B-DNA complexes only slightly. 8. These data indicate that the cyclic AMP-dependent pathway plays a decisi Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9

Boese, M.; Busse, R.; Mulsch, A.; Schini-Kerth, V.

1996-01-01

257

Calmidazolium is a potent stimulator of steroidogenesis via mechanisms not involving cyclic AMP, calcium or protein synthesis.  

PubMed Central

This study reports an unexpected effect of calmidazolium on steroidogenesis. In contrast with previous work, which established that calmidazolium inhibits hormone-stimulated testosterone production in rat Leydig cells, the present study demonstrates that this compound is a potent stimulator of steroidogenesis when added by itself; this stimulation (approx. 10-fold in a 2 h incubation), was obtained over a narrow dose range (e.g.1-10 microM) in mouse and rat Leydig cells and in rat adrenocortical cells. The same concentrations of calmidazolium decreased basal cyclic AMP to undetectable levels in rat Leydig cells. Also, cyclic AMP stimulated with luteinizing hormone (LH), cholera toxin and forskolin was inhibited by calmidazolium (ED50 2 microM). In contrast with the actions of LH and cyclic AMP analogues on steroidogenesis, the effect of calmidazolium was not inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+, or by the addition of La3+ (a Ca(2+)-entry blocker), or the addition of cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein translation). However, like dibutyryl cyclic AMP, calmidazolium-stimulated steroidogenesis was inhibited by aminoglutethimide, an inhibitor of cholesterol side-chain cleavage. Another calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine, did not stimulate steroidogenesis. It is concluded that calmidazolium has a similar effect on steroidogenesis to LH, but by-passes the requirements for cyclic AMP, Ca2+, and protein synthesis. Calmidazolium is therefore a potentially important probe for elucidating the mechansims of control of steroidogenesis.

Choi, M S; Cooke, B A

1992-01-01

258

The TonB3 System in the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus Is under the Control of the Global Regulators Lrp and Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein  

PubMed Central

TonB systems transduce the proton motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane to energize substrate transport through a specific TonB-dependent transporter across the outer membrane. Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic marine pathogen that can cause a fatal septicemic disease in humans and eels, possesses three TonB systems. While the TonB1 and TonB2 systems are iron regulated, the TonB3 system is induced when the bacterium grows in human serum. In this work we have determined the essential roles of the leucine-responsive protein (Lrp) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) in the transcriptional activation of this system. Whereas Lrp shows at least four very distinctive DNA binding regions spread out from position ?59 to ?509, cAMP-CRP binds exclusively in a region centered at position ?122.5 from the start point of the transcription. Our results suggest that both proteins bind simultaneously to the region closer to the RNA polymerase binding site. Importantly, we report that the TonB3 system is induced not only by serum but also during growth in minimal medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source and low concentrations of Casamino Acids. In addition to catabolite repression by glucose, l-leucine acts by inhibiting the binding of Lrp to the promoter region, hence preventing transcription of the TonB3 operon. Thus, this TonB system is under the direct control of two global regulators that can integrate different environmental signals (i.e., glucose starvation and the transition between “feast” and “famine”). These results shed light on new mechanisms of regulation for a TonB system that could be widespread in other organisms.

Crosa, Jorge H.

2012-01-01

259

Platelet cyclic AMP in essential hypertensive and normotensive offspring.  

PubMed

Essential hypertension is accompanied by several modifications to platelet metabolism suggesting hyper-reactivity to various aggregating agents. As the platelet response is mediated by both cytosolic free calcium, which is stimulatory, and cyclic (c)AMP, which is inhibitory, this hyper-reactivity may be caused by a modification in cAMP metabolism. We therefore determined cAMP in unstimulated platelets from 19 patients with essential hypertension and 27 age-matched normotensive subjects, nine with and 19 without a family history of hypertension. The platelet cAMP content was reduced in the essential hypertensives and in the normotensives with a positive family history by 37.5% and 42%, respectively (P less than 0.001 for both). Platelet cAMP was inversely correlated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.036). After prostaglandin (PG) E1 stimulation, the platelet cAMP content remained lower in the patients with essential hypertension than in the normotensive subjects, whatever their hypertensive heredity. The rises in cAMP caused by inhibition of phosphodiesterase by 7-bromo-1,5-dihydro-3,6-dimethylimidazo-[2,1-b]quinazolin-2[ 3H]-one (Ro 15-2041) were similar in the three groups. These results indicate that cAMP, the platelet inhibitory messenger, is reduced in hypertensive patients and in their normotensive offspring and may affect the various platelet abnormalities previously described in this disease. PMID:2561137

Mazeaud, M M; Le Quan Sang, K H; Devynck, M A

1989-12-01

260

Cyclic AMP regulates extracellular matrix gene expression and metabolism in cultured primary rat chondrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid surrounding chondrocytes contains increased levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an agent known to elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). However, the effect of PGE2\\/cAMP on mRNA expression in chondrocytes is largely unknown. In this report, we assess the effect of the cell-permeable cAMP analog adenosine 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (CPT-cAMP) and PGE2 on mRNA expression

Jason S. Rockel; Matthew Grol; Suzanne M. Bernier; Andrew Leask

2009-01-01

261

The myriad roles of cyclic AMP in microbial pathogens, from signal to sword  

PubMed Central

All organisms must sense and respond to their external environments, and this signal transduction is often done with second messengers such as cyclic nucleotides. Adenosine 3'5'-cyclic AMP is a universal second messenger that is used by diverse forms of life, including mammals, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. In this review, we discuss the many roles of cAMP in bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens and its contributions to microbial pathogenesis. These include coordination of intracellular processes such as virulence gene expression with extracellular signals from the host environment, and manipulation of host immunity by increasing cAMP levels in host cells during infection.

McDonough, Kathleen A.; Rodriguez, Ana

2013-01-01

262

Effect of cyclic AMP on barrier function of human lymphatic microvascular tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the effect of cyclic AMP (cAMP) on the in vitro barrier function of tubes of human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (LECs). Under baseline conditions, the barrier function of LEC tubes was weak, with diffusional permeability coefficients to bovine serum albumin and 10 kDa dextran of 1.4?0.6+0.9×10?6 cm\\/s and 1.7?0.5+0.8×10?6 cm\\/s (geometric mean±95% CI), respectively, and 1.2±0.5 (mean±95% CI) focal

Gavrielle M. Price; Kenneth M. Chrobak; Joe Tien

2008-01-01

263

Involvement of Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein in Regulation of the rmf Gene Encoding the Ribosome Modulation Factor in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The decrease in overall translation in stationary-phase Escherichia coli is accompanied with the formation of functionally inactive 100S ribosomes mediated by the ribosome modulation factor (RMF). At present, however, little is known regarding the regulation of stationary-phase-coupled RMF expression. In the course of a systematic screening of regulation targets of DNA-binding transcription factors from E. coli, we realized that CRP (cyclic AMP [cAMP] receptor protein), the global regulator for carbon source utilization, participates in regulation of some ribosomal protein genes, including the rmf gene. In this study, we carried out detailed analysis of the regulation of the RMF gene by cAMP-CRP. The cAMP-dependent binding of CRP to the rmf gene promoter was confirmed by gel shift and DNase I footprinting assays. By using a reporter assay system, the expression level of RMF was found to decrease in the crp knockout mutant, indicating the involvement of CRP as an activator of the rmf promoter. In good agreement with the reduction of rmf promoter activity, we observed decreases in RMF production and 100S ribosome dimerization in the absence of CRP. Taken together, we propose that CRP regulates transcription activation of the rmf gene for formation of 100S ribosome dimers. Physiological roles of CRP involvement in RMF production are discussed.

Shimada, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Hideji

2013-01-01

264

Involvement of the Global Crp Regulator in Cyclic AMP-Dependent Utilization of Aromatic Amino Acids by Pseudomonas putida  

PubMed Central

The phhAB operon encodes a phenylalanine hydroxylase involved in the conversion of l-phenylalanine into l-tyrosine in Pseudomonas putida. The phhAB promoter is transcribed by RNA polymerase sigma-70 and is unusual in that the specific regulator PhhR acts as an enhancer protein that binds to two distant upstream sites (?75 to ?92 and ?132 to ?149). There is an integration host factor (IHF) binding site that overlaps the proximal PhhR box, and, consequently, IHF acts as an inhibitor of transcription. Use of l-phenylalanine is compromised in a crp-deficient background due to reduced expression from the phhAB promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting assays reveal that Crp binds at a site centered at ?109 only in the presence of cyclic AMP (cAMP). We show, using circular permutation analysis, that the simultaneous binding of Crp/cAMP and PhhR bends DNA to bring positive regulators and RNA polymerase into close proximity. This nucleoprotein complex promotes transcription from phhA only in response to l-phenylalanine.

Herrera, M. Carmen; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Fernandez-Escamilla, Ana

2012-01-01

265

Intraocular elevation of cyclic AMP potentiates ciliary neurotrophic factor-induced regeneration of adult rat retinal ganglion cell axons.  

PubMed

In vitro, cyclic AMP (cAMP) elevation alters neuronal responsiveness to diffusible growth factors and myelin-associated inhibitory molecules. Here we used an established in vivo model of adult central nervous system injury to investigate the effects of elevated cAMP on neuronal survival and axonal regeneration. We studied the effects of intraocular injections of neurotrophic factors and/or a cAMP analogue (CPT-cAMP) on the regeneration of axotomized rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons into peripheral nerve autografts. Elevation of cAMP alone did not significantly increase RGC survival or the number of regenerating RGCs. Ciliary neurotrophic factor increased RGC viability and axonal regrowth, the latter effect substantially enhanced by coapplication with CPT-cAMP. Under these conditions over 60% of surviving RGCs regenerated their axons. Neurotrophin-4/5 injections also increased RGC viability, but there was reduced long-distance axonal regrowth into grafts, an effect partially ameliorated by cAMP elevation. Thus, cAMP can act cooperatively with appropriate neurotrophic factors to promote axonal regeneration in the injured adult mammalian central nervous system. PMID:12595238

Cui, Qi; Yip, Henry K; Zhao, Robert C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Harvey, Alan R

2003-01-01

266

Cyclic AMP-elevating agents prolong or inhibit eosinophil survival depending on prior exposure to GM-CSF.  

PubMed Central

1. Purified human eosinophils survived for up to 7 days when cultured in vitro in the presence of 1 ng ml-1 granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with a viability of 73%. In the absence of GM-CSF, eosinophil viability decreased after one day in culture, and only 4% of cells were viable by day 4. 2. Culture of eosinophils with cholera toxin produced a concentration-dependent decrease in GM-CSF-induced survival at 7 days (IC50 = 7 ng ml-1) which was associated with a 6 fold increase in the intracellular cyclic AMP concentration. This inhibition of cell survival could be prevented by the addition of the protein kinase A inhibitor, H89 (10(-6)M). 3. When eosinophils were cultured with dibutyryl cyclic AMP, there was a concentration-dependent inhibition of GM-CSF-induced survival at 7 days with an IC50 of 200 microM. The related cyclic nucleotide analogue, dibutyryl cyclic GMP did not inhibit GM-CSF-induced eosinophil survival over the same concentration range. 4. Culture of eosinophils with forskolin, or with the phosphodiesterase inhibitors, rolipram and SK&F94120, had no effect on GM-CSF-induced eosinophil survival at any concentration examined. 5. After 7 days' culture in the absence of GM-CSF, fractionation of eosinophil DNA on agarose gels demonstrated a 'ladder' pattern characteristic of apoptosis. GM-CSF prevented DNA fragmentation and this protection could be overcome by both cholera toxin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. 6. GM-CSF did not affect intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations in unstimulated eosinophils or in cells stimulated by cholera toxin. Thus, GM-CSF does not apparently increase eosinophil survival by affecting cyclic AMP levels. 7. In the absence of GM-CSF both cholera toxin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP decreased the rate of eosinophil death, when compared to cells cultured with medium alone. The t1/2 values for cell death were 1.63 +/- 0.3, 2.46 +/- 0.3 and 4.62 +/- 1.0 days for cells cultured in the presence of medium, cholera toxin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP respectively. 8. In conclusion, cyclic AMP exerts opposing effects on eosinophil survival depending on prior exposure of the cells to GM-CSF. Images Figure 5

Hallsworth, M. P.; Giembycz, M. A.; Barnes, P. J.; Lee, T. H.

1996-01-01

267

Neutrophil beta-adrenergic receptor responses are potentiated by acute exposure to phorbol ester without changes in receptor distribution or coupling  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate for 10 minutes enhanced cyclic AMP accumulation in human neutrophils under basal conditions and in response to the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO, 1{mu}M) and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (FSK, 10mM). Potentiation of responses to ISO by PMA was dose-dependent between 0.1 and 100nM PMA. The diacylglycerol analogue, 1-oleoyl-2-actylgylcerol (OAG) (50 {mu}M) also elevated beta-receptor responses, but 4beta-phorbol (100nM), lacking the capacity to activate PMA, was ineffective. Short-term exposure to the peptide n-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP, 1 {mu}M) also elevated neutrophil cyclic AMP accumulation. All potentiating effects of PMA on cyclic AMP production were inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H{sub 7}). PMA had no apparent effect on beta-receptor agonist-affinity, distribution between cell-surface and internalized compartments, or the capacity of ISO to induce beta-receptor internalization. Responses to FSK or ISO in terms of fold-stimulation of basal cyclic AMP accumulation int he presence of PMA were not elevated by PMA.

Kilfeather, S.A.; Stein, M.; O'Malley, K. (Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin (Ireland))

1991-01-01

268

Influence of cell type on the steroidogenic potential and basal cyclic AMP levels of ras-oncogene-transformed rat cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation with ras oncogenes causes loss, maintenance or modulation of differentiation, depending on the developmental history of the target cells. In the present study, we examined steps in signal transduction that may underlie some of this variation, using steroidogenic cells of adult rats as the model system. Steroidogenesis in normal cells is regulated by cyclic AMP and protein kinase A

Jie Pan; Calvin D. Roskelley; Nelly Auersperg

1995-01-01

269

Enhancement of gap junctional intercellular communication by dibutyryl cyclic AMP in lung epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) occurs in neoplastic cells and contributes to their phenotype. Cyclic AMP agonists inhibit lung cancer cell growth and enhance GIIC in other cell types, but little is known about their effects on lung epithelial cell gap junctions. We have examined whether N6, 2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic mono-phosphate (DBcAMP) affected GJIC, gap junction protein (connexin43) expression, and the growth of non-transformed and neoplastic mouse lung epithelial cells. DBcAMP (0.01.1 mM) stimulated GJIC (assayed by fluorescent dye microinjection) and connexin43 expression (assessed by Northern and Western blotting) and reduced their proliferation. These results suggest an association between cAMP growth inhibition and enhanced GJIC in lung epithelial cells. PMID:9042246

Banoub, R W; Fernstrom, M; Malkinson, A M; Ruch, R J

1996-01-01

270

Enhancement of cyclic AMP-dependent sodium current by the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol.  

PubMed

The convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) causes paroxysmal depolarizing shifts (PDS) and bursting in molluscan neurons. PDS has been found to be accompanied by increased levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and supported by persistent Na+ current. In neurons of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis the blocker of cAMP degradation isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) mimicks PTZ action. Na+ dependence of PTZ-induced inward shift in holding current in voltage-clamped cells supports the potential Na+ current origin of PDS. Intracellular cAMP injection elicits a transient Na+ current whose amplitude and duration are enhanced by both PTZ and IBMX. PTZ may cause PDS partly through slowing cAMP degradation, thus enhancing the cAMP-dependent Na+ current. PDS-generated bursts cause partial inactivation of the Na+ current, which may contribute towards burst termination. PMID:2456826

McCrohan, C R; Gillette, R

1988-06-14

271

Primary cilium-dependent mechanosensing is mediated by adenylyl cyclase 6 and cyclic AMP in bone cells  

PubMed Central

Primary cilia are chemosensing and mechanosensing organelles that regulate remarkably diverse processes in a variety of cells. We previously showed that primary cilia play a role in mediating mechanosensing in bone cells through an unknown mechanism that does not involve extracellular Ca2+-dependent intracellular Ca2+ release, which has been implicated in all other cells that transduce mechanical signals via the cilium. Here, we identify a molecular mechanism linking primary cilia and bone cell mechanotransduction that involves adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6) and cAMP. Intracellular cAMP was quantified in MLO-Y4 cells exposed to dynamic flow, and AC6 and primary cilia were inhibited using RNA interference. When exposed to flow, cells rapidly (<2 min) and transiently decreased cAMP production in a primary cilium-dependent manner. RT-PCR revealed differential expression of the membrane-bound isoforms of adenylyl cyclase, while immunostaining revealed one, AC6, preferentially localized to the cilium. Further studies showed that decreases in cAMP in response to flow were dependent on AC6 and Gd3+-sensitive channels but not intracellular Ca2+ release and that this response mediated flow-induced COX-2 gene expression. The signaling events identified provide important details of a novel early mechanosensing mechanism in bone and advances our understanding of how signal transduction occurs at the primary cilium.—Kwon, R. Y., Temiyasathit, S., Tummala, P., Quah, C. C., Jacobs, C. R. Primary cilium-dependent mechanosensing is mediated by adenylyl cyclase 6 and cyclic AMP in bone cells.

Kwon, Ronald Y.; Temiyasathit, Sara; Tummala, Padmaja; Quah, Clarence C.; Jacobs, Christopher R.

2010-01-01

272

Expression of a subset of heat stress induced genes of mycobacterium tuberculosis is regulated by 3',5'-cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) secretes excess of a second messenger molecule, 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP), which plays a critical role in the survival of Mtb in host macrophages. Although Mtb produces cAMP in abundance, its exact role in the physiology of mycobacteria is elusive. In this study we have analyzed the expression of 16 adenylate cyclases (ACs) and kinetics of intracellular cAMP levels in Mtb during in vitro growth under the regular culture conditions, and after exposure to different stress agents. We observed a distinct expression pattern of these ACs which is correlated with intracellular cAMP levels. Interestingly cAMP levels are significantly elevated in Mtb following heat stress, whereas other stress conditions such as oxidative, nitrosative or low pH do not affect intracellular cAMP pool in vitro. A significant increase in expression by >2-fold of five ACs namely Rv1647, Rv2212, Rv1625c, Rv2488c and Rv0386 after heat stress further suggested that cAMP plays an important role in controlling Mtb response to heat stress. In the light of these observations, effect of exogenous cAMP on global gene expression profile was examined by using microarrays. The microarray gene expression analysis demonstrated that cAMP regulates expression of a subset of heat stress-induced genes comprising of dnaK, grpE, dnaJ, and Rv2025c. Further we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assay by using cAMP-receptor protein of Mtb (CRP(M)), which demonstrated that CRP(M) specifically recognizes a sequence -301AGCGACCGTCAGCACG-286 in 5'-untranslated region of dnaK. PMID:24587015

Choudhary, Eira; Bishai, William; Agarwal, Nisheeth

2014-01-01

273

Identification of electrostatic interaction sites between the regulatory and catalytic subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.  

PubMed Central

Two classes of molecules inhibit the catalytic subunit (C) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) and the regulatory (R) subunits. Basic sites on C, previously identified as important for R/C interaction in yeast TPK1 and corresponding to Lys213, Lys217, and Lys189 in murine C alpha, were replaced with either Ala or Thr and characterized for their kinetic properties and ability to interact with RI and PKI. rC(K213A) and rC(K217A) were both defective in forming holoenzyme with RI but were inhibited readily with PKI. This contrasts with rC(R133A), which is defective in binding PKI but not RI (Wen & Taylor, 1994). Thus, the C-subunit employs two distinct electrostatic surfaces to achieve high-affinity binding with these two types of inhibitory molecules even though all inhibitors share a common consensus site that occupies the active site cleft. Unlike TPK1, mutation of Lys189 had no effect. The mutant C subunits that were defective in binding RI, rC(K213A) and rC(K217A), were then paired with three RI mutants, rRI(D140A), rRI(E143A), and rRI(D258A), shown previously to be defective in recognition of C. Although the mutations at Asp140 and Asp258 in RI were additive with respect to the C mutations. rC(K213A) and rRI(E143A) were compensatory, thus identifying a specific electrostatic interaction site between RI and C. The results are discussed in terms of the RI and C crystal structures and the sequence homology between the yeast and mammalian enzymes.

Gibson, R. M.; Ji-Buechler, Y.; Taylor, S. S.

1997-01-01

274

Cell junction and cyclic AMP: I. Upregulation of junctional membrane permeability and junctional membrane particles by administration of cyclic nucleotide or phosphodiesterase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mammalian cells in culture were exposed to cyclic AMP, dibutyrul cyclic AMP, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor caffeine, or a combination of the last two, while junctional molecular transfer was probed with the series of microinjected, fluorescentlabelled linear molecules Glu, Glu-Glu, Glu-Glu-Glu, and Leu-Leu-Leu-Glu-Glu. The junctional permeability for these molecules increased with each of the agents, most markedly with the dibutyryl

J. L. Flagg-Newton; G. Dahl; W. R. Loewenstein

1981-01-01

275

Pde1 Phosphodiesterase Modulates Cyclic AMP Levels through a Protein Kinase A-Mediated Negative Feedback Loop in Cryptococcus neoformans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 25 July 2005\\/Accepted 20 September 2005 The virulence of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is regulated by a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling cascade that promotes mating and the production of melanin and capsule. In this study, genes encoding homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae low- and high- affinity phosphodiesterases, PDE1 and PDE2, respectively, were deleted

Julie K. Hicks; Yong-Sun Bahn; Joseph Heitman

2005-01-01

276

Role of Ecdysone, Pupariation Factors, and Cyclic AMP in Formation and Tanning of the Puparium of the Fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pupariation factors, anterior retraction factor (ARF) and puparium tanning factor (PTF), are absent from the hemolymph of larvae at the time of tanning accelerated by ARF\\/PTF, cyclic AMP, or dopamine. ARF and PTF are not involved in derepression of dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase, aromatic L-amino-acid carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.28) synthesis initiated by ecdysone. Tanning is entirely inhibited by injection

Morris Seligman; Ann Blechl; James Blechl; Paul Herman; G. Fraenkel

1977-01-01

277

The Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Is Dependent on GcvA for Regulation of the gcv Operon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Escherichia coli gcv operon is transcriptionally regulated by the GcvA, GcvR, Lrp, and PurR proteins. In this study, the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) is shown to be involved in positive regulation of the gcv operon. A crp deletion reduced expression of a gcvT-lacZ fusion almost fourfold in glucose minimal (GM) medium. The phenotype was complemented by both

LAURA D. WONDERLING; GEORGE V. STAUFFER

1999-01-01

278

Role of the cyclic AMP-dependent pathway in free radical-induced cholesterol accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that free radical-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) lead to cholesterol accumulation in vitro. In the current study, we investigated the effects of oxidative stress on cyclic AMP concentration and cAMP-dependent enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in A7r5 cells. Under our conditions of a mild oxidative stress, namely with no change in cell viability, we found

Laurence Gesquière; Nadine Loreau; Denis Blache

2000-01-01

279

Disparate developmental neurotoxicants converge on the cyclic AMP signaling cascade, revealed by transcriptional profiles in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-signaling cascades are convergent targets for developmental neurotoxicity of otherwise unrelated agents. We compared organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), an organochlorine (dieldrin) and a metal (Ni2+) for their effects on neuronotypic PC12 cells, assessing gene transcription involved in the cyclic AMP pathway. Each agent was introduced during neurodifferentiation at a concentration of 30 ?M for 24 or 72 h and we assessed 69 genes

Abayomi A. Adigun; Frederic J. Seidler; Theodore A. Slotkin

2010-01-01

280

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of cloned rat astrocytoma cells treated with dibutyrul cyclic AMP in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cloned rat astrocytoma cell lines, 36 B-10 and 40 A-2, maintained in vitro were treated with 1 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP. This treatment induced arborization of cellular processes and rounding-up of cell bodies in both cell lines and was associated with increased microvillous development in 40 A-2. There were no detectable concomitant changes in either (a) the quantity or

A. M. Spence; P. W. Coates

1981-01-01

281

Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase Regulates the Alternative Splicing of Tau Exon 10  

PubMed Central

Hyperphosphorylation and deposition of tau into neurofibrillary tangles is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Alternative splicing of tau exon 10 generates tau isoforms containing three or four microtubule binding repeats (3R-tau and 4R-tau), which are equally expressed in adult human brain. Dysregulation of exon 10 causes neurofibrillary degeneration. Here, we report that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, phosphorylates splicing factor SRSF1, modulates its binding to tau pre-mRNA, and promotes tau exon 10 inclusion in cultured cells and in vivo in rat brain. PKA-C?, but not PKA-C?, interacts with SRSF1 and elevates SRSF1-mediated tau exon 10 inclusion. In AD brain, the decreased level of PKA-C? correlates with the increased level of 3R-tau. These findings suggest that a down-regulation of PKA dysregulates the alternative splicing of tau exon 10 and contributes to neurofibrillary degeneration in AD by causing an imbalance in 3R-tau and 4R-tau expression.

Shi, Jianhua; Qian, Wei; Yin, Xiaomin; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Gu, Xiaosong; Ding, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

2011-01-01

282

CREB and the CRTC co-activators: sensors for hormonal and metabolic signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is phosphorylated in response to a wide variety of signals, yet target gene transcription is only increased in a subset of cases. Recent studies indicate that CREB functions in concert with a family of latent cytoplasmic co-activators called cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activators (CRTCs), which are activated through dephosphorylation. A dual requirement for CREB phosphorylation and

Judith Y. Altarejos; Marc Montminy

2011-01-01

283

Protein kinase A-dependent inhibition of alkaline phosphatase release by SaOS-2 human osteoblastic cells: studies in new mutant cell lines that express a cyclic AMP-resistant phenotype.  

PubMed Central

We have established mutant SaOS-2 cell lines that express a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-resistant phenotype to investigate the regulation and functional importance of orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase alkaline optimum (ALPase) in the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Cells were stably transfected with a plasmid that directs the synthesis of a mutant form of the type I regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) under the control of the metallothionein promotor. There was no significant difference between parental SaOS-2 cells and the mutant lines in the affinity or number of receptors for 125I-Nle8,18Tyr34bPTH1-34NH2, either in the absence or presence of Zn2+. When cAMP-dependent gene transcription was examined using transient transfection with a somatostatin promoter-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter plasmid, CAT activity stimulated by human PTH and dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) was inhibited by greater than 90% in the presence of Zn2+ in the mutant cell lines. In contrast, activation by a phorbol ester of a pentameric collagenase promoter/CAT construct containing five tandem copies of the AP-1 response element (5x-TRE-CAT) was unaffected in Zn(2+)-treated mutant cells. The inhibitory actions of PTH and DBcAMP on ALPase release were blunted by up to 80-90% in the mutant cell lines in the presence of Zn2+; there were no significant differences in the magnitude of inhibitory effects between these agonists. We conclude that the inhibitory action of PTH on ALPase release in SaOS-2 cells is mediated via activation of PKA. These cAMP-resistant cell lines will be especially useful in elucidating signal transduction mechanism(s) for PTH in human osteoblastic cells.

Fukayama, S; Kearns, A K; Skurat, R M; Tashjian, A H; Bringhurst, F R

1991-01-01

284

Regulation of osteosarcoma EGF receptor affinity by phorbol ester and cyclic AMP  

SciTech Connect

We studied the binding and degradation of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) by UMR-106 osteosarcoma cells and the regulation of EGF receptor affinity for EGF by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and by treatments that raise intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Cell surface binding of (125I)EGF to A431 cells reached a plateau after a 30 minute incubation at 37 degrees C but was undetectable in UMR-106 cells. Degradation of (125I)EGF proceeded at a 50-fold higher rate in A431 cells on a per cell basis, but receptor-bound (125I)EGF was internalized and degraded at a 3.5-fold higher rate by UMR-106 cells on a per receptor basis. At 4 degrees C, (125I)EGF labeled a single class of surface binding sites in the UMR-106 cell. Treatment with TPA at 37 degrees C reduced subsequent cell surface binding of (125I)EGF at 4 degrees C a maximum of 80% with an IC50 of 1.25 ng/ml. Maximal TPA reduction of (125I)EGF binding was observed within 5-15 minutes and was due to a reduction in the affinity of cell surface receptors of (125I)EGF without a change in receptor density. Pretreatment of the cells for 4 h with 30 microM forskolin, 1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) plus 30 microM forskolin, or 1 mM IBMX plus 100 ng/ml parathyroid hormone (PTH) attenuated the loss in (125I)EGF binding caused by a subsequent dose of 10 ng/ml of TPA by 17% (p less than 0.0005), 39% (p less than 0.0002), and 35% (p less than 0.002), respectively.

Borst, S.E.; Catherwood, B.D. (Emory Univ. Department of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1989-04-01

285

Morphine tolerance and physical dependence: reversal of opioid inhibition to enhancement of cyclic AMP formation.  

PubMed

This laboratory has previously demonstrated that the mu-selective opiate receptor agonist sufentanil can produce a naloxone-reversible increase or decrease in the stimulated formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the myenteric plexus, depending on the concentration of opioid used. On the basis of these results, it was suggested that mu-opiate receptors are positively as well as negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase. In the present study, the effect of chronic morphine exposure, in vivo, on the magnitude of electrically stimulated formation of cAMP and its modulation by sufentanil was investigated. In chronic morphine-treated preparations, the magnitude of electrically stimulated cAMP formation, while in the presence of an inhibitory (10(-6) M) concentration of sufentanil, is indistinguishable from the formation that occurs in opiate-naive preparations (in the absence of exogenous opioid). This indicates that the negative modulation of stimulated enteric cAMP formation by sufentanil manifests tolerance. Paradoxically, however, in "addicted tissue" the magnitude of the increase in cAMP formation produced by electrical stimulation in the presence of a previously inhibitory concentration of sufentanil is significantly larger than in its absence. Thus, the equivalence between the magnitude of stimulation-induced increase in cAMP formation observed in naive versus tolerant/dependent tissue, while in the presence of sufentanil, is due to the ability of an originally inhibitory concentration of opioid to enhance or facilitate stimulated formation of cAMP. It is suggested that tolerance/dependence to the opioid inhibition of stimulated cAMP formation results not only from the loss of inhibitory potency but also from its reversal to enhancement. PMID:7861140

Wang, L; Gintzler, A R

1995-03-01

286

Cyclic AMP levels during induction and repression of cellulase biosynthesis in Thermomonospora curvata.  

PubMed Central

Specific cellulase production rates (SCPR) were compared with intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata, during growth on several carbon sources in a chemically defined medium. SCPR and cAMP levels were 0.03 U (endoglucanase [EG] units) and 2 pmol per mg of dry cells, respectively, during exponential growth on glucose. These values increased to about 6 and 25, respectively, during growth on cellulose. Detectable EG production ceased when cAMP levels dropped below 10. Cellobiose (usually considered to be a cellulase inducer) caused a sharp decrease in cAMP levels and repressed EG production when added to cellulose-grown cultures. 2-deoxy-D-glucose, although nonmetabolizable in T. curvata, depressed cAMP to levels observed with glucose, but unlike glucose, the 2DG effect persisted until cells were washed and transferred to fresh medium. SCPR values and cAMP levels in cells grown in continuous culture under conditions of cellobiose limitation were markedly influenced by dilution rate (D). The maxima for both occurred at D = 0.085 (culture generation time of 11.8 h). When D was held constant and cellobiose concentration was increased over a 14-fold range to support higher steady state population levels, SCPR values decreased about fivefold, indicating that extracellular catabolite accumulation may be a factor in EG repression. The role of cAMP in the mechanism of this repression appears to be neither simple nor direct, since large changes (up to 200-fold) in SCPR accompany relatively small changes (10-fold) in cellular cAMP levels.

Wood, W E; Neubauer, D G; Stutzenberger, F J

1984-01-01

287

Changes in sodium, potassium-ATPase induced by repeated fencamfamine: the roles of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway.  

PubMed

Fencamfamine (FCF) is an indirect dopamine agent with effects similar to amphetamine and cocaine. In the present study, we investigate changes in Na,K-ATPase, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and cyclic GMP levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum (ST) of animals acutely or repeatedly treated with FCF (3.5 mg/kg). Na,K-ATPase had a similar activity in control and repeatedly treated animals, but was reduced in the NAc of the acute group. This enzyme was reduced in the ST in acute and repeatedly treated animals, compared to the control group. Expression of the alpha(1,2,3)-Na,K-ATPase isoforms in the NAc and the ST was not altered in all groups studied. Acute FCF induced a significant increase in PKA activity in both the ST and the NAc. Repeatedly treated animals showed a higher increase in PKA activity in the NAc, but not in the ST, when compared to the acute group. There was also an increase in both NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels only in the NAc of FCF repeatedly treated animals compared to the acute and control groups. We suggest that chronic FCF treatment is linked to a modification in Na,K-ATPase activity through the PKA and NO-cyclic GMP pathway. PMID:14614957

Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi; Glezer, Isaias; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko; Araújo, Ana Paula Natalini; Lepscha, Lucília B; Planeta, Cleopatra S; DeLucia, Roberto; Scavone, Cristoforo

2003-12-01

288

Agonist trafficking of Gi/o-mediated ?2A-adrenoceptor responses in HEL 92.1.7 cells  

PubMed Central

The ability of 19 agonists to elevate Ca2+ and inhibit forskolin-induced cyclic AMP elevation through ?2A-adrenoceptors in HEL 92.1.7 cells was investigated. Ligands of catecholamine-like- (five), imidazoline- (nine) and non-catecholamine-non-imidazoline-type (five) were included. The relative maximum responses were similar in both assays. Five ligands were full or nearly full agonists, six produced 20?–?70% of the response to a full agonist and the remaining eight gave lower responses (<20%) so that their potencies were difficult to evaluate. Marked differences in the potencies of the agonists with respect to the two measured responses were seen. The catecholamines were several times less potent in decreasing cyclic AMP than in increasing Ca2+, whereas the other, both imidazoline and ox-/thiazoloazepine ligands, were several times more potent with respect to the former than the latter response. For instance, UK14,304 was more potent than adrenaline with respect to the cyclic AMP response but less potent than adrenaline with respect to the Ca2+ response. All the responses were sensitive to pertussis toxin-pretreatment. Also the possible role of PLA2, ?-adrenoceptors or ligand transport or metabolism as a source of error could be excluded. The results suggest that the active receptor states produced by catecholamines and the other agonists are markedly different and therefore have different abilities to activate different signalling pathways.

Kukkonen, Jyrki P; Jansson, Christian C; Akerman, Karl E O

2001-01-01

289

Enhancement of tetrodotoxin-induced axonal blockade by adenosine, adenosine analogues, dibutyryl cyclic AMP and methylxanthines in the frog sciatic nerve.  

PubMed Central

The effects of adenosine, adenosine analogues (N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (L-PIA), D-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (D-PIA), N6-methyladenosine and 2-chloroadenosine), adenine, inosine, hypoxanthine, cyclic AMP and its analogue the dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db cyclic AMP), and methylxanthines (theophylline, caffeine and isobutylmethylxanthine (Ibmx) on compound action potentials were investigated in de-sheathed sciatic nerve preparations of the frog. Adenosine and its analogues enhanced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the inhibitory action of tetrodotoxin (TTX) on nerve conduction. The order of potencies was: CHA greater than D-PIA greater than L-PIA greater than N6-methyladenosine greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than adenosine. The adenosine metabolites, inosine and hypoxanthine, were inactive on TTX-induced axonal blockade. Adenine enhanced the inhibitory action of TTX on nerve conduction, but was less effective than adenosine. db Cyclic AMP, but not cyclic AMP, mimicked the inhibitory effect of adenosine on nerve conduction. Methylxanthines did not antagonize the effect of adenosine on TTX-induced axonal block and in high concentrations also mimicked the effect of adenosine on nerve conduction. The possibility of adenosine acting on TTX-induced axonal block through an adenosine receptor positively coupled to adenylate cyclase is discussed.

Ribeiro, J. A.; Sebastiao, A. M.

1984-01-01

290

Enhancement of tetrodotoxin-induced axonal blockade by adenosine, adenosine analogues, dibutyryl cyclic AMP and methylxanthines in the frog sciatic nerve.  

PubMed

The effects of adenosine, adenosine analogues (N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (L-PIA), D-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (D-PIA), N6-methyladenosine and 2-chloroadenosine), adenine, inosine, hypoxanthine, cyclic AMP and its analogue the dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db cyclic AMP), and methylxanthines (theophylline, caffeine and isobutylmethylxanthine (Ibmx) on compound action potentials were investigated in de-sheathed sciatic nerve preparations of the frog. Adenosine and its analogues enhanced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the inhibitory action of tetrodotoxin (TTX) on nerve conduction. The order of potencies was: CHA greater than D-PIA greater than L-PIA greater than N6-methyladenosine greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than adenosine. The adenosine metabolites, inosine and hypoxanthine, were inactive on TTX-induced axonal blockade. Adenine enhanced the inhibitory action of TTX on nerve conduction, but was less effective than adenosine. db Cyclic AMP, but not cyclic AMP, mimicked the inhibitory effect of adenosine on nerve conduction. Methylxanthines did not antagonize the effect of adenosine on TTX-induced axonal block and in high concentrations also mimicked the effect of adenosine on nerve conduction. The possibility of adenosine acting on TTX-induced axonal block through an adenosine receptor positively coupled to adenylate cyclase is discussed. PMID:6091833

Ribeiro, J A; Sebastião, A M

1984-10-01

291

Effect of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors and modulators of cyclic AMP formation on lipopolysaccharide-induced neutrophil infiltration in mouse lung.  

PubMed Central

1. The adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute lung inflammation developed after direct or indirect contact with pathogenic agents. In the present study, a mouse model was developed to mimic this condition using aerosolized bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to investigate the mechanisms involved in the lung inflammatory response. 2. Inhalation of LPS led to a time and dose-dependent increase in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production and neutrophil recruitment into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Balb/c mice. Under the same conditions, neutrophil infiltration was also found in the BALF of the LPS-sensitive mouse strain C3H/HeN, but was absent in the LPS-resistant strain C3H/HeJ. Intranasal administration of murine recombinant TNF-alpha also triggered neutrophil recruitment. 3. One hour after inhalation of LPS, half of the maximal level of TNF-alpha was measured in the BALF, but only a few neutrophils were detected at this time. The peak TNF-alpha concentration was reached at 3 h, when the neutrophil amount started to increase. At 24 h, maximal neutrophil number was found in the BALF and TNF-alpha was no longer present. 4. Pretreatment of mice under different experimental conditions demonstrated that: (a) cycloheximide almost completely blocks both neutrophil recruitment and TNF-alpha production; (b) anti TNF-alpha antibodies block neutrophil recruitment; (c) indomethacin or aspirin enhance by two fold neutrophil recruitment; (d) indomethacin significantly increases TNF-alpha production 1 h after inhalation of LPS; (e) dibutyryl cyclic AMP and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) block both neutrophil recruitment and TNF-alpha production. 5. It is concluded that aerosolized LPS in mice triggers an acute lung inflammation which can be used as a potential model of inhalational ARDS and that, strategies leading to the elevation of cyclic AMP levels in vivo can be effective in modulating LPS-induced TNF-alpha synthesis and neutrophil recruitment.

Goncalves de Moraes, V. L.; Boris Vargaftig, B.; Lefort, J.; Meager, A.; Chignard, M.

1996-01-01

292

A potential dichotomous role of ATF3, an adaptive-response gene, in cancer development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF\\/cyclic AMP response element-binding family of transcription factors. We present evidence that ATF3 has a dichotomous role in cancer development. By both gain- and loss-of-function approaches, we found that ATF3 enhances apoptosis in the untransformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells, but protects the aggressive MCF10CA1a cells and enhances its cell motility.

X Yin; J W DeWille; T Hai

2008-01-01

293

RGS17, an Overexpressed Gene in Human Lung and Prostate Cancer, Induces Tumor Cell Proliferation Through the Cyclic AMP-PKA-CREB Pathway  

PubMed Central

We have identified RGS17 as a commonly induced gene in lung and prostate tumors. Through microarray and gene expression analysis, we show that expression of RGS17 is up-regulated in 80% of lung tumors, and also up-regulated in prostate tumors. Through knockdown and overexpression of RGS17 in tumor cells, we show that RGS17 confers a proliferative phenotype and is required for the maintenance of the proliferative potential of tumor cells. We show through exon microarray, transcript analysis, and functional assays that RGS17 promotes cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element binding protein (CREB)-responsive gene expression, increases cAMP levels, and enhances forskolin-mediated cAMP production. Furthermore, inhibition of cAMP-dependent kinase prevents tumor cell proliferation, and proliferation is partially rescued by RGS17 overexpression. In the present study, we show a role for RGS17 in the maintenance of tumor cell proliferation through induction of cAMP signaling and CREB phosphorylation. The prevalence of the induction of RGS17 in tumor tissues of various types further implicates its importance in the maintenance of tumor growth.

James, Michael A.; Lu, Yan; Liu, Yan; Vikis, Haris G.; You, Ming

2009-01-01

294

Cyclic AMP potentiates vascular endothelial cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact to enhance endothelial barrier function through an Epac-Rap1 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a well-known intracellular signaling molecule improving barrier function in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we delineate a novel cAMP-triggered signal that regulates the barrier function. We found that cAMP-elevating reagents, prostacyclin and forskolin, decreased cell permeability and enhanced vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin-dependent cell adhesion. Although the decreased permeability and the increased VE-cadherin-mediated adhesion by prostacyclin and forskolin were insensitive to a specific inhibitor for cAMP-dependent protein kinase, these effects were mimicked by 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate, a specific activator for Epac, which is a novel cAMP-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1. Thus, we investigated the effect of Rap1 on permeability and the VE-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion by expressing either constitutive active Rap1 or Rap1GAPII. Activation of Rap1 resulted in a decrease in permeability and enhancement of VE-cadherin-dependent cell adhesion, whereas inactivation of Rap1 had the counter effect. Furthermore, prostacyclin and forskolin induced cortical actin rearrangement in a Rap1-dependent manner. In conclusion, cAMP-Epac-Rap1 signaling promotes decreased cell permeability by enhancing VE-cadherin-mediated adhesion lined by the rearranged cortical actin. PMID:15601837

Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Sakurai, Atsuko; Sano, Hideto; Yamagishi, Akiko; Somekawa, Satoshi; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Kangawa, Kenji; Mochizuki, Naoki

2005-01-01

295

Cyclic AMP-induced mucin exocytosis is independent of Cl- movements in human colonic epithelial cells (HT29-Cl.16E).  

PubMed Central

The human colonic epithelial goblet cell line HT29-Cl.16E was used to test whether stimulated Cl- transport is involved in the mucin exocytotic response to an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP by measuring in parallel the short-circuit current (Isc) and mucin exocytosis. Addition of 50 microM forskolin to HT29-Cl.16E cells resulted in a 2-fold stimulation of mucin release and an increase in Isc by 20 microA/cm2. To evaluate the requirement for cosecretion of Cl-, the Cl- flux was altered by three different manipulations: (1) Cl- in the medium was replaced by the poorly transported anion gluconate; (2) basolateral Cl- influx through the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransporter was inhibited by bumetanide; and (3) an inward Cl- flux through the apical plasma membrane was generated by reversing the Cl- gradient. These manipulations did not change the forskolin-stimulated mucin release and thereby provide evidence that Cl- movements are not required for fusion of mucin granules with the plasma membrane.

Jarry, A; Merlin, D; Hopfer, U; Laboisse, C L

1994-01-01

296

Cyclic AMP receptor protein is a repressor of adenylyl cyclase gene cyaA in Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

Yersinia pestis is one of the most dangerous pathogens. The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is required for the full virulence of Y. pestis, and it acts as a transcriptional regulator to control a large regulon, which includes several virulence-associated genes. The regulatory action of CRP is triggered only by binding to the small molecule cofactor cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate by the adenylyl cyclase encoded by cyaA. In the present work, the regulation of crp and cyaA by CRP was investigated by primer extension, LacZ fusion, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and DNase I footprinting. No transcriptional regulatory association between CRP and its own gene could be detected under the growth conditions tested. In contrast, CRP bound to a DNA site overlapping the core promoter -10 region of cyaA to repress the cyaA transcription. The determination of cellular cAMP levels further verified that CRP negatively controlled cAMP production. Repression of cAMP production by CRP through acting on the cAMP synthesase gene cyaA would represent a mechanism of negative automodulation of cellular CRP function. PMID:23647342

Qu, Shi; Zhang, Yiquan; Liu, Lei; Wang, Li; Han, Yanping; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Mingyuan

2013-05-01

297

Expression and organization of BP74, a cyclic AMP-regulated gene expressed during Dictyostelium discoideum development.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a cDNA and the corresponding gene for a cyclic AMP-inducible gene expressed during Dictyostelium development. This gene, BP74, was found to be first expressed about the time of aggregate formation, approximately 6 h after starvation. Accumulation of BP74 mRNA did not occur in Dictyostelium cells that had been starved in fast-shaken suspension cultures but was induced in similar cultures to which cyclic AMP pulses had been added. The BP74 cDNA and gene were characterized by DNA sequence analysis and transcriptional mapping. When the BP74 promoter region was fused with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene and reintroduced into Dictyostelium cells, the transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene displayed the same developmentally regulated pattern of expression as did the endogenous BP74 gene, suggesting that all of the cis-acting elements required for regulated expression were carried by a 2-kilobase cloned genomic fragment. On the basis of sequence analysis, the gene appeared to encode a protein containing a 20-residue hydrophobic sequence at the amino-terminal end and 26 copies of a 20-amino-acid repeat. Images

Hopkinson, S B; Pollenz, R S; Drummond, I; Chisholm, R L

1989-01-01

298

The enhancement and the inhibition of noradrenaune-induced cyclic amp accumulation in rat brain by stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The actions of several metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists on noradrenaline (NA)-stimulated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation were investigated in rat cerebral cortical slices.2.2. Quisqualate (QUIS), L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (L-AP3) and glutamate (GLU) elicited concentration-dependent inhibition of (NA)-stimulated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation, with IC50 values of 105 ± 29, 275 ± 36 and 944 ± 150 ?M respectively. In contrast (Rs)-?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid

Andrzej Pilc; Beata Legutko; Anna Czyrak

1996-01-01

299

Extragenic suppressor mutations that restore twitching motility to fimL mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that is involved in the regulation of multiple virulence systems of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intracellular concentration of cAMP in P. aeruginosa cells is tightly controlled at the levels of cAMP synthesis and degradation through regulation of the activity and/or expression of the adenylate cyclases CyaA and CyaB or the cAMP phosphodiesterase CpdA. Interestingly, mutants of fimL, which usually demonstrate defective twitching motility, frequently revert to a wild-type twitching-motility phenotype presumably via the acquisition of an extragenic suppressor mutation(s). In this study, we have characterized five independent fimL twitching-motility revertants and have determined that all have increased intracellular cAMP levels compared with the parent fimL mutant. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that only one of these fimL revertants has acquired a loss-of-function mutation in cpdA that accounts for the elevated levels of intracellular cAMP. As mutation of cpdA did not account for the restoration of twitching motility observed in the other four fimL revertants, these observations suggest that there is at least another, as yet unidentified, site of extragenic suppressor mutation that can cause phenotypic reversion in fimL mutants and modulation of intracellular cAMP levels of P. aeruginosa.

Nolan, Laura M; Beatson, Scott A; Croft, Larry; Jones, Peter M; George, Anthony M; Mattick, John S; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

2012-01-01

300

Enhancement of the anti-anabolic response to adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during development. The inhibition of hepatic protein synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP causes an age-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis in rat liver. The onset of inhibition is about 10--12 days after birth. The developmental response to cyclic AMP is associated with a change in the microsomal component of the protein-synthesizing system.

Klaipongpan, A; Bloxham, D P; Akhtar, M

1977-01-01

301

Cyclic AMP-mediated upregulation of the expression of neuronal NO synthase in human A673 neuroepithelioma cells results in a decrease in the level of bioactive NO production: analysis of the signaling mechanisms that are involved.  

PubMed

The expression level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) can vary depending on the (patho)physiological conditions. Here we document a marked induction of nNOS mRNA, protein, and total NO production in response to dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP) in human A673 neuroepithelial cells. However, the upregulation of nNOS was associated with a decreased level of production of bioactive NO and by an increase in the level of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production could be prevented by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, suggesting nNOS itself is involved in ROS generation. Sepiapterin supplementation of db-cAMP-treated A673 cells could restore full bioactive NO production, most likely by preventing the uncoupling of nNOS. nNOS was upregulated by other stable analogues of cAMP, by the activator of adenylyl cyclase forskolin, by isoproterenol or by dopamine through activation of D1 receptors, and by inhibitors of phosphodiesterase. cAMP did not change the half-life of the nNOS mRNA. Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA), H-89 and R(p)-cAMPS, produced a partial inhibition of basal and cAMP-induced nNOS expression. cAMP response element binding and modulator transcription factors (CREB and CREM), typical target proteins of PKA, were expressed in A673 cells, as was the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP). cAMP-stimulated induction of nNOS was significantly enhanced in A673 cells stably transfected with wild-type CREB and almost abolished in cells transfected with KCREB (containing a mutation of the DNA binding domain). In A673 cells transfected with CREB(133) (containing a mutation of the phosphorylatable serine 133), the overall level of nNOS expression was reduced, but the expressional stimulation by cAMP remained. This suggests that CREB bypasses, in part, the classical requirement for phosphorylation and association with CBP. Three members of the recently described four-and-a-half-LIM-domain proteins (FHL1-FHL3) were found to be expressed in A673 cells; FHL-1 and FHL-3 were upregulated by cAMP. These proteins can provide direct activation function to both CREB and CREM, and may be responsible for the PKA-independent component of CREB and CREM activity. PMID:15170357

Boissel, Jean-Paul; Bros, Matthias; Schröck, Andreas; Gödtel-Armbrust, Ute; Förstermann, Ulrich

2004-06-01

302

Interferon yield and MHC antigen expression of human medulloblastoma cells and its suppression during dibutyryl cyclic AMP-induced differentiation: do medulloblastoma cells derive from bipotent neuronal and glial progenitors?  

PubMed

1. Human medulloblastoma (ONS-76), a central nervous system (CNS)-derived undifferentiated cell line, was found to possess glial characteristics as defined by responses in the interferon (IFN) system; ONS-76 cells produced as much IFN-beta as human fibroblast and glioma cells by viral infection and poly(I):poly(C) induction. 2. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens were also induced under IFN-beta stimulation. ONS-76 cells expressed neurofilament protein, as shown by Northern blot analysis, and morphological differentiation was induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dcAMP). 3. Expression of IFN-beta and MHC class I antigens was suppressed in ONS-76 cells during the dcAMP-induced differentiation. 4. These results showed that ONS-76 cells possessed a glial property in IFN system responses and a neuronal property in cytoskeleton protein, suggesting that the precursors of medulloblastoma may be characterized as bipotent neuronal and glial progenitors in CNS. PMID:9777250

Park, K C; Shimizu, K; Hayakawa, T

1998-10-01

303

Effect of clonidine on the noradrenergic cyclic AMP generating system in the limbic forebrain and on medial forebrain bundle self-stimulation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present results show that clonidine does not mimic the agonist action of norepinephrine (NE) on the noradrenergic cyclic AMP generating system of the limbic forebrain, but antagonizes the stimulatory effect of NE while not influencing the action of isoprenaline. In self-stimulation behavior, clonidine decreases responding and blocks the facilitation caused by d-amphetamine.

J. Vetulani; Nancy J. Leith; R. J. Stawarz; F. Sulser

1977-01-01

304

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits Have Divergent Roles in Virulence Factor Production in Two Varieties of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our earlier findings established that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase functions in a signaling cascade that regulates mating and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A). Mutants lacking the serotype A protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit Pka1 are unable to mate, fail to produce melanin or capsule, and are avirulent in animal models, whereas mutants lacking the PKA regulatory

Julie K. Hicks; Cletus A. D'Souza; Gary M. Cox; Joseph Heitman

2004-01-01

305

The enhancement and the inhibition of noradrenaline-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in rat brain by stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors.  

PubMed

The actions of several metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists on noradrenaline (NA)-stimulated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation were investigated in rat cerebral cortical slices. Quisqualate (QUIS), L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (L-AP3) and glutamate (GLU) elicited concentration-dependent inhibition of (NA)-stimulated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation. In contrast (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(Carboxy-cyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCGI), 1-Aminocyclo-pentane-1S,3R-dicarboxylate (1S,3R-ACPD), ibotenate (IBO) and (RS)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxy-phenylglycine (CHPG) elicited a concentration-dependent enhancement of NA-stimulated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation. A putative mGluR antagonist-L-AP3, inhibited the 1S,3R-ACPD-induced enhancement of the action of NA on [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation in a biphasic manner with an IC50 of 4.5 microM for the high affinity site, which represented 65% of the total and an IC50 of 283 microM for the low affinity site. PMID:9219617

Legutko, B; Pa?ucha, A; Branski, P; Pilc, A

1996-01-01

306

Studies of glucocorticoid enhancement of the capacity of hepatocytes to accumulate cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of cultured rat hepatocytes with dexamethasone markedly enhanced the acute cAMP response to glucagon, isoproterenol or forskolin. The effect of dexamethasone was apparent within 3-6 hr and was maximal after 20-30 hr. The amplification of the cAMP response to glucagon could also be produced by other glucocorticoids, with relative potency dexamethasone much greater than methylprednisolone greater than hydrocortisone. The increased cAMP response was associated with a reduced cAMP phosphodiesterase activity in cell lysates and a reduced effect of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in intact cells, indicating that the glucocorticoid pretreatment reduced cAMP degradation. However, the increase in response to glucagon in glucocorticoid-treated cells was relatively larger than the increase in forskolin response and also larger than the decrease in phosphodiesterase activity, suggesting that other factors in addition to down-regulation of phosphodiesterases was responsible for the effect. Cycloheximide abolished the difference in phosphodiesterase activity and cAMP response between dexamethasone-treated and control cells. The results suggest that the glucocorticoids increase the ability of hepatocytes to accumulate cAMP due to protein synthesis-dependent processes which at least in part involve reduced degradation of cAMP. PMID:2478993

Thoresen, G H; Gjone, I H; Gladhaug, I P; Refsnes, M; Ostby, E; Christoffersen, T

1989-09-01

307

RasC Plays a Role in Transduction of Temporal Gradient Information in the Cyclic-AMP Wave of Dictyostelium discoideum  

PubMed Central

To define the role that RasC plays in motility and chemotaxis, the behavior of a rasC null mutant, rasC?, in buffer and in response to the individual spatial, temporal, and concentration components of a natural cyclic AMP (cAMP) wave was analyzed by using computer-assisted two-dimensional and three-dimensional motion analysis systems. These quantitative studies revealed that rasC? cells translocate at the same velocity and exhibit chemotaxis up spatial gradients of cAMP with the same efficiency as control cells. However, rasC? cells exhibit defects in maintaining anterior-posterior polarity along the substratum and a single anterior pseudopod when translocating in buffer in the absence of an attractant. rasC? cells also exhibit defects in their responses to both the increasing and decreasing temporal gradients of cAMP in the front and the back of a wave. These defects result in the inability of rasC? cells to exhibit chemotaxis in a natural wave of cAMP. The inability to respond normally to temporal gradients of cAMP results in defects in the organization of the cytoskeleton, most notably in the failure of both F actin and myosin II to exit the cortex in response to the decreasing temporal gradient of cAMP in the back of the wave. While the behavioral defect in the front of the wave is similar to that of the myoA?/myoF? myosin I double mutant, the behavioral and cytoskeletal defects in the back of the wave are similar to those of the S13A myosin II regulatory light-chain phosphorylation mutant. Expression array data support the premise that the behavioral defects exhibited by the rasC? mutant are the immediate result of the absence of RasC function.

Wessels, Deborah; Brincks, Rebecca; Kuhl, Spencer; Stepanovic, Vesna; Daniels, Karla J.; Weeks, Gerald; Lim, Chinten J.; Spiegelman, George; Fuller, Danny; Iranfar, Negin; Loomis, William F.; Soll, David R.

2004-01-01

308

Sensitive Genetic Screen for Protease Activity Based on a Cyclic AMP Signaling Cascade in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a genetic system that allows in vivo screening or selection of site-specific proteases and of their cognate-specific inhibitors in Escherichia coli. This genetic test is based on the specific proteolysis of a signaling enzyme, the adenylate cyclase (AC) of Bordetella pertussis. As a model system we used the human immunode- ficiency virus (HIV) protease. When an HIV protease

NATHALIE DAUTIN; G. Karimova; A. Ullmann; D. Ladant

2000-01-01

309

Synthesis of interleukin 6 (interferon-. beta. /sub 2//B cell stimulatory factor 2) in human fibroblasts is triggered by an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP  

SciTech Connect

Interleukin 6 (IL-6; also referred to as interferon-..beta../sub 2/, 26-kDa protein, and B cell stimulatory factor 2) is a cytokine whose actions include a stimulation of immunoglobulin synthesis, enhancement of B cell growth, and modulation of acute phase protein synthesis by hepatocytes. Synthesis of IL-6 is stimulated by interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or platelet-derived growth factor. The authors examined the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signal transduction pathway in IL-6 gene expression. Several activators of adenylate cyclase, including prostaglandin E1, forskolin, and cholera toxin, as well as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine and the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP, shared the ability to cause a dramatic and sustained increase in IL-6 mRNA levels in human FS-4 fibroblasts. Actinomycin D treatment abolished this enhancement. Treatments that increased intracellular cAMP also stimulated the secretion of the IL-6 protein in a biologically active form. Increased intracellular cAMP appears to enhance IL-6 gene expression by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism because down-regulation of protein kinase C by a chronic exposure of cells to a high dose of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate did not abolish the enhancement of IL-6 expression by treatments that increase cAMP. IL-1 and TNF too increased IL-6 mRNA levels by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. The results suggest a role for the cAMP-dependent pathway(s) in IL-6 gene activation by TNF and IL-1.

Zhange, Y.; Lin, J.X.; Vilcek, J.

1988-05-05

310

Phosphorylation of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit is induced by cyclic AMP deficiency and physiological stresses in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} cAMP deficiency induces phosphorylation of PKA catalytic subunit (Pka1) in S. pombe. {yields} Pka1 phosphorylation is further induced by physiological stresses. {yields} Pka1 phosphorylation is not induced in cells lacking the PKA regulatory subunit. {yields} Results suggest that cAMP-independent Pka1 phosphorylation is stimulatory in nature. -- Abstract: In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is not essential for viability under normal culturing conditions, making this organism attractive for investigating mechanisms of PKA regulation. Here we show that S. pombe cells carrying a deletion in the adenylate cyclase gene, cyr1, express markedly higher levels of the PKA catalytic subunit, Pka1, than wild type cells. Significantly, in cyr1{Delta} cells, but not wild type cells, a substantial proportion of Pka1 protein is hyperphosphorylated. Pka1 hyperphosphorylation is strongly induced in cyr1{Delta} cells, and to varying degrees in wild type cells, by both glucose starvation and stationary phase stresses, which are associated with reduced cAMP-dependent PKA activity, and by KCl stress, the cellular adaptation to which is dependent on PKA activity. Interestingly, hyperphosphorylation of Pka1 was not detected in either cyr1{sup +} or cyr1{Delta} S. pombe strains carrying a deletion in the PKA regulatory subunit gene, cgs1, under any of the tested conditions. Our results demonstrate the existence of a cAMP-independent mechanism of PKA catalytic subunit phosphorylation, which we propose could serve as a mechanism for inducing or maintaining specific PKA functions under conditions in which its cAMP-dependent activity is downregulated.

McInnis, Brittney; Mitchell, Jessica [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)] [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Marcus, Stevan, E-mail: smarcus@bama.ua.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)] [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

2010-09-03

311

Neural expression of G protein-coupled receptors GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 up-regulates cyclic AMP levels and promotes neurite outgrowth.  

PubMed

Cyclic AMP regulates multiple neuronal functions, including neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration. GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 make up a family of constitutively active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that share greater than 50% identity and 65% similarity at the amino acid level. They are highly expressed in the central nervous system, and their expression in various cell lines results in constitutive stimulation of cAMP production. When the constitutively active GPCRs were overexpressed in rat cerebellar granule neurons in culture, the transfected neurons exhibited significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth and overcame growth inhibition caused by myelin-associated glycoprotein. GPR12-mediated neurite outgrowth was the most prominent and was shown to depend on G(s) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Moreover, the GPR12-mediated rescue from myelin-associated glycoprotein inhibition was attributable to cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated inhibition of the small GTPase, RhoA. Among the three receptors, GPR3 was revealed to be enriched in the developing rat cerebellar granule neurons. When the endogenous GPR3 was knocked down, significant reduction of neurite growth was observed, which was reversed by expression of either GPR3 or GPR12. Taken together, our results indicate that expression of the constitutively active GPCRs up-regulates cAMP production in neurons, stimulates neurite outgrowth, and counteracts myelin inhibition. Further characterization of the GPCRs in developing and injured mammalian neurons should provide insights into how basal cAMP levels are regulated in neurons and could establish a firm scientific foundation for applying receptor biology to treatment of various neurological disorders. PMID:17284443

Tanaka, Shigeru; Ishii, Ken; Kasai, Kazue; Yoon, Sung Ok; Saeki, Yoshinaga

2007-04-01

312

Cardiac effects of adenosine and adenosine analogs in guinea-pig atrial and ventricular preparations: evidence against a role of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP.  

PubMed

The effects of adenosine, the Ri site adenosine receptor agonist (-)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA), the Ra site agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine (NECA) and the P site agonist 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DIDA) on force of contraction, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) content and on transmembrane action potential were studied in isolated electrically driven left auricles and papillary muscles from guinea pigs. Furthermore, the effects on adenylate cyclase activity in a particulate membrane preparation were investigated. In the auricles, adenosine, PIA and NECA had negative inotropic effects which were accompanied by a shortening of the action potential. Theophylline antagonized these effects which are likely mediated by R site adenosine receptors. DIDA was ineffective. Except for a small positive inotropic effect of adenosine the analogs were ineffective in the papillary muscles. None of the mechanical effects was accompanied by a change in cAMP and cGMP content in the intact preparations. In the broken cell preparation PIA and NECA had no effect on adenylate cyclase activity. Adenosine and DIDA inhibited the enzyme. The latter effects can be classified as P site-mediated effects. In conclusion, distinct mechanical, i.e., negative inotropic effects of adenosine and its analogs in the heart are observed in auricular preparations only. These effects are unlikely to be related to the cAMP and/or cGMP system. Instead, they are probably due to a direct shortening of the action potential which, in turn, is conceivably due to an increase in K+ outward current and a secondary decrease in Ca++ inward current. This effect is apparently mediated by cardiac R site adenosine receptors which are not detectably coupled to adenylate cyclase. PMID:2993594

Brückner, R; Fenner, A; Meyer, W; Nobis, T M; Schmitz, W; Scholz, H

1985-09-01

313

Putting on the Brakes: Cyclic AMP as a Multipronged Controller of Macrophage Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Macrophages orchestrate innate immune responses in tissues by activating various proinflammatory signaling programs. A key mechanism for preventing inflammatory disease states that result from excessive activation of such programs is the generation of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by ligation of certain guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs). The pleiotropic actions of this cyclic nucleotide on various inflammatory functions of macrophages are mediated by diverse molecular mechanisms, including the assembly of distinct multiprotein complexes. A better understanding of crosstalk between cAMP signaling and proinflammatory pathways in macrophages may provide a basis for improved immunomodulatory strategies.

Marc Peters-Golden (Ann Arbor;University of Michigan Medical School REV)

2009-06-16

314

Alpha-2A and alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtypes: attenuation of cyclic AMP production in cell lines containing only one receptor subtype.  

PubMed

At least two subtypes of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors have been identified on the basis of antagonist affinities as determined mainly by radioligand binding assays. The human platelet and the HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cell contain alpha-2A adrenergic receptors, whereas the neonatal rat lung and the NG108 neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cell contain the alpha-2B adrenergic receptor. Using the attenuation of the cyclic AMP accumulation as a functional assay, the affinities of various antagonists for the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor were determined in HT29 and NG108 cell lines. Dose-response curves to 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazoline-2-yl-amino)quinoxaline (UK 14,304) an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, were generated in the absence and presence of three concentrations of various antagonists. Schild regressions were used to determine pA2 values and then dissociation constants (KB value) were calculated. Whereas phentolamine and yohimbine were equipotent at the receptor in the two cell lines, 2-(2,4-(O-methoxyphenyl)-piper-azin-1-yl)ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,3-(2 H,4H)- isoquinolindione (ARC-239) and prazosin were 100- and 30-fold more potent in the NG108 cell line than in the HT29 cell. These potency ratios determined from functional experiments are the same as those obtained from radioligand binding experiments. These functional data are consistent with the previous and more extensive binding data, and thus support the existence and definition of alpha-2A and alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtypes. PMID:2553931

Bylund, D B; Ray-Prenger, C

1989-11-01

315

The vfr gene product, required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and protease production, belongs to the cyclic AMP receptor protein family.  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of exotoxin A (ETA) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a complex, regulated event. Several ETA putative regulatory mutants of P. aeruginosa PA103 have previously been characterized (S. E. H. West, S. A. Kaye, A. N. Hamood, and B. H. Iglewski, Infect. Immun. 62:897-903, 1994). In addition to ETA production, these mutants, PA103-15, PA103-16, and PA103-19, were also deficient in the production of protease and in regA P1 promoter activity. RegA is a positive regulator of ETA transcription. We cloned a gene, designated vfr for virulence factor regulator, that restored ETA and protease production to parental levels in these mutants. In addition, transcription from the regA P1 promoter was restored. In Escherichia coli, when vfr was overexpressed from a phage T7 promoter, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 28.5 kDa was produced. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of vfr revealed that the expected protein is 67% identical and 91% similar over a 202-amino-acid overlap to the E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CAP or Crp). The cloned vfr gene complemented the beta-galactosidase- and tryptophanase-deficient phenotypes of E. coli RZ1331, a crp deletion mutant. However, the E. coli crp gene under the control of the tac promoter did not complement the ETA-deficient or protease-deficient phenotype of PA103-15 or PA103-16. The ability of vfr to restore both ETA and protease production to these mutants suggests that vfr is a global regulator of virulence factor expression in P. aeruginosa. Images

West, S E; Sample, A K; Runyen-Janecky, L J

1994-01-01

316

CCR-08-0827 Version 2 Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression  

PubMed Central

Statement of Clinical Relevance Therapies that can overcome the resistance of malignant brain tumors would be a major clinical advance. Here, we investigate the role of cAMP Phosphodiesterase-4 in stimulating brain tumor growth and the therapeutic utility of cAMP Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Cyclic AMP Phosphodiesterase-4 was widely expressed in human brain tumors of glial and neuronal lineage, and forced expression of PDE4A1 accelerated intracranial glioblastoma and medulloblastoma xenograft growth. Moreover, targeted inhibition of PDE4, in combination with standard radiation and chemotherapy, induced a unique regression of established intracranial glioblastoma xenografts. These findings identify PDE4 as a novel molecular target for brain tumor therapy and indicate that PDE4 inhibition should be evaluated in clinical trials for malignant brain tumors. Purpose As favorable outcomes from malignant brain tumors remain limited by poor survival and treatment-related toxicity, novel approaches to cure are essential. Previously, we identified the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor Rolipram as a potent anti-tumor agent. Here, we investigate the role of PDE4 in brain tumors and examine the utility of PDE4 as a therapeutic target. Experimental Design Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression pattern of a subfamily of PDE4, PDE4A, in multiple brain tumor types. To evaluate the effect of PDE4A on growth, a brain-specific isoform, PDE4A1 was overexpressed in xenografts of Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells. To determine therapeutic potential of PDE4 inhibition, Rolipram, temozolomide, and radiation were tested alone and in combination on mice bearing intracranial U87 xenografts. Results We found that PDE4A is expressed in medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma and meningioma. Moreover, when PDE4A1 was overexpressed in Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells, in vivo doubling times were significantly shorter for PDE4A1 overexpressing xenografts compared to controls. In long-term survival and bioluminescence studies, Rolipram in combination with first-line therapy for malignant gliomas (temozolomide and conformal radiation therapy) enhanced the survival of mice bearing intracranial xenografts of U87 glioblastoma cells. Bioluminescence imaging indicated that while temozolomide and radiation therapy arrested intracranial tumor growth, the addition of Rolipram to this regimen resulted in tumor regression. Conclusion This study shows that PDE4 is widely expressed in brain tumors and promotes their growth, and that inhibition with Rolipram overcomes tumor resistance and mediates tumor regression.

Goldhoff, Patricia; Warrington, Nicole; Limbrick, David D.; Hope, Andrew; Woerner, B. Mark; Jackson, Erin; Perry, Arie; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rubin, Joshua B.

2008-01-01

317

Modulation of a human lymphoblastoid B cell line by cyclic AMP. Ig secretion and phosphatidylcholine metabolism  

SciTech Connect

A transformed human B cell line, LA350, was found to be sensitive to cAMP-elevating agents by responding with rapid (0 to 2 h) severalfold elevations of intracellular cAMP to treatment with cholera toxin, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), forskolin, and dibutyryl cAMP (all p less than 0.001). These cAMP-elevating agents also produced significant inhibitions of subsequent (48 to 72 h) Ig secretion by the same B cells as measured by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay and an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay for IgM (both p less than 0.001). PMA- and IBMX-treated cells were particularly responsive to the effects of cholera toxin, showing a doubling of cAMP content and profound decrease in Ig production (p less than 0.001). Because our previous studies had correlated activation of the metabolic turnover of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) fraction of membrane phospholipids with enhanced Ig secretion, we examined the sensitivity of PC metabolism to cAMP in control and PMA-stimulated cells. Formation of PC was found to be inhibited by forskolin and IBMX (both p less than 0.002) but breakdown of PC was stimulated (p less than 0.001). These findings imply that as the enzymatic products of PC, choline phosphate and diacylglycerol, are depleted due to the combined effects of cAMP upon synthesis and turnover of PC, there is a decrease in Ig secretion. Since diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C, it appears reasonable that Ig secretion is at least partially regulated by cAMP-responsive alterations in PC metabolism produced by protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation. We conclude that the early cAMP-sensitive changes in PC metabolism in this activated B cell line may signal for subsequent alterations in Ig secretion.

Shearer, W.T.; Patke, C.L.; Gilliam, E.B.; Rosenblatt, H.M.; Barron, K.S.; Orson, F.M.

1988-09-01

318

Effects of the novel (Pro 3 )GIP antagonist and exendin(9–39)amide on GIP and GLP-1-induced cyclic AMP generation, insulin secretion and postprandial insulin release in obese diabetic ( ob \\/ ob ) mice: evidence that GIP is the major physiological incretin  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a \\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis. This study examined the biological effects of the GIP receptor antagonist, (Pro3)GIP and the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin(9–39)amide.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. Cyclic AMP production was assessed in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts transfected with human GIP or GLP-1 receptors, respectively.\\u000a In vitro insulin release studies were assessed in BRIN-BD11 cells while in vivo insulinotropic and glycaemic responses were\\u000a measured in obese

V. A. Gault; F. P. M. O'Harte; P. Harriott; M. H. Mooney; B. D. Green; P. R. Flatt

2003-01-01

319

Does histamine stimulate cyclic amp formation in the avian pineal gland via a novel (non-H 1, non-H 2, non-H 3) histamine receptor subtype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of histamine (HA), and selective HA, H1-, H2 and H3-receptor agonists on cyclic AMP formation were investigated in intact thick and duck pineal glands. HA potently stimulated the pineal cyclic AMP formation. The effect of HA was mimicked fully by N?-methylated histamines, and partially by several histaminergic drugs: 2-thiazolylethylamine (H1), amthamine (H2) and R?-methylhistamine (H3). Dimaprit, another selective

Jerzy Z. Nowak; Barbara Sek; Theresa D'Souza; Stuart E. Dryer

1995-01-01

320

Effect of prostaglandins and dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the morphology of cells in primary astroglial cultures and on metabolic enzymes of GABA and glutamate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Prostaglandins (PGE1) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dBc AMP) induce similar morphological changes in astrocytes obtained in primary cultures. PGE1 and dBc AMP increased 2 enzymes of GABA and glutamate metabolism, GABA-T and AAT, but did not modify GDH and GLN-S. Prostaglandins probably affect the cAMP content of glial cells and act in the same way as dBc AMP on

M. Tardy; C. Fages; B. Rolland; J. Bardakdjian; P. Gonnard

1981-01-01

321

Relationship between inhibition of cyclic AMP production in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the rat D2(444) receptor and antagonist/agonist binding ratios.  

PubMed Central

1. Radioligand binding assays using [3H]-(-)-sulpiride, in the presence of 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 100 microM guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp) and [3H]-N0437 were developed to label the low and high agonist affinity states of the rD2(444) receptor (long form of the rat D2 receptor) respectively. The ratios of the affinities of compounds in these two assays (Kapp [3H]-(-)-supiride/Kapp [3H]-N-0437) were then calculated. 2. The prediction that the binding ratio reflected the functional efficacy of a compound was supported by measurement of the ability of a number of compounds acting at dopamine receptors to inhibit rD2(444)-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP production. When the rank order of the ratios of a number of these compounds was compared to their ability to inhibit the production of cyclic AMP, a significant correlation was seen (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.943, P = 0.01). 3. In conclusion, the sulpiride/N-0437 binding ratio reliably predicted the efficacy of compounds acting at dopamine receptors to inhibit cyclic AMP production mediated by the rD2(444) receptor.

Harley, E. A.; Middlemiss, D. N.; Ragan, C. I.

1995-01-01

322

Relationship between inhibition of cyclic AMP production in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the rat D2(444) receptor and antagonist/agonist binding ratios.  

PubMed

1. Radioligand binding assays using [3H]-(-)-sulpiride, in the presence of 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 100 microM guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp) and [3H]-N0437 were developed to label the low and high agonist affinity states of the rD2(444) receptor (long form of the rat D2 receptor) respectively. The ratios of the affinities of compounds in these two assays (Kapp [3H]-(-)-supiride/Kapp [3H]-N-0437) were then calculated. 2. The prediction that the binding ratio reflected the functional efficacy of a compound was supported by measurement of the ability of a number of compounds acting at dopamine receptors to inhibit rD2(444)-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP production. When the rank order of the ratios of a number of these compounds was compared to their ability to inhibit the production of cyclic AMP, a significant correlation was seen (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.943, P = 0.01). 3. In conclusion, the sulpiride/N-0437 binding ratio reliably predicted the efficacy of compounds acting at dopamine receptors to inhibit cyclic AMP production mediated by the rD2(444) receptor. PMID:7582561

Harley, E A; Middlemiss, D N; Ragan, C I

1995-08-01

323

[Directed chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases. Significance of the purine-de novo synthesis and cyclic AMP in normal and leukemic leukocytes].  

PubMed

Studies on purine de novo-synthesis and cyclic AMP in normal and pathologic leukocytes. The destruction of neoplastic cells by cytostatic agents depends on the existence of metabolic reactions within the cells which can be specifically blocked by these agents. Concerning the action of purine antagonists there is, as yet, no clear evidence whether de novo synthesis of purines takes place in normal as well as in leukemic leukocytes. Therefore studies were performed to evaluate the capacity of these cells to incorporate the purine precursor, glycine, into their acid-soluble adenine nucleotides. The results demonstrate that "resting" human lymphocytes are not capable of building purines de novo. However, stimulation of the cells with a mitogen (Phytohemagglutinin) leads to the induction of de novo purine synthesis. Leukemic cells do not show uniform behaviour. In order to get more information about the mechanisms by which synthesis of purines as well as the morphologic transformation of lymphocytes may be induced, the metabolism of cyclic AMP was investigated. According to our results the nucleotide does not play an essential role in initiating the transformation process, but it seems to have regulating function in the further development of cell transformation. The studies furthermore indicate an important role of cyclic AMP during proliferation of leukemic cells. PMID:182627

Schwarzmeier, J D

1976-05-01

324

Effects of phosphodiesterase 10 inhibition on striatal cyclic AMP and peripheral physiology in rats.  

PubMed

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) form a family of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine and guanosine monophosphate (cAMP and cGMP). PDE10A is a member of this family that is almost exclusively expressed in the striatum. Increasing cAMP/cGMP levels via inhibition of PDE10A is under consideration as a novel therapeutic avenue in the discovery of antipsychotics. Papaverine has been used as a pharmacological tool to establish the possible clinical use of PDE10A inhibitors as antipsychotics. Papaverine is known to increase cAMP levels in striatum and to decrease blood pressure, body temperature and locomotor activity after systemic administration. In this study, the effects of papaverine are compared to those of a more specific PDE10A inhibitor MP10. Papaverine raised striatal cAMP levels with hypothermia, hypoactivity and decreased cardiovascular responses. The more selective MP10 had significantly less effects on body temperature and cardiovascular functions, but reduced locomotor activity to a similar extend as papaverine. PMID:20407482

Torremans, An; Ahnaou, Abdellah; Van Hemelrijck, An; Straetemans, Roel; Geys, Helena; Vanhoof, Greet; Meert, Theo F; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H

2010-01-01

325

Calcium and cyclic AMP promote axonal regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans and require DLK-1 kinase.  

PubMed

Axons of adult Caenorhabditis elegans neurons undergo robust regenerative growth after laser axotomy. Here we show that axotomy of PLM sensory neurons triggers axonal calcium waves whose amplitude correlates with the extent of regeneration. Genetic elevation of Ca(2+) or cAMP accelerates formation of a growth cone from the injured axon. Elevated Ca(2+) or cAMP also facilitates apparent fusion of axonal fragments and promotes branching to postsynaptic targets. Conversely, inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels or calcium release from internal stores reduces regenerative growth. We identify the fusogen EFF-1 as critical for axon fragment fusion and the basic leucine zipper domain (bZip) protein CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) as a key effector for branching. The effects of elevated Ca(2+) or cAMP on regrowth require the MAPKKK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase) DLK-1. Increased cAMP signaling can partly bypass the requirement for the bZip protein CEBP-1, a downstream factor of the DLK-1 kinase cascade. These findings reveal the relationship between Ca(2+)/cAMP signaling and the DLK-1 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade in regeneration. PMID:20203177

Ghosh-Roy, Anindya; Wu, Zilu; Goncharov, Alexandr; Jin, Yishi; Chisholm, Andrew D

2010-03-01

326

Cyclic AMP synergizes with butyrate in promoting ?-defensin 9 expression in chickens.  

PubMed

Host defense peptides (HDP) have both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties. Specific induction of endogenous HDP synthesis has emerged as a novel approach to antimicrobial therapy. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and butyrate have been implicated in HDP induction in humans. However, the role of cAMP signaling and the possible interactions between cAMP and butyrate in regulating HDP expression in other species remain unknown. Here we report that activation of cAMP signaling induces HDP gene expression in chickens as exemplified by ?-defensin 9 (AvBD9). We further showed that, albeit being weak inducers, cAMP agonists synergize strongly with butyrate or butyrate analogs in AvBD9 induction in macrophages and primary jejunal explants. Additionally, oral supplementation of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase agonist in the form of a Coleus forskohlii extract, was found to induce AvBD9 expression in the crop of chickens. Furthermore, feeding with both forskolin and butyrate showed an obvious synergy in triggering AvBD9 expression in the crop and jejunum of chickens. Surprisingly, inhibition of the MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway augmented the butyrate-FSK synergy, whereas blocking JNK or p38 MAPK pathway significantly diminished AvBD9 induction in chicken macrophages and jejunal explants in response to butyrate and FSK individually or in combination. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for concomitant use of butyrate and cAMP signaling activators in enhancing HDP expression, innate immunity, and disease resistance in both animals and humans. PMID:24141182

Sunkara, Lakshmi T; Zeng, Xiangfang; Curtis, Amanda R; Zhang, Guolong

2014-02-01

327

Effect of interleukin-1. alpha. on striatal prostaglandin E2, cyclic AMP, and dopamine release in irradiated and nonirradiated rats  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pretreatment with IL-1{alpha} on irradiated and nonirradiated rats striatal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and in vitro release of dopamine (DA) stimulated by KCl. Rats were irradiated using a LINAC. Striatal PGE2 and cAMP were estimated by radioimmunoassay, and DA was measured by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection. A 20-hr pretreatment with 10-50 {mu}/kg IP of IL-1{alpha} increased striatal PGE2, had no significant effect on cAMP, but enhanced 30 mM KCl-stimulated DA release in irradiated and nonirradiated animals, although there was no significant difference between them. However, 1-hr pretreatment with IL-1{alpha} had no significant effect on PGE2 and cAMP levels and DA release. IL-1{alpha} enhanced PGE2, and DA releases were attenuated by 1-3 mg/kg IP of indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Exogenous administration of 500 mM to 5 {mu}M of PGE2 increased 30 mM KCl-stimulated DA release in irradiated and nonirradiated animals. These results suggest that IL-1{alpha} increased KCl-stimulated DA release in striatum is mediated by PGE2 because IL-1{alpha} increased PGE2 levels in vivo and exogenous administration of PGE2 enhanced DA release.

Kandasamy, S.B.; Chen, H.T.; Blakley, S.; Dalton, T.K.; Harris, A.H. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

1991-03-11

328

Phorbol esters inhibit chondrogenesis in limb mesenchyme by mechanisms independent of PGE sub 2 or cyclic AMP  

SciTech Connect

Effects of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on chondrogenesis and concentrations of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) were investigated in micromass cultures of chick limb mesenchyme derived from the distal tip of stage 25 limb buds. TPA completely inhibited chondrogenesis during the first 4 days of culture; however, a few small cartilage nodules formed by day 6. Relative to control cultures, both PGE{sub 2} and cAMP concentrations were altered by TPA treatment during the 6-day period of cell culture. Concentrations of both compounds increased in control cells during the first 24 hours of culture and then declined during the remaining 5 days. In TPA-treated cells both PGE{sub 2} and cAMP levels increased progressively during the 6 days of cell culture, each being elevated at day 6 by twofold over control cells. The results suggest the presence of regulatory pathways important in chondrogenesis which occur independent of those initiated by PGE{sub 2} and the cAMP system.

Biddulph, D.M.; Dozier, M.M. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (United States))

1989-12-01

329

Ca/sup + +/- and cyclic AMP-induced changes in intact cell phosphorylation of ileal microvillus membrane proteins  

SciTech Connect

Pieces of rabbit distal ileal mucosa, with the muscularis propria and serosa removed, were incubated for 90 minutes in Krebs-Ringer bicarborate buffer (KRB) with /sup 32/PO/sub 4/ to label the intracellular nucleotide pools. After rinsing, the mucosal pieces were transferred to KRB in the absence and presence of 10 ..mu..M A23187 or 10 mM theophylline. After a further 10 minutes the cells were scraped off and microvillus membranes prepared. The membranes were solubilized, subjected to two dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography, and analyzed by densitometry. A23187 increased the phosphorylation of four microvillus membrane proteins with M/sub r/ of 32, 52, 110 and 116K. Increased phosphorylation of the 52 and 116K proteins has also been detected in microvillus membranes subjected to Ca/sup + +/ and calmodulin in the presence of ..gamma..-/sup 32/P-ATP. Theophylline increased the phosphorylation of the same 32 and 52K proteins and, additionally, of a second 32K peptide. While any of these proteins could be involved in the control of electrolyte transport, it is noteworthy that increased Ca/sup + +/, and increased cyclic AMP levels exert similar effects upon intestinal electrolyte transport. That A23187 and theophylline both increase the phosphorylation of the 32 and 52K proteins increases the possibility that these are involved in ion transport.

Sharp, G.W.G.; Hannah, C.M.; Cohen, M.; Donowitz, M.

1986-03-05

330

Identification of Cyclic AMP-Regulated Genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Bacteria under Low-Oxygen Conditions  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), which kills approximately 2 million people a year despite current treatment options. A greater understanding of the biology of this bacterium is needed to better combat TB disease. The M. tuberculosis genome encodes as many as 15 adenylate cyclases, suggesting that cyclic AMP (cAMP) has an important, yet overlooked, role in mycobacteria. This study examined the effect of exogenous cAMP on protein expression in Mycobacterium bovis BCG grown under hypoxic versus ambient conditions. Both shaking and shallow standing cultures were examined for each atmospheric condition. Different cAMP-dependent changes in protein expression were observed in each condition by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Shaking low-oxygen cultures produced the most changes (12), while standing ambient conditions showed the fewest (2). Five upregulated proteins, Rv1265, Rv2971, GroEL2, PE_PGRS6a, and malate dehydrogenase, were identified from BCG by mass spectrometry and were shown to also be regulated by cAMP at the mRNA level in both M. tuberculosis H37Rv and BCG. To our knowledge, these data provide the first direct evidence for cAMP-mediated gene regulation in TB complex mycobacteria.

Gazdik, Michaela A.; McDonough, Kathleen A.

2005-01-01

331

Mechanisms of L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells: implication of oxidative stress-related kinases and cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

L-DOPA therapy for Parkinson's disease has a double-edge effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons: L-DOPA increases the intracellular level of dopamine, but it induces neuron cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. To investigate the molecular signaling mechanisms that underlie the concentration-dependent effects of L-DOPA on cell viability, the activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and apoptotic enzymes were measured in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in the presence of a low concentration (20 muM) and high concentrations (100-200 muM) of L-DOPA. At the low concentration, L-DOPA was not cytotoxic and its presence increased the activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 MAPK, BadSer112, Bcl-2, and caspase-12. At the high concentrations, L-DOPA was cytotoxic and stimulated the activities of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, BadSer155, caspase-12 and caspase-3. The increased levels of ERK1/2 and BadSer155 in the presence of high concentrations of L-DOPA did not protect against L-DOPA-mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, the levels of L-type Ca(2+) channel-sensitive intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) and Ca(2+) were elevated in the presence of L-DOPA, and the increase in the levels of intracellular cAMP may also play a role in cellular viability, since cAMP levels and cytotoxicity increased in parallel with L-DOPA concentrations and the addition of forskolin in the medium increased cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that, at a low and non-toxic concentration, L-DOPA may promote cell survival by increasing the activities of ERK1/2, BadSer112 and Bcl-2, while, at high concentrations, L-DOPA activates the caspase-3 cell death enzyme through the JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress that activates caspase-12. Intracellular cAMP levels may also play a role here. The results may lead to an effective therapy for Parkinson's disease. PMID:20670675

Jin, C M; Yang, Y J; Huang, H S; Kai, M; Lee, M K

2010-10-13

332

Cyclic AMP mediates serotonin-induced synaptic enhancement of lateral giant interneuron of the crayfish.  

PubMed

The lateral giant (LG)-mediated escape behavior of the crayfish habituates readily on repetitive sensory stimulation. Recent studies suggested that the biogenic amines serotonin and octopamine modulate the time course of recovery and/or re-depression of the LG response after habituation. However, little is known of how serotonin and octopamine effect LG habituation and what second-messenger cascades they may activate. To investigate the effect of biogenic amines on LG habituation, serotonin and octopamine were superfused before presenting repetitive sensory stimulation. Serotonin and octopamine increased the number of stimuli needed to habituate the LG response. Their effects were mimicked by mixed application of a cAMP analogue [8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (CPT-cAMP)] and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor [3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)] but not by a cGMP analogue (8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate). Perfusion of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536) abolished the effect of serotonin but not that of octopamine. To investigate the site of action of each biogenic amines in the neural circuit meditating LG escape, the effect of drugs on directly and indirectly elicited postsynaptic potentials in LG was investigated. Serotonin, octopamine, and a mixture of CPT-cAMP and IBMX increased both the direct and indirect synaptic inputs. Simultaneous application of SQ22536 abolished the effect of serotonin on both inputs but did not block the effect of octopamine. Direct injection of the cAMP analogue (Sp-isomer of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate) into LG increased both the direct and indirect inputs to LG. These results indicate that serotonin mediates an increase in cAMP levels in LG, but octopamine acts independently of cAMP and cGMP. PMID:16160094

Araki, Makoto; Nagayama, Toshiki; Sprayberry, Jordanna

2005-10-01

333

Transcriptional regulation of myelin associated glycoprotein gene expression by cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

The treatment of rat glioma C6 cells with 10 microM isoproterenol (Ipt) for 4 days upregulated the expression of the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) gene by approximately 55-fold over the control value. The constant presence of Ipt in the medium was required for the maximal upregulation, as time-restricted exposures to the drug produced only partial, or no upregulation of the gene. No difference in the MAG mRNA stability could be detected in Ipt-treated vs untreated cells indicating that the drug upregulates the MAG gene at transcriptional level. Serum (FCS) strongly attenuated the response of the MAG gene to Ipt. The stimulatory effect of Ipt was profoundly reduced by spermine and H-89, indicating that protein kinase A-dependent protein phosphorylation is involved in the MAG gene activation. Within 30 min after Ipt administration, the c-fos gene was upregulated by 10-fold, and thereafter, its message level decreased and stabilized at approximately 3-fold over control. In contrast, the c-jun gene was downregulated to approximately 20% of control within 30 min after Ipt administration. Subsequently, its message level rose and fell once again within 12 h to approximately half of control, and returned to control level within 72 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7519273

Ye, P; Laszkiewicz, I; Wiggins, R C; Konat, G W

1994-04-15

334

Activation of cAMP and mitogen responsive genes relies on a common nuclear factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NUMBER of signalling pathways stimulate transcription of target genes through nuclear factors whose activities are primarily regul-ated by phosphorylation. Cyclic AMP regulates the expression of numerous genes, for example, through the protein kinase-A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB at Ser 1331,2. Although phosphorylation may stimulate transcrip-tional activators by modulating their nuclear transport or DNA-binding affinity3, CREB belongs to

J. Arias; A. S. Alberts; P. Brindle; F. X. Claret; T. Smeal; M. Karin; J. Feramisco; M. Montminy

1994-01-01

335

mRNA decay rates in late-developing Dictyostelium discoideum cells are heterogeneous, and cyclic AMP does not act directly to stabilize cell-type-specific mRNAs.  

PubMed Central

We reevaluated the use of 32PO4 pulse-chases for analyzing mRNA decay rates in late-developing Dictyostelium cells. We found that completely effective PO4 chases could not be obtained in developing cells and that, as a consequence, the decay rates exhibited by some mRNAs were influenced by the rates at which they were transcribed. In developing cells disaggregated in the presence of cyclic AMP, the poly(A)+ mRNA population turned over with an apparent half-life of 4 h, individual mRNA decay rates were heterogeneous, and some prestalk and prespore mRNAs appeared to decay with biphasic kinetics. In cells disaggregated in the absence of cyclic AMP, all prestalk and prespore mRNAs decayed with biphasic kinetics. During the first 1 to 1.5 h after disaggregation in the absence of cyclic AMP, the cell-type-specific mRNAs were selectively degraded, decaying with half-lives of 20 to 30 min; thereafter, the residual prestalk and prespore mRNA molecules decayed at rates that were similar to those measured in the presence of cyclic AMP. This short-term labilization of cell-type-specific mRNAs was observed even for those species not requiring cyclic AMP for their accumulation in developing cells. The observation that cell-type specific mRNAs can decay at similar rates in disaggregated cells with or without cyclic AMP indicates that this compound does not act directly to stabilize prestalk and prespore mRNAs during development and that its primary role in the maintenance of cyclic-AMP-dependent mRNAs is likely to be transcriptional. Images

Manrow, R E; Jacobson, A

1988-01-01

336

DISPARATE DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICANTS CONVERGE ON THE CYCLIC AMP SIGNALING CASCADE, REVEALED BY TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILES IN VITRO AND IN VIVO  

PubMed Central

Cell-signaling cascades are convergent targets for developmental neurotoxicity of otherwise unrelated agents. We compared organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), an organochlorine (dieldrin) and a metal (Ni2+) for their effects on neuronotypic PC12 cells, assessing gene transcription involved in the cyclic AMP pathway. Each agent was introduced during neurodifferentiation at a concentration of 30 ?M for 24 or 72 hr and we assessed 69 genes encoding adenylyl cyclase isoforms and regulators, G-protein ?- and ?,?-subunits, protein kinase A subtypes and the phosphodiesterase family. We found strong concordance among the four agents across all the gene families, with the strongest relationships for the G-proteins, followed by adenylyl cyclase, and lesser concordance for protein kinase A and phosphodiesterase. Superimposed on this pattern, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were surprisingly the least alike, whereas there was strong concordance of dieldrin and Ni2+ with each other and with each individual organophosphate. Further, the effects of chlorpyrifos differed substantially depending on whether cells were undifferentiated or differentiating. To resolve the disparities between chlorpyrifos and diazinon, we performed analyses in rat brain regions after in vivo neonatal exposures; unlike the in vitro results, there was strong concordance. Our results show that unrelated developmental neurotoxicants can nevertheless produce similar outcomes by targeting cell signaling pathways involved in neurodifferentiation during a critical developmental period of vulnerability. Nevertheless, a full evaluation of concordance between different toxicants requires evaluations of in vitro systems that detect direct effects, as well as in vivo systems that allow for more complex interactions that converge on the same pathway.

Adigun, Abayomi A.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

2009-01-01

337

Elevated Cyclic AMP Levels in T Lymphocytes Transformed by Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1?  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), transforms CD4+ T cells to permanent growth through its transactivator Tax. HTLV-1-transformed cells share phenotypic properties with memory and regulatory T cells (T-reg). Murine T-reg-mediated suppression employs elevated cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels as a key regulator. This led us to determine cAMP levels in HTLV-1-transformed cells. We found elevated cAMP concentrations as a consistent feature of all HTLV-1-transformed cell lines, including in vitro-HTLV-1-transformed, Tax-transformed, and patient-derived cells. In transformed cells with conditional Tax expression, high cAMP levels coincided with the presence of Tax but were lost without it. However, transient ectopic expression of Tax alone was not sufficient to induce cAMP. We found specific downregulation of the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) in HTLV-1-transformed cells, which was independent of Tax in transient expression experiments. This is in line with the notion that PDE3B transcripts and cAMP levels are inversely correlated. Overexpression of PDE3B led to a decrease of cAMP in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Decreased expression of PDE3B was associated with inhibitory histone modifications at the PDE3B promoter and the PDE3B locus. In summary, Tax transformation and its continuous expression contribute to elevated cAMP levels, which may be regulated through PDE3B suppression. This shows that HTLV-1-transformed cells assume biological features of long-lived T-cell populations that potentially contribute to viral persistence.

Kress, Andrea K.; Schneider, Grit; Pichler, Klemens; Kalmer, Martina; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Grassmann, Ralph

2010-01-01

338

Effects of cyclic AMP and phorbol ester on transepithelial electrical resistance of Sertoli cell monolayers in two-compartment culture.  

PubMed

The effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP [Bu)2cAMP) and phorbol ester (TPA), in the absence or presence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and/or testosterone, on the development of tight junctions by immature rat Sertoli cells (Sc) were investigated in vitro using the two-compartment culture system. The tight junction status was evaluated by repeated measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Untreated cell monolayers developed stable TER of approximately 120 omega cm2 during 3 days of culture. Continuous presence of FSH (200 ng/ml) from day 1 onward significantly increased the TER up to approximately 300 omega cm2 after a transient (24-36 h) delay. The initial delay was prolonged to 3-4 days by the addition of 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (MIX) (0.2 mM), whereas the subsequent increase of TER was significantly potentiated by the concomitant presence of testosterone (10 microM). Cholera toxin (CHT; 10 ng/ml) and forskolin (FR; 50 microM) mimicked these FSH effects. (Bu)2cAMP, at concentrations which maximally stimulated immunoactive inhibin secretion (100-500 microM), inhibited the initial TER increase and significantly decreased the TER level when added on days 1 and 5 of culture, respectively. In contrast, low concentrations of (Bu)2cAMP (4-20 microM) consistently stimulated the TER development, mimicking the stimulatory phase of FSH action. TPA (100 nM) alone had no effect on TER development, but potentiated the stimulatory effect of testosterone in a manner similar to FSH, CHT, FR or low concentrations of (Bu)2cAMP. These results demonstrate, for the first time, a concentration-dependent, dual effect of exogenous cAMP on the Sc function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1722179

Janecki, A; Jakubowiak, A; Steinberger, A

1991-11-01

339

Disparate developmental neurotoxicants converge on the cyclic AMP signaling cascade, revealed by transcriptional profiles in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Cell-signaling cascades are convergent targets for developmental neurotoxicity of otherwise unrelated agents. We compared organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), an organochlorine (dieldrin) and a metal (Ni(2+)) for their effects on neuronotypic PC12 cells, assessing gene transcription involved in the cyclic AMP pathway. Each agent was introduced during neurodifferentiation at a concentration of 30 microM for 24 or 72 h and we assessed 69 genes encoding adenylyl cyclase isoforms and regulators, G-protein alpha-and beta,gamma-subunits, protein kinase A subtypes and the phosphodiesterase family. We found strong concordance among the four agents across all the gene families, with the strongest relationships for the G-proteins, followed by adenylyl cyclase, and lesser concordance for protein kinase A and phosphodiesterase. Superimposed on this pattern, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were surprisingly the least alike, whereas there was strong concordance of dieldrin and Ni(2+) with each other and with each individual organophosphate. Further, the effects of chlorpyrifos differed substantially depending on whether cells were undifferentiated or differentiating. To resolve the disparities between chlorpyrifos and diazinon, we performed analyses in rat brain regions after in vivo neonatal exposures; unlike the in vitro results, there was strong concordance. Our results show that unrelated developmental neurotoxicants can nevertheless produce similar outcomes by targeting cell signaling pathways involved in neurodifferentiation during a critical developmental period of vulnerability. Nevertheless, a full evaluation of concordance between different toxicants requires evaluations of in vitro systems that detect direct effects, as well as in vivo systems that allow for more complex interactions that converge on the same pathway. PMID:20026089

Adigun, Abayomi A; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A

2010-02-26

340

Enhancement by ethanol of parathyroid-hormone-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated renal tubules.  

PubMed

The effects of ethanol on parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced increases in adenosine 3':5'-phosphate (cAMP) concentrations were studied in renal cortical tubules of hamsters in vitro. Ethanol concentrations between 0.1 and 3% were found to augment the PTH response in a dose-related way while, concentrations greater than 3% produced a dose-related inhibition of the PTH response. In the absence of PTH, ethanol did not significantly elevate cAMP accumulations at any concentrations tested. In contrast to its effect on intact tubule cells, ethanol did not alter either adenylate cyclase or phosphodiesterase in renal cortical homogenates. Indomethacin, however, produced a concentration-related inhibition of the ethanol-potentiated response without altering the effects of PTH alone. The results suggest a possible involvement of prostaglandins in the potentiating effect of ethanol on the PTH-dependent accumulation of cAMP in renal tubules. PMID:6302464

Biddulph, D M; Wrenn, R W; Currie, M G; Hubbard, W R

1983-01-01

341

Enhancement of synaptic transmission by cyclic AMP modulation of presynaptic Ih channels.  

PubMed

Presynaptic activation of adenylyl cyclase and subsequent generation of cAMP represent an important mechanism in the modulation of synaptic transmission. In many cases, short- to medium-term modulation of synaptic strength by cAMP is due to activation of protein kinase A and subsequent covalent modification of presynaptic ion channels or synaptic proteins. Here we show that presynaptic cAMP generation via serotonin receptor activation directly modulated hyperpolarization-activated cation channels (Ih channels) in axons. This modulation of Ih produced an increase in synaptic strength that could not be explained solely by depolarization of the presynaptic membrane. These studies identify a mechanism by which cAMP and Ih regulate synaptic plasticity. PMID:10649568

Beaumont, V; Zucker, R S

2000-02-01

342

Cyclic AMP signaling stimulates proteasome degradation of thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP) in pancreatic ?-cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP) functions as an effector of glucotoxicity in pancreatic ?-cells. Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a long-term effective GLP-1 receptor agonist, reduces TxNIP level in pancreatic ?-cells. Mechanisms underlying this reduction, however, remain largely unknown. We show here that Ex-4, 8-bromo-cAMP, the cAMP promoting agent forskolin, as well as activators of protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein activated by

Weijuan Shao; Zhiwen Yu; I George Fantus; Tianru Jin

2010-01-01

343

?-MSH-induced behavior: Changes after diazepam and baclofen administration related with cyclic AMP levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was performed to evaluate the participation of the benzodiacepinic GABAA and GABAB components upon excessive grooming, locomotion, rearing, and stretching\\/yawning syndrome induced by the intracerebroventricularly ?-MSH administration by using GABAA and GABAB agonists. It also aims at evaluating possible relation between changes in cAMP levels in caudate-putamen and accumbens nuclei and the behavioral responses. Injection of diazepam

C. Cremer; S. R. de Barioglio; G. Civallero; M. E. Celis

1995-01-01

344

Cyclic AMP-induced K+ secretion occurs independently of Cl? secretion in rat distal colon  

PubMed Central

cAMP induces both active Cl? and active K+ secretion in mammalian colon. It is generally assumed that a mechanism for K+ exit is essential to maintain cells in the hyperpolarized state, thus favoring a sustained Cl? secretion. Both Kcnn4c and Kcnma1 channels are located in colon, and this study addressed the questions of whether Kcnn4c and/or Kcnma1 channels mediate cAMP-induced K+ secretion and whether cAMP-induced K+ secretion provides the driving force for Cl? secretion. Forskolin (FSK)-enhanced short-circuit current (indicator of net electrogenic ion transport) and K+ fluxes were measured simultaneously in colonic mucosa under voltage-clamp conditions. Mucosal Na+ orthovanadate (P-type ATPase inhibitor) inhibited active K+ absorption normally present in rat distal colon. In the presence of mucosal Na+ orthovanadate, serosal FSK induced both K+ and Cl? secretion. FSK-induced K+ secretion was 1) not inhibited by either mucosal or serosal 1-[(2-chlorophenyl) diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34; a Kcnn4 channel blocker), 2) inhibited (92%) by mucosal iberiotoxin (Kcnma1 channel blocker), and 3) not affected by mucosal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitor (CFTRinh-172). By contrast, FSK-induced Cl? secretion was 1) completely inhibited by serosal TRAM-34, 2) not inhibited by either mucosal or serosal iberiotoxin, and 3) completely inhibited by mucosal CFTRinh-172. These results indicate that cAMP-induced colonic K+ secretion is mediated via Kcnma1 channels located in the apical membrane and most likely contributes to stool K+ losses in secretory diarrhea. On the other hand, cAMP-induced colonic Cl? secretion requires the activity of Kcnn4b channels located in the basolateral membrane and is not dependent on the concurrent activation of apical Kcnma1 channels.

Sandle, Geoffrey I.

2012-01-01

345

Cyclic AMP-induced K+ secretion occurs independently of Cl- secretion in rat distal colon.  

PubMed

cAMP induces both active Cl(-) and active K(+) secretion in mammalian colon. It is generally assumed that a mechanism for K(+) exit is essential to maintain cells in the hyperpolarized state, thus favoring a sustained Cl(-) secretion. Both Kcnn4c and Kcnma1 channels are located in colon, and this study addressed the questions of whether Kcnn4c and/or Kcnma1 channels mediate cAMP-induced K(+) secretion and whether cAMP-induced K(+) secretion provides the driving force for Cl(-) secretion. Forskolin (FSK)-enhanced short-circuit current (indicator of net electrogenic ion transport) and K(+) fluxes were measured simultaneously in colonic mucosa under voltage-clamp conditions. Mucosal Na(+) orthovanadate (P-type ATPase inhibitor) inhibited active K(+) absorption normally present in rat distal colon. In the presence of mucosal Na(+) orthovanadate, serosal FSK induced both K(+) and Cl(-) secretion. FSK-induced K(+) secretion was 1) not inhibited by either mucosal or serosal 1-[(2-chlorophenyl) diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34; a Kcnn4 channel blocker), 2) inhibited (92%) by mucosal iberiotoxin (Kcnma1 channel blocker), and 3) not affected by mucosal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitor (CFTR(inh)-172). By contrast, FSK-induced Cl(-) secretion was 1) completely inhibited by serosal TRAM-34, 2) not inhibited by either mucosal or serosal iberiotoxin, and 3) completely inhibited by mucosal CFTR(inh)-172. These results indicate that cAMP-induced colonic K(+) secretion is mediated via Kcnma1 channels located in the apical membrane and most likely contributes to stool K(+) losses in secretory diarrhea. On the other hand, cAMP-induced colonic Cl(-) secretion requires the activity of Kcnn4b channels located in the basolateral membrane and is not dependent on the concurrent activation of apical Kcnma1 channels. PMID:22648950

Sandle, Geoffrey I; Rajendran, Vazhaikkurichi M

2012-08-01

346

Cyclic AMP stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey reticulospinal neurons without substantially altering their biophysical properties.  

PubMed

Reticulospinal (RS) neurons are critical for initiation of locomotor behavior, and following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, the axons of these neurons regenerate and restore locomotor behavior within a few weeks. For lamprey RS neurons in culture, experimental induction of calcium influx, either in the growth cone or cell body, is inhibitory for neurite outgrowth. Following SCI, these neurons partially downregulate calcium channel expression, which would be expected to reduce calcium influx and possibly provide supportive conditions for axonal regeneration. In the present study, it was tested whether activation of second messenger signaling pathways stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey RS neurons without altering their electrical properties (e.g. spike broadening) so as to possibly increase calcium influx and compromise axonal growth. First, activation of cAMP pathways with forskolin or dbcAMP stimulated neurite outgrowth of RS neurons in culture in a PKA-dependent manner, while activation of cGMP signaling pathways with dbcGMP inhibited outgrowth. Second, neurophysiological recordings from uninjured RS neurons in isolated lamprey brain-spinal cord preparations indicated that dbcAMP or dbcGMP did not significantly affect any of the measured electrical properties. In contrast, for uninjured RS neurons, forskolin increased action potential duration, which might have increased calcium influx, but did not significantly affect most other electrical properties. Importantly, for injured RS neurons during the period of axonal regeneration, forskolin did not significantly alter their electrical properties. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of cAMP signaling by dbcAMP stimulates neurite outgrowth, but does not alter the electrical properties of lamprey RS neurons in such a way that would be expected to induce calcium influx. In conclusion, our results suggest that activation of cAMP pathways alone, without compensation for possible deleterious effects on electrical properties, is an effective approach for stimulating axonal regeneration of RS neuron following SCI. PMID:23603516

Pale, T; Frisch, E B; McClellan, A D

2013-08-15

347

Cyclic amp-dependent resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria by exogenous free Fatty acids.  

PubMed

One third of the world population carries a latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, which may reactivate leading to active disease. Although TB latency has been known for many years it remains poorly understood. In particular, substances of host origin, which may induce the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, have not yet been described. In vitro models of dormant ("non-culturable") cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis (mc(2)155) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were used. We found that the resuscitation of dormant M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells in liquid medium was stimulated by adding free unsaturated fatty acids (FA), including arachidonic acid, at concentrations of 1.6-10 µM. FA addition enhanced cAMP levels in reactivating M. smegmatis cells and exogenously added cAMP (3-10 mM) or dibutyryl-cAMP (0.5-1 mM) substituted for FA, causing resuscitation of M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis dormant cells. A M. smegmatis null-mutant lacking MSMEG_4279, which encodes a FA-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC), could not be resuscitated by FA but it was resuscitated by cAMP. M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells hyper-expressing AC were unable to form non-culturable cells and a specific inhibitor of AC (8-bromo-cAMP) prevented FA-dependent resuscitation. RT-PCR analysis revealed that rpfA (coding for resuscitation promoting factor A) is up-regulated in M. smegmatis in the beginning of exponential growth following the cAMP increase in lag phase caused by FA-induced cell activation. A specific Rpf inhibitor (4-benzoyl-2-nitrophenylthiocyanate) suppressed FA-induced resuscitation. We propose a novel pathway for the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria involving the activation of adenylyl cyclase MSMEG_4279 by FAs resulted in activation of cellular metabolism followed later by increase of RpfA activity which stimulates cell multiplication in exponential phase. The study reveals a probable role for lipids of host origin in the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, which may function during the reactivation of latent TB. PMID:24376605

Shleeva, Margarita; Goncharenko, Anna; Kudykina, Yuliya; Young, Danielle; Young, Michael; Kaprelyants, Arseny

2013-01-01

348

Cyclic Amp-Dependent Resuscitation of Dormant Mycobacteria by Exogenous Free Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

One third of the world population carries a latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, which may reactivate leading to active disease. Although TB latency has been known for many years it remains poorly understood. In particular, substances of host origin, which may induce the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, have not yet been described. In vitro models of dormant (“non-culturable”) cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis (mc2155) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were used. We found that the resuscitation of dormant M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells in liquid medium was stimulated by adding free unsaturated fatty acids (FA), including arachidonic acid, at concentrations of 1.6–10 µM. FA addition enhanced cAMP levels in reactivating M. smegmatis cells and exogenously added cAMP (3–10 mM) or dibutyryl-cAMP (0.5–1 mM) substituted for FA, causing resuscitation of M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis dormant cells. A M. smegmatis null-mutant lacking MSMEG_4279, which encodes a FA-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC), could not be resuscitated by FA but it was resuscitated by cAMP. M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells hyper-expressing AC were unable to form non-culturable cells and a specific inhibitor of AC (8-bromo-cAMP) prevented FA-dependent resuscitation. RT-PCR analysis revealed that rpfA (coding for resuscitation promoting factor A) is up-regulated in M. smegmatis in the beginning of exponential growth following the cAMP increase in lag phase caused by FA-induced cell activation. A specific Rpf inhibitor (4-benzoyl-2-nitrophenylthiocyanate) suppressed FA-induced resuscitation. We propose a novel pathway for the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria involving the activation of adenylyl cyclase MSMEG_4279 by FAs resulted in activation of cellular metabolism followed later by increase of RpfA activity which stimulates cell multiplication in exponential phase. The study reveals a probable role for lipids of host origin in the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, which may function during the reactivation of latent TB.

Shleeva, Margarita; Goncharenko, Anna; Kudykina, Yuliya; Young, Danielle; Young, Michael; Kaprelyants, Arseny

2013-01-01

349

Enhancement of cyclic AMP metabolism in a B cell line by protein kinase C.  

PubMed

In a human B cell line in which we previously demonstrated an inverse relationship between cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content and immunoglobulin secretion, the phorbol ester, phorbol myristate acetate, (PMA), was shown to augment the cAMP elevating ability of cholera toxin (CT), suggesting a regulatory linkage between the two transmembrane signaling pathways, cAMP and phospholipid (J. Immunol. 141, 1678-1686, 1988). We now extend these studies and provide additional evidence that activated protein kinase C, a principal product of the activation of the hydrolytic phospholipid pathway, plays a direct role in the augmentation of cAMP levels in cells stimulated by diverse cAMP-elevating ligands. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), forskolin (FSK) and CT, all of which demonstrated a concentration and time-dependent elevation of intracellular cAMP, produced even greater (up to twofold) elevations of cAMP in the presence of PMA or the diacylglycerol analogs, 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (DiC8), and 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG). In the absence of CT, PGE1, or FSK, these protein kinase C activators produced only small increases in cAMP content of the cells. Several tests of protein kinase C specificity in these PMA-, DiC8-, and OAG-induced augmentations were made: (i) only phorbol esters known to activate protein kinase C worked, (ii) PMA augmentation was abolished by down-regulation of protein kinase C, (iii) Staurosporine (a known inhibitor of protein kinase C) selectively inhibited the effects of PMA on cAMP generation and on immunoglobulin secretion in the LA350 cell line. PMID:2168809

Patke, C L; Shearer, W T

1990-10-01

350

Defective Cyclic AMP Generation Underlies the Sensitivity of Central Nervous System Neurons to Neurofibromatosis-1 Heterozygosity  

PubMed Central

Individuals with the Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) inherited cancer syndrome exhibit neuronal dysfunction that predominantly affects the central nervous system (CNS). In this report, we demonstrate a unique vulnerability of CNS neurons, but not peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons, to reduced Nf1 gene expression. Unlike dorsal root ganglion neurons, Nf1 heterozygous (Nf1+/?) hippocampal and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurons have decreased growth cone areas and neurite lengths, and increased apoptosis compared to their wild-type counterparts. These abnormal Nf1+/? CNS neuronal phenotypes do not reflect Ras pathway hyperactivation, but rather result from impaired neurofibromin-mediated cAMP generation. In this regard, elevating cAMP levels with forskolin or rolipram treatment, but not MEK or PI3-K inhibition, reverses these abnormalities to wild-type levels in vitro. In addition, Nf1+/? CNS, but not PNS, neurons exhibit increased apoptosis in response to excitotoxic or oxidative stress in vitro. Since children with NF1-associated optic gliomas often develop visual loss and Nf1 genetically-engineered mice with optic glioma exhibit RGC neuronal apoptosis in vivo, we further demonstrate that RGC apoptosis resulting from optic glioma in Nf1 genetically-engineered mice is attenuated by rolipram treatment in vivo. Similar to optic glioma-induced RGC apoptosis, the increased RGC neuronal death in Nf1+/? mice following optic nerve crush injury is also attenuated by rolipram treatment in vivo. Together, these findings establish a distinctive role for neurofibromin in CNS neurons with respect to vulnerability to injury, define a CNS-specific neurofibromin intracellular signaling pathway responsible for neuronal survival, and lay the foundation for future neuroprotective glioma treatment approaches.

Brown, Jacquelyn A.; Gianino, Scott M.; Gutmann, David H.

2010-01-01

351

Cyclic-AMP Mediated Regulation of ABCB mRNA Expression in Mussel Haemocytes  

PubMed Central

Background The multixenobiotic resistance system (MXR) allows aquatic organisms to cope with their habitat despite high pollution levels by over-expressing membrane and intracellular transporters, including the P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In mammals transcription of the ABCB1 gene encoding Pgp is under cAMP/PKA-mediated regulation; whether this is true in mollusks is not fully clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings cAMP/PKA regulation and ABCB mRNA expression were assessed in haemocytes from Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed in vivo for 1 week to 0.3 ng/L fluoxetine (FX) alone or in combination with 0.3 ng/L propranolol (PROP). FX significantly decreased cAMP levels and PKA activity, and induced ABCB mRNA down-regulation. FX effects were abolished in the presence of PROP. In vitro experiments using haemocytes treated with physiological agonists (noradrenaline and serotonin) and pharmacological modulators (PROP, forskolin, dbcAMP, and H89) of the cAMP/PKA system were performed to obtain clear evidence about the involvement of the signaling pathway in the transcriptional regulation of ABCB. Serotonin (5-HT) decreased cAMP levels, PKA activity and ABCB mRNA expression but increased the mRNA levels for a putative 5-HT1 receptor. Interestingly, 5-HT1 was also over-expressed after in vivo exposures to FX. 5-HT effects were counteracted by PROP. Forskolin and dbcAMP increased PKA activity as well as ABCB mRNA expression; the latter effect was abolished in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H89. Conclusions This study provides the first direct evidence for the cAMP/PKA-mediated regulation of ABCB transcription in mussels.

Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Elena

2013-01-01

352

Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine receptor coupled to cyclic AMP formation expressed by rat mesenteric artery vascular smooth muscle cells in culture.  

PubMed Central

1. Mesenteric artery vascular smooth muscle cells derived from male Wistar rats and grown in culture were prelabelled with [3H]-adenine and exposed to a range of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists. Resultant [3H]-cyclic AMP formation was determined and concentration-effect curves constructed, in the presence of propranolol (10-6) M) and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX (5 x 10(-4) M). 2. Ka apparent values for D1/DA1 dopamine receptor agonists SKF 38393, fenoldopam, 6,7-ADTN, and dopamine were 0.06, 0.59, 4.06 and 5.77 x 10(-6) M respectively. Although fenoldopam and SKF 38393 were more potent than dopamine, they were partial agonists with efficacies, relative to dopamine of approximately 48% and 24% respectively. 6,7-ADTN, in contrast, behaved as a full agonist. 3. Dopamine-stimulated cyclic AMP formation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the D1/DA1 dopamine receptor selective antagonists, SCH 23390 and cis-flupenthixol (Ki values 0.53 and 36.1 x 10(-1) M respectively). In contrast, the D2/DA2 dopamine receptor selective antagonists, domperidone and (-)-sulpiride, were less potent (Ki values 2.06 and 5.82 x 10(-6) M respectively). Furthermore, the stereoisomers of SCH 23390 and cis-flupenthixol, SCH 23388 and trans-flupenthixol, were at least two orders of magnitude less potent (Ki values 0.14 and 13.2 x 10(-6) M respectively) indicating the stereoselective nature of this receptor. 4. Our results indicate that rat mesenteric artery vascular smooth muscle cells in culture express a dopamine receptor coupled to cyclic AMP formation, which has the pharmacological profile, characteristic of the D1 dopamine receptor subfamily.

Hall, A. S.; Bryson, S. E.; Vaughan, P. F.; Ball, S. G.; Balmforth, A. J.

1993-01-01

353

Neuronal cyclic AMP controls the developmental loss in ability of axons to regenerate.  

PubMed

Unlike neonatal axons, mammalian adult axons do not regenerate after injury. Likewise, myelin, a major factor in preventing regeneration in the adult, inhibits regeneration from older but not younger neurons. Identification of the molecular events responsible for this developmental loss of regenerative capacity is believed key to devising strategies to encourage regeneration in adults after injury. Here, we report that the endogenous levels of the cyclic nucleotide, cAMP, are dramatically higher in young neurons in which axonal growth is promoted both by myelin in general and by a specific myelin component, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), than in the same types of neurons that, when older, are inhibited by myelin-MAG. Inhibiting a downstream effector of cAMP [protein kinase A (PKA)] prevents myelin-MAG promotion from young neurons, and elevating cAMP blocks myelin-MAG inhibition of neurite outgrowth in older neurons. Importantly, developmental plasticity of spinal tract axons in neonatal rat pups in vivo is dramatically reduced by inhibition of PKA. Thus, the switch from promotion to inhibition by myelin-MAG, which marks the developmental loss of regenerative capacity, is mediated by a developmentally regulated decrease in endogenous neuronal cAMP levels. PMID:11425900

Cai, D; Qiu, J; Cao, Z; McAtee, M; Bregman, B S; Filbin, M T

2001-07-01

354

Cyclic AMP dysregulates intestinal epithelial cell restitution through PKA and RhoA  

PubMed Central

Mucosal homeostasis is dependent upon the establishment and maintenance of the cell-cell contacts that comprise the physiological barrier. Breaks in the barrier are linked to multiple diseases such as the inflammatory bowel diseases. While increased cAMP levels limit inflammation by decreasing leukocyte infiltration, the effects of elevated cAMP on intestinal epithelial repair are unknown. Methods Restitution in animals administered rolipram was monitored by microscopic examination after laser wounding of the intestinal epithelium or in mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In vitro analysis was conducted using IEC6 and T84 cells to determine the role for elevated cAMP in altering Rho-dependent cellular migration signaling pathways. Results We show that treatment with rolipram, forskolin, and cAMP-analogs decrease intestinal epithelial cell migration in vitro. In vivo cell imaging revealed that increased cAMP resulted in a decreased cellular migration rate, with cells at the edge displaying the highest activity. As expected, elevated cAMP elicited increased protein kinase A (PKA) activity, in turn resulting in the inactivation and sequestration of RhoA and decreased actin reorganization. The ablation of restitution by cAMP was not restricted to cell culture as forskolin and rolipram treatment significantly decreased epithelial microwound closure induced by the two photon confocal injury model. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that administration of cAMP elevating agents paradoxically decrease infiltration of damage-causing leukocytes while also preventing epithelial repair and barrier maintenance. We propose that treatment with cAMP elevating agents severely limits mucosal re-epithelialization and should be contraindicated for use in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders.

Zimmerman, Noah P.; Kumar, Suresh N.; Turner, Jerrold R.; Dwinell, Michael B.

2011-01-01

355

Cyclic AMP Pathway Modifies Memory through Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Alterations in the Rat Hippocampus.  

PubMed

Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (NCAMs) are known to influence memory by affecting neural cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix junctions. This study investigated the possible role of cAMP pathway in the expression of hippocampal NCAM and its polysialylated derivative (PSA-NCAM). The following pharmacological tools were employed for manipulation of cAMP pathway: a) forskolin; the activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC), b) 8-Br-cAMP; a protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, c) 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP; a selective enhancer of exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) and d) Rp-cAMP; a PKA inhibitor. Memory acquisition was tested by passive avoidance paradigm after injecting the above compounds for three consecutive days into the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus of rats. Forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP enhanced memory retrieval while Rp-cAMP significantly reduced memory and NCAM levels. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP failed to alter memory performance or NCAM levels as compared to vehicle. We observed no significant changes in PSA-NCAM, however the expression of St8sia4 and St8sia2 (the polysialyltransferase isoforms) were altered. The mRNA levels of St8sia4 was down-regulated by 8-Br-cAMP, Rp-cAMP and 8-pCPT while forskolin led to almost 3 and 5 fold increase in mRNAs of St8sia2 and St8sia4, respectively. The current insight might endorse the predominant role of PKA as compared to Epac in cAMP pathway in expression of NCAM and memory function. PMID:24901853

Razmi, Ali; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Khani, Mohammad Hossein; Paylakhi, Seyed Hassan; Faizi, Mehrdad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

2014-04-01

356

The enhancement and the inhibition of noradrenaline-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in rat brain by stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors.  

PubMed

1. The actions of several metabotropic glutamate receptor and antagonists on noradrenaline (NA)-stimulated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation were investigated in rat cerebral cortical slices. 2. Quisqualate (QUIS), L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (L-AP3) and glutamate (GLU) elicited concentration-dependent inhibition of (NA)-stimulated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation, with IC50 values of 105 +/- 29, 275 +/- 36 and 944 +/- 150 microM respectively. In contrast (Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) (0.5 mM) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) (0.5 mM) had no effect. 3. (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCGI), 1-Aminocyclo-pentane-1S,3R-dicarbo-xylate (1S,3R-ACPD), ibotenate (IBO) and (RS)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxy-phenylglycine (CHPG)elicited a concentration-dependent enhancement of NA-stimulated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation, with EC50 values of 2.5 +/- 0.11, 42 +/- 1.3, 97.8 +/- 2.1 and 157 +/- 13.4 microM, respectively. 4. (S)-3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycine (3C4HPG) and (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenyl-glycine (4C3HPG) produced a biphasic effect, at concentrations up to 100 and 500 microM, respectively, they significantly enhanced the action of NA (100 microM), at 1mM concentration both compounds as well as alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) produced a significant inhibition of NA-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. 5. A putative mGluR antagonist-L-AP3, inhibited the 1S,3R-ACPD (100 microM) induced enhancement of the action of NA (100 microM) on [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation in a biphasic manner with an IC50 of 4.5 microM for the high affinity site, which represented 65% of the total and an IC50 of 283 microM for the low affinity site. 6. beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol inhibited the interaction between 1S,3R-ACPD (100 microM) and NA (100 microM) on [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation by about 80%, with an IC50 of 0.52 +/- 0.011 microM, to the level observed after 1S,3R-ACPD alone. Prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist was more potent (IC50 of 0.091 +/- 0.012 microM) but less efficacious (60% inhibition) as an inhibitor of the interaction either between NA and 1S,3R-ACPD while yohimbine, na alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist (up to 1 microM) had no effect. 7. Neither the protein kinase C inhibitor - staurosporine (10 microM) nor thapsigargin (1 microM), which depletes IP3 sensitive calcium stores, inhibited significantly the 1S,3R-ACPD (100 microM)-induced enhancement of the action of NA (100 microM) on [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation. 8. Adenosine deaminase (0.5 U/ml) abolished both the 1S,3R-ACPD (100 microM)-induced [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation and the synergistic interaction of this compound with NA (100 microM). 9. These results indicate the existence of different subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors in rat brain which either inhibit or enhance the NA-stimulated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation. The enhancement in cerebral cortical slices is mediated via receptors which are blocked with high affinity by L-AP3 and occurs via interactions with endogenous adenosine; the inhibition is mediated by receptors sensitive to quisqualate, L-AP3 and glutamate and may represent a predominant interaction between NA and excitatory amino acids (EAA), which in cerebral cortical slices is masked by excitatory effects. PMID:8843491

Pilc, A; Legutko, B; Czyrak, A

1996-05-01

357

Regulation of cyclic AMP metabolism by prostaglandins in rabbit cortical collecting tubule cells  

SciTech Connect

In the rabbit cortical collecting tubule (RCCT), prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) and prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) at 1 nM inhibit arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-induced water reabsorption, while 100 nM PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/ alone stimulate water reabsorption. Reported here are studies designed to investigate the molecular basis for the biphasic physiological action of PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/ in the collecting duct. In freshly isolated RCCT cells, PGE/sub 1/, PGE/sub 2/, and 16,16-dimethyl-PGE/sub 2/ (DM-PGE/sub 2/) stimulated cAMP synthesis at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 M. Other prostaglandins including the synthetic PGE/sub 2/ analogue, sulprostone, failed to stimulate cAMP synthesis. Moreover, sulprostone did not antagonize PGE/sub 2/-stimulated cAMP formation. In contrast, PGE/sub 2/ and sulprostone at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 nM, inhibited AVP-induced cAMP accumulation in freshly isolated RCCT cells. PGE/sub 2/, PGE/sub 1/, DM-PGE/sub 2/ and sulprostone at 100 nM were equally effective in inhibiting AVP-induced cAMP formation. Moreover sulprostone inhibited AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. These results suggest that PGE derivatives mediate either inhibition or activation of adenylate cyclase by stimulating different PGE receptors. To further test this concept, PGE/sub 2/ binding to freshly isolated RCCT cell membranes was characterized. Two different classes of PGE/sub 2/ binding were detected. //sup 3/H/PGE/sub 2/ binding to the high affinity class of sites was increased by the GTP-analogue, GTP S, while pertussis toxin pretreatment blocked the stimulatory action. In contrast, //sup 3/H/ PGE/sub 2/ binding to the low affinity class of sites was decreased by GTP S; this inhibitory effect was not blocked by pertussis toxin pretreatment.

Sonnenburg, W.K.

1987-01-01

358

Dose and Chemical Modification Considerations for Continuous Cyclic AMP Analog Delivery to the Injured CNS  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this investigation, two cell-permeable synthetic analogs of cAMP, dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) and 8-bromo-cAMP, which are widely used to elevate intracellular cAMP levels under experimental conditions, were investigated for their ability to dose-dependently improve histological and functional outcomes following continuous delivery in two models of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The cAMP analogs were delivered via osmotic minipumps at 1–250?mM through an indwelling cortical cannula or by intrathecal infusion for up to 4 weeks after either a T8 unilateral over-hemisection or a C2-3 dorsolateral quadrant lesion, respectively. In both SCI models, continuous db-cAMP delivery was associated with histopathological changes that included sporadic micro-hemorrhage formation and cavitation, enhanced macrophage infiltration and tissue damage at regions beyond the immediate application site; no deleterious or beneficial effect of agent delivery was observed at the spinal injury site. Furthermore, these changes were accompanied by pronounced behavioral deficits that included an absence of progressive locomotor recovery, increased extensor tone, paralysis, and sensory abnormalities. These deleterious effects were not observed in saline-treated animals, in animals in which the db-cAMP dose did not exceed 1?mM, or in those animals that received a high dose (250?mM) of the alternative cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP. These results demonstrate that, for continuous intraparenchymal or intrathecal administration of cAMP analogs for the study of biological or therapeutic effects within the central nervous system (CNS), consideration of the effective concentration applied as well as the potential toxicity of chemical moieties on the parent molecule and/or their activity needs to be taken into account.

Fouad, Karim; Ghosh, Mousumi; Vavrek, Romana; Tse, Arthur D.

2009-01-01

359

Cyclic AMP-mediated endocytosis of intestinal epithelial NHE3 requires binding to synaptotagmin 1  

PubMed Central

The apical membrane Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE)3 is regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, which inhibits its activity through membrane endocytosis. The clathrin complex adaptor protein synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) appears to be essential to this process, but little is known about its expression in intestinal epithelial cells or interaction with NHE3. The intestinal epithelial expression and apical location of Syt 1 were determined by Syt 1 mRNA profiling and immunolocalization. Tandem mass spectrometry was used for protein identification. Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) cross linking suggested that NHE3 and Syt 1 were in a membrane complex following cAMP stimulation of Caco2BBE (Brush Border Expressions) cells. To investigate the regulation of NHE3 appearance in a Syt 1-containing membrane compartment, doxycycline-inducible hemaglutinin (HA)-tagged NHE3 was expressed in Caco2BBE cells. HA-NHE3 correctly targeted to the apical membrane, where, upon cAMP stimulation, it was internalized with a Syt 1-containing compartment. Site-directed mutagenesis of NHE3 showed that serine 605 (S605) was pivotal to NHE3 and Syt 1 association and internalization. Direct Syt 1 interaction with NHE3 was suggested by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. The physiological role of S552 was less clear. By FRET, this serine residue appeared to be involved in cAMP-induced Syt 1 binding of NHE3. However, when HA-tagged NHE3 S552A was expressed in Caco2 cells, the mutated construct was not inserted into the apical membrane. We conclude that intestinal epithelial Syt 1 plays an important role in cAMP-stimulated endocytosis of apical NHE3 through cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of S605 that is required for NHE3 and Syt 1 association.

Musch, Mark W.; Arvans, Donna L.; Wang, Yunwei; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Solomaha, Elena

2010-01-01

360

Increased turnover of the messenger RNA encoding tyrosine aminotransferase can account for the desensitization and de-induction of tyrosine aminotransferase by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP treatment and removal.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of H-4 rat hepatoma cells with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP) resulted in a transient induction of the gluconeogenic enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase. Synthesis of tyrosine aminotransferase and the level of its corresponding mRNA peaked 2 h after the addition of the cyclic nucleotide and declined thereafter. Tyrosine aminotransferase synthesis and mRNA failed to respond to the readdition of fresh 8-Br-cAMP, a process which we defined as desensitization. Removal of 8-Br-cAMP resulted in a decrease in tyrosine aminotransferase synthesis and mRNA, a process defined as de-induction. The relative transcription rate of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene and the turnover of its mRNA were determined by labeling intact cells with [3H]uridine. 8-Br-cAMP led to an increase in the rate of tyrosine aminotransferase transcription which was sustained for at least 4 h. The transcription rate declined upon de-induction. In addition, 8-Br-cAMP increased the turnover rate of tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA, but only after a 1.5-3 h time lag. This increased degradation rate persisted for at least 1.5 h after the removal of 8-Br-cAMP. These two contrasting and temporally distinct processes could account for the observed changes in tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA levels in response to 8-Br-cAMP treatment and removal. Images

Smith, J D; Liu, A Y

1988-01-01