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Sample records for activates cyclic-amp response

  1. Fibroblast growth factor and cyclic AMP (cAMP) synergistically activate gene expression at a cAMP response element.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Y; Low, K G; Boccia, C; Grossman, J; Comb, M J

    1994-01-01

    Growth factors and cyclic AMP (cAMP) are known to activate distinct intracellular signaling pathways. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activates ras-dependent kinase cascades, resulting in the activation of MAP kinases, whereas cAMP activates protein kinase A. In this study, we report that growth factors and cAMP act synergistically to stimulate proenkephalin gene expression. Positive synergy between growth factor- and cAMP-activated signaling pathways on gene expression has not been previously reported, and we suggest that these synergistic interactions represent a useful model for analyzing interactions between these pathways. Transfection and mutational studies indicate that both FGF-dependent gene activation and cAMP-dependent gene activation require cAMP response element 2 (CRE-2), a previously characterized cAMP-dependent regulatory element. Furthermore, multiple copies of this element are sufficient to confer FGF regulation upon a minimal promoter, indicating that FGF and cAMP signaling converge upon transcription factors acting at CRE-2. Among many different ATF/AP-1 factors tested, two factors, ATF-3 and c-Jun, stimulate proenkephalin transcription in an FGF- or Ras-dependent fashion. Finally, we show that ATF-3 and c-Jun form heterodimeric complexes in SK-N-MC cells and that the levels of both proteins are increased in response to FGF but not cAMP. Together, these results indicate that growth factor- and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways converge at CRE-2 to synergistically stimulate gene expression and that ATF-3 and c-Jun regulate proenkephalin transcription in response to both growth factor- and cAMP-dependent intracellular signaling pathways. Images PMID:7935470

  2. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Téllez-Iñón, M T

    1988-01-01

    A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. Images Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2848508

  3. A Drosophila CREB/CREM homolog encodes multiple isoforms, including a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-responsive transcriptional activator and antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, J C; Wallach, J S; Wilder, E L; Klingensmith, J; Dang, D; Perrimon, N; Zhou, H; Tully, T; Quinn, W G

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a Drosophila gene that is a highly conserved homolog of the mammalian cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive transcription factors CREB and CREM. Uniquely among Drosophila genes characterized to date, it codes for a cAMP-responsive transcriptional activator. An alternatively spliced product of the same gene is a specific antagonist of cAMP-inducible transcription. Analysis of the splicing pattern of the gene suggests that the gene may be the predecessor of the mammalian CREB and CREM genes. PMID:7651429

  4. The interplay between cyclic AMP, MAPK, and NF-κB pathways in response to proinflammatory signals in microglia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Aguirre, Vladimir; Wai, Khine; Felfly, Hady; Dietrich, W Dalton; Pearse, Damien D

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP is an important intracellular regulator of microglial cell homeostasis and its negative perturbation through proinflammatory signaling results in microglial cell activation. Though cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, decrease intracellular cyclic AMP, the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. The current study examined which signaling pathways are responsible for decreasing cyclic AMP in microglia following TNF-α stimulation and sought to identify the role cyclic AMP plays in regulating these pathways. In EOC2 microglia, TNF-α produced a dramatic reduction in cyclic AMP and increased cyclic AMP-dependent PDE activity that could be antagonized by Rolipram, myristoylated-PKI, PD98059, or JSH-23, implicating a role for PDE4, PKA, MEK, and NF-κB in this regulation. Following TNF-α there were significant increases in iNOS and COX-2 immunoreactivity, phosphorylated ERK1/2 and NF-κB-p65, IκB degradation, and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which were reduced in the presence of high levels of cyclic AMP, indicating that reductions in cyclic AMP during cytokine stimulation are important for removing its inhibitory action on NF-κB activation and subsequent proinflammatory gene expression. Further elucidation of the signaling crosstalk involved in decreasing cyclic AMP in response to inflammatory signals may provide novel therapeutic targets for modulating microglial cell activation during neurological injury and disease. PMID:25722974

  5. Mutants of PC12 cells with altered cyclic AMP responses

    SciTech Connect

    Block, T.; Kon, C.; Breckenridge, B.M.

    1984-10-01

    PCl2 cells, derived from a rat pheochromocytoma, were mutagenized and selected in media containing agents known to elevate intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP). More than 40 clones were isolated by selection with cholera toxin or 2-chloroadenosine or both. The variants that were deficient in accumulating cAMP were obtained by using a protocol in which 1 ..mu..m 8-bromo-cAMP was included in addition to the agonist. Certain of these variants were partially characterized with respect to the site of altered cAMP metabolism. The profiles of adenylate cyclase activity responsiveness of certain variants to guanosine-5'-(BETA,..gamma..-imido) triphosphate and to forskolin resembled those of UNC and cyc phenotypes of S49 lymphoma cells, which are functionally deficient in the GTP-sensitive coupling protein, N/sub s/. Other variants were characterized by increased cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity at low substrate concentration. Diverse morphological traits were observed among the variants, but it was not possible to assign them to a particular cAMP phenotype. Two revertants of a PCl2 mutant were isolated and observed to have regained a cellular cAMP response to 2-chloroadenosine and to forskolin. It is hoped that these PCl2 mutants will have utility for defining cAMP-mediated functions, including any links to the action of nerve growth factor, in cells derived from the neural crest.

  6. Thromboxane A2 promotes interleukin-6 biosynthesis mediated by an activation of cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Obara, Yutaro; Kurose, Hitoshi; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-09-01

    1321N1 human astrocytoma cells express thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptors (TP). However, physiological consequences of TXA2 signaling in glial cells remain unclear. Herein, we show that TXA2 promotes interleukin-6 (IL-6) biosynthesis in glial cells. A TP agonist, 9,11-dideoxy-9alpha,11alpha-methanoepoxy-prosta-5Z,13E-dien-1-oic acid (U46619), enhanced IL-6 production in both 1321N1 cells and cultured mouse astrocytes. It has been shown that IL-6 gene expression is regulated by various transcription factors. Among them, we found a significant increase in cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activity with its phosphorylation at Ser133 by U46619 in 1321N1 cells. Although U46619 increased IL-6 promoter activity, a mutation at cyclic AMP-response element (CRE) on the promoter clearly suppressed the effect, suggesting that CRE is involved in U46619-induced IL-6 expression. Furthermore, both CREB and IL-6 promoter activities were suppressed by SB203580 [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole], a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, and H89 [N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)-ethyl]-5-isoquinoline], a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, indicating involvements of p38 MAPK and PKA in CREB activation and IL-6 expression. To determine which G-proteins are implicated in the U46619-induced IL-6 synthesis, the interfering mutants of Galpha(q), Galpha12, or Galpha13 by were overexpressed in 1321N1 cells adenoviral approach. It is noteworthy that the Galpha(q) or Galpha13 mutant blocked the IL-6 production by U46619. The constitutively active mutant of Galpha(q), Galpha12, or Galpha13 enhanced IL-6 production, indicating that Galpha(q) and Galpha13 were involved in U46619-induced IL-6 production. In conclusion, TXA2 enhances the IL-6 biosynthesis via the PKA p38 MAPK/CREB pathway in 1321N1 cells. IL-6 induction depends on Galpha(q) and Galpha13 as well. This is the first report showing TP-mediated IL-6 production in glial cells. PMID:15967875

  7. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by ginsenoside Rd via activation of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins and cyclic AMP response binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hye Gwang; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Han, Eun Hee; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-07-20

    Panax ginseng is a widely used herbal medicine in East Asia and is reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Here we show a unique effect of ginsenoside Rd (Rd) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Rd (100 {mu}g/ml), but not other ginsenosides induced COX-2 and increased prostaglandin E{sub 2} production. Gel shift and Western blot analyses using nuclear fractions revealed that Rd increased both the DNA binding of and the nuclear levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP){alpha}/{beta} and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), but not of p65, in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Rd increased the luciferase reporter gene activity in cells transfected with a 574-bp mouse COX-2 promoter construct. Site-specific mutation analyses confirmed that Rd-mediated transcriptional activation of COX-2 gene was regulated by C/EBP and CREB. These results provide evidence that Rd activated C/EBP and CREB, and that the activation of C/EBP and CREB appears to be essential for induction of COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells.

  8. Temporal Effect of Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone on Adrenal Glucocorticoid Steroidogenesis: Involvement of the Transducer of Regulated Cyclic AMP-Response Element-Binding Protein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Spiga, F; Liu, Y; Aguilera, G; Lightman, S L

    2011-01-01

    The availability of active steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc) are rate-limiting steps for steroidogenesis. Transcription of StAR and P450scc genes depends on cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and CREB co-activator, transducer of regulated CREB activity (TORC), which is regulated by salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1). In the present study, we investigated the relationship between TORC activation and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-induced steroidogenesis in vivo, by examining the time-course of the effect of ACTH injection (4 ng, i.v.) on the transcriptional activity of StAR and P450scc genes and the nuclear accumulation of transducer of regulated CREB activity 2 (TORC2) in rat adrenal cortex. ACTH produced rapid and transient increases in plasma corticosterone, with maximal responses between 5 and 15 min, and a decrease to almost basal values at 30 min. StAR and P450scc hnRNA levels increased 15 min following ACTH and decreased toward basal values at 30 min. Concomitant with an increase in nuclear phospho-CREB, ACTH injection induced nuclear accumulation of TORC2, with maximal levels at 5 min and a return to basal values by 30 min. The decline of nuclear TORC2 was paralleled by increases in SIK1 hnRNA and mRNA 15 and 30 min after injection, respectively. The early rises in plasma corticosterone preceding StAR and P450scc gene transcription suggest that post-transcriptional and post-translational changes in StAR protein mediate the early steroidogenic responses. Furthermore, the direct temporal relationship between nuclear accumulation of TORC2 and the increase in transcription of steroidogenic proteins, implicates TORC2 in the physiological regulation of steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex. The delayed induction of SIK1 suggests a role for SIK1 in the declining phase of steroidogenesis. PMID:21083631

  9. The response induced by intracellular cyclic AMP in isolated olfactory receptor cells of the newt.

    PubMed Central

    Kurahashi, T

    1990-01-01

    1. Responses induced by intracellular cyclic nucleotides were analysed in isolated olfactory receptor cells of the newt under a voltage-clamp condition by using the patch pipette in a whole-cell recording configuration. Cyclic nucleotides were applied by diffusion from the patch pipette. 2. Introduction of either cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP caused a transient inward current in cells held at -50 mV. The response amplitude was dose-dependent with the Hill coefficient of 3 and half-saturating concentration of 300 microM (concentration in the pipette) for both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. Cyclic CMP was less effective than those two nucleotides. 3. The response to intracellular cyclic AMP was seen in all cilia-bearing cells, but not in cells which lost the cilia during dissociation. The response latency was shorter when cyclic AMP was introduced into the ciliated terminal swelling (ca 0.2 s) rather than into the cell body (ca 1.4 s). These results suggest that the sensitivity to intracellular cyclic AMP is confined to the cilia. 4. The cyclic AMP-induced current was transient (half decay time, ca 2.3s) despite the fact that cyclic AMP was continuously loaded from the patch pipette. The response time course was controlled by Ca2+; the reduction of external Ca2+ concentration (replaced with Mg2+) or loading the cell with 50 mM-EGTA prolonged the cyclic AMP-induced responses. The Ca2(+)-induced suppression was reversible. 5. The reversal potential of the cyclic AMP-induced transient current was -4.8 +/- 3.8 mV, and that of the current re-induced by Ca2+ removal was 1.5 +/- 2.1 mV, suggesting that both currents flowed through the same ionic channel. The channel permeates all alkali metal ions with the permeability ratios of PLi:PNa:PK:PRb:PCs = 0.93:1:0.93:0.91:0.72, but not Cl- or choline ions. 6. These results demonstrate that the cyclic AMP-induced response and the odorant-induced response of the isolated olfactory cell have nearly identical characteristics. The present study supports the notion that cyclic AMP is the internal messenger mediating olfactory transduction. PMID:1707967

  10. The plasma cyclic AMP response to catecholamines as potentiated by phentolamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Kunitada, S; Ui, M

    1978-05-15

    Norepinephrine failed to increase plasma cyclic AMP when injected alone into fasted rats, in contrast with sharp increases elicited by isoproterenol, epinephrine or tyramine. In rats pretreated with 6-hydroxydopamine or cocain, however, there was significant increase in plasma cyclic AMP after norepinephrine injection, suggesting that the rapid neuronal catecholamine uptake was at least partly responsible for the lack of norepinephrine action. Phentolamine was very effective in enhancing the epinephrine-, norepinephrine- or tyramine-induced increase in plasma cyclic AMP but without effect on the isoproterenol-induced increase. Blockade of postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors, rather than of presynaptic receptors, is likely to be involved in the phentolamine potentiation, since it was even observed in rats treated with 6-hydroxydopamine or cocaine. A discussion is presented regarding the mechanism by which cyclic AMP generation is influenced by the alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor interaction on effector cell membranes. PMID:207536

  11. Low-Power Laser Irradiation Suppresses Inflammatory Response of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Modulating Intracellular Cyclic AMP Level and NF-κB Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chau-Zen; Ho, Mei-Ling; Yeh, Ming-Long; Wang, Yan-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tissue regeneration is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating damaged tissues. However, the inflammatory microenvironment that exists at a local injury site might restrict reconstruction. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been widely applied to retard the inflammatory reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of LPLI on human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in an inflammatory environment. We showed that the hADSCs expressed Toll-like Receptors (TLR) 1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR6 and that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Interleukin-8 (IL-8)). LPLI markedly inhibited LPS-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at an optimal dose of 8 J/cm2. The inhibitory effect triggered by LPLI might occur through an increase in the intracellular level of cyclic AMP (cAMP), which acts to down-regulate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. These data collectively provide insight for further investigations of the potential application of anti-inflammatory treatment followed by stem cell therapy. PMID:23342077

  12. The role of calcium in the cyclic AMP response to histamine in rabbit cerebral cortical slices.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gadi, M.; Hill, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of calcium on the H1- and H2-receptor components of the cyclic AMP response to histamine in rabbit cerebral cortical slices has been investigated. Removal of calcium ions from the incubation medium during the preparation, preincubation and final incubation of brain slices significantly reduced the cyclic AMP responses to adenosine, histamine and the H2-selective agonist, impromidine. Removal of calcium ions from the incubation medium during only the final incubation with agonists did not influence the responses to adenosine, histamine, impromidine and the H1-selective agonist, 2-thiazolylethylamine. Final incubation of rabbit cerebral cortical slices in calcium-free buffer containing EGTA (1 mM) however, selectively reduced the cyclic AMP responses to the H1-agonists histamine and 2-thiazolylethylamine without affecting the response to impromidine or adenosine. These latter incubation conditions significantly reduced the maximal extent of the augmentation of impromidine- or adenosine-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation produced by H1-receptor stimulation, without affecting the EC50 values of the H1-agonists. Calcium-free/EGTA conditions did not, however, alter the dose-response parameters for the response to the H2-agonist, impromidine. These data provide further evidence that the two histamine receptor systems affect cyclic AMP accumulation in rabbit cerebral cortical slices by different mechanisms. PMID:3036288

  13. Mitochondrial Cyclic AMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Mediates Mitochondrial Gene Expression and Neuronal Survival*S

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junghee; Kim, Chun-Hyung; Simon, David K.; Aminova, Lyaylya R.; Andreyev, Alexander Y.; Kushnareva, Yulia E.; Murphy, Anne N.; Lonze, Bonnie E.; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Ginty, David D.; Ferrante, Robert J.; Ryu, Hoon; Ratan, Rajiv R.

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a widely expressed transcription factor whose role in neuronal protection is now well established. Here we report that CREB is present in the mitochondrial matrix of neurons and that it binds directly to cyclic AMP response elements (CREs) found within the mitochondrial genome. Disruption of CREB activity in the mitochondria decreases the expression of a subset of mitochondrial genes, including the ND5 subunit of complex I, down-regulates complex I-dependent mitochondrial respiration, and increases susceptibility to 3-nitropropionic acid, a mitochondrial toxin that induces a clinical and pathological phenotype similar to Huntington disease. These results demonstrate that regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by mitochondrial CREB, in part, underlies the protective effects of CREB and raise the possibility that decreased mitochondrial CREB activity contributes to the mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal loss associated with neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16207717

  14. Cyclic Amp phosphodiesterase activity in normal and inflamed human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Menna, V; Serra, E; Santoleri, F; Perfetti, G; Ciavarelli, L; Trentini, P

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (cAMP PDE) seems to be important in pulp tissues. High levels of cAMP PDE have been demonstrated to be in dental pulp cells. In the present study cAMP PDE activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic cAMP PDE control values for normal healthy pulps were 12.14 +/- 3.74 nmols/mg of proteins. In reversible pulpitis the cAMP PDE activity increased almost 2.5 times. In irreversible pulpitis specimens the values increased 4.5 times compared with normal healthy pulps activity. The differences between the groups (control vs. reversible pulpitis and vs. irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant. These results could point to a role of cAMP PDE in the initial pulp response after injury. PMID:16857100

  15. In vivo effect of indomethacin to potentiate the renal medullary cyclic AMP response to vasopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Lum, G M; Aisenbrey, G A; Dunn, M J; Berl, T; Schrier, R W; McDonald, K M

    1977-01-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that indomethacin potentiated the hydro-osmotic action of vasopressin in vivo. It was hypothesized that this action of indomethacin was due to its ability to suppress renal medullary prostaglandin synthesis, since in vitro studies have suggested that prostaglandins interfere with the ability of vasopressin to stimulate production of its intracellular mediator, cyclic AMP. In the present study this hypothesis was tested in vivo. Anesthetized rats undergoing a water diuresis were studied. In a control group, bolus injections of 200 muU of vasopressin caused a rise in urinary osmolality (Uosm) from 124 +/- 6 to 253 +/- 20 mosmol/kg H2O (P less than 0.005). In a group treated with 2 mg/kg of indomethacin the same dose of vasopressin caused a significantly greater (P less than 0.001) rise in Uosm from 124 +/- 7 to 428 +/- 19 mosmol/kg H2O. Medullary tissue cyclic AMP rose from 9.4 +/- 0.9 to 13.4 +/- 1.7 (P less than 0.05) pmol/mg tissue protein after vasopressin administration in animals receiving no indomethacin, while in indomethacin-treated animals there was a significantly greater rise (P less than 0.001) in medullary cyclic AMP from 10.4 +/- 0.9 to 21.6 +/- 2.1 pmol/mg tissue protein in response to the vasopressin injections. In neither control animals nor indomethacin-treated animals were there significant changes in renal hemodynamics, as measured by clearance techniques. Indomethacin, when given alone, had no effect on Uosm or medullary tissue cyclic AMP. Indomethacin did, however, reduce medullary prostaglandin E content from 84.7 +/- 15.0 to 15.6 +/- 4.3 pg/mg tissue. This study has shown that indomethacin, in a dose which suppresses medullary prostaglandin content, potentiates the ability of vasopressin to increase the tissue content of its intracellular mediator, cyclic AMP. Indomethacin caused no demonstrable inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Therefore, it seems likely that indomethacin enhanced the ability of vasopressin to increase medullary cyclic AMP levels by causing an increased production rather than decreased destruction of the nucleotide. We conclude that this action of indomethacin contributes to its ability to potentiate the hydro-osmotic action of vasopressin in vivo. A corollary to this conclusion is that endogenous medullary prostaglandin E's may be significant physiological modulators of the renal response to vasopressin. PMID:187624

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of cyclic AMP response in bovine cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, D R; Guillemette, C; Sirard, M A; Richard, F J

    2015-09-01

    Acquisition of oocyte developmental competence needs to be understood to improve clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction. The stimulation of cumulus cell concentration of cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) by pharmacological agents during in vitro maturation (IVM) participates in improvement of oocyte quality. However, precise coordination and downstream targets of cAMP signaling in cumulus cells are largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated better embryo development after cAMP stimulation for first 6 h during IVM. Using this model, we investigated cAMP signaling in cumulus cells through in vitro culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in the presence of cAMP raising agents: forskolin, IBMX, and dipyridamole (here called FID treatment). Transcriptomic analysis of cumulus cells indicated that FID-induced differentially expressed transcripts were implicated in cumulus expansion, steroidogenesis, cell metabolism, and oocyte competence. Functional genomic analysis revealed that protein kinase-A (PKA), extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and calcium (Ca(2+)) pathways as key regulators of FID signaling. Inhibition of PKA (H89) in FID-supplemented COCs or substitution of FID with calcium ionophore (A23187) demonstrated that FID activated primarily the PKA pathway which inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and was upstream of calcium signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by FID supported a regulation by dual specific phosphatase (DUSP1) via PKA. Our findings imply that cAMP (FID) regulates cell metabolism, steroidogenesis, intracellular signaling and cumulus expansion through PKA which modulates these functions through optimization of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and coordination of calcium signaling. These findings have implications for development of new strategies for improving oocyte in vitro maturation leading to better developmental competence. PMID:26082143

  17. TauCstF-64 Mediates Correct mRNA Polyadenylation and Splicing of Activator and Repressor Isoforms of the Cyclic AMP-Responsive Element Modulator (CREM) in Mouse Testis.

    PubMed

    Grozdanov, Petar N; Amatullah, Atia; Graber, Joel H; MacDonald, Clinton C

    2016-02-01

    Spermatogenesis is coordinated by the spatial and temporal expression of many transcriptional and posttranscriptional factors. The cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) gene encodes both activator and repressor isoforms that act as transcription factors to regulate spermiogenesis. We found that the testis-expressed paralog of CstF-64, tauCstF-64 (gene symbol Cstf2t), is involved in a polyadenylation site choice switch of Crem mRNA and leads to an overall decrease of the Crem mRNAs that are generated from internal promoters in Cstf2t(-/-) mice. More surprisingly, loss of tauCstF-64 also leads to alternative splicing of Crem exon 4, which contains an important activation domain. Thus, testis-specific CREMtau2 isoform protein levels are reduced in Cstf2t(-/-) mice. Consequently, expression of 15 CREM-regulated genes is decreased in testes of Cstf2t(-/-) mice at 25 days postpartum. These effects might further contribute to the infertility phenotype of these animals. This demonstrates that tauCstF-64 is an important stage-specific regulator of Crem mRNA processing that modulates the spatial and temporal expression of downstream stage-specific genes necessary for the proper development of sperm in mice. PMID:26700942

  18. Spatial Memory in the Morris Water Maze and Activation of Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding (CREB) Protein within the Mouse Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porte, Yves; Buhot, Marie Christine; Mons, Nicole E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of learning-induced cAMP response element-binding protein activation/phosphorylation (pCREB) in mice trained in a spatial reference memory task in the water maze. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined pCREB immunoreactivity (pCREB-ir) in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and related brain structures. During the…

  19. Bacterial Cyclic AMP-Phosphodiesterase Activity Coordinates Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kalivoda, Eric J.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Stella, Nicholas A.; Schmitt, Matthew J.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections are a major contributor to human disease, and the capacity for surface attachment and biofilm formation are key attributes for the pathogenesis of microbes. Serratia marcescens type I fimbriae-dependent biofilms are coordinated by the adenylate cyclase, CyaA, and the cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. This study uses S. marcescens as a model system to test the role of cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity in controlling biofilm formation. Herein we describe the characterization of a putative S. marcescens cAMP-phosphodiesterase gene (SMA3506), designated as cpdS, and demonstrated to be a functional cAMP-phosphodiesterase both in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of cpdS resulted in defective biofilm formation and reduced type I fimbriae production, whereas multicopy expression of cpdS conferred a type I fimbriae-dependent hyper-biofilm. Together, these results support a model in which bacterial cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity modulates biofilm formation. PMID:23923059

  20. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the activity of myogenic helix-loop-helix proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Heller-Harrison, R; Czech, M; Olson, E N

    1992-01-01

    Differentiation of skeletal muscle cells is inhibited by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction pathway. Here we report that the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) can substitute for cAMP and suppress muscle-specific transcription by silencing the activity of the MyoD family of regulatory factors, which includes MyoD, myogenin, myf5, and MRF4. Repression by the PKA catalytic (C) subunit is directed at the consensus sequence CANNTG, the target for DNA binding and transcriptional activation by these myogenic regulators. Phosphopeptide mapping of myogenin in vitro and in vivo revealed two PKA phosphorylation sites, both within the basic region. However, repression of myogenin function by PKA does not require direct phosphorylation of these sites but instead involves an indirect mechanism with one or more intermediate steps. Regulation of the transcriptional activity of the MyoD family by modulation of the cAMP signaling pathway may account for the inhibitory effects of certain peptide growth factors on muscle-specific gene expression and may also determine the responsiveness of different cell types to myogenic conversion by these myogenic regulators. Images PMID:1328856

  1. Distinguishable promoter elements are involved in transcriptional activation by E1a and cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K A; Fink, J S; Goodman, R H; Green, M R

    1989-01-01

    The sequence motif CGTCA is critical for binding of a group of cellular transcription factors (ATF, CREB, E4F, and EivF) and for activation of certain E1a-inducible and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible promoters. We have tested different promoter elements containing the CGTCA motif (referred to here as ATF-binding sites) for the ability to function as E1a or cAMP response elements. The adenovirus E4 promoter and the cellular vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) promoter responded differently to E1a and cAMP, demonstrating that the activating potential of ATF-binding sites within these promoters is not equivalent. While particular ATF-binding sites were sufficient for the activity of both the E4 (E1a inducibility) and VIP (cAMP inducibility) enhancers, these two enhancers had contrasting effects on E1a- and cAMP-inducible transcription. Thus, the relationship between E1a- and cAMP-inducible transcription is not simply explained by the action of these two inducers through the same promoter elements. Images PMID:2555692

  2. Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2012-04-01

    The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability. PMID:22538662

  3. Effect of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, J F; Grémeaux, T; Rochet, N; Van Obberghen, E; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y

    1987-01-01

    To explain the insulin resistance induced by catecholamines, we studied the tyrosine kinase activity of insulin receptors in a state characterized by elevated noradrenaline concentrations in vivo, i.e. cold-acclimation. Insulin receptors were partially purified from brown adipose tissue of 3-week- or 48 h-cold-acclimated mice. Insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of insulin receptors prepared from cold-acclimated mice were decreased. Since the effect of noradrenaline is mediated by cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, we tested the effect of the purified catalytic subunit of this enzyme on insulin receptors purified by wheat-germ agglutinin chromatography. The catalytic subunit had no effect on basal phosphorylation, but completely inhibited the insulin-stimulated receptor phosphorylation. Similarly, receptor kinase activity towards exogenous substrates such as histone or a tyrosine-containing copolymer was abolished. This inhibitory effect was observed with receptors prepared from brown adipose tissue, isolated hepatocytes and skeletal muscle. The same results were obtained on epidermal-growth-factor receptors. Further, the catalytic subunit exerted a comparable effect on the phosphorylation of highly purified insulin receptors. To explain this inhibition, we were able to rule out the following phenomena: a change in insulin binding, a change in the Km of the enzyme for ATP, activation of a phosphatase activity present in the insulin-receptor preparation, depletion of ATP, and phosphorylation of a serine residue of the receptor. These results suggest that the alteration in the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activity induced by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase could contribute to the insulin resistance produced by catecholamines. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:2822014

  4. Urine osmolality, cyclic AMP and aquaporin-2 in urine of patients under lithium treatment in response to water loading followed by vasopressin administration.

    PubMed

    Wilting, Ingeborg; Baumgarten, Ruben; Movig, Kris L L; van Laarhoven, Jan; Apperloo, Alfred J; Nolen, Willem A; Heerdink, Eibert R; Knoers, Nine V A M; Egberts, Antoine C G

    2007-07-01

    Lithium is the drug that is most frequently associated with acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). The exact mechanism of lithium-induced NDI in man is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the kidney response to minimal and maximal stimulation of the kidney urine concentrating mechanism by measuring urine osmolality, and urine levels of cAMP and AQP-2 in urine of patients under long-term lithium treatment. Twenty patients under long-term lithium treatment were included. The kidney urinary 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), aquaporin-2 levels and urine osmolality were determined during a situation of minimal kidney urine concentrating activity (induced by water loading) and during a situation following maximal stimulation of kidney urine concentrating activity (induced by 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin). Patients were classified as NDI, partial NDI and non-NDI based on maximal reached urine osmolality. The partial correlation (r) between urinary cyclic AMP levels (mol/l) and urine osmolality was 0.94 (P<0.001). No significant correlation was observed between urinary aquaporin-2 levels (mol/mol creatinine) and osmolality nor between urinary cyclic AMP and aquaporin-2 levels. The rise in urinary cyclic AMP but not aquaporin-2 levels upon 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin administration after water loading significantly differed between the three categories, decreasing with increasing NDI category. In conclusion we found that in lithium-induced kidney urine concentrating deficit in man, the cyclic AMP generation in response to 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin administration after water loading, is impaired. It remains to be elucidated whether principal cells, G-proteins or adenylate cyclase e.g. are the major targets for the mechanism underlying lithium-induced NDI in man. PMID:17466972

  5. Evolution of motif variants and positional bias of the cyclic-AMP response element

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brandon; Fang, Hung; Pan, Youlian; Walker, P Roy; Famili, A Fazel; Sikorska, Marianna

    2007-01-01

    Background Transcription factors regulate gene expression by interacting with their specific DNA binding sites. Some transcription factors, particularly those involved in transcription initiation, always bind close to transcription start sites (TSS). Others have no such preference and are functional on sites even tens of thousands of base pairs (bp) away from the TSS. The Cyclic-AMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB) binds preferentially to a palindromic sequence (TGACGTCA), known as the canonical CRE, and also to other CRE variants. CREB can activate transcription at CREs thousands of bp away from the TSS, but in mammals CREs are found far more frequently within 1 to 150 bp upstream of the TSS than in any other region. This property is termed positional bias. The strength of CREB binding to DNA is dependent on the sequence of the CRE motif. The central CpG dinucleotide in the canonical CRE (TGACGTCA) is critical for strong binding of CREB dimers. Methylation of the cytosine in the CpG can inhibit binding of CREB. Deamination of the methylated cytosines causes a C to T transition, resulting in a functional, but lower affinity CRE variant, TGATGTCA. Results We performed genome-wide surveys of CREs in a number of species (from worm to human) and showed that only vertebrates exhibited a CRE positional bias. We performed pair-wise comparisons of human CREs with orthologous sequences in mouse, rat and dog genomes and found that canonical and TGATGTCA variant CREs are highly conserved in mammals. However, when orthologous sequences differ, canonical CREs in human are most frequently TGATGTCA in the other species and vice-versa. We have identified 207 human CREs showing such differences. Conclusion Our data suggest that the positional bias of CREs likely evolved after the separation of urochordata and vertebrata. Although many canonical CREs are conserved among mammals, there are a number of orthologous genes that have canonical CREs in one species but the TGATGTCA variant in another. These differences are likely due to deamination of the methylated cytosines in the CpG and may contribute to differential transcriptional regulation among orthologous genes. PMID:17288573

  6. Glucocorticoids activate somatostatin gene transcription through co-operative interaction with the cyclic AMP signalling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J L; Papachristou, D N; Patel, Y C

    1994-01-01

    The somatostatin (SS) gene is transcriptionally regulated via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE), located in the proximal promoter (-41 to -48 bp). We have previously reported that glucocorticoids induce dose-dependent cell-specific alterations in the steady-state SS mRNA level. Here we have investigated direct transcriptional control of the SS gene by glucocorticoids. We have examined transcriptional interaction between glucocorticoids and the cAMP signalling pathway and mapped the 5' upstream regulatory region of the SS gene involved in glucocorticoid transactivation. Transcriptional regulation was determined by analysis of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells and A126-1B2 (protein kinase A-deficient mutant PC12) cells, by acute transfection of 5' flanking SS DNA (- 750, -250 and -71 bp) ligated to the reporter (CAT) gene. Dexamethasone (DEX) induced a dose-dependent 2.2-fold stimulation of SS gene transcription in PC12 cells, but not in A126-1B2 cells. Other steroid and thyroid hormones tested, and retinoic acid, were ineffective, while cAMP and forskolin stimulated gene transcription 4-5-fold in PC12 cells but not in A126-1B2 cells. DEX exerted an additive effect on cAMP-induced gene transcription. Deletion of the promoter from -750 to -71 bp (but not from -750 to -250 bp) abolished all stimulatory effects of DEX without affecting cAMP responsiveness. Mutation of the CRE abrogated both DEX- and cAMP-dependent gene enhancement. Gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that the -250 to -71 bp region of the SS promoter (but not the -71 to +55 bp domain) binds specifically to a glucocorticoid response element-sensitive nuclear protein(s) from PC12 cells, suggesting a putative glucocorticoid receptor interaction with SS promoter DNA. We conclude that glucocorticoids regulate SS gene transcription positively. Glucocorticoid-induced transactivation shows dependence on protein kinase. A activity, and may be mediated via protein-protein interaction between the glucocorticoid receptor and the CRE binding protein. DNA sequences upstream from the CRE between -250 and -71 bp in the SS promoter appear to be the target of glucocorticoid action. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7914402

  7. Dopamine D₄ receptor activation controls circadian timing of the adenylyl cyclase 1/cyclic AMP signaling system in mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Chad R; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Hwang, Christopher K; Iuvone, P Michael

    2011-07-01

    In the mammalian retina, dopamine binding to the dopamine D₄ receptor (D₄R) affects a light-sensitive pool of cyclic AMP by negatively coupling to the type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1). AC1 is the primary enzyme controlling cyclic AMP production in dark-adapted photoreceptors. A previous study demonstrated that expression of the gene encoding AC1, Adcy1, is downregulated in mice lacking Drd4, the gene encoding the D₄R. The present investigation provides evidence that D₄R activation entrains the circadian rhythm of Adcy1 mRNA expression. Diurnal and circadian rhythms of Drd4 and Adcy1 mRNA levels were observed in wild-type mouse retina. Also, rhythms in the Ca²⁺-stimulated AC activity and cyclic AMP levels were observed. However, these rhythmic activities were damped or undetectable in mice lacking the D₄R. Pharmacologically activating the D₄R 4 h before its normal stimulation at light onset in the morning advances the phase of the Adcy1 mRNA expression pattern. These data demonstrate that stimulating the D₄R is essential in maintaining the normal rhythmic production of AC1 from transcript to enzyme activity. Thus, dopamine/D₄R signaling is a novel zeitgeber that entrains the rhythm of Adcy1 expression and, consequently, modulates the rhythmic synthesis of cyclic AMP in mouse retina. PMID:21676039

  8. Cyclic AMP-Responsive Element Modulator α Polymorphisms Are Potential Genetic Risks for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian; Chen, Xuyong; Du, Yan; Guo, Jianping; Su, Yin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator α (CREMα) polymorphisms are novel susceptibility factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), four tag SNPs, rs1057108, rs2295415, rs11592925, and rs1148247, were genotyped in 889 SLE cases and 825 healthy controls. Association analyses were performed on whole dataset or clinical/serologic subsets. Association statistics were calculated by age and sex adjusted logistic regression. The G allele frequencies of rs2295415 and rs1057108 were increased in SLE patients, compared with healthy controls (rs2295415: 21.2% versus 17.8%, OR 1.244, P = 0.019; rs1057108: 30.8% versus 27.7%, OR 1.165, P = 0.049). The haplotype constituted by the two risk alleles “G-G” from rs1057108 and rs2295415 displayed strong association with SLE susceptibility (OR 1.454, P = 0.00056). Following stratification by clinical/serologic features, a suggestive association was observed between rs2295415 and anti-Sm antibodies-positive SLE (OR 1.382, P = 0.044). Interestingly, a potential protective effect of rs2295415 was observed for SLE patients with renal disorder (OR 0.745, P = 0.032). Our data provide first evidence that CREMα SNPs rs2295415 and rs1057108 maybe novel genetic susceptibility factors for SLE. SNP rs2295415 appears to confer higher risk to develop anti-Sm antibodies-positive SLE and may play a protective role against lupus nephritis. PMID:26601115

  9. Schwann cells stimulated by axolemma-enriched fractions express cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, M M; Sato-Bigbee, C; De Vries, G H

    1996-10-15

    Both axolemma-enriched fractions (AEF) and cyclic AMP have been shown to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cultured primary Schwann cells (SC). We have evaluated the role of CREB, a transcription factor that binds to the cAMP-responsive element, in mediating the AEF-stimulated SC proliferation and differentiation. We detected CREB in nuclear extracts derived from SC stimulated with 40 micrograms/ml of AEF for 16, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr, using a DNA-electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Unstimulated quiescent SC contained low levels of CREB which increased to a maximal level after 48 hr of AEF treatment. Using anti-CREB antibodies and Western blot analysis, after 24 hr of AEF treatment we first detected CREB as a 45 kDa protein which reached a maximal level of expression after 72 hr. Double labeled immunocytochemistry using anti-CREB and anti-5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine antibodies demonstrated maximal CREB expression after 72 hr of AEF treatment, closely coinciding with the temporal expression of SC proliferation. At all times examined, all AEF-treated SC labeled by anti-CREB antibodies were also labeled with anti-BrdU antibodies. These observations are consistent with the view that CREB could play an important role in the induction of SC proliferation by AEF. PMID:8915897

  10. Phorbol esters modulate cyclic AMP accumulation in porcine thyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Emoto, T.; Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Shimoda, S.

    1988-01-01

    In cultured porcine thyroid cells, during 60 min incubation phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on basal cyclic AMP accumulation and slightly stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or forskolin. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was significantly stimulated by PMA. On the other hand, cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by prostaglandin E/sub 1/ or E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/) was markedly depressed by simultaneous addition of PMA. These opposing effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by PGE and cholera toxin were observed in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximal effect of around 10/sup -9/ M in either case. The almost same effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation in basal and stimulated conditions were also observed in freshly prepared thyroid cells. The present study was performed in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), indicating that PMA affected adenylate cyclase activity. Therefore, it is suggested that PMA may modulate the production of cyclic AMP in response to different stimuli, possibly by affecting several sites in the adenylate cyclase complex in thyroid cells.

  11. Microgravity changes in heart structure and cyclic-AMP metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Fine, A.; Kato, K.; Egnor, R.; Cheng, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on cardiac ultrastructure and cyclic AMP metabolism in tissues of rats flown on Spacelab 3 are reported. Light and electron microscope studies of cell structure, measurements of low and high Km phosphodiesterase activity, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, and regulatory subunit compartmentation show significant deviations in flight animals when compared to ground controls. The results indicate that some changes have occurred in cellular responses associated with catecholamine receptor interactions and intracellular signal processing.

  12. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Acts as a Transcription Regulator in Response to Stresses in Deinococcus radiodurans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiali; Liu, Chengzhi; Lu, Huizhi; Liu, Mengjia; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Bing; Wang, Liangyan; Hua, Yuejin

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein family of transcription factors regulates various metabolic pathways in bacteria, and also play roles in response to environmental changes. Here, we identify four homologs of the CRP family in Deinococcus radiodurans, one of which tolerates extremely high levels of oxidative stress and DNA-damaging reagents. Transcriptional levels of CRP were increased under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment during the stationary growth phase, indicating that CRPs function in response to oxidative stress. By constructing all CRP single knockout mutants, we found that the dr0997 mutant showed the lowest tolerance toward H2O2, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, and mitomycin C, while the phenotypes of the dr2362, dr0834, and dr1646 mutants showed slight or no significant differences from those of the wild-type strain. Taking advantage of the conservation of the CRP-binding site in many bacteria, we found that transcription of 18 genes, including genes encoding chromosome-partitioning protein (dr0998), Lon proteases (dr0349 and dr1974), NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (dr1506), thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (dr2531), the DNA repair protein UvsE (dr1819), PprA (dra0346), and RecN (dr1447), are directly regulated by DR0997. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses showed that certain genes involved in anti-oxidative responses, DNA repair, and various cellular pathways are transcriptionally attenuated in the dr0997 mutant. Interestingly, DR0997 also regulate the transcriptional levels of all CRP genes in this bacterium. These data suggest that DR0997 contributes to the extreme stress resistance of D. radiodurans via its regulatory role in multiple cellular pathways, such as anti-oxidation and DNA repair pathways. PMID:27182600

  13. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-15

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells.

  14. Inhibition of cyclic AMP response element-directed transcription by decoy oligonucleotides enhances tumor-specific radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Park, Serk In; Park, Sung-Jun; Lee, Junghan; Kim, Hye Eun; Park, Su Jin; Sohn, Jeong-Won; Park, Yun Gyu

    2016-01-15

    The radiation stress induces cytotoxic responses of cell death as well as cytoprotective responses of cell survival. Understanding exact cellular mechanism and signal transduction pathways is important in improving cancer radiotherapy. Increasing evidence suggests that cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) family proteins act as a survival factor and a signaling molecule in response to stress. We postulated that CREB inhibition via CRE decoy oligonucleotide increases tumor cell sensitization to γ-irradiation-induced cytotoxic stress. In the present study, we demonstrate that CREB phosphorylation and CREB DNA-protein complex formation increased in time- and radiation dose-dependent manners, while there was no significant change in total protein level of CREB. In addition, CREB was phosphorylated in response to γ-irradiation through p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation revealed that CREB blockade by decoy oligonucleotides functionally inhibited transactivation of CREB, and significantly increased radiosensitivity of multiple human cancer cell lines including TP53- and/or RB-mutated cells with minimal effects on normal cells. We also demonstrate that tumor cells ectopically expressing dominant negative mutant CREB (KCREB) and the cells treated with p38 MAPK inhibitors were more sensitive to γ-irradiation than wild type parental cells or control-treated cells. Taken together, we conclude that CREB protects tumor cells from γ-irradiation, and combination of CREB inhibition plus ionizing radiation will be a promising radiotherapeutic approach. PMID:26655813

  15. Enhanced phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in Brain of mice following repetitive hypoxic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yanan; Gao Ge; Long Caixia; Han Song; Zu Pengyu; Fang Li . E-mail: lfang@utmb.edu; Li Junfa . E-mail: junfali@cpums.edu.cn

    2006-02-10

    Cerebral ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning (I/HPC) is a phenomenon of endogenous protection that renders Brain tolerant to sustained ischemia/hypoxia. This profound protection induced by I/HPC makes it an attractive target for developing potential clinical therapeutic approaches. However, the molecular mechanism of I/HPC is unclear. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), a selective nuclear transcriptional factor, plays a key role in the neuronal functions. Phosphorylation of CREB on Ser-133 may facilitate its transcriptional activity in response to various stresses. In the current study, we observed the changes in CREB phosphorylation (Ser-133) and protein expression in Brain of auto-hypoxia-induced HPC mice by using Western blot analysis. We found that the levels of phosphorylated CREB (Ser-133), but not protein expression of CREB, increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex of mice after repetitive hypoxic exposure (H2-H4, n = 6 for each group), when compared to that of the normoxic (H0, n = 6) or hypoxic exposure once group (H1, n = 6). In addition, a significant enhancement (p < 0.05) of CREB phosphorylation (Ser-133) could also be found in the nuclear extracts from the whole hippocampus of hypoxic preconditioned mice (H2-H4, n = 6 for each group). These results suggest that the phosphorylation of CREB might be involved in the development of cerebral hypoxic preconditioning.

  16. Lipopeptides activate Gi-proteins in dibutyryl cyclic AMP-differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Klinker, J F; Höer, A; Schwaner, I; Offermanns, S; Wenzel-Seifert, K; Seifert, R

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic lipopeptides activate superoxide-anion (O2-) formation in human neutrophils in a pertussis-toxin (PTX)-sensitive manner, suggesting the involvement of G-proteins of the Gi family in the signal-transduction pathway. We compared G-protein activation by lipopeptides and the chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) in dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP-differentiated HL-60 cells. The lipopeptide (2S)-2-palmitoylamino-6-palmitoyloxymethyl-7-palmitoyloxy heptanoyl-SK4 (Pam3AhhSK4) and fMLP activated high-affinity GTPase, i.e. the enzymic activity of G-protein alpha-subunits, in HL-60 membranes in a time- and protein-dependent manner, but they had no effect on Mg(2+)-ATPase and Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Pam3AhhSK4 and fMLP increased Vmax. of GTP hydrolysis. Pam3AhhSK4 activated GTP hydrolysis with half-maximal and maximal effects at about 2 microM and 10 microM respectively. Other lipopeptides activated GTP hydrolysis as well. Lipopeptides were less effective than fMLP to activate GTPase. In membranes from PTX-treated cells, the stimulatory effects of lipopeptides and fMLP on GTPase were abolished. In N-ethylmaleimide-treated membranes, the relative stimulatory effect of Pam3AhhSK4 on GTP hydrolysis was enhanced, whereas that of fMLP was diminished. fMLP and Pam3AhhSK4 activated GTPase in an over-additive manner in N-ethylmaleimide-treated membranes. Unlike fMLP, Pam3AhhSK4 did not enhance incorporation of GTP azidoanilide into, and cholera-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation of Gi-protein alpha-subunits in, HL-60 membranes and did not induce rises in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Pam3AhhSK4 and fMLP stimulated phosphatidic acid formation in a PTX-sensitive manner. Pam3AhhSK4 itself did not activate O2- formation, but potentiated the stimulatory effects of fMLP. Our data suggest that (i) lipopeptides activate the GTPase of Gi-proteins, (ii) lipopeptides and fMLP activate Gi-proteins differently, (iii) lipopeptides stimulate phospholipase D via Gi-proteins, and (iv) phosphatidic acid formation is not sufficient for activation of O2- formation. Images Figure 4 PMID:8250850

  17. Activation of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, C. R.; Mills, I.; Du, W.; Kamal, K.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway (AC) in endothelial cells (EC) exposed to different levels of mechanical strain. Bovine aortic EC were seeded to confluence on flexible membrane-bottom wells. The membranes were deformed with either 150 mm Hg (average 10% strain) or 37.5 mm Hg (average 6% strain) vacuum at 60 cycles per minute (0.5 s strain; 0.5 s relaxation) for 0-60 min. The results demonstrate that at 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain) there was a 1.5- to 2.2-fold increase in AC, cAMP, and PKA activity by 15 min when compared to unstretched controls. Further studies revealed an increase in cAMP response element binding protein in EC subjected to the 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain). These data support the hypothesis that cyclic strain activates the AC/cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathway in EC which may occur by exceeding a strain threshold and suggest that cyclic strain may stimulate the expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive promoter elements.

  18. Glial potassium channels activated by neuronal firing or intracellular cyclic AMP in Helix.

    PubMed Central

    Gommerat, I; Gola, M

    1996-01-01

    1. Cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp experiments were performed on satellite glial cells adhering to the cell body of neurones in situ within the nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia. The underlying neurone was under current or voltage-clamp control. 2. Neuronal firing induced a delayed (20-30 s) persistent (3-4 min) increase in the opening probability of glial K+ channels. The channels were also activated by perfusing the ganglion with a depolarizing high-K+ saline, except when the underlying neurone was prevented from depolarizing under voltage-clamp conditions. 3. Two K(+)-selective channels were detected in the glial membrane. The channel responding to neuronal firing was present in 95% of the patches (n = 393). It had a unitary conductance of 56 pS, a Na+ :K+ permeability ratio < 0.02 and displayed slight inward rectification in symmetrical [K+] conditions. It was sensitive to TEA, Ba2+ and Cs+. The following results refer to this channel as studied in the cell-attached configuration. 4. The glial K+ channel was activated by bath application of the membrane-permeant cyclic AMP derivatives 8-bromo-cAMP and dibutyryl-cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the diesterase inhibitors IBMX, theophylline and caffeine. It was insensitive to cyclic GMP activators and to conditions that might alter the intracellular [Ca2+] (ionomycin, low-Ca2+ saline and Ca2+ channel blockers). 5. The forskolin-induced changes in channel behaviour (open and closed time distributions, burst duration, short and long gaps within bursts) could be accounted for by a four-state model (3 closed states, 1 open state) by simply changing one of the six rate parameters. 6. The present results suggest that the signal sent by an active neurone to satellite glial cells is confined to the glial cells round that neurone. The effect of this signal on the class of glial K+ channels studied can be mimicked by an increase in glial cAMP concentration. The subsequent delayed opening of the glial K+ channels does not appear to play a role in siphoning the excess K+ released by active neurones. It is hypothesized that the cAMP-gated glial K+ channels may be involved in the control of glial cell proliferation. PMID:8887773

  19. Identification of a silencer module which selectively represses cyclic AMP-responsive element-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, K C; Huang, D; Chen, Y; Short, S; Short, M L; Zhang, Z; Jungmann, R A

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible promoter from the rat lactate dehydrogenase A subunit gene (LDH A) is associated with a distal negative regulatory element (LDH-NRE) that represses inherent basal and cAMP-inducible promoter activity. The element is of dyad symmetry, consisting of a palindromic sequence with two half-sites, 5'-TCTTG-3'. It represses the expression of an LDH A/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in a dose-dependent, orientation- and position-independent fashion, suggesting that it is a true silencer element. Uniquely, it selectively represses cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-dependent transcription but has no effect on promoters lacking a CRE sequence. The repressing action of LDH-NRE could be overcome by cotransfection with LDH A/CAT vector oligonucleotides containing either the LDH-NRE or CRE sequence. This suggests that the reversal of repression was caused by the removal of functional active, limiting transacting factors which associate with LDH-NRE as well as with CRE. Gel mobility shift, footprinting, and Southwestern blotting assays demonstrated the presence of a 69-kDa protein with specific binding activity for LDH-NRE. Additionally, gel supershift assays with anti-CREB and anti-Fos antibodies indicate the presence of CREB and Fos or antigenically closely related proteins with the LDH-NRE/protein complex. We suggest that the LDH-NRE and CRE modules functionally interact to achieve negative modulation of cAMP-responsive LDH A transcriptional activity. PMID:7565766

  20. Evolution of developmental cyclic AMP signalling in the Dictyostelia from an amoebozoan stress response

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    The Dictyostelid social amoebas represent one of nature’s several inventions of multicellularity. Though normally feeding as single cells, nutrient stress triggers collection of amoebas into colonies that form delicately shaped fruiting structures in which the cells differentiate into spores and up to three cell types to support the spore mass. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) plays a very dominant role in controlling morphogenesis and cell differentiation in the model species D. discoideum. As a secreted chemoattractant cAMP coordinates cell movement during aggregation and fruiting body morphogenesis. Secreted cAMP also controls gene expression at different developmental stages, while intracellular cAMP is extensively used to transduce the effect of other stimuli that control the developmental programme. In this review, I present an overview of the different roles of cAMP in the model D. discoideum and I summarize studies aimed to resolve how these roles emerged during Dictyostelid evolution. PMID:21585352

  1. Thrombin regulates intracellular cyclic AMP concentration in human platelets through phosphorylation/activation of phosphodiesterase 3A

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Thrombin-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) reduction potentates several steps in platelet activation, including Ca++ mobilization, cytoskeletal reorganization, and fibrinogen receptor conformation. We now reinvestigate the signaling pathways by which intracellular cAMP content is controlled after platelet activation by thrombin. When washed human platelets were stimulated with thrombin, cAMP-dependent phosphodiesterase (PDE3A) activity was significantly increased. A nonselective PDE inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), and the PDE3 selective inhibitors milrinone and cilostazol each suppressed thrombin-induced cAMP-dependent PDE responses, but not 2 different PDE2 inhibitors. Selective inhibition of PDE3A resulted in reversal of thrombin-induced cAMP reduction, indicating that thrombin activated PDE3A. In synergy with inhibition of adenylate cyclase by thrombin, activated PDE3A accelerates cAMP hydrolysis and maximally reduces the cAMP content. Thrombin-induced PDE3A activation was diminished concomitantly with dephosphorylation of PDE3A by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). An Akt inhibitor blocked PDE3A activation and constrained thrombin-induced cAMP reduction. A P2Y12 inhibitor also reduced thrombin-induced cAMP reduction. The combination of both reversed cAMP decrease by thrombin. Thrombin-mediated phosphorylated PDE3A was isolated by liquid chromatography, detected by a monoclonal antibody against Akt-phosphorylated substrate, and verified by immunoprecipitation study. The predominant isoform phosphorylated by Akt was the 136-kDa species. We suggest that activation/phosphorylation of PDE3A via Akt signaling pathway participates in regulating cAMP during thrombin activation of platelets. PMID:17392505

  2. Repression of protein kinase C and stimulation of cyclic AMP response elements by fumonisin, a fungal encoded toxin which is a carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Dickman, M; Henderson, G; Jones, C

    1995-04-15

    Fusarium moniliforme (FM) is a major fungal pathogen of corn and is involved with stalk rot disease. FM is widely spread throughout the world, including the United States. Most strains of FM produce several mycotoxins, the most prominent of which is called fumonisin. Recent epidemiological studies indicated that ingestion of fumonisin correlates with a higher incidence of esophageal cancer in Southern and Northern Africa and China. Furthermore, fumonisin causes a neurodegenerative disease in horses, induces hepatic cancer in rats, and induces pulmonary edema in swine. Considering that high levels of fumonisin have been detected in healthy and diseased corn grown in the United States, fumonisin may pose a health threat to humans and livestock animals. Structurally, fumonisin resembles sphingolipids which are present in the membranes of animal and plant cells. At the present time, very little is known concerning the mechanism by which fumonisin elicits its carcinogenic effect. Our studies indicate that fumonisin represses expression of protein kinase C and AP-1-dependent transcription. In contrast, fumonisin stimulated a simple promoter containing a single cyclic AMP response element. Since fumonisin did not alter protein kinase A activity, it appears that cyclic AMP response element activation was independent of protein kinase A. It is hypothesized that the ability of fumonisin to alter signal transduction pathways plays a role in carcinogenesis. PMID:7712470

  3. Phospholipase C in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cyclic AMP surface receptor and G-protein-regulated activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bominaar, A A; Kesbeke, F; Van Haastert, P J

    1994-01-01

    The cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum shows several responses after stimulation with the chemoattractant cAMP, including a transient rise in cyclic AMP (cAMP), cGMP and Ins(1,4,5)P3. In this paper the regulation of phospholipase C in vitro is described. Under our experimental conditions commercial PtdIns(4,5)P2 cannot be used to analyse phospholipase C activity in Dictyostelium lysates, because it is hydrolysed mainly to glycerophosphoinositol instead of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Enzyme activity was determined with endogenous unlabelled PtdInsP2 as a substrate. The product was measured by isotope-dilution assay and identified as authentic Ins(1,4,5)P3. Since phospholipase C is strictly Ca(2+)-dependent, with an optimal concentration range of 1-100 microM, cell lysates were prepared in EGTA and the enzyme reaction was started by adding 10 microM free Ca2+. Phospholipase C activity increased 2-fold during Dictyostelium development up to 8 h of starvation, after which the activity declined to less than 10% of the vegetative level. Enzyme activity in vitro increased up to 2-fold after stimulation of cells with the agonist cAMP in vivo. Addition of 10 microM guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate during lysis activated the enzyme to the same extent, and this effect was antagonized by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. These results strongly suggest that surface cAMP receptors and G-proteins regulate phospholipase C during Dictyostelium development. PMID:8280097

  4. A simple electrostatic switch important in the activation of type I protein kinase A by cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Dominico; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Sotriffer, Christoph A.; Pennypacker, Juniper K.; McCammon, J. Andrew; Taylor, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic AMP activates protein kinase A by binding to an inhibitory regulatory (R) subunit and releasing inhibition of the catalytic (C) subunit. Even though crystal structures of regulatory and catalytic subunits have been solved, the precise molecular mechanism by which cyclic AMP activates the kinase remains unknown. The dynamic properties of the cAMP binding domain in the absence of cAMP or C-subunit are also unknown. Here we report molecular-dynamics simulations and mutational studies of the RIα R-subunit that identify the C-helix as a highly dynamic switch which relays cAMP binding to the helical C-subunit binding regions. Furthermore, we identify an important salt bridge which links cAMP binding directly to the C-helix that is necessary for normal activation. Additional mutations show that a hydrophobic “hinge” region is not as critical for the cross-talk in PKA as it is in the homologous EPAC protein, illustrating how cAMP can control diverse functions using the evolutionarily conserved cAMP-binding domains. PMID:16322564

  5. Involvement of the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein in bovine leukemia virus expression in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, E; Kerkhofs, P; Mammerickx, M; Kettmann, R; Burny, A; Droogmans, L; Willems, L

    1994-01-01

    The TAR element (Tax-responsive element; also called TxRE) is a major determinant of the regulation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expression. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of viral expression, complexes formed between proteins and the TAR enhancer DNA were analyzed by gel retardation assays. We report here that nuclear lysates from ex vivo-isolated B lymphocytes contain proteins that specifically bind to TAR. An antibody directed toward the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein supershifted a complex (C1) present only in BLV-infected B lymphocytes. The CREB protein thus appears to be a major transcription factor involved in BLV expression in vivo. Images PMID:8057465

  6. Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J L; Harman, J G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is found in a variety of prokaryotes including both eubacteria and archaebacteria. cAMP plays a role in regulating gene expression, not only for the classic inducible catabolic operons, but also for other categories. In the enteric coliforms, the effects of cAMP on gene expression are mediated through its interaction with and allosteric modification of a cAMP-binding protein (CRP). The CRP-cAMP complex subsequently binds specific DNA sequences and either activates or inhibits transcription depending upon the positioning of the complex relative to the promoter. Enteric coliforms have provided a model to explore the mechanisms involved in controlling adenylate cyclase activity, in regulating adenylate cyclase synthesis, and in performing detailed examinations of CRP-cAMP complex-regulated gene expression. This review summarizes recent work focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of CRP-cAMP complex-mediated processes. For other bacteria, less detail is known. cAMP has been implicated in regulating antibiotic production, phototrophic growth, and pathogenesis. A role for cAMP has been suggested in nitrogen fixation. Often the only data that support cAMP involvement in these processes includes cAMP measurement, detection of the enzymes involved in cAMP metabolism, or observed effects of high concentrations of the nucleotide on cell growth. PMID:1315922

  7. Nuclear localization of v-Abl leads to complex formation with cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein and transactivation through CRE motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Birchenall-Roberts, M C; Ruscetti, F W; Kasper, J J; Bertolette, D C; Yoo, Y D; Bang, O S; Roberts, M S; Turley, J M; Ferris, D K; Kim, S J

    1995-01-01

    Deregulated expression of v-abl and BCR/abl genes has been associated with myeloproliferative syndromes and myelodysplasia, both of which can progress to acute leukemia. These studies identify the localization of the oncogenic form of the abl gene product encoded by the Abelson murine leukemia virus in the nuclei of myeloid cells and the association of the v-Abl protein with the transcriptional regulator cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). We have mapped the specific domains within each of the proteins responsible for this interaction. We have shown that complex formation is a prerequisite for transcriptional potentiation of CREB. Transient overexpression of the homologous cellular protein c-Abl also results in the activation of promoters containing an intact CRE. These observations identify a novel function for v-Abl, that of a transcriptional activator that physically interacts with a transcription factor. PMID:7565761

  8. Cyclic AMP as a possible mediator of dopamine stimulation of cockroach gland cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, D C; Ginsborg, B L; House, C R

    1984-01-01

    Isolated salivary glands of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea Olivier secrete fluid in response to nerve stimulation or application of dopamine, the acinar cells undergoing a hyperpolarization during secretion. The aim of the present work was to examine whether cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger in the acinar cells to cause the secretory and electrical responses to the transmitter dopamine. Cyclic AMP (10-500 microM) in the bathing solution of isolated glands caused a dose-dependent secretory response but no change in the membrane potential of acinar cells. The time courses and magnitudes of the secretory responses to cyclic AMP resembled those features of responses to dopamine. Forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, caused fluid secretion but the responses were small and irregular. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX)(1-1000 microM) produced fluid secretion in a dose-dependent manner, the maximal response being equal to that of dopamine. Maintained responses to cyclic AMP or IBMX required the presence of extracellular calcium ions. An inhibitor (MDL 12,330A) of adenylate cyclase suppressed the secretory responses to dopamine, cyclic AMP, IBMX, the ionophore A23817 or the readmission of calcium ions to the bathing solution; this inhibitor did not block the acinar hyperpolarization caused by nerve stimulation. Cyclic AMP stimulation of glands, bathed in chloride-free solution to prevent fluid secretion, produced a change in the gland cells which outlasted the period of exogenous cyclic AMP stimulation and expressed itself as a transient secretion upon return of the normal bathing solution. It was concluded that stimulus-secretion coupling in this gland involves a calcium-dependent second messenger system and that cyclic AMP is probably the second messenger. The evidence did not support the idea that cyclic AMP is also a second messenger for the acinar cell hyperpolarization evoked by nerve stimulation. PMID:6201944

  9. The cyclic AMP receptor protein is the main activator of pectinolysis genes in Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, S; Expert, D; Robert-Baudouy, J; Nasser, W

    1997-01-01

    The main virulence factors of the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi are pectinases that cleave pectin, a major constituent of the plant cell wall. Although physiological studies suggested that pectinase production in Erwinia species is subjected to catabolite repression, the direct implication of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) in this regulation has never been demonstrated. To investigate the role of CRP in pectin catabolism, we cloned the E. chrysanthemi crp gene by complementation of an Escherichia coli crp mutation and then constructed E. chrysanthemi crp mutants by reverse genetics. The carbohydrate fermentation phenotype of the E. chrysanthemi crp mutants is similar to that of an E. coli crp mutant. Furthermore, these mutants are unable to grow on pectin or polygalacturonate as the sole carbon source. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the E. chrysanthemi crp gene revealed the presence of a 630-bp open reading frame (ORF) that codes for a protein highly similar to the CRP of E. coli. Using a crp::uidA transcriptional fusion, we demonstrated that the E. chrysanthemi CRP represses its own expression, probably via a mechanism similar to that described for the E. coli crp gene. Moreover, in the E. chrysanthemi crp mutants, expression of pectinase genes (pemA, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE) and of genes of the intracellular part of the pectin degradation pathway (ogl, kduI, and kdgT), which are important for inducer formation and transport, is dramatically reduced in induced conditions. In contrast, expression of pelA, which encodes a pectate lyase important for E. chrysanthemi pathogenicity, seems to be negatively regulated by CRP. The E. chrysanthemi crp mutants have greatly decreased maceration capacity in potato tubers, chicory leaves, and celery petioles as well as highly diminished virulence on saintpaulia plants. These findings demonstrate that CRP plays a crucial role in expression of the pectinolysis genes and in the pathogenicity of E. chrysanthemi. PMID:9171393

  10. Different effect of prostaglandin E2 on B-cell activation by two distinct B-cell differentiation factors, B151-TRF1/IL-5 and B151-TRF2: selective inhibition of B151-TRF2-induced antibody response through increases in intracellular cyclic AMP levels

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, K.; Ono, S.; Takahama, Y.; Hirayama, F.; Hirano, H.; Itoh, K.; Dobashi, K.; Murakami, S.; Katoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Hamaoka, T.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on murine B-cell activation induced by two distinct B-cell differentiation factors, B151-TRF1/IL-5 and B151-TRF2, were examined. A final differentiation of unprimed B cells into IgM-producing cells induced by B151-TRF2 was markedly inhibited by PGE2 at physiological concentrations (around 10-8 M), whereas B151-TRF1/IL-5-induced antibody responses of unprimed as well as activated B cells were not affected by PGE2, even at 10-6 M. B-cell responses induced by B151-TRF2-like factors from autoimmune-prone MRL/1pr mice were also inhibited by PGE2. Biphasic increases in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were induced by culturing B cells with 10-6 or 10-8 M PGE2: rapid increases within 8 min and delayed increases around 16 hr. The direct addition of dibutyryl cAMP to cultures of B cells resulted in marked inhibition of antibody responses when stimulated with B151-TRF2 but not with B151-TRF1/IL-5. The B151-TRF2-induced antibody responses were also inhibited by cAMP-elevating reagents such as forskolin, cholera toxin and theophyline. Furthermore, 2′, 5′-dideoxyadenosine, which is an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, prevented the PGE2-mediated cAMP accumulation in unprimed B cells as well as the PGE2-mediated inhibition of B151-TRF2-induced B-cell responses when added at the initiation of culture. These results suggest that PGE2 inhibits B151-TRF2-induced antibody responses through the activation of adenylate cyclase and subsequent accumulation of intracellular cAMP, whereas B151-TRF1/IL-5-responsive B cells are resistant to the inhibitory effect of PGE2 and cAMP. PMID:2553585

  11. Chronic ethanol administration decreases phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in granule cells of rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Horn, K; Baraban, J M; Wand, G S

    1998-01-01

    To help define the molecular basis of ethanol's actions on the nervous system, we have in previous studies demonstrated that ethanol administration triggers a robust increase in cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in the cerebellum. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on the phosphorylation of CREB in rat cerebellum and to determine which cell types in the cerebellum display this response to ethanol. An acute ethanol challenge (3.0 g/kg of body weight) induced a rapid increase in content of the phosphorylated form of CREB, peaking at 30 min and declining to basal levels within 2 h. Immunocytochemical studies revealed prominent ethanol-induced changes in phosphoCREB in the granule cell layer, with little phosphoCREB apparent in Purkinje cells. Following chronic ethanol exposure (5 weeks), induction of CREB phosphorylation by a subsequent acute ethanol challenge was markedly attenuated. The attenuation in CREB phosphorylation was associated with a significant reduction in the levels of the catalytic unit of protein kinase A and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. In summary, induction of CREB phosphorylation in cerebellum is most prominent in the granule cell layer. Neuroadaptation to chronic ethanol exposure includes a reduction in nuclear protein kinase A and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV levels, an event associated with impaired CREB phosphorylation. PMID:9422366

  12. Regulation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein during neuroglial interactions.

    PubMed

    Qin, LiMei; Bouchard, Ron; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah

    2016-03-01

    Communications between neurons and glial cells play an important role in regulating homeostasis in the central nervous system. cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor, is down-regulated by neurotoxins, which are known to be released by activated glial cells. To determine the role of CREB signaling in neuroglial interactions, we used three neuroglial coculture models consisting of human neuroprogenitor cell (NPC)-derived neurons and human microglia. Conditioned medium from the Abeta (Aβ)-activated microglia decreased CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter activity (47%), whereas the same medium induced (p < 0.01) the promoter of CXCL10, a chemokine, in NPC-derived neuron-rich cultures. These effects were reversed when microglia were exposed to Aβ in the presence of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent. The expression of CREB targets, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synapsin-1, and BIRC3 decreased by 50-65% (p < 0.01) in neurons isolated by laser capture microdissection in close proximity of microglia in neuroglial mixed cultures. Neuronal survival actively modulated microglial behavior when neurons and microglia were cocultured side-by-side on semicircles of ACLAR membrane. Neuronal injury, caused by the over-expression of dominant negative form of CREB, exacerbated Aβ-mediated microglial activation, whereas CREB over-expression resulted in decreased microglial activation. Decreases in the levels of neuronal markers were observed when NPCs were differentiated in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, or IL-6. Instead, the NPCs differentiated into a glial phenotype, and these effects were more pronounced in the presence of tumor necrosis factor α. Our findings suggest that CREB down-regulation is an important component of defective neuroglial communications in the brain during neuroinflammation. Neuroglial interactions were examined using coculture models of human neuroprogenitor cell-derived neurons and microglia isolated from human fetal brain. A novel coculture model of neurons and microglia cultured on ACLAR membranes in the same dish was also included. In this model, over-expression of the dominant negative mutant form of the transcription factor CREB in neurons induced neuronal apoptosis and microglial activation whereas expression of the wild type form of CREB resulted in protection of neurons and suppressed microglial activity, thereby suggesting that neurons play an active role in neuroglial interactions. PMID:26677139

  13. Cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor: Molecules that modulate our mood?

    PubMed Central

    Nair, A; Vaidya, V A

    2008-01-01

    Depression is the major psychiatric ailment of our times, afflicting ~20% of the population. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of this complex disorder is not well understood. In addition, although antidepressants have been in existence for the past several decades, the mechanisms that underlie their therapeutic effects remain elusive. Building evidence implicates a role for the plasticity of specific neuro-circuitry in both the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Damage to limbic regions is thought to contribute to the etiology of depression and antidepressants have been reported to reverse such damage and promote adaptive plasticity. The molecular pathways that contribute to the damage associated with depression and antidepressant-mediated plasticity are a major focus of scientific enquiry. The transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are targets of diverse classes of antidepressants and are known to be regulated in animal models and in patients suffering from depression. Given their role in neuronal plasticity, CREB and BDNF have emerged as molecules that may play an important role in modulating mood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of CREB and BDNF in depression and as targets/mediators of antidepressant action. PMID:17006024

  14. Alternative exon splicing of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in peripheral sensory and sympathetic ganglia of the rat.

    PubMed

    Pietruck, C; Xie, G X; Sharma, M; Meuser, T; Palmer, P P

    1999-01-01

    Alternative splicing patterns of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in dorsal root ganglia, lumbar sympathetic ganglia and several peripheral tissues of the rat have been investigated by an exon-flanking polymerase chain reaction strategy. A series of RT-PCR with primer pairs flanking all possible alternative splicing sites (corresponding to a genomic region with at least one full exon and two flanking introns) has revealed multiple tissue specific splice variants. These include some novel transcripts that lack the phosphorylation site and part of the leucine zipper region which is crucial for dimerization and DNA binding. Some isoforms previously reported as testis-specific were also detected in rat peripheral ganglia and other tissues. Notably, splicing patterns are specific for some regions. Some of the splice variants indicate inhibitory functions due to lacking phosphorylation sites or partially missing DNA-binding or leucine zipper domains. These findings suggest a complex expression and functional regulation of CREB in peripheral tissues including dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia. PMID:10576592

  15. SF-1 (Nuclear Receptor 5A1) Activity Is Activated by Cyclic AMP via p300-Mediated Recruitment to Active Foci, Acetylation, and Increased DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Yi; Juan, Li-Jung; Chung, Bon-chu

    2005-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a nuclear receptor essential for steroidogenic gene expression, but how its activity is regulated is unclear. Here we demonstrate that p300 plays an important role in regulating SF-1 function. SF-1 was acetylated in vitro and in vivo by p300 at the KQQKK motif in the Ftz-F1 (Fushi-tarazu factor 1) box adjacent to its DNA-binding domain. Mutation of the KQQKK motif reduced the DNA-binding activity and p300-dependent activation of SF-1. When stimulated with cyclic AMP (cAMP), adrenocortical Y1 cells expressed more p300, leading to additional SF-1 association with p300 and increased SF-1 acetylation and DNA binding. It also increased SF-1 colocalization with p300 in nuclear foci. Collectively, these results indicate that SF-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by p300 in response to the cAMP signaling pathway by way of increased acetylation, DNA binding, and recruitment to nuclear foci. PMID:16287857

  16. Cyclic AMP Enhances TGFβ Responses of Breast Cancer Cells by Upregulating TGFβ Receptor I Expression

    PubMed Central

    Oerlecke, Ilka; Bauer, Elke; Dittmer, Angela; Leyh, Benjamin; Dittmer, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Cellular functions are regulated by complex networks of many different signaling pathways. The TGFβ and cAMP pathways are of particular importance in tumor progression. We analyzed the cross-talk between these pathways in breast cancer cells in 2D and 3D cultures. We found that cAMP potentiated TGFβ-dependent gene expression by enhancing Smad3 phosphorylation. Higher levels of total Smad3, as observed in 3D-cultured cells, blocked this effect. Two Smad3 regulating proteins, YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TβRI (TGFβ receptor 1), were responsive to cAMP. While YAP had little effect on TGFβ-dependent expression and Smad3 phosphorylation, a constitutively active form of TβRI mimicked the cAMP effect on TGFβ signaling. In 3D-cultured cells, which show much higher levels of TβRI and cAMP, TβRI was unresponsive to cAMP. Upregulation of TβRI expression by cAMP was dependent on transcription. A proximal TβRI promoter fragment was moderately, but significantly activated by cAMP suggesting that cAMP increases TβRI expression at least partially by activating TβRI transcription. Neither the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) nor the TβRI-regulating transcription factor Six1 was required for the cAMP effect. An inhibitor of histone deacetylases alone or together with cAMP increased TβRI expression by a similar extent as cAMP alone suggesting that cAMP may exert its effect by interfering with histone acetylation. Along with an additive stimulatory effect of cAMP and TGFβ on p21 expression an additive inhibitory effect of these agents on proliferation was observed. Finally, we show that mesenchymal stem cells that interact with breast cancer cells can simultaneously activate the cAMP and TGFβ pathways. In summary, these data suggest that combined effects of cAMP and TGFβ, as e.g. induced by mesenchymal stem cells, involve the upregulation of TβRI expression on the transcriptional level, likely due to changes in histone acetylation. As a consequence, cancer cell functions such as proliferation are affected. PMID:23349840

  17. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B.

    PubMed

    Johanns, M; Lai, Y-C; Hsu, M-F; Jacobs, R; Vertommen, D; Van Sande, J; Dumont, J E; Woods, A; Carling, D; Hue, L; Viollet, B; Foretz, M; Rider, M H

    2016-01-01

    Biguanides such as metformin have previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. Here we show that incubation of hepatocytes with the small-molecule AMPK activator 991 decreases glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and downstream PKA target phosphorylation. Moreover, incubation of hepatocytes with 991 increases the Vmax of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) without affecting intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations. The effects of 991 to decrease glucagon-stimulated cAMP concentrations and activate PDE4B are lost in hepatocytes deleted for both catalytic subunits of AMPK. PDE4B is phosphorylated by AMPK at three sites, and by site-directed mutagenesis, Ser304 phosphorylation is important for activation. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism by which AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation. PMID:26952277

  18. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B

    PubMed Central

    Johanns, M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Hsu, M.-F.; Jacobs, R.; Vertommen, D.; Van Sande, J.; Dumont, J. E.; Woods, A.; Carling, D.; Hue, L.; Viollet, B.; Foretz, M; Rider, M H

    2016-01-01

    Biguanides such as metformin have previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. Here we show that incubation of hepatocytes with the small-molecule AMPK activator 991 decreases glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and downstream PKA target phosphorylation. Moreover, incubation of hepatocytes with 991 increases the Vmax of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) without affecting intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations. The effects of 991 to decrease glucagon-stimulated cAMP concentrations and activate PDE4B are lost in hepatocytes deleted for both catalytic subunits of AMPK. PDE4B is phosphorylated by AMPK at three sites, and by site-directed mutagenesis, Ser304 phosphorylation is important for activation. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism by which AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation. PMID:26952277

  19. Iontophoresis of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, M H; Drage, D J; Robertson, A

    1975-01-01

    The design, calibration, and operation of a source of controlled amounts of cyclic AMP (c-AMP) are described. Typically, 1.5 s pulses containing 10(10)-10(-12) molecules of c-AMP can be delivered to a region about 10 mum in diameter on an agar plate. The resulting concentration profiles are given as functions of distance and time. The diffusion coefficient of c-AMP in agar was measured to be 0.97 times 10(-5) cm2-s-1 at 21 degrees C. PMID:167878

  20. Hepatitis C virus NS2 protein activates cellular cyclic AMP-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Kwon, Shi-Nae; Kang, Ju-Il; Lee, Song Hee; Jang, Sung Key; Ahn, Byung-Yoon; Kim, Yoon Ki . E-mail: yk-kim@korea.ac.kr

    2007-05-18

    Chronic infection of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to liver cirrhosis and cancer. The mechanism leading to viral persistence and hepatocellular carcinoma, however, has not been fully understood. In this study, we show that the HCV infection activates cellular cAMP-dependent pathways. Expression of a luciferase reporter gene controlled by a basic promoter with the cAMP response element (CRE) was significantly elevated in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells infected with the HCV JFH1. Analysis with viral subgenomic replicons indicated that the HCV NS2 protein is responsible for the effect. Furthermore, the level of cellular transcripts whose stability is known to be regulated by cAMP was specifically reduced in cells harboring NS2-expressing replicons. These results allude to the HCV NS2 protein having a novel function of regulating cellular gene expression and proliferation through the cAMP-dependent pathway.

  1. Mutations in cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and corticotropin (ACTH)-sensitive adenylate cyclase affect adrenal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rae, P A; Gutmann, N S; Tsao, J; Schimmer, B P

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of mutant clones were isolated from YI adrenocortical tumor cells. One group, Y1(Kin), exhibited altered cytosolic cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity; the second group, Y1(Cyc), exhibited diminished corticotropin-responsive adenylate cyclase activity. Steroidogenic responses to corticotropin and cyclic nucleotides closely paralleled cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in the Y1(Kin) mutants. In Y1(Cyc) mutants, corticotropin had little effect on steroidogenesis, whereas cyclic nucleotides were fully active. These data imply that adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase are obligatory components of the corticotropin-stimulated steroidogenic pathway. PMID:221910

  2. A cyclic AMP receptor protein mutant that constitutively activates an Escherichia coli promoter disrupted by an IS5 insertion.

    PubMed

    Podolny, V; Lin, E C; Hochschild, A

    1999-12-01

    Previously an Escherichia coli mutant that had acquired the ability to grow on propanediol as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated. This phenotype is the result of the constitutive expression of the fucO gene (in the fucAO operon), which encodes one of the enzymes in the fucose metabolic pathway. The mutant was found to bear an IS5 insertion in the intergenic regulatory region between the divergently oriented fucAO and fucPIK operons. Though expression of the fucAO operon was constitutive, the fucPIK operon became noninducible such that the mutant could no longer grow on fucose. A fucose-positive revertant which was found to contain a suppressor mutation in the crp gene was selected. Here we identify this crp mutation, which results in a single amino acid substitution (K52N) that has been proposed previously to uncover a cryptic activating region in the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). We show that the mutant CRP constitutively activates transcription from both the IS5-disrupted and the wild-type fucPIK promoters, and we identify the CRP-binding site that is required for this activity. Our results show that the fucPIK promoter, a complex promoter which ordinarily depends on both CRP and the fucose-specific regulator FucR for its activation, can be activated in the absence of FucR by a mutant CRP that uses three, rather than two, activating regions to contact RNA polymerase. For the IS5-disrupted promoter, which retains a single CRP-binding site, the additional activating region of the mutant CRP evidently compensates for the lack of upstream regulatory sequences. PMID:10601201

  3. A Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Mutant That Constitutively Activates an Escherichia coli Promoter Disrupted by an IS5 Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Podolny, Vladimir; Lin, E. C. C.; Hochschild, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Previously an Escherichia coli mutant that had acquired the ability to grow on propanediol as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated. This phenotype is the result of the constitutive expression of the fucO gene (in the fucAO operon), which encodes one of the enzymes in the fucose metabolic pathway. The mutant was found to bear an IS5 insertion in the intergenic regulatory region between the divergently oriented fucAO and fucPIK operons. Though expression of the fucAO operon was constitutive, the fucPIK operon became noninducible such that the mutant could no longer grow on fucose. A fucose-positive revertant which was found to contain a suppressor mutation in the crp gene was selected. Here we identify this crp mutation, which results in a single amino acid substitution (K52N) that has been proposed previously to uncover a cryptic activating region in the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). We show that the mutant CRP constitutively activates transcription from both the IS5-disrupted and the wild-type fucPIK promoters, and we identify the CRP-binding site that is required for this activity. Our results show that the fucPIK promoter, a complex promoter which ordinarily depends on both CRP and the fucose-specific regulator FucR for its activation, can be activated in the absence of FucR by a mutant CRP that uses three, rather than two, activating regions to contact RNA polymerase. For the IS5-disrupted promoter, which retains a single CRP-binding site, the additional activating region of the mutant CRP evidently compensates for the lack of upstream regulatory sequences. PMID:10601201

  4. Calspermin gene transcription is regulated by two cyclic AMP response elements contained in an alternative promoter in the calmodulin kinase IV gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Z; Sassone-Corsi, P; Means, A R

    1995-01-01

    The transcript for the high-affinity Ca2+/calmodulin-binding protein calspermin is generated from the gene encoding Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV only in postmeiotic germ cells during spermatogenesis. We demonstrate that this testis-specific calspermin transcript can be produced in heterologous cells by utilization of a promoter located in an intron of the calmodulin (CaM) kinase IV gene. Critical motifs within this promoter are two cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-like sequences located about -70 and -50 bp upstream of the transcriptional initiation site. Both CRE motifs are footprinted by the authentic testis-specific transcriptional activator CREM tau or by CREM tau present in adult testis nuclear extract. Whereas a 2.1-kb DNA fragment containing the calspermin promoter is inactive when transfected into NIH 3T3 cells, activity can be restored by cotransfection of CREM tau and protein kinase A or CaM kinase IV but not CaM kinase II alpha. Restoration of activity is greatly reduced by mutation of the two CRE motifs. Since CRE-like motifs have been identified in many genes uniquely expressed in postmeiotic germ cells, which contain abundant CREM tau protein, we suggest that CREM tau may function as one transcription factor responsible for the expression of postmeiotic germ cell-specific genes. PMID:7799965

  5. Mechanisms of tyrosine hydroxylase regulation in striatal synaptosomes: effects of activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosynthesis, was examined in synaptosomes prepared from rat corpus striatum. Exposure of striatal synaptosomes to dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) causes an increase in the maximal velocity of TH, but does not change the K/sub m/ of the enzyme for the synthetic cofactor, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-tetrahydropterin. Activation of TH by synaptosomal exposure to dbcAMP also causes a decrease in the pH sensitivity and an increase in the thermolability of the enzyme. Striatal synaptosomes were used to examine the in vitro phosphorylation of TH. Under the protocol developed as part of this work, TH in synaptosomes can be labelled with /sup 32/P. This is the first report of in vitro labelling of TH in a biochemically intact CNS preparation. Under certain protocols, treatment of synaptosomes with dbcAMP causes an increase in the /sup 32/P labelling of TH. These results are consistent with the notion that dbcAMP produces changes in the physical properties of TH by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase which subsequently phosphorylates TH. In vivo electrical stimulation of the rat medial forebrain bundle causes an activation of striatal TH as well as an decrease in the pH sensitivity of the enzyme. Since similar changes are produced upon activation of snaptosomal TH by dbcAMP, it is likely that phosphorylation of TH is involved in the increase in TH activity that is associated with neuronal depolarization.

  6. The Role of Angiotensin II and Cyclic AMP in Alveolar Active Sodium Transport

    PubMed Central

    Ismael-Badarneh, Reem; Guetta, Julia; Klorin, Geula; Berger, Gidon; Abu-saleh, Niroz; Abassi, Zaid; Azzam, Zaher S.

    2015-01-01

    Active alveolar fluid clearance is important in keeping airspaces free of edema. Angiotensin II plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, heart failure and others. However, little is known about its contribution to alveolar fluid clearance. Angiotensin II effects are mediated by two specific receptors; AT1 and AT2. The localization of these two receptors in the lung, specifically in alveolar epithelial cells type II, was recently reported. We hypothesize that Angiotensin II may have a role in the regulation of alveolar fluid clearance. We investigated the effect of Angiotensin II on alveolar fluid clearance in rats using the isolated perfused lung model and isolated rat alveolar epithelial cells. The rate of alveolar fluid clearance in control rats was 8.6% ± 0.1 clearance of the initial volume and decreased by 22.5%, 28.6%, 41.6%, 48.7% and 39% in rats treated with 10-10 M, 10-9 M, 10-8 M, 10-7 M or 10-6 M of Ang II respectively (P < 0.003). The inhibitory effect of Angiotensin II was restored in losartan, an AT1 specific antagonist, pretreated rats, indicating an AT1 mediated effect of Ang II on alveolar fluid clearance. The expression of Na,K-ATPase proteins and cAMP levels in alveolar epithelial cells were down-regulated following the administration of Angiotensin II; suggesting that cAMP may be involved in AngII-induced reduced Na,K-ATPase expression, though the contribution of additional factors could not be excluded. We herein suggest a novel mechanism of clinical relevance by which angiotensin adversely impairs the ability of the lungs to clear edema. PMID:26230832

  7. Role of the cyclic AMP response element in the bcl-2 promoter in the regulation of endogenous Bcl-2 expression and apoptosis in murine B cells.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hong; Wang, Jinghong; Boxer, Linda M

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown for B-cell lines that the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) is a major positive regulatory site in the bcl-2 promoter. However, the role of the CRE in the regulation of endogenous bcl-2 expression in vivo has not been characterized. We used gene targeting to generate knock-in mice in which a mutated CRE was introduced into the bcl-2 promoter region (mutCRE-bcl2 mice). Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that mutation of the CRE abolished the binding of CREB/ATF and CBP transcription factors to the bcl-2 promoter and greatly diminished the binding of NF-kappaB factors. The mutant CRE significantly reduced the expression of Bcl-2 in B cells and rendered them susceptible to surface immunoglobulin- and chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis. The low levels of Bcl-2 were not changed with activation of the cells. The numbers of pre-B, immature B, and mature B cells in the bone marrow were decreased, as were the numbers of splenic B cells in mutCRE-bcl2 mice. Our findings indicate that the CRE in the bcl-2 promoter has an important functional role in the regulation of endogenous Bcl-2 expression and plays a critical role in the coordination of signals that regulate B-cell survival. PMID:16982684

  8. Cross Talk between β-Adrenergic and Bradykinin B2 Receptors Results in Cooperative Regulation of Cyclic AMP Accumulation and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Sabine; Nürnberg, Bernd; Groll, Detlef H.; Liebmann, Claus

    2001-01-01

    Costimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) may result in cross talk interactions between their downstream signaling pathways. Stimulation of GPCRs may also lead to cross talk regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and thereby to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In COS-7 cells, we investigated the interactions between two particular mitogenic receptor pathways, the endogenously expressed β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) and the transiently transfected human bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor (B2R). When β-AR and B2R are costimulated, we found two different cross talk mechanisms. First, the predominantly Gq protein-coupled B2R is enabled to activate a Gi protein and, subsequently, type II adenylate cyclase. This results in augmentation of β-AR-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation by BK, which alone is unable to increase the cAMP level. Second, independently of BK-induced superactivation of the cAMP system, costimulation of β-AR leads to protein kinase A-mediated blockade of phospholipase C activation by BK. Thereby, the pathway from B2R to MAPK, which essentially involves protein kinase C activation, is selectively switched off. The MAPK activation in response to isoproterenol was not affected due to costimulation. Furthermore, in the presence of isoproterenol, BK lost its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in COS-7 cells. Thus, our findings might establish a novel paradigm: cooperation between simultaneously activated mitogenic pathways may prevent multiple stimulation of MAPK activity and increased cell growth. PMID:11713280

  9. Activation of cyclic AMP-dependent kinase is required but may not be sufficient to mimic cyclic AMP-dependent DNA synthesis and thyroglobulin expression in dog thyroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dremier, S; Pohl, V; Poteet-Smith, C; Roger, P P; Corbin, J; Doskeland, S O; Dumont, J E; Maenhaut, C

    1997-01-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH), via a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent pathway, induces cytoplasmic retractions, proliferation, and differentiation expression in dog thyroid cells. The role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in the induction of these events was assessed by microinjection into living cells. Microinjection of the heat-stable inhibitor of PKA (PKI) inhibited the effects of TSH, demonstrating that activation of PKA was required in this process. Overexpression of the catalytic (C) subunit of PKA brought about by microinjection of the expression plasmid pC alpha ev or of purified C subunit itself was sufficient to mimic the cAMP-dependent cytoplasmic changes and thyroperoxidase mRNA expression but not to induce DNA synthesis and thyroglobulin (Tg) expression. The cAMP-dependent morphological effect was not observed when C subunit was coinjected with the regulatory subunit (RI or RII subunit) of PKA. To mimic the cAMP-induced PKA dissociation into free C and R subunits, the C subunit was coinjected with the regulation-deficient truncated RI subunit (RIdelta1-95) or with wild-type RI or native RII subunits, followed by incubation with TSH at a concentration too low to stimulate the cAMP-dependent events by itself. Although the cAMP-dependent morphology changes were still observed, neither DNA synthesis nor Tg expression was stimulated in these cells. Taken together, these data suggest that in addition to PKA activation, another cAMP-dependent mechanism could exist and play an important role in the transduction of the cAMP signal in thyroid cells. PMID:9343436

  10. Neonatal handling and the maternal odor preference in rat pups: involvement of monoamines and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein pathway in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Raineki, C; De Souza, M A; Szawka, R E; Lutz, M L; De Vasconcellos, L F T; Sanvitto, G L; Izquierdo, I; Bevilaqua, L R; Cammarota, M; Lucion, A B

    2009-03-01

    Early-life environmental events, such as the handling procedure, can induce long-lasting alterations upon several behavioral and neuroendocrine systems. However, the changes within the pups that could be causally related to the effects in adulthood are still poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of neonatal handling on behavioral (maternal odor preference) and biochemical (cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT) levels in the olfactory bulb (OB)) parameters in 7-day-old male and female rat pups. Repeated handling (RH) abolished preference for the maternal odor in female pups compared with nonhandled (NH) and the single-handled (SH) ones, while in RH males the preference was not different than NH and SH groups. In both male and female pups, RH decreased NA activity in the OB, but 5-HT activity increased only in males. Since preference for the maternal odor involves the synergic action of NA and 5-HT in the OB, the maintenance of the behavior in RH males could be related to the increased 5-HT activity, in spite of reduction in the NA activity in the OB. RH did not alter CREB phosphorylation in the OB of both male and females compared with NH pups. The repeated handling procedure can affect the behavior of rat pups in response to the maternal odor and biochemical parameters related to the olfactory learning mechanism. Sex differences were already detected in 7-day-old pups. Although the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stressors is reduced in the neonatal period, environmental interventions may impact behavioral and biochemical mechanisms relevant to the animal at that early age. PMID:19138731

  11. Recovery of beta-adrenoceptors and cyclic AMP response after long term treatment of intact heart cells with beta-blockers.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C.; Porzig, H.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the recovery of receptor binding and of isoprenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP responses after chronic (2-5 days) exposure of tissue-cultured living rat heart cells to several beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Most experiments were performed with [3H]- (+/-)-carazolol and [3H]-(+/-)-CGP 12177, as prototypes of high affinity lipophilic and hydrophilic ligands respectively. Chronic antagonist treatment did not alter the total number of receptors nor did it cause intracellular accumulation of the ligands. At the end of the treatment, radiolabelled antagonists were displaced either by 'infinite' dilution of the incubation medium or by competitive displacement with the non-labelled ligand (-)-timolol. In dilution assays dissociation of carazolol from specific sites was biphasic with t 1/2 values of 41 +/- 14 and 219 +/- 15 min. Dissociation of CGP 12177 was monophasic with t 1/2 of 102 +/- 2 min. Timolol enhanced the dissociation rates of both radioligands and suppressed the slow phase of carazolol dissociation. Isoprenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP formation did not recover in parallel with the release of the two antagonists from receptor binding sites. To reach about 80% of control values for receptor availability or cyclic AMP response required 3 h and 24 h washout periods, respectively, after carazolol (0.2 nM) treatment, or 1.5 and 12 h washout periods after CGP 12177 (4 nM) treatment. Such a 'decoupling' effect was not observed during recovery from chronic exposure to the antagonists, timolol and propranolol. We conclude that some antagonists cause a novel form of desensitization that is not linked to their partial agonistic potency. Moreover, carazolol-type drugs seem to induce an additional isomeric form of the beta-receptor that is not recognized by other antagonists. These observations could explain the well known discrepancy between long duration of action and rapid removal from the circulation of several antagonists in current therapeutic use. PMID:6146370

  12. Cyclic AMP in the sublingual glands of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Amerongen, A V; Roukema, P A; Vreugdenhil, A P

    1980-01-01

    1. The cyclic AMP levels in the sublingual glands of the mouse has been determined in relation to mucin secretion under the influence of several agonists in vivo and in vitro. 2. Isoprenaline increased the cyclic AMP level in these glands only in the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, indicating the presence of an active cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. 3. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase results in an increase of the cyclic AMP levels. EGTA prolonged the effect of the PDE-inhibitors, indicating that Ca2+-ions may be involved in the maintenance of the cyclic AMP concentration in the sublingual glands. 4. NaF is able to induce both a slight increase of the cyclic AMP level and a significant mucin secretion by the sublingual glands. However, other secretagogues do not significantly influence the cyclic AMP concentration in these glands, and compounds which do not elevate its level, do not significantly stimulate sublingual mucin secretion. 5. These data suggest that there is no direct relationship between cyclic AMP and sublingual mucin secretion. PMID:6107381

  13. Presenilins Regulate Neurotrypsin Gene Expression and Neurotrypsin-dependent Agrin Cleavage via Cyclic AMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Modulation*

    PubMed Central

    Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Kim, Sonia N.; Benner, Christopher; Herrera, Cheryl M.; Kang, David E.; Garcia-Bassets, Ivan; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Presenilins, the catalytic components of the γ-secretase complex, are upstream regulators of multiple cellular pathways via regulation of gene transcription. However, the underlying mechanisms and the genes regulated by these pathways are poorly characterized. In this study, we identify Tequila and its mammalian ortholog Prss12 as genes negatively regulated by presenilins in Drosophila larval brains and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, respectively. Prss12 encodes the serine protease neurotrypsin, which cleaves the heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin. Altered neurotrypsin activity causes serious synaptic and cognitive defects; despite this, the molecular processes regulating neurotrypsin expression and activity are poorly understood. Using γ-secretase drug inhibitors and presenilin mutants in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we found that a mature γ-secretase complex was required to repress neurotrypsin expression and agrin cleavage. We also determined that PSEN1 endoproteolysis or processing of well known γ-secretase substrates was not essential for this process. At the transcriptional level, PSEN1/2 removal induced cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/CREB-binding protein binding, accumulation of activating histone marks at the neurotrypsin promoter, and neurotrypsin transcriptional and functional up-regulation that was dependent on GSK3 activity. Upon PSEN1/2 reintroduction, this active epigenetic state was replaced by a methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)-containing repressive state and reduced neurotrypsin expression. Genome-wide analysis revealed hundreds of other mouse promoters in which CREB binding is similarly modulated by the presence/absence of presenilins. Our study thus identifies Tequila and neurotrypsin as new genes repressed by presenilins and reveals a novel mechanism used by presenilins to modulate CREB signaling based on controlling CREB recruitment. PMID:24145027

  14. Opposite Transcriptional Effects of Cyclic AMP-Responsive Elements in Confluent or p27KIP-Overexpressing Cells versus Serum-Starved or Growing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deleu, Laurent; Fuks, François; Spitkovsky, Dimitry; Hörlein, Rita; Faisst, Steffen; Rommelaere, Jean

    1998-01-01

    The minute virus of mice, an autonomous parvovirus, requires entry of host cells into the S phase of the cell cycle for its DNA to be amplified and its genes expressed. This work focuses on the P4 promoter of this parvovirus, which directs expression of the transcription unit encoding the parvoviral nonstructural polypeptides. These notably include protein NS1, necessary for the S-phase-dependent burst of parvoviral DNA amplification and gene expression. The activity of the P4 promoter is shown to be regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. At the G1/S-phase transition, the promoter is activated via a cis-acting DNA element which interacts with phase-specific complexes containing the cellular transcription factor E2F. It is inhibited, on the other hand, in cells arrested in G1 due to contact inhibition. This inhibitory effect is not observed in serum-starved cells. It is mediated in cis by cyclic AMP response elements (CREs). Unlike serum-starved cells, confluent cells accumulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27, suggesting that the switch from CRE-mediated activation to CRE-mediated repression involves the p27 protein. Accordingly, plasmid-driven overexpression of p27 causes down-modulation of promoter P4 in growing cells, depending on the presence of at least two functional CREs. No such effect is observed with two other cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p16 and p21. Given the importance of P4-driven synthesis of protein NS1 in parvoviral DNA amplification and gene expression, the stringent S-phase dependency of promoter P4 is likely a major determinant of the absolute requirement of the minute virus of mice for host cell proliferation. PMID:9418888

  15. Adenylyl cyclase 6 mediates the action of cyclic AMP-dependent secretagogues in mouse pancreatic exocrine cells via protein kinase A pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Maria E; D’Alecy, Louis; Lentz, Stephen I; Tang, Tong; Williams, John A

    2013-01-01

    Both secretin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) receptors are responsible for the activation of adenylyl cyclases (ACs), which increase intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in the exocrine pancreas. There are nine membrane-associated isoforms, each with its own pattern of expression and regulation. In this study we sought to establish which AC isoforms play a regulatory role in pancreatic exocrine cells. Using RT-PCR, AC3, AC4, AC6, AC7 and AC9 were found to be expressed in the pancreas. AC3, AC4, AC6 and AC9 were expressed in both pancreatic acini and ducts, whereas AC7 was expressed only in pancreatic ducts. Based on known regulation by intracellular signals, selective inhibitors and stimulators were used to suggest which isoforms play an important role in the induction of cAMP formation. AC6 appeared to be an important isoform because protein kinase A (PKA), PKC and calcium all inhibited VIP-induced cAMP formation, whereas calcineurin or calmodulin did not modify the response to VIP. Mice with genetically deleted AC6 were studied and showed reduced cAMP formation and PKA activation in both isolated pancreatic acini and duct fragments. The absence of AC6 reduced cAMP-dependent secretagogue-stimulated amylase secretion, and abolished fluid secretion in both in vivo and isolated duct fragments. In conclusion, several AC isoforms are expressed in pancreatic acini and ducts. AC6 mediates a significant part of pancreatic amylase and fluid secretion in response to secretin, VIP and forskolin through cAMP/PKA pathway activation. PMID:23753526

  16. Mlc Is a Transcriptional Activator with a Key Role in Integrating Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Integration Host Factor Regulation of Leukotoxin RNA Synthesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Childress, Catherine; Feuerbacher, Leigh A.; Phillips, Linda; Burgum, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, synthesizes leukotoxin (LtxA), a protein that helps the bacterium evade the host immune response. Transcription of the ltxA operon is induced during anaerobic growth. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) indirectly increases ltxA expression, but the intermediary regulator is unknown. Integration host factor (IHF) binds to and represses the leukotoxin promoter, but neither CRP nor IHF is responsible for the anaerobic induction of ltxA RNA synthesis. Thus, we have undertaken studies to identify other regulators of leukotoxin transcription and to demonstrate how these proteins work together to modulate leukotoxin synthesis. First, analyses of ltxA RNA expression from defined leukotoxin promoter mutations in the chromosome identify positions ?69 to ?35 as the key control region and indicate that an activator protein modulates leukotoxin transcription. We show that Mlc, which is a repressor in Escherichia coli, functions as a direct transcriptional activator in A. actinomycetemcomitans; an mlc deletion mutant reduces leukotoxin RNA synthesis, and recombinant Mlc protein binds specifically at the ?68 to ?40 region of the leukotoxin promoter. Furthermore, we show that CRP activates ltxA expression indirectly by increasing the levels of Mlc. Analyses of ?mlc, ?ihf, and ?ihf ?mlc strains demonstrate that Mlc can increase RNA polymerase (RNAP) activity directly and that IHF represses ltxA RNA synthesis mainly by blocking Mlc binding. Finally, a ?ihf ?mlc mutant still induces ltxA during anaerobic growth, indicating that there are additional factors involved in leukotoxin transcriptional regulation. A model for the coordinated regulation of leukotoxin transcription is presented. PMID:23475968

  17. A Ric8/Synembryn Homolog Promotes Gpa1 and Gpa2 Activation To Respectively Regulate Cyclic AMP and Pheromone Signaling in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jinjun; Grodsky, Jacob D.; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2014-01-01

    The G protein α subunits Gpa1, Gpa2, and Gpa3 mediate signal transduction and are important in the growth and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. To understand how Gpa1 functions without a conventional Gβ subunit, we characterized a resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (Ric8) homolog from C. neoformans, which shares amino acid sequence homology with other Ric8 proteins that exhibit guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity toward Gα. We found that the ric8 mutant was reduced in capsule size and melanin formation, which could be suppressed by cyclic AMP (cAMP) supplementation or by introducing the activated GPA1Q284L allele. Consistent with the fact that Ric8 participates in cAMP signaling to regulate virulence, the ric8 mutant was attenuated in virulence toward mice. Interestingly, disruption of RIC8 also resulted in opposing effects on pheromone signaling, as the ric8 mutant showed reduced mating but an enhanced ability to induce the pheromone response in the mating partner. To identify Ric8 functional mechanisms, we examined the interactions between Ric8 and the three Gα proteins. Ric8 interacted with Gpa1 and Gpa2, but not Gpa3. The presence of Gpa1Q284L negatively affected its interaction with Ric8, whereas the activated Gpa2Q203L allele abolished the interaction. Collectively, these findings suggest that Ric8 functions as a GEF to facilitate the activation of Gpa1-cAMP signaling and to promote Gpa2, affecting mating efficiency. Our study highlights the distinct and conserved characteristics associated with G protein signaling and contributes to our overall understanding of how G protein α subunits function with or without a canonical Gβ partner in C. neoformans. PMID:25084863

  18. Differentiation-Coupled Induction of Human Cytomegalovirus Replication by Union of the Major Enhancer Retinoic Acid, Cyclic AMP, and NF-κB Response Elements

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinxiang; Li, Ming; Torres, Yasaira Rodriguez; Galle, Courtney S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Triggers and regulatory pathways that effectively link human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate early (MIE) latent-lytic switch activation with progeny production are incompletely understood. In the quiescently infected human NTera2 cell model of primitive neural stem cells, we found that costimulation with vasoactive intestinal peptide (V) and phorbol ester (P) synergistically activated viral infection, but this effect waned over time. Coupling retinoic acid (R), an inducer of neuronal differentiation, to VP pulse stimulation attenuated the decline in viral activity and promoted the spread of the active infection through concentric layers of neighboring cells as cellular differentiation progressed. R stimulation alone was unable to activate the infection. The MIE enhancer cis-regulatory mechanisms responsible for this result were characterized by a strategy of combinatorial mutagenesis of five cis-acting element types (retinoic acid receptor binding elements [RARE], cyclic AMP [cAMP] response elements [CRE], NF-κB binding sites [kB], serum response element, and ETS/ELK-1 binding site) and multiple methods of assessment. We found that the CRE and kB combination sets the preinduction enhancer tone, is the major initiator and amplifier of RVP-induced MIE gene expression, and cooperates with RARE during cellular differentiation to enhance viral spread. In predifferentiated NTera2, we also found that the CRE-kB combination functions as initiator and amplifier of unstimulated HCMV MIE gene expression and cooperatively interacts with RARE to enhance viral spread. We conclude that RVP-stimulated signaling cascades and cellular differentiation operate through the enhancer CRE-kB-RARE core in strengthening induction of HCMV MIE gene expression in linkage with viral propagation. IMPORTANCE Cytomegalovirus-seropositive persons commonly lack detectable levels of cytomegalovirus replication, even when profoundly immunocompromised. In a human NTera2 cell model of primitive neural stem cells carrying resting cytomegalovirus genomes, we show that costimulation of protein kinase A and C-delta signaling cascades in conjunction with retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation brings about progeny virus propagation. Iterated DNA binding sites for retinoic acid receptor, CREB, and NF-κB family members in the cytomegalovirus major enhancer are at the crux in the pathway to HCMV activation. The stimulated CREB and NF-κB binding site combination vigorously initiates and amplifies the active cytomegalovirus infection and cooperates with activated retinoic acid receptor binding sites to further promote viral proliferation and spread between differentiated cells. These results support a paradigm in which a specific combination of stimuli coupled with cellular differentiation satisfies a core cis-activating code that unlocks enhancer silence to repower the cycle of cytomegalovirus propagation. PMID:26423948

  19. Chick pineal melatonin synthesis: light and cyclic AMP control abundance of serotonin N-acetyltransferase protein.

    PubMed

    Zatz, M; Gastel, J A; Heath, J R; Klein, D C

    2000-06-01

    Melatonin production in the pineal gland is high at night and low during the day. This rhythm reflects circadian changes in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase [arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT); EC 2.3.1.87], the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The rhythm is generated by an endogenous circadian clock. In the chick, a clock is located in the pinealocyte, which also contains two phototransduction systems. One controls melatonin production by adjusting the clock and the other acts distal to the clock, via cyclic AMP mechanisms, to switch melatonin synthesis on and off. Unlike the clock in these cells, cyclic AMP does not appear to regulate activity by altering AA-NAT mRNA levels. The major changes in AA-NAT mRNA levels induced by the clock seemed likely (but not certain) to generate comparable changes in AA-NAT protein levels and AA-NAT activity. Cyclic AMP might also regulate AA-NAT activity via changes in protein levels, or it might act via other mechanisms, including posttranslational changes affecting activity. We measured AA-NAT protein levels and enzyme activity in cultured chick pineal cells and found that they correlated well under all conditions. They rose and fell spontaneously with a circadian rhythm. They also rose in response to agents that increase cyclic AMP. They were raised by agents that increase cyclic AMP, such as forskolin, and lowered by agents that decrease cyclic AMP, such as light and norepinephrine. Thus, both the clock and cyclic AMP can control AA-NAT activity by altering the total amount of AA-NAT protein. Effects of proteosomal proteolysis inhibitors suggest that changes in AA-NAT protein levels, in turn, reflect changes in the rate at which the protein is destroyed by proteosomal proteolysis. It is likely that cyclic AMP-induced changes in AA-NAT protein levels mediate rapid changes in chick pineal AA-NAT activity. Our results indicate that light can rapidly regulate the abundance of a specific protein (AA-NAT) within a photoreceptive cell. PMID:10820191

  20. Rapid non-genomic activation of cytosolic cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity and [Ca2+]i by 17β-oestradiol in female rat distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Doolan, Christina M; Condliffe, Steven B; Harvey, Brian J

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effect of 17β-oestradiol on adenosine 3′ : 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity was investigated. Rapid (within 15 min) activation of basal PKA activity was observed in cytosolic fractions by 17β-oestradiol but not by 17α-oestradiol, progesterone or testosterone. This stimulation was abolished by the specific PKA inhibitor PKI but not by the classical oestrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. 17β-Oestradiol did not stimulate basal PKA activity in membrane fractions or in cytosolic fractions from male rats. The increase in cytosolic PKA activity was indirect as (i) it was inhibited by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536, (ii) it was mimicked by forskolin and (iii) 17β-oestradiol did not cause a stimulation of basal PKA activity in either type I or type II commercially available PKA holoenzymes. Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) was directly activated by 17β-oestradiol. The specific PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I (GF 109203X), abolished the 17β-oestradiol-induced PKA activation. 17β-Oestradiol stimulated an increase in free intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) in isolated female but not male rat colonic crypts. This was inhibited by verapamil, nifedipine and zero extracellular [Ca2+] but unaffected by tamoxifen. 17α-Oestradiol, testosterone and progesterone failed to increase [Ca2+]i. PKC and PKA inhibitors abolished the 17β-oestradiol-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. These results demonstrate the existence of a novel 17β-oestradiol-specific PKA and Ca2+ signalling pathway, which is both sex steroid- and gender-specific, in rat distal colonic epithelium. PMID:10742293

  1. Neural adrenergic/cyclic AMP regulation of the immunoglobulin E receptor alpha-subunit expression in the mammalian pinealocyte: a neuroendocrine/immune response link?

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Surajit; Grodzki, Cristina; Sugden, David; Møller, Morten; Odom, Sandra; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Gery, Igal; Siraganian, Reuben P; Rivera, Juan; Klein, David C

    2007-11-01

    The high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcepsilonRI) complex is dedicated to immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic responses. Expression of the FcepsilonRI receptor is thought to be relatively stable and limited to mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, Langerhans cells, platelets, and neutrophils. We now report that the FcepsilonRIalpha and FcepsilonRIgamma polypeptides are expressed in the pinealocyte, the melatonin-secreting cell of the pineal gland. Moreover, Fcer1a mRNA levels increased approximately 100-fold at night to levels that were higher than in other tissues examined. Pineal FcepsilonRIalpha protein also increased markedly at night from nearly undetectable daytime levels. Our studies indicate that pineal Fcer1a mRNA levels are controlled by a well described neural pathway that controls pineal function. This pathway includes the master circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and passes through central and peripheral structures. The circadian expression of FcepsilonRIalpha in the pineal gland is driven by this neural circuit via an adrenergic/cyclic AMP mechanism. Pineal FcepsilonRIalpha and FcepsilonRIgamma may represent a previously unrealized molecular link between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. PMID:17728245

  2. Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding Protein Mediates Pathological Retinal Neovascularization via Modulating DLL4-NOTCH1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Kotla, Sivareddy; Kumar, Raj; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal neovascularization is the most common cause of moderate to severe vision loss in all age groups. Despite the use of anti-VEGFA therapies, this complication continues to cause blindness, suggesting a role for additional molecules in retinal neovascularization. Besides VEGFA and VEGFB, hypoxia induced VEGFC expression robustly. Based on this finding, we tested the role of VEGFC in pathological retinal angiogenesis. VEGFC induced proliferation, migration, sprouting and tube formation of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs) and these responses require CREB-mediated DLL4 expression and NOTCH1 activation. Furthermore, down regulation of VEGFC levels substantially reduced tip cell formation and retinal neovascularization in vivo. In addition, we observed that CREB via modulating the DLL4-NOTCH1 signaling mediates VEGFC-induced tip cell formation and retinal neovascularization. In regard to upstream mechanism, we found that down regulation of p38β levels inhibited hypoxia-induced CREB-DLL4-NOTCH1 activation, tip cell formation, sprouting and retinal neovascularization. Based on these findings, it may be suggested that VEGFC besides its role in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis also plays a role in pathological retinal angiogenesis and this effect depends on p38β and CREB-mediated activation of DLL4-NOTCH1 signaling. PMID:26870802

  3. Activation of Exchange Protein Activated by Cyclic-AMP Enhances Long-Lasting Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Banko, Jessica L.; Peters, Melinda M.; Klann, Eric; Weeber, Edwin J.; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    cAMP is a critical second messenger implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory in the mammalian brain. Substantial evidence links increases in intracellular cAMP to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream effectors (transcription factors, receptors, protein kinases) necessary for long-term…

  4. Cyclic AMP-dependent activation of rhodopsin gene transcription in cultured retinal precursor cells of chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Pierre; Bernard, Marianne

    2009-07-01

    The present study describes a robust 50-fold increase in rhodopsin gene transcription by cAMP in cultured retinal precursor cells of chicken embryo. Retinal cells isolated at embryonic day 8 (E8) and cultured for 3 days in serum-supplemented medium differentiated mostly into red-sensitive cones and to a lesser degree into green-sensitive cones, as indicated by real-time RT-PCR quantification of each specific opsin mRNA. In contrast, both rhodopsin mRNA concentration and rhodopsin gene promoter activity required the presence of cAMP-increasing agents [forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)] to reach significant levels. This response was rod-specific and was sufficient to activate rhodopsin gene transcription in serum-free medium. The increase in rhodopsin mRNA levels evoked by a series of cAMP analogs suggested the response was mediated by protein kinase A, not by EPAC. Membrane depolarization by high KCl concentration also increased rhodopsin mRNA levels and this response was strongly potentiated by IBMX. The rhodopsin gene response to cAMP-increasing agents was developmentally gated between E6 and E7. Rod-specific transducin alpha subunit mRNA levels also increased up to 50-fold in response to forskolin and IBMX, while rod-specific phosphodiesterase-VI and rod arrestin transcripts increased 3- to 10-fold. These results suggest a cAMP-mediated signaling pathway may play a role in rod differentiation. PMID:19457115

  5. Subcellular Localization and Biological Actions of Activated RSK1 Are Determined by Its Interactions with Subunits of Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase†

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Deepti; Poppleton, Helen M.; Stringfield, Teresa; Barbier, Ann; Patel, Tarun B.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) share several cellular proteins as substrates. However, to date no other similarities between the two kinases or interactions between them have been reported. Here, we describe novel interactions between subunits of PKA and RSK1 that are dependent upon the activation state of RSK1 and determine its subcellular distribution and biological actions. Inactive RSK1 interacts with the type I regulatory subunit (RI) of PKA. Conversely, active RSK1 interacts with the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc). Binding of RSK1 to RI decreases the interactions between RI and PKAc, while the binding of active RSK1 to PKAc increases interactions between PKAc and RI and decreases the ability of cAMP to stimulate PKA. The RSK1/PKA subunit interactions ensure the colocalization of RSK1 with A-kinase PKA anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Disruption of the interactions between PKA and AKAPs decreases the nuclear accumulation of active RSK1 and, thus, increases its cytosolic content. This subcellular redistribution of active RSK1 is manifested by increased phosphorylation of its cytosolic substrates tuberous sclerosis complex 2 and BAD by epidermal growth factor along with decreased cellular apoptosis. PMID:16738324

  6. Association of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase with neurofilaments.

    PubMed Central

    Dosemeci, A; Pant, H C

    1992-01-01

    Neurofilament preparations isolated from bovine spinal cord contain cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. Treatment of this preparation with cyclic AMP, to dissociate the regulatory subunit of the kinase from the catalytic subunit, resulted in retention of the kinase activity but loss of cyclic AMP regulation. This suggests that PKA is associated via its catalytic subunit with the neurofilament preparation. The association of exogenous PKA from bovine heart with the neurofilament preparation and with neurofilaments reconstituted from purified neurofilament proteins was also investigated. Either the free catalytic subunit or combinations of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA were incubated with the preparations, and the degree of association was determined as the level of kinase activity that co-sediments with neurofilaments. The results indicate that the free catalytic subunit of PKA co-sediments with neurofilaments reconstituted from purified proteins. The regulatory subunit of PKA from bovine heart, when pre-mixed with the catalytic subunit, decreased the level of kinase that co-sediments with the neurofilament fraction in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of the regulatory subunit was reversed by inclusion of cyclic AMP in the incubation medium before centrifugation. The above findings suggest that the regulatory subunit, when attached to the catalytic subunit, has an inhibitory effect on its association with neurofilaments, with the implication that the association may be a cyclic-AMP-regulated event. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1312331

  7. The plasma cyclic-AMP response to noise in humans and rats—short-term exposure to various noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, M.; Dodo, H.; Ishii, F.; Yoneda, J.; Yamazaki, S.; Goto, H.

    1988-12-01

    Rats were exposed to short-term noise which was found to activate the hypothalamohypophyseal-adrenal system and result in a decrease of adrenal ascorbic acid (AAA) and an increase of serum corticosterone (SCS). The threshold limit value lay between 60 and 70 dB(A). To characterize better the effect of noise on the human hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system, a large group of subjects was exposed to short-term noise at 85 dB(A) and higher, and tested for levels of adrenocortical steroid (cortisol) and anterior pituitary hormones such as ACTH, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). Results in humans showed hyperfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary system. However, as the responses in rats and humans differed, a further experiment was performed using C-AMP, a second messenger mediating many of the effects of a variety of hormones. Plasma C-AMP in humans and rats increased significantly after exposure to noise greater than 70 dB(A). We suggest that plasma C-AMP could be useful as a sensitive index for noise-related stress in the daily living environment of humans and rats.

  8. Ethanol-induced loss of brain cyclic AMP binding proteins: correlation with growth suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, S.; Kalmus, G.

    1987-05-01

    Brain hypoplasia secondary to maternal ethanol consumption is a common fetal defect observed in all models of fetal alcohol syndrome. The molecular mechanism by which ethanol inhibits growth is unknown but has been hypothesized to involve ethanol-induced changes in the activity of cyclic-AMP stimulated protein kinase. Acute and chronic alcohol exposure elevate cyclic AMP level in many tissues, including brain. This increase in cyclic AMP should increase the phosphorylating activity of kinase by increasing the amount of dissociated (active) kinase catalytic subunit. In 7-day embryonic chick brains, ethanol-induced growth suppression was correlated with increased brain cyclic AMP content but neither basal nor cyclic AMP stimulated kinase catalytic activity was increased. However, the levels of cyclic AMP binding protein (kinase regulatory subunit) were significantly lowered by ethanol exposure. Measured as either /sup 3/H cyclic AMP binding or as 8-azido cyclic AM/sup 32/P labeling, ethanol-exposed brains had significantly less cyclic AMP binding activity (51 +/- 14 versus 29 +/- 10 units/..mu..g protein for 8-azido cyclic AMP binding). These findings suggest that ethanol's effect on kinase activity may involve more than ethanol-induced activation of adenylate cyclase.

  9. Cyclic AMP, the microtubule-microfilament system, and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Puck, T T

    1977-01-01

    Additional evidence is presented for the previously proposed existence in normal fibroblasts of a cyclic AMP-dependent network of microtubules and microfilaments, which is connected with cell membrane elements on one end and with nuclear structures on the other and whose disorganization leads to malignant transformation. In the presence of cyclic AMP derivatives sufficient to promote integrity of this network, cell growth limitation in suspension, increased transport of alpha-[14C]aminobutyrate, and the relatively tranquilized membrane of the normal fibroblast are also achieved. A pattern of distribution of actin and tubulin has been demonstrated showing aggregated actin deposits which are presumably responsible for the oscillatory knob activity of cells with the transformed habitus. Specific orientations of microtubular and filamentous elements with respect to the nucleus can be demonstrated. The hypothesis that the microtubular-microfilamentous structure conveys growth-regulatory information from the cell membrane to the nucleus and that its disorganization can lead to malignancy has been extended to explain various cellular manifestations. Images PMID:200918

  10. Activation of Endogenous Anti-Inflammatory Mediator Cyclic AMP Attenuates Acute Pyelonephritis in Mice Induced by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yang; Li, Ke; Wang, Na; Cai, Gui-Dong; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Yan; Gui, Bao-Song; Liu, En-Qi; Li, Zong-Fang; Zhou, Wuding

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pyelonephritis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is not well understood. Here, we show that besides UPEC virulence, the severity of the host innate immune response and invasion of renal epithelial cells are important pathogenic factors. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP significantly attenuated acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by UPEC. Administration of forskolin (a potent elevator of intracellular cAMP) reduced kidney infection (ie, bacterial load, tissue destruction); this was associated with attenuated local inflammation, as evidenced by the reduction of renal production of proinflammatory mediators, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and renal myeloperoxidase activity. In primary cell culture systems, forskolin not only down-regulated UPEC-stimulated production of proinflammatory mediators by renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells (eg, monocyte/macrophages) but also reduced bacterial internalization by renal tubular epithelial cells. Our findings clearly indicate that activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP is beneficial for controlling UPEC-mediated acute pyelonephritis in mice. The beneficial effect can be explained at least in part by limiting excessive inflammatory responses through acting on both renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells and by inhibiting bacteria invasion of renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:25478807

  11. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-01

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

  12. CRP-Cyclic AMP Dependent Inhibition of the Xylene-Responsive σ54-Promoter Pu in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhe-Xian; Huo, Yi-Xin; Sun, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The expression of σ54-dependent Pseudomonas putida Pu promoter is activated by XylR activator when cells are exposed to a variety of aromatic inducers. In this study, the transcriptional activation of the P. putida Pu promoter was recreated in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. Here we show that the cAMP receptor protein (CRP), a well-known carbon utilization regulator, had an inhibitory effect on the expression of Pu promoter in a cAMP-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was not activator specific. In vivo KMnO4 and DMS footprinting analysis indicated that CRP-cAMP poised the RNA polymerase at Pu promoter, inhibiting the isomerization step of the transcription initiation even in the presence of an activator. Therefore, the presence of PTS-sugar, which eliminates cAMP, could activate the poised RNA polymerase at Pu promoter to transcribe. Moreover, the activation region 1 (AR1) of CRP, which interacts directly with the αCTD (C-terminal domain of α-subunit) of RNA polymerase, was found essential for the CRP-mediated inhibition at Pu promoter. A model for the above observations is discussed. PMID:24466213

  13. Phosphorylation of CREB, a cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein, contributes partially to lysophosphatidic acid-induced fibroblast cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Yong-Jun; Sun, Yuanjie; Kim, Nam-Ho; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2009-03-13

    Lysophospholipids regulate a wide array of biological processes including cell survival and proliferation. In our previous studies, we found that in addition to SRE, CRE is required for maximal c-fos promoter activation triggered by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). c-fos is an early indicator of various cells into the cell cycle after mitogenic stimulation. However, role of CREB activation in LPA-stimulated proliferation has not been elucidated yet. Here, we investigate how LPA induces proliferation in Rat-2 fibroblast cell via CREB activation. We found that total cell number and BrdU-positive cells were increased by LPA. Moreover, levels of c-fos mRNA and cyclin D1 protein were increased via LPA-induced CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, LPA-induced Rat-2 cell proliferation was decreased markedly by ERK inhibitor (U0126) and partially by MSK inhibitor (H89). Taken together, these results suggest that CREB activation could partially up-regulate accumulation of cyclin D1 protein level and proliferation of LPA-stimulated Rat-2 fibroblast cells.

  14. Equivalence between Pfr and Cyclic AMP in the Induction of d-Usnic Acid Dehydrogenase in the Lichen Evernia prunastri.

    PubMed

    Avalos, A; Vicente, C

    1987-07-01

    d-Usnic acid dehydrogenase is induced in Evernia prunastri thalli by a supply of exogenous d-usnic acid in light. This effect is enhanced by red light pulses through a two step way: a very rapid increase of activity after the first 10 minutes of red light, which is not reversed by far-red light, and a slow enhancement following successive red light pulses at the beginning of each hour of incubation. The last response is completely reversed by far-red following red light. Although induction of the enzyme is not achieved in the dark, 0.1 and 0.5 millimolar cyclic AMP, or 0.1 millimolar dibutyryl cyclic AMP substitutes light action and, then, the enzyme is produced. In addition, phytochrome-far red-absorbing form-increases the amount of endogenously produced cyclic AMP and this effect is shown to be photoreversible when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is inhibiting adenylate cyclase. PMID:16665525

  15. Cyclic AMP signaling: a molecular determinant of peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Knott, Eric P; Assi, Mazen; Pearse, Damien D

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of axonal integrity during injury to the peripheral nerve system (PNS) sets into motion a cascade of responses that includes inflammation, Schwann cell mobilization, and the degeneration of the nerve fibers distal to the injury site. Yet, the injured PNS differentiates itself from the injured central nervous system (CNS) in its remarkable capacity for self-recovery, which, depending upon the length and type of nerve injury, involves a series of molecular events in both the injured neuron and associated Schwann cells that leads to axon regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional restitution. Herein we discuss the essential function of the second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), in the PNS repair process, highlighting the important role the conditioning lesion paradigm has played in understanding the mechanism(s) by which cyclic AMP exerts its proregenerative action. Furthermore, we review the studies that have therapeutically targeted cyclic AMP to enhance endogenous nerve repair. PMID:25177696

  16. 4-Phenylbutyrate Attenuates the ER Stress Response and Cyclic AMP Accumulation in DYT1 Dystonia Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin A.; Zhang, Xuan; Miller, Gregory M.; Lencer, Wayne I.; Nery, Flavia C.

    2014-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder in which sustained muscle contractions induce twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal posturing. DYT1 early-onset primary dystonia is the most common form of hereditary dystonia and is caused by deletion of a glutamic acid residue (302/303) near the carboxyl-terminus of encoded torsinA. TorsinA is localized primarily within the contiguous lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope (NE), and is hypothesized to function as a molecular chaperone and an important regulator of the ER stress-signaling pathway, but how the mutation in torsinA causes disease remains unclear. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the clinical symptoms of dystonia result from abnormalities in dopamine (DA) signaling, and possibly involving its down-stream effector adenylate cyclase that produces the second messenger cyclic adenosine-3′, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP). Here we find that mutation in torsinA induces ER stress, and inhibits the cyclic adenosine-3′, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) response to the adenylate cyclase agonist forskolin. Both defective mechanins are corrected by the small molecule 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) that alleviates ER stress. Our results link torsinA, the ER-stress-response, and cAMP-dependent signaling, and suggest 4-PBA could also be used in dystonia treatment. Other pharmacological agents known to modulate the cAMP cascade, and ER stress may also be therapeutic in dystonia patients and can be tested in the models described here, thus supplementing current efforts centered on the dopamine pathway. PMID:25379658

  17. Differential regulation of prohormone convertase 1/3, prohormone convertase 2 and phosphorylated cyclic-AMP-response element binding protein by short-term and long-term morphine treatment: implications for understanding the "switch" to opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, V Paez; Liu, Y; Ferrini, M; Anghel, A; Nie, Y; Tripathi, P V; Porche, R; Jansen, E; Stuart, R C; Nillni, E A; Lutfy, K; Friedman, T C

    2008-10-15

    Drug addiction is a state of altered brain reward and self-regulation mediated by both neurotransmitter and hormonal systems. Although an organism's internal system attempts to maintain homeostasis when challenged by exogenous opiates and other drugs of abuse, it eventually fails, resulting in the transition from drug use to drug abuse. We propose that the attempted maintenance of hormonal homeostasis is achieved, in part, through alterations in levels of processing enzymes that control the ratio of active hormone to pro-hormone. Two pro-hormone convertases, PC1/3 and PC2 are believed to be responsible for the activation of many neurohormones and expression of these enzymes is dependent on the presence of a cyclic-AMP response element (CRE) in their promoters. Therefore, we studied the effects of short-term (24-h) and long-term (7-day) morphine treatment on the expression of hypothalamic PC1/3 and PC2 and levels of phosphorylated cyclic-AMP-response element binding protein (P-CREB). While short-term morphine exposure down-regulated, long-term morphine exposure up-regulated P-CREB, PC1/3 and PC2 protein levels in the rat hypothalamus as determined by Western blot analysis. Quantitative immunofluorescence studies confirmed these regulatory actions of morphine in the paraventricular and dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Specific radioimmunoassays demonstrated that the increase in PC1/3 and PC2 levels following long-term morphine led to increased TRH biosynthesis as evidence by increased TRH/5.4 kDa C-terminal proTRH-derived peptide ratios in the median eminence. Promoter activity experiments in rat somatomammotrope GH3 cells containing the mu-opioid receptor demonstrated that the CRE(s) in the promoter of PC1/3 and PC2 is required for morphine-induced regulation of PC1/3 and PC2. Our data suggest that the regulation of the prohormone processing system by morphine may lead to alterations in the levels of multiple bioactive hormones and may be a compensatory mechanism whereby the organism tries to restore its homeostatic hormonal milieu. The down-regulation of PC1/3, PC2 and P-CREB by short-term morphine and up-regulation by long-term morphine treatment may be a signal mediating the switch from drug use to drug abuse. PMID:18771713

  18. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate CAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of CAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of CAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of CAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of CAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  19. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Cureri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of cAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of cAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of cAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of cAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of cAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  20. The dependence of Escherichia coli asparaginase II formation on cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Russell, L; Yamazaki, H

    1978-05-01

    The amount of asparaginase II in an Escherichia coli wild-type strain (cya+, crp+) markedly increased upon a shift from aerobic to anaerobic growth. However, no such increase occurred in a mutant (cya) lacking cyclic AMP synthesis unless supplemented with exogenous cyclic AMP. Since a mutant (crp) deficient in cyclic AMP receptor protein also did not support the anaerobic formation of this enzyme, it is concluded that the formation of E. coli asparaginase II depends on both cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP receptor protein. PMID:207402

  1. Dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein-immunoreactive neurons activated by acute stress are innervated by fiber terminals immunopositive for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the extended amygdala in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kozicz, Tams; Arimura, Akira

    2002-11-15

    The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and the central nucleus of the amygdala are highly heterogeneous structures, which form one functional unit, the so-called extended amygdala. Several studies described increased c-fos expression following acute stress in this brain area, confirming its central role in the modulation/regulation of stress responses. The oval nucleus of the BST and the central amygdala exhibit a dense network of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-immunoreactive (ir) fiber terminals. In addition, several dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32)-immunoreactive neurons were also observed here. Because the extended amygdala plays an important role in the central autonomic regulation during stress and the distribution of PACAP-ir and that of DARPP-32-ir nervous structures overlap, the aims of this study were to investigate the possible activation of DARPP-32-ir neurons following acute systemic stress and to demonstrate synaptic interactions between DARPP-32-ir neurons and fiber terminals immunopositive for PACAP.In summary, this study provided morphological evidence that acute stress resulted in the activation of DARPP-32 neurons, which were innervated by PACAP-ir neuronal structures in the extended amygdala. Furthermore, interaction between neuropeptides/neurotransmitters and phosphoproteins was also demonstrated. PMID:12409216

  2. Ephedrine induced thioredoxin-1 expression through ?-adrenergic receptor/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A/dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jin-Jing; Zeng, Xian-Si; Li, Ye; Ma, Sha; Bai, Jie

    2013-05-01

    Ephedrine (Eph) is one of alkaloids that has been isolated from the ancient herb ephedra (ma huang) and is used as the treatment of asthma, hypotension and fatigue. However, its molecular mechanism remains unknown. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein, which has various biological activities, including regulating transcription factor DNA binding activity and neuroprotection. In this study, we found that Eph induced Trx-1 expression, which was inhibited by propranolol (?-adrenergic receptor inhibitor), but not by phenoxybenzamine (?-adrenergic receptor inhibitor) in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Moreover, the increase of Trx-1 expression was inhibited by SQ22536 (adenylyl cyclase inhibitor) and H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor). Interestingly, the effect of Eph on dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) was similar to Trx-1. Thus, the relationship between Trx-1 and DARPP-32 was further studied. The DARPP-32 siRNA significantly reduced Trx-1 expression, but Trx-1 siRNA did not exchange DARPP-32. These results suggested that Eph induced the Trx-1 expression through ?-adrenergic receptor/cyclic AMP/PKA/DARPP-32 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Eph induced PKA-mediated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Down-regulation of DARPP-32 expression decreased phosphorylated CREB. In addition, Eph had a significant effect on the viability of the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells through ?-adrenergic receptors. Trx-1 may play an important role in the actions of Eph. PMID:23416460

  3. Differential adrenergic regulation of rat pineal cyclic AMP production and N-acetyltransferase activity during postnatal development: involvement of G alpha s and G alpha i1-2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Harmouch, A; Guerrero, J M; Pozo, D; Rafii-el-Idrissi, M; Calvo, J R; Reiter, R J; Osuna, C

    1997-11-01

    We have studied why rat pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity is relatively insensitive to isoproterenol in young rats when compared with adult rats. We report that activation by isoproterenol of pineal cyclic AMP production and NAT activity is higher in adult than in 2-week-old rats. However, the effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, which enters the pinealocyte and duplicates the effect of cyclic AMP, on NAT activity was similar at both ages. Moreover, we found that both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors are highly specific at both ages, since the binding of the specific radioligands used to their receptors could be displaced only by their corresponding agonists and antagonists. However, we observed differences between pineals from young and adult rats when several families of the alpha subunit of G-proteins were studied in cell membranes. ADP-ribosylation and immunoblot studies have shown clear differences in both 42 and 45 kDa forms of the Gs alpha Both forms exhibit low values in pineals from 2-week-old animals when compared with 6-week-old. We also show that the later appearance of both Gs alpha forms is roughly similar to the potent activation of cyclic AMP production and NAT activity in adult rats when compared with young rats. In conclusion, the results presented suggest that the relative lack of sensitivity of rat pineal gland to beta-adrenergic receptor agonists early in the postnatal development may be explained by the low levels of membrane Gs alpha, rather than postreceptor-mediated mechanisms or changes in the characteristics of the beta-adrenergic receptors on the pinealocyte membrane. PMID:9415065

  4. Cyclic AMP signalling through PKA but not Epac is essential for neurturin-induced biphasic ERK1/2 activation and neurite outgrowths through GFRα2 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Wan, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lihan; Lim, Qing 'En; Wong, Yung Hou; Too, Heng-Phon

    2011-11-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and neurotrophic factors are known to interact closely to promote neurite outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its family member neurturin (NTN) transduce signal through a multi-component receptor complex consisting of GDNF family receptor alpha 2 (GFRα2) and Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. Neurons from GFRα2-deficient mice do not promote axonal initiation when stimulated by NTN, consistent with the role of GFRα2 in neuronal outgrowth. Multiple alternatively spliced isoforms of GFRα2 are known to be expressed in the nervous system. GFRα2a and GFRα2c but not GFRα2b promoted neurite outgrowth. It is currently unknown if cAMP signalling is differentially regulated by these isoforms. In this study, NTN activation of GFRα2a and GFRα2c but not GFRα2b induced biphasic ERK1/2 activation and phosphorylation of the major cAMP target CREB. Interestingly, inhibition of cAMP signalling significantly impaired GFRα2a and GFRα2c-mediated neurite outgrowth while cAMP agonists cooperated with GFRα2b to induce neurite outgrowth. Importantly, the specific cAMP effector PKA but not Epac was essential for NTN-induced neurite outgrowth, through transcription and translation-dependent activation of late phase ERK1/2. Taken together, these results not only demonstrated the essential role of cAMP-PKA signalling in NTN-induced biphasic ERK1/2 activation and neurite outgrowth, but also suggested cAMP-PKA signalling as a hitherto unrecognized underlying mechanism contributing to the differential neuritogenic activities of GFRα2 isoforms. PMID:21723942

  5. Modulation of cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase isozyme expression associated with activation of a macrophage cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Justement, L.B.; Aldrich, W.A.; Wenger, G.D.; O'Dorisio, M.S.; Zwilling, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    The RAW 264.7 macrophage (MO) cell line was used to study cAMPdPK isozymes during activation by lymphokine (LK) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Untreated cells were found to have two isozymes of cAMPdPK in their cytosol. PKI and PKII were differentiated based on the M/sub r/ of their regulatory subunits (RI, 45,500; and RII, 52,000, respectively) as determined by photoactivated incorporation of the cAMP analog 8-N/sub 3/-(/sub 32/P)cAMP. Loss of the RI subunit of PKI occurred in association with activation of the cell line by suboptimal concentrations of LK and LPS. No modulation of the RII subunit of PKII was observed under these conditions. The addition of a suboptimal concentration of LPS after LK or a high dose of LPS alone was required for acquisition of cytolytic activity and loss of RI. The antitumor activity of the RAW 264.7 cell line was transiently expressed after activation. Cells no longer exhibited tumoricidal activity 48 hr after the removal of activating agents. It was observed that the loss of cytolytic function was accompanied by the reexpression of RI in the cytosol. This study provides evidence that modulation of cAMPdPK isozymes occurs during activation, suggesting a potential mechanism for controlling the effects of cAMP on the MO.

  6. Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through EP4 Receptor and Intracellular Cyclic AMP in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Milena; Chen, Li-Yuan; Liu, Yueqin; Martinez-Anton, Asuncion; Qi, Hai-Yan; Logun, Carolea; Alsaaty, Sara; Park, Yong Hwan; Kastner, Daniel L; Chae, Jae Jin; Shelhamer, James H

    2015-06-01

    PGE2 is a potent lipid mediator involved in maintaining homeostasis but also promotion of acute inflammation or immune suppression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing protein (NLR)P3 inflammasome plays an important role in host defense. Uncontrolled activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, owing to mutations in the NLRP3 gene, causes cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. In this study, we showed that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is inhibited by PGE2 in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. This effect was mediated through PGE2 receptor subtype 4 (EP4) and an increase in intracellular cAMP, independently of protein kinase A or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP. A specific agonist of EP4 mimicked, whereas its antagonist or EP4 knockdown reversed, PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. PGE2 caused an increase in intracellular cAMP. Blockade of adenylate cyclase by its inhibitor reversed PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. Increase of intracellular cAMP by an activator of adenylate cyclase or an analog of cAMP, or a blockade of cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterase inhibitor decreased NLRP3 activation. Protein kinase A or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP agonists did not mimic, and their antagonists did not reverse, PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. Additionally, constitutive IL-1β secretion from LPS-primed PBMCs of cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes patients was substantially reduced by high doses of PGE2. Moreover, blocking cytosolic phospholipase A2α by its inhibitor or small interfering RNA or inhibiting cyclooxygenase 2, resulting in inhibition of endogenous PGE2 production, caused an increase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our results suggest that PGE2 might play a role in maintaining homeostasis during the resolution phase of inflammation and might serve as an autocrine and paracrine regulator. PMID:25917098

  7. Molecular cloning and expression of a cyclic AMP-activated chloride conductance regulator: a novel ATP-binding cassette transporter.

    PubMed Central

    van Kuijck, M A; van Aubel, R A; Busch, A E; Lang, F; Russel, F G; Bindels, R J; van Os, C H; Deen, P M

    1996-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-regulated, cAMP-activated chloride channel located in the apical membrane of many epithelial secretory cells. Here we report cloning of a cAMP-activated epithelial basolateral chloride conductance regulator (EBCR) that appears to be a basolateral CFTR counterpart. This novel chloride channel or regulator shows 49% identity with multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and 29% identity with CFTR. On expression in Xenopus oocytes, EBCR confers a cAMP-activated chloride conductance that is inhibited by the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamine)benzoic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. Northern blot analysis reveals high expression in small intestine, kidney, and liver. In kidney, immunohistochemistry shows a conspicuous basolateral localization mainly in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, distal convoluted tubules and to a lesser extent connecting tubules. These data suggest that in the kidney EBCR is involved in hormone-regulated chloride reabsorption. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8643587

  8. Expression of phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in melanin-concentrating hormone neurons and orexin neurons in male and female rats during ad-libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Kimura, Fukuko; Akema, Tatsuo; Funabashi, Toshiya

    2014-07-01

    Using phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) as a marker of neural activity, we previously suggested that orexin neurons and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons play distinct roles in feeding behavior. In the present study, we examined the expression of pCREB during ad-libitum feeding; previously, only fasted animals were examined. MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed pCREB during spontaneous food intake. The induction of pCREB expression did not differ by sex, but attenuation seemed to occur faster in females than in males. On the basis of the results of the present study, we speculate that MCH neurons respond to nutrition-related feeding, but the feeding-related activity of orexin was not evident unless hunger was accompanied by stress, such as the stress caused by the absence of food in the case of fasting. Therefore, the desire to eat under normal conditions does not drive orexin neurons, but it does drive MCH neurons. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of consuming glucose or saccharin, a nonmetabolized sweetener, in fasted male and female rats. Glucose and saccharin were equally effective in reducing pCREB expression in the orexin neurons of female rats. In MCH neurons, glucose attenuated the expression of pCREB, but saccharin had no effect, irrespective of sex. Taken together, the results indicate that MCH and orexin peptides play physiologically distinct roles in feeding behavior. PMID:24780894

  9. Functional cyclic AMP response element in the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) promoter modulates epidermal growth factor receptor pathway- or androgen withdrawal-mediated BCRP/ABCG2 transcription in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Natarajan, Karthika; Safren, Lowell; Hamburger, Anne W; Hussain, Arif; Ross, Douglas D

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorylated cyclic-AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (p-CREB) is a downstream effector of a variety of important signaling pathways. We investigated whether the human BCRP promoter contains a functional cAMP response element (CRE). 8Br-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased the activity of a BCRP promoter reporter construct and BCRP mRNA in human carcinoma cells. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway activation also led to an increase in p-CREB and in BCRP promoter reporter activity via two major downstream EGFR signaling pathways: the phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT, ERK and CREB, while simultaneously enhancing BCRP mRNA and functional protein expression. EGF-stimulated CREB phosphorylation and BCRP induction were diminished by inhibition of EGFR, PI3K/AKT or RAS/MAPK signaling. CREB silencing using RNA interference reduced basal levels of BCRP mRNA and diminished the induction of BCRP by EGF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that a putative CRE site on the BCRP promoter bound p-CREB by a point mutation of the CRE site abolished EGF-induced stimulation of BCRP promoter reporter activity. Furthermore, the CREB co-activator, cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activator (CRTC2), is involved in CREB-mediated BCRP transcription: androgen depletion of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells increased both CREB phosphorylation and CRTC2 nuclear translocation, and enhanced BCRP expression. Silencing CREB or CRTC2 reduced basal BCRP expression and BCRP induction under androgen-depletion conditions. This novel CRE site plays a central role in mediating BCRP gene expression in several human cancer cell lines following activation of multiple cancer-relevant signaling pathways. PMID:25615818

  10. Functional cyclic AMP response element in the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) promoter modulates epidermal growth factor receptor pathway- or androgen withdrawal-mediated BCRP/ABCG2 transcription in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Natarajan, Karthika; Safren, Lowell; Hamburger, Anne W.; Hussain, Arif; Ross, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel cyclic-AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE) in the human BCRP promoter that is functional in human cancer cell lines of multiple lineages. 8Br-cAMP increased the activity of a BCRP promoter reporter construct and BCRP mRNA in human carcinoma cells. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway also led to an increase in BCRP promoter reporter activity and to phosphorylation of the c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) via two major downstream EGFR signaling pathways: the phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT, ERK and CREB, while simultaneously enhancing BCRP mRNA and functional protein expression. EGF-stimulated CREB phosphorylation and BCRP induction were diminished by inhibition of EGFR, PI3K/AKT or RAS/MAPK signaling. CREB silencing using RNA interference reduced basal levels of BCRP mRNA and diminished the induction of BCRP by EGF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that a putative CRE site on the BCRP promoter bound phospho-CREB; point mutation of the CRE site abolished EGF-induced stimulation of BCRP promoter reporter activity. Furthermore, the CREB co-activator, cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activator (CRTC2), is also involved in CREB-mediated BCRP transcription: androgen depletion of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells increased both CREB phosphorylation and CRTC2 nuclear translocation, and enhanced BCRP expression. Silencing CREB or CRTC2 reduced basal BCRP expression and BCRP induction under androgen-depletion conditions. This novel CRE site plays a central role in mediating BCRP gene expression in multiple human cancer cell lines following activation of a variety of signaling pathways. PMID:25615818

  11. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 5-HT1B receptors inhibiting cyclic AMP accumulation in rat renal mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Schoeffter, P; Pfeilschifter, J; Bobirnac, I

    1995-01-01

    A clonal cell line derived from rat renal mesangial cells was shown to express endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) receptors that mediate inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation. These receptors were characterized as being of the 5-HT1B receptor subtype. 5-HT1 receptor agonists inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat renal mesangial cells (60-70% maximal inhibition) with the following rank order of potency (mean pEC50 values +/- SEM, n > or = 3): ergotamine (9.58 +/- 0.51) > RU 24969 (8.67 +/- 0.23) > or = 5-CT (8.42 +/- 0.06) > or = CP 93129 (8.15 +/- 0.27) > 5-HT (7.75 +/- 0.11) > sumatriptan (6.29 +/- 0.30) > 8-OH-DPAT (4.32 +/- 0.15). 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor agonists were without effect. 5-HT-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation was abolished by a pre-treatment of the cells with pertussis toxin. (-)Propranolol was a partial agonist (27% maximal inhibition, pEC50 7.19 +/- 0.24, n = 3); when used as an antagonist at 1 microM, it shifted the concentration-response curve of 5-HT to the right (pKB 7.22 +/- 0.35, n = 3). Methiothepin was a competitive antagonist of 5-HT (pA2 8.04 +/- 0.10, Schild slope 0.87 +/- 0.21, n = 3). Rauwolscine (10 microM) had no antagonist activity. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.98, P = 0.0001) between the cyclic AMP data obtained in rat mesangial cells and 5-HT1B binding data reported in rat brain cortex. The same pattern of responses was observed in early passages of primary cultures of rat mesangial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7715739

  12. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1987-03-01

    Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-time for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230....1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to.... Cyclic AMP measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders,...

  14. Regulation of cyclic AMP formation in brain tissue by alpha-adrenergic receptors: requisite intermediacy of prostaglandins of the E series.

    PubMed Central

    Partington, C R; Edwards, M W; Daly, J W

    1980-01-01

    The accumulations of cyclic AMP elicited by norepinephrine in slices of rat cerebral cortex or hypothalamus were markedly reduced after incubations with prostaglandin synthetase (8,11,14-eicosatrienoate, hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.99.1) inhibitors such as indomethacin, aspirin, flufenamic acid, and acetoaminophen. Responses of cyclic AMP-generating systems to beta-adrenergic agonists or adenosine were unchanged by treatment with indomethacin and the reduction in the norepinephrine response appeared due primarily to a loss of the alpha-adrenergic component. The accumulation of cyclic AMP elicited by prostaglandin E2 [mean effective dose (EC50) 4 micro M] was increased by 2-fold by treatment with indomethacin. The alpha-adrenergic component of the norepinephrine response was fully restored by very low concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (EC50 20 nM). Prostaglandins of the F series had no effect on cyclic AMP generation under a variety of conditions. It appears that low levels of prostaglandins of the E series are required--perhaps by a calcium-dependent mechanism--for the expression of alpha-adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of cyclic AMP formation in brain tissue. PMID:6248884

  15. Glial and muscle embryonal carcinoma cell-specific independent regulation of expression of human JC virus early promoter by cyclic AMP response elements and adjacent nuclear factor 1 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K U; Tang, S C; Pater, M M; Pater, A

    1996-07-01

    The human polyoma JC virus (JCV) is a glial cell-specific virus and is the etiological agent for the terminal AIDS-associated brain disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV contains several binding sites for transcriptional factors that are important for activity in glial cells, including cyclic AMP (cAMP) response elements (CREs) which are four nucleotides from nuclear factor 1 (NF1) sites within the two 98 bp repeat regions. We studied the combined role of cAMP and NF1 in regulating the expression of the JCV early promoter-enhancer (JCVE) in differentiating glial and muscle P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. JCVE expression remained several-fold higher in the presence of cAMP in glial cells, irrespective of whether the relatively strong activity of JCVE was greatly reduced by NF1 site mutations. In contrast, cAMP had no effect in muscle cells, independent of whether the modest activity of JCVE was two-fold higher due to NF1 site mutations. The in vivo effects were confirmed with in vitro transcription assays using glial cell extracts, competitors of CRE, and the NF1 site, and single repeat JCVE region with mutations in the NF1 II/ III binding sites as templates. The in vitro results also indicated that the effects were due to the CREs of JCV, rather than to the indirect effects of cAMP. Overall, the results indicated that NF1 and cAMP have independent, different, tissue-specific, and direct effects in the regulation of JCVE. These effects may contribute the neurotropic PML-inducing pattern of expression of JCVE. PMID:8818965

  16. Apparent presence of Ser133-phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) in brain mitochondria is due to cross-reactivity of pCREB antibodies with pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Pláteník, Jan; Balcar, Vladimír J; Yoneda, Yukio; Mioduszewska, Barbara; Buchal, Richard; Hynek, Radovan; Kilianek, Lukasz; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Wilczynski, Grzegorz; Ogita, Kiyokazu; Nakamura, Yoichi; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2005-12-01

    Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a constitutive transcription factor that activates transcription following stimulus-dependent phosphorylation at Ser133, implicated in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival pathways. The prevailing view that CREB is exclusively nuclear has been questioned by several studies, and, for example, mitochondrial localization has been reported. Using subcellular fractionation of rat brain cortex coupled with western immunoblotting with Ser133-phospho-CREB (pCREB) antibodies, we found a robust pCREB immunoreactivity (IR) in mitochondria-enriched fractions. The pCREB antibodies also stained the mitochondria, in addition to nuclei, of glial cells in primary cortical cultures. However, two CREB antibodies against different epitopes and gel shift assay detected the CREB protein mainly in the nuclear fraction. The two-dimensional electrophoretic mobility of mitochondrial pCREB IR differed markedly from the nuclear CREB/pCREB IR, indicating that the pCREB antibody cross-reacts with another mitochondrial protein. Immunoprecipitation of the mitochondrial pCREB IR produced three bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as E2, E1 alpha-subunit, and E1 beta-subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The cross-reacting epitope was identified as phospho-Ser300 of the alpha-subunit. In conclusion, this study confirms the presence of pCREB-like IR in brain mitochondria that, after careful scrutiny, turned out to be pyruvate dehydrogenase rather than authentic CREB. PMID:16219034

  17. Cyclic AMP induces maturation of trout sperm axoneme to initiate motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisawa, Masaaki

    1982-02-01

    Cyclic AMP has long been implicated as an activator of sperm motility1-5. From more recent experiments using demembranated mammalian and sea urchin spermatozoa6,7, it was concluded that cyclic AMP only increases the motility of the axoneme after it has been initiated by MgATP2-. We have now carried out similar experiments using spermatozoa collected from the rainbow trout and demembranated by treatment with the detergent Triton X-100. Our results suggest that in this species, cyclic AMP is required before MgATP2- to trigger maturation of the nonmotile axoneme. Subsequent addition of an energy source then induces motility.

  18. Equivalence between Pfr and Cyclic AMP in the Induction of d-Usnic Acid Dehydrogenase in the Lichen Evernia prunastri1

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, A.; Vicente, C.

    1987-01-01

    d-Usnic acid dehydrogenase is induced in Evernia prunastri thalli by a supply of exogenous d-usnic acid in light. This effect is enhanced by red light pulses through a two step way: a very rapid increase of activity after the first 10 minutes of red light, which is not reversed by far-red light, and a slow enhancement following successive red light pulses at the beginning of each hour of incubation. The last response is completely reversed by far-red following red light. Although induction of the enzyme is not achieved in the dark, 0.1 and 0.5 millimolar cyclic AMP, or 0.1 millimolar dibutyryl cyclic AMP substitutes light action and, then, the enzyme is produced. In addition, phytochrome—far red-absorbing form—increases the amount of endogenously produced cyclic AMP and this effect is shown to be photoreversible when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is inhibiting adenylate cyclase. PMID:16665525

  19. Effects of Prostaglandins and Cholera Enterotoxin on Intestinal Mucosal Cyclic AMP Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Kimberg, Daniel V.; Field, Michael; Gershon, Elaine; Henderson, Antonia

    1974-01-01

    Both cholera enterotoxin and certain prostaglandins have been shown to stimulate intestinal fluid secretion in vivo, to cause ion flux changes in vitro similar to those caused by addition of cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), and to activate intestinal mucosal adenyl cyclase. It has been suggested that the effects of the enterotoxin on intestinal cyclic AMP metabolism may be indirect, and that locally synthesized prostaglandins may serve as required intermediates for the effects of the enterotoxin in activating intestinal mucosal adenyl cyclase. In order to clarify certain aspects of the mechanisms by which these two agents alter intestinal mucosal cyclic AMP metabolism and ion transport, their effects on cyclic AMP accumulation in rabbit ileal mucosa were examined in vitro. Addition of 5 μg per ml (75 μg per 150 mg mucosa) of purified cholera enterotoxin produced a peak increase in cyclic AMP level in 3 h but there was a time delay of at least 30 min before any effect was observed. Inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with theophylline failed to reduce this time delay. In contrast, addition of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) increased the cyclic AMP level rapidly, a peak effect being observed in 2 min. The time of the peak prostaglandin-induced changes in cyclic AMP level and short-circuit current correlated closely. A maximal increment in cyclic AMP level was achieved with 5 × 10−5 M PGE1. When 10−4 M PGE1 was added to mucosa already maximally stimulated with cholera toxin, the resulting cyclic AMP level was equal to the sum of the levels reached when each agent was added alone. Furthermore, the effects of the enterotoxin on mucosal cyclic AMP levels were not influenced by indomethacin under conditions where mucosal prostaglandins synthesis was inhibited. The results suggest that endogenous prostaglandins do not provide an essential link in the activation of intestinal mucosal adenyl cyclase by cholera enterotoxin. The present study also indicates that the effect of cholera enterotoxin on intestinal mucosal cyclic AMP metabolism involves a definite time delay which is not due to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. PMID:4359941

  20. Is a decrease in cyclic AMP a necessary and sufficient signal for maturation of amphibian oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gelerstein, S.; Shapira, H.; Dascal, N.; Yekuel, R.; Oron, Y.

    1988-05-01

    Acetylcholine rapidly lowered the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in stage 5 and 6 Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine alone did not induce oocyte maturation, though it did accelerate maturation induced by progesterone. The effect of acetylcholine on oocyte maturation was independent of extracellular calcium concentration. Adenosine increased cyclic AMP and abolished the progesterone-induced decrease in cyclic AMP levels in follicles and in denuded oocytes. This effect of adenosine was blocked by the Ra purinergic receptor antagonist, theophylline. Despite those effects, adenosine alone induced maturation in stage 6 oocytes and accelerated progesterone-induced maturation in both stage 5 and 6 cells. Adenosine also induced a significant increase in the rate of /sup 45/Ca efflux from oocytes in the presence and the absence of external calcium. We suggest that the activation of cell surface receptors involved in the release of calcium from cellular stores may induce or accelerate oocyte maturation independently of small changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration.

  1. Effects of cyclic AMP and analogues on neurogenic transmission in the rat tail artery.

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, S.; Stoclet, J. C.; Bucher, B.

    1994-01-01

    1 The effects of two 8-substituted analogues of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) were compared with those of forskolin and isoprenaline on [3H]-noradrenaline release and vasoconstriction induced by electrical field stimulation (24 pulses at 0.4 Hz, 200 mA, 0.3 ms duration) in the rat tail artery, in the absence and in the presence of protein kinase inhibitors. 2 8-Bromo-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-bromo-cyclic AMP, 10-300 microM), 8-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)-adenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (8-pCPT-cyclic AMP, 3-300 microM), forskolin (0.3-10 microM) and isoprenaline (1 nM-1 microM) all concentration-dependently enhanced stimulation-induced [3H]-noradrenaline release. The effect of cyclic AMP analogues was larger (2.5 fold at 300 microM) than those of cyclic AMP elevating drugs (1.6 fold at 10 microM for forskolin and 1.5 fold at 30 nM for isoprenaline). 3 At concentrations active at the prejunctional level, the four drugs had differential effects on stimulation-induced vasoconstriction, which was enhanced by the two cyclic AMP analogues, decreased by forskolin and not significantly altered by isoprenaline. 4 The [3H]-noradrenaline release-enhancing effects of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, forskolin and isoprenaline were significantly decreased by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor (N-[2-((3-(4-bromophenyl)-2-propenyl)-amino)-ethyl]-5- isoquinolinesulphonamide, di-hydrochloride) (H-89; 100 nM). By contrast they were unaffected by the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor, 8-bromo-guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-8-bromo-cyclic GMPS; 10 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004406

  2. The ? opioid agonist morphine modulates potentiation of capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 responses through a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Irina; Wyse, Bruce D; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Cabot, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Background The vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) is critical in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Several receptors including G-protein coupled prostaglandin receptors have been reported to functionally interact with the TRPV1 through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway to potentiate TRPV1-mediated capsaicin responses. Such regulation may have significance in inflammatory pain. However, few functional receptor interactions that inhibit PKA-mediated potentiation of TRPV1 responses have been described. Results In the present studies we investigated the hypothesis that the ? opioid receptor (MOP) agonist morphine can modulate forskolin-potentiated capsaicin responses through a cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. HEK293 cells were stably transfected with TRPV1 and MOP, and calcium (Ca2+) responses to injection of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin were monitored in Fluo-3-loaded cells. Pre-treatment with morphine did not inhibit unpotentiated capsaicin-induced Ca2+ responses but significantly altered capsaicin responses potentiated by forskolin. TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ responses potentiated by the direct PKA activator 8-Br-cAMP and the PKC activator Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetatewere not modulated by morphine. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that the TRPV1 and MOP are co-expressed on cultured Dorsal Root Ganglion neurones, pointing towards the existence of a functional relationship between the G-protein coupled MOP and nociceptive TRPV1. Conclusion The results presented here indicate that the opioid receptor agonist morphine acts via inhibition of adenylate cyclase to inhibit PKA-potentiated TRPV1 responses. Targeting of peripheral opioid receptors may therefore have therapeutic potential as an intervention to prevent potentiation of TRPV1 responses through the PKA pathway in inflammation. PMID:16842630

  3. Looking downstream: the role of cyclic AMP-regulated genes in axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Siddiq, Mustafa M; Hannila, Sari S

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels has proven to be one of the most effective means of overcoming inhibition of axonal regeneration by myelin-associated inhibitors such as myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), Nogo, and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein. Pharmacological manipulation of cAMP through the administration of dibutyryl cAMP or rolipram leads to enhanced axonal growth both in vivo and in vitro, and importantly, upregulation of cAMP within dorsal root ganglion neurons is responsible for the conditioning lesion effect, which indicates that cAMP plays a significant role in the endogenous mechanisms that promote axonal regeneration. The effects of cAMP are transcription-dependent and are mediated through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). This leads to the induction of a variety of genes, several of which have been shown to overcome myelin-mediated inhibition in their own right. In this review, we will highlight the pro-regenerative effects of arginase I (ArgI), interleukin (IL)-6, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and metallothionein (MT)-I/II, and discuss their potential for therapeutic use in spinal cord injury. PMID:26150769

  4. Enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation mediated by 5-HT after chronic amitriptyline treatment in NG 108-15 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, M; Nishida, A; Fukuda, H; Saito, H; Yamawaki, S

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of chronic in vitro administration of amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor-mediated adenylyl cyclase activity was studied in the neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell line, NG 108-15. 2. Treatment of NG 108-15 cells with 8 microM amitriptyline for 3 days increased forskolin-stimulated (0.1 microM) adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation. Addition of 5-HT (0.1-100 microM) increased forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, 5-HT did not affect forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in untreated cells. 3. The 5-HT4 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine, significantly enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells. In contrast, amitriptyline treatment failed to modify 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine) tetralin-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. 4. Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin did not affect the 5-HT-induced enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation. 5. The 5-HT-induced enhancement of cyclic AMP accumulation in amitriptyline-treated cells was attenuated by the 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, GR 113808 and ICS 205-930, with relatively low potency. However, spiperone, SCH 23390, and pindolol were completely ineffective against this 5-HT-induced enhancement. 6. Chronic treatment with amitriptyline did not modify the cyclic AMP production stimulated by prostaglandin E1 or cholera toxin. This treatment also had no effect on GTP gamma S-, NaF-, and Mn(2+)-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated cell membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620719

  5. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... measure the level of adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in plasma, urine, and other body...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... measure the level of adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in plasma, urine, and other body...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... measure the level of adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in plasma, urine, and other body...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... measure the level of adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in plasma, urine, and other body...

  9. Activation of Na+-permeant cation channel by stretch and cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation in renal epithelial A6 cells.

    PubMed

    Marunaka, Y; Shintani, Y; Downey, G P; Niisato, N

    1997-09-01

    It is currently believed that a nonselective cation (NSC) channel, which responds to arginine vasotocin (an antidiuretic hormone) and stretch, regulates Na+ absorption in the distal nephron. However, the mechanisms of regulation of this channel remain incompletely characterized. To study the mechanisms of regulation of this channel, we used renal epithelial cells (A6) cultured on permeable supports. The apical membrane of confluent monolayers of A6 cells expressed a 29-pS channel, which was activated by stretch or by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. This channel had an identical selectivity for Na+, K+, Li+, and Cs+, but little selectivity for Ca2+ (PCa/PNa < 0.005) or Cl- (PCl/PNa < 0.01), identifying it as an NSC channel. Stretch had no additional effects on the open probability (Po) of the IBMX-activated channel. This channel had one open ("O") and two closed (short "CS" and long "CL") states under basal, stretch-, or IBMX-stimulated conditions. Both stretch and IBMX increased the Po of the channel without any detectable changes in the mean open or closed times. These observations led us to the conclusion that a kinetic model "CL <--> CS <--> O" was the most suitable among three possible linear models. According to this model, IBMX or stretch would decrease the leaving rate of the channel for CL from CS, resulting in an increase in Po. Cytochalasin D pretreatment abolished the response to stretch or IBMX without altering the basal activity. H89 (an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase) completely abolished the response to both stretch and IBMX, but, unlike cytochalasin D, also diminished the basal activity. We conclude that: (a) the functional properties of the cAMP-activated NSC channel are similar to those of the stretch-activated one, (b) the actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in the activation of the NSC channel induced by stretch and cAMP, and (c) the basal activity of the NSC channel is maintained by PKA-dependent phosphorylation but is not dependent on actin microfilaments. PMID:9276757

  10. Hetereogeneity of dose and time effects of estrogen on neuron-specific neuronal protein and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Bakkum, Barclay W; Fan, Lu; Pandey, Subhash C; Cohen, Rochelle S

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have shown changes in the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway in CA1 and CA3 regions of the rostral hippocampus with 10 μg estrogen treatment for 14 days. It appears that estrogen's action on CREB phosphorylation in brain structures depends on other estrogen doses and lengths of treatment. We therefore examined the effects of moderate regimens [2.5 μg estradiol benzoate (EB) for 4 or 14 days] on mean numbers of neuron-specific neuronal protein (NeuN)-positive cells and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB)-positive cells and subregion volume defined by NeuN and pCREB immunolabeling and compared those results with results from the high regimen (10 μg EB for 14 days) in CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions and dorsal (DDG) and ventral (VDG) dentate gyrus and hilus of the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats by stereology. For whole hippocampus, all regimens increased mean neuronal (NeuN) numbers and pCREB-positive cell and volume compared with sesame oil (SO) in CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions, DDG and VDG, and hilus. In rostral hippocampus, however, some hippocampal subregions were not responsive to the high regimen, and the moderate regimens appear to be more effective for increasing mean number of NeuN-positive neurons and pCREB-positive cells and subregion volume. Heterogeneity in responsiveness to estrogen was mainly seen within rostral, but not whole, hippocampal subregions. Our results indicate that responsiveness of cells expressing NeuN and pCREB to different EB regimens may vary depending on the specific region of the hippocampus. PMID:21337376

  11. Hetereogeneity of Dose and Time Effects of Estrogen on Neuron-specific Neuronal Protein (NeuN) and Phosphorylated Cyclic AMP Response Element-binding Protein (pCREB) in the Hippocampus of Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bakkum, Barclay W.; Fan, Lu; Pandey, Subhash C.; Cohen, Rochelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown changes in cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway in CA1 and CA3 regions of the rostral hippocampus with 10 µg estrogen treatment for 14 days. It appears that estrogen action on CREB phosphorylation in brain structures may depend on other estrogen doses and lengths of treatment. We, therefore, examined effects of moderate regimens (2.5 µg estradiol benzoate [EB] for 4 or 14 days) on mean numbers of neuron-specific neuronal protein (NeuN)-positive cells and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB)-positive cells and subregion volume defined by NeuN and pCREB immunolabeling and compared those results to the high regimen (10 µg EB for 14 days) in CA1, CA2 and CA3 regions and dorsal (DDG) and ventral (VDG) dentate gyrus and hilus of the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats by stereology. For whole hippocampus, all regimens increased mean neuronal (NeuN) numbers and pCREB-positive cell and volume compared to sesame oil (SO) in CA1, CA2 and CA3 regions, DDG and VDG dentate gyrus and hilus. In rostral hippocampus, however, some hippocampal subregions were not responsive to the high regimen and the moderate regimens appear more effective in increasing mean number of NeuN-positive neurons and pCREB-positive cells and subregion volume. Heterogeneity in responsiveness to estrogen was mainly seen within rostral, but not whole, hippocampal subregions. Our results indicate that responsiveness of cells expressing NeuN and pCREB to different EB regimens may vary depending on the specific region of the hippocampus. PMID:21337376

  12. Minocycline upregulates cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus of cerebral ischemia rats and improves behavioral deficits

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Xiao, Ming; He, Wenbo; Cai, Zhiyou

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays an important role in the mechanism of cognitive impairment and is also pivotal in the switch from short-term to long-term memory. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems a promising avenue in the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury since this neurotrophin could stimulate structural plasticity and repair cognitive impairment. Several findings have displayed that the dysregulation of the CREB–BDNF cascade has been involved in cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cerebral ischemia on learning and memory as well as on the levels of CREB, phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), and BDNF, and to determine the effect of minocycline on CREB, pCREB, BDNF, and behavioral functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. Methods The animal model was established by permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries. Behavior was evaluated 5 days before decapitation with Morris water maze and open-field task. Four days after permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries, minocycline was administered by douche via the stomach for 4 weeks. CREB and pCREB were examined by Western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. BDNF was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results The model rats after minocycline treatment swam shorter distances than control rats before finding the platform (P=0.0007). The number of times the platform position was crossed for sham-operation rats was more than that of the model groups in the corresponding platform location (P=0.0021). The number of times the platform position was crossed for minocycline treatment animals was significantly increased compared to the model groups in the corresponding platform position (P=0.0016). CREB, pCREB, and BDNF were downregulated after permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries in the model group. Minocycline increased the expression of CREB, pCREB, and BDNF, and improved cognitive suffered from impairment of permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries. Conclusion Minocycline improved cognitive impairment from cerebral ischemia via enhancing CREB, pCREB, and BDNF activity in the hippocampus. PMID:25750531

  13. Characterization of histamine receptors coupled to /sup 3/H-cyclic AMP accumulation in a vesicular preparation of Guinea pig cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The histamine-stimulated accumulation of /sup 3/H-cyclic AMP (formed by prelabeling with /sup 3/H-adenine) was characterized pharmacologically in a vesicular preparation of guinea pig cortex to identify the receptors mediating this response. Systematic variation of the preincubation time, vessel size, buffer composition, and /sup 3/H-adenine labeling time significantly influenced both the basal and histamine-stimulated /sup 3/H-cyclic AMP levels, and showed that individual prelabeling of aliquots in Kreb's-Ringer bicarbonate (15 mM) buffer yielded the most reproducible histamine responses. Characterization of this histamine response showed that the H/sub 2/-antagonist cimetidine maximally blocked 80% of the response, whereas only 45% of the response could be inhibited by H/sub 1/-antagonists. These findings show that both H/sub 1/- and H/sub 2/-receptors mediate the response, but 25% of the response may require concomitant activation of both receptors. A metactoid model was developed to account for the H/sub 2/-, H/sub 1/-, and adenosine components of the histamine response. The model hypothesizes that 55% of the response is due to direct H/sub 2/-receptor stimulation, 25% is dependent on the metactoid sensitization of the H/sub 2/-response by H/sub 1/-receptors, and 20% is due to an analogous sensitization of adenosine responses by H/sub 1/-receptors. These findings resolve previous controversies regarding the identity of the receptors mediating histamine-stimulated accumulation of cyclic AMP in brain. Furthermore, the vesicular preparation and metactoid model developed presently may be of benefit in other studies of neurotransmitter control of cyclic AMP dynamics.

  14. Cyclic AMP system in muscle tissue during prolonged hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipenko, Y. A.; Bubeyev, Y. A.; Korovkin, B. F.; Mikhaleva, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Components of the cyclic Adenosine-cyclic-35-monophosphate (AMP) system in the muscle tissue of white rats were studied during 70-75 days of hypokinesia, created by placing the animals in small booths which restricted their movements, and during the readaptation period. In the initial period, cyclic AMP levels and the activities of phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase in muscle tissue were increased. The values for these indices were roughly equal for controls and experimental animals during the adaptation period, but on the 70th day of the experiment cAMP levels dropped, phosphodiesterase activity increased, and the stimulative effect of epinephrine on the activity of adenylate cyclase decreased. The indices under study normalized during the readaptation period.

  15. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta activates insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription in osteoblasts. Identification of a novel cyclic AMP signaling pathway in bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umayahara, Y.; Ji, C.; Centrella, M.; Rotwein, P.; McCarthy, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a key role in skeletal growth by stimulating bone cell replication and differentiation. We previously showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other cAMP-activating agents enhanced IGF-I gene transcription in cultured primary rat osteoblasts through promoter 1, the major IGF-I promoter, and identified a short segment of the promoter, termed HS3D, that was essential for hormonal regulation of IGF-I gene expression. We now demonstrate that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) delta is a major component of a PGE2-stimulated DNA-protein complex involving HS3D and find that C/EBPdelta transactivates IGF-I promoter 1 through this site. Competition gel shift studies first indicated that a core C/EBP half-site (GCAAT) was required for binding of a labeled HS3D oligomer to osteoblast nuclear proteins. Southwestern blotting and UV-cross-linking studies showed that the HS3D probe recognized a approximately 35-kDa nuclear protein, and antibody supershift assays indicated that C/EBPdelta comprised most of the PGE2-activated gel-shifted complex. C/EBPdelta was detected by Western immunoblotting in osteoblast nuclear extracts after treatment of cells with PGE2. An HS3D oligonucleotide competed effectively with a high affinity C/EBP site from the rat albumin gene for binding to osteoblast nuclear proteins. Co-transfection of osteoblast cell cultures with a C/EBPdelta expression plasmid enhanced basal and PGE2-activated IGF-I promoter 1-luciferase activity but did not stimulate a reporter gene lacking an HS3D site. By contrast, an expression plasmid for the related protein, C/EBPbeta, did not alter basal IGF-I gene activity but did increase the response to PGE2. In osteoblasts and in COS-7 cells, C/EBPdelta, but not C/EBPbeta, transactivated a reporter gene containing four tandem copies of HS3D fused to a minimal promoter; neither transcription factor stimulated a gene with four copies of an HS3D mutant that was unable to bind osteoblast nuclear proteins. These results identify C/EBPdelta as a hormonally activated inducer of IGF-I gene transcription in osteoblasts and show that the HS3D element within IGF-I promoter 1 is a high affinity binding site for this protein.

  16. Dose and time effects of estrogen on expression of neuron-specific protein and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and brain region volume in the medial amygdala of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lu; Hanbury, Rose; Pandey, Subhash C; Cohen, Rochelle S

    2008-01-01

    Although estrogen has been shown to be neuroprotective, studies concerning its effect on some behaviors are contradictory, reporting both ameliorative and detrimental effects. A factor involved in hormone efficacy is the estrogen regimen. We reported an effect of 10 microg estrogen for 14 days on the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in rat medial amygdala (MeA). To determine the effects of estrogen on neuronal numbers and brain region volume in MeA and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), we used stereology to test the effect of various estrogen regimens on the number of neuron-specific protein (NeuN)-labeled neurons and brain region volume of MeA and CeA. Ovariectomized rats were injected with vehicle for 14 days, 2.5 microg estradiol benzoate (E2) for 4 or 14 days, or 10 microg estrogen for 14 days. Because NeuN-labeled neuronal number may be related to neuronal survival and upregulation of CREB signaling, we tested the effect of these regimens on levels of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) labeling in the MeA and CeA. The 2.5 microg estrogen for 14 days regimen increased the mean number of NeuN-labeled neurons and pCREB-labeled cells in the MeA compared to vehicle or 2.5 microg for 4 days. There was an increase in volume of the MeA with 2.5 microg estrogen for 14 days compared to vehicle or 2.5 microg for 4 days. No differences in these parameters were seen in CeA. These data indicate a neuroanatomical heterogeneity of a time effect of estrogen on cells expressing NeuN and pCREB in the MeA versus CeA. PMID:18446018

  17. Cyclic AMP mediates inhibition of the Na(+)-K+ electrogenic pump by serotonin in tactile sensory neurones of the leech.

    PubMed Central

    Catarsi, S; Scuri, R; Brunelli, M

    1993-01-01

    1. Serotonin (5-HT) reduced the after-hyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude in tactile sensory neurones (T) but not in pressor (P) or nociceptive (N) cells of the leech. 2. Adenylate cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and membrane permeant analogues of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) mimicked the effect of 5-HT in reducing the AHP amplitude in T neurones. 3. Ionophoretic injection of cyclic AMP in T cells reduced the AHP amplitude, while cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) or adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) were without effect. 4. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase by the drug RMI 12330A (also known as MDL 12330A) suggested that 5-HT reduced the AHP amplitude through cyclic AMP. 5. 8-Bromoadenosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP) was still able to reduce the AHP amplitude after blocking the Ca(2+)-activated K+ conductance with CdCl2 and converted the normal hyperpolarization which follows the intracellular injection of Na+ into a depolarization. In addition, the cyclic AMP analogue slowed down and reduced the repolarization usually induced by CsCl after perfusion with K(+)-free solution. It is proposed that, in T sensory neurones, cyclic AMP mediates the inhibition of the Na(+)-K+ electrogenic pump induced by 5-HT application. PMID:7687293

  18. Activation of 3':5'-cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and induction of ornithine decarboxylase as early events in induction of mixed-function oxygenases.

    PubMed Central

    Byus, C V; Costa, M; Sipes, I G; Brodie, B B; Russell, D H

    1976-01-01

    The parenteral administration of a single dose of 3-methylcholanthrene to rats caused an increase in the liver of the concentration of 3', 5'-cAMP and of the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37). These events were followed by an increased activity of ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lase, EC 4.1.1.17), the enzyme that controls the biosynthesis of polyamines. Finally, the activity of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, as well as the amount of cytochrome P-448, was increased. Similarly, after the administration of phenobarbital, there was first an increase in the cAMP concentration and in the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, then the induction of ornithine decarboxylase, and finally, an enhanced activity of ethylmorphine N-demethylase and an increased content of cytochrome P-450. These data suggest that the drug-induced processes in liver that increase the activities of the oxidative, and presumably other, drug-metabolizing enzymes include the following sequence of events: (1) increase in cAMP concentration and/or activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase; (2) induction of ornithine decarboxylase; and, (3) induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:177981

  19. Mlc is a transcriptional activator with a key role in integrating cyclic AMP receptor protein and integration host factor regulation of leukotoxin RNA synthesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, synthesizes leukotoxin (LtxA), a protein that helps the bacterium evade the host immune response. Transcription of the ltxA operon is induced during anaerobic growth. The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) indirectly increases ltxA expression...

  20. Glucose Evokes Rapid Ca2+ and Cyclic AMP Signals by Activating the Cell-Surface Glucose-Sensing Receptor in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Medina, Johan; Kojima, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. High concentration of glucose has been thought to exert its action solely through its metabolism. In this regard, we have recently reported that glucose also activates a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor and facilitates its own metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether glucose activates the glucose-sensing receptor and elicits receptor-mediated rapid actions. In MIN6 cells and isolated mouse β-cells, glucose induced triphasic changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c); glucose evoked an immediate elevation of [Ca2+]c, which was followed by a decrease in [Ca2+]c, and after a certain lag period it induced large oscillatory elevations of [Ca2+]c. Initial rapid peak and subsequent reduction of [Ca2+]c were independent of glucose metabolism and reproduced by a nonmetabolizable glucose analogue. These signals were also blocked by an inhibitor of T1R3, a subunit of the glucose-sensing receptor, and by deletion of the T1R3 gene. Besides Ca2+, glucose also induced an immediate and sustained elevation of intracellular cAMP ([cAMP]c). The elevation of [cAMP]c was blocked by transduction of the dominant-negative Gs, and deletion of the T1R3 gene. These results indicate that glucose induces rapid changes in [Ca2+]c and [cAMP]c by activating the cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor. Hence, glucose generates rapid intracellular signals by activating the cell-surface receptor. PMID:26630567

  1. Transcriptional regulation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene by glucocorticoid and cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.J.; Harrington, C.A.; Chikaraishi, D.M.

    1987-06-01

    Glucocorticoid and cyclic AMP increase tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and mRNA levels in pheochromocytoma cultures. The transcriptional activity of the TH gene, as measured by nuclear run-on assay, is also increased when cultures are treated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone or agents that increase intracellular cyclic AMP, such as forskolin and 8-BrcAMP. Both inducers effect transcriptional changes within 10 min after treatment and are maximal after 30 min for forskolin and after 60 min for dexamethasone. The 5' flanking sequences of the TH gene were fused to the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and the hybrid gene was transfected into pheochromocytoma cultures and GH/sub 4/ pituitary cells. In both cell lines, a region of the TH gene containing bases -272 to +27 conferred induction of CAT by cyclic AMP, but not by glucocorticoid. The same results were found when a region of the TH gene containing -773 to + 27 was used. Thus, the sequences required for induction of TH by cyclic AMP are contained within 272 bases of 5' flanking sequence, but sequences sufficient for glucocorticoid regulation are not contained with 773 bases.

  2. Differential phosphorylation of multiple sites in protein 4. 1 and protein 4. 9 by phorbol ester-activated and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, W.C.; Leto, T.L.; Marchesi, V.T.

    1985-08-05

    The phosphorylation of the membrane skeleton components protein 4.1 and protein 4.9 in intact erythrocytes is shown to increase in the presence of either 1 microM 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate or 2 mM dibutyryl cAMP. The phosphorylation induced by these protein kinase activators is compared by two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping. In both proteins, the pattern of peptides phosphorylated in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate differs from the pattern of peptides phosphorylated in the presence of dibutyryl cAMP. The relative locations of the phosphorylated sites on protein 4.1 have been determined using limited proteolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin.

  3. Activation of DA1 receptors by dopamine or fenoldopam increases cyclic AMP levels in the renal artery but not in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat.

    PubMed

    Alkadhi, K A; Sabouni, M H; Ansari, A F; Lokhandwala, M F

    1986-08-01

    In the isolated superior cervical ganglion of the rat, activation of either DA1 or DA2 receptors leads to inhibition of ganglionic transmission. Using dopamine as well as relatively selective dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we have performed electrophysiological as well as biochemical experiments to study the nature of dopamine receptors in this sympathetic ganglion. Fenoldopam, a selective DA1 receptor agonist caused marked inhibition of the compound postganglionic action potential evoked by stimulation of preganglionic nerve. The inhibitory effect of fenoldopam was antagonized by the DA1 receptor antagonist R-sulpiride but not by the DA2 receptor antagonist S-sulpiride. However, the more potent and selective DA1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 failed to antagonize ganglion blocking effect of fenoldopam indicating that DA1 receptor in sympathetic ganglia is different from that in blood vessels. The superior cervical ganglion also contains DA2 receptors inasmuch as quinpirole, a DA2 receptor agonist, caused inhibition of ganglionic transmission which was antagonized by S-sulpiride but not by R-sulpiride. The existence of both subtypes of dopamine receptor in the superior cervical ganglion was ascertained further as dopamine itself caused inhibition of ganglionic transmission which was antagonized by either S- or R-sulpiride. Again, however, the DA1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 failed to antagonize the ganglion blocking effect of dopamine. To characterize further the ganglionic DA1 receptor we sought to demonstrate whether or not ganglionic DA1 receptor is linked to the enzyme adenylate cyclase as is known to be the case for peripheral DA1 or central D1 dopamine receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2874213

  4. Spatial encoding of cyclic AMP signalling specificity by GPCR endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetanova, Nikoleta G.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to signal via cyclic AMP (cAMP) production at the plasma membrane, but it is now clear that various GPCRs also signal after internalization. Apart from its temporal impact through prolonging the cellular response, does the endosome-initiated signal encode any discrete spatial information? Using the beta2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) as a model, we show that endocytosis is required for the full repertoire of downstream cAMP-dependent transcriptional control. Next, we describe an orthogonal optogenetic approach to definitively establish that the location of cAMP production is indeed the critical variable determining the transcriptional response. Finally, our results suggest that this spatial encoding scheme helps cells functionally discriminate chemically distinct β2-AR ligands according to differences in their ability to promote receptor endocytosis. These findings reveal a discrete principle for achieving cellular signalling specificity, based on endosome-mediated spatial encoding of intracellular second messenger production and ‘location aware’ downstream transcriptional control. PMID:25362359

  5. Cyclic AMP regulation of protein lysine acetylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Jun; Lang, P Therese; Fortune, Sarah M; Sassetti, Christopher M; Alber, Tom

    2012-08-01

    Protein lysine acetylation networks can regulate central processes such as carbon metabolism and gene expression in bacteria. In Escherichia coli, cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates protein lysine acetyltransferase (PAT) activity at the transcriptional level, but in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, fusion of a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain to a Gcn5-like PAT domain enables direct cAMP control of protein acetylation. Here we describe the allosteric activation mechanism of M. tuberculosis PAT. The crystal structures of the autoinhibited and cAMP-activated PAT reveal that cAMP binds to a cryptic site in the regulatory domain that is over 32 Å from the catalytic site. An extensive conformational rearrangement relieves this autoinhibition by means of a substrate-mimicking lid that covers the protein-substrate binding surface. A steric double latch couples the domains by harnessing a classic, cAMP-mediated conformational switch. The structures suggest general features that enable the evolution of long-range communication between linked domains. PMID:22773105

  6. Cyclic AMP Regulates Social Behavior in African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Oberholzer, Michael; Saada, Edwin A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei engages in surface-induced social behavior, termed social motility, characterized by single cells assembling into multicellular groups that coordinate their movements in response to extracellular signals. Social motility requires sensing and responding to extracellular signals, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we report that T. brucei social motility depends on cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling systems in the parasite’s flagellum (synonymous with cilium). Pharmacological inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) completely blocks social motility without impacting the viability or motility of individual cells. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor to monitor cAMP dynamics in live cells, we demonstrate that this block in social motility correlates with an increase in intracellular cAMP levels. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of the flagellar PDEB1 phenocopies pharmacological PDE inhibition, demonstrating that PDEB1 is required for social motility. Using parasites expressing distinct fluorescent proteins to monitor individuals in a genetically heterogeneous community, we found that the social motility defect of PDEB1 knockdowns is complemented by wild-type parasites in trans. Therefore, PDEB1 knockdown cells are competent for social motility but appear to lack a necessary factor that can be provided by wild-type cells. The combined data demonstrate that the role of cyclic nucleotides in regulating microbial social behavior extends to African trypanosomes and provide an example of transcomplementation in parasitic protozoa. PMID:25922395

  7. Cyclic AMP agonist inhibition increases at low levels of histamine release from human basophils

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, R.S.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    The relationship between the intensity of the signal for antigen-induced immunoglobulin E-mediated histamine release from human basophils and the concentration of agonist needed to inhibit release has been determined. The agonists, prostaglandin E1, dimaprit, fenoterol, isobutylmethylxanthine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, all act by increasing the cyclic AMP level. Each agonist was 10- to 1000-fold more potent (relative ID50) at low levels of histamine release (5-10% of total histamine) than at high levels (50-80%). Thus, the inhibitory potential of a drug is a function of the concentration of antigen used to initiate the response. Our results are now more in accord with the inhibitory profile of these drugs in human lung tissue. It is suggested that in vivo release is likely to be low and that this is the level at which to evaluate drugs in vitro.

  8. Cyclic AMP is both a pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic second messenger

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Paul A.; Zhang, Lingzhi; Murray, Fiona; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Zambon, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) can either stimulate or inhibit programmed cell death (apoptosis). Here, we review examples of cell types that show pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic responses to increases in cAMP. We also show that cells can have both such responses, although predominantly having one or the other. Protein kinase A (PKA)-promoted changes in phosphoylation and gene expression can mediate pro-apoptotic responses, such as in murine S49 lymphoma cells, based on evidence that mutants lacking PKA fail to undergo cAMP-promoted, mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Mechanisms for the anti-apoptotic response to cAMP likely involve Epac (Exchange protein activated by cAMP), a cAMP-regulated effector that is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the low molecular weight G-protein, Rap1. Therapeutic approaches that activate PKA-mediated pro-apoptosis or that block Epac-mediated anti-apoptotisis may provide a means to enhance cell killing, such as in certain cancers. By contrast, efforts to block PKA or stimulate Epac have the potential to be useful in diseases settings (such as heart failure) associated with cAMP-promoted apoptosis. PMID:21385327

  9. Modulation of agonist-induced phosphoinositide metabolism, Ca2+ signalling and contraction of airway smooth muscle by cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Hoiting, B. H.; Meurs, H.; Schuiling, M.; Kuipers, R.; Elzinga, C. R.; Zaagsma, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of increased cellular cyclic AMP levels induced by isoprenaline, forskolin and 8-bromoadenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP) on phosphoinositide metabolism and changes in intracellular Ca2+ elicited by methacholine and histamine were examined in bovine isolated tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM) cells. 2. Isoprenaline (pD2 (-log10 EC50) = 6.32 +/- 0.24) and forskolin (pD2 = 5.6 +/- 0.05) enhanced cyclic AMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion in these cells, while methacholine (pD2 = 5.64 +/- 0.12) and histamine (pD2 = 4.90 +/- 0.04) caused a concentration-related increase in [3H]-inositol phosphates (IP) accumulation in the presence of 10 mM LiCl. 3. Preincubation of the cells (5 min, 37 degrees C) with isoprenaline (1 microM), forskolin (10 microM) and 8-Br-cyclic AMP (1 mM) did not affect the IP accumulation induced by methacholine, but significantly reduced the maximal IP production by histamine (1 mM). However, the effect of isoprenaline was small (15.0 +/- 0.6% inhibition) and insignificant at histamine concentrations between 0.1 and 100 microM. 4. Both methacholine and histamine induced a fast (max. in 0.5-2 s) and transient increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) followed by a sustained phase lasting several minutes. EGTA (5 mM) attenuated the sustained phase, indicating that this phase depends on extracellular Ca2+. 5. Preincubation of the cells (5 min, 37 degrees C) with isoprenaline (1 microM), forskolin (10 microM) and 8-Br-cyclic AMP (1 microM) significantly attenuated both the Ca(2+)-transient and the sustained phase generated at equipotent IP producing concentrations of 1 microM methacholine and 100 microM histamine (approx. 40% of maximal methacholine-induced IP response), but did not affect changes in [Ca2+]i induced by 100 microM methacholine (95.2 +/- 3.5% of maximal methacholine-induced IP response). 6. Significant correlations were found between the isoprenaline-induced inhibition of BTSM contraction and inhibition of Ca2+ mobilization or influx induced by methacholine and histamine, that were similar for each contractile agonist. 7. These data indicate that (a) cyclic AMP-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ mobilization in BTSM cells is not primarily caused by attenuation of IP production, suggesting that cyclic AMP induced protein kinase A (PKA) activation is effective at a different level in the [Ca2+]i homeostasis, (b) that attenuation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration plays a major role in beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of methacholine- and histamine-induced airway smooth muscle contraction, and (c) that the relative resistance of the muscarinic agonist-induced contraction to beta-adrenoceptor agonists, especially at (supra) maximal contractile concentrations is largely determined by its higher potency in inducing intracellular Ca2+ changes. PMID:8821529

  10. Prostaglandin A1 metabolism and inhibition of cyclic AMP extrusion by avian erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Heasley, L.E.; Brunton, L.L.

    1985-09-25

    Prostaglandins (PG) inhibit active cyclic AMP export from pigeon red cells, PGA1 and PGA2 most potently. To probe the mechanism of this action of PGA1, the authors have studied the interaction of (TH)PGA1 with suspensions of pigeon red cells. The interaction of PGA1 with pigeon red cells is a multistep process of uptake, metabolism, and secretion. (TH) PGA1 rapidly enters red cells and is promptly metabolized to a compound(s) that remains in the aqueous layer after ethylacetate extraction. The glutathione-depleting agent, diamide, inhibits formation of the PGA1 metabolite. The red cells secrete the polar metabolite of PGA1 by a saturable mechanism that lowered temperatures inhibit. Because uptake and metabolism progress with much greater rates than metabolite secretion, red cells transiently concentrate the polar compound intracellularly. Onset and reversal of inhibition of cyclic AMP export by PGA1 coincide with accumulation and secretion of PGA1 metabolite, suggesting that the polar metabolite acts at an intracellular site to inhibit cyclic AMP efflux.

  11. Essential roles of dopamine D4 receptors and the type 1 adenylyl cyclase in photic control of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Chad R; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Zhou, Hong; Haque, Rashidul; Storm, Daniel R; Iuvone, P Michael

    2009-04-01

    Light and dopamine regulate many physiological functions in the vertebrate retina. Light exposure decreases cyclic AMP formation in photoreceptor cells. Dopamine D(4) receptor (D(4)R) activation promotes light adaptation and suppresses the light-sensitive pool of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells. The key signaling pathways involved in regulating cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells have not been identified. In the present study, we show that the light- and D(4)R-signaling pathways converge on the type 1 Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC1) to regulate cyclic AMP synthesis in photoreceptor cells. In addition, we present evidence that D(4)R activation tonically regulates the expression of AC1 in photoreceptors. In retinas of mice with targeted deletion of the gene (Adcy1) encoding AC1, cyclic AMP levels and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity are markedly reduced, and cyclic AMP accumulation is unaffected by either light or D(4)R activation. Similarly, in mice with disruption of the gene (Drd4) encoding D(4)R, cyclic AMP levels in the dark-adapted retina are significantly lower compared to wild-type retina and are unresponsive to light. These changes in Drd4-/- mice were accompanied by significantly lower Adcy1 mRNA levels in photoreceptor cells and lower Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in retinal membranes compared with wild-type controls. Reduced levels of Adcy1 mRNA were also observed in retinas of wild-type mice treated chronically with a D(4)R antagonist, L-745870. Thus, activation of D(4)R is required for normal expression of AC1 and for the regulation of its catalytic activity by light. These observations illustrate a novel mechanism for cross-talk between dopamine and photic signaling pathways regulating cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells. PMID:19166506

  12. Identification of basal and cyclic AMP regulatory elements in the promoter of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, P.G.; Wong, T.W.; Magnuson, M.A.; Shabb, J.B.; Granner, D.K.

    1988-08-01

    Promoter elements important for basal and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-regulated expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene have been identified by analysis of a series of PEPCK promoter mutations in transfection experiments. Fusion genes containing wild-type and mutated PEPCK promoter sequences from -600 to +69 base pairs (bp) fused to the coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase were studied. Internal deletion mutations that replaced specific bases with a 10-bp linker within the region from - 129 bp to - 18 bp of the PEPCK promoter were examined. In addition, wild-type and mutated DNA templates were used as probes in DNase I protection experiments to determine sites of protein-DNA interaction. The PEPCK promoter contains a binding site for nuclear factor 1-CAAT. Deletion of the 5' end of this binding site reduced the size of the DNase I footprint in this region but had no effect on promoter activity. In contrast, deletion or disruption of the 3' end of this binding site completely eliminated protein binding and reduced promoter activity by 50%. Deletion of core sequences of the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) resulted in loss of cAMP responsiveness and an 85% decrease in basal promoter activity, indicating that the CRE also functions as a basal stimulatory element.

  13. Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Yersinia pestis Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Crp and Impact on Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lathem, Wyndham W.; Schroeder, Jay A.; Bellows, Lauren E.; Ritzert, Jeremy T.; Koo, Jovanka T.; Price, Paul A.; Caulfield, Adam J.; Goldman, William E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) is a transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of numerous bacterial genes, usually in response to environmental conditions and particularly by sensing the availability of carbon. In the plague pathogen Yersinia pestis, Crp regulates the expression of multiple virulence factors, including components of the type III secretion system and the plasminogen activator protease Pla. The regulation of Crp itself, however, is distinctly different from that found in the well-studied Escherichia coli system. Here, we show that at physiological temperatures, the synthesis of Crp in Y. pestis is positively regulated at the posttranscriptional level. The loss of the small RNA chaperone Hfq results in decreased Crp protein levels but not in steady-state Crp transcript levels, and this regulatory effect occurs within the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the Crp mRNA. The posttranscriptional activation of Crp synthesis is required for the expression of pla, and decoupling crp from Hfq through the use of an exogenously controlled promoter and 5′ UTR increases Pla protein levels as well as partially rescues the growth defect associated with the loss of Hfq. Finally, we show that both Hfq and the posttranscriptional regulation of Crp contribute to the virulence of Y. pestis during pneumonic plague. The Hfq-dependent, posttranscriptional regulation of Crp may be specific to Yersinia species, and thus our data help explain the dramatic growth and virulence defects associated with the loss of Hfq in Y. pestis. PMID:24520064

  14. Isolation and characterization of the rolipram-sensitive cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (type IV PDE) in human term myometrium.

    PubMed

    Leroy, M J; Lugnier, C; Merezak, J; Tanguy, G; Olivier, S; Le Bec, A; Ferré, F

    1994-05-01

    On the basis of the potencies of classical selective modulators of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) activities, five cyclic nucleotide PDE isoforms have been isolated and characterized in the cytosolic fraction of human term myometrium. By means of successive ion-exchange chromatographies, a calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform, a cyclic GMP-stimulated isoform, a cyclic GMP-inhibited isoform, a rolipram-sensitive cyclic AMP-specific isoform and a cyclic GMP-specific isoform, corresponding to PDE I, PDE II, PDE III, PDE IV and PDE V, respectively, have been identified. We found that near term, human myometrium contains a higher proportion of the rolipram-sensitive type IV PDE isoform (about 50% of total cyclic AMP hydrolytic activity) than the type III cyclic GMP-inhibited PDE isoform (only 10%). Type IV PDE displays simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a high affinity for cyclic AMP (Km approximately 4.4 microM) and is selectively and competitively inhibited by rolipram (K(i) approximately 0.9 microM) and Ro 20-1724 (K(i) approximately 2.6 microM). The predominance of type IV PDE at the end of pregnancy suggests that this isoform contributes, via a modulation of the intracellular cyclic AMP level, to local control of uterine motility and thus could help the myometrium prepare for pronounced contractile activity at the time of parturition. PMID:7946965

  15. Electrical Stimulation Decreases Coupling Efficiency Between Beta-Adrenergic Receptors and Cyclic AMP Production in Cultured Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle cells in culture is an effective way to simulate the effects of muscle contraction and its effects on gene expression in muscle cells. Expression of the beta-adrenergic receptor and its coupling to cyclic AMP synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, and the goal of this project was to determine if electrical stimulation altered the beta-adrenergic response in muscle cells. Chicken skeletal muscle cells that had been grown for seven days in culture were subjected to electrical stimulation for an additional two days at a pulse frequency of 0.5 pulses/sec and a pulse duration of 200 msec. At the end of this two-day stimulation period, beta-adrenergic receptor population was measured by the binding of tritium-labeled CGP-12177 to muscle cells, and coupling to cAMP synthesis was measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) after treating the cells for 10 min with the potent (beta)AR agonist, isoproterenol. The number of beta adrenergic receptors and the basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP were not affected by electrical stimulation. However, the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was reduced by approximately 50%. Thus, an enhanced level of contraction reduces the coupling efficiency of beta-adrenergic receptors for cyclic AMP production.

  16. The effects of histamine and prostaglandin D2 on rat mast-cell cyclic AMP and mediator release

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, S.; Kaliner, M.

    1981-11-01

    The possibility that histamine may play a functional role in modulating mast-cell secretion, as has been suggested for basophil degranulation, has both physiologic and pharmacologic implications. Therefore the capacity of histamine to influence rat peritoneal mast-cell (RPMC) cyclic AMP levels and reversed anaphylatic degranulation as reflected in the release of 3H-serotonin (5-HT) was examined. To ascertain that RPMC were functionally responsive to exogenous hormonal stimulation, assessment of prostaglandin (PG) D2 effects on cyclic AMP and 5-HT release were determined in parallel. Although PGD2 (100 microM) increased cyclic AMP and inhibited 5-HT release in the presence of 50 microM aminophylline, histamine (up to 1000 microM) was ineffective was ineffective in both. However, 1000 microM histamine in the presence of 500 microM aminophylline was capable of transiently increasing RPMC cyclic AMP (for 15 to 30 sec) and under these conditions of suppressing 5-HT release. The receptor subtype involved in the suppressive actions of histamine appeared to be of the H-1 type as reflected in the capacity of specific H-1 agonists to reproduce the inhibition of 5-HT release, whereas neither H-2 agonists nor H-2 antagonists had any influence. Thus, under conditions in which phosphodiesterase enzymatic action is impaired, histamine in extremely high concentrations is able to modulate mast-cell secretion. However, it seems very unlikely that this action of histamine has any physiologic significance.

  17. Mechanical control of cyclic AMP signalling and gene transcription through integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. J.; Alenghat, F. J.; Rim, P.; Fong, J. H.; Fabry, B.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This study was carried out to discriminate between two alternative hypotheses as to how cells sense mechanical forces and transduce them into changes in gene transcription. Do cells sense mechanical signals through generalized membrane distortion or through specific transmembrane receptors, such as integrins? Here we show that mechanical stresses applied to the cell surface alter the cyclic AMP signalling cascade and downstream gene transcription by modulating local release of signals generated by activated integrin receptors in a G-protein-dependent manner, whereas distortion of integrins in the absence of receptor occupancy has no effect.

  18. Study of enzymes regulating vasopressin-stimulated cyclic AMP metabolism in separated mitochondria-rich and granular epithelial cells of toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Handler, J S; Preston, A S

    1976-02-17

    The epithelial cells of the toad urinary bladder are morphologically heterogenous. In order to relate the effect of vasopressin on cyclic AMP metabolism to cell type, the epithelial cells were separated by the density gradient technique of Scott, Sapirstein and Yoder (Science 184:797, 1974). The separation was verified by electron-microscopy and by observing that the band of cells enriched in mitochondria-rich cells was enriched in carbonic anhydrase activity compared to the band of granular cells. A large portion of cells collected from the gradient was considered to be nonviable, precluding further study of their function as intact cells. Vasopressin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in homogenates of granular cells was simular to that in homogenates of mitochondria-rich cells. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity was also similar in the two types of cell. Thus, the enzymes known to be involved in cyclic AMP metabolism in response to vasopressin appear to be located in both major cell types. PMID:176364

  19. Sustained signalling by PTH modulates IP3 accumulation and IP3 receptors through cyclic AMP junctions

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Abha; Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates adenylyl cyclase through type 1 PTH receptors (PTH1R) and potentiates the Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol, which stimulates formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). We confirmed that in HEK cells expressing PTH1R, acute stimulation with PTH(1-34) potentiated carbachol-evoked Ca2+ release. This was mediated by locally delivered cyclic AMP (cAMP), but unaffected by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), exchange proteins activated by cAMP, cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) or substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) causes internalization of PTH1R–adenylyl cyclase signalling complexes, but the consequences for delivery of cAMP to IP3R within cAMP signalling junctions are unknown. Here, we show that sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) or with PTH analogues that do not evoke receptor internalization reduced the potentiated Ca2+ signals and attenuated carbachol-evoked increases in cytosolic IP3. Similar results were obtained after sustained stimulation with NKH477 to directly activate adenylyl cyclase, or with the membrane-permeant analogue of cAMP, 8-Br-cAMP. These responses were independent of PKA and unaffected by substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. During prolonged stimulation with PTH(1-34), hyperactive cAMP signalling junctions, within which cAMP is delivered directly and at saturating concentrations to its targets, mediate sensitization of IP3R and a more slowly developing inhibition of IP3 accumulation. PMID:25431134

  20. Effects of cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP- phosphodiesterase inhibitors on immunological release of histamine and on lung contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Frossard, N.; Landry, Y.; Pauli, G.; Ruckstuhl, M.

    1981-01-01

    1 Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)- and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP)-phosphodiesterase activities from rat lung were selectively inhibited by ZK 62711 and M & B 22948, respectively. Theophylline and papaverine inhibited both activities. 2 Rat lung strips contracted by carbachol were relaxed by 4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-pyrrolidone (ZK 26711, EC25 = 7 x 10(-8)M) and 2-O-propoxyphenyl-8-azapurin-6-one (M & B 22948, EC25 = 5 x 10(-7)M) indicating relaxant properties of both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. 3 The antigen-induced histamine release from human basophils was inhibited by ZK 62711 (IC25 = 8 x 10(-7)M), whereas M & B 22948 had no effect. On the contrary, the release from rat mast cells was inhibited by M & B 22948 (IC25 = 10(-6)M), while ZK 62711 had no effect. 4 These data show an inhibitory effect of cyclic AMP on histamine release to be involved with basophils, whereas cyclic GMP is predominantly involved with mast cells. Is is suggested that the antianaphylactic properties of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors are mainly linked to the increase of cyclic GMP. PMID:6168323

  1. Regulation by secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and somatostatin of cyclic AMP accumulation in cultured brain cells.

    PubMed Central

    van Calker, D; Müller, M; Hamprecht, B

    1980-01-01

    Secretin stimulates the accumulation of cyclic AMP (half maximally stimulating concentration: 10-20 nM) in cultured mouse brain cells mainly consisting of glioblasts. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is much less potent in raising the level of cyclic AMP in these cultures. The effect of secretin but not that of VIP is inhibited by secretin-(5-27), a synthetic antagonist of secretin. Stimulation of the adrenergic alpha-receptors and the adenosine A1-receptors present on the cells attenuates the increase in cyclic AMP evoked by secretin and VIP. Somatostatin at low concentrations inhibits the accumulation of cyclic AMP (half-maximally inhibitory concentration: 3 nM), in the absence or presence of secretin, VIP, or isoproterenol. The results suggest that secretin might regulate the concentration of cyclic AMP in brain and provoke the question of a possible involvement of glial cells in the action of peptide hormones in the brain. PMID:6109286

  2. Identification of a novel cyclic AMP-response element (CRE-II) and the role of CREB-1 in the cAMP-induced expression of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Sarmila; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Ghoshal, Kalpana; Monani, Umrao; Burghes, Arthur H M; Jacob, Samson T

    2004-04-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy, an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by loss of the SMN1 (survival motor neuron) gene while retaining the SMN2 gene. SMN1 produces a majority of full-length SMN transcript, whereas SMN2 generates mostly an isoform lacking exon 7. Here, we demonstrate a novel cAMP-response element, CRE-II, in the SMN promoter that interacts with the cAMP-response element-binding (CREB) family of proteins. In vitro DNase I protection analysis and in vivo genomic footprinting of the SMN promoter using the brain and liver nuclei from SMN2 transgenic mice revealed footprinting at the CRE-II site. Site-directed mutation of the CRE-II element caused a marked reduction in the SMN promoter activity revealed by transient transfection assay. Activation of the cAMP pathway by dibutyryl cAMP (0.5 mm) alone or in combination with forskolin (20 microm) caused a 2-5-fold increase in the SMN promoter activity but had no effect on the CRE-II mutated promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and a UV-induced DNA-protein cross-linking experiment confirmed that CREB1 binds specifically to the CRE-II site. Transient overexpression of CREB1 protein resulted in a 4-fold increase of the SMN promoter activity. Intraperitoneal injection of epinephrine in mice expressing two copies of the human SMN2 gene resulted in a 2-fold increase in full-length SMN transcript in the liver. Combined treatment with dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin significantly increased the level of both the full-length and exon 7-deleted SMN (exonDelta7SMN) transcript in primary hepatocytes from mice expressing two copies of human SMN2 gene. Similar treatments of type I spinal muscular atrophy mouse and human fibroblasts as well as HeLa cells resulted in an augmented level of SMN transcript. These findings suggest that the CRE-II site in SMN promoter positively regulates the expression of the SMN gene, and treatment with cAMP-elevating agents increases expression of both the full-length and exonDelta7SMN transcript. PMID:14742439

  3. Identification of basal and cyclic AMP regulatory elements in the promoter of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene.

    PubMed

    Quinn, P G; Wong, T W; Magnuson, M A; Shabb, J B; Granner, D K

    1988-08-01

    Promoter elements important for basal and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-regulated expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene have been identified by analysis of a series of PEPCK promoter mutations in transfection experiments. Fusion genes containing wild-type and mutated PEPCK promoter sequences from -600 to +69 base pairs (bp) fused to the coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase were studied. Internal deletion mutations that replaced specific bases with a 10-bp linker within the region from -129 bp to -18 bp of the PEPCK promoter were examined. In addition, wild-type and mutated DNA templates were used as probes in DNase I protection experiments to determine sites of protein-DNA interaction. The PEPCK promoter contains a binding site for nuclear factor 1-CAAT. Deletion of the 5' end of this binding site reduced the size of the DNase I footprint in this region but had no effect on promoter activity. In contrast, deletion or disruption of the 3' end of this binding site completely eliminated protein binding and reduced promoter activity by 50%. Deletion of core sequences of the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) resulted in loss of cAMP responsiveness and an 85% decrease in basal promoter activity, indicating that the CRE also functions as a basal stimulatory element. Mutation of the core sequence of the CRE resulted in loss of the DNase I footprint over the CRE. Internal deletions flanking the CRE showed no loss of induction by cAMP but did have reduced promoter activity. This delimits the CRE to an 18-bp region between nucleotides -100 and -82. Analysis of mutations that disrupted bases between the CRE and the initiation site identified a basal inhibitory element adjacent to a basal stimulatory element, both located just 3' of the CRE, as well as a basal stimulatory element coincident with the TATA consensus sequence centered at -27. These data demonstrate that several cis-acting elements are located within 130 nucleotides of the initiation site of the PEPCK gene and that the CRE is essential for both basal promoter activity and cAMP-regulated expression of this gene. PMID:2850495

  4. Cyclic AMP Controls mTOR through Regulation of the Dynamic Interaction between Rheb and Phosphodiesterase 4D ?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Ha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Mi Nam; Huston, Elaine; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jang, Sung Key; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Houslay, Miles D.; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a molecular hub that regulates protein synthesis in response to a number of extracellular stimuli. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is considered to be an important second messenger that controls mTOR; however, the signaling components of this pathway have not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify cAMP phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as a binding partner of Rheb that acts as a cAMP-specific negative regulator of mTORC1. Under basal conditions, PDE4D binds Rheb in a noncatalytic manner that does not require its cAMP-hydrolyzing activity and thereby inhibits the ability of Rheb to activate mTORC1. However, elevated cAMP levels disrupt the interaction of PDE4D with Rheb and increase the interaction between Rheb and mTOR. This enhanced Rheb-mTOR interaction induces the activation of mTORC1 and cap-dependent translation, a cellular function of mTORC1. Taken together, our results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for mTORC1 in which the cAMP-determined dynamic interaction between Rheb and PDE4D provides a key, unique regulatory event. We also propose a new role for PDE4 as a molecular transducer for cAMP signaling. PMID:20837708

  5. EppA, a Putative Substrate of DdERK2, Regulates Cyclic AMP Relay and Chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songyang; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2006-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase DdERK2 is critical for cyclic AMP (cAMP) relay and chemotaxis to cAMP and folate, but the details downstream of DdERK2 are unclear. To search for targets of DdERK2 in Dictyostelium discoideum,32PO43−-labeled protein samples from wild-type and Dderk2− cells were resolved by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry was used to identify a novel 45-kDa protein, named EppA (ERK2-dependent phosphoprotein A), as a substrate of DdERK2 in Dictyostelium. Mutation of potential DdERK2 phosphorylation sites demonstrated that phosphorylation on serine 250 of EppA is DdERK2 dependent. Changing serine 250 to alanine delayed development of Dictyostelium and reduced Dictyostelium chemotaxis to cAMP. Although overexpression of EppA had no significant effect on the development or chemotaxis of Dictyostelium, disruption of the eppA gene led to delayed development and reduced chemotactic responses to both cAMP and folate. Both eppA gene disruption and overexpression of EppA carrying the serine 250-to-alanine mutation led to inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation in response to chemoattractant cAMP, a pivotal process in Dictyostelium chemotaxis and development. Our studies indicate that EppA regulates extracellular cAMP-induced signal relay and chemotaxis of Dictyostelium. PMID:16835457

  6. Cyclic AMP signalling pathways in the regulation of uterine relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wei; López Bernal, Andrés

    2007-01-01

    Studying the mechanism(s) of uterine relaxation is important and will be helpful in the prevention of obstetric difficulties such as preterm labour, which remains a major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Multiple signalling pathways regulate the balance between maintaining relative uterine quiescence during gestation, and the transition to the contractile state at the onset of parturition. Elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP promotes myometrial relaxation, and thus quiescence, via effects on multiple intracellular targets including calcium channels, potassium channels and myosin light chain kinase. A complete understanding of cAMP regulatory pathways (synthesis and hydrolysis) would assist in the development of better tocolytics to delay or inhibit preterm labour. Here we review the enzymes involved in cAMP homoeostasis (adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases) and possible myometrial substrates for the cAMP dependent protein kinase. We must emphasise the need to identify novel pharmacological targets in human pregnant myometrium to achieve safe and selective uterine relaxation when this is indicated in preterm labour or other obstetric complications. PMID:17570154

  7. Differentiation-induced alterations in cyclic AMP signaling in the Cath.a differentiated (CAD) neuronal cell line.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christopher A; Beazely, Michael A; Bilodeau, Matthew L; Andrisani, Ourania; Watts, Val J

    2004-03-01

    Regulation of intracellular cyclic AMP is critical to the modulation of many cellular activities, including cellular differentiation. Moreover, morphological differentiation has been linked to subsequent alterations in the cAMP signaling pathway in various cellular models. The current study was designed to explore the mechanism for the previously reported enhancement of adenylate cyclase activity in Cath.a differentiated cells following differentiation. Differentiation of Cath.a differentiated cells stably expressing the D2L dopamine receptor markedly potentiated both forskolin- and A2-adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP accumulation. This enhancement was accompanied by a twofold increase in adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6) expression and a dramatic loss in the expression of AC9. The ability of Ca2+ to inhibit drug-stimulated cAMP accumulation was enhanced following differentiation, as was D2L dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of Galphas-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Differentiation altered basal and drug-stimulated phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein, which was independent of changes in protein kinase A expression. The current data suggest that differentiation of the neuronal cell model, Cath.a differentiated cells induces significant alterations in the expression and function of both the proximal and distal portions of the cAMP signaling pathway and may impact cellular operations dependent upon this pathway. PMID:15009651

  8. Investigation of guanine-nucleotide-binding protein involvement and regulation of cyclic AMP metabolism in interleukin 1 signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, K; Thompson, N; Kennard, N; Rollins, P; Grenfell, S; Witham, S; Smithers, N; Solari, R

    1992-01-01

    The involvement of guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) and regulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in interleukin 1 (IL1) signal transduction has been investigated in EL4 and 7OZ/3 cells expressing Type 1 and Type 2 IL1 receptors respectively. Results show that in both cell types IL1 alone failed to induce changes in cellular cAMP levels, and in membrane preparations the cytokine had no significant effect on adenylate cyclase activity. In contrast, forskolin stimulated cAMP levels in cells and membranes. IL1 did not significantly alter GTPase activity or rate of guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate binding measured in membrane preparations from the EL4 and 7OZ/3 cells. In EL4-cell membrane preparations the kinetics of 125I-IL1 binding were altered in the presence of guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, resulting in the formation of a higher-affinity state for IL1 binding. Adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate at the same concentration was without effect. These results suggest that IL1 receptor function may be regulated by guanine nucleotides; however, the mechanism appears to differ from that exhibited by conventional G-protein-linked receptors. The lack of significant effects of IL1 on cAMP metabolism in these cells suggests that alternative pathways must exist to mediate the intracellular responses to stimulation via both types of the IL1 receptor. Images Fig. 8. PMID:1311561

  9. Cyclic AMP receptor protein from yeast mitochondria: submitochondrial localization and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Rödel, G; Müller, G; Bandlow, W

    1985-01-01

    We have identified and characterized a cyclic AMP receptor protein in mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The binding is specific for cyclic nucleotides, particularly for cyclic AMP which is bound with high affinity (Kd of 10(-9) M) at 1 to 5 pmol/mg of mitochondrial protein. The mitochondrial cyclic AMP receptor is synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes and has an apparent molecular weight of 45,000 as determined by photoaffinity labeling. It is localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane and faces the intermembrane space. Cross-contamination of mitochondrial inner membranes by plasma membranes or soluble cytoplasmic proteins is excluded. PMID:2981811

  10. Induction of Stalk Cell Differentiation by Cyclic AMP in the Cellular Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum*

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, John Tyler

    1970-01-01

    Cyclic AMP, which is a cell attractant (acrasin) for Dictyostelium discoideum, will cause isolated, unaggregated cells to turn directly into stalk cells containing thick celluloselike walls and large vacuoles. From previous work we know that in the cell mass, acrasin is produced solely in the region of stalk formation during fruiting, that stalk formation involves a high level of catabolism, and that cyclic AMP stimulates catabolic enzymes in other systems. These facts obviously suggest that in the development of D. discoideum, cyclic AMP might be a key factor in stalk cell differentiation. Images PMID:4313192

  11. Effect of electrical stimulation on beta-adrenergic receptor population and cyclic amp production in chicken and rat skeletal muscle cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Strietzel, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Expression of the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) and its coupling to cyclic AMP (cAMP) synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, and the goal of this study was to determine if electrical stimulation in a pattern simulating slow muscle contraction would alter the betaAR response in primary cultures of avian and mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Specifically, chicken skeletal muscle cells and rat skeletal muscle cells that had been grown for 7 d in culture were subjected to electrical stimulation for an additional 2 d at a pulse frequency of 0.5 pulses/sec and a pulse duration of 200 msec. In chicken skeletal muscle cells, the betaAR population was not significantly affected by electrical stimulation; however, the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was reduced by approximately one-half. In contrast, the betaAR population in rat muscle cells was increased slightly but not significantly by electrical stimulation, and the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was increased by almost twofold. The basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP in neither rat muscle cells nor chicken muscle cells were affected by electrical stimulation.

  12. Potent constitutive cyclic AMP-generating activity of XLαs implicates this imprinted GNAS product in the pathogenesis of McCune-Albright syndrome and fibrous dysplasia of bone.

    PubMed

    Mariot, Virginie; Wu, Joy Y; Aydin, Cumhur; Mantovani, Giovanna; Mahon, Matthew J; Linglart, Agnès; Bastepe, Murat

    2011-02-01

    Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), characterized primarily by hyperpigmented skin lesions, precocious puberty, and fibrous dyslasia of bone, carry postzygotic heterozygous mutations of GNAS causing constitutive cAMP signaling. GNAS encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), as well as a large variant (XLαs) derived from the paternal allele. The mutations causing MAS affect both GNAS products, but whether XLαs, like Gsα, can be involved in the pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated biopsy samples from four previously reported and eight new patients with MAS. Activating mutations of GNAS (Arg201 with respect to the amino acid sequence of Gsα) were present in all the previously reported and five of the new cases. The mutation was detected within the paternally expressed XLαs transcript in five and the maternally expressed NESP55 transcript in four cases. Tissues carrying paternal mutations appeared to have higher XLαs mRNA levels than maternal mutations. The human XLαs mutant analogous to Gsα-R201H (XLαs-R543H) showed markedly higher basal cAMP accumulation than wild-type XLαs in transfected cells. Wild-type XLαs demonstrated higher basal and isoproterenol-induced cAMP signaling than Gsα and co-purified with Gβ1γ2 in transduced cells. XLαs mRNA was measurable in mouse calvarial cells, with its level being significantly higher in undifferentiated cells than those expressing preosteoblastic markers osterix and alkaline phosphatase. XLαs mRNA was also expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells and preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that constitutive XLαs activity adds to the molecular pathogenesis of MAS and fibrous dysplasia of bone. PMID:20887824

  13. Potent constitutive cyclic AMP-generating activity of XLαs implicates this imprinted GNAS product in the pathogenesis of McCune-Albright Syndrome and fibrous dysplasia of bone

    PubMed Central

    Mariot, Virginie; Wu, Joy Y.; Aydin, Cumhur; Mantovani, Giovanna; Mahon, Matthew J.; Linglart, Agnès; Bastepe, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), characterized primarily by hyperpigmented skin lesions, precocious puberty, and fibrous dyslasia of bone, carry postzygotic heterozygous mutations of GNAS causing constitutive cAMP signaling. GNAS encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), as well as a large variant (XLαs) derived from the paternal allele. The mutations causing MAS affect both GNAS products, but whether XLαs, like Gsα, can be involved in the pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated biopsy samples from four previously reported and eight new patients with MAS. Activating mutations of GNAS (Arg201 with respect to the amino acid sequence of Gsα) were present in all the previously reported and five of the new cases. The mutation was detected within the paternally expressed XLαs transcript in five and the maternally expressed NESP55 transcript in four cases. Tissues carrying paternal mutations appeared to have higher XLαs mRNA levels than maternal mutations. The human XLαs mutant analogous to Gsα-R201H (XLαs-R543H) showed markedly higher basal cAMP accumulation than wild-type XLαs in transfected cells. Wild-type XLαs demonstrated higher basal and isoproterenol-induced cAMP signaling than Gsα and co-purified with Gβ1γ2 in transduced cells. XLαs mRNA was measurable in mouse calvarial cells, with its level being significantly higher in undifferentiated cells than those expressing preosteoblastic markers osterix and alkaline phosphatase. XLαs mRNA was also expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells and preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that constitutive XLαs activity adds to the molecular pathogenesis of MAS and fibrous dysplasia of bone. PMID:20887824

  14. Modulation of 3',5'-cyclic AMP homeostasis in human platelets by coffee and individual coffee constituents.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Gina A; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eirich, Marion; Erk, Thomas; Baum, Matthias; Habermeyer, Michael; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2014-11-14

    3',5'-Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most important second messengers in mammalian cells, mediating a multitude of diverse cellular signalling responses. Its homeostasis is primarily regulated by adenylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases (PDE), the activities of which are partially dependent on the downstream events of adenosine receptor signalling. The present study was conducted to determine whether coffee constituents other than caffeine can influence the homeostasis of intracellular cAMP in vitro and in vivo by evaluating the effects of selected constituents present in coffee, coffee brews and coffee extracts on platelet PDE activity. In addition, to evaluate the potential effects of these constituents on platelet cAMP concentrations and PDE activity in humans, a 7-week pilot intervention study with eight subjects was conducted. The subjects consumed a regular commercial coffee and a low-caffeine coffee at a rate of 750ml/d for 2 weeks each. The in vivo results revealed a highly significant inhibition of PDE activity (P<0001) after coffee intervention that was not directly dependent on the caffeine content of coffee. Although our in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that caffeine plays some role in the modulation of platelet cAMP status, other natural and roasting-associated compounds such as pyrazines and other currently unidentified species also appear to contribute significantly. In conclusion, moderate consumption of coffee can modulate platelet PDE activity and cAMP concentrations in humans, which may contribute to the putative beneficial health effects of coffee. Further detailed mechanistic investigations will be required to substantiate these beneficial effects and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25247601

  15. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP does not influence glomerular collagen or basement membrane production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uw, V Y; Cohen, M P

    1980-02-01

    Glomeruli isolated from normal rat renal cortex were incubated for 3 hr with radiolabeled proline in the presence or absence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Following incubation, glomerular basement membranes were purified with osmotic lysis followed by selective solubilization of the cell membranes and intracellular proteins with detergents. This technique permitted quantitative recovery of radiolabeled membranes synthesized under different incubational conditions. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP did not affect the incorporation of radioactive precursor glomerular basement membrane (control = 14.72 +/- 1.08 cpm/microgram of membrane protein; cyclic AMP = 14.43 +/- 1.13). Nondialyzable [14C]protein and hydroxy[14C]proline were also measured in the media and in the various glomerular cell fractions obtained during isolation of the basement membranes. Protein ([14C]proline) and collagen (OH[14C]proline) secretion into the media in incubations with cyclic AMP did not differ from that in control incubations. OH[14C]proline content was greatest (congruent to 23% in the water-soluble fraction recovered after osmotic lysis, but significant amounts of OH[14C]proline were also associated with the detergent-solubilized cell fractions. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP had no effect on either glomerular protein or collagen synthesis in these experiments. The results suggest that total glomerular basement membrane production in mixed cell populations is not modulated via a cyclic AMP--coordinated mechanism but do not exclude the possibility that cyclic AMP modulates the amount or kind of collagen synthesis by individual glomerular cell types. PMID:6243687

  16. Effects of staurosporine, PMA and A23187 on human melanocyte cultures with dibutyryl cyclic AMP.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Maeda K; Tomita Y; Fukuda M; Tagami H

    1992-02-01

    Staurosporine, a protein kinase (PK) inhibitor, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator and A23187 calcium ionophore were added to human melanocyte cultures with or without dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP). After 2 days' incubation, changes in various melanogenic factors were examined such as tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) as well as the morphology of the melanocytes. dbcAMP stimulated all the melanogenic factors. Staurosporine increased tyrosinase activity and amount of TRP and caused morphological changes with the formation of numerous dendrites, regardless of the presence of dbcAMP. In contrast, PMA did not significantly affect tyrosinase activity, TRP content or dendrite formation, with or without dbcAMP. The effects of staurosporine on tyrosinase activity and TRP content were completely inhibited by PMA, but PMA did not significantly affect the staurosporine-induced morphological changes. A23187 inhibited both tyrosinase activity and TRP content, regardless of the presence of dbcAMP, but did not affect the morphology of melanocytes. These findings suggest that tyrosinase activity and TRP content are regulated by adenylate cyclase and Ca2+ and partly by PKC, while the morphological features of melanocytes are affected by intracellular cAMP accumulation and by the inhibition of PKC.

  17. Autoregulation of PhoP/PhoQ and Positive Regulation of the Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Cyclic AMP Complex by PhoP in Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiquan; Wang, Li; Han, Yanping; Yan, Yanfeng; Tan, Yafang; Zhou, Lei; Cui, Yujun; Du, Zongmin; Wang, Xiaoyi; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Huiying; Song, Yajun; Zhang, Pingping

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is one of the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. PhoP and cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) are global regulators of Y. pestis, and they control two distinct regulons that contain multiple virulence-related genes. The PhoP regulator and its cognate sensor PhoQ constitute a two-component regulatory system. The regulatory activity of CRP is triggered only by binding to its cofactor cAMP, which is synthesized from ATP by adenylyl cyclase (encoded by cyaA). However, the association between the two regulatory systems PhoP/PhoQ and CRP-cAMP is still not understood for Y. pestis. In the present work, the four consecutive genes YPO1635, phoP, phoQ, and YPO1632 were found to constitute an operon, YPO1635-phoPQ-YPO1632, transcribed as a single primary RNA, whereas the last three genes comprised another operon, phoPQ-YPO1632, transcribed with two adjacent transcriptional starts. Through direct PhoP-target promoter association, the transcription of these two operons was stimulated and repressed by PhoP, respectively; thus, both positive autoregulation and negative autoregulation of PhoP/PhoQ were detected. In addition, PhoP acted as a direct transcriptional activator of crp and cyaA. The translational/transcriptional start sites, promoter −10 and −35 elements, PhoP sites, and PhoP box-like sequences were determined for these PhoP-dependent genes, providing a map of the PhoP-target promoter interaction. The CRP and PhoP regulons have evolved to merge into a single regulatory cascade in Y. pestis because of the direct regulatory association between PhoP/PhoQ and CRP-cAMP. PMID:23264579

  18. Involvement of Microtubules in the Regulation of Bcl2 Phosphorylation and Apoptosis through Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Srivastava, Aparna R.; Korsmeyer, Stanley J.; Nesterova, Maria; Cho-Chung, Yoon S.; Longo, Dan L.

    1998-01-01

    The Bcl2 family of proteins plays a significant role in regulation of apoptosis. In this study, the microtubule-damaging drugs paclitaxel, vincristine, and vinblastine induced Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation and apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and reduced Bcl2-Bax dimerization. Paclitaxel or vincristine induced increased expression of Bax, while overexpression of Bcl2 in these cell lines counteracted the effects of low doses of these drugs. In addition, paclitaxel- and vincristine-induced activation of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]) induced Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation and apoptosis, which were blocked by the PKA inhibitor Rp diastereomers of cAMP (Rp-cAMP). This finding suggests that activation of PKA due to microtubule damage is an important event in Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation and induction of apoptosis. These microtubule-damaging drugs caused growth arrest in G2-M phase of the cell cycle and had no effect on p53 induction, suggesting that hyperphosphorylation mediated inactivation of Bcl2 and apoptosis without the involvement of p53. By comparison, the DNA-damaging drugs methotrexate and doxorubicin had no effect on Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation but induced p53 expression. Interestingly, paclitaxel or vincristine induced activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase downstream of Bcl2 hyperphosphorylation. These data suggest that there may be a signaling cascade induced by agents that disrupt or damage the cytoskeleton that is distinct from (i.e., p53 independent), but perhaps related to (i.e., involves kinase activation and leads to apoptosis), the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:9584191

  19. The Cyclic AMP-Vfr Signaling Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Inhibited by Cyclic Di-GMP

    PubMed Central

    Almblad, Henrik; Harrison, Joe J.; Rybtke, Morten; Groizeleau, Julie; Givskov, Michael; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa expresses numerous acute virulence factors in the initial phase of infection, and during long-term colonization it undergoes adaptations that optimize survival in the human host. Adaptive changes that often occur during chronic infection give rise to rugose small colony variants (RSCVs), which are hyper-biofilm-forming mutants that commonly possess mutations that increase production of the biofilm-promoting secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). We show that RSCVs display a decreased production of acute virulence factors as a direct result of elevated c-di-GMP content. Overproduction of c-di-GMP causes a decrease in the transcription of virulence factor genes that are regulated by the global virulence regulator Vfr. The low level of Vfr-dependent transcription is caused by a low level of its coactivator, cyclic AMP (cAMP), which is decreased in response to a high level of c-di-GMP. Mutations that cause reversion of the RSCV phenotype concomitantly reactivate Vfr-cAMP signaling. Attempts to uncover the mechanism underlying the observed c-di-GMP-mediated lowering of cAMP content provided evidence that it is not caused by inhibition of adenylate cyclase production or activity and that it is not caused by activation of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity. In addition to the studies of the RSCVs, we present evidence that the deeper layers of wild-type P. aeruginosa biofilms have high c-di-GMP levels and low cAMP levels. IMPORTANCE Our work suggests that cross talk between c-di-GMP and cAMP signaling pathways results in downregulation of acute virulence factors in P. aeruginosa biofilm infections. Knowledge about this cross-regulation adds to our understanding of virulence traits and immune evasion by P. aeruginosa in chronic infections and may provide new approaches to eradicate biofilm infections. PMID:25897033

  20. Identification of rat brain muscarinic M4 receptors coupled to cyclic AMP using the selective antagonist muscarinic toxin 3.

    PubMed

    Olianas, M C; Adem, A; Karlsson, E; Onali, P

    1998-09-18

    In membranes of olfactory tubercle and striatum, the selective muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist muscarinic toxin 3 completely antagonized the acetylcholine-induced inhibition of forskolin- and dopamine D1 receptor-stimulated cyclic AMP formation with Ki values of 7 and 4 nM, respectively. In olfactory bulb, where acetylcholine stimulated basal adenylyl cyclase activity and inhibited forskolin-stimulated enzyme activity, muscarinic toxin 3 caused a partial antagonism of both acetylcholine effects with high potencies (Ki values = 4-6 nM). In frontal cortex, muscarinic toxin 3 counteracted the acetylcholine-induced potentiation of corticotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated cyclic AMP with a Ki of 58 nM, which is close to the toxin affinity for the muscarinic M1 receptor. In the same brain region, the acetylcholine inhibition of forskolin-stimulated enzyme activity was not affected by muscarinic toxin 3. In microdissected regions of the hippocampus, a significant portion (33-48%) of the acetylcholine inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was blocked by muscarinic toxin 3 with Ki values (6-8 nM) consistent with the involvement of muscarinic M4 receptors. These data show that muscarinic toxin 3 discriminates between adenylyl cyclase-coupled muscarinic receptors and demonstrate the utility of the toxin in identifying the relative contribution by the muscarinic M4 receptor subtype. PMID:9797042

  1. Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Has a Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Haruka; Goto, Mayu; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP) treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating mechanisms in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with or without 100 mM ethanol. ECP was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. ECP was added to cultured cells that had been incubated with or without ethanol. The cells were incubated for 0–24 h. In cultured hepatocytes, the ECP treatment with ethanol inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression and activity, which is related to the production of ROS when large quantities of ethanol are oxidized. On the other hand, ECP treatment with ethanol increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These changes in activities of CYP2E1 and ADH were suppressed by treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. ECP treatment with ethanol enhanced cyclic AMP concentrations compared with those of control cells. ECP may be a candidate for preventing ethanol-induced liver injury via regulating alcohol metabolic enzymes in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner. PMID:26096275

  2. Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Has a Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Haruka; Goto, Mayu; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2015-06-01

    Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP) treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating mechanisms in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with or without 100 mM ethanol. ECP was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. ECP was added to cultured cells that had been incubated with or without ethanol. The cells were incubated for 0-24 h. In cultured hepatocytes, the ECP treatment with ethanol inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression and activity, which is related to the production of ROS when large quantities of ethanol are oxidized. On the other hand, ECP treatment with ethanol increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These changes in activities of CYP2E1 and ADH were suppressed by treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. ECP treatment with ethanol enhanced cyclic AMP concentrations compared with those of control cells. ECP may be a candidate for preventing ethanol-induced liver injury via regulating alcohol metabolic enzymes in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner. PMID:26096275

  3. Characterization of Sp-5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole- 3',5'-monophosphorothioate (Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS) as a potent and specific activator of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase in cell extracts and intact cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, M; Butt, E; Nolte, C; Fischer, L; Halbrügge, M; Beltman, J; Jahnsen, T; Genieser, H G; Jastorff, B; Walter, U

    1991-01-01

    A newly designed cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogue, Sp-5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D- ribofuranosylbenzimidazole-3',5'-monophosphorothioate (Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS), and 8-(p-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8-pCPT-cAMP) were compared with respect to their chemical and biological properties in order to assess their potential as activators of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases (cAMP-PK) in intact cells. Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS was shown to be both a potent and specific activator of purified cAMP-PK and of cAMP-PK in platelet membranes, whereas 8-pCPT-cAMP proved to be a potent activator of cAMP-PK and cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP-PK) both as purified enzymes and in platelet membranes. Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS was not significantly hydrolysed by three types of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, whereas 8-pCPT-cAMP (and 8-bromo-cAMP) was hydrolysed to a significant extent by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase and by the cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase. The apparent lipophilicity, a measure of potential cell-membrane permeability, of Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS was higher than that of 8-pCPT-cAMP. Extracellular application of Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS to intact human platelets reproduced the pattern of protein phosphorylation induced by prostaglandin E1, a cAMP-increasing inhibitor of platelet activation. In intact platelets, Sp-5,6- DCl-cBiMPS was also more effective than 8-pCPT-cAMP in inducing quantitative phosphorylation of the 46/50 kDa vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a major substrate of cAMP-PK in platelets. As observed with prostaglandin E1, pretreatment of human platelets with Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS prevented the aggregation induced by thrombin. The results suggest that Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS is a very potent and specific activator of cAMP-PK in cell extracts and intact cells and, in this respect, is superior to any other cAMP analogue used for intact-cell studies. In contrast with 8-pCPT-cAMP, Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS can be used to distinguish the signal-transduction pathways mediated by cAMP-PK and cGMP-PK. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1659381

  4. Role of coronary endothelium in cyclic AMP formation by the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, K.; Schrader, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to quantify the activation of adenylate cyclase of the coronary endothelium in vivo, endothelial adenine nucleotides of isolated guinea pig hearts were selectively pre-labeled by intracoronary infusion of tritiated (H3)-adenosine, and the coronary efflux of H3-cAMP was measured. The adenosine receptor agonist, NECA (12 ..mu..M), increased total cAMP release 4 fold, and raised H3-cAMP release 22 fold. Several classes of coronary vasodilators (adenosine, L-PIA, D-PIA, the beta 2-adrenergic agonist procaterol, and PGE1) caused dose-dependent increases in endothelial-derived H3-cAMP release. These increases were accompanied by decreases in vascular resistance, at agonist doses without positive intropic effects. Hypoxic perfusion also raised H3-cAMP release, and this was antagonized by theophylline. It is concluded: (1) cyclic AMP formation by coronary endothelium can dominate total cAMP production by the heart; (2) coronary endothelial adenylate cyclase-coupled receptors for adenosine (A2), catecholamines (beta2) and prostaglandins are activated in parallel with coronary vasodilation; (3) endothelial adenylate cyclase can be activated by endogenous adenosine.

  5. Isolated horizontal cells from carp retina demonstrate dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Van Buskirk, R; Dowling, J E

    1981-01-01

    Horizontal cells of the carp retina were separated from other retinal cell types by using enzymatic dissociation and velocity sedimentation at unit gravity. Fractions containing horizontal cells were tested for their ability to accumulate cyclic AMP in the presence of various putative neurotransmitters. Micromolar concentrations of dopamine, when added in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in these isolated cells. The dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP in intact isolated horizontal cells was blocked by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine antagonists such as haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol, and fluphenazine. The results indicate that there is a postsynaptic dopamine receptor on carp horizontal cells that is associated with adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1]. Images PMID:6278491

  6. Opposing actions of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and GMP on temperature in conscious guinea-pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williaes, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the intracerebroventricular administration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Db-cAMP) induced hyperthermia in guinea pigs which was not mediated through prostaglandins or norepinephrine since a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor and an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking agent did not antagonize the hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to Db-cAMP was attenuated by the central administration of a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, which indicates that cAMP may be involved, through beta-adrenergic receptors, in the central regulation of heat production and conservation. The central administration of Db-cGMP produced hypothermia which was not mediated via histamine H1 or H2 receptors and serotonin. The antagonism of hypothermia induced by Db-cGMP and acetylcholine + physostigmine by central administration of a cholinergic muscarine receptor antagonist and not by a cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist suggests that cholinoceptive neurons and endogenous cGMP may regulate heat loss through cholinergic muscarine receptors. It is concluded that these results indicate a regulatory role in thermoregulation provided by a balance between opposing actions of cAMP and cGMP in guinea pigs.

  7. Two phosphodiesterase genes, PDEL and PDEH, regulate development and pathogenicity by modulating intracellular cyclic AMP levels in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Liu, Kaiyue; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Wei; Wang, Jiansheng; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qian; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling plays an important role in regulating multiple cellular responses, such as growth, morphogenesis, and/or pathogenicity of eukaryotic organisms such as fungi. As a second messenger, cAMP is important in the activation of downstream effector molecules. The balance of intracellular cAMP levels depends on biosynthesis by adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and hydrolysis by cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEases). The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae contains a high-affinity (PdeH/Pde2) and a low-affinity (PdeL/Pde1) PDEases, and a previous study showed that PdeH has a major role in asexual differentiation and pathogenicity. Here, we show that PdeL is required for asexual development and conidial morphology, and it also plays a minor role in regulating cAMP signaling. This is in contrast to PdeH whose mutation resulted in major defects in conidial morphology, cell wall integrity, and surface hydrophobicity, as well as a significant reduction in pathogenicity. Consistent with both PdeH and PdeL functioning in cAMP signaling, disruption of PDEH only partially rescued the mutant phenotype of ?magB and ?pka1. Further studies suggest that PdeH might function through a feedback mechanism to regulate the expression of pathogenicity factor Mpg1 during surface hydrophobicity and pathogenic development. Moreover, microarray data revealed new insights into the underlying cAMP regulatory mechanisms that may help to identify potential pathogenicity factors for the development of new disease management strategies. PMID:21386978

  8. Serratia marcescens Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Controls Transcription of EepR, a Novel Regulator of Antimicrobial Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Nicholas A.; Lahr, Roni M.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Kalivoda, Eric J.; Hunt, Kristin M.; Kwak, Daniel H.; Liu, Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serratia marcescens generates secondary metabolites and secreted enzymes, and it causes hospital infections and community-acquired ocular infections. Previous studies identified cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) as an indirect inhibitor of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Here, we identified a putative two-component regulator that suppressed crp mutant phenotypes. Evidence supports that the putative response regulator eepR was directly transcriptionally inhibited by cAMP-CRP. EepR and the putative sensor kinase EepS were necessary for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including prodigiosin- and serratamolide-dependent phenotypes, swarming motility, and hemolysis. Recombinant EepR bound to the prodigiosin and serratamolide promoters in vitro. Together, these data introduce a novel regulator of secondary metabolites that directly connects the broadly conserved metabolism regulator CRP with biosynthetic genes that may contribute to competition with other microbes. IMPORTANCE This study identifies a new transcription factor that is directly controlled by a broadly conserved transcription factor, CRP. CRP is well studied in its role to help bacteria respond to the amount of nutrients in their environment. The new transcription factor EepR is essential for the bacterium Serratia marcescens to produce two biologically active compounds, prodigiosin and serratamolide. These two compounds are antimicrobial and may allow S. marcescens to compete for limited nutrients with other microorganisms. Results from this study tie together the CRP environmental nutrient sensor with a new regulator of antimicrobial compounds. Beyond microbial ecology, prodigiosin and serratamolide have therapeutic potential; therefore, understanding their regulation is important for both applied and basic science. PMID:25897029

  9. Role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of Ciona intestinalis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francesco; Gallo, Alessandra; Cuomo, Annunziata; Covino, Tiziana; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    Immature oocytes are arrested at prophase I of the meiotic process and maturation onset is indicated by oocyte nuclear disassembly (germinal vesicle breakdown or GVBD). Signaling pathways that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) may either prevent or induce oocyte maturation depending on the species. In some marine invertebrates and, in particular, in ascidian oocytes, cAMP triggers GVBD rather than blocking it. In this paper, we tested different cAMP elevators in fully grown oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage (GV) of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. We demonstrated that through the activation of adenylate cyclase or the inhibition and phosphodiesterases the oocyte remained at the GV stage. This effect was reversible as the GV-arrested oocytes, rinsed and incubated in sea water, are able to undergo spontaneous maturation and extrusion of follicle cells. In addition, oocytes acquire the ability to be fertilized and start early development. However, morphology of follicle cells, embryos and larvae from in vitro matured oocytes showed different morphology from those derived from in vivo mature oocytes. The role and the transduction mechanism of cAMP in the regulation of oocyte maturation were discussed. Finally, we indicated a variation of biological mechanisms present in the ascidian species; moreover, we sustain evidence proving that tunicates share some biological mechanisms with vertebrates. This information provided new hints on the importance of ascidians in the evolution of chordates. PMID:20810008

  10. Cyclic AMP Signaling through Epac Axis Modulates Human Hemogenic Endothelium and Enhances Hematopoietic Cell Generation.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shobhit; Rönn, Roger E; Guibentif, Carolina; Moraghebi, Roksana; Woods, Niels-Bjarne

    2016-05-10

    Hematopoietic cells emerge from hemogenic endothelium in the developing embryo. Mechanisms behind human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development remain unclear. Using a human pluripotent stem cell differentiation model, we report that cyclic AMP (cAMP) induction dramatically increases HSC-like cell frequencies. We show that hematopoietic cell generation requires cAMP signaling through the Exchange proteins activated by cAMP (cAMP-Epac) axis; Epac signaling inhibition decreased both hemogenic and non-hemogenic endothelium, and abrogated hematopoietic cell generation. Furthermore, in hematopoietic progenitor and stem-like cells, cAMP induction mitigated oxidative stress, created a redox-state balance, and enhanced C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression, benefiting the maintenance of these primitive cells. Collectively, our study provides insights and mechanistic details on the previously unrecognized role of cAMP signaling in regulating human hematopoietic development. These findings advance the mechanistic understanding of hematopoietic development toward the development of transplantable human hematopoietic cells for therapeutic needs. PMID:27117782

  11. Protein kinase C and cyclic AMP regulate reversible exposure of binding sites for fibrinogen on the glycoprotein IIB-IIIA complex of human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    van Willigen, G; Akkerman, J W

    1991-01-01

    Platelet aggregation is mediated via binding of fibrinogen to sites on the membrane glycoprotein IIB-IIIA complex which become exposed when the cells are stimulated. We report here evidence of a dynamic and reversible exposure of binding sites for fibrinogen. In the absence of fibrinogen, exposed sites (B*) gradually lose their capacity to bind fibrinogen and close (Bo). On stimulation with platelet-activating factor (PAF, 500 nM) at 22 degrees C, closing of B* is enhanced by agents that raise cyclic AMP levels (10 ng of prostaglandin I2/ml; 5 mM-theophylline), inhibit protein kinase C (PKC; 25 microM-sphingosine; 1 microM-staurosporine), or disrupt the energy supply (30 mM-2-deoxy-D-glucose + 1 mM-CN-), or by raising the temperature to 37 degrees C. Conversely, activation of PKC 1 microM-1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol; 55 nM-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and an increase in intracellular [Ca2+] (100 nM-ionomycin + extracellular Ca2+) oppose the disappearance of B*. Phosphorylation of the 47 kDa protein illustrates the tight coupling between PKC and B* under all conditions tested, except when the cyclic AMP level is raised, and B* is converted to Bo without affecting PKC activity. Although the increase in PKC activity is much smaller with ADP or even absent upon stimulation with adrenaline, the control of B* is equally sensitive to modulation of cyclic AMP and PKC activity. We conclude that PAF, ADP and adrenaline regulate exposure of fibrinogen binding sites through a common mechanism consisting of two independent pathways, one dominated by PKC and the other by an as yet unidentified cyclic AMP-sensitive step. PMID:1846526

  12. Dual regulation of cyclic AMP formation by thrombin in HEL cells, a leukaemic cell line with megakaryocytic properties.

    PubMed Central

    Brass, L F; Woolkalis, M J

    1992-01-01

    Thrombin is thought to stimulate responsive cells by cleaving cell-surface receptors coupled to intracellular second-messenger-generating enzymes via G-proteins. In order to understand this process better, we have examined the regulation of adenylate cyclase by thrombin in the megakaryoblastic HEL cell line and compared it with platelets. A notable difference was found. In HEL-cell membrane preparations, thrombin inhibited cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation by a pertussis-toxin-sensitive mechanism comparable with that observed in platelets. In contrast, when added to intact HEL cells, thrombin activated adenylate cyclase and caused an increase in cAMP formation synergistic with that produced by forskolin and prostaglandin I2. This increase, which was not seen with platelets, was accompanied by an increase in cAMP metabolism by phosphodiesterase. Like other responses to thrombin, the increase in cAMP formation required proteolytically active thrombin and was subject to homologous desensitization. An equivalent response could be evoked by the addition of a polypeptide, derived from the N-terminus of the thrombin receptor, that has been shown to activate the receptor. The effects of thrombin could not, however, be reproduced by the addition of phorbol ester and the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, nor be prevented with inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism. Preincubation of the cells with adrenaline, which inhibited Gs-mediated activation of adenylate cyclase, or pertussis toxin, which inhibited phospholipase C activation, had no effect on thrombin-induced cAMP formation. These results suggest that thrombin can regulate cAMP formation by two different mechanisms. First, thrombin can inhibit adenylate cyclase in a Gi-dependent manner. This effect predominates in HEL-cell membrane preparations, as it does in platelets, but is not detectable when thrombin is added to intact HEL cells. Instead, in intact HEL cells thrombin activates adenylate cyclase. Although clearly receptor-mediated, this response does not appear to involve Gi, Gs, protein kinase C, eicosanoid formation or changes in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Images Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1310010

  13. Inhibition of the Raf-1 kinase by cyclic AMP agonists causes apoptosis of v-abl-transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Weissinger, E M; Eissner, G; Grammer, C; Fackler, S; Haefner, B; Yoon, L S; Lu, K S; Bazarov, A; Sedivy, J M; Mischak, H; Kolch, W

    1997-01-01

    Here we investigate the role of the Raf-1 kinase in transformation by the v-abl oncogene. Raf-1 can activate a transforming signalling cascade comprising the consecutive activation of Mek and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erks). In v-abl-transformed cells the endogenous Raf-1 protein was phosphorylated on tyrosine and displayed high constitutive kinase activity. The activities of the Erks were constitutively elevated in both v-raf- and v-abl-transformed cells. In both cell types the activities of Raf-1 and v-raf were almost completely suppressed after activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]), whereas the v-abl kinase was not affected. Raf inhibition substantially diminished the activities of Erks in v-raf-transformed cells but not in v-abl-transformed cells, indicating that v-abl can activate Erks by a Raf-1-independent pathway. PKA activation induced apoptosis in v-abl-transformed cells while reverting v-raf transformation without severe cytopathic effects. Overexpression of Raf-1 in v-abl-transformed cells partially protected the cells from apoptosis induced by PKA activation. In contrast to PKA activators, a Mek inhibitor did not induce apoptosis. The diverse biological responses correlated with the status of c-myc gene expression. v-abl-transformed cells featured high constitutive levels of expression of c-myc, which were not reduced following PKA activation. Myc activation has been previously shown to be essential for transformation by oncogenic Abl proteins. Using estrogen-regulated c-myc and temperature-sensitive Raf-1 mutants, we found that Raf-1 activation could protect cells from c-myc-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these results suggest (i) that Raf-1 participates in v-abl transformation via an Erk-independent pathway by providing a survival signal which complements c-myc in transformation, and (ii) that cAMP agonists might become useful for the treatment of malignancies where abl oncogenes are involved, such as chronic myeloid leukemias. PMID:9154822

  14. Inhibition of the Raf-1 kinase by cyclic AMP agonists causes apoptosis of v-abl-transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Weissinger, E M; Eissner, G; Grammer, C; Fackler, S; Haefner, B; Yoon, L S; Lu, K S; Bazarov, A; Sedivy, J M; Mischak, H; Kolch, W

    1997-06-01

    Here we investigate the role of the Raf-1 kinase in transformation by the v-abl oncogene. Raf-1 can activate a transforming signalling cascade comprising the consecutive activation of Mek and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erks). In v-abl-transformed cells the endogenous Raf-1 protein was phosphorylated on tyrosine and displayed high constitutive kinase activity. The activities of the Erks were constitutively elevated in both v-raf- and v-abl-transformed cells. In both cell types the activities of Raf-1 and v-raf were almost completely suppressed after activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]), whereas the v-abl kinase was not affected. Raf inhibition substantially diminished the activities of Erks in v-raf-transformed cells but not in v-abl-transformed cells, indicating that v-abl can activate Erks by a Raf-1-independent pathway. PKA activation induced apoptosis in v-abl-transformed cells while reverting v-raf transformation without severe cytopathic effects. Overexpression of Raf-1 in v-abl-transformed cells partially protected the cells from apoptosis induced by PKA activation. In contrast to PKA activators, a Mek inhibitor did not induce apoptosis. The diverse biological responses correlated with the status of c-myc gene expression. v-abl-transformed cells featured high constitutive levels of expression of c-myc, which were not reduced following PKA activation. Myc activation has been previously shown to be essential for transformation by oncogenic Abl proteins. Using estrogen-regulated c-myc and temperature-sensitive Raf-1 mutants, we found that Raf-1 activation could protect cells from c-myc-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these results suggest (i) that Raf-1 participates in v-abl transformation via an Erk-independent pathway by providing a survival signal which complements c-myc in transformation, and (ii) that cAMP agonists might become useful for the treatment of malignancies where abl oncogenes are involved, such as chronic myeloid leukemias. PMID:9154822

  15. Sustained cyclic AMP production by parathyroid hormone receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrandon, Sébastien; Feinstein, Timothy N; Castro, Marian; Wang, Bin; Bouley, Richard; Potts, John T; Gardella, Thomas J; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cell signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 (PTHR) is fundamental to bone and kidney physiology. It has been unclear how the two ligand systems—PTH, endocrine and homeostatic, and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), paracrine—can effectively operate with only one receptor and trigger different durations of the cAMP responses. Here we analyze the ligand response by measuring the kinetics of activation and deactivation for each individual reaction step along the PTHR signaling cascade. We found that during the time frame of G protein coupling and cAMP production, PTHrP1–36 action was restricted to the cell surface, whereas PTH1–34 had moved to internalized compartments where it remained associated with the PTHR and Gαs, potentially as a persistent and active ternary complex. Such marked differences suggest a mechanism by which PTH and PTHrP induce differential responses, and these results indicate that the central tenet that cAMP production originates exclusively at the cell membrane must be revised. PMID:19701185

  16. Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population and Cyclic AMP Production in Chicken and Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Strietzel, Catherine J.

    2000-01-01

    Expression of the beta-adrenergic receptor (PAR) and its coupling to Adenosine 3'5' Cyclic Monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy and the goal of this study was to determine if electrical stimulation in a pattern simulating slow muscle contraction would alter the PAR response in primary cultures of avian and mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Specifically chicken skeletal muscle cells and rat skeletal muscle cells that had been grown for 7 d in culture, were subjected to electrical stimulation for an additional 2 d at a pulse frequency of 0.5 pulses/sec and a pulse duration of 200 msec. In chicken skeletal muscle cells, the PAR population was not significantly affected by electrical stimulation; however, the ability, of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was reduced by approximately one-half. In contrast, the PAR population in rat muscle cells was increased slightly but not significantly by electrical stimulation, and the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was increased by almost twofold. The basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP in neither rat muscle cells nor chicken muscle cells were affected by electrical stimulation.

  17. Interaction of prostaglandins E1 and E2 in regulation of cyclic-AMP and aggregation in human platelets: evidence for a common prostaglandin receptor.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J W; Stuart, R K

    1974-07-01

    The effects of (PGE) prostaglandins E1 and E2 on the aggregation and release reaction induced in human platelets by ADP have been investigated. Measurements of cyclic-AMP content in (PRP) platelet-rich plasma were made concurrently. Although both PGE1 and PGE2 independently increased platelet cyclic-AMP and inhibited 1st phase ADP-induced aggregation (order of potency, PGE1 PGE2), the effect of a fixed concentration of PGE2 in the presence of PGE1 varied. At low PGE1 concentrations, the effects were additive, but at higher PGE1 concentrations PGE2 lowered the efficacy of PGE1. These results suggest that PGE2 may be a "partial agonist" of PGE1. PGE2 enhanced and PGE1 inhibited the 2nd phase of ADP-induced aggregation and the release of serotonin by a mechanism which appeared to be independent of cyclic-AMP content. A mixture of the 2 PGs produced responses intermediate between those observed with each PG independently. Binding of PGE1-3H to platelets was demonstrated in PRP and in concentrated platelet suspensions. PGE1 and PGE2 inhibited binding in a simular manner. It is proposed that PGE1 and PGE2 compete for a common receptor on the platelet membrane. PMID:4365532

  18. Cellular regulation of basal and FSH-stimulated cyclic AMP production in irradiated rat testes

    SciTech Connect

    Kangasniemi, M.; Kaipia, A.; Toppari, J.; Mali, P.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Parvinen, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Basal and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) productions by seminiferous tubular segments from irradiated adult rats were investigated at defined stages of the epithelial cycle when specific spermatogenic cells were low in number. Seven days post-irradiation, depletion of spermatogonia did not influence the basal cAMP production, but FSH response increased in stages II-VIII. Seventeen days post-irradiation when spermatocytes were low in number, there was a small increase in basal cAMP level in stages VII-VIII and FSH-stimulated cAMP production increased in stages VII-XII and XIII-I. At 38 days when pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids (steps 1-6) were low in number, a decreased basal cAMP production was measured in stages II-VI and IX-XII. FSH-stimulated cAMP output increased in stages VII-XII but decreased in stages II-VI. At 52 days when all spermatids were low in number, basal cAMP levels decreased in all stages of the cycle, whereas FSH response was elevated only in stages VII-XII. All spermatogenic cell types seem to have an effect on cAMP production by the seminiferous tubule in a stage-specific fashion. Germ cells appear to regulate Sertoli cell FSH response in a paracrine way, and a part of cAMP may originate from spermatids stimulated by an unknown FSH-dependent Sertoli cell factor. The FSH-dependent functions may control such phenomena as spermatogonial proliferation, final maturation of spermatids, and onset of meiosis.

  19. Histaminergic and noradrenergic control of cyclic AMP formation in the pineal gland and cerebral cortex of three avian species: cock, duck, and goose.

    PubMed

    Nowak, J Z; Woldan-Tambor, A; Zawilska, J B

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of forskolin (FOR), histamine (HA), L-noradrenaline (NA), isoprenaline (ISO) and dopamine (DA) on cyclic AMP formation in whole pineal glands and cerebral cortical slices of cock, duck and goose. HA (100 muM) and FOR (10 muM) potently increased cyclic AMP production in the pineal glands of all studied avian species, showing a synergistic interaction when applied together. HA at the dose of 1 mM significantly stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in the membrane preparations of cock pineal glands while lower concentrations were ineffective. HA markedly enhanced cyclic AMP formation in cerebral cortex of cock (an effect being potentiated for FOR), but did not affect the nucleotide production in this brain structure of duck and goose. DA (100 muM) had no effect, NA (100 muM) only moderately (5-22% increased, where ISO (10muM) significantly (by 50-90%) enhanced cyclic AM_ synthesis in avian cerebral cortex. Propranolol (1 muM) antagonized all these effects, while preincubation with yohimbine and prazosin significantly enhanced NA action in cortical slices of duck and goose. PMID:9662739

  20. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase interferes with GTP. gamma. S stimulated IP sub 3 formation in differentiated HL-60 cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Misaki, Naoyuki; Imaizumi, Taro; Watanabe, Yashuiro )

    1989-01-01

    The effects of addition of activated cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on the function of islet-activating protein (IAP)-sensitive GTP-binding (G) protein were studied in the plasma membranes of {sup 3}H-inositol-labeled differentiated human leukemic (HL-60) cells. Pretreatment of the membranes with activated PKA in the presence of MgATP for 15 min. at 37{degree}C decreased GTP {gamma}S-stimulated inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) formation by about 30%, but had no influence on Ca{sup 2+}-stimulated IP{sub 3} formation. And autoradiography in the phosphorylation experiments of solubilized HL-60 cell membranes by PKA showed some {sup 32}P incorporated bands, and among them one of the major bands showed the migration at 40 kDa supporting that the G protein coupling with PI response was phosphorylated by PKA. These results showed that pretreatment with activated PKA inhibited the mediating function of the G protein between the fMLP receptor and phospholipase C by its phosphorylation.

  1. Capsaicinoids regulate airway anion transporters through Rho kinase- and cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hibino, Yoshitaka; Morise, Masahiro; Ito, Yasushi; Mizutani, Takefumi; Matsuno, Tadakatsu; Ito, Satoru; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Sato, Mitsuo; Kondo, Masashi; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effects of capsaicinoids on airway anion transporters, we recorded and analyzed transepithelial currents in human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells. Application of capsaicin (100 μM) attenuated vectorial anion transport, estimated as short-circuit currents (I(SC)), before and after stimulation by forskolin (10 μM) with concomitant reduction of cytosolic cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I(SC) was also observed in the response to 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM, a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases). The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I(SC) was attributed to suppression of bumetanide (an inhibitor of the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2 Cl(-) cotransporter 1)- and 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (an inhibitor of basolateral HCO(3)(-)-dependent anion transporters)-sensitive components, which reflect anion uptake via basolateral cAMP-dependent anion transporters. In contrast, capsaicin potentiated apical Cl(-) conductance, which reflects conductivity through the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, a cAMP-regulated Cl(-) channel. All these paradoxical effects of capsaicin were mimicked by capsazepine. Forskolin application also increased phosphorylated myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, and the phosphorylation was prevented by capsaicin and capsazepine, suggesting that these capsaicinoids assume aspects of Rho kinase inhibitors. We also found that the increments in apical Cl(-) conductance were caused by conventional Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 (20 μM) and HA-1077 (20 μM), with selective inhibition of basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2 Cl(-) cotransporter 1. Collectively, capsaicinoids inhibit cAMP-mediated anion transport through down-regulation of basolateral anion uptake, paradoxically accompanied by up-regulation of apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-mediated anion conductance. The latter is mediated by inhibition of Rho-kinase, which is believed to interact with actin cytoskeleton. PMID:21474433

  2. A novel cyclic AMP metabolism exhibited by giant cells and its possible role in the sexual development of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Orii, H; Okada, Y; Saga, Y; Yanagisawa, K

    1984-08-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum cyclic AMP (cAMP) metabolism during macrocyst development, i.e., the sexual cycle of this organism, and in giant cells, i.e., fusion products from opposite mating-type cells, was investigated. The pattern of change in cAMP levels during macrocyst development differed considerably from that observed during fruiting-body formation, i.e., the asexual cycle. Giant cells produced and excreted considerable amounts of cAMP. Adenylate cyclase activity catalyzing cAMP production in giant cells was comparable to that of unfused cells. However, the activity of membrane-bound phosphodiesterase in giant cells was extremely low, and no extracellular phosphodiesterase was excreted. A phosphodiesterase inhibitory protein was secreted in excess by giant cells. PMID:6086430

  3. Dynamic Fluctuations Provide the Basis of a Conformational Switch Mechanism in Apo Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Aykaç Fas, Burcu; Tutar, Yusuf; Haliloğlu, Türkan

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli cyclic AMP Receptor Protein (CRP) undergoes conformational changes with cAMP binding and allosterically promotes CRP to bind specifically to the DNA. In that, the structural and dynamic properties of apo CRP prior to cAMP binding are of interest for the comprehension of the activation mechanism. Here, the dynamics of apo CRP monomer/dimer and holo CRP dimer were studied by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Gaussian Network Model (GNM). The interplay of the inter-domain hinge with the cAMP and DNA binding domains are pre-disposed in the apo state as a conformational switch in the CRP's allosteric communication mechanism. The hinge at L134-D138 displaying intra- and inter-subunit coupled fluctuations with the cAMP and DNA binding domains leads to the emergence of stronger coupled fluctuations between the two domains and describes an on state. The flexible regions at K52-E58, P154/D155 and I175 maintain the dynamic coupling of the two domains. With a shift in the inter-domain hinge position towards the N terminus, nevertheless, the latter correlations between the domains loosen and become disordered; L134-D138 dynamically interacts only with the cAMP and DNA binding domains of its own subunit, and an off state is assumed. We present a mechanistic view on how the structural dynamic units are hierarchically built for the allosteric functional mechanism; from apo CRP monomer to apo-to-holo CRP dimers. PMID:23874183

  4. Rab11, but not Rab4, facilitates cyclic AMP- and tauroursodeoxycholate-induced MRP2 translocation to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Won; Schonhoff, Christopher M.; Webster, Cynthia R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rab proteins (Ras homologous for brain) play an important role in vesicle trafficking. Rab4 and Rab11 are involved in vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane from early endosomes and recycling endosomes, respectively. Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) and cAMP increase bile formation, in part, by increasing plasma membrane localization of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). The goal of the present study was to determine the role of these Rab proteins in the trafficking of MRP2 by testing the hypothesis that Rab11 and/or Rab4 facilitate cAMP- and TUDC-induced MRP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Studies were conducted in HuH-NTCP cells (HuH7 cells stably transfected with human NTCP), which constitutively express MRP2. HuH-NTCP cells were transfected with Rab11-WT and GDP-locked dominant inactive Rab11-GDP or with Rab4-GDP to study the role of Rab11 and Rab4. A biotinylation method and a GTP overlay assay were used to determine plasma membrane MRP2 and activation of Rab proteins (Rab11 and Rab4), respectively. Cyclic AMP and TUDC increased plasma membrane MRP2 and stimulated Rab11 activity. Plasma membrane translocation of MRP2 by cAMP and TUDC was increased and inhibited in cells transfected with Rab11-WT and Rab11-GDP, respectively. Cyclic AMP (previous study) and TUDC increased Rab4 activity. However, cAMP- and TUDC-induced increases in MRP2 were not inhibited by Rab4-GDP. Taken together, these results suggest that Rab11 is involved in cAMP- and TUDC-induced MRP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. PMID:25190474

  5. Nucleotide sequences of fic and fic-1 genes involved in cell filamentation induced by cyclic AMP in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kawamukai, M; Matsuda, H; Fujii, W; Utsumi, R; Komano, T

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of fic-1 involved in the cell filamentation induced by cyclic AMP in Escherichia coli and its normal counterpart fic were analyzed. The open reading frame of both fic-1 and fic coded for 200 amino acids. The Gly at position 55 in the Fic protein was changed to Arg in the Fic-1 protein. The promoter activity of fic was confirmed by fusing fic and lacZ. The gene downstream from fic was found to be pabA (p-aminobenzoate). There is an open reading frame (ORF190) coding for 190 amino acids upstream from the fic gene. Computer-assisted analysis showed that Fic has sequence similarity with part of CDC28 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CDC2 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and FtsA of E. coli. In addition, ORF190 has sequence similarity with the cyclosporin A-binding protein cyclophilin. PMID:2546924

  6. Inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. 2. Structural variations of N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-4-[(1,2,3,5-tetrahydro- 2-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]quinazolin-7-yl)-oxy]butyramide (RS-82856).

    PubMed

    Venuti, M C; Jones, G H; Alvarez, R; Bruno, J J

    1987-02-01

    A series of analogues of the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-4-[(1,2,3,5-tetrahydro- 2-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]quinazolin-7-yl)oxy]butyramide (RS-82856, 1) was prepared by systematic variation of the side-chain substituent, length, position, connecting atom, and the parent heterocycle itself. The compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase from both human platelets and rat or dog heart tissue and as inhibitors of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Structure-activity correlations for the analogue series revealed significant limitations on the steric bulk of substituents on the 1,2,3,5-tetrahydroimidazo[2,1-b]quinazolin-2-one heterocycle and the position and length of the side chain. As inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE), potency steadily increased with increasingly lipophilic side chains. In platelet aggregation inhibition studies, however, a maximum in activity was reached with 1, while more lipophilic compounds were significantly less active. Major changes in the heterocycle itself, represented by isomeric and other carbonyl variations, also decreased activity. The molecular features defined by this series of analogues of 1 correlate to a high degree with current understanding of the chemical and topographical requirements of the active site of the FIII (type IV) form of cyclic AMP PDE. Selective inhibition of this enzyme has been proposed as the principal component of the positive inotropic action of a number of cardiotonic agents. PMID:3027339

  7. Regulatory Action of Calcium Ion on Cyclic AMP-Enhanced Expression of Implantation-Related Factors in Human Endometrial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kusama, Kazuya; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Isaka, Keiichi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Decidualization of human endometrial stroma and gland development is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP), but the role of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) on cAMP mediated-signaling in human endometrial stroma and glandular epithelia has not been well-characterized. The present study was designed to investigate the role of intracellular Ca2+ on cAMP mediated-decidualization and gland maturation events, which can be identified by the up-regulation of prolactin and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)1 in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and glandular epithelial EM-1 cells. Increases in decidual prolactin and IGFBP-1 transcript levels, induced by cAMP-elevating agents forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, were inhibited by Ca2+ influx into ESCs with Ca2+ ionophores (alamethicin, ionomycin) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibitors of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC), nifedipine and verapamil, enhanced the decidual gene expression. Furthermore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ store, up-regulated prolactin and IGFBP-1 expression. Ca2+ ionophores decreased intracellular cAMP concentrations, whereas nifedipine, verapamil or dantrolene increased cAMP concentrations in ESCs. In glandular epithelial cells, similar responses in COX2 expression and PGE2 production were found when intracellular cAMP levels were up-regulated by decreases in Ca2+ concentrations. Thus, a marked decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ levels caused the elevation of cAMP concentrations, resulting in enhanced expression of implantation-related factors including decidual markers. These findings suggest that fluctuation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations alters intracellular cAMP levels, which then regulate differentiation of endometrial stromal and glandular epithelial cells. PMID:26161798

  8. A stereochemical investigation of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and the (Sp)-and (Rp)-diastereoisomers of adenosine cyclic 3':5'-phosphorothioate by bovine heart and baker's-yeast cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvest, R L; Lowe, G; Baraniak, J; Stec, W J

    1982-01-01

    Bovine heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, which has a requirement for Mg2+, hydrolyses cyclic AMP with inversion of configuration at the phosphorus atom, but only the (Sp)-diastereoisomer of adenosine cyclic 3':5'-phosphorothioate is hydrolysed by this enzyme. By contrast, the low-affinity yeast cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, which contains tightly bound Zn2+, hydrolyses both the (Sp)- and the (Rp)-diastereoisomers of adenosine cyclic 3':5'-phosphorothioate, the (Rp)-diastereoisomer being the preferred substrate under V max. conditions. Both of the diastereoisomers of adenosine cyclic 3':5'-phosphorothioate, as well as cyclic AMP, are hydrolysed with inversion of configuration at the phosphorus atom by the yeast enzyme. It is proposed that, with both enzymes, the bivalent metal ion co-ordinates with the phosphate residue of the substrate, and that hydrolysis is catalysed by a direct "in-line' mechanism. PMID:6288001

  9. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in melanocytes and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Carlos Iván; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2014-12-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which include melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), play a crucial role in melanocytes development, proliferation and differentiation. Activation of the MC1R by the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) leads to the activation of the cAMP signaling pathway that is mainly associated with differentiation and pigment production. Some MC1R polymorphisms produce cAMP signaling impairment and pigmentary phenotypes such as the red head color and fair skin phenotype (RHC) that is usually associated with higher risk for melanoma development. Despite its importance in melanocyte biology, the role of cAMP signaling cutaneous melanoma is not well understood. Melanoma is primarily driven by mutations in the components of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. Increasing evidence, however, now suggests that cAMP signaling also plays an important role in melanoma even though genetic alterations in components of this pathway are note commonly found in melanoma. Here we review these new roles for cAMP in melanoma including its contribution to the notorious treatment resistance of melanoma. PMID:25017568

  10. Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

  11. Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 μ M) had mixed effects (≥20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

  12. Cyclic AMP accelerates calcium waves in pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ahsan U.; Grant, Wayne M.; Latif, Sahibzada U.; Mannan, Zahir M.; Park, Alexander J.; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cytosolic Ca2+ (Cai2+) flux within the pancreatic acinar cell is important both physiologically and pathologically. We examined the role of cAMP in shaping the apical-to-basal Ca2+ wave generated by the Ca2+-activating agonist carbachol. We hypothesized that cAMP modulates intra-acinar Ca2+ channel opening by affecting either cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Isolated pancreatic acinar cells from rats were stimulated with carbachol (1 μM) with or without vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP), and then Cai2+ was monitored by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The apical-to-basal carbachol (1 μM)-stimulated Ca2+ wave was 8.63 ± 0.68 μm/s; it increased to 19.66 ± 2.22 μm/s (*P < 0.0005) with VIP (100 nM), and similar increases were observed with 8-Br-cAMP (100 μM). The Ca2+ rise time after carbachol stimulation was reduced in both regions but to a greater degree in the basal. Lag time and maximal Ca2+ elevation were not significantly affected by cAMP. The effect of cAMP on Ca2+ waves also did not appear to depend on extracellular Ca2+. However, the ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor dantrolene (100 μM) reduced the cAMP-enhancement of wave speed. It was also reduced by the PKA inhibitor PKI (1 μM). 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2′-O-Me-cAMP, a specific agonist of Epac, caused a similar increase as 8-Br-cAMP or VIP. These data suggest that cAMP accelerates the speed of the Ca2+ wave in pancreatic acinar cells. A likely target of this modulation is the RyR, and these effects are mediated independently by PKA and Epac pathways. PMID:18388188

  13. Intraoperative urinary cyclic AMP monitoring in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, W G; Wills, M; MacLeod, M S; Hanks, J B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the utility of intraoperative urinary cyclic 3'5' adenosine monophosphate (UcAMP), an indicator of parathyroid (PTH) hormone end-organ activity, as a "biochemical frozen section," signaling the real-time resolution of PTH hyperactivity during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The unsuccessful initial neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism, leaving the patient with persistent hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue, results in part from the surgeon's inability intraoperatively to correlate a gland's gross appearance and size estimation with physiologic function. Preoperative imaging, intraoperative imaging, and intraoperative histologic/cytologic surveillance have not resolved this dilemma. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients underwent a prospective intraoperative UcAMP monitoring protocol. The patients all had a clinical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism and an average preoperative serum calcium of 12.0 +/- 0.3 mg/dl. UcAMP was assayed intraoperatively using 20-minute nonequilibrium radioimmunoassay providing real-time feedback to the operating team. RESULTS: All patients had an elevated UcAMP confirming PTh hyperactivity at the beginning of the procedure. One patient, subsequently found to have an supernumerary ectopic adenoma, had four normal glands identified intraoperatively, and his intraoperative UcAMP values corroborated persistent hyperparathyroidism, the UcAMP of the remaining 26 patients decreased from 7.0 +/- 1.1 to 2.7 +/- 0.7 nm.dl GF (p < .00005) after complete adenoma excision, and they remain normocalcemic. The protocol provided useful and relevant information to the operating team, and aided in surgical decision-making, in 10 of the 27 cases (37%). CONCLUSION: Intraoperative biochemical surveillance with ucAMP monitoring reliably signals resolution of PTH hyperfunction. It is a useful adjunct to the surgeon's skill, judgment, and experience in parathyroid surgery. PMID:8387765

  14. Complex transcriptional control of the sigma s-dependent stationary-phase-induced and osmotically regulated osmY (csi-5) gene suggests novel roles for Lrp, cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex, and integration host factor in the stationary-phase response of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lange, R; Barth, M; Hengge-Aronis, R

    1993-01-01

    osmY (csi-5) is a representative of a large group of sigma s-dependent genes in Escherichia coli that exhibit both stationary-phase induction and osmotic regulation. A chromosomal transcriptional lacZ fusion (csi-5::lacZ) was used to study the regulation of osmY. We show here that in addition to sigma s, the global regulators Lrp, cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex (cAMP-CRP), and integration host factor (IHF) are involved in the control of osmY. All three regulators negatively modulate the expression of osmY, and they act independently from sigma s. Stationary-phase induction of osmY in minimal medium can be explained by stimulation by sigma s combined with a relief of Lrp repression. Stationary-phase induction of osmY in rich medium is mediated by the combined action of sigma s, Lrp, cAMP-CRP, and IHF, with the latter three proteins acting as transition state regulators. The transcriptional start site of osmY was determined and revealed an mRNA with an unusual long nontranslated leader of 244 nucleotides. The regulatory region is characterized by a sigma 70-like -10 promoter region and contains potential binding sites for Lrp, CRP, and IHF. Whereas sigma s, Lrp, CRP, and IHF are clearly involved in stationary-phase induction, none of these regulators is essential for osmotic regulation of osmY. Images PMID:8253679

  15. Oscillator control of cell division in Euglena: cyclic AMP oscillations mediate the phasing of the cell division cycle by the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Carr, I A; Edmunds, L N

    1993-04-01

    The achlorophyllous ZC strain of Euglena gracilis exhibits a circadian rhythm of cell division in constant darkness (DD). Mitosis occurs during a restricted part of the circadian cycle, corresponding to the dark intervals in a light-dark cycle comprising 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness. We have demonstrated that division-phased cultures also exhibit bimodal, circadian changes of cyclic AMP level. Maximum cyclic AMP levels occurred at the beginning of the light period (CT (circadian time) 00-02), and at the beginning of darkness (CT 12-14). These variations persisted in cultures that had been transferred into DD and appeared to be under the control of the circadian oscillator rather than to be cell division cycle (CDC)-dependent, since they continued in cultures that had reached the stationary phase of growth. In the experiments reported in this paper, we tested for the possible role of this periodic cyclic AMP signal in the generation of cell division rhythmicity by examining the effects of exogenous cyclic AMP signals and of forskolin, which permanently increased the cyclic AMP level, on the cell division rhythm. Perturbations of the cyclic AMP oscillation by exogenous cyclic AMP resulted in the temporary uncoupling of the CDC from the circadian timer. The addition of cyclic AMP during the subjective day resulted in delays (up to 9 h) of the next synchronous division step. In contrast, mitosis was stimulated when cyclic AMP was administered in the middle of the subjective night. Measurement of the DNA content of cells by flow cytometry indicated that cyclic AMP injected at CT 06-08 delayed progression through S phase, and perhaps also through mitosis. When added at CT 18-20, cyclic AMP accelerated the G2/M transition. The circadian oscillator was not perturbed by the addition of exogenous cyclic AMP: the division rhythm soon returned to its original phase. On the other hand, the permanent elevation of cyclic AMP levels in the presence of forskolin induced a rapid loss of cell division rhythmicity. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cyclic AMP acts downstream from the oscillator and that the cyclic AMP oscillation is an essential component of the signaling pathway for the control of the CDC by the circadian oscillator. The receptors for cyclic AMP in Euglena have been shown to be two cyclic AMP-dependent kinases (cPKA and cPKB). Pharmacological studies using cyclic AMP analogs suggested that cPKA mediates cyclic AMP effects during the subjective day, and cPKB during the subjective night.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8391014

  16. Endogenous expression of histamine H1 receptors functionally coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in C6 glioma cells: regulation by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Peakman, M C; Hill, S J

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on phospholipid hydrolysis in rat-derived C6 glioma cells have been investigated. 2. Histamine H1 receptor-stimulation caused a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of total [3H]-inositol phosphates in cells prelabelled with [3H]-myo-inositol. The rank order of agonist potencies was histamine (EC50 = 24 microM) > N alpha-methylhistamine (EC50 = 31 microM) > 2-thiazolylethylamine (EC50 = 91 microM). 3. The response to 0.1 mM histamine was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by the H1-antagonists, mepyramine (apparent Kd = 1 nM) and (+)-chlorpheniramine (apparent Kd = 4 nM). In addition, (-)-chlorpheniramine was more than two orders of magnitude less potent than its (+)-stereoisomer. 4. Elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation with forskolin (10 microM, EC50 = 0.3 microM), isoprenaline (1 microM, EC50 = 4 nM) or rolipram (0.5 mM), significantly reduced the histamine-mediated (0.1 mM) inositol phosphate response by 37%, 43% and 26% respectively. In contrast, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin did not increase cyclic AMP accumulation and had no effect on the phosphoinositide response to histamine. 5. These data indicate the presence of functionally coupled, endogenous histamine H1 receptors in C6 glioma cells. Furthermore, the results also indicate that H1 receptor-mediated phospholipid hydrolysis is inhibited by the elevation of cyclic AMP levels in these cells. PMID:7889313

  17. Reversal of Cyclic AMP-Mediated Intestinal Secretion by Ethacrynic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awqati, Qais; Field, Michael; Greenough, William B.

    1974-01-01

    Ethacrynic acid (EA) has been reported to reduce cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in the intact animal. We explored the nature of this inhibition in vitro by measuring unidirectional, transmural fluxes of 22Na and 36Cl across isolated rabbit ileal mucosa. Under control conditions (short-circuited mucosa bathed in bicarbonate-Ringer), there was net absorption of Na and Cl. Theophylline (10 mM), cyclic AMP (5 mM), and cholera toxin (added in vivo) abolished net Na flux and produced net Cl secretion. In the presence of either theophylline or cAMP, addition of 0.1 mM EA to the serosal bathing solution abolished net Cl secretion and restored net Na absorption. Cholera toxin-treated mucosa was exposed to 0.05 and 1.0 mM EA. The lower concentration restored net Na absorption but did not significantly reduce Cl secretion. The higher concentration abolished net transport of both Na and Cl. Short-circuit current and Na flux measurements in the presence and absence of glucose indicated that 0.1 mM EA does not inhibit glucose-coupled Na transport. Short-circuit current measurements in the presence of 1.0 mM EA suggested that even this concentration of EA does not inhibit glucose-coupled Na transport. Thus EA appears to specifically inhibit Cl (or NaCl) secretion without inhibiting the absorptive Na “pump.” The anti-secretory effect of 0.1 mM EA does not appear to result from inhibition of adenylate cyclase since secretion stimulated by addition of 5 mM cAMP was abolished. Furthermore, 0.1 mM EA did not significantly reduce theophylline-augmented and cholera toxin-augmented cAMP levels in ileal mucosa. We conclude that EA interacts specifically with the active Cl (or NaCl) secretory mechanism of the small intestine at a step beyond generation of cAMP. PMID:4359936

  18. Human P450scc gene transcription is induced by cyclic AMP and repressed by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and A23187 through independent cis elements.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, C C; Brentano, S T; Miller, W L

    1990-01-01

    Long-term regulation of mammalian steroid hormone synthesis occurs principally by transcriptional regulation of the gene for the rate-limiting cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme P450scc. Adrenal steroidogenesis is regulated primarily by two hormones: adrenocorticotropin, which works via cyclic AMP (cAMP) and protein kinase A, and angiotensin II, which works via Ca2+ and protein kinase C. Forskolin and 8-bromo-cAMP stimulated, while prolonged treatment with a phorbol ester (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [TPA]) and a calcium ionophore (A23187) additively suppressed accumulation of endogenous P450scc mRNA in transformed murine adrenal Y1 cells. In Y1 cells transfected with 2,327 base pairs of the human P450scc promoter fused to the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), forskolin increased CAT activity 900% while combined TPA plus A23187 reduced CAT activity to 15% of the control level. Forskolin induced the P450scc promoter as rapidly as a promoter containing two cAMP-responsive elements fused to a simian virus 40 promoter, a system known to respond directly to cAMP. Basal expression was increased by sequences between -89 and -152 and was increased further by sequences between -605 and -2327. This upstream region also conferred inducibility by cAMP. TPA plus A23187 transiently increased CAT activity before repressing it, reflecting the complex actions of angiotensin II in vivo. Repression by prolonged treatment with TPA plus A23187 was mediated by multiple elements between -89 and -343. Induction of CAT activity by forskolin was not diminished by treatment with TPA plus A23187, nor were the regions of the promoter responsible for regulation by the two pathways coisolated. Thus, the human gene for P450scc is repressed by TPA plus A23187 by mechanisms and sequences independent of those that mediate induction by cAMP. Images PMID:1700277

  19. Regulation of hippocampus-dependent memory by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Ted; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus is crucial for the consolidation of new declarative long-term memories. Genetic and behavioral experimentation have revealed that several protein kinases are critical for the formation of hippocampus-dependent long-term memories. Cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a serinethreonine kinase that has been strongly implicated in the expression of specific forms of hippocampus-dependent memory. We review evidence that PKA is required for hippocampus-dependent memory in mammals, and we highlight some of the proteins that have been implicated as targets of PKA. Future directions and open questions regarding the role of PKA in memory storage are also described. PMID:18394470

  20. The myriad roles of cyclic AMP in microbial pathogens, from signal to sword

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Kathleen A.; Rodriguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    All organisms must sense and respond to their external environments, and this signal transduction is often done with second messengers such as cyclic nucleotides. Adenosine 3'5'-cyclic AMP is a universal second messenger that is used by diverse forms of life, including mammals, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. In this review, we discuss the many roles of cAMP in bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens and its contributions to microbial pathogenesis. These include coordination of intracellular processes such as virulence gene expression with extracellular signals from the host environment, and manipulation of host immunity by increasing cAMP levels in host cells during infection. PMID:22080930

  1. Selective adrenergic/cyclic AMP-dependent switch-off of proteasomal proteolysis alone switches on neural signal transduction: an example from the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, C; Korf, H W; Laedtke, E; Weller, J L; Klein, D C

    2000-11-01

    The molecular processes underlying neural transmission are central issues in neurobiology. Here we describe a novel mechanism through which noradrenaline (NA) activates its target cells, using the mammalian pineal organ as a model. In this neuroendocrine transducer, NA stimulates arylalkylamine N:-acetyltransferase (AANAT; EC 2.3.1. 87), the key enzyme regulating the nocturnal melatonin production. In rodents, AANAT protein accumulates as a result of enhanced transcription, but in primates and ungulates, the AANAT mRNA level fluctuates only marginally, indicating that other mechanisms regulate AANAT protein and activity. These were investigated in cultured bovine pinealocytes. AANAT mRNA was readily detectable in unstimulated pinealocytes, and levels did not change following NA treatment. In contrast, NA increased AANAT protein levels in parallel with AANAT activity, apparently through a cyclic AMP-mediated mechanism. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the changes in AANAT protein levels occurred in virtually all pinealocytes. Inhibition of AANAT degradation by proteasomal proteolysis alone was found to switch-on enzyme activity by increasing AANAT protein levels five- to 10-fold. Accordingly, under unstimulated conditions AANAT protein is continually synthesized and immediately destroyed by proteasomal proteolysis. NA appears to act via cyclic AMP to protect AANAT from proteolytic destruction, resulting in accumulation of the protein. These findings show that tightly regulated control of proteasomal proteolysis of a specific protein alone can play a pivotal role in neural regulation. PMID:11032902

  2. Effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and cyclic AMP interaction on human neutrophil apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Tortorella, C; Piazzolla, G; Spaccavento, F; Antonaci, S

    1998-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling interaction on human neutrophil apoptosis, either occurring spontaneously or induced by Fas antigen activation. Results show that GM-CSF, dibutyryl cAMP (a cAMP analog) and forskolin (an adenylate cyclase activator) are all able to suppress spontaneous neutrophil cell death. Of note however, when GM-CSF is used in combination with cAMP-elevating agents, an additive effect on neutrophil survival is observed with dibutyryl cAMP only, whereas supplementation of cell cultures with GM-CSF and forskolin results in a progressive reduction of antiapoptotic effects exerted by the single compounds. Moreover, although dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin do not affect Fas-triggered apoptotic events, they are still able to modulate the GM-CSF capacity to prolong neutrophil survival following anti-Fas IgM cell challenge, with effects similar to those respectively exerted on spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis. The data indicate that GM-CSF may negatively modulate the cAMP-mediated antiapoptotic pathway in human neutrophils, likely via the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. This would prevent an abnormal neutrophil survival as a result of cAMP signaling stimulation, which provides a novel insight into the role of GM-CSF as a physiological regulator of myeloid cell turnover. PMID:9927231

  3. Mechanism of action of hydrogen sulfide on cyclic AMP formation in rat retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Njie-Mbye, Ya Fatou; Kulkarni, Madhura; Opere, Catherine A; Ohia, Sunny E

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a colorless gas with the pungent odor of rotten eggs has been reported to produce pharmacological actions in ocular and non-ocular tissues. We have evidence that H(2)S, using sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) as donors can increase cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in neural retina. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of action of H(2)S on cyclic nucleotide production in rat retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE-J). Cultured RPE-J cells were incubated for 30 min in culture medium containing the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, IBMX (2 mM). Cells were exposed to varying concentrations of NaHS, the H(2)S substrate (L-cysteine), cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors or the diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin in the presence or absence of H(2)S biosynthetic enzymes or the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel antagonist, glibenclamide. Following drug-treatment at different time intervals, cell homogenates were prepared for cAMP assay using a well established methodology. In RPE-J cells, NaHS (10 nM-1 μM) produced a time-dependent increase in cAMP concentrations over basal levels which reached a maximum at 20 min. At this time point, both NaHS (1 nM-100 μM) and L-cysteine (1 nM-10 μM) produced a concentration-dependent significant (p<0.05) increase in cAMP concentrations over basal level. The effects of NaHS on cAMP levels in RPE-J cells was enhanced significantly (p<0.01) in the presence of the COX inhibitors, indomethacin and flurbiprofen. In RPE-J cells, the effects caused by forskolin (10 μM) on cAMP production were potentiated by addition of low concentrations of NaHS. Both the inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, 1 mM) and the inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), proparglyglycine (PAG, 1mM) significantly attenuated the increased effect of L-cysteine on cAMP production. The K(ATP) channel antagonist, glibenclamide (100 μM) caused inhibition of NaHS induced-increase of cAMP formation in RPE-J cells. We conclude that, H(2)S (using H(2)S donor and substrate) can increase cAMP production in RPE-J cells, and removal of the apparent inhibitory effect of prostaglandins unmasks an excitatory activity of H(2)S on cAMP. Effects elicited by the H(2)S substrate on cAMP formation are dependent on biosynthesis of H(2)S catalyzed by the biosynthetic enzymes, CBS and CSE. In addition to the adenylyl cylcase pathway, K(ATP) channels are involved in mediating the observed effects of the H(2)S on cAMP production. PMID:22445555

  4. Excitatory effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, noradrenaline and theophylline on 45Ca uptake by synaptosomes from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J A; Sá-Almeida, A M

    1984-08-01

    The effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, noradrenaline and theophylline have been studied on the uptake of 45Ca by pinched-off presynaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) from rat brain. All three substances enhanced the high potassium (71 mM) stimulated 45Ca uptake. In the presence of normal potassium (5 mM) neither dibutyryl cyclic AMP nor theophylline changed significantly the uptake of 45Ca by synaptosomes, whilst noradrenaline increased the uptake of 45Ca and its effect was more evident than in the presence of high potassium. The results are discussed in relation to the role of cyclic AMP in the influx of calcium that triggers evoked release of transmitter. PMID:6148920

  5. REVIEW: Role of cyclic AMP signaling in the production and function of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Jin, Tianru

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cells express the proglucagon gene (gcg) and thereby produce the peptide hormone glucagon, which stimulates hepatic glucose production and thereby increases blood glucose levels. The same gcg gene is also expressed in the intestinal endocrine L cells and certain neural cells in the brain. In the gut, gcg expression leads to the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). This incretin hormone stimulates insulin secretion when blood glucose level is high. In addition, GLP-1 stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation, inhibits cell apoptosis, and has been utilized in the trans-differentiation of insulin producing cells. Today, a long-term effective GLP-1 receptor agonist has been developed as a drug in treating diabetes and potentially other metabolic disorders. Extensive investigations have shown that the expression of gcg and the production of GLP-1 can be activated by the elevation of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). Recent studies suggest that in addition to protein kinase A (PKA), exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), another effector of cAMP signaling, and the crosstalk between PKA and Wnt signaling pathway, are also involved in cAMP-stimulated gcg expression and GLP-1 production. Furthermore, functions of GLP-1 in pancreatic cells are mainly mediated by cAMP-PKA, cAMP-Epac and Wnt signaling pathways as well.

  6. Capsaicin-induced ion fluxes increase cyclic GMP but not cyclic AMP levels in rat sensory neurones in culture.

    PubMed

    Wood, J N; Coote, P R; Minhas, A; Mullaney, I; McNeill, M; Burgess, G M

    1989-10-01

    Capsaicin, which induces fluxes of sodium, calcium, and potassium ions in a subset of both neonatal and adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurones, increased cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels by a factor of 20 (EC50 0.07 microM) to 10-20 pmol cGMP/mg protein in these cells. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were unaffected. Nonneuronal cells derived from rat ganglia, and both neurones and nonneuronal cells from chick were unresponsive to capsaicin. Capsaicin-induced cGMP elevation in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones was unaffected by pertussis toxin, lowered by compounds that block voltage-sensitive calcium channels, and was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium. Calcium, guanidine, and rubidium fluxes were unaffected by treatment of DRG cells with sodium nitroprusside or dibutyryl cGMP. The cGMP response to capsaicin is thus a function of capsaicin-evoked calcium uptake through voltage-sensitive calcium channels. Elevated cGMP levels do not, however, contribute to capsaicin-evoked ion fluxes or to their desensitisation. PMID:2549199

  7. Oscillations and waves of cyclic AMP in Dictyostelium: a prototype for spatio-temporal organization and pulsatile intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Goldbeter, Albert

    2006-07-01

    The amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum aggregate after starvation in a wavelike manner in response to periodic pulses of cyclic AMP (cAMP) secreted by cells which behave as aggregation centers. In addition to autonomous oscillations, the cAMP signaling system that controls aggregation is also capable of excitable behavior, which consists in the transient amplification of suprathreshold pulses of extracellular cAMP. Since the first theoretical model for slime mold aggregation proposed by Keller and Segel in 1970, many theoretical studies have addressed various aspects of the mechanism and function of cAMP signaling in Dictyostelium. This paper presents a brief overview of these developments as well as some reminiscences of the author's collaboration with Lee Segel in modeling the dynamics of cAMP relay and oscillations. Considered in turn are models for cAMP signaling in Dictyostelium, the developmental path followed by the cAMP signaling system after starvation, the frequency encoding of cAMP signals, and the origin of concentric or spiral waves of cAMP. PMID:16832740

  8. Adenylyl cyclase-cyclicAMP signaling in mood disorders: Role of the crucial phosphorylating enzyme protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2008-01-01

    Mood disorders are among the most prevalent and recurrent forms of psychiatric illnesses. In the last decade, there has been increased understanding of the biological basis of mood disorders. In fact, novel mechanistic concepts of the neurobiology of unipolar and bipolar disorders are evolving based on recent pre-clinical and clinical studies, most of which now focus on the role of signal transduction mechanisms in these psychiatric illnesses. Particular investigative emphasis has been given to the role of phosphorylating enzymes, which are crucial in regulating gene expression and neuronal and synaptic plasticity. Among the most important phosphorylating enzyme is protein kinase A (PKA), a component of adenylyl cyclase–cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AC–cAMP) signaling system. In this review, we critically and comprehensively discuss the role of various components of AC–cAMP signaling in mood disorders, with a special focus on PKA, because of the interesting observation that have been made about its involvement in unipolar and bipolar disorders. We also discuss the functional significance of the findings regarding PKA by discussing the role of important PKA substrates, namely, Rap-1, cyclicAMP-response element binding protein, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These studies suggest the interesting possibility that PKA and related signaling molecules may serve as important neurobiological factors in mood disorders and may be relevant in target-specific therapeutic interventions for these disorders. PMID:18728821

  9. The TonB3 System in the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus Is under the Control of the Global Regulators Lrp and Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Crosa, Jorge H.

    2012-01-01

    TonB systems transduce the proton motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane to energize substrate transport through a specific TonB-dependent transporter across the outer membrane. Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic marine pathogen that can cause a fatal septicemic disease in humans and eels, possesses three TonB systems. While the TonB1 and TonB2 systems are iron regulated, the TonB3 system is induced when the bacterium grows in human serum. In this work we have determined the essential roles of the leucine-responsive protein (Lrp) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) in the transcriptional activation of this system. Whereas Lrp shows at least four very distinctive DNA binding regions spread out from position −59 to −509, cAMP-CRP binds exclusively in a region centered at position −122.5 from the start point of the transcription. Our results suggest that both proteins bind simultaneously to the region closer to the RNA polymerase binding site. Importantly, we report that the TonB3 system is induced not only by serum but also during growth in minimal medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source and low concentrations of Casamino Acids. In addition to catabolite repression by glucose, l-leucine acts by inhibiting the binding of Lrp to the promoter region, hence preventing transcription of the TonB3 operon. Thus, this TonB system is under the direct control of two global regulators that can integrate different environmental signals (i.e., glucose starvation and the transition between “feast” and “famine”). These results shed light on new mechanisms of regulation for a TonB system that could be widespread in other organisms. PMID:22307757

  10. Seventeen Sxy-Dependent Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Site-Regulated Genes Are Needed for Natural Transformation in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Mell, Joshua C.; Redfield, Rosemary J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural competence is the ability of bacteria to actively take up extracellular DNA. This DNA can recombine with the host chromosome, transforming the host cell and altering its genotype. In Haemophilus influenzae, natural competence is induced by energy starvation and the depletion of nucleotide pools. This induces a 26-gene competence regulon (Sxy-dependent cyclic AMP receptor protein [CRP-S] regulon) whose expression is controlled by two regulators, CRP and Sxy. The role of most of the CRP-S genes in DNA uptake and transformation is not known. We have therefore created in-frame deletions of each CRP-S gene and studied their competence phenotypes. All but one gene (ssb) could be deleted. Although none of the remaining CRP-S genes were required for growth in rich medium or survival under starvation conditions, DNA uptake and transformation were abolished or reduced in most of the mutants. Seventeen genes were absolutely required for transformation, with 14 of these genes being specifically required for the assembly and function of the type IV pilus DNA uptake machinery. Only five genes were dispensable for both competence and transformation. This is the first competence regulon for which all genes have been mutationally characterized. PMID:22821979

  11. Spiral waves of cyclic amp in a model of slime mold aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, John J.; Alexander, Kevin A.; Manoranjan, V. S.; Murray, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    During the aggregation phase of their life cycle, Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae communicate with each other by traveling waves of cyclic AMP (cAMP). These waves often have the geometry of rotating spirals. We calculate the properties of these spiral waves, their rotation period, wavespeed, and shape, from a model of the synthesis and degradation of cAMP by Dictyostelium cells. Our model is based on kinetic rate laws developed by Martiel and Goldbeter to account for oscillations and signal relaying by Dictyostelium amoebae in well-stirred cell suspensions. We show that the model also describes in quantitative detail experimental observations of rotating spiral waves of cAMP in fields of amoebae distributed over an agar surface. Furthermore, our numerically calculated spiral waves agree quantitatively with the singular perturbation theory of rotating spirals developed by Keener and Tyson.

  12. Novel mechanism coupling cyclic AMP-protein kinase A signaling and golgi trafficking via Gyp1 phosphorylation in polarized growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen-Xing; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Yue

    2014-12-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling activates virulence expression during hyphal development in the fungal human pathogen Candida albicans. The hyphal growth is characterized by Golgi polarization toward the hyphal tips, which is thought to enhance directional vesicle transport. However, how the hypha-induction signal regulates Golgi polarization is unknown. Gyp1, a Golgi-associated protein and the first GTPase-activating protein (GAP) in the Rab GAP cascade, critically regulates membrane trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. Here, we report a novel pathway by which the cAMP-PKA signaling triggers Golgi polarization during hyphal growth. We demonstrate that Gyp1 plays a crucial role in actin-dependent Golgi polarization. Hyphal induction activates PKA, which in turn phosphorylates Gyp1. Phosphomimetic mutation of four PKA sites identified by mass spectrometry (Gyp1(4E)) caused strong Gyp1 polarization to hyphal tips, whereas nonphosphorylatable mutations (Gyp1(4A)) abolished it. Gyp1(4E) exhibited enhanced association with the actin motor Myo2, while Gyp1(4A) showed the opposite effect, providing a possible mechanism for Golgi polarization. A GAP-dead Gyp1 (Gyp1(R292K)) showed strong polarization similar to that seen with Gyp1(4E), indicating a role for the GAP activity. Mutating the PKA sites on Gyp1 also impaired the recruitment of a late Golgi marker, Sec7. Furthermore, proper PKA phosphorylation and GAP activity of Gyp1 are required for virulence in mice. We propose that the cAMP-PKA signaling directly targets Gyp1 to promote Golgi polarization in the yeast-to-hypha transition, an event crucial for C. albicans infection. PMID:25326521

  13. Novel Mechanism Coupling Cyclic AMP-Protein Kinase A Signaling and Golgi Trafficking via Gyp1 Phosphorylation in Polarized Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haitao; Wang, Yan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling activates virulence expression during hyphal development in the fungal human pathogen Candida albicans. The hyphal growth is characterized by Golgi polarization toward the hyphal tips, which is thought to enhance directional vesicle transport. However, how the hypha-induction signal regulates Golgi polarization is unknown. Gyp1, a Golgi-associated protein and the first GTPase-activating protein (GAP) in the Rab GAP cascade, critically regulates membrane trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. Here, we report a novel pathway by which the cAMP-PKA signaling triggers Golgi polarization during hyphal growth. We demonstrate that Gyp1 plays a crucial role in actin-dependent Golgi polarization. Hyphal induction activates PKA, which in turn phosphorylates Gyp1. Phosphomimetic mutation of four PKA sites identified by mass spectrometry (Gyp14E) caused strong Gyp1 polarization to hyphal tips, whereas nonphosphorylatable mutations (Gyp14A) abolished it. Gyp14E exhibited enhanced association with the actin motor Myo2, while Gyp14A showed the opposite effect, providing a possible mechanism for Golgi polarization. A GAP-dead Gyp1 (Gyp1R292K) showed strong polarization similar to that seen with Gyp14E, indicating a role for the GAP activity. Mutating the PKA sites on Gyp1 also impaired the recruitment of a late Golgi marker, Sec7. Furthermore, proper PKA phosphorylation and GAP activity of Gyp1 are required for virulence in mice. We propose that the cAMP-PKA signaling directly targets Gyp1 to promote Golgi polarization in the yeast-to-hypha transition, an event crucial for C. albicans infection. PMID:25326521

  14. Ethanol increases receptor-dependent cyclic AMP production in cultured hepatocytes by decreasing G(i)-mediated inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, L E; DeSilva, S E

    1992-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that ethanol-induced changes in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction play a critical role in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol. Here we have investigated the effects of ethanol on cAMP signal transduction in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Acute exposure to ethanol had a biphasic effect on glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP production in intact cells: 25-50 mM-ethanol decreased cAMP, whereas treatment with 100-200 mM-ethanol increased cAMP. After chronic exposure to 50-200 mM-ethanol for 48 h in culture, glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP levels were increased, but no change in glucagon receptor number was observed. These effects of ethanol were independent of ethanol oxidation. Chronic ethanol treatment also increased adenosine-receptor- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Increased cAMP production was also observed upon stimulation of adenylate cyclase with glucagon, forskolin and F- in membranes isolated from cells cultured with 100 mM-ethanol for 48 h. However, no differences were observed in basal and MnCl2-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. The quantity of alpha i protein was decreased by 35% after chronic ethanol treatment, but no change in the quantity of alpha s protein was detected. Decreased alpha i protein was associated with a decrease in G(i) function, as assessed by the ability of 0.1 nM-guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate and 1 microM-somatostatin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic exposure to ethanol increases receptor-dependent cAMP production in hepatocytes by decreasing the quantity of alpha i protein at the plasma membrane and thereby decreasing the inhibitory effects of G(i) on adenylate cyclase activity. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1358061

  15. Identification of electrostatic interaction sites between the regulatory and catalytic subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Ji-Buechler, Y; Taylor, S S

    1997-09-01

    Two classes of molecules inhibit the catalytic subunit (C) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) and the regulatory (R) subunits. Basic sites on C, previously identified as important for R/C interaction in yeast TPK1 and corresponding to Lys213, Lys217, and Lys189 in murine C alpha, were replaced with either Ala or Thr and characterized for their kinetic properties and ability to interact with RI and PKI. rC(K213A) and rC(K217A) were both defective in forming holoenzyme with RI but were inhibited readily with PKI. This contrasts with rC(R133A), which is defective in binding PKI but not RI (Wen & Taylor, 1994). Thus, the C-subunit employs two distinct electrostatic surfaces to achieve high-affinity binding with these two types of inhibitory molecules even though all inhibitors share a common consensus site that occupies the active site cleft. Unlike TPK1, mutation of Lys189 had no effect. The mutant C subunits that were defective in binding RI, rC(K213A) and rC(K217A), were then paired with three RI mutants, rRI(D140A), rRI(E143A), and rRI(D258A), shown previously to be defective in recognition of C. Although the mutations at Asp140 and Asp258 in RI were additive with respect to the C mutations. rC(K213A) and rRI(E143A) were compensatory, thus identifying a specific electrostatic interaction site between RI and C. The results are discussed in terms of the RI and C crystal structures and the sequence homology between the yeast and mammalian enzymes. PMID:9300482

  16. Cyclic-AMP inhibition of fimbriae and prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens is strain-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Nicholas A.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic-nucleotide 3’,5’-cyclic AMP (cAMP) is an ancient and wide spread regulatory molecule. Previous studies have shown that fimbria production and secondary metabolite production are inhibited by cAMP in the prokaryote Serratia marcescens. This study used genetic manipulations to test the strain specificity of cAMP-CRP regulation of fimbria production and of the red pigment, prodigiosin. A surprising amount of variation was observed, as multicopy expression of the cAMP-phosphodiesterase gene, cpdS, conferred either an increase or decrease in fimbriae-dependent yeast agglutination and prodigiosin production depending upon the strain background. Mutation of crp, the gene coding for the cAMP-receptor protein similarly conferred strain-dependent phenotypes. This study shows that three distinct biological properties, modulated by a conserved genetic regulatory molecule, can vary significantly among strains. Such variation can complicate the functional analysis of bacterial phenotypic properties which are dependent upon global genetic regulators such as cAMP. PMID:24619531

  17. Role of insulin during exercise-induced glycogenesis in muscle: effect on cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Ivy, J L

    1977-12-01

    Skeletal muscle cyclic AMP (cAMP) content and glycogen synthesis were investigated in male rats subjected to exhaustive exercise, alloxan diabetes, and combinations of these conditions. After an exhaustive swim or control treatment of wading, randomly selected animals were administered 500 mg glucose via stomach tube. Two hours after glucose administration, gastrocnemius glycogen levels rose from 1.31 to 10.67 mg/g wet wt in fatigued nondiabetics (FND), producing a 94% supercompensation above control values. Glycogen of fatigued diabetics (FD) increased from 0.88 to 4.21 mg/g wet wt during the first 2 hr after glucose administration and did not reach control values for 24 h. In conjunction with these glycogen changes, cAMP increased from 1.23 to 2.59 and 1.47 to 2.81 pmol/mg wet wt for FND and FD, respectively (P less than 0.05). No difference in cAMP levels between diabetics and nondiabetics was found. These in vivo data suggest that insulin may not be essential for muscle glycogen synthesis, but that after glycogen depletion it plays a prominent role in supercompensation. Also, this hormone's mechanism of action in skeletal muscle does not appear to be mediated through alteration in the tissue cAMP concentration. PMID:202169

  18. Phosphorylation of hydroxyproline in a synthetic peptide catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Feramisco, J R; Kemp, B E; Krebs, E G

    1979-08-10

    The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of hydroxyproline present in the heptapeptide, Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Hyp-Leu-Gly. The Km value for the reaction with this substrate was high (approximately 18 mM) compared to the Km values reported for the analogous threonine and serine-containing peptides, which were 0.59 mM and 0.016 mM, respectively (Kemp, B.E., Graves, D.J., Benjamini, E., and Krebs, E.G. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 4888-4894). The Vmax value with the hydroxyproline-containing peptide was 1 mumol . min-1 mg-1 in contrast to Vmax values of 6 mumol . min-1 mg-1 and 20 mumol . min-1 mg-1 for the threonine- and serine-containing peptides, respectively. Phosphate esterified to hydroxyproline present in the peptide was relatively stable in hot alkali, only 10% being released as Pi within 30 min in 0.1 N NaOH at 100 degrees C, whereas all of the phosphate was released from the phosphoserine peptide analogue under these conditions. Phosphohydroxyproline in the peptide was also more stable to acid (5.7 N HCl, 110 degrees C) than phosphoserine, the time for 50% release as Pi being 15 h in contrast to 6 h for the latter. PMID:222752

  19. GEMM-I riboswitches from Geobacter sense the bacterial second messenger cyclic AMP-GMP

    PubMed Central

    Kellenberger, Colleen A.; Wilson, Stephen C.; Hickey, Scott F.; Gonzalez, Tania L.; Su, Yichi; Hallberg, Zachary F.; Brewer, Thomas F.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Carlson, Hans K.; Hsieh, Yu-Fang; Hammond, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides are an expanding class of signaling molecules that control many aspects of bacterial physiology. A synthase for cyclic AMP-GMP (cAG, also referenced as 3′-5′, 3′-5′ cGAMP) called DncV is associated with hyperinfectivity of Vibrio cholerae but has not been found in many bacteria, raising questions about the prevalence and function of cAG signaling. We have discovered that the environmental bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces cAG and uses a subset of GEMM-I class riboswitches (GEMM-Ib, Genes for the Environment, Membranes, and Motility) as specific receptors for cAG. GEMM-Ib riboswitches regulate genes associated with extracellular electron transfer; thus cAG signaling may control aspects of bacterial electrophysiology. These findings expand the role of cAG beyond organisms that harbor DncV and beyond pathogenesis to microbial geochemistry, which is important to environmental remediation and microbial fuel cell development. Finally, we have developed an RNA-based fluorescent biosensor for live-cell imaging of cAG. This selective, genetically encodable biosensor will be useful to probe the biochemistry and cell biology of cAG signaling in diverse bacteria. PMID:25848022

  20. Cyclic AMP in oocytes controls meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Li, Ge; Mu, Xinyi; Wang, Zhengpin; Feng, Lizhao; Niu, Wanbao; Huang, Kun; Xiang, Xi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Guoliang

    2015-01-15

    In mammalian ovaries, a fixed population of primordial follicles forms during the perinatal stage and the oocytes contained within are arrested at the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase I. In the current study, we provide evidence that the level of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in oocytes regulates oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary. Our results show that the early meiotic development of oocytes is closely correlated with increased levels of intra-oocyte cAMP. Inhibiting cAMP synthesis in fetal ovaries delayed oocyte meiotic progression and inhibited the disassembly and degradation of synaptonemal complex protein 1. In addition, inhibiting cAMP synthesis in in vitro cultured fetal ovaries prevented primordial follicle formation. Finally, using an in situ oocyte chromosome analysis approach, we found that the dictyate arrest of oocytes is essential for primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions. Taken together, these results suggest a role for cAMP in early meiotic development and primordial follicle formation in the mouse ovary. PMID:25503411

  1. The Role of Cyclic AMP in Normalizing the Function of Engineered Human Blood Microvessels in Microfluidic Collagen Gels

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Keith H. K.; Truslow, James G.; Tien, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all engineered tissues must eventually be vascularized to survive. To this end, we and others have recently developed methods to synthesize extracellular matrix-based scaffolds that contain open microfluidic networks. These scaffolds serve as templates for the formation of endothelial tubes that can be perfused; whether such microvascular structures are stable and/or functional is largely unknown. Here, we show that compounds that elevate intracellular concentrations of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) strongly normalize the phenotype of engineered human microvessels in microfluidic type I collagen gels. Cyclic AMP-elevating agents promoted vascular stability and barrier function, and reduced cellular turnover. Under conditions that induced the highest levels of cAMP, the physiology of engineered microvessels in vitro quantitatively mirrored that of native vessels in vivo. Computational analysis indicated that cAMP stabilized vessels partly via its enhancement of barrier function. PMID:20303168

  2. Inhibition by sodium butyrate of enzyme induction by glucocorticoids and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. A role for the rapid form of histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Plesko, M M; Hargrove, J L; Granner, D K; Chalkley, R

    1983-11-25

    We have found that butyrate selectively inhibits hormonal induction of a few specific proteins and messenger RNAs in hepatoma cells. The fatty acid salt reversibly abolishes induction of tyrosine aminotransferase by dexamethasone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP in HTC cells by inhibiting the production of tyrosine aminotransferase messenger RNA. Half-maximal inhibition of enzyme induction occurred in 0.9 mM butyrate. This effect is highly specific, since 4 h after the addition of butyrate to induced HTC cells, the relative abundance of only five messenger RNA species out of several hundred observable on two-dimensional gels of translational products is changed. Upon removal of the butyrate from cell cultures pretreated with dexamethasone, tyrosine aminotransferase activity begins to increase more rapidly than if dexamethasone is added to control cultures, indicating that part of the induction process occurs in the presence of butyrate. A dose-dependent reduction of fast histone acetylation by butyrate was demonstrated by treating cells with butyrate followed by a short pulse with [3H]acetate and chase in a high concentration of butyrate. The butyrate concentration test range over which rapid histone acetylation is inhibited is similar to that which inhibits enzyme induction to the same extent. In contrast, the slow form of histone acetylation is unaffected in the concentration range examined. The induction of tyrosine aminotransferase by dexamethasone is delayed in hypoacetylated cells. This lag is consistent with the time required to initiate the recovery of the fast form of histone acetylation after its transient disappearance (Covault, J., Perry, M., and Chalkley, R. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13433-13440). We conclude that sodium butyrate interferes with the ability of dexamethasone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP to increase production of several specific species of messenger RNA in hepatoma cells. This effect correlates well with its ability to reduce rapid acetylation of histones in HTC cells; we discuss potential roles of rapid histone acetylation in modulating hormonal stimulation of transcription. PMID:6196355

  3. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 5-HT1D receptors mediating inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Schoeffter, P; Bobirnac, I

    1995-09-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 5-HT1B/5-HT1D receptors are members of the same receptor subfamily, but display a different pharmacology (Hartig et al. (1992) Trends Pharmacol Sci 13: 152-159). Whereas several cell lines have been reported to contain 5-HT1B receptors, none has been described, however, that endogenously expresses well-characterized 5-HT1D receptors. The present study deals with the identification of 5-HT1D receptors inhibiting cyclic AMP accumulation in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. 5-HT (1 nM-10 microM) induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the cyclic AMP accumulation stimulated by prostaglandin E1 (1 microM) in MDCK cells. The maximal effect of 5-HT averaged 50% inhibition and was abolished after a pre-treatment of the cells with pertussis toxin. Other agonists mimicked the effects of 5-HT, with the following rank order of potency (pEC50 +/- SEM, n > or = 3): 5-carboxamidotryptamine (8.36 +/- 0.48) > PAPP (p-aminophenylethyl-m-trifluoromethylphenyl piperazine. 7.89 +/- 0.23) > 5-HT (7.35 +/- 0.05) > sumatriptan (6.65 +/- 0.27). PAPP behaved as a partial agonist. 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin) was less potent, its maximal effect being not reached at 0.1 mM. Methiothepin. GR127935, (-)propranolol, rauwolscine and ketanserin were all devoid of intrinsic activity (up to 10 microM or 0.1 mM). Methiothepin (10 nM. 0.1 microM and 1 microM) antagonized 5-HT effect (pA2 8.57 +/- 0.44. Schild slope 1.17 +/- 0.21, n = 3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8584040

  4. Cyclic AMP suppresses interleukin-5 synthesis by human helper T cells via the downregulation of the calcium mobilization pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kaminuma, Osamu; Mori, Akio; Ogawa, Koji; Kikkawa, Hideo; Nakata, Aya; Ikezawa, Katsuo; Okudaira, Hirokazu

    1999-01-01

    To delineate the mechanism by which cyclic AMP (cAMP) suppresses interleukin (IL)-5 synthesis, the effects of prostaglandin (PG) E2, forskolin, dibutyryl (db)-cAMP and the Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin on cytokine synthesis, proliferation and CD25 expression of human T cells were investigated. Further studies were performed by measurement of the intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP ([cAMP]i) and Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and by electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA).PGE2, forskolin and db-cAMP suppressed IL-5 production by human T cell line following T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulation. PGE2 suppressed TCR-induced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, as well as proliferation and CD25 expression.Cyclic AMP-mediated suppression of cytokine synthesis, proliferation and CD25 expression in human T cells were attenuated by ionomycin.[cAMP]i was increased by PGE2 and forskolin. PGE2 suppressed the TCR-induced biphasic increase in [Ca2+]i. EMSA revealed that four specific protein-DNA binding complexes related to NF-AT were detected at the IL-5 promoter sequence located from −119 to −90 relative to the transcription initiation site. The slowest migrating complex induced by TCR stimulation was enhanced by PGE2 and further upregulated by ionomycin. Another binding which did not compete with cold AP-1 oligonucleotides, was constitutively present and was unaffected by PGE2 but enhanced by ionomycin.The suppressive effect of cyclic AMP on human IL-5 synthesis is mediated by interference with intracellular Ca2+ mobilization but distinct from the NF-AT-related pathway. PMID:10385254

  5. Calcium-mediated cyclic AMP inhibition of Na-H exchange in small intestine.

    PubMed

    Semrad, C E; Chang, E B

    1987-03-01

    8-Bromo cyclic AMP (cAMP) (10(-4) M) inhibits Na absorption in isolated chicken enterocytes as has been reported previously. Direct measurements of intracellular pH (pHi) using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate showed that both 8-bromo cAMP and the diuretic amiloride (10(-3) M) stimulated a persistent decrease in pHi of approximately 0.1 pH units, effects that were Na dependent and were not additive when cells were stimulated with both agents. These results suggest inhibition of an amiloride-sensitive Na/H exchange by cAMP. Direct measurements of intracellular Ca [Ca]i were also made using quin 2. 8-Bromo cAMP (10(-4) M) stimulated an immediate and persistent (greater than 10 min) increase in [Ca]i of approximately 20 nM, an effect that was not dependent on extracellular Ca. Pretreatment of cells with the specific calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium (10(-7) M) and the intracellular Ca-buffering agent MAPTAM blocked cAMP's effects on pH and Na uptake, but did not interfere with amiloride's effects. An increase in [Ca]i stimulated by the Ca ionophore A23187 (10(-6) M) was sufficient by itself to decrease pHi and inhibit amiloride-sensitive Na influx in isolated enterocytes. We conclude that cAMP stimulates the release of endogenous Ca in isolated enterocytes. This increase in [Ca]i appears to be essential for inhibition of amiloride-sensitive Na-H exchange by this cyclic nucleotide. PMID:3030130

  6. Involvement of cyclic AMP systems in morphine physical dependence in mice: prevention of development of morphine dependence by rolipram, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Takayoshi; Noda, Yukihiro; Ren, Xiuhai; Hamdy, Moustafa; Furukawa, Shoei; Kameyama, Tsutomu; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether morphine dependence was inhibited by rolipram, a cyclic AMP selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor in mice, since a role for the cyclic AMP systems in the development of morphine dependence has been reported. Mice, which received morphine (10 mg kg−1 s.c.) twice a day for 5 days showed withdrawal syndromes such as jumping, rearing and forepaw tremor following naloxone challenge (5 mg kg−1 i.p.) on the 6th day. Such mice exhibited a significant elevation of cyclic AMP levels in the thalamus compared to control mice. However, co-administration of rolipram (1 mg kg−1 i.p.) with morphine for 5 days significantly attenuated the severity of the withdrawal syndrome and the increase in the cyclic AMP levels after the administration of naloxone. In naïve mice, acute morphine treatment (10 mg kg−1 s.c.) decreased cyclic AMP levels in the thalamus and cerebral cortex 10 min later. The decrease of cyclic AMP levels induced by acute morphine treatment was blocked by co-administration of rolipram (1 mg kg−1 i.p.). However, acute rolipram did not affect the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome. These results suggest that the elevation of the cyclic AMP levels is involved in the development of morphine withdrawal syndrome and that blockade of the morphine-induced reduction of cyclic AMP levels by chronic rolipram inhibits the development of dependence and the behavioural and biochemical changes induced by naloxone. Furthermore, rolipram may be a useful drug for attenuating the development of morphine dependence. PMID:11226142

  7. Cyclic GMP but not cyclic AMP prevents renal platelet accumulation after ischemia-reperfusion in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Chintala, M S; Bernardino, V; Chiu, P J

    1994-12-01

    Platelets have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, antiplatelet effects of cyclic GMP (cGMP)- and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-mediated agents were evaluated in renal ischemia in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Renal ischemia was induced by unilateral occlusion of the left renal artery (40 min) followed by reperfusion (30 min) with the contralateral kidney serving as control. 111Indium-labeled platelets, drugs or vehicle were administered 30 min before induction of renal ischemia. Occlusion of the left renal artery for 20, 40 or 60 min resulted in a 100, 300 and 600% increase (over contralateral right kidney) in the platelet-associated 111indium activity in the ischemic kidney. In all subsequent studies the kidney was occluded for 40 min to test the antiplatelet activity of individual agents. 8-Br-cGMP (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/min i.v.), zaprinast (0.1 mg/kg/min i.v.) and sodium nitroprusside (0.003 and 0.01 mg/kg/min i.v.) significantly attenuated platelet accumulation in renal ischemia, whereas 8-Br-cAMP (0.3 mg/kg/min i.v.) or milrinone (0.1 mg/kg i.v. bolus, plus 0.01 mg/kg/min) did not. Minoxidil (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg/min i.v.), a vasodilator which produced equihypotensive effects as the cGMP-mediated agents, and milrinone failed to prevent platelet accumulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the platelet function by cGMP agents can be dissociated from their blood pressure lowering effects. cGMP is known to inhibit both platelet adhesion and aggregation, whereas cAMP is only active against aggregation. The present findings provide further evidence that cGMP-mediated drugs may afford effective antiplatelet action in an in vivo model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:7996427

  8. Selection of DNA binding sites by regulatory proteins. II. The binding specificity of cyclic AMP receptor protein to recognition sites.

    PubMed

    Berg, O G; von Hippel, P H

    1988-04-20

    The statistics of base-pair usage within known recognition sites for a particular DNA-binding protein can be used to estimate the relative protein binding affinities to these sites, as well as to sites containing any other combinations of base-pairs. As has been described elsewhere, the connection between base-pair statistics and binding free energy is made by an equal probability selection assumption; i.e. that all base-pair sequences that provide appropriate binding strength are equally likely to have been chosen as recognition sites in the course of evolution. This is analogous to a statistical-mechanical system where all configurations with the same energy are equally likely to occur. In this communication, we apply the statistical-mechanical selection theory to analyze the base-pair statistics of the known recognition sequences for the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). The theoretical predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement with binding data for those sequences for which experimental binding information is available, thus lending support to the basic assumptions of the selection theory. On the basis of this agreement, we can predict the affinity for CRP binding to any base-pair sequence, albeit with a large statistical uncertainty. When the known recognition sites for CRP are ranked according to predicted binding affinities, we find that the ranking is consistent with the hypothesis that the level of function of these sites parallels their fractional saturation with CRP-cAMP under in-vivo conditions. When applied to the entire genome, the theory predicts the existence of a large number of randomly occurring "pseudosites" with strong binding affinity for CRP. It appears that most CRP molecules are engaged in non-productive binding at non-specific or pseudospecific sites under in-vivo conditions. In this sense, the specificity of the CRP binding site is very low. Relative specificity requirements for polymerases, repressors and activators are compared in light of the results of this and the first paper in this series. PMID:3045325

  9. The sak1+ gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes an RFX family DNA-binding protein that positively regulates cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated exit from the mitotic cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S Y; McLeod, M

    1995-01-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, meiosis is initiated by conditions of nutrient deprivation. Mutations in genes encoding elements of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) pathway interfere with meiosis. Loss-of-function alleles of genes that stimulate the activity of cAPK allow cells to bypass the normal requirement of starvation for conjugation and meiosis. Alternatively, loss-of-function alleles of genes that inhibit cAPK lead to the inability to undergo sexual differentiation. The cgs1+ gene encodes the regulatory subunit of cAPK, and the cgs2+ gene encodes a cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Thus, both genes encode proteins which negatively regulate the activity of cAPK. Loss of either cgs1 or cgs2 prevents haploid cells from conjugating and diploid cells from undergoing meiosis. In addition to these defects, cells are unable to enter stationary phase. We describe a novel gene, sak1+, which when present on a plasmid overcomes the aberrant phenotypes associated with unregulated cAPK activity. Genetic analysis of sak1+ (suppressor of A-kinase) reveals that it functions downstream of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to allow cells to exist the mitotic cycle and enter either stationary phase or the pathway leading to sexual differentiation. The sak1+ gene is essential for cell viability, and a null allele causes multiple defects in cell morphology and nuclear division. Thus, sak1+ is an important regulatory element in the life cycle of S. pombe. Sequence analysis shows that the predicted product of the sak1+ gene is an 87-kDa protein which shares homology to the RFX family of DNA-binding proteins identified in humans and mice. One member of this family, RFX1, is a transcription factor for a variety of viral and cellular genes. PMID:7862141

  10. Effect of lutropin and cycloheximide on lutropin receptors and cyclic AMP production in Leydig tumour cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Dix, C J; Cooke, B A

    1981-01-01

    A system to study lutropin-induced desensitization of tumour Leydig cells in vitro has been investigated. Tumour Leydig cells were purified on a Percoll gradient and then incubated for 30 min with lutropin (0-1000ng/ml). The cells were then washed and incubated in suspension media at 32 degrees C. 125I-labelled human choriogonadotropin binding and basal and lutropin-stimulated cyclic AMP production were determined at various times. Initially the cells showed a dose-dependent decrease in human choriogonadotropin binding (1.18 and 0.13fmol/10(6) cells respectively) followed by an increase at 1 h (2.32 and 0.87fmol/10(6) cells respectively). Human choriogonadotropin binding remained elevated in the cells pre-incubated without lutropin, whereas the cells pre-incubated with lutropin showed a dose-dependent decrease over the next 10 h (2.20-0.18fmol/10(6) cells respectively). Basal production of cyclic AMP initially reflected the pre-incubation conditions (1.17-21.19ng/10(6) cells per h for 0-1000ng of lutropin/ml respectively). However, by 1 h there was a marked rise in basal cyclic AMP production which returned to the initial lower values by 4 h. At all time intervals studied, lutropin-induced cyclic AMP production showed a decrease that was proportional to lutropin concentration in the pre-incubated media. The decreases in human choriogonadotropin binding produced by pre-incubations with lutropin (100ng/ml) was partially inhibited by the presence of cycloheximide in the pre-incubation media and totally prevented by the continuous presence of cycloheximide. These results demonstrate that desensitization of tumour Leydig cells occurs after exposure to lutropin in vitro. This desensitization involves both a loss of plasma membrane receptors for lutropin and lutropin-stimulated adenylate cyclase. These events can be prevented by cycloheximide and are therefore probably dependent on protein synthesis. PMID:6274319

  11. Effects of prostaglandin E2, cholera toxin and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression of cytokines in human macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, W W; Burke, P A; Drotar, M E; Chavali, S R; Forse, R A

    1995-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) appears to regulate macrophage cytokine production through the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs protein)-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent transmembrane signal transduction pathway. In this study, we used PGE2, cholera toxin (CT; a direct G alpha s protein stimulator) and 8-bromo-cAMP (a membrane permeable cAMP analogue) to stimulate this pathway, and investigated their influence on cytokine gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human macrophages. The mRNA expression for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-8 were determined employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. We demonstrated that PGE2, CT and 8-bromo-cAMP inhibited the LPS-induced gene activation of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha, and had no effect on the gene activation of IL-1 beta and IL-8. Further, our data indicate that PGE2 suppressed the gene activation of IL-6 following LPS stimulation, but neither CT nor 8-bromo-cAMP had an effect. These data suggest that PGE2 alters LPS-stimulated gene activation of only some of the early macrophage cytokines, and does so either by a Gs transmembrane cAMP-dependent or an independent system. Images Figure 1 PMID:7751029

  12. Protein kinase A-dependent inhibition of alkaline phosphatase release by SaOS-2 human osteoblastic cells: studies in new mutant cell lines that express a cyclic AMP-resistant phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Fukayama, S; Kearns, A K; Skurat, R M; Tashjian, A H; Bringhurst, F R

    1991-01-01

    We have established mutant SaOS-2 cell lines that express a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-resistant phenotype to investigate the regulation and functional importance of orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase alkaline optimum (ALPase) in the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Cells were stably transfected with a plasmid that directs the synthesis of a mutant form of the type I regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) under the control of the metallothionein promotor. There was no significant difference between parental SaOS-2 cells and the mutant lines in the affinity or number of receptors for 125I-Nle8,18Tyr34bPTH1-34NH2, either in the absence or presence of Zn2+. When cAMP-dependent gene transcription was examined using transient transfection with a somatostatin promoter-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter plasmid, CAT activity stimulated by human PTH and dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) was inhibited by greater than 90% in the presence of Zn2+ in the mutant cell lines. In contrast, activation by a phorbol ester of a pentameric collagenase promoter/CAT construct containing five tandem copies of the AP-1 response element (5x-TRE-CAT) was unaffected in Zn(2+)-treated mutant cells. The inhibitory actions of PTH and DBcAMP on ALPase release were blunted by up to 80-90% in the mutant cell lines in the presence of Zn2+; there were no significant differences in the magnitude of inhibitory effects between these agonists. We conclude that the inhibitory action of PTH on ALPase release in SaOS-2 cells is mediated via activation of PKA. These cAMP-resistant cell lines will be especially useful in elucidating signal transduction mechanism(s) for PTH in human osteoblastic cells. PMID:1667091

  13. Cyclic AMP-dependent secretion of Ca 19-9 by LS174T human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Macchia, Vincenzo; Gargiulo, Maria; Terracciano, Daniela; Di Carlo, Angelina; Mariano, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Prolonged increase of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) level in culture medium of a human colon cancer cell (LS174T) inhibits cellular growth and stimulates Ca 19-9 expression. The raise in cAMP level was produced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) or by forskolin an agent acting at the level of cAMP generation. Both these agents in a range of concentration between 10(-3)-10(-5) M have an inhibitory effect on the growth which is dose and time dependent. The inhibition was reversible as demonstrated by complete restoration of cell growth soon after the withdrawal of the substances from the culture medium. When cAMP levels in culture medium was raised, an increase in Ca 19-9 expression was observed and it appears that cyclic nucleotides have at least two effects: the first to cause rapid release of already synthesized Ca 19-9 and second to stimulate new antigen synthesis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that LS174T cells are unable to proliferate upon sustained accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP suggesting the use of strategies able to increase cAMP levels for therapy of colon cancer. Furthermore, the finding that cAMP may also be a regulator of Ca 19-9 synthesis and release indicates the utility of cell line LS174T as a model for studies on the mechanism of synthesis and secretion of specific tumoral markers in colon cancer. PMID:11836614

  14. Neutrophil beta-adrenergic receptor responses are potentiated by acute exposure to phorbol ester without changes in receptor distribution or coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Kilfeather, S.A.; Stein, M.; O'Malley, K. )

    1991-01-01

    Exposure to the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate for 10 minutes enhanced cyclic AMP accumulation in human neutrophils under basal conditions and in response to the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO, 1{mu}M) and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (FSK, 10mM). Potentiation of responses to ISO by PMA was dose-dependent between 0.1 and 100nM PMA. The diacylglycerol analogue, 1-oleoyl-2-actylgylcerol (OAG) (50 {mu}M) also elevated beta-receptor responses, but 4beta-phorbol (100nM), lacking the capacity to activate PMA, was ineffective. Short-term exposure to the peptide n-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP, 1 {mu}M) also elevated neutrophil cyclic AMP accumulation. All potentiating effects of PMA on cyclic AMP production were inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H{sub 7}). PMA had no apparent effect on beta-receptor agonist-affinity, distribution between cell-surface and internalized compartments, or the capacity of ISO to induce beta-receptor internalization. Responses to FSK or ISO in terms of fold-stimulation of basal cyclic AMP accumulation int he presence of PMA were not elevated by PMA.

  15. Phosphorylation of the Protein Kinase A Catalytic Subunit Is Induced by Cyclic AMP Deficiency and Physiological Stresses in the Fission Yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, Brittney; Mitchell, Jessica; Marcus, Stevan

    2010-01-01

    In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is not essential for viability under normal culturing conditions, making this organism attractive for investigating mechanisms of PKA regulation. Here we show that S. pombe cells carrying a deletion in the adenylate cyclase gene, cyr1, express markedly higher levels of the PKA catalytic subunit, Pka1, than wild type cells. Significantly, in cyr1Δ cells, but not wild type cells, a substantial proportion of Pka1 protein is hyperphosphorylated. Pka1 hyperphosphorylation is strongly induced in cyr1Δ cells, and to varying degrees in wild type cells, by both glucose starvation and stationary phase stresses, which are associated with reduced cAMP-dependent PKA activity, and by KCl stress, the cellular adaptation to which is dependent on PKA activity. Interestingly, hyperphosphorylation of Pka1 was not detected in either cyr1+ or cyr1Δ S. pombe strains carrying a deletion in the PKA regulatory subunit gene, cgs1, under any of the tested conditions. Our results demonstrate the existence of a cAMP-independent mechanism of PKA catalytic subunit phosphorylation, which we propose could serve as a mechanism for inducing or maintaining specific PKA functions under conditions in which its cAMP-dependent activity is downregulated. PMID:20691155

  16. Cyclic AMP and Afferent Activity Govern Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity in Striatopallidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Shana M.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that the low dopamine conditions in Parkinson's disease (PD) cause motor impairment through aberrant motor learning. Those data, along with computational models, suggest that this aberrant learning results from maladaptive corticostriatal plasticity and learned motor inhibition. Dopaminergic modulation of both corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) is proposed to be critical for these processes; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying bidirectional corticostriatal plasticity are not fully understood. Previously, we demonstrated a key role for cAMP signaling in corticostriatal LTD. In this study, mouse brain slices were used to perform a parametric experiment that tested the impact of varying both intracellular cAMP levels and the strength of excitatory inputs on corticostriatal plasticity. Using slice electrophysiology in the dorsolateral striatum, we demonstrate that both LTP and LTD can be sequentially induced in the same D2-expressing neuron and that LTP was strongest with high intracellular cAMP and LFS, whereas LTD required low intracellular cAMP and high-frequency stimulation. Our results provide a molecular and cellular basis for regulating bidirectional corticostriatal synaptic plasticity and may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for blocking or reversing the aberrant synaptic plasticity that likely contributes to motor deficits in PD. PMID:24806695

  17. Cloning of the fic-1 gene involved in cell filamentation induced by cyclic AMP and construction of a delta fic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed Central

    Kawamukai, M; Matsuda, H; Fujii, W; Nishida, T; Izumoto, Y; Himeno, M; Utsumi, R; Komano, T

    1988-01-01

    PA3092 is an Escherichia coli mutant that forms filaments at 43 degrees C in the presence of cyclic AMP (cAMP). The mutation responsible for this phenotype is called fic-1. We cloned fic-1 from PA3092 by selection for the neighboring argD gene. The fic-1 gene product had a relative molecular mass of 21 kilodaltons by the maxicell method. A strain with the fic gene completely deleted was constructed by replacing fic with a kanamycin resistance gene. In one of the fic-deleted strains derived from PA3092, cAMP did not induce cell filamentation at 43 degrees C, but it did in the same strain harboring a plasmid containing the fic-1 gene. These results indicate that the fic-1 gene product is necessary for the induction of cell filamentation by cAMP but is dispensable to the cell. We also found that high levels of NaCl suppressed the cell filamentation induced by cAMP. Images PMID:2842288

  18. Studies of the Mechanism of Action of the Aerolysin-Like Hemolysin of Aeromonas sobria in Stimulating T84 Cells To Produce Cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yoshio; Nomura, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Ritsuko; Shinoda, Sumio; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that the aerolysin-like hemolysin of Aeromonas sobria stimulates T84 cells to produce cyclic AMP, which then emerges in the culture medium. In order to clarify the mechanism of action of the hemolysin, we examined the involvement of adenosine nucleotide. The results show that the hemolysin stimulates T84 cells to release ATP, which is then converted to adenosine by ectonucleotidase. The adenosine generated might stimulate the P1 adenosine receptors of T84 cells to produce cyclic AMP. PMID:12595476

  19. Cloning and expression of cDNA for a human low-K sub m , rolipram-sensitive cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Livi, G.P.; McHale, M.J.; Sathe, G.M.; Taylor, D.P. ); Kmetz, P.; Balcarek, J.M. ); Cieslinski, L.B.; Torphy, T.J. ); Davis, R.L. . Dept. of Cell Biology)

    1990-06-01

    The authors have isolated cDNA clones representing cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEases) from a human monocyte cDNA library. One cDNA clone (hPDE-1) defines a large open reading frame of ca. 2.1 kilobases, predicting a 686-amino-acid, ca. 77-kilodalton protein which contains significant homology to both rat brain and {ital Drosophila} cAMP PDEases, especially within an internal conserved domain of ca. 270 residues. Amino acid sequence divergence exists at the NH{sub 2} terminus and also within a 40- to 100-residue domain near the COOH-terminal end. hPDE-1 hybridizes to a major 4.8-kilobase mRNA transcript from both human monocytes and placenta. The coding region of hPDE-1 was engineered for expression in COS-1 cells, resulting in the overproduction of cAMP PDEase activity. The hPDE-1 recombinant gene product was identified as a low-{ital K{sub m}} cAMP phosphodiesterase on the basis of several biochemical properties including selective inhibition by the antidepressant drug rolipram. Known inhibitors of other PDEases (cGMP-specific PDEase, cGMP-inhibited PDEase) had little or no effect on the hPDE-1 recombinant gene product.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification of In Vivo Binding Sites of GlxR, a Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Type Regulator in Corynebacterium glutamicum▿†

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Koichi; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum GlxR is a cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-type regulator. Although over 200 GlxR-binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome are predicted in silico, studies on the physiological function of GlxR have been hindered by the severe growth defects of a glxR mutant. This study identified the GlxR regulon by chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray (ChIP-chip) analyses. In total, 209 regions were detected as in vivo GlxR-binding sites. In vitro binding assays and promoter-reporter assays demonstrated that GlxR directly activates expression of genes for aerobic respiration, ATP synthesis, and glycolysis and that it is required for expression of genes for cell separation and mechanosensitive channels. GlxR also directly represses a citrate uptake gene in the presence of citrate. Moreover, ChIP-chip analyses showed that GlxR was still able to interact with its target sites in a mutant with a deletion of cyaB, the sole adenylate cyclase gene in the genome, even though binding affinity was markedly decreased. Thus, GlxR is physiologically functional at the relatively low cAMP levels in the cyaB mutant, allowing the cyaB mutant to grow much better than the glxR mutant. PMID:21665967

  1. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A and protein kinase C phosphorylate alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor subunits at distinct stages of receptor formation and maturation.

    PubMed

    Pollock, V V; Pastoor, T; Katnik, C; Cuevas, J; Wecker, L

    2009-02-18

    Neuronal nicotinic receptor alpha4 subunits associated with nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), but the stages of receptor formation during which phosphorylation occurs and the functional consequences of kinase activation are unknown. SH-EP1 cells transfected with DNAs coding for human alpha4 and/or beta2 subunits were incubated with (32)Pi, and PKA or PKC was activated by forskolin or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, respectively. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting of proteins from cells expressing alpha4beta2 receptors or only alpha4 subunits were used to identify free alpha4 subunits, and alpha4 subunits present in immature alpha4beta2 complexes and mature alpha4beta2 pentamers containing complex carbohydrates. In the absence of kinase activation, phosphorylation of alpha4 subunits associated with mature pentamers was three times higher than subunits associated with immature complexes. PKA and PKC activation increased phosphorylation of free alpha4 subunits on different serine residues; only PKC activation phosphorylated subunits associated with mature alpha4beta2 receptors. Activation of both PKA and PKC increased the density of membrane-associated receptors, but only PKC activation increased peak membrane currents. PKA and PKC activation also phosphorylated beta2 subunits associated with mature alpha4beta2 receptors. Results indicate that activation of PKA and PKC leads to the phosphorylation alpha4beta2 receptors at different stages of receptor formation and maturation and has differential effects on the expression and function of human alpha4beta2 receptors. PMID:19101612

  2. Vasopressin and interactive calcium, cyclic AMP and purinergic signaling in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chebib, Fouad T.; Sussman, Caroline R.; Wang, Xiaofang; Harris, Peter C.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic kidney disease and the fourth leading cause of end-stage renal disease, responsible for 5–10% of cases. The disease is characterized by relentless development and growth of cysts causing progressive kidney enlargement associated with hypertension, pain, reduced quality of life, and eventually kidney failure. It is caused by mutations to PKD1 or PKD2, encoding polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively. Their function and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of polycystic kidney disease are not well understood. The objective of this review is to synthesize a large body of literature that examines how reduction of functional PC1 or PC2 at the primary cilia and/or the endoplasmic reticulum directly disrupts intracellular calcium signaling and indirectly disrupts calcium regulated cAMP and purinergic signaling. We propose a hypothetical model where dysregulated metabolism of cAMP and purinergic signaling increase the sensitivity of principal cells in collecting ducts and of tubular epithelial cells in the distal nephron to the constant tonic action of vasopressin. The resulting magnified response to vasopressin further enhances the disruption of calcium signaling initiated by mutations to PC1 or PC2 and activates downstream signaling pathways responsible for impaired tubulogenesis, cell proliferation, increased fluid secretion and interstitial inflammation. PMID:25870007

  3. Modulation of a human lymphoblastoid B cell line by cyclic AMP. Ig secretion and phosphatidylcholine metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, W.T.; Patke, C.L.; Gilliam, E.B.; Rosenblatt, H.M.; Barron, K.S.; Orson, F.M.

    1988-09-01

    A transformed human B cell line, LA350, was found to be sensitive to cAMP-elevating agents by responding with rapid (0 to 2 h) severalfold elevations of intracellular cAMP to treatment with cholera toxin, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), forskolin, and dibutyryl cAMP (all p less than 0.001). These cAMP-elevating agents also produced significant inhibitions of subsequent (48 to 72 h) Ig secretion by the same B cells as measured by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay and an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay for IgM (both p less than 0.001). PMA- and IBMX-treated cells were particularly responsive to the effects of cholera toxin, showing a doubling of cAMP content and profound decrease in Ig production (p less than 0.001). Because our previous studies had correlated activation of the metabolic turnover of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) fraction of membrane phospholipids with enhanced Ig secretion, we examined the sensitivity of PC metabolism to cAMP in control and PMA-stimulated cells. Formation of PC was found to be inhibited by forskolin and IBMX (both p less than 0.002) but breakdown of PC was stimulated (p less than 0.001). These findings imply that as the enzymatic products of PC, choline phosphate and diacylglycerol, are depleted due to the combined effects of cAMP upon synthesis and turnover of PC, there is a decrease in Ig secretion. Since diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C, it appears reasonable that Ig secretion is at least partially regulated by cAMP-responsive alterations in PC metabolism produced by protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation. We conclude that the early cAMP-sensitive changes in PC metabolism in this activated B cell line may signal for subsequent alterations in Ig secretion.

  4. Adenosine inhibits the positive inotropic effect of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in papillary muscles without effect on cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP.

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, M.; Brückner, R.; Neumann, J.; Nose, M.; Schmitz, W.; Scholz, H.

    1988-01-01

    1 Adenosine and the adenosine receptor agonist (-)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA) produced a small positive and negative inotropic effect, respectively, in isolated electrically driven papillary muscles of guinea-pigs. 2 Adenosine (100 mumol l-1) had no effect on cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP content. PIA (100 mumol l-1) slightly increased cyclic AMP. 3 In the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; 60 mumol l-1), which increased force of contraction 2 fold, adenosine and PIA exerted strong negative inotropic effects. PIA was more potent than adenosine (mean IC25 2.1 and 168 mumol -1, respectively). 4 In contrast, the nucleosides did not affect the increase in force of contraction produced by elevating extracellular Ca2+ concentration. 5 The IBMX-antagonistic effects of adenosine and PIA were not accompanied by modification of the IBMX-induced increase in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. 6 The effects of adenosine and PIA on force of contraction were accompanied by a partial reversal of the IBMX-induced increase in the maximal rate of depolarization of slow action potentials. 7 It is concluded that adenosine and PIA are able to attenuate the positive inotropic effect of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. This effect is unlikely to be due to a reduction of the IBMX-induced increase in cyclic AMP content. It is conceivably due to an inhibition of the stimulant action of cyclic AMP on slow Ca2+ channels leading to the reduction of the slow inward current which in turn reduces force of contraction. PMID:2455577

  5. A Model Based on Receptor Desensitization for Cyclic AMP Signaling in Dictyostelium Cells.

    PubMed

    Martiel, J L; Goldbeter, A

    1987-11-01

    We analyze a model based on receptor modification for the cAMP signaling system that controls aggregation of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum after starvation. The model takes into account both the desensitization of the cAMP receptor by reversible phosphorylation and the activation of adenylate cyclase that follows binding of extracellular cAMP to the unmodified receptor. The dynamics of the signaling system is studied in terms of three variables, namely, intracellular and extracellular cAMP, and the fraction of receptor in active state. Using parameter values collected from experimental studies on cAMP signaling and receptor phosphorylation, we show that the model accounts qualitatively and, in a large measure, quantitatively for the various modes of dynamic behavior observed in the experiments: (a) autonomous oscillations of cAMP, (b) relay of suprathreshold cAMP pulses, i.e., excitability, characterized by both an absolute and a relative refractory period, and (c) adaptation to constant cAMP stimuli. A two-variable version of the model is used to demonstrate the link between excitability and oscillations by phase plane analysis. The response of the model to repetitive stimulation allows comprehension, in terms of receptor desensitization, of the role of periodic signaling in Dictyostelium and, more generally, the function of pulsatile patterns of hormone secretion. PMID:19431710

  6. Synthesis of interleukin 6 (interferon-. beta. /sub 2//B cell stimulatory factor 2) in human fibroblasts is triggered by an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Zhange, Y.; Lin, J.X.; Vilcek, J.

    1988-05-05

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6; also referred to as interferon-..beta../sub 2/, 26-kDa protein, and B cell stimulatory factor 2) is a cytokine whose actions include a stimulation of immunoglobulin synthesis, enhancement of B cell growth, and modulation of acute phase protein synthesis by hepatocytes. Synthesis of IL-6 is stimulated by interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or platelet-derived growth factor. The authors examined the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signal transduction pathway in IL-6 gene expression. Several activators of adenylate cyclase, including prostaglandin E1, forskolin, and cholera toxin, as well as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine and the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP, shared the ability to cause a dramatic and sustained increase in IL-6 mRNA levels in human FS-4 fibroblasts. Actinomycin D treatment abolished this enhancement. Treatments that increased intracellular cAMP also stimulated the secretion of the IL-6 protein in a biologically active form. Increased intracellular cAMP appears to enhance IL-6 gene expression by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism because down-regulation of protein kinase C by a chronic exposure of cells to a high dose of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate did not abolish the enhancement of IL-6 expression by treatments that increase cAMP. IL-1 and TNF too increased IL-6 mRNA levels by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. The results suggest a role for the cAMP-dependent pathway(s) in IL-6 gene activation by TNF and IL-1.

  7. Phosphorylation of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit is induced by cyclic AMP deficiency and physiological stresses in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, Brittney; Mitchell, Jessica; Marcus, Stevan

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} cAMP deficiency induces phosphorylation of PKA catalytic subunit (Pka1) in S. pombe. {yields} Pka1 phosphorylation is further induced by physiological stresses. {yields} Pka1 phosphorylation is not induced in cells lacking the PKA regulatory subunit. {yields} Results suggest that cAMP-independent Pka1 phosphorylation is stimulatory in nature. -- Abstract: In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is not essential for viability under normal culturing conditions, making this organism attractive for investigating mechanisms of PKA regulation. Here we show that S. pombe cells carrying a deletion in the adenylate cyclase gene, cyr1, express markedly higher levels of the PKA catalytic subunit, Pka1, than wild type cells. Significantly, in cyr1{Delta} cells, but not wild type cells, a substantial proportion of Pka1 protein is hyperphosphorylated. Pka1 hyperphosphorylation is strongly induced in cyr1{Delta} cells, and to varying degrees in wild type cells, by both glucose starvation and stationary phase stresses, which are associated with reduced cAMP-dependent PKA activity, and by KCl stress, the cellular adaptation to which is dependent on PKA activity. Interestingly, hyperphosphorylation of Pka1 was not detected in either cyr1{sup +} or cyr1{Delta} S. pombe strains carrying a deletion in the PKA regulatory subunit gene, cgs1, under any of the tested conditions. Our results demonstrate the existence of a cAMP-independent mechanism of PKA catalytic subunit phosphorylation, which we propose could serve as a mechanism for inducing or maintaining specific PKA functions under conditions in which its cAMP-dependent activity is downregulated.

  8. Cyclic-AMP levels in the lichen Evernia prunastri are modulated by light quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Segovia, María; Gordillo, Francisco J L; Figueroa, Félix L

    2003-07-01

    Changes in the accumulation of cAMP levels were measured by the isotope dilution assay using protein kinase A in the lichen Evernia prunastri at varying light conditions. cAMP levels decreased following exposure to low irradiance (20 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1), and below the compensation point for photosynthesis) of red light (600-710-nm wave length) and increased by 50% after far-red light illumination (15 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1), 710-800-nm wavelength). Far-red partially reverted the effect of red light when the former was supplied after the latter. cAMP increased to its maximum level under high irradiance supplied by a non-photomorphogenic yellow light source (400 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1), reaching photosynthetic saturation). The addition of small quantities of red and far-red light, however, had profound restricting effects on cAMP accumulation. The addition of inhibitors of electron transport chains did not promote any significant change in cAMP levels in any of the treatments, indicating that cAMP accumulation could not depend on ATP synthesis. We propose that the response of cAMP accumulation at low irradiance comprises the activation of a morphogenic pathway through a red/far-red photoreceptor. In addition, at high irradiance the response would occur most likely through photosystems II and I acting as sensors of light quantity, that can be strongly modified by the red/far-red photomorphogenic system. Thus, cAMP would be involved in sensing the overall light environment. PMID:12962638

  9. Role of cyclic GMP in the mediation of circadian rhythmicity of the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase system in Euglena.

    PubMed

    Tong, J; Edmunds, L N

    1993-05-25

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) are two second messengers that have been proposed to act as a dualistic system in biological regulation. To determine if cGMP plays a role in the mediation of circadian rhythmicity of the adenylate cyclase (AC)-cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) system in the achlorophyllous ZC mutant of the unicellular flagellate Euglena, the levels of cAMP and cGMP were monitored in synchronized cell populations, and the effects of the cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) and the cGMP inhibitor 6-anilinoquinoline-5,8-quinone (LY 83583) on the activity of AC and PDE, as well as on the level of cAMP, were measured in vivo. A bimodal, 24-hr rhythm of cGMP content was found in both dividing and nondividing cultures in either a 12-hr:12-hr light-dark cycle or constant darkness. The peaks and troughs of the cGMP rhythm occurred 2 hr in advance of those of the cAMP rhythm that has been reported previously. The addition of 8-Br-cGMP at different circadian times increased the cAMP level in vivo by two to five times, whereas LY 83583 reduced the amplitude of the cAMP rhythm so that it disappeared. The effects of 8-Br-cGMP on the activity of AC and PDE were circadian phase-dependent and consistent with the changes in cAMP content. These findings suggest that cGMP may serve as an upstream effector that mediates the cAMP oscillation by regulation of the AC-cAMP-PDE system. PMID:8390260

  10. CCR-08-0827 Version 2 Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Goldhoff, Patricia; Warrington, Nicole; Limbrick, David D.; Hope, Andrew; Woerner, B. Mark; Jackson, Erin; Perry, Arie; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2008-01-01

    Statement of Clinical Relevance Therapies that can overcome the resistance of malignant brain tumors would be a major clinical advance. Here, we investigate the role of cAMP Phosphodiesterase-4 in stimulating brain tumor growth and the therapeutic utility of cAMP Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Cyclic AMP Phosphodiesterase-4 was widely expressed in human brain tumors of glial and neuronal lineage, and forced expression of PDE4A1 accelerated intracranial glioblastoma and medulloblastoma xenograft growth. Moreover, targeted inhibition of PDE4, in combination with standard radiation and chemotherapy, induced a unique regression of established intracranial glioblastoma xenografts. These findings identify PDE4 as a novel molecular target for brain tumor therapy and indicate that PDE4 inhibition should be evaluated in clinical trials for malignant brain tumors. Purpose As favorable outcomes from malignant brain tumors remain limited by poor survival and treatment-related toxicity, novel approaches to cure are essential. Previously, we identified the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor Rolipram as a potent anti-tumor agent. Here, we investigate the role of PDE4 in brain tumors and examine the utility of PDE4 as a therapeutic target. Experimental Design Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression pattern of a subfamily of PDE4, PDE4A, in multiple brain tumor types. To evaluate the effect of PDE4A on growth, a brain-specific isoform, PDE4A1 was overexpressed in xenografts of Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells. To determine therapeutic potential of PDE4 inhibition, Rolipram, temozolomide, and radiation were tested alone and in combination on mice bearing intracranial U87 xenografts. Results We found that PDE4A is expressed in medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma and meningioma. Moreover, when PDE4A1 was overexpressed in Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells, in vivo doubling times were significantly shorter for PDE4A1 overexpressing xenografts compared to controls. In long-term survival and bioluminescence studies, Rolipram in combination with first-line therapy for malignant gliomas (temozolomide and conformal radiation therapy) enhanced the survival of mice bearing intracranial xenografts of U87 glioblastoma cells. Bioluminescence imaging indicated that while temozolomide and radiation therapy arrested intracranial tumor growth, the addition of Rolipram to this regimen resulted in tumor regression. Conclusion This study shows that PDE4 is widely expressed in brain tumors and promotes their growth, and that inhibition with Rolipram overcomes tumor resistance and mediates tumor regression. PMID:19047098

  11. The prostaglandin E2/EP4 receptor/cyclic AMP/T-type Ca(2+) channel pathway mediates neuritogenesis in sensory neuron-like ND7/23 cells.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Maeda, Takashi; Tanaka, Yukari; Yoshida, Shigeru; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2016-03-01

    We investigated mechanisms for the neuritogenesis caused by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in sensory neuron-like ND7/23 cells. PGE2 caused neuritogenesis, an effect abolished by an EP4 receptor antagonist or inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase (AC) or protein kinase A (PKA) and mimicked by the AC activator forskolin, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), and selective activators of PKA or Epac. ND7/23 cells expressed both Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels (T-channels). The neuritogenesis induced by db-cAMP or PGE2 was abolished by T-channel blockers. T-channels were functionally upregulated by db-cAMP. The PGE2/EP4/cAMP/T-channel pathway thus appears to mediate neuritogenesis in sensory neurons. PMID:27032908

  12. Suppression of Virulence of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae by Anethole through the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein Signaling System

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, M. Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chatterjee, Shruti; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Faruque, Shah M.; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Use of natural compounds as antivirulence drugs could be an alternative therapeutic approach to modify the outcome of bacterial infections, particularly in view of growing resistance to available antimicrobials. Here, we show that sub-bactericidal concentration of anethole, a component of sweet fennel seed, could suppress virulence potential in O1 El Tor biotype strains of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic. The expression of cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), the major virulence factors of V. cholerae, is controlled through a regulatory cascade involving activation of ToxT with synergistic coupling interaction of ToxR/ToxS with TcpP/TcpH. We present evidence that anethole inhibits in vitro expression of CT and TCP in a toxT-dependent but toxR/toxS-independent manner and through repression of tcpP/tcpH, by using bead-ELISA, western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a well-studied global signaling system in bacterial pathogens, and this complex is known to suppress expression of tcpP/tcpH in V. cholerae. We find that anethole influences the virulence regulatory cascade by over-expressing cyaA and crp genes. Moreover, suppression of toxigenic V. cholerae-mediated fluid accumulation in ligated ileum of rabbit by anethole demonstrates its potentiality as an antivirulence drug candidate against the diseases caused by toxigenic V. cholerae. Taken altogether, these results revealing a mechanism of virulence inhibition in V. cholerae by the natural compound anethole, may have relevance in designing antivirulence compounds, particularly against multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:26361388

  13. Suppression of Virulence of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae by Anethole through the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein Signaling System.

    PubMed

    Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chatterjee, Shruti; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Faruque, Shah M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Use of natural compounds as antivirulence drugs could be an alternative therapeutic approach to modify the outcome of bacterial infections, particularly in view of growing resistance to available antimicrobials. Here, we show that sub-bactericidal concentration of anethole, a component of sweet fennel seed, could suppress virulence potential in O1 El Tor biotype strains of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic. The expression of cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), the major virulence factors of V. cholerae, is controlled through a regulatory cascade involving activation of ToxT with synergistic coupling interaction of ToxR/ToxS with TcpP/TcpH. We present evidence that anethole inhibits in vitro expression of CT and TCP in a toxT-dependent but toxR/toxS-independent manner and through repression of tcpP/tcpH, by using bead-ELISA, western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a well-studied global signaling system in bacterial pathogens, and this complex is known to suppress expression of tcpP/tcpH in V. cholerae. We find that anethole influences the virulence regulatory cascade by over-expressing cyaA and crp genes. Moreover, suppression of toxigenic V. cholerae-mediated fluid accumulation in ligated ileum of rabbit by anethole demonstrates its potentiality as an antivirulence drug candidate against the diseases caused by toxigenic V. cholerae. Taken altogether, these results revealing a mechanism of virulence inhibition in V. cholerae by the natural compound anethole, may have relevance in designing antivirulence compounds, particularly against multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:26361388

  14. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) Receptor Protein-cAMP Complex Regulates Heparosan Production in Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huihui; Bao, Feifei; Zhao, Liping; Yu, Yanying; Tang, Jiaqin; Zhou, Xianxuan

    2015-11-01

    Heparosan serves as the starting carbon backbone for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin, a widely used clinical anticoagulant drug. The availability of heparosan is a significant concern for the cost-effective synthesis of bioengineered heparin. The carbon source is known as the pivotal factor affecting heparosan production. However, the mechanism by which carbon sources control the biosynthesis of heparosan is unclear. In this study, we found that the biosynthesis of heparosan was influenced by different carbon sources. Glucose inhibits the biosynthesis of heparosan, while the addition of either fructose or mannose increases the yield of heparosan. Further study demonstrated that the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex binds to the upstream region of the region 3 promoter and stimulates the transcription of the gene cluster for heparosan biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRP binding site abolished its capability of binding CRP and eliminated the stimulative effect on transcription. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was further performed to determine the Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) heparosan structure and quantify extracellular heparosan production. Our results add to the understanding of the regulation of heparosan biosynthesis and may contribute to the study of other exopolysaccharide-producing strains. PMID:26319872

  15. Functional roles of arcA, etrA, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein, and cya in the arsenate respiration pathway in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Julie N; Durbin, K James; Saltikov, Chad W

    2009-02-01

    Microbial arsenate respiration can enhance arsenic release from arsenic-bearing minerals--a process that can cause arsenic contamination of water. In Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, the arsenate respiration genes (arrAB) are induced under anaerobic conditions with arsenate and arsenite. Here we report how genes that encode anaerobic regulator (arcA and etrA [fnr homolog]) and carbon catabolite repression (crp and cya) proteins affect arsenate respiration in ANA-3. Transcription of arcA, etrA, and crp in ANA-3 was similar in cells grown on arsenate and cells grown under aerobic conditions. ANA-3 strains lacking arcA and etrA showed minor to moderate growth defects, respectively, with arsenate. However, crp was essential for growth on arsenate. In contrast to the wild-type strain, arrA was not induced in the crp mutant in cultures shifted from aerobic to anaerobic conditions containing arsenate. This indicated that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cyclic AMP receptor (CRP) activates arr operon transcription. Computation analysis for genome-wide CRP binding motifs identified a putative binding motif within the arr promoter region. This was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with cAMP-CRP and several DNA probes. Lastly, four putative adenylate cyclase (cya) genes were identified in the genome. One particular cya-like gene was differentially expressed under aerobic versus arsenate respiration conditions. Moreover, a double mutant lacking two of the cya-like genes could not grow with arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor; exogenous cAMP could complement growth of the double cya mutant. It is concluded that the components of the carbon catabolite repression system are essential to regulating arsenate respiratory reduction in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. PMID:19060154

  16. Cyclic AMP-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase of glioma and neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bachrach, U

    1975-01-01

    The activity of ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17; L-ornithine carboxy-lyase) of C6-BU-1 glioma and N115 neuroblastoma cells increases significantly when confluent cultures are treated with compounds that increase cellular cAMP levels. These include norepinephrine or isoproterenol, and prostaglandin E1 or adenosine, which stimulate ornithine decarboxylase activity in C6-BU-1 glioma and N115 neuroblastoma cells, respectively. Ornithine decarboxylase activity is also elevated in confluent C6-BU-1 glioma cells treated with dibutyrylcAMP and theophylline, or after the glioma cells are fed with a serum-depleted medium in the presence of catecholamines and inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. The activity of the enzyme increases 500- to 1000-fold, 2-6 hr after stationary-phase N115 neuroblastoma cells are fed with a serum-free medium, supplemented with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenosine, or prostaglandin E1. This stimulation is antagonized by carbamoyl choline and is blocked by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. These results suggest that the synthesis of ornithine decarboxylase of C6-BU-1 glioma and N115 neuroblastoma cells is controlled by cAMP. PMID:171652

  17. Cyclic Amp-Dependent Resuscitation of Dormant Mycobacteria by Exogenous Free Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Shleeva, Margarita; Goncharenko, Anna; Kudykina, Yuliya; Young, Danielle; Young, Michael; Kaprelyants, Arseny

    2013-01-01

    One third of the world population carries a latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, which may reactivate leading to active disease. Although TB latency has been known for many years it remains poorly understood. In particular, substances of host origin, which may induce the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, have not yet been described. In vitro models of dormant (“non-culturable”) cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis (mc2155) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were used. We found that the resuscitation of dormant M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells in liquid medium was stimulated by adding free unsaturated fatty acids (FA), including arachidonic acid, at concentrations of 1.6–10 µM. FA addition enhanced cAMP levels in reactivating M. smegmatis cells and exogenously added cAMP (3–10 mM) or dibutyryl-cAMP (0.5–1 mM) substituted for FA, causing resuscitation of M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis dormant cells. A M. smegmatis null-mutant lacking MSMEG_4279, which encodes a FA-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC), could not be resuscitated by FA but it was resuscitated by cAMP. M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells hyper-expressing AC were unable to form non-culturable cells and a specific inhibitor of AC (8-bromo-cAMP) prevented FA-dependent resuscitation. RT-PCR analysis revealed that rpfA (coding for resuscitation promoting factor A) is up-regulated in M. smegmatis in the beginning of exponential growth following the cAMP increase in lag phase caused by FA-induced cell activation. A specific Rpf inhibitor (4-benzoyl-2-nitrophenylthiocyanate) suppressed FA-induced resuscitation. We propose a novel pathway for the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria involving the activation of adenylyl cyclase MSMEG_4279 by FAs resulted in activation of cellular metabolism followed later by increase of RpfA activity which stimulates cell multiplication in exponential phase. The study reveals a probable role for lipids of host origin in the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, which may function during the reactivation of latent TB. PMID:24376605

  18. The effects of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides on cyclic AMP and tyrosinase in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Farah, J M; Bishop, J F; Nguyen, H Q; O'Donohue, T L

    1986-01-01

    Des-, mono-, and diacetylated melanotropin (des-, mono-, and di-Ac MSH, respectively) were compared for their dose-related effects on content of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and tyrosinase activity in the Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma tumor. Des-Ac MSH was more potent than the acetylated forms of MSH at increasing cellular levels of cAMP; mono- and di-Ac MSHs, however, were more potent than des-Ac MSH at elevating the activity of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Lysine-gamma1 MSH, a melanotropin from the amino terminus of pro-opiomelanocortin, exhibited slight stimulatory effects on tyrosinase and these actions were less than additive to those of mono-Ac MSH. Unlike their actions on amphibian skin-darkening or in mammalian behavior, neither beta-endorphin1-31 nor its derivatives, N-Ac-beta-endorphin1-27 or beta-endorphin30-31 (glycylglutamine), exhibited any influence on tyrosinase activity evoked by mono-Ac MSH in the tumor cells. PMID:3022251

  19. Cyclic-AMP Mediated Regulation of ABCB mRNA Expression in Mussel Haemocytes

    PubMed Central

    Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Background The multixenobiotic resistance system (MXR) allows aquatic organisms to cope with their habitat despite high pollution levels by over-expressing membrane and intracellular transporters, including the P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In mammals transcription of the ABCB1 gene encoding Pgp is under cAMP/PKA-mediated regulation; whether this is true in mollusks is not fully clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings cAMP/PKA regulation and ABCB mRNA expression were assessed in haemocytes from Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed in vivo for 1 week to 0.3 ng/L fluoxetine (FX) alone or in combination with 0.3 ng/L propranolol (PROP). FX significantly decreased cAMP levels and PKA activity, and induced ABCB mRNA down-regulation. FX effects were abolished in the presence of PROP. In vitro experiments using haemocytes treated with physiological agonists (noradrenaline and serotonin) and pharmacological modulators (PROP, forskolin, dbcAMP, and H89) of the cAMP/PKA system were performed to obtain clear evidence about the involvement of the signaling pathway in the transcriptional regulation of ABCB. Serotonin (5-HT) decreased cAMP levels, PKA activity and ABCB mRNA expression but increased the mRNA levels for a putative 5-HT1 receptor. Interestingly, 5-HT1 was also over-expressed after in vivo exposures to FX. 5-HT effects were counteracted by PROP. Forskolin and dbcAMP increased PKA activity as well as ABCB mRNA expression; the latter effect was abolished in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H89. Conclusions This study provides the first direct evidence for the cAMP/PKA-mediated regulation of ABCB transcription in mussels. PMID:23593491

  20. Beta-adrenergic regulation of a myocardial actin gene via a cyclic AMP-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Bishopric, N H; Sato, B; Webster, K A

    1992-10-15

    The skeletal alpha-actin gene encodes a major component of the embryonic cardiac sarcomere that is strongly and selectively re-induced during beta-adrenoceptor-mediated hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. We present evidence that beta-adrenergic induction of this gene is mediated, not by cAMP, but by a calcium-dependent pathway involving ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores. Nifedipine-induced blockade of the plasma membrane L-type calcium entry channel prevented induction of skeletal alpha-actin mRNA by isoproterenol. Activation of calcium entry by the dihydropyridine agonist Bay K8644 independently induced skeletal alpha-actin mRNA, as did cholera toxin-mediated activation of Gs. Induction of skeletal alpha-actin mRNA by compounds that directly elevate cAMP was weak relative to their effects on other cAMP-dependent phenomena and required calcium entry. In addition, selective inhibition of protein kinase A with KT5720 did not block beta-adrenergic induction of skeletal alpha-actin. Calcium ionophore A23187 did not induce skeletal actin, but prevented its induction by isoproterenol. Ryanodine had bimodal effects: 10(-10) M ryanodine induced skeletal alpha-actin mRNA, whereas 10(-6) M ryanodine prevented skeletal actin induction by beta-adrenergic stimuli. We postulate that beta-adrenergic stimulation of skeletal alpha-actin mRNA requires G-protein-coupled calcium channel activation and compartmentalized calcium release in a manner independent of the cAMP/protein kinase A signal pathway. PMID:1383212

  1. Cyclic AMP Mimics the Anti-ageing Effects of Calorie Restriction by Up-Regulating Sirtuin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuoran; Zhang, Lu; Liang, Yaru; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Zhiyu; Zhang, Lang; Fuji, Ryosuke; Mu, Wei; Li, Liyuan; Jiang, Junjun; Ju, Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays an important role in many biological processes as a second messenger, and cAMP treatment has been reported to extend the lifespan of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Our study showed that exogenous cAMP improved ageing-related phenotypes by increasing the protein level of Sirtuins, which prevented metabolic disorders to mimic the effect of calorie restriction. Experiments in vitro showed that cAMP directly bound to SIRT1 and SIRT3 and consequently increased their activity. These findings suggest that cAMP slows the ageing process and is a good candidate to mimic calorie restriction. Our research provides a promising therapeutic strategy to target metabolic disorder-induced ageing-related diseases. PMID:26153625

  2. Purification, characterization and analysis of rolipram inhibition of a human type-IVA cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase expressed in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M; Sullivan, M; Brown, N; Houslay, M D

    1994-01-01

    Analyses were done on a human type-IV cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (hPDE-IVA-h6.1) expressed in an engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This strain (YMS6) expressed soluble PDE activity, together with an insoluble activity which was not released by re-homogenization, treatment with high-ionic-strength solutions or with the detergent Triton X-100. Pellet and soluble PDE activities were typical of type-IV PDE. They were cAMP-specific, insensitive to the addition of either cGMP (1 microM) or Ca2+/calmodulin, and inhibited by rolipram. Thermostability studies showed both activities to decay as single exponentials, indicating the presence of homogeneous PDE protein species in each fraction. Pellet PDE activity was more thermostable than the soluble enzyme. Mg2+ and Mn2+ dose-dependently increased PDE activity and reversed the inactivating effect of EDTA.h6.1 was engineered to express a C-terminal five-histidine motif (h6.1his5). This allowed purification of the PDE to apparent homogeneity in a simple two-step process involving a rolipram affinity column and a Ni2(+)-chelate column. A single monomeric protein of subunit molecular mass approximately 73 kDa and native molecular mass approximately 74 kDa resulted after a approximately 53000-fold purification. This exhibited a Km for cAMP of 8 microM, a true Vmax. of 0.8 mumol of cAMP hydrolysed/min per mg of PDE protein, a kcat. of 3702 s-1, and a value of the specificity constant kcat/Km of 4.6 x 10(8) M-1.s-1, the last implying a diffusion controlled reaction. Rolipram (Ki 0.4 soluble; 0.7 microM pellet) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (Ki 15 soluble; 19 microM pellet) served as simple competitive inhibitors for both soluble and pellet forms of h6.1, respectively. Images Figure 1 PMID:7528009

  3. Regulation of cyclic AMP metabolism by prostaglandins in rabbit cortical collecting tubule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenburg, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    In the rabbit cortical collecting tubule (RCCT), prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) and prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) at 1 nM inhibit arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-induced water reabsorption, while 100 nM PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/ alone stimulate water reabsorption. Reported here are studies designed to investigate the molecular basis for the biphasic physiological action of PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/ in the collecting duct. In freshly isolated RCCT cells, PGE/sub 1/, PGE/sub 2/, and 16,16-dimethyl-PGE/sub 2/ (DM-PGE/sub 2/) stimulated cAMP synthesis at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 M. Other prostaglandins including the synthetic PGE/sub 2/ analogue, sulprostone, failed to stimulate cAMP synthesis. Moreover, sulprostone did not antagonize PGE/sub 2/-stimulated cAMP formation. In contrast, PGE/sub 2/ and sulprostone at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 nM, inhibited AVP-induced cAMP accumulation in freshly isolated RCCT cells. PGE/sub 2/, PGE/sub 1/, DM-PGE/sub 2/ and sulprostone at 100 nM were equally effective in inhibiting AVP-induced cAMP formation. Moreover sulprostone inhibited AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. These results suggest that PGE derivatives mediate either inhibition or activation of adenylate cyclase by stimulating different PGE receptors. To further test this concept, PGE/sub 2/ binding to freshly isolated RCCT cell membranes was characterized. Two different classes of PGE/sub 2/ binding were detected. //sup 3/H/PGE/sub 2/ binding to the high affinity class of sites was increased by the GTP-analogue, GTP S, while pertussis toxin pretreatment blocked the stimulatory action. In contrast, //sup 3/H/ PGE/sub 2/ binding to the low affinity class of sites was decreased by GTP S; this inhibitory effect was not blocked by pertussis toxin pretreatment.

  4. Parathyroid hormone promotes the disassembly of cytoskeletal actin and myosin in cultured osteoblastic cells: Mediation by cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, J.J.; Gronowicz, G.; Rodan, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) alters the shape of osteoblastic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we examined the effect of PTH on cytoskeletal actin and myosin, estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Triton X-100 (1%) nonextractable proteins. After 2-5 minutes, PTH caused a rapid and transient decrease of 50-60% in polymerized actin and myosin associated with the Triton X-100 nonextractable cytoskeleton. Polymerized actin returned to control levels by 30 min. The PTH effect was dose-dependent with an IC50 of about 1 nM, and was partially inhibited by the (3-34) PTH antagonist. PTH caused a rapid transient rise in cyclic AMP (cAMP) in these cells that peaked at 4 min, while the nadir in cytoskeletal actin and myosin was recorded around 5 min. The intracellular calcium chelator Quin-2/AM (10 microM) also decreased cytoskeletal actin and myosin, to the same extent as did PTH (100 nM). To distinguish between cAMP elevation and Ca++ reduction as mediators of PTH action, we measured the phosphorylation of the 20 kD (PI 4.9) myosin light chain in cells preincubated with (32P)-orthophosphate. The phosphorylation of this protein decreased within 2-3 min after PTH addition and returned to control levels after 5 min. The calcium ionophore A-23187 did not antagonize this PTH effect. Visualization of microfilaments with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin showed that PTH altered the cytoskeleton by decreasing the number of stress fibers. These changes in the cytoskeleton paralleled changes in the shape of the cells from a spread configuration to a stellate form with retracting processes. The above findings indicate that the alteration in osteoblast shape produced by PTH involve relatively rapid and transient changes in cytoskeletal organization that appear to be mediated by cAMP.

  5. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein lysine acylation in mycobacteria regulates fatty acid and propionate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Gupta, Kallol; Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee; Ramakrishnan, Parvathy; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Siddiqui, Nida; Thomas, Ann Terene; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2013-05-17

    Acetylation of lysine residues is a posttranslational modification that is used by both eukaryotes and prokaryotes to regulate a variety of biological processes. Here we identify multiple substrates for the cAMP-dependent protein lysine acetyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KATmt). We demonstrate that a catalytically important lysine residue in a number of FadD (fatty acyl CoA synthetase) enzymes is acetylated by KATmt in a cAMP-dependent manner and that acetylation inhibits the activity of FadD enzymes. A sirtuin-like enzyme can deacetylate multiple FadDs, thus completing the regulatory cycle. Using a strain deleted for the KATmt ortholog in Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), we show for the first time that acetylation is dependent on intracellular cAMP levels. KATmt can utilize propionyl CoA as a substrate and, therefore, plays a critical role in alleviating propionyl CoA toxicity in mycobacteria by inactivating acyl CoA synthetase (ACS). The precision by which mycobacteria can regulate the metabolism of fatty acids in a cAMP-dependent manner appears to be unparalleled in other biological organisms and is ideally suited to adapt to the complex environment that pathogenic mycobacteria experience in the host. PMID:23553634

  6. Cyclic AMP-mediated endocytosis of intestinal epithelial NHE3 requires binding to synaptotagmin 1

    PubMed Central

    Musch, Mark W.; Arvans, Donna L.; Wang, Yunwei; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Solomaha, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The apical membrane Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE)3 is regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, which inhibits its activity through membrane endocytosis. The clathrin complex adaptor protein synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) appears to be essential to this process, but little is known about its expression in intestinal epithelial cells or interaction with NHE3. The intestinal epithelial expression and apical location of Syt 1 were determined by Syt 1 mRNA profiling and immunolocalization. Tandem mass spectrometry was used for protein identification. Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) cross linking suggested that NHE3 and Syt 1 were in a membrane complex following cAMP stimulation of Caco2BBE (Brush Border Expressions) cells. To investigate the regulation of NHE3 appearance in a Syt 1-containing membrane compartment, doxycycline-inducible hemaglutinin (HA)-tagged NHE3 was expressed in Caco2BBE cells. HA-NHE3 correctly targeted to the apical membrane, where, upon cAMP stimulation, it was internalized with a Syt 1-containing compartment. Site-directed mutagenesis of NHE3 showed that serine 605 (S605) was pivotal to NHE3 and Syt 1 association and internalization. Direct Syt 1 interaction with NHE3 was suggested by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. The physiological role of S552 was less clear. By FRET, this serine residue appeared to be involved in cAMP-induced Syt 1 binding of NHE3. However, when HA-tagged NHE3 S552A was expressed in Caco2 cells, the mutated construct was not inserted into the apical membrane. We conclude that intestinal epithelial Syt 1 plays an important role in cAMP-stimulated endocytosis of apical NHE3 through cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of S605 that is required for NHE3 and Syt 1 association. PMID:19926819

  7. Dose and chemical modification considerations for continuous cyclic AMP analog delivery to the injured CNS.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Karim; Ghosh, Mousumi; Vavrek, Romana; Tse, Arthur D; Pearse, Damien D

    2009-05-01

    In this investigation, two cell-permeable synthetic analogs of cAMP, dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) and 8-bromo-cAMP, which are widely used to elevate intracellular cAMP levels under experimental conditions, were investigated for their ability to dose-dependently improve histological and functional outcomes following continuous delivery in two models of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The cAMP analogs were delivered via osmotic minipumps at 1-250 mM through an indwelling cortical cannula or by intrathecal infusion for up to 4 weeks after either a T8 unilateral over-hemisection or a C2-3 dorsolateral quadrant lesion, respectively. In both SCI models, continuous db-cAMP delivery was associated with histopathological changes that included sporadic micro-hemorrhage formation and cavitation, enhanced macrophage infiltration and tissue damage at regions beyond the immediate application site; no deleterious or beneficial effect of agent delivery was observed at the spinal injury site. Furthermore, these changes were accompanied by pronounced behavioral deficits that included an absence of progressive locomotor recovery, increased extensor tone, paralysis, and sensory abnormalities. These deleterious effects were not observed in saline-treated animals, in animals in which the db-cAMP dose did not exceed 1 mM, or in those animals that received a high dose (250 mM) of the alternative cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP. These results demonstrate that, for continuous intraparenchymal or intrathecal administration of cAMP analogs for the study of biological or therapeutic effects within the central nervous system (CNS), consideration of the effective concentration applied as well as the potential toxicity of chemical moieties on the parent molecule and/or their activity needs to be taken into account. PMID:19397425

  8. Cyclic AMP efflux, via MRPs and A1 adenosine receptors, is critical for bovine sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Osycka-Salut, Claudia; Diez, Federico; Burdet, Juliana; Gervasi, María Gracia; Franchi, Ana; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Sperm capacitation has been largely associated with an increase in cAMP, although its relevance in the underlying mechanisms of this maturation process remains elusive. Increasing evidence shows that the extrusion of cAMP through multidrug resistance associated protein 4 (MRP4) regulates cell homeostasis not only in physiological but also in pathophysiological situations and studies from our laboratory strongly support this assumption. In the present work we sought to establish the role of cAMP efflux in the regulation of sperm capacitation. Sperm capacitation was performed in vitro by exposing bovine spermatozoa to bicarbonate 40 and 70 mM; cAMP; probenecid (a MRPs general inhibitor) and an adenosine type 1 receptor (A1 adenosine receptor) selective antagonist (DPCPX). Capacitation was assessed by chlortetracycline assay and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction assessed by PSA-FITC staining. Intracellular and extracellular cAMP was measured by radiobinding the regulatory subunit of PKA under the same experimental conditions. MRP4 was detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Results showed that the inhibition of soluble adenylyl cyclase significantly inhibited bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. Furthermore, in the presence of 40 and 70 mM bicarbonate bovine spermatozoa synthesized and extruded cAMP. Interestingly, in the absence of IBMX (a PDEs inhibitor) cAMP efflux still operated in sperm cells, suggesting that cAMP extrusion would be a physiological process in the spermatozoa complementary to the action of PDE. Blockade of MRPs by probenecid abolished the efflux of the cyclic nucleotide resulting not only in the accumulation of intracellular cAMP but also in the inhibition of bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. The effect of probenecid was abolished by exposing sperm cells to cAMP. The high-affinity efflux pump for cAMP, MRP4 was expressed in bovine spermatozoa and localized to the midpiece of the tail as previously reported for soluble adenylyl cyclase and A1 adenosine receptor. Additionally, blockade of A1 adenosine receptor abolished not only bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation but also that stimulated by cAMP. Present findings strongly support that cAMP efflux, presumably through MRP4, and the activation of A1 adenosine receptor regulate some events associated with bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation, and further suggest a paracrine and/or autocrine role for cAMP. PMID:23907162

  9. The insulin- and glucagon-stimulated 'dense-vesicle' high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase from rat liver. Purification, characterization and inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, N J; Cooper, M E; Houslay, M D

    1987-01-01

    The hormone-stimulated 'dense-vesicle' cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase was solubilized as a proteolytically 'clipped' species, and purified to apparent homogeneity from rat liver with a 2000-3000-fold purification and a 13-18% yield. It appeared to be a dimer (Mr 112,000), of two Mr-57,000 subunits. Solubilization of either a liver or a hepatocyte membrane fraction, with sodium cholate in the presence of the protein inhibitor benzamidine, identified three protein bands which could be immunoprecipitated by a polyclonal antibody raised against the pure enzyme. The major band at Mr 62,000 is suggested to be the native 'dense-vesicle' enzyme, having a Mr-5000 extension which serves to anchor this enzyme to the membrane and which is cleaved off during proteolytic solubilization; the Mr-200,000 band is an aggregate of the Mr-62,000 species, and the Mr-63,000 species is possibly a precursor. The purified 'clipped' enzyme hydrolysed cyclic AMP with kinetics indicative of apparent negative co-operativity, with a Hill coefficient (h) of 0.43 and limiting kinetic constants of Km1 = 0.3 +/- 0.05 microM, Km2 = 29 +/- 6 microM, Vmax.1 = 0.114 +/- 0.015 unit/mg of protein and Vmax.2 = 0.633 +/- 0.054 unit/mg of protein. It hydrolysed cyclic GMP with Michaelis kinetics, Km = 10 +/- 1 microM and Vmax. = 4.1 +/- 0.2 units/mg of protein. Cyclic GMP was a potent inhibitor of cyclic AMP hydrolysis, with an IC50 (concn. giving 50% inhibition) of 0.20 +/- 0.01 microM-cyclic GMP when assayed at 0.1 microM-cyclic AMP. This enzyme was inhibited potently by several drugs known to exert positive inotropic effects on the heart, was extremely thermolabile, with a half-life of 4.5 +/- 0.5 min at 40 degrees C, and was shown to be distinct from the rat liver insulin-stimulated peripheral-plasma-membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase [Marchmont, Ayad & Houslay (1981) Biochem. J. 195, 645-652]. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:3036087

  10. Functional incorporation of ganglioside into intact cells: induction of choleragen responsiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, J; Fishman, P H; Manganiello, V C; Vaughan, M; Brady, R O

    1976-01-01

    NCTC 2071 cells are unable to synthesize the monosialoganglioside GM1. When grown in chemically defined medium these cells contained no detectable GM1 and did not accumulate 3': 5'-cyclic AMP in response to choleragen. Incubation of the cells with [3H]GM1 permitted quantification of ganglioside uptake which was dependent on time and concentration of [3H]GM1 in the medium. Responsiveness to choleragen was demonstrated with binding of as few as 17,000 molecules of [3H]GM1 per cell; a maximal response was observed with 10(5) molecules per cell. With increasing cellular content of GM1, the rate of rise in intracellular cyclic AMP in response to choleragen was increased. With greater than 1 X 10(5) molecules of GM1 per cell, the delay between addition of choleragen and the cyclic AMP response was inversely proportional to choleragen concentration; less than 250 molecules of choleragen per cell caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP after 8 hr of incubation. Although the responsiveness of intact cells to choleragen was dependent on GM1, choleragen activation of adenylate cyclase in homogenates with 0.6 mM NAD was independent of added ganglioside. These observations are consistent with the view that exogenous ganglioside GM1 can be functionally integrated into the surface membrane of intact cells and serve as the choleragen receptor. Furthermore, although exogenous GM1 is required for choleragen responsiveness in intact cells, the ganglioside does not play an obligatory role in cell homogenates, where the surface receptor can presumably be bypassed. Images PMID:177969

  11. Phosphorylation of threonine and serine residues of native and partially dephosphorylated caseins by a rat liver cyclic AMP-insensitive protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Deana, D; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    1979-01-01

    The preferential phosphorylation of threonine residues of native casein fractions by a rat liver cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) is abolished by preliminary limited dephosphorylation of the substrates, which promotes a fall in the phosphothreonine/phosphoserine ratios from values higher than 1 to much less than 0.1. This finding and the identification of the threonine residues phosphorylated support the view that the liver protein kinase affects threonine residues only when suitable serine residues, which fulfil the structural requirements for attack by the enzyme but which are not yet phosphorylated, are not available. PMID:224863

  12. Heterologous sensitization of recombinant adenylate cyclases by activation of D(2) dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Cumbay, M G; Watts, V J

    2001-06-01

    Persistent activation of Galpha(i/o)-coupled receptors results in an enhanced responsiveness of drug-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity through an unknown mechanism. This agonist-induced heterologous sensitization of drug-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation has been proposed to be a mechanism by which cells adapt to prolonged Galpha(i/o) activation. Heterologous sensitization was examined in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing D(2L) dopamine receptors in combination with recombinant isoforms of adenylate cyclase. The ability of each isoform to be differentially regulated by G protein subunits and other signaling intermediates allowed us to identify potential mechanisms that are involved in heterologous sensitization of adenylate cyclase. We now report that both short- and long-term activation of D(2L) dopamine receptors resulted in a marked degree of sensitization of ACI, ACII, ACV, and ACIX, but not ACVIII. The effects of agonist treatment on ACI, ACII, and ACVIII appeared to be dependent upon the ability of these adenylate cyclase isoforms to synergistically respond to selective activators in the presence of activated Galpha(s). Sensitization of ACV was characterized by enhanced cyclic AMP accumulation following Galpha(s) or forskolin stimulation. Furthermore, agonist pretreatment enhanced the basal levels of cyclic AMP accumulation in ACV/D(2L) cells, an effect that was not observed with the other adenylate cyclase isoforms. ACIX, which has no known activators other than Galpha(s), showed robust agonist-induced sensitization of isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. In summary, heterologous sensitization appeared to be related to the ability of each adenylate cyclase isoform to be modulated by Galpha(s). PMID:11356947

  13. Analysis of the Escherichia coli gene encoding L-asparaginase II, ansB, and its regulation by cyclic AMP receptor and FNR proteins.

    PubMed

    Jennings, M P; Beacham, I R

    1990-03-01

    Escherichia coli contains two L-asparaginase isozymes: L-asparaginase I, a low-affinity enzyme located in the cytoplasm, and L-asparaginase II, a high-affinity secreted enzyme. A molecular genetic analysis of the gene (ansA) encoding the former enzyme has previously been reported. We now present a molecular study of the gene, ansB, encoding L-asparaginase II. This gene was isolated by using oligonucleotide probes, whose sequences were based on the previously determined amino acid sequence. The nucleotide sequence of ansB, including 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions, was determined. The amino acid sequence of L-asparaginase II, deduced from this nucleotide sequence, contains differences at 11 positions when compared with the previously determined amino acid sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence also reveals a typical secretory signal peptide of 22 residues. A single region of sequence similarity is observed when ansA and ansB are compared. The transcriptional start site in ansB was determined, allowing the identification of the promoter region. The regulation of ansB was studied by using ansB'-'lacZ fusions, together with a deletion analysis of the 5' region upstream of the promoter. Regulation by cyclic AMP receptor protein and anaerobiosis (FNR protein) was confirmed, and the presence of nucleotide sequence motifs, with homology to cyclic AMP receptor protein and FNR protein-binding sites, investigated. PMID:2407723

  14. Dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein immunoreactive neurons are innervated by axon terminals immunopositive for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Kozicz, Tams

    2003-02-01

    The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are highly heterogeneous structures, which play a central role in the modulation and/or regulation of stress responses. The oval nucleus of the anterior division of BST (BSTov) and the CeA exhibit several dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) immunoreactive (ir) neurons. It has been demonstrated that DARPP-32, if phosphorylated, can inhibit protein-phophatase-1, thereby controlling other neuropeptide/neurotransmitter actions. In addition, a dense network of vasoactive polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactive axon terminals was also observed here. VIP, via its receptors, increases intracellular cAMP levels, therefore it can play an important role in regulating the phosphorylation of DARPP-32. Since the localization of DARPP-32- and VIP-ir neuronal structures overlaps in the BSTov and CeA, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible synaptic innervation of DARPP-32-ir neurons by fiber terminals immunopositive for VIP, to provide anatomical evidence for the interaction between a neuropeptide and a phosphoprotein. In summary, this study for the first time demonstrated that VIP-ir axon terminals innervate DARPP-32 perikarya and dendrites in the BSTov and CeA, which play an important role in the central autonomic regulation of stress responses. In addition, morphological evidence for possible interaction between neuropeptides and phosphoproteins was also provided at the electron microscopic level. PMID:12543476

  15. Cyclic AMP deficiency negatively affects cell growth and enhances stress-related responses in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sabetta, Wilma; Vannini, Candida; Sgobba, Alessandra; Marsoni, Milena; Paradiso, Annalisa; Ortolani, Francesca; Bracale, Marcella; Viggiano, Luigi; Blanco, Emanuela; de Pinto, Maria Concetta

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is a recognized second messenger; however, knowledge of cAMP involvement in plant physiological processes originates primarily from pharmacological studies. To obtain direct evidence for cAMP function in plants, tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells were transformed with the cAMP sponge, which is a genetically encoded tool that reduces cAMP availability. BY-2 cells expressing the cAMP sponge (cAS cells), showed low levels of free cAMP and exhibited growth inhibition that was not proportional to the cAMP sponge transcript level. Growth inhibition in cAS cells was closely related to the precocious inhibition of mitosis due to a delay in cell cycle progression. The cAMP deficiency also enhanced antioxidant systems. Remarkable changes occurred in the cAS proteomic profile compared with that of wild-type (WT) cells. Proteins involved in translation, cytoskeletal organization, and cell proliferation were down-regulated, whereas stress-related proteins were up-regulated in cAS cells. These results support the hypothesis that BY-2 cells sense cAMP deficiency as a stress condition. Finally, many proteasome subunits were differentially expressed in cAS cells compared with WT cells, indicating that cAMP signaling broadly affects protein degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. PMID:26786166

  16. The fungal teratogen secalonic acid D is an inhibitor of protein kinase C and of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, B H; Polya, G M

    1996-04-01

    The teratogenic metabolite secalonic acid D deriving from the ergot-producing, rye-infecting ascomycete fungus Claviceps purpurea and from Penicillum oxalicum is an inhibitor of Ca2+- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) and of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) (C50 values 15 microM and 12 microM, respectively). Secalonic acid D also inhibits Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and plant Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). The inhibition of cAK by secalonic acid D is competitive with respect to both peptide substrate and ATP. However, secalonic acid D does not inhibit a high-affinity nucleotide-binding phosphatase from potato. A variety of other naturally-occurring teratogenic agents are not inhibitors of the protein kinases examined. PMID:8657739

  17. Cyclic AMP stimulation of transferrin secretion by breast cancer cell grown on extracellular matrix or in two-compartment culture chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Vandewalle, B.; Hornez, L.; Revillion, F.; Lefebvre, J. )

    1991-06-28

    Extrahepatic synthesis and secretion of transferrin (Tf), the major iron-carrying protein, have been described in normal and tumoral tissues suggesting a potential role for paracrine or autocrine function. In breast tumor cell MCF-7, we have previously shown a Tf secretion stimulated by estradiol which might confer selective growth advantages of these rapidly proliferating cells. The present work refers to possible additional Tf functions related to differentiation of breast tumor cells. We induced MCF-7 cell differentiation by the cyclic AMP derivative, dibutyryl cAMP (dB cAMP) and studied Tf secretion in different culture conditions after labeling with (35S) methionine. Our results demonstrate that dB cAMP stimulates Tf secretion only in culture environment that permits access to the basolateral surface and caters to the polarity requirements of the cell. These results suggest that Tf may also act as a modulator of cellular differentiation in breast cancer cells.

  18. Effects of dopamine and acclimation to reduced salinity on the concentration of cyclic AMP in the gills of the green crab, Carcinus maenas (L).

    PubMed

    Sommer, M J; Mantel, L H

    1991-06-01

    Injection of 10(-5) M dopamine into adult green crabs increased the concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in all gills tested. Short-term acclimation (24 hr) of crabs to 40% seawater (sw) also increased the cAMP content of the posterior gills as compared to controls, an effect similar to that seen with injection of dopamine. However, when crabs were acclimated to reduced salinity for 2 weeks, the concentration of cAMP in the gills was not statistically different from that of gills from crabs in 100% sw. It is likely that the physiological effects of dopamine on gills are important in the early stages of acclimation and that they depend upon an increase in concentration of cAMP, which interacts with cellular proteins. PMID:1652531

  19. Rat pineal arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase: cyclic AMP inducibility of its gene depends on prior entrained photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Engel, Lydia; Mathes, Alexander; Schwerdtle, Isabell; Heinrich, Bettina; Pogorzelski, Benjamin; Holthues, Heike; Vollrath, Lutz; Spessert, Rainer

    2004-04-01

    The nocturnal biosynthesis of melatonin in the rat pineal depends on strongly enhanced expression of the enzyme N-acetyltransferase [arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT); EC 2.3.1.87]. AA-NAT transcription is stimulated during darkness by adrenergic inputs to the pineal from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Nocturnal activation of the AA-NAT promotor following stimulation of pinealocyte adrenoceptors involves cAMP-dependent stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA). The nocturnal rise in AA-NAT depends on the lighting conditions. As compared with light/dark (LD) 12:12, the delay between dark onset and the nocturnal rise in AA-NAT is shortened under long photoperiods and prolonged under short photoperiods. Here, we report that the rapidity of nocturnal AA-NAT induction depends on cAMP inducibility of the gene. Accordingly, cAMP produces a strong AA-NAT response in pineals obtained from rats housed under long photoperiods and a weak AA-NAT response under short photoperiods. Changes in AA-NAT inducibility are fully developed not earlier than after seven cycles. This observation suggests that long-term changes in the photoperiod are necessary to achieve full adjustment of cAMP inducibility of the gene. A direct relationship was found between cAMP-dependent AA-NAT inducibility and the pineal protein kinase A (PKA) activity. As compared to LD 12:12, PKA activity was increased under LD 20:4 and attenuated under LD 4:20. On the basis of the present findings, we suggest that the photoperiod determines the effectiveness of nocturnal AA-NAT induction by long-term modulation of the intrapineal pathway that transmits the cAMP signal to the AA-NAT gene. PMID:15046865

  20. Effect of beta-ADrenergic Agonist on Cyclic AMP Synthesis in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Because it seems logical that these agonists exert their action on muscle through stimulation of cAMP synthesis, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of cAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of cAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax levels were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of cAMP synthesis. In addition, the EC50 values for isoproterenol, cimaterol, clenbuterol, epinephrine, and albuterol were 360 nM, 630 nM, 900 nM, 2,470 nM, and 3,650 nM, respectively. Finally, dose response curves show that the concentrations of cimaterol and clenbuterol in culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals had no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP accumulation in chicken skeletal muscle cells.

  1. PD 102807, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist, discriminates between striatal and cortical muscarinic receptors coupled to cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Olianas, M C; Onali, P

    1999-01-01

    In membranes of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the cloned human M1-M4 muscarinic receptor subtypes, PD 102807, a novel M4 selective antagonist, was found to counteract the M4 receptor-induced stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to membrane G proteins with a pK(B) of 7.40, a value which was 63-, 33- and 10-fold higher than those displayed at M1 (pK(B) = 5.60), M2 (pK(B) = 5.88) and M3 (pK(B) = 6.39) receptor subtypes, respectively. In rat striatal membranes, PD 102807 antagonized the muscarinic inhibition of dopamine (DA) D1 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase with a pK(B) value of 7.36. In contrast, in membranes of rat frontal cortex, PD 102807 displayed lower potencies in antagonizing either the muscarinic facilitation of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (pK(B) = 5.79) or inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-stimulated enzyme activity (pK(B) = 5.95). In each response investigated, PD 102807 interacted with muscarinic receptors in a manner typical of a simple competitive antagonist. These data provide additional evidence that PD 102807 is a M4-receptor preferring antagonist and that this compound can discriminate the striatal muscarinic receptors inhibiting DA D1 receptor activity from the cortical receptors mediating the potentiation of CRH receptor signalling and the inhibition of Ca2+/CaM-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. PMID:10576595

  2. Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wang-Kyun; Song, Seung-Yong; Oh, Won Keun; Kaewsuwan, Sireewan; Tran, Tien Lam; Kim, Won-Serk; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2013-02-28

    Panax ginseng is considered as one of the most valuable medicinal herbs in traditional medicine, and ginsenoside Rd is one of the main active ingredients in P. ginseng leaf. Although there is significant number of evidences implicated on the beneficial effects of the ginsenosides with diverse associated mechanisms, reports on the skin regeneration by the ginsenoside Rd are not sufficient. Therefore, we examined the mitogenic and protective effects of the ginsenoside Rd in the keratinocyte progenitor cells (KPCs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Furthermore, the signaling pathways involved in the activation of KPCs and HDFs were investigated, and wound-healing effect is evaluated in vivo through animal wound models. We found that the ginsenoside Rd significantly increased the proliferation and migration level of KPCs and HDFs in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the cell survival was significantly increased in H2O2 treated KPCs. Moreover, the ginsenoside Rd effectively induced collagen type 1 and down-regulated matrix metalloprotinase-1 (MMP-1) in a dose-dependent manner. All of these beneficial effects are associated with an induction of intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein expression in nucleus, which both attenuated by adenine 9-β-d-arabinofuranoside, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor. Application of the ginsenoside Rd to an excision wound in mice showed an effective healing process. As skin regeneration is mainly associated with the activation of HDFs and KPCs, P. ginseng leaf, an alternative source of the ginsenoside Rd, can be used as a natural source for skin regeneration. PMID:23399764

  3. Cyclic AMP endogenously enhances synaptic strength of developing glutamatergic synapses in serum-free microcultures of rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lessmann, V; Heumann, R

    1997-07-18

    The time course of development of autaptic and synaptic connections and the contribution of endogenously activated cAMP signaling to the regulation of AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated synaptic transmission were studied in microcultures of isolated single hippocampal neurons or of pairs of neurons grown on astrocytic islands in serum-free culture medium. Standard whole cell patch clamp techniques were employed to monitor evoked and spontaneous autaptic and synaptic currents. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission became detectable after 4 days in vitro (DIV). After 9-10 DIV more than 80% of the neurons had developed glutamatergic autaptic and synaptic connections. Elevation of intracellular cAMP levels by application of forskolin (20 microM) or IBMX (200 microM) to autaptic neurons resulted in enhanced autaptic current amplitudes (forskolin: 146 +/- 9%, IBMX: 177 +/- 21% of control) and impaired paired pulse facilitation (PPF). Likewise, intracellular application of cAMP via the patch pipette into autaptic neurons or into the presynaptic neuron of a synaptically connected pair also resulted in enhanced autaptic/synaptic current amplitudes (170 +/- 16% of control). In contrast, injection of cAMP into the postsynaptic neuron of a synaptic pair failed to significantly enhance the synaptic responses. The magnitude of the cAMP-mediated enhancement depended on the initial autaptic/synaptic strength observed in an individual cell, with small autapses/synapses being enhanced more effectively. Application of an inhibitor of cAMP-mediated processes (Rp-cAMPS) reversibly reduced autaptic/synaptic current amplitudes (to 75 +/- 5% of control). Taken together, these results suggest that cAMP-mediated processes endogenously enhance the efficacy of developing glutamatergic autaptic and synaptic connections in serum-free microcultures of isolated hippocampal neurons. PMID:9272835

  4. Modulation of VEGF-induced endothelial cell cycle protein expression through cyclic AMP hydrolysis by PDE2 and PDE4.

    PubMed

    Favot, Laure; Keravis, Thérèse; Lugnier, Claire

    2004-09-01

    Endothelial cell proliferation in response to VEGF plays an important role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. The role of PDE2 and PDE4 in VEGF-induced proliferation in HUVEC was investigated: 1) VEGF increased cAMP-hydrolytic activity by up-regulating the expression of PDE2 and PDE4 isozymes; 2) VEGF increased progression in cell cycle with an increase in p42/p44 MAP kinase, cyclin A and cyclin D1 expressions and with a decrease in p21 waf1/cip1 and p27 kip1 expressions; 3) EHNA (20 micro M), a selective PDE2 inhibitor, RP73401 (10 micro M), a selective PDE4 inhibitor blocked the VEGF-induced increase in p42/p44 MAP kinase expression; 4) RP73401, but not EHNA, blocked the VEGF-induced increase in cyclin A and decrease in p27 kip1 expressions; 5) EHNA, contrary to RP73401, enhanced the VEGF-induced increase of cyclin A and decrease of p27 kip1. 6) EHNA and RP73401 together blocked the VEGF-induced increase in cyclin D1 and decrease in p21 waf1/cip1 expressions; 7) Inhibition of VEGF-upregulated PDE2 and PDE4 reversed the VEGF-induced alterations in cell cycle protein expression, bringing back endothelial cells to a non-proliferating status. Consequently, PDE2 and PDE4 inhibitions were able to inhibit VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation by restoring cell cycle key protein expression, and might thus be useful in excessive angiogenesis. Furthermore, the differences between PDE2 and PDE4 effects may suggest compartmentalized effects. PMID:15351862

  5. Cyclic nucleotide responses and radiation-induced mitotic delay in Physarum polycephalum

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.W.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1984-02-01

    The response of the plasmodial levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in Physarum polycephalum to several putative phosphodiesterase inhibitors and to ionizing radiation has been measured. Isobutylmethylxanthine (2 mM) induces a rapid transient threefold elevation of cyclic AMP alone, with maximum response in about 10 min and return to the base line in about 30 min. Theophylline (2 mM) induces a rapid, sustained twofold elevation of cyclic GMP only. Caffeine (2mM) and Ro-20-1724 (18 ..mu..M) both elicit a rapid transient rise in cyclic AMP, resembling the isobutylmethylxanthine response, and a slow transient elevation of the cyclic GMP level. Of particular interest is the rapid threefold transient elevation of the cyclic AMP, but not of the cyclic GMP, level by ..gamma.. radiation.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A-regulated genes reveals the production of the novel natural compound fumipyrrole by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Macheleidt, Juliane; Scherlach, Kirstin; Neuwirth, Toni; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Straßburger, Maria; Spraker, Joseph; Baccile, Joshua A; Schroeder, Frank C; Keller, Nancy P; Hertweck, Christian; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Brakhage, Axel A

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogenic fungus causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Adaptation to different habitats and also virulence of the fungus depends on signal perception and transduction by modules such as the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Here, by transcriptome analysis, 632 differentially regulated genes of this important signaling cascade were identified, including 23 putative transcriptional regulators. The highest upregulated transcription factor gene was located in a previously unknown secondary metabolite gene cluster, which we named fmp, encoding an incomplete non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, FmpE. Overexpression of the regulatory gene fmpR using the Tet(On) system led to the specific expression of the other six genes of the fmp cluster. Metabolic profiling of wild type and fmpR overexpressing strain by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-HRESI-MS and structure elucidation by NMR led to identification of 5-benzyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, which we named fumipyrrole. Fumipyrrole was not described as natural product yet. Chemical synthesis of fumipyrrole confirmed its structure. Interestingly, deletion of fmpR or fmpE led to reduced growth and sporulation of the mutant strains. Although fmp cluster genes were transcribed in infected mouse lungs, deletion of fmpR resulted in wild-type virulence in a murine infection model. PMID:25582336

  7. Regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: effects of the rpoD800 sigma mutation, glucose, and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, A D; Ullmann, A; Burgess, R R; Gross, C A

    1984-01-01

    An immediate 12-fold inhibition in the rate of beta-galactosidase synthesis occurs in Escherichia coli cells containing the mutant sigma allele rpoD800 after a shift to 42 degrees C. In the present study we characterize the nature of the inhibition. The severe inhibition of beta-galactosidase synthesis was partly relieved by cyclic AMP (cAMP). We inferred that the inhibition might be mediated by a decreased intracellular concentration of cAMP. Consistent with this inference, the rate of cAMP accumulation in mutant cells after a temperature upshift was depressed relative to that in wild-type cells. Glucose and chloramphenicol, two agents known to inhibit differentially beta-galactosidase mRNA synthesis, caused a similar inhibition in the rate of cAMP accumulation. Thus, three diverse stimuli, glucose, chloramphenicol, and a temperature-sensitive sigma mutation, appear to affect beta-galactosidase synthesis by regulating the synthesis of cAMP. PMID:6325382

  8. Effect of Increased Cyclic AMP Concentration on Muscle Protein Synthesis and Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Vaughn, J. R.; Bridge, K. Y.; Smith, C. K.

    1998-01-01

    Analogies of epinephrine are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle when fed to animals. These compounds presumably exert their physiological action through interaction with the P-adrenergic receptor. Since the intracellular signal generated by the Beta-adrenergic receptor is cyclic AMP (cAMP), experiments were initiated in cell culture to determine if artificial elevation of cAMP by treatment with forskolin would alter muscle protein metabolism and P-adrenergic receptor expression. Chicken skeletal muscle cells after 7 days in culture were treated with 0.2-30 micrometers forskolin for a total of three days. At the end of the treatment period, both the concentration of cAMP and the quantity of myosin heavy chain (MHC) were measured. Concentration of cAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 10-fold in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, the quantity of MHC was increased approximately 50% above control cells at 0.2 micrometers forskolin, but exhibited a gradual decline at higher levels of forskolin so that the quantity of MHC in cells treated with 30 micrometers forskolin was not significantly different from controls. Curiously, the intracellular concentration of cAMP which elicited the maximum increase in the quantity of MHC was only 40% higher than cAMP concentration in control cells.

  9. Transport of antibiotics and metabolite analogs by systems under cyclic AMP control: positive selection of Salmonella typhimurium cya and crp mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Alper, M D; Ames, B N

    1978-01-01

    Mutants in the cyclic AMP (cAMP) control system in Salmonella typhimurium (cya = adenyl cyclase, crp = cAMP receptor protein) were partially resistant to growth inhibition by 22 antibiotics (including fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin) and 29 inhibitory analogs of normal bacterial fuel/carbon sources. This resistance was used as the basis for an efficient positive selection of cya and crp mutants. We propose that these antibiotics and analogs enter the bacteria through transport systems normally used for transporting fuel/carbon sources and that this is accomplished because of a structural similarity between the antibiotic and the natural substrate of the particular transport system involved. We propose that these transport systems are all under positive control by cAMP and that cAMP acts as a signal molecule (alarmone) for fuel/carbon deprivation. Evidence is provided for a hierarchy within operons controlled by cAMP. The methodology is shown to be useful for analyzing both antibiotic transport systems and the cAMP super-control system. PMID:201606

  10. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP Receptor Protein Influence both Synthesis and Uptake of Extracellular Autoinducer 2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Hashimoto, Yoshifumi; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Valdes, James J.; Bentley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is proposed to be an interspecies mediator of cell-cell communication that enables cells to operate at the multicellular level. Many environmental stimuli have been shown to affect the extracellular AI-2 levels, carbon sources being among the most important. In this report, we show that both AI-2 synthesis and uptake in Escherichia coli are subject to catabolite repression through the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-CRP complex, which directly stimulates transcription of the lsr (for “luxS regulated”) operon and indirectly represses luxS expression. Specifically, cAMP-CRP is shown to bind to a CRP binding site located in the upstream region of the lsr promoter and works with the LsrR repressor to regulate AI-2 uptake. The functions of the lsr operon and its regulators, LsrR and LsrK, previously reported in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, are confirmed here for E. coli. The elucidation of cAMP-CRP involvement in E. coli autoinduction impacts many areas, including the growth of E. coli in fermentation processes. PMID:15743955

  11. DOSE-DEPENDENT EFFECT OF PRENATAL DEXAMETHASONE TREATMENT ON B-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR COUPLING TO ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE AND CYCLIC AMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glucocorticoids regulate the coupling of B-adrenergic receptors to cell function. n the current study, the potential role of these agents in the development of adrenergic responses was evaluated in the offspring of pregnant rats given 0.8 mg/kg of dexamethasone on gestational day...

  12. Phosphorylation of yeast phosphatidylserine synthase in vivo and in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, A J; Carman, G M

    1988-01-01

    Evidence is presented that demonstrates that phosphatidylserine synthase (CDPdiacylglycerol:L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase, EC 2.7.8.8) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphatidylserine synthase activity in cell extracts was reduced in the bcy1 mutant (which has high cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity) and elevated in the cyr1 mutant (which has low cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity) when compared with wild-type cells. The reduced phosphatidylserine synthase activity in the bcy1 mutant correlated with elevated levels of a phosphorylated form of the phosphatidylserine synthase Mr 23,000 subunit. The elevated phosphatidylserine synthase activity in the cyr1 mutant correlated with reduced levels of the phosphorylated form of the enzyme. There was negligible phosphorylation of the phosphatidylserine synthase Mr 23,000 subunit from stationary-phase cells. Pure phosphatidylserine synthase was phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, which resulted in a 60-70% reduction in phosphatidylserine synthase activity. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit catalyzed the incorporation of 0.7 mol of phosphate per mol of phosphatidylserine synthase Mr 23,000 subunit. The specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor prevented the phosphorylation of phosphatidylserine synthase and the inhibition of its activity by the catalytic subunit. Analysis of peptides derived from protease-treated labeled phosphatidylserine synthase showed only one labeled peptide. Phospho amino acid analysis of labeled phosphatidylserine synthase showed that the enzyme was phosphorylated at a serine residue. Images PMID:2847149

  13. Differential regulation of the β-adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP level with age and sex in turkey cardiac chambers.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Böhme, Julia; Kube, Christian; Haufe, Jörg; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Abraham, Getu

    2016-04-15

    Decreased responses of the heart to β-adrenoceptor stimulation with aging have been shown to occur merely in selected heart chambers in relation to increased catecholamine levels. However, there are no systematic studies that investigate all cardiac chambers with regard to receptor density and cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate) responses. We used meat-type turkey poults (British United Turkey (B.U.T.) Big 6) with increasing age because their heart seems to decrease in weight in relation to body weight and they are often used as an animal model for heart failure. The receptor density and distribution were quantified by radioligand binding analysis using (-)-[(125)I]-iodocyanopindolol and β-adrenoceptor subtype-specific antagonists (ICI 118.551 and CGP 20712 A) in membranes of four cardiac chambers (right and left atria and ventricles) of 6-week-, 12-week-, 16/21-week-, and 57-week-old B.U.T. BIG 6 turkeys. Receptor function was determined by measuring basal and stimulated cAMP production. In both sexes, the β-adrenoceptor density decreased significantly in all chambers with age without altered β-adrenoceptor subtype distribution. The receptor affinity (KD) to the radioligand was similar in hearts of all age groups. β-adrenoceptor-(isoproterenol and guanosine 5'-triphosphate), G-protein-(NaF) and catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase (forskolin, Mn(2+)) mediated cAMP responses were not chamber-dependent. Indeed, the cAMP level was significantly lower in 57-week-old hearts than in 6-week-, 12-week-, 16/21-week-old hearts. These data suggest that with increasing age and body weight, the β-adrenoceptor signal transduction pathway was highly blunted in all cardiac chambers, occurring by decreased receptor density and cAMP responses. PMID:26957056

  14. Cooperative DNA binding of heterologous proteins: Evidence for contact between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Y.L.; Garges, S.; Adhya, S.; Krakow, J.S. )

    1988-06-01

    Four cAMP-independent receptor protein mutants (designated CRP* mutants) isolated previously are able to activate in vivo gene transcription in the absence of cAMP and their activity can be enhanced by cAMP or cGMP. One of the four mutant proteins, CRP*598 (Arg-142 to His, Ala-144 to Thr), has been characterized with regard to its conformational properties and ability to bind to and support abortive initiation from the lac promoter. Binding of wild-type CRP to its site on the lac promoter and activation of abortive initiation by RNA polymerase on this promoter are effected by cAMP but not by cGMP. CRP*598 can activate lacP{sup +}-directed abortive initiation in the presence of cAMP and less efficiently in the presence of cGMP or in the absence of cyclic nucleotide. DNase I protection (footprinting) indicates that cAMP-CRP* binds to its site on the lac promoter whereas unliganded CRP* and cGMP-CRP* form a stable complex with the ({sup 32}P)lacP{sup +} fragment only in the presence of RNA polymerase, showing cooperative binding of two heterologous proteins. This cooperative binding provides strong evidence for a contact between CRP and RNA polymerase for activation of transcription. Although cGMP binds to CRP, it cannot replace cAMP in effecting the requisite conformational transition necessary for site-specific promoter binding.

  15. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A negatively regulates conidia formation by the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Chin; Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2013-02-01

    The necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata causes brown spot diseases in many citrus cultivars. The FUS3 and SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)-mediated signaling pathways have been shown to be required for conidiation. Exogenous application of cAMP to this fungal pathogen decreased conidia formation considerably. This study determined whether a cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) is required for conidiation. Using loss-of-function mutations in PKA catalytic and regulatory subunit-coding genes, we demonstrated that PKA negatively regulates conidiation. Fungal mutants lacking PKA catalytic subunit gene (PKA ( cat )) reduced growth, lacked detectable PKA activity, and produced higher amounts of conidia compared to wild-type. Introduction of a functional copy of PKA ( cat ) into a null mutant partially restored PKA activity and produced wild-type level of conidia. In contrast, fungi lacking PKA regulatory subunit gene (PKA ( reg )) produced detectable PKA activity, exhibited severe growth reduction, formed swelling hyphal segments, and produced no mature conidia. Introduction of the PKA ( reg ) gene to a regulatory subunit mutant restored all phenotypes to wild type. PKA ( reg )-null mutants induced fewer necrotic lesions on citrus compared to wild-type, whereas PKA ( cat ) mutant displayed wild-type virulence. Overall, our studies indicate that PKA and FUS3-mediated signaling pathways apparently have very different roles in the regulation of conidia production and A. alternata pathogenesis in citrus. PMID:23054702

  16. Interactions between intracellular cyclic AMP and agonist-induced inositol phospholipid breakdown in isolated gastric mucosal cells of the rat.

    PubMed

    Puurunen, J; Lohse, M J; Schwabe, U

    1987-11-01

    The interactions between putative second effector mechanisms for hydrogen ion secretion were studied in isolated gastric cell preparations of the rat containing 60-70% parietal cells. Dibutyryl-cAMP and the compounds which increased the level of cAMP (histamine plus rolipram and forskolin plus rolipram) inhibited the carbachol-induced accumulation of [3H]inositol tris-, bis- and monophosphate. There was both a temporal and quantitative correlation between the increase in cAMP and the inhibition of the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. Cimetidine attenuated the inhibitory effect of histamine on the formation of [3H]inositol phosphates. The enhancement of the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates by various concentrations of carbachol affected neither the basal nor the histamine-stimulated cAMP levels. In contrast to dibutyryl-cAMP, dibutyryl-cGMP did not modify the carbachol-induced formation of [3H]inositol phosphates. The biologically active phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which activates protein kinase C, inhibited both the basal and carbachol-induced accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. We suggest that the inhibition of the formation of inositol trisphosphate by the increase in the intracellular level of cAMP and by the activation of protein kinase C might be intracellular negative feedback systems which prevent the overreaction of the acid-secreting parietal cells under the simultaneous influence of the physiological gastric secretagogues. PMID:2830543

  17. Biochemical studies on the DNA binding function of the cyclic-amp reactor protein of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Angulo, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is an allosteric protein in which binding of cAMP effects a conformational change with a consequent increased affinity for DNA. Binding of double-stranded deoxyribopolynucleotides and calf thymus DNA by cAMP-CRP confers protection against attack by trypsin, subtilisin, Staph. aureus V8 protease and clostripain. Of the single-stranded deoxy- and ribopolynucleotides tested, only r(I)/sub n/ and r(A)/sub n/ gave significant protection against attack by these proteases. In the absence of cAMP, CRP is resistant to proteolysis. Incubation of CRP-DNA with trypsin results in the accumulation of two novel fragments. CRP-DNA is partially sensitive to digestion by chymotrypsin but resistant to attack by subtilisin, the Staph. aureus V8 protease and clostripain. Cleavage of CRP-DNA to fragments is accompanied by the loss of /sup 3/H-cAMP binding activity. Modification of the arginines with phenylglyoxal or butanedione results in loss of DNA binding activity. cAMP-CRP incorporates more /sup 14/C-phenylglyoxal than unliganded CRP. Titration of the arginines with /sup 14/C-phenylglyoxal to where over 90% of the DNA binding activity is lost results in incorporation of one mole of reagent per mole of subunit.

  18. Cyclic AMP and Ca2+ as regulators of zygote formation in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium mucoroides.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Amagai, A; Maeda, Y

    1992-04-01

    To analyze the mechanism of the sexual process (macrocyst formation) in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium mucoroides-7 (Dm7), the effects of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), conditioned medium (CM) factors, and various ions including Ca2+ on zygote formation were examined. The application of cAMP was found to inhibit the sexual cell fusion. In addition, the activity of fusion inhibitor(s) contained in CM was heat stable and lost by phosphodiesterase (PDE)-treatment, thus indicating that cAMP is the inhibitor, being in contrast to ethylene as a fusion activator. Pulse experiments using two cAMP analogues, 2'-deoxy-cAMP and 8-bromo-cAMP suggested that the signal transduction system through the cell surface cAMP receptor is of particular importance for regulation of the sexual fusion process. Among several ions having effects on zygote formation, Ca2+ seemed to be necessary both for the acquisition of fusion competence and for cell fusion itself. In the presence of Ca2+, K+ and Na+ had the opposite effects on zygote formation; K+ was stimulative, while Na+ inhibitory. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the regulatory mechanism of zygote formation. PMID:1319932

  19. Glucagon-like peptide I stimulates insulin gene expression and increases cyclic AMP levels in a rat islet cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, D J; Philippe, J; Mojsov, S; Chick, W L; Habener, J F

    1987-01-01

    Insulin secretion is controlled by a complex set of factors. Although blood glucose levels serve as the major stimulus of insulin secretion in mammals, insulin release is also modulated by amino acids, catecholamines, glucagon, and other, intestinal hormones. The identification of factors that modulate insulin production has engendered much interest because of their potential importance in the altered dynamics of insulin secretion in response to glucose characteristic of maturity-onset diabetes mellitus. Decoding of the glucagon gene has uncovered two additional glucagon-like peptides encoded in proglucagon, the polypeptide precursor of glucagon. One of these peptides, glucagon-like peptide I, is processed from proglucagon in two forms, of 31 and 37 amino acids. We report that the smaller of the two glucagon-like peptides potently increases cAMP levels, insulin mRNA transcripts, and insulin release in cultured rat insulinoma cells. These results indicate that glucagon-like peptide I may be a physiologic modulator of insulin gene expression. Images PMID:3033647

  20. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Catabolite Repression Is the Dominant Control Mechanism of Metabolic Fluxes under Glucose Limitation in Escherichia coli▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nanchen, Annik; Schicker, Alexander; Revelles, Olga; Sauer, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Although a whole arsenal of mechanisms are potentially involved in metabolic regulation, it is largely uncertain when, under which conditions, and to which extent a particular mechanism actually controls network fluxes and thus cellular physiology. Based on 13C flux analysis of Escherichia coli mutants, we elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, CreB, CreC, Crp, Cya, Fnr, Hns, Mlc, OmpR, and UspA on aerobic glucose catabolism in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a growth rate of 0.1 h−1. The by far most relevant control mechanism was cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent catabolite repression as the inducer of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-glyoxylate cycle and thus low tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes. While all other mutants and the reference E. coli strain exhibited high glyoxylate shunt and PEP carboxykinase fluxes, and thus high PEP-glyoxylate cycle flux, this cycle was essentially abolished in both the Crp and Cya mutants, which lack the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein complex. Most other mutations were phenotypically silent, and only the Cra and Hns mutants exhibited slightly altered flux distributions through PEP carboxykinase and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. The Cra effect on PEP carboxykinase was probably the consequence of a specific control mechanism, while the Hns effect appears to be unspecific. For central metabolism, the available data thus suggest that a single transcriptional regulation process exerts the dominant control under a given condition and this control is highly specific for a single pathway or cycle within the network. PMID:18223071

  1. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population is Up-Regulated by Increased Cyclic Amp Concentration in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Vaughn, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is promoted in vivo by administration of beta-drenergic receptor (bAR) agonists. Chicken skeletal muscle cells were treated with 1 (mu)M isoproterenol, a strong bAR agonist, between days 7 and 10 in culture. bAR population increased by approximately 40% during this treatment; however, the ability of the cells to synthesize cyclic AMP (cAMP) was diminished by two-fold. The quantity of myosin heavy chain (MHC) was not affected. To understand further the relationship between intracellular cAMP levels, bAR population, and muscle protein accumulation, intracellular cAMP levels were artificially elevated by treatment with 0-10 uM forskolin for up to three days. The basal concentration of CAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 7-fold in a dose dependent manner. Increasing concentrations of forskolin also led to an increase in bAR population, with a maximum increase of approximately 40-60% at 10 uM forskolin. A maximum increase of 40-50% in the quantity of MHC was observed at 0.2 uM forskolin, but higher concentrations of forskolin reduced the quantity of MHC back to control levels. At 0.2 uM forskolin, intracellular levels of cAMP were higher by approximately 35%, and the (beta)AR population was higher by approximately 30%. Neither the number of muscle nuclei fused into myotubes nor the percentage of nuclei in myotubes were affected by forskolin at any of the concentrations studied.

  2. (S)-α-chlorohydrin inhibits protein tyrosine phosphorylation through blocking cyclic AMP - protein kinase A pathway in spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Huan; Wang, Xia; Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Bei; Pi, Jingbo; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    α-Chlorohydrin is a common contaminant in food. Its (S)-isomer, (S)-α-chlorohydrin (SACH), is known for causing infertility in animals by inhibiting glycolysis of spermatozoa. The aim of present work was to examine the relationship between SACH and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP), which plays a critical role in regulating mammalian sperm capacitation. In vitro exposure of SACH 50 µM to isolated rat epididymal sperm inhibited PTP. Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) activities, the intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels, 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) substrates in rat sperm were diminished dramatically, indicating that both glycolysis and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway were impaired by SACH. The inhibition of both PTP and phosphorylation of PKA substrates by SACH could be restored by addition of cAMP analog dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP) and phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Moreover, addition of glycerol protected glycolysis, ATP levels, phosphorylation of PKA substrates and PTP against the influence of SACH. These results suggested SACH inhibited PTP through blocking cAMP/PKA pathway in sperm, and PTP inhibition may play a role in infertility associated with SACH. PMID:22916194

  3. (S)-α-Chlorohydrin Inhibits Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation through Blocking Cyclic AMP - Protein Kinase A Pathway in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Bei; Pi, Jingbo; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    α-Chlorohydrin is a common contaminant in food. Its (S)-isomer, (S)-α-chlorohydrin (SACH), is known for causing infertility in animals by inhibiting glycolysis of spermatozoa. The aim of present work was to examine the relationship between SACH and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP), which plays a critical role in regulating mammalian sperm capacitation. In vitro exposure of SACH 50 µM to isolated rat epididymal sperm inhibited PTP. Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) activities, the intracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) levels, 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) substrates in rat sperm were diminished dramatically, indicating that both glycolysis and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway were impaired by SACH. The inhibition of both PTP and phosphorylation of PKA substrates by SACH could be restored by addition of cAMP analog dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP) and phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Moreover, addition of glycerol protected glycolysis, ATP levels, phosphorylation of PKA substrates and PTP against the influence of SACH. These results suggested SACH inhibited PTP through blocking cAMP/PKA pathway in sperm, and PTP inhibition may play a role in infertility associated with SACH. PMID:22916194

  4. The effects of calcium buffering and cyclic AMP on mechano-electrical transduction in turtle auditory hair cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, A J; Fettiplace, R

    1997-01-01

    1. The effects of intracellular Ca2+ buffering on hair cell mechanotransduction were studied in an intact cochlear epithelium where the endolymphatic and perilymphatic surfaces could be separately perfused with different Ca2+ solutions. 2. The speed and extent of transducer adaptation increased as the concentration in the patch electrode of the Ca2+ buffer BAPTA was lowered. In 0.1 mM BAPTA or less, the transducer adapted almost completely, with a mean time constant of 0.8 ms. 3. For a fixed internal BAPTA concentration, the transducer conductance varied with hair cell location, increasing towards the high-frequency end of the cochlea, and the time constant of adaptation decreased proportionally. At a given cochlear location, hair cells with larger transducer conductances displayed faster adaptation. We suggest that transducer adaptation accounts for a variable high-pass filter observed in the acoustic tuning curve. 4. The effects of perfusion of 50 microM Ca2+ endolymph depended on the BAPTA concentration of the electrode: with 3 mM BAPTA, adaptation was abolished, but in most recordings with 0.01 or 0.1 mM BAPTA, rapid adaptation was retained. The current-displacement curve was also shifted less the lower the intracellular BAPTA concentration. Cells in the high-frequency half of the papilla retained adaptation at a higher BAPTA concentration. 5. Treatment with the cAMP agonist, 8-bromo-cAMP, or with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, caused a rightward shift in the current-displacement curve which was independent of the internal BAPTA concentration. 6. We conclude that the free Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide concentrations of the hair bundle modulate the position of the activation curve of the transducer. The factors which may be important for the correct functioning of adaptation in vivo are discussed. Images Figure 1 PMID:9174998

  5. Functional Similarities between the Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Regulator PrfA and Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein: the PrfA* (Gly145Ser) Mutation Increases Binding Affinity for Target DNA

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Yolanda; Dickneite, Carmen; Ripio, María-Teresa; Böckmann, Regine; González-Zorn, Bruno; Novella, Susana; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Goebel, Werner; Vázquez-Boland, José A.

    1998-01-01

    Most Listeria monocytogenes virulence genes are positively regulated by the PrfA protein, a transcription factor sharing sequence similarities with cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP). Its coding gene, prfA, is regulated by PrfA itself via an autoregulatory loop mediated by the upstream PrfA-dependent plcA promoter. We have recently characterized prfA* mutants from L. monocytogenes which, as a result of a single amino acid substitution in PrfA, Gly145Ser, constitutively overexpress prfA and the genes of the PrfA virulence regulon. Here, we show that about 10 times more PrfA protein is produced in a prfA* strain than in the wild type. Thus, the phenotype of prfA* mutants is presumably due to the synthesis of a PrfA protein with higher promoter-activating activity (PrfA*), which keeps its intracellular levels constantly elevated by positive feedback. We investigated the interaction of PrfA and PrfA* (Gly145Ser) with target DNA. Gel retardation assays performed with a DNA fragment carrying the PrfA binding site of the plcA promoter demonstrated that the PrfA* mutant form is much more efficient than wild-type PrfA at forming specific DNA-protein complexes. In footprinting experiments, the two purified PrfA forms interacted with the same nucleotides at the target site, although the minimum amount required for protection was 6 to 7 times lower with PrfA*. These results show that the primary functional consequence of the Gly145Ser mutation is an increase in the affinity of PrfA for its target sequence. Interestingly, similar mutations at the equivalent position in CRP result in a transcriptionally active, CRP* mutant form which binds with high affinity to target DNA in the absence of the activating cofactor, cAMP. Our observations suggest that the structural similarities between PrfA and CRP are also functionally relevant and support a model in which the PrfA protein, like CRP, shifts from transcriptionally inactive to active conformations by interaction with a cofactor. PMID:9852011

  6. Positive Effect of Carbon Sources on Natural Transformation in Escherichia coli: Role of Low-Level Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein in the Derepression of rpoS

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mengyue; Wang, Huanyu; Xie, Nengbin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural plasmid transformation of Escherichia coli is a complex process that occurs strictly on agar plates and requires the global stress response factor σS. Here, we showed that additional carbon sources could significantly enhance the transformability of E. coli. Inactivation of phosphotransferase system genes (ptsH, ptsG, and crr) caused an increase in the transformation frequency, and the addition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) neutralized the promotional effect of carbon sources. This implies a negative role of cAMP in natural transformation. Further study showed that crp and cyaA mutations conferred a higher transformation frequency, suggesting that the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex has an inhibitory effect on transformation. Moreover, we observed that rpoS is negatively regulated by cAMP-CRP in early log phase and that both crp and cyaA mutants show no transformation superiority when rpoS is knocked out. Therefore, it can be concluded that both the crp and cyaA mutations derepress rpoS expression in early log phase, whereby they aid in the promotion of natural transformation ability. We also showed that the accumulation of RpoS during early log phase can account for the enhanced transformation aroused by additional carbon sources. Our results thus demonstrated that the presence of additional carbon sources promotes competence development and natural transformation by reducing cAMP-CRP and, thus, derepressing rpoS expression during log phase. This finding could contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between nutrition state and competence, as well as the mechanism of natural plasmid transformation in E. coli. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli, which is not usually considered to be naturally transformable, was found to spontaneously take up plasmid DNA on agar plates. Researching the mechanism of natural transformation is important for understanding the role of transformation in evolution, as well as in the transfer of pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance genes. In this work, we found that carbon sources significantly improve transformation by decreasing cAMP. Then, the low level of cAMP-CRP derepresses the general stress response regulator RpoS via a biphasic regulatory pattern, thereby contributing to transformation. Thus, we demonstrate the mechanism by which carbon sources affect natural transformation, which is important for revealing information about the interplay between nutrition state and competence development in E. coli. PMID:26260461

  7. Ultraviolet radiation augments epidermal beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response

    SciTech Connect

    Iizuka, H.; Kajita, S.; Ohkawara, A.

    1985-05-01

    Pig skin was irradiated in vivo with fluorescent sunlamp tubes (peak emission at 305 nm). A significant increase in epidermal beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response was observed as early as 12 h following 1-2 minimum erythema doses (MEDs) UVB exposure, which lasted at least 48 h. The augmentation of adenylate cyclase response was relatively specific to the beta-adrenergic system and there was no significant difference in either adenosine- or histamine-adenylate cyclase response of epidermis. The increased beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response was less marked at higher doses of UVB exposure (5 MEDs); in the latter condition, a significant reduction in adenosine- or histamine-adenylate cyclase response was observed. There was no significant difference in either low- or high-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity between control and UVB-treated skin at 1-2 MEDs. These data indicate that the epidermal adenylate cyclase responses are affected in vivo by UVB irradiation, which might be a significant regulatory mechanism of epidermal cyclic AMP systems.

  8. L-4F Inhibits Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein-induced Inflammatory Adipokine Secretion via Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A-CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β Signaling Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiang-Zhu; Huang, Xin; Zhao, Shui-Ping; Yu, Bi-Lian; Zhong, Qiao-Qing; Cao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adipocytes behave like a rich source of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) participates in the local chronic inflammatory response, and high-density lipoprotein could counterbalance the proinflammatory function of oxLDL, but the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide L-4F on the secretion and expression of MCP-1 in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced by oxLDL and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Methods: Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the medium containing various concentration of L-4F (0–50 μg/ml) with oxLDL (50 μg/ml) stimulated, with/without protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 (10 μmol/L) preincubated. The concentrations of MCP-1 in the supernatant, the mRNA expression of MCP-1, the levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were evaluated. The monocyte chemotaxis assay was performed by micropore filter method using a modified Boyden chamber. Results: OxLDL stimulation induced a significant increase of MCP-1 expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which were inhibited by L-4F preincubation in a dose-dependent manner. PKA inhibitor H-89 markedly reduced the oxLDL-induced MCP-1 expression, but no further decrease was observed when H-89 was used in combination with L-4F (50 μg/ml) (P > 0.05). OxLDL stimulation showed no significant effect on C/EBPα protein level but increased C/EBPβ protein level in a time-dependent manner. H-89 and L-4F both attenuated C/EBPβ protein level in oxLDL-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusions: OxLDL induces C/EBPβ protein synthesis in a time-dependent manner and enhances MCP-1 secretion and expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. L-4F dose-dependently counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effect of oxLDL, and cyclic AMP/PKA-C/EBPβ signaling pathway may participate in it. PMID:27098798

  9. Differential Regulation of Human 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 for Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis by Starvation and Cyclic Amp Stimulation: Studies in the Human Adrenal NCI-H295R Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Gaby; Mullis, Primus E.; Flück, Christa E.

    2013-01-01

    Human steroid biosynthesis depends on a specifically regulated cascade of enzymes including 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD3Bs). Type 2 HSD3B catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone to progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione in the human adrenal cortex and the gonads but the exact regulation of this enzyme is unknown. Therefore, specific downregulation of HSD3B2 at adrenarche around age 6–8 years and characteristic upregulation of HSD3B2 in the ovaries of women suffering from the polycystic ovary syndrome remain unexplained prompting us to study the regulation of HSD3B2 in adrenal NCI-H295R cells. Our studies confirm that the HSD3B2 promoter is regulated by transcription factors GATA, Nur77 and SF1/LRH1 in concert and that the NBRE/Nur77 site is crucial for hormonal stimulation with cAMP. In fact, these three transcription factors together were able to transactivate the HSD3B2 promoter in placental JEG3 cells which normally do not express HSD3B2. By contrast, epigenetic mechanisms such as methylation and acetylation seem not involved in controlling HSD3B2 expression. Cyclic AMP was found to exert differential effects on HSD3B2 when comparing short (acute) versus long-term (chronic) stimulation. Short cAMP stimulation inhibited HSD3B2 activity directly possibly due to regulation at co-factor or substrate level or posttranslational modification of the protein. Long cAMP stimulation attenuated HSD3B2 inhibition and increased HSD3B2 expression through transcriptional regulation. Although PKA and MAPK pathways are obvious candidates for possibly transmitting the cAMP signal to HSD3B2, our studies using PKA and MEK1/2 inhibitors revealed no such downstream signaling of cAMP. However, both signaling pathways were clearly regulating HSD3B2 expression. PMID:23874725

  10. Cellular signal level of cyclic AMP and functional integrity of the small bowel after ischemic preservation: an experimental pilot study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Minor, T; Isselhard, W

    1998-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa is one the tissues most sensitive to ischemia. Anoxia of the gut is known to result in an early impairment of cellular permeability and transcapillary barrier function upon reperfusion. In vitro, an increased permeability of endothelial cell monolayers could be shown to be related to a decrease in cellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP). Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the role of the cellular cAMP second messenger signal in the context of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury after cold preservation. Segments of the upper jejunum were isolated from Wistar rats with vascular pedicle and flushed with 10 ml of UW preservation solution. The intestinal lumen was rinsed with 10-15 ml of UW solution and the organ was stored immersed in UW solution at 4 degrees C for 4 or 18 h. After 18 h of cold ischemic storage structural and functional integrity of the preparation was tested by perfusion via the vascular system with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer and the intestinal lumen with saline solution (containing 200 mg % of galactose) for 30 min. In half of the experiments, dibutyryl-cAMP a membrane permeable cAMP analogue, was admixed to the flush solution (2 mM). It was found that tissue levels of cAMP linearily decreased to 34% during 18 h of ischemic preservation in UW. Addition of dibutyryl cAMP significantly improved postischemic recovery of the intestinal preparations by decreasing cellular loss of lactic dehydrogenase (18.2 +/- 4.6 vs. 7.6 +/- 2.6 U/I) and improving intestinal absorbtion of galactose from the luminal circuit (0.18 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.36 +/- 0.14 mg %) after 30 min of oxygenated reperfusion, but was not effective to reduce transcapillary water loss into the gut lumen. It is concluded that the anoxia-related decrease of the cellular cAMP level may represent a codeterminator influencing postischemic recovery of the small bowel and that the control of the cAMP signal of ischemic intestines might improve the quality of cold preservation of the gut prior to transplantation. PMID:9565749

  11. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by stimulation of the central cannabinoid receptor CB1.

    PubMed Central

    Bouaboula, M; Poinot-Chazel, C; Bourrié, B; Canat, X; Calandra, B; Rinaldi-Carmona, M; Le Fur, G; Casellas, P

    1995-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled central cannabinoid receptor (CB1) has been shown to be functionally associated with several biological responses including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, modulation of ion channels and induction of the immediate-early gene Krox-24. Using stably transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing human CB1 we show here that cannabinoid treatment induces both phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and that these effects are inhibited by SR 141716A, a selective CB1 antagonist. The two p42 and p44 kDa MAP kinases are activated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The rank order of potency for the activation of MAP kinases with various cannabinoid agonists is CP-55940 > delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol > WIN 55212.2, in agreement with the pharmacological profile of CB1. The activation of MAP kinases is blocked by pertussis toxin but not by treatment with hydrolysis-resistant cyclic AMP analogues. This suggests that the signal transduction pathway between CB1 and MAP kinases involves a pertussis-toxin-sensitive GTP-binding protein and is independent of cyclic AMP metabolism. This coupling of CB1 subtype and mitogenic signal pathway, also observed in the human astrocytoma cell line U373 MG, may explain the mechanism of action underlying cannabinoid-induced Krox-24 induction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8526880

  12. Role of calcium in the modulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in isolated pig granulosa cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Hammond, James M.

    1981-01-01

    We examined the role of Ca2+ in the control of basal and hormone-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase activity in isolated pig granulosa cells maintained under chemically defined conditions in vitro. Omission of Ca2+ from the incubation medium (measured Ca2+ concentration 5μm) decreased basal enzymic activity, and significantly (P<0.01) impaired the response to maximally stimulating doses of either lutropin or follitropin. No significant alteration occurred in the concentration of either gonadotropin required to elicit half-maximal effects. The addition of EGTA (1.27–2.0mm) to chelate residual extracellular Ca2+ further decreased hormone-induced rises in ornithine decarboxylase activity. Despite the presence of 1.27mm concentrations of extracellular Ca2+, the administration of presumptive Ca2+ antagonists, believed to impair trans-membrane Ca2+ influx [verapamil (10–100μm), nifedipine (1–100μm) or CoCl2 (1mm)] suppressed hormone-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase activity. The inhibitory effects of verapamil or of Ca2+ omission from the medium were not overcome by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (0.25mm), or by cholera toxin, or by an exogenously supplied cyclic AMP analogue, 8-bromo cyclic AMP. Conversely, micromolar concentrations of a putative bivalent-cation ionophore, A23187, increased significantly the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity by saturating concentrations of lutropin or 8-bromo cyclic AMP. Thus the present observations implicate Ca2+ ions in the modulation of hormone action and cellular function in normal ovarian cells. PMID:6172119

  13. Type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli activates adenylate cyclase in human fibroblasts by ADP ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, P P; Moss, J; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K

    1987-08-01

    Type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II) from Escherichia coli causes characteristic morphological changes and accumulation of cyclic AMP in Y-1 adrenal cells, but it is not neutralized by antisera against choleragen (CT) or the classical type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-1) from E. coli. The action of purified LT-II on CT- and LT-I-responsive human fibroblasts was investigated and compared with that of CT. Fibroblasts incubated with LT-II or CT had an increased cyclic AMP content as well as a fourfold elevation of membrane adenylate cyclase activity. In membranes, activation of cyclase by toxin was enhanced by NAD, GTP, and dithiothreitol. The effect of LT-II on intact fibroblasts or membranes was increased by trypsin treatment of toxin. Since activation of adenylate cyclase by LT-II was stimulated by NAD, the ability of LT-II to catalyze the [32P]ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins in the presence of [32P]NAD from control and LT-II- and CT-treated fibroblasts was investigated. Similar proteins were [32P]ADP-ribosylated in membranes exposed to LT-II or CT; LT-II- and CT-specific labeling was significantly decreased in membranes prepared from cells preincubated with either LT-II or CT. These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that LT-II, similar to CT and LT-I, increases cyclic AMP by activating adenylate cyclase through the GTP-dependent ADP-ribosylation of specific membrane proteins. PMID:3112012

  14. The responsiveness of cerebral cortical adrenergic receptors after chronic administration of atypical antidepressant mianserin.

    PubMed Central

    Nalepa, I; Vetulani, J

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mianserin, a second generation tetracyclic antidepressant agent, on the receptors' and second messenger systems related to noradrenergic transmission in the cerebral cortex of the rat. In in vitro experiments we confirmed that mianserin binds with equal potency to alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors and does not affect beta 1-adrenoceptors. It inhibited the noradrenaline-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation and did not change the cyclic AMP responses to noradrenaline and isoproterenol. The drug attenuated the inhibitory action of PKC activator, TPA, on the noradrenergic response from alpha 1-adrenoceptor and the potentiating action of TPA on the cyclic AMP stimulated with noradrenaline and isoproterenol. In chronic experiments we have found that, in contrast to most antidepressants, chronic treatment with mianserin does not produce strong beta-downregulation, but increases the maximal inositol phosphate response from alpha 1-adrenoceptor. The results indicate that alpha 1-upregulation might be a characteristic of those efficient antidepressant drugs which do not produce a strong beta-downregulatory effect. PMID:8204564

  15. PAC1hop, null and hip receptors mediate differential signaling through cyclic AMP and calcium leading to splice variant-specific gene induction in neural cells

    PubMed Central

    Holighaus, Yvonne; Mustafa, Tomris; Eiden, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-mediated activation of its G protein-coupled receptor PAC1 results in activation of the two G proteins Gs and Gq to alter second messenger generation and gene transcription in the nervous system, important for homeostatic responses to stress and injury. Heterologous expression of the three major splice variants of the rat PAC1 receptor, PAC1hop, null and hip, in neural NG108-15 cells conferred PACAP-mediated intracellular cAMP generation, while elevation of [Ca2+]i occurred only in PAC1hop-, and to a lesser extent in PAC1null-expressing cells. Induction of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and stanniocalcin 1 (STC1), two genes potentially involved in PACAP’s homeostatic responses, was examined as a function of the expressed PAC1 variant. VIP induction was greatest in PAC1hop-expressing cells, suggesting that a maximal transcriptional response requires combinatorial signaling through both cAMP and Ca2+. STC1 induction was similar for all three receptor splice variants and was mimicked by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, indicating that cAMP elevation is sufficient to induce STC1. The degree of activation of two different second messenger pathways appears to determine the transcriptional response, suggesting that cellular responses to stressors are fine-tuned through differential receptor isoform expression. Signaling to the VIP gene proceeded through cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) in these cells, independently of the MAP kinase ERK1/2. STC1 gene induction by PACAP was dependent on cAMP and ERK1/2, independently of PKA. Differential gene induction via different cAMP dependent signaling pathways potentially provides further targets for the design of treatments for stress-associated disorders. PMID:21693142

  16. Role of cyclic AMP sensor Epac1 in masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition induced by β2-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Umeki, Daisuke; Mototani, Yasumasa; Jin, Huiling; Cai, Wenqian; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Saeki, Yasutake; Fujita, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

    2014-12-15

    The predominant isoform of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) in skeletal muscle is β2-AR and that in the cardiac muscle is β1-AR. We have reported that Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1), a new protein kinase A-independent cAMP sensor, does not affect cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or chronic isoproterenol (isoprenaline) infusion. However, the role of Epac1 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy remains poorly understood. We thus examined the effect of disruption of Epac1, the major Epac isoform in skeletal muscle, on masseter muscle hypertrophy induced by chronic β2-AR stimulation with clenbuterol (CB) in Epac1-null mice (Epac1KO). The masseter muscle weight/tibial length ratio was similar in wild-type (WT) and Epac1KO at baseline and was significantly increased in WT after CB infusion, but this increase was suppressed in Epac1KO. CB treatment significantly increased the proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb at the expense of that of MHC IId/x in both WT and Epac1KO, indicating that Epac1 did not mediate the CB-induced MHC isoform transition towards the faster isoform. The mechanism of suppression of CB-mediated hypertrophy in Epac1KO is considered to involve decreased activation of Akt signalling. In addition, CB-induced histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) phosphorylation on serine 246 mediated by calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), which plays a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, was suppressed in Epac1KO. Our findings suggest that Epac1 plays a role in β2-AR-mediated masseter muscle hypertrophy, probably through activation of both Akt signalling and CaMKII/HDAC4 signalling. PMID:25344550

  17. Dopamine D2-like antagonists induce chromatin remodeling in striatal neurons through cyclic AMP-protein kinase A and NMDA receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhong; Guo, Yin; Schroeder, Frederick A; Youngs, Rachael M; Schmidt, Thomas W; Ferris, Craig; Konradi, Christine; Akbarian, Schahram

    2004-09-01

    Antipsychotic drugs regulate gene transcription in striatal neurons by blocking dopamine D2-like receptors. Little is known about the underlying changes in chromatin structure, including covalent modifications at histone N-terminal tails that are epigenetic regulators of gene expression. We show that treatment with D2-like antagonists rapidly induces the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 and the acetylation of H3-lysine 14 in bulk chromatin from striatum and in nuclei of striatal neurons. We find that, in vivo, D2-like antagonist-induced H3 phospho-acetylation is inhibited by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3c',5c'-cyclic monophosphorothioate triethylammonium salt but increased by the PKA activator Sp-adenosine 3c',5c'-cyclic monophosphorothioate triethylammonium salt. Furthermore, in dissociated striatal cultures which lack midbrain and cortical pre-synaptic inputs, H3 phospho-acetylation was induced by glutamate, L-type Ca2+ channel agonists and activators of cAMP-dependent PKA but inhibited by NMDA receptor antagonists or PKA antagonists. The dual modification, H3pS10-acK14, was enriched at genomic sites with active transcription and showed the kinetics of the early response. Together, these results suggest that histone modifications and chromatin structure in striatal neurons are dynamically regulated by dopaminergic and glutamatergic inputs converging on the cellular level. Blockade of D2-like receptors induces H3 phospho-acetylation, H3pS10-acK14, through cAMP-dependent PKA, and post-synaptic NMDA receptor signaling. PMID:15312167

  18. Role of cyclic AMP sensor Epac1 in masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition induced by β2-adrenoceptor stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Umeki, Daisuke; Mototani, Yasumasa; Jin, Huiling; Cai, Wenqian; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Saeki, Yasutake; Fujita, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The predominant isoform of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) in skeletal muscle is β2-AR and that in the cardiac muscle is β1-AR. We have reported that Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1), a new protein kinase A-independent cAMP sensor, does not affect cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or chronic isoproterenol (isoprenaline) infusion. However, the role of Epac1 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy remains poorly understood. We thus examined the effect of disruption of Epac1, the major Epac isoform in skeletal muscle, on masseter muscle hypertrophy induced by chronic β2-AR stimulation with clenbuterol (CB) in Epac1-null mice (Epac1KO). The masseter muscle weight/tibial length ratio was similar in wild-type (WT) and Epac1KO at baseline and was significantly increased in WT after CB infusion, but this increase was suppressed in Epac1KO. CB treatment significantly increased the proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb at the expense of that of MHC IId/x in both WT and Epac1KO, indicating that Epac1 did not mediate the CB-induced MHC isoform transition towards the faster isoform. The mechanism of suppression of CB-mediated hypertrophy in Epac1KO is considered to involve decreased activation of Akt signalling. In addition, CB-induced histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) phosphorylation on serine 246 mediated by calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), which plays a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, was suppressed in Epac1KO. Our findings suggest that Epac1 plays a role in β2-AR-mediated masseter muscle hypertrophy, probably through activation of both Akt signalling and CaMKII/HDAC4 signalling. PMID:25344550

  19. Heterozygous mutations in cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D) and protein kinase A (PKA) provide new insights into the molecular pathology of acrodysostosis.

    PubMed

    Kaname, Tadashi; Ki, Chang-Seok; Niikawa, Norio; Baillie, George S; Day, Jonathan P; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Ohta, Tohru; Nishimura, Gen; Mastuura, Nobuo; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Sohn, Young Bae; Kim, Hyun Woo; Cho, Sung Yoon; Ko, Ah-Ra; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Hyun Wook; Ryu, Sung Ho; Rhee, Hwanseok; Yang, Kap-Seok; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung; Kim, Chi Hwa; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Dongsan; Yanagi, Kumiko; Naritomi, Kenji; Yoshiura, Ko-Ichiro; Kondoh, Tatsuro; Nii, Eiji; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Houslay, Miles D; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Acrodysostosis without hormone resistance is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by brachydactyly, nasal hypoplasia, mental retardation and occasionally developmental delay. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D) have been reported to cause this rare condition but the pathomechanism has not been fully elucidated. To understand the pathogenetic mechanism of PDE4D mutations, we conducted 3D modeling studies to predict changes in the binding efficacy of cAMP to the catalytic pocket in PDE4D mutants. Our results indicated diminished enzyme activity in the two mutants we analyzed (Gly673Asp and Ile678Thr; based on PDE4D4 residue numbering). Ectopic expression of PDE4D mutants in HEK293 cells demonstrated this reduction in activity, which was identified by increased cAMP levels. However, the cells from an acrodysostosis patient showed low cAMP accumulation, which resulted in a decrease in the phosphorylated cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein (pCREB)/CREB ratio. The reason for this discrepancy was due to a compensatory increase in expression levels of PDE4A and PDE4B isoforms, which accounted for the paradoxical decrease in cAMP levels in the patient cells expressing mutant isoforms with a lowered PDE4D activity. Skeletal radiographs of 10-week-old knockout (KO) rats showed that the distal part of the forelimb was shorter than in wild-type (WT) rats and that all the metacarpals and phalanges were also shorter in KO, as the name acrodysostosis implies. Like the G-protein α-stimulatory subunit and PRKAR1A, PDE4D critically regulates the cAMP signal transduction pathway and influences bone formation in a way that activity-compromising PDE4D mutations can result in skeletal dysplasia. We propose that specific inhibitory PDE4D mutations can lead to the molecular pathology of acrodysostosis without hormone resistance but that the pathological phenotype may well be dependent on an over-compensatory induction of other PDE4 isoforms that can be expected to be targeted to different signaling complexes and exert distinct effects on compartmentalized cAMP signaling. PMID:25064455

  20. Studies of mice with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) defects reveal the critical role of PKA's catalytic subunits in anxiety.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, George; Keil, Margaret F; Naved, Bilal; Liu, Sophie; Starost, Matthew F; Nesterova, Maria; Gokarn, Nirmal; Batistatos, Anna; Wu, T John; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-07-01

    Cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critically involved in the regulation of behavioral responses. Previous studies showed that PKA's main regulatory subunit, R1α, is involved in anxiety-like behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine how the catalytic subunit, Cα, might affect R1α's function and determine its effects on anxiety-related behaviors. The marble bury (MB) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests were used to assess anxiety-like behavior and the hotplate test to assess nociception in wild type (WT) mouse, a Prkar1a heterozygote (Prkar1a(+/-)) mouse with haploinsufficiency for the regulatory subunit (R1α), a Prkaca heterozygote (Prkaca(+/-)) mouse with haploinsufficiency for the catalytic subunit (Cα), and a double heterozygote mouse (Prkar1a(+/-)/Prkaca(+/-)) with haploinsufficiency for both R1α and Cα. We then examined specific brain nuclei involved in anxiety. Results of MB test showed a genotype effect, with increased anxiety-like behavior in Prkar1a(+/-) and Prkar1a(+/-)/Prkaca(+/-) compared to WT mice. In the EPM, Prkar1a(+/-) spent significantly less time in the open arms, while Prkaca(+/-) and Prkar1a(+/-)/Prkaca(+/-) mice displayed less exploratory behavior compared to WT mice. The loss of one Prkar1a allele was associated with a significant increase in PKA activity in the basolateral (BLA) and central (CeA) amygdala and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in both Prkar1a(+/-) and Prkar1a(+/-)/Prkaca(+/-) mice. Alterations of PKA activity induced by haploinsufficiency of its main regulatory or most important catalytic subunits result in anxiety-like behaviors. The BLA, CeA, and VMH are implicated in mediating these PKA effects in brain. PMID:26992826

  1. Regulation by intracellular Ca sup 2+ and cyclic AMP of the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Yoshihiko Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Medical Science ); Nishida, Eisuke; Sakai, Hikoichi ); Koyasu, Shigeo; Yahara, Ichiro )

    1989-04-01

    Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce formation of ruffling membranes and stimulate the fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. An increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration by treatment with A23187, a calcium ionophore, or an increase in intracellular cAMP level by treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin almost completely inhibited the insulin-, IGF-I-, or EGF-induced formation of ruffling membranes. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} or cAMP concentration also inhibited almost completely the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis elicited by these growth factors. These results suggest that the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis have a common regulatory mechanism involving intracellular concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP. {sup 125}I-EGF binding assays and immunoprecipitation experiments with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that treatment of KB cells with A23187, dibutyryl cAMP, or forskolin did not inhibit the EGF binding to the cells nor subsequent tyrosine autophosphorylation of its receptors. These results indicate that Ca{sup 2+}- and/or cAMP-sensitive intracellular reactions exist downstream from the receptor kinase activation in the process of these early cellular responses.

  2. Identification and characterization of an endogenous ligand for opioid receptor homologue ROR-C: its involvement in allodynic response to innocuous stimulus.

    PubMed

    Okuda-Ashitaka, E; Tachibana, S; Houtani, T; Minami, T; Masu, Y; Nishi, M; Takeshima, H; Sugimoto, T; Ito, S

    1996-12-31

    We reported here purification and characterization of a novel heptadecapeptide in bovine brain as an endogenous ligand for ROR-C, an opioid receptor homologue cloned from rat cerebrum. The amino acid sequence of the peptide that we purified is identical to those recently identified as nociceptin in rat brain and orphanin FQ in porcine brain. The peptide inhibited the forskolin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in ROR-C expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Studies on inhibitory activity of cyclic AMP accumulation and Northern blot analysis showed that the peptide and its precursor mRNA are present in a number of brain regions, less abundant in the spina cord, and negligible in the cerebellum. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that hybridization-positive neurons were distributed in the superficial layer (lamina I) of the dorsal horn and were also interspersed between the tract of Lissauer in the spinal cord. Intrathecal administration of the peptide into conscious mice induced allodynia, a pain response to innocuous tactile stimuli, in a beli-shaped manner. These results demonstrate that the peptide exists in the brain and spinal cord and plays an important role in pain transmission. PMID:9037523

  3. In vitro action of bombesin and bombesin-like peptides on amylase secretion, calcium efflux, and adenylate cyclase activity in the rat pancreas: a comparison with other secretagogues.

    PubMed Central

    Deschodt-Lanckman, M; Robberecht, P; De Neef, P; Lammens, M; Christophe, J

    1976-01-01

    Bombesin (a tetradecapeptide), the C-terminal nonapeptide of bombesin (bombesin-NP), and litorin (a parent nonapeptide), each stimulated amylase secretion from rat pancreatic fragments. These responses were not affected by atropine. The concentrations that produced half-maximal stumulation of secretion were 0.25 nM for bombesin, 0.30 nM for bombesin-NP, and 0.07 nM for litorin, as compared to 0.12 nM for caerulein and 0.80 muM for the cholinergic agent carbamylcholine. When used at maximal concentrations, bombesin, bombesin-NP, and litorin showed no action on cyclic AMP levels in the presence of 5 mM theophylline. By contrast, caerulein and secretin increased cyclic AMP levels by 27 and 208%, respectively. Bombesin, bombesin-NP, and litorin did not activate adenylate cyclase in a purified pancreatic plasma membrane preparation, whereas caerulein and secretin increased this activity 20 and 16-times, respectively... PMID:184111

  4. CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE INDUCTION BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) STIMULATES CREB PHOSPHORYLATION VIA A CALCIUM-DEPENDENT, PKC-INDEPENDENT PATHWAY IN CORTICAL NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254), increases the phosphorylated form of CREB (pCREB), the cAMP-responsive element binding protein. This transcription factor is important in nervous system development and plasticity. Phosphorylation
    of C...

  5. Phosphorylation of McArdle phosphorylase induces activity.

    PubMed Central

    Cerri, C G; Willner, J H

    1981-01-01

    In McArdle disease, myophosphorylase deficiency, enzyme activity is absent but the presence of an altered enzyme protein can frequently be demonstrated. We have found that phosphorylation of this protein in vitro can result in catalytic activity. We studied muscle of four patients; all lacked myophosphorylase activity, but myophosphorylase protein was demonstrated by immunodiffusion or gel electrophoresis. Incubation of muscle homogenate supernatants with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and ATP resulted in phosphorylase activity. The activated enzyme comigrated with normal human myophosphorylase in gel electrophoresis. Incubation with [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in incorporatin of 32P into the band possessing phosphorylase activity. Activation of phosphorylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was inhibited by antibodies to normal human myophosphorylase or by inhibitory protein to cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Incubation of muscle homogenates with phosphorylase b kinase and ATP also resulted in phosphorylase activity. After the action of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, the resulting activity was similar to that of phosphorylase b. However, incubation with phosphorylase kinase resulted in activity similar to that of phosphorylase a. For several reasons, it is not likely that McArdle disease is due to lack of normal phosphorylation, but restoration of activity to the mutant protein by phosphorylation may provide a clue to understanding the mechanism of this genetic defect. Images PMID:6265901

  6. Rescue of Cyclic AMP Mediated Long Term Potentiation Impairment in the Hippocampus of Mecp2 Knockout (Mecp2(-/y) ) Mice by Rolipram.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Saju; Niebert, Marcus; Richter, Diethelm W

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) patients experience learning difficulties and memory loss. Analogous deficits of hippocampal plasticity are reported in mouse models of RTT. To elucidate the underlying pathophysiology, we studied long term potentiation (LTP) at the CA3 to CA1 synapses in the hippocampus in acute brain slices from WT and Mecp2(-/y) mice, by either activating cAMP dependent pathway or using high frequency stimulation, by means of patch clamp. We have observed that, the NMDA channel current characteristics remain unchanged in the Mecp2(-/y) mice. The adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist forskolin evoked a long lasting potentiation of evoked EPSCs in WT CA1 neurons, but only minimally enhanced the EPSCs in the Mecp2(-/y) mice. This weaker potentiation in Mecp2 (-/) (y) mice was ameliorated by application of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor rolipram. The hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated channel current (I h) was potentiated to similar extent by forskolin in both phenotypes. Multiple tetanus induced cAMP-dependent plasticity was also impaired in the Mecp2 (-/) (y) mice, and was also partially rescued by rolipram. Western blot analysis of CA region of Mecp2 (-/) (y) mice hippocampus revealed more than twofold up-regulation of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits, while the expression of the catalytic subunit remained unchanged. We hypothesize that the overexpressed PKA regulatory subunits buffer cAMP and restrict the PKA mediated phosphorylation of target proteins necessary for LTP. Blocking the degradation of cAMP, thereby saturating the regulatory subunits alleviated this defect. PMID:26869885

  7. Rescue of Cyclic AMP Mediated Long Term Potentiation Impairment in the Hippocampus of Mecp2 Knockout (Mecp2-/y) Mice by Rolipram

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Saju; Niebert, Marcus; Richter, Diethelm W.

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) patients experience learning difficulties and memory loss. Analogous deficits of hippocampal plasticity are reported in mouse models of RTT. To elucidate the underlying pathophysiology, we studied long term potentiation (LTP) at the CA3 to CA1 synapses in the hippocampus in acute brain slices from WT and Mecp2-/y mice, by either activating cAMP dependent pathway or using high frequency stimulation, by means of patch clamp. We have observed that, the NMDA channel current characteristics remain unchanged in the Mecp2-/y mice. The adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist forskolin evoked a long lasting potentiation of evoked EPSCs in WT CA1 neurons, but only minimally enhanced the EPSCs in the Mecp2-/y mice. This weaker potentiation in Mecp2-/y mice was ameliorated by application of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor rolipram. The hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated channel current (Ih) was potentiated to similar extent by forskolin in both phenotypes. Multiple tetanus induced cAMP-dependent plasticity was also impaired in the Mecp2-/y mice, and was also partially rescued by rolipram. Western blot analysis of CA region of Mecp2-/y mice hippocampus revealed more than twofold up-regulation of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits, while the expression of the catalytic subunit remained unchanged. We hypothesize that the overexpressed PKA regulatory subunits buffer cAMP and restrict the PKA mediated phosphorylation of target proteins necessary for LTP. Blocking the degradation of cAMP, thereby saturating the regulatory subunits alleviated this defect. PMID:26869885

  8. Anaerobic growth of Rhodopseudomonas palustris on 4-hydroxybenzoate is dependent on AadR, a member of the cyclic AMP receptor protein family of transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed Central

    Dispensa, M; Thomas, C T; Kim, M K; Perrotta, J A; Gibson, J; Harwood, C S

    1992-01-01

    The purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris converts structurally diverse aromatic carboxylic acids, including lignin monomers, to benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate under anaerobic conditions. These compounds are then further degraded via aromatic ring-fission pathways. A gene termed aadR, for anaerobic aromatic degradation regulator, was identified by complementation of mutants unable to grow anaerobically on 4-hydroxybenzoate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the aadR product is similar to a family of transcriptional regulators which includes Escherichia coli Fnr and Crp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Anr, and rhizobial FixK and FixK-like proteins. A mutant with a deletion in aadR failed to grow on 4-hydroxybenzoate under anaerobic conditions and grew very slowly on benzoate. It also did not express aromatic acid-coenzyme A ligase II, an enzyme that catalyzes the first step of 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation, and it was defective in 4-hydroxybenzoate-induced expression of benzoate-coenzyme A ligase. The aadR deletion mutant was unaffected in other aspects of anaerobic growth. It grew normally on nonaromatic carbon sources and also under nitrogen-fixing conditions. In addition, aerobic growth on 4-hydroxybenzoate was indistinguishable from that of the wild type. These results indicate that AadR functions as a transcriptional activator of anaerobic aromatic acid degradation. Images PMID:1522059

  9. Regulation of pineal alpha1B-adrenergic receptor mRNA: day/night rhythm and beta-adrenergic receptor/cyclic AMP control.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Coon SL; McCune SK; Sugden D; Klein DC

    1997-04-01

    Mammalian pineal function is regulated by norepinephrine acting through alpha1beta- and beta1-adrenergic receptors (ARs). Noradrenergic stimulation of alpha1beta-ARs potentiates the beta1-AR-driven increase in cAMP, serotonin N-acetyltransferase, and melatonin production. In the present study, we describe a 3-fold daily rhythm in mRNA-encoding alpha1beta-ARs in the pineal gland, with a peak at midnight. Pharmacological studies indicate that this increase in alpha1beta-AR mRNA is due to activation of beta-ARs. Second messenger studies indicate that alpha1beta-AR mRNA is increased by agents that increase cAMP, including dibutyryl cAMP, cholera toxin, forskolin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide. These observations indicate that alpha1beta-AR mRNA can be physiologically regulated by a beta-AR-dependent enhancement of cAMP. It also was observed that in vivo and in vitro changes in alpha1beta-AR mRNA are not accompanied by similar changes in alpha1beta-AR binding, indicating that turnover of alpha1beta-AR protein is significantly slower than that of alpha1beta-AR mRNA and that post-transcriptional mechanisms play an important role in regulating alpha1beta-AR binding.

  10. Stimulation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production by parathyroid hormone and dibutyryl 3',5'-cyclic AMP in normal subjects, hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Unakami, H; Furukawa, Y; Sohn, H E; Yumita, S; Miura, R; Hanew, K; Yoshinaga, K

    1982-10-01

    Parathyroid extract (PTE) or synthetic 1-34 human parathyroid hormone (1-34 hPTH) was injected intravenously as a bolus in 4 normal subjects, 4 patients with PTH deficient hypoparathyroidism (HP) and 3 patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP). In normal subjects and HP, plasma 1,25(OH)2D was markedly increased at 6 hr and reached the peak at 12 or 14 hr after administration of 200 units of PTE or 20 to 30 micrograms of 1-34hPTH. On the other hand, 500 units of PTE or 20 micrograms of 1-34hPTH failed to increase plasma 1,25(OH)2D in PHP. However, 2.5 mg/kg of dibutyryl cAMP remarkably increased plasma 1,25(OH)2D in a patient with PHP. Maximal increments of plasma 1,25(OH)2D in 3 patients with HP(21.7 +/- 5.6 pg/ml, mean +/- S.D.) were nearly as high as in normal subjects (20.6 +/- 7.0 pg/ml), whereas those in 3 patients with PHP (2.3 +/- 2.3 pg/ml) were distinctly lower than in normal subjects or HP. It is suggested that 1,25(OH)2D production by PTH is intact in HP, but is impaired in PHP mainly due to a defect in the activation of adenylate cyclase system. PMID:6294914

  11. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates residues in the C-terminal domain of the cardiac L-type calcium channel alpha1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Leach, R N; Brickley, K; Norman, R I

    1996-06-11

    The molecular basis of the regulation of cardiac L-type calcium channel activity by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cA-PK) remains unclear. Direct cA-PK-dependent phosphorylation of the bovine ventricular alpha1 subunit in vitro has been demonstrated in microsomal membranes, detergent extracts and partially purified (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 receptor preparations. Two 32P-labeled phosphopeptides, derived from cyanogen bromide cleavage, of 4.7 and 9.5 kDa were immunoprecipitated specifically by site-directed antibodies against the rabbit cardiac alpha1 subunit amino acid sequences 1602-1616 and 1681-1694, respectively, consistent with phosphorylation at the cA-PK consensus sites at Ser(1627) and Ser(1700). No phosphopeptide products consistent with phosphorylation at three other C-terminal cA-PK consensus phosphorylation sites (Ser(1575), Ser(1848) and Ser(1928)) were identified using similar procedures suggesting that these sites are poor substrates for this kinase. Ser(1627) and Ser(1700) may represent sites of cA-PK phosphorylation involved in the physiological regulation of cardiac L-type calcium channel function. PMID:8664319

  12. Direct regulation of the natural competence regulator gene tfoX by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in Vibrios

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rui; Zhao, Meng; Li, Jing; Gao, He; Kan, Biao; Liang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    TfoX (Sxy) and CRP are two important competence activators. The link between tfoX and CRP has been shown in H. influenza but lacking evidence of direct interaction. Recently a Sxy-dependent CRP (CRP-S) site autoregulating Sxy was reported in E. coli. Here, we show that the cAMP-CRP complex transcriptionally regulates tfoX expression through multiple canonical CRP (CRP-N) sites in Vibrios. This conclusion is supported by an analysis of the tfoX mRNA levels and tfoX transcriptional reporter fusions. The reduced expression of tfoXVC was restored by trans-complementation of crp in ∆crp and by exogenous cAMP in ∆cya. A promoter deletion analysis and the site-directed mutagenesis of the putative CRP-N sites revealed the presence of two functional CRP-N sites. The direct binding of cAMP-CRP to the tfoXVCpromoter was demonstrated by EMSA assays. Additionally, the transcriptional start site (TSS) of tfoXVF in V. fluvialis was determined, and −10/−35 regions were predicted. Further comparison of the tfoX promoter in Vibrios revealed the existence of similar −10 motifs and putative CRP-N sites, indicating the conserved mechanism of CRP regulation on tfoX. Our study demonstrates the direct binding of the cAMP-CRP complex to tfoX promoter, and broadens the understanding of the molecular mechanism regulating tfoX in Vibrios. PMID:26442598

  13. Direct regulation of the natural competence regulator gene tfoX by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in Vibrios.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Zhao, Meng; Li, Jing; Gao, He; Kan, Biao; Liang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    TfoX (Sxy) and CRP are two important competence activators. The link between tfoX and CRP has been shown in H. influenza but lacking evidence of direct interaction. Recently a Sxy-dependent CRP (CRP-S) site autoregulating Sxy was reported in E. coli. Here, we show that the cAMP-CRP complex transcriptionally regulates tfoX expression through multiple canonical CRP (CRP-N) sites in Vibrios. This conclusion is supported by an analysis of the tfoX mRNA levels and tfoX transcriptional reporter fusions. The reduced expression of tfoX(VC) was restored by trans-complementation of crp in ∆crp and by exogenous cAMP in ∆cya. A promoter deletion analysis and the site-directed mutagenesis of the putative CRP-N sites revealed the presence of two functional CRP-N sites. The direct binding of cAMP-CRP to the tfoX(VC)promoter was demonstrated by EMSA assays. Additionally, the transcriptional start site (TSS) of tfoX(VF) in V. fluvialis was determined, and -10/-35 regions were predicted. Further comparison of the tfoX promoter in Vibrios revealed the existence of similar -10 motifs and putative CRP-N sites, indicating the conserved mechanism of CRP regulation on tfoX. Our study demonstrates the direct binding of the cAMP-CRP complex to tfoX promoter, and broadens the understanding of the molecular mechanism regulating tfoX in Vibrios. PMID:26442598

  14. Rapid glucocorticoid inhibition of vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced cyclic AMP accumulation and prolactin release in rat pituitary cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rotsztejn, W H; Dussaillant, M; Nobou, F; Rosselin, G

    1981-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates both adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and prolactin release in normal rat pituitary cells in culture. cAMP accumulation is significant (P less than 0.01) at VIP concentrations as low as 1 nM and reaches a maximum with 0.1 microM. Addition of dexamethasone as early as 15 min before VIP inhibits VIP stimulation of both cAMP production and PRL secretion. The rapid inhibition is dose-dependent: it appears at doses as low as 0.01 pM and is complete at 1 pM dexamethasone. Increasing concentrations of dexamethasone induce a noncompetitive type of inhibition, as shown by the decrease in Vmax with no change in the apparent Km for VIP. Cycloheximide (1 mM) counteracts the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on VIP-induced cAMP production, which suggests the involvement of a rapid protein synthesis mechanism. Ru-26988, a specific glucocorticoid devoid of any mineralocorticoid activity and which does not bind to intracellular transcortin-like component, also produces an inhibition of VIP-induced cAMP accumulation. Corticosterone also inhibits VIP-induced cAMP production but at concentrations higher than those of dexamethasone. In contrast, aldosterone, progesterone, estradiol, and testosterone have no effect. These results demonstrate that, in normal rat pituitary cells in culture, glucocorticoids at physiological concentrations rapidly inhibit the cAMP production and prolactin release induced by VIP by acting through specific glucocorticoid receptors. PMID:6278481

  15. Identification of the sites phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase on the beta 2 subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Gerhardstein, B L; Puri, T S; Chien, A J; Hosey, M M

    1999-08-10

    Voltage-dependent L-type calcium (Ca) channels are heteromultimeric proteins that are regulated through phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). We demonstrated that the beta 2 subunit was a substrate for PKA in intact cardiac myocytes through back-phosphorylation experiments. In addition, a heterologously expressed rat beta 2a subunit was phosphorylated at two sites in vitro by purified PKA. This beta 2a subunit contains two potential consensus sites for PKA-mediated phosphorylation at Thr164 and Ser591. However, upon mutation of both of these residues to alanines, the beta 2a subunit remained a good substrate for PKA. The actual sites of phosphorylation on the beta 2a subunit were identified by phosphopeptide mapping and microsequencing. Phosphopeptide maps of a bacterially expressed beta 2a subunit demonstrated that this subunit was phosphorylated similarly to the beta 2 subunit isolated from heart tissue and that the phosphorylation sites were contained in the unique C-terminal region. Microsequencing identified three serine residues, each of which conformed to loose consensus sites for PKA-mediated phosphorylation. Mutation of these residues to alanines resulted in the loss of the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the beta 2a subunit. The results suggest that phosphorylation of the beta 2a subunit by PKA occurs at three loose consensus sites for PKA in the C-terminus and not at either of the two strong consensus sites for PKA. The results also highlight the danger of assuming that consensus sites represent actual sites of phosphorylation. The actual sites of PKA-mediated phosphorylation are conserved in most beta 2 subunit isoforms and thus represent potential sites for regulation of channel activity. The sites phosphorylated by PKA are not substrates for protein kinase C (PKC), as the mutated beta 2 subunits lacking PKA sites remained good substrates for PKC. PMID:10441130

  16. Cyclic AMP and the reverse transformation reaction.

    PubMed

    Puck, Theodore T; Webb, Patricia; Johnson, Robert

    2002-06-01

    Traditional methods for cancer treatment have been aimed at killing the cancer cells. Unfortunately this approach all too often is accompanied by harmful killing of normal cells. The present paper describes an experimental program in our laboratory in which cancer cells are treated so as to revert to normal cell behavior. This process, which we have named reverse transformation, appears to offer considerable hope in the treatment of a large number of malignancies. PMID:12119272

  17. A specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (DDA) and a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (H-89) block the action of equine growth hormone on in vitro maturation of equine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Lorenzo, Pedro Luis; Carneiro, Gustavo Ferrer; Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie; Kastelic, John; Liu, Irwin K M

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were firstly to determine whether the stimulatory function of equine growth hormone (eGH) on equine oocyte maturation in vitro is mediated via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); and secondly if the addition of eGH in vitro influences oocyte nuclear maturation and if this effect is removed when GH inhibitors are added to the culture. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from follicles <25 mm in diameter and randomly allocated as follows: (i) control (no additives); and (ii) 400 ng/ml of eGH. A specific inhibitor against cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (H-89; 10-9, 10-11 or 10-15 M concentration) and a specific adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA; 10-8, 10-10 or 10-14 M concentration) were used to observe whether they could block the eGH effect. After 30 h of in vitro maturation at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 in air, oocytes were stained with 10 μg/ml of Hoechst to evaluate nuclear status. More mature oocytes (P < 0.05) were detected when COCs were incubated with eGH (29 of 84; 34.5%) than in the control group (18 of 82; 21.9%). The H-89 inhibitor used at a concentration of 10-9 M (4 of 29; 13.8%) decreased (P < 0.05) the number of oocytes reaching nuclear maturation when compared with eGH (11 of 29; 38%). The DDA inhibitor at a concentration of 10-8 M (2 of 27; 7.4%) also reduced (P < 0.05) the number of oocytes reaching maturity when compared with the eGH group (9 of 30; 30%). Results from the present study show that H-89 and DDA can be used in vitro to block the eGH effect on equine oocyte maturation. PMID:25257826

  18. Long-Term Memory for Place Learning Is Facilitated by Expression of cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightwell, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clayton A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Colombo, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that the hippocampus is necessary for consolidation of long-term spatial memory in rodents. We reported previously that rats using a place strategy to solve a cross maze task showed sustained phosphorylation of hippocampus cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor implicated in…

  19. Long-Term Memory for Place Learning Is Facilitated by Expression of cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightwell, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clayton A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Colombo, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that the hippocampus is necessary for consolidation of long-term spatial memory in rodents. We reported previously that rats using a place strategy to solve a cross maze task showed sustained phosphorylation of hippocampus cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor implicated in

  20. Localization of the murine activating transcription factor 4 gene to mouse chromosome 15

    SciTech Connect

    Mielnicki, L.M.; Elliott, R.W.; Pruitt, S.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Restriction fragment length variant analysis employing a mouse cDNA probe was used to localize the gene encoding murine activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4) to mouse chromosome 15 in close proximity to Sis (the cellular homolog of the simian sarcoma virus oncoprotein). Previous studies suggest that conserved linkage relationships exist between this region of mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 22q. The chromosomal locations of genes encoding most members of the ATF and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) subfamilv of b-zip proteins have not been determined. This study demonstrates that the location of the gene for murine ATF-4 is not linked to the genes for JUN family members, CREB1 and CREB2. Further mapping of individual ATF/ CREB subfamily members in the mouse will provide insight into the evolution of this multigene family. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Activation of hormone-sensitive lipase and phosphorylase kinase by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, John C.; Sperry, Pamela J.; Gill, Gordon N.; Steinberg, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase, purified to homogeneity from bovine lung, was shown to activate hormone-sensitive lipase partially purified from chicken adipose tissue. The degree of activation was the same as that effected by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase although higher concentrations of the cyclic GMP-dependent enzyme were required (relative activities expressed in terms of histone H2b phosphorylation units). Activation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was completely blocked by the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor protein from skeletal muscle but activation by the cyclic GMP enzyme was not inhibited. Lipase fully activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase showed no further change in activity when treated with cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. Lipase activated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase was reversibly deactivated by purified phosphorylase phosphatase (from bovine heart); full activity was restored by reincubation with cyclic GMP and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. Cholesterol esterase activity in the chicken adipose tissue fraction, previously shown to be activated along with the triglyceride lipase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, was also activated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. Crude preparations of hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase from human or rat adipose tissue and cholesterol esterase from rat adrenal were also activated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. Purified phosphorylase kinase (rabbit skeletal muscle) was also shown to be activated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. The present results, together with those of other workers on histone phosphorylation, suggest that the substrate specificities of cyclic GMP-dependent and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase may be similar. This is discussed in the light of a model recently proposed with regard to the relationship between the subunit structures of the two kinases. The physiologic significance of the findings remains to be established. PMID:200937

  2. Activation response of martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Forty, C.B.A.

    1997-09-01

    A hypothetical martensitic steel has been compositionally designed in order to optimize both metallurgical and reduced activation properties. When compared with two other martensitic steels, its activation characteristics are shown to be superior for all activation indices examined. However, these excellent properties are found to be due to the assumed absence of deleterious tramp impurities. When limiting impurity concentrations are determined for the hypothetical steel, they are found to be extremely stringent, and wholly unachievable using industrial scale production methods. It is concluded that only slight improvements can be made to currently available low activation martensitic steels to reduce residual activity responses further. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Activation Response of Martensitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forty, C. B. A.

    1997-09-01

    A hypothetical martensitic steel has been compositionally designed in order to optimize both metallurgical and reduced activation properties. When compared with two other martensitic steels, its activation characteristics are shown to be superior for all activation indices examined. However, these excellent properties are found to be due to the assumed absence of deleterious tramp impurities. When limiting impurity concentrations are determined for the hypothetical steel, they are found to be extremely stringent, and wholly unachievable using industrial scale production methods. It is concluded that only slight improvements can be made to currently available low activation martensitic steels to reduce residual activity responses further.

  4. Differences in responsiveness of intrapulmonary artery and vein to arachidonic acid: mechanism of arterial relaxation involves cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate and cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Ignarro, L.J.; Harbison, R.G.; Wood, K.S.; Wolin, M.S.; McNamara, D.B.; Hyman, A.L.; Kadowitz, P.J.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between responses of bovine intrapulmonary artery and vein to arachidonic acid and cyclic nucleotide levels in order to better understand the mechanism of relaxation elicited by arachidonic acid and acetylcholine. Arachidonic acid relaxed phenylephrine-precontracted arterial rings and elevated both cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP levels in arteries with intact endothelium. In contrast, endothelium-damaged arterial rings contracted to arachidonic acid without demonstrating significant changes in cyclic nucleotide levels. Indomethacin partially inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxation and abolished cyclic AMP accumulation whereas methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, partially inhibited relaxation and abolished cyclic GMP accumulation in response to arachidonic acid. All vessel responses were blocked by a combination of the two inhibitors. Prostaglandin (PG) I2 relaxed arterial rings and elevated cyclic AMP levels whereas PGE2 and PGF2 alpha caused contraction, suggesting that the indomethacin-sensitive component of arachidonic acid-elicited relaxation is due to PGI2 formation and cyclic AMP accumulation. The methylene blue-sensitive component is attributed to an endothelium-dependent but cyclooxygenase-independent generation of a substance causing cyclic GMP accumulation. Intrapulmonary veins contracted to arachidonic acid with no changes in cyclic nucleotide levels and PGI2 was without effect. Homogenates of intrapulmonary artery and vein formed 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid, which was inhibited by indomethacin. Thus, bovine intrapulmonary vein may not possess receptors for PGI2.

  5. Neural activation during response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, E.; Poldrack, R.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The flanker task, introduced by Eriksen and Eriksen [Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143--149], provides a means to selectively manipulate the presence or absence of response competition while keeping other task demands constant. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the flanker task. In accordance with previous behavioral studies, trials in which the flanking stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus were performed significantly more slowly than trials in which all the stimuli indicated the same response. This reaction time effect was accompanied by increases in activity in four regions: the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the left superior parietal lobe, and the left anterior parietal cortex. The increases were not due to changes in stimulus complexity or the need to overcome previously learned associations between stimuli and responses. Correspondences between this study and other experiments manipulating response interference suggest that the frontal foci may be related to response inhibition processes whereas the posterior foci may be related to the activation of representations of the inappropriate responses.

  6. The activation of Na+-dependent efflux of Ca2+ from liver mitochondria by glucagon and beta-adrenergic agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, T P; Duddridge, R J; Crompton, M

    1983-01-01

    The Na+-induced efflux of Ca2+ from liver mitochondria was activated by tissue pretreatment with 1 microM-adrenaline, 1 microM-isoprenaline, 10 nM-glucagon and 100 microM-cyclic AMP when 10 mM-lactate plus 1 mM-pyruvate were present in the perfusion medium. Infusion of the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (10 microM), was ineffective. The activation induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoprenaline, was maximal after infusion of agonist for 2 min. The isoprenaline-induced activation was very marked (120-220%), with about 7 nmol of intramitochondrial Ca2+/mg of protein, but was not evident with greater than 15 nmol of Ca2+/mg. Ca2+ efflux in the absence of Na+ and in the presence of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was not affected by isoprenaline pretreatment over the range 6-23 nmol of internal Ca2+/mg. With 10 mM-lactate plus 1 mM-pyruvate in the perfusion medium, glucagon and isoprenaline infusion increased tissue cyclic AMP content about 8-fold and 3-fold respectively. With 10 mM-pyruvate alone, neither glucagon nor isoprenaline caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP. Omission of lactate also abolished the ability of glucagon, but not of isoprenaline, to activate the Na+-induced efflux of Ca2+. The data indicate that cyclic AMP may mediate the activation caused by glucagon, but provide no evidence that cyclic AMP is an obligatory link in the beta-adrenergic-induced activation. PMID:6134523

  7. Effects of clozapine on rat striatal muscarinic receptors coupled to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and on the human cloned m4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Olianas, M C; Maullu, C; Onali, P

    1997-10-01

    1. Clozapine has recently been claimed to behave as a selective and full agonist at the cloned m4 muscarinic receptor artificially expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In the present study we have investigated whether clozapine could activate the rat striatal muscarinic receptors coupled to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity, considered as pharmacologically equivalent to the m4 gene product. In addition, we have examined the effect of the drug on various functional responses following the activation of the cloned m4 receptor expressed in CHO cells. 2. In rat striatum, clozapine (1 nM-10 microM) caused a slight inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, which was not counteracted by 10 microM atropine. On the other hand, clozapine antagonized the inhibitory effect of acetylcholine with a pA2 value of 7.51. Moreover, clozapine (1 microM) failed to inhibit dopamine D1 receptor stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity, but counteracted the inhibitory effect of carbachol (CCh). Clozapine displaced [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) bound to striatal M4 receptors with a monophasic inhibitory curve and a pKi value of 7.69. The clozapine inhibition was not affected by the addition of guanosine-5'-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS). 3. In intact CHO cells, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation with an EC50 of 31 nM. This effect was antagonized by atropine. CCh produced a biphasic effect on cyclic AMP levels, inhibiting at concentrations up to 1 microM (EC50=50 nM) and stimulating at higher concentrations (EC50 = 7 microM). Clozapine (0.3-5 microM) antagonized the CCh stimulation of cyclic AMP with a pKi value of 7.47. Similar results were obtained when the adenylyl cyclase activity was assayed in CHO cell membranes. 4. In CHO cells pretreated with the receptor alkylating agent 1-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (10 microM), the maximal inhibitory effect of clozapine on cyclic AMP formation was markedly reduced, whereas the CCh inhibitory curve was shifted to the right with no change in the maximum. 5. As in rat striatum, in CHO cell membranes the displacement of [3H]-NMS binding by clozapine yielded a monophasic curve which was not affected by GTPgammaS. 6. Clozapine (10 nM-10 microM) had a small stimulant effect (approximately 20%) on the binding of [35S]-GTPgammaS to CHO cell membranes, whereas CCh caused a 250% increase of radioligand binding. Moreover, clozapine (50 nM-5 microM) antagonized the CCh-stimulated [35S]-GTPgammaS binding with a pA2 value of 7.48. 7. These results show that at the striatal M4 receptors clozapine is a potent and competitive antagonist, whereas at the cloned m4 receptor it elicits both agonist and antagonist effects. Thus, clozapine behaves as a partial agonist, rather than as a full agonist, at the m4 receptor subtype, with intrinsic activity changing as a function of the coupling efficiency of the receptor to effector molecules. PMID:9351494

  8. Evidence that cyclic nucleotides are not mediators of fever in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Dascombe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The N6-2'-O-dibutyryl derivative of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (db cyclic AMP) and related compounds have been micro-injected into the preoptic/anterior hypothalamic nuclei (PO/AH) of the unanaesthetized, restrained rabbit and the effects on deep body temperature observed. Db cyclic AMP (100-400 micrograms) produced hypothermia of rapid onset in rabbits at an ambient temperature of 20-23 degrees C. Hypothermia was also produced by N2-2'-O-dibutyryl guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (db cyclic GMP), but not by saline, sodium n-butyrate, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, adenosine 5'-mono-, di- or triphosphate. The initial hypothermic response to db cyclic AMP and db cyclic GMP was followed by a sustained rise in temperature. However, all compounds injected into the PO/AH produced a similar hyperthermia which was attenuated by paracetamol. Development of this tissue-damage fever abolished the hypothermic response to db cyclic AMP in some rabbits. The effects of db cyclic AMP on body temperature and behaviour were not reproduced by the adenylate cyclase activators, cholera toxin (0.125-5 micrograms) and guanyl imidodiphosphate (5-400 micrograms). It is concluded that hypothermia is the principal effect of db cyclic AMP on body temperature when injected into the PO/AH in rabbits. These data do not support the proposal that endogenous cyclic AMP in the rabbit brain mediates pyrexia. PMID:6326920

  9. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  10. Identification of a novel E1A response element in the mouse c-fos promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Gedrich, R W; Engel, D A

    1995-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of the c-fos gene in mouse S49 cells by the adenovirus 243-amino-acid E1A protein depends on domains of E1A that are also required for transformation and that bind the cellular protein p300. Activation additionally depends on stimulation of endogenous cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase by analogs or inducers of cAMP. Transient transfection assays were used to analyze the c-fos promoter for sequences that confer responsiveness to E1A. Linker substitution and point mutants revealed that transcriptional activation by E1A depended on a cAMP response element (CRE) located at -67 relative to the start site of transcription and a neighboring binding site for transcription factor YY1 located at -54. A 22-bp sequence containing the -67 CRE and the -54 YY1 site was sufficient to confer responsiveness to a minimal E1B promoter and was termed the c-fos E1A response element (ERE). Function of the c-fos ERE depended on both the CRE and the YY1 site, since mutation of either site resulted in a loss of responsiveness to E1A. These results imply a specific functional interaction between CRE-binding proteins, transcription factor YY1, and E1A in the regulation of the c-fos gene. PMID:7884879

  11. Regional modulation of cyclic nucleotides by endothelin-1 in rat pulmonary arteries: direct activation of Gi2-protein in the main pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, Ian; Vaughan, Diane M; MacLean, Margaret R

    2000-01-01

    The ability of endothelin-1 (ET-1) to modulate the cyclic nucleotides, guanosine 3? 5? cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and adenosine 3? 5? cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) was assessed in the main elastic pulmonary elastic artery (45?mm i.d.) and the small muscular pulmonary arteries (150200??m i.d.) of the rat. ET-1 caused an increase in cyclic GMP in the larger vessels but had no effect in the smaller arteries. The increase in cyclic GMP was not dependent on an intact endothelium and was inhibited by the ETA-receptor antagonist FR139137 (1??M). ET-1 caused a decrease in cyclic AMP in the main pulmonary arteries, an effect that was partially blocked by FR139317 but not influenced by the ETB-receptor antagonist BQ-788 (1??M) or removal of the vascular endothelium. In contrast, ET-1 caused an increase in cyclic AMP in the small vessels, an effect that was blocked by BQ-788 but unaffected by FR139317. In the main pulmonary arteries, ET-1 caused enhanced incorporation of radiolabelled ADP-ribose by cholera toxin into Gi2 in the main pulmonary artery, an indicator of its receptor-mediated activation. In summary, we have shown that in the small muscular pulmonary artery of the rat, (where ETB mediated vasoconstriction prevails), there is an ETB-mediated increase in cyclic AMP with no net effect on cyclic GMP levels. In the large arteries, (where vasoconstriction is mediated via the ETA receptor), there is an ETA-mediated increase in cyclic GMP (endothelium independent) and an ETA-mediated (endothelium independent) decrease in cyclic AMP. PMID:10696107

  12. Activating Transcription Factor 3 and the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, David; Raivich, Gennadij; Anderson, Patrick Norval

    2012-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) belongs to the ATF/cyclic AMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors and is often described as an adaptive response gene whose activity is usually regulated by stressful stimuli. Although expressed in a number of splice variants and generally recognized as a transcriptional repressor, ATF3 has the ability to interact with a number of other transcription factors including c-Jun to form complexes which not only repress, but can also activate various genes. ATF3 expression is modulated mainly at the transcriptional level and has markedly different effects in different types of cell. The levels of ATF3 mRNA and protein are normally very low in neurons and glia but their expression is rapidly upregulated in response to injury. ATF3 expression in neurons is closely linked to their survival and the regeneration of their axons following axotomy, and that in peripheral nerves correlates with the generation of a Schwann cell phenotype that is conducive to axonal regeneration. ATF3 is also induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands but acts as a negative regulator of TLR signaling, suppressing the innate immune response which is involved in immuno-surveillance and can enhance or reduce the survival of injured neurons and promote the regeneration of their axons. PMID:22347845

  13. Regulation of Cardiac Calcium Channels in the Fight-or-Flight Response

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium transients generated by activation of voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels generate local signals, which initiate physiological processes such as secretion, synaptic transmission, and excitation-contraction coupling. Regulation of calcium entry through CaV channels is crucial for control of these physiological processes. In this article, I review experimental results that have emerged over several years showing that cardiac CaV1.2 channels form a local signaling complex, in which their proteolytically processed distal C-terminal domain, an A-Kinase Anchoring Protein, and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) interact directly with the transmembrane core of the ion channel through the proximal C-terminal domain. This signaling complex is the substrate for β-adrenergic up-regulation of the CaV1.2 channel in the heart during the fight-or-flight response. Protein phosphorylation of two sites at the interface between the distal and proximal C-terminal domains contributes importantly to control of basal CaV1.2 channel activity, and phosphorylation of Ser1700 by PKA at that interface up-regulates CaV1.2 activity in response to β-adrenergic signaling. Thus, the intracellular C-terminal domain of CaV1.2 channels serves as a signaling platform, mediating beat-to-beat physiological regulation of channel activity and up-regulation by β-adrenergic signaling in the fight-or-flight response. PMID:25966697

  14. Regulation of Cardiac Calcium Channels in the Fight-or-Flight Response.

    PubMed

    Catterall, William A

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium transients generated by activation of voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels generate local signals, which initiate physiological processes such as secretion, synaptic transmission, and excitation-contraction coupling. Regulation of calcium entry through CaV channels is crucial for control of these physiological processes. In this article, I review experimental results that have emerged over several years showing that cardiac CaV1.2 channels form a local signaling complex, in which their proteolytically processed distal C-terminal domain, an A-Kinase Anchoring Protein, and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) interact directly with the transmembrane core of the ion channel through the proximal C-terminal domain. This signaling complex is the substrate for β-adrenergic up-regulation of the CaV1.2 channel in the heart during the fight-or-flight response. Protein phosphorylation of two sites at the interface between the distal and proximal C-terminal domains contributes importantly to control of basal CaV1.2 channel activity, and phosphorylation of Ser1700 by PKA at that interface up-regulates CaV1.2 activity in response to β-adrenergic signaling. Thus, the intracellular C-terminal domain of CaV1.2 channels serves as a signaling platform, mediating beat-to-beat physiological regulation of channel activity and up-regulation by β-adrenergic signaling in the fight-or-flight response. PMID:25966697

  15. Protein kinase A and nicotinic activation of bovine adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Marley, P D; Thomson, K A; Bralow, R A

    1995-01-01

    1. Stimulation of nicotinic cholinoceptors on bovine chromaffin cells increases phosphorylation of three serine residues in tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH) and activates TOH. One of the serines is a target for protein kinase A phosphorylation, and phosphorylation of this serine is adequate alone to cause TOH activation. The role of protein kinase A in nicotinic activation of TOH was therefore investigated. 2. TOH activity was studied in situ in intact, cultured, bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, by measuring 14CO2 evolved following the hydroxylation and rapid decarboxylation of [14C]-tyrosine offered to the cells. 3. Nicotine (5 microM), forskolin (1 microM) and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cyclic AMP, 1 mM) each increased TOH activity by up to 200% over 10 min. The effect of nicotine was completely abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. 4. TOH activation by all three drugs was blocked by H89 (3-20 microM), which inhibits protein kinase A by competing for the ATP binding site on the kinase. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate Rp-diastereomer (Rp-cAMPS) (1 mM), an inhibitor of protein kinase A that competes with cyclic AMP for the regulatory subunit of the kinase, abolished the activation of TOH by nicotine, and reduced that by forskolin and 8-Br-cyclic AMP. Both H89 and Rp-cAMPS inhibited basal TOH activity by 50-80%. 5. A structural analogue of H89, H85 (3-20 microM), which lacks activity as a protein kinase A inhibitor, did not inhibit either the activation of TOH by nicotine (5 microM) or basal TOH activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7599937

  16. Bronchial responsiveness in active steelworkers.

    PubMed

    Corhay, J L; Bury, T; Louis, R; Delavignette, J P; Kayembe, J M; Weber, G; Albert, A; Radermecker, M F

    1998-02-01

    Coke-oven workers are exposed to dust and irritant gases. Therefore they are at risk of developing lung diseases including chronic bronchitis. Nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) has been advocated as a potential risk factor predisposing to the development of chronic bronchitis. In a previous study, we showed that prevalence of BHR was higher in retired coke-oven workers than in retired blast furnace workers. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of BHR in active steelworkers. Thus, 137 coke-oven workers and 150 blast furnace workers underwent clinical examination, a standardized questionnaire for the study of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function testing and methacholine aerosol challenge. The study demonstrates a higher prevalence and degree of BHR [provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20) < or = 8 mg x mL(-1)] in coke-oven workers than in blast furnace workers (31.4 versus 6.7%; p<0.001). Moreover, the frequency of respiratory symptoms and basal bronchial obstruction were greater among coke-oven workers with BHR in nonresponders. The basal maximum expiratory flow from 25-75% of forced vital capacity and the respiratory symptoms were correlated with bronchial responsiveness. The lack of correlation observed between BHR and the intensity of smoking or years spent in coke-oven environment may be explained by the high proportion of smokers, the worker turnover in the steel plant, and the "healthy worker effect". In conclusion, the higher prevalence and degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in coke-oven workers suggests that coke-oven pollutants are more intense irritants than those that escape from blast furnaces. PMID:9551724

  17. Nod2-mediated recognition of the microbiota is critical for mucosal adjuvant activity of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Yun-Gi; Seo, Sang-Uk; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Prescott, Dave; Philpott, Dana J; Rosenstiel, Philip; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent adjuvant for inducing mucosal immune responses. However, the mechanism by which CT induces adjuvant activity remains unclear. Here we show that the microbiota is critical for inducing antigen-specific IgG production after intranasal immunization. After mucosal vaccination with CT, both antibiotic-treated and germ-free (GF) mice had reduced amounts of antigen-specific IgG, smaller recall-stimulated cytokine responses, impaired follicular helper T (TFH) cell responses and reduced numbers of plasma cells. Recognition of symbiotic bacteria via the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (Nod2) sensor in cells that express the integrin CD11c (encoded by Itgax) was required for the adjuvanticity of CT. Reconstitution of GF mice with a Nod2 agonist or monocolonization with Staphylococcus sciuri, which has high Nod2-stimulatory activity, was sufficient to promote robust CT adjuvant activity, whereas bacteria with low Nod2-stimulatory activity did not. Mechanistically, CT enhanced Nod2-mediated cytokine production in dendritic cells via intracellular cyclic AMP. These results show a role for the microbiota and the intracellular receptor Nod2 in promoting the mucosal adjuvant activity of CT. PMID:27064448

  18. Olfactory response termination involves Ca2+-ATPase in vertebrate olfactory receptor neuron cilia.

    PubMed

    Antolin, Salome; Reisert, Johannes; Matthews, Hugh R

    2010-04-01

    In vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), odorant-induced activation of the transduction cascade culminates in production of cyclic AMP, which opens cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in the ciliary membrane enabling Ca(2+) influx. The ensuing elevation of the intraciliary Ca(2+) concentration opens Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, which mediate an excitatory Cl(-) efflux from the cilia. In order for the response to terminate, the Cl(-) channel must close, which requires that the intraciliary Ca(2+) concentration return to basal levels. Hitherto, the extrusion of Ca(2+) from the cilia has been thought to depend principally on a Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger. In this study, we show using simultaneous suction pipette recording and Ca(2+)-sensitive dye fluorescence measurements that in fire salamander ORNs, withdrawal of external Na(+) from the solution bathing the cilia, which incapacitates Na(+)-Ca(2+)exchange, has only a modest effect on the recovery of the electrical response and the accompanying decay of intraciliary Ca(2+) concentration. In contrast, exposure of the cilia to vanadate or carboxyeosin, a manipulation designed to block Ca(2+)-ATPase, has a substantial effect on response recovery kinetics. Therefore, we conclude that Ca(2+)-ATPase contributes to Ca(2+) extrusion in ORNs, and that Na(+)-Ca(2+)exchange makes only a modest contribution to Ca(2+) homeostasis in this species. PMID:20351061

  19. Chemosensory responses of Acanthamoeba castellanii: visual analysis of random movement and responses to chemical signals.

    PubMed

    Schuster, F L; Levandowsky, M

    1996-01-01

    A visual assay slide chamber was used in conjunction with time-lapse videomicroscopy to analyze chemotactic behavior of axenically grown Acanthamoeba castellanii. Data were collected and analyzed as vector scatter diagrams and cell tracks. Amebas responded to a variety of bacterial products or potential bacterial products by moving actively toward the attractant. Responses to the chemotactic peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), lipopolysaccharide, and lipid A were statistically significant (P < or = 0.03), as was the response to fMLP benzylamide (P < or = 0.05). Significant responses to cyclic AMP, lipoteichoic acid, and N-acetyl glucosamine were also found. Chemotactic peptide antagonists, mannose, mannosylated bovine serum albumin, and N-acetyl muramic acid all yielded nonsignificant responses (P > 0.05). There was no single optimal concentration for response to any of the attractants tested, and amebas responded equally over the range of concentrations tested. Pretreatment of amebas with chemotactic peptides, bacterial products, and bacteria reduced the directional response to attractants. Amebas that had been grown in the presence of bacteria appeared more responsive to chemotactic peptides. Treatment of amebas with trypsin reduced the response of cells to chemotactic peptides, though sensitivity was restored within a couple of hours. This suggests the ameba membrane may have receptors, sensitive to these bacterial substances, which are different from the mannose receptors involved in binding bacteria to the membrane during phagocytosis. The rate of movement was relatively constant (ca. 0.40 microns/s), indicating that the locomotor response to these signals is a taxis, or possibly a klinokinesis, but not an orthokinesis. Studies of the population diffusion rate in the absence of signals indicate that the basic population motility follows the pattern of a Levy walk, rather than the more familiar Gaussian diffusion. This suggests that the usual mathematical models of ameboid dispersion may need to be modified. PMID:8720945

  20. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Fujioka, Hitomi; Kimura, Fukuko; Akema, Tatsuo; Funabashi, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation), gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol), and diet (i.e., western-style diet) vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day), but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females. PMID:25870535

  1. THE MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY OF CRH NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Greti; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is essential for stress adaptation by mediating hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, behavioral and autonomic responses to stress. Activation of CRH neurons depends on neural afferents from the brain stem and limbic system, leading to sequential CRH release and synthesis. CRH transcription is required to restore mRNA and peptide levels, but termination of the response is essential to prevent pathology associated with chronic elevations of CRH and HPA axis activity. Inhibitory feedback mediated by glucocorticoids and intracellular production of the repressor, Inducible Cyclic AMP Early Repressor (ICER), limit the magnitude and duration of CRH neuronal activation. Induction of CRH transcription is mediated by the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A/cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-dependent pathways, and requires cyclic AMP-dependent nuclear translocation of the CREB co-activator, Transducer of Regulated CREB activity (TORC). This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms regulating CRH neuron activity. PMID:21871477

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Heat Shock Transcription Factor Regulates Cell Wall Remodeling in Response to Heat Shock

    PubMed Central

    Imazu, Hiromi; Sakurai, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates expression of genes encoding heat shock proteins and a variety of other proteins as well. To better understand the cellular roles of Hsf1, we screened multicopy suppressor genes of a temperature-sensitive hsf1 mutation. The RIM15 gene, encoding a protein kinase that is negatively regulated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, was identified as a suppressor, but Rim15-regulated stress-responsive transcription factors, such as Msn2, Msn4, and Gis1, were unable to rescue the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of the hsf1 mutant. Another class of suppressors encoded cell wall stress sensors, Wsc1, Wsc2, and Mid2, and the GDP/GTP exchange factor Rom2 that interacts with these cell wall sensors. Activation of a protein kinase, Pkc1, which is induced by these cell wall sensor proteins upon heat shock, but not activation of the Pkc1-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, was necessary for the hsf1 suppression. Like Wsc-Pkc1 pathway mutants, hsf1 cells exhibited an osmotic remedial cell lysis phenotype at elevated temperatures. Several of the other suppressors were found to encode proteins functioning in cell wall organization. These results suggest that Hsf1 in concert with Pkc1 regulates cell wall remodeling in response to heat shock. PMID:15947197

  3. Comparison of cellular responses induced by low level light in different cell types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Wu, Qiuhe; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    Discoveries are rapidly being made in multiple laboratories that shed "light" on the fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the use of low level light therapy (LLLT) in vitro, in animal models and in clinical practice. Increases in cellular levels of respiration, in cytochrome c oxidase activity, in ATP levels and in cyclic AMP have been found. Increased expression of reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide have also been shown. In order for these molecular changes to have a major effect on cell behavior, it is likely that various transcription factors will be activated, possibly via different signal transduction pathways. In this report we compare and contrast the effects of LLLT in vitro on murine embryonic fibroblasts, primary cortical neurons, cardiomyocytes and bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. We also examined two human cell lines, HeLa cancer cells and HaCaT keratinocytes. The effects of 810-nm near-infra-red light delivered at low and high fluences were addressed. Reactive oxygen species generation, transcription factor activation and ATP increases are reported. The data has led to the hypothesis that cells with a high level of mitochondrial activity (mitochondrial membrane potential) have a higher response to light than cells with low mitochondrial activity.

  4. Modeling the VPAC2-Activated cAMP/PKA Signaling Pathway: From Receptor to Circadian Clock Gene Induction

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haiping; Zak, Daniel E.; Sauter, Thomas; Schwaber, James; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role for VPAC2-activated signal transduction pathways in maintaining a synchronized biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Activation of the VPAC2 signaling pathway induces per1 gene expression in the SCN and phase-shifts the circadian clock. Mice without the VPAC2 receptor lack an overt, coherent circadian rhythm in clock gene expression, SCN neuron firing rate, and locomotor behavior. Using a systems approach, we have developed a kinetic model integrating VPAC2 signaling mediated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and leading to induced circadian clock gene expression. We fit the model to experimental data from the literature for cAMP accumulation, PKA activation, cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation, and per1 induction. By linking the VPAC2 model to a published circadian clock model, we also simulated clock phase shifts induced by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and matched experimental data for the VIP response. The simulated phase response curve resembled the hamster response to a related neuropeptide, GRP1–27, and light. Simulations using pulses of VIP revealed that the system response is extraordinarily robust to input signal duration, a result with physiologically relevant consequences. Lastly, simulations using varied receptor levels matched literature experimental data from animals overexpressing VPAC2 receptors. PMID:16339878

  5. Nuclear condensation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element-binding protein in discrete murine brain structures.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Kubo, Keita; Ogita, Kiyokazu; Pláteník, Jan; Balcar, Vladimir J; Takarada, Takeshi; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Yoneda, Yukio

    2005-06-01

    We have directed a polyclonal antibody against an oligo-peptide (123-136) of the transcription factor cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) including the serine residue at 133. Rabbit sera were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by affinity chromatography to homogeneity on one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified antibody not only induced marked supershift of CREB binding, without affecting binding of activator protein-1 on gel retardation electrophoresis, but also differentiated between CREB and CREB phosphorylated at serine133 in brain nuclear fractions on Western blotting. Immunoreactive CREB was detected in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions of discrete murine brain structures but was more highly condensed in cerebellum than in neocortex and hippocampus. Incubation of brain nuclear fractions led to a marked export of immunoreactive CREB in a temperature-dependent manner, whereas the temperature-dependent export activity was significantly lower in cerebellum than in other brain structures. Suppression of general new protein synthesis by cycloheximide (500 mg/kg, i.p.) in vivo resulted in a significant decrease in the nuclear CREB level, with a concomitant increase in the cytosolic level in hippocampus, but not in cerebellum. These results suggest that the nuclear export activity might vary from region to region in murine brains through a hitherto unidentified mechanism other than the nuclear localization signal, to result in different nuclear condensation ratios for subsequent elicitation of differential transcriptional activities by the constitutive transcription factor CREB in the nucleus. PMID:15880467

  6. Electrophysiological responses of neurons in the rat spinal cord to nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Pehl, U; Schmid, H A

    1997-03-01

    The effects of nitric oxide-containing solution and different nitric oxide donors were investigated on spontaneously active neurons using extracellular recording technique in areas of rat spinal cord slices where high levels of nitric oxide synthase are present. In lamina X, 93% of all neurons investigated (n = 84) increased their firing rate and 2% decreased it by superfusion with the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside. In contrast, 49% of all neurons in laminae I and II (n = 90) were inhibited and only 28% were activated. Both effects were due to the postsynaptic action of sodium nitroprusside, because they could still be observed in medium containing 0.3 mM Ca2+ and 9 mM Mg2+, known to block synaptic transmission. Application of 8-bromo-cyclic-GMP caused an excitation of every neuron which was excited by sodium nitroprusside and an inhibition of every cell which was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside (n = 25). This effect was different from the effect of 8-bromo-cyclic-AMP, which mimicked only the excitatory, but not the inhibitory response of sodium nitroprusside. These results provide evidence that nitric oxide in the spinal cord can directly cause an excitation or an inhibition of the electrical activity of spinal neurons. Another, more general conclusion from our results is that the nitric oxide-induced production of cyclic-GMP alone does not allow any prediction about an excitatory or inhibitory effect on the neuronal activity, which has to be determined separately. PMID:9472412

  7. The Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) Establishes a Trafficking Vesicle Pool Responsible for Its Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Edinger, Robert S.; Bertrand, Carol A.; Rondandino, Christine; Apodaca, Gerard A.; Johnson, John P.; Butterworth, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is the rate-limiting step for sodium reabsorption across tight epithelia. Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) stimulation promotes ENaC trafficking to the apical surface to increase channel number and transcellular Na+ transport. Removal of corticosteroid supplementation in a cultured cortical collecting duct cell line reduced ENaC expression. Concurrently, the number of vesicles trafficked in response to cAMP stimulation, as measured by a change in membrane capacitance, also decreased. Stimulation with aldosterone restored both the basal and cAMP-stimulated ENaC activity and increased the number of exocytosed vesicles. Knocking down ENaC directly decreased both the cAMP-stimulated short-circuit current and capacitance response in the presence of aldosterone. However, constitutive apical recycling of the Immunoglobulin A receptor was unaffected by alterations in ENaC expression or trafficking. Fischer Rat Thyroid cells, transfected with α,β,γ-mENaC had a significantly greater membrane capacitance response to cAMP stimulation compared to non-ENaC controls. Finally, immunofluorescent labeling and quantitation revealed a smaller number of vesicles in cells where ENaC expression was reduced. These findings indicate that ENaC is not a passive passenger in regulated epithelial vesicle trafficking, but plays a role in establishing and maintaining the pool of vesicles that respond to cAMP stimulation. PMID:23029554

  8. Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Alessandro G; Ihssen, Julian; Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS and the signal molecule cAMP are the major players in the regulation of transcription under such conditions; however, their interaction is still not fully understood. Therefore, during growth of E. coli in carbon-limited chemostat culture at different dilution rates, the transcriptomes, expression of periplasmic proteins and catabolomes of strains lacking one of these global regulators, either rpoS or adenylate cyclase (cya), were compared to those of the wild-type strain. The inability to synthesize cAMP exerted a strong negative influence on the expression of alternative carbon source uptake and degradation systems. In contrast, absence of RpoS increased the transcription of genes belonging to high-affinity uptake systems and central metabolism, presumably due to reduced competition of σ(D) with σ(S). Phenotypical analysis confirmed this observation: The ability to respire alternative carbon substrates and to express periplasmic high-affinity binding proteins was eliminated in cya and crp mutants, while these properties were not affected in the rpoS mutant. As expected, transcription of numerous stress defence genes was negatively affected by the rpoS knock-out mutation. Interestingly, several genes of the RpoS stress response regulon were also down-regulated in the cAMP-negative strain indicating a coordinated global regulation. The results demonstrate that cAMP is crucial for catabolic flexibility during slow, carbon-limited growth, whereas RpoS is primarily involved in the regulation of stress response systems necessary for the survival of this bacterium under hunger conditions. PMID:26204448

  9. Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS and the signal molecule cAMP are the major players in the regulation of transcription under such conditions; however, their interaction is still not fully understood. Therefore, during growth of E. coli in carbon-limited chemostat culture at different dilution rates, the transcriptomes, expression of periplasmic proteins and catabolomes of strains lacking one of these global regulators, either rpoS or adenylate cyclase (cya), were compared to those of the wild-type strain. The inability to synthesize cAMP exerted a strong negative influence on the expression of alternative carbon source uptake and degradation systems. In contrast, absence of RpoS increased the transcription of genes belonging to high-affinity uptake systems and central metabolism, presumably due to reduced competition of σD with σS. Phenotypical analysis confirmed this observation: The ability to respire alternative carbon substrates and to express periplasmic high-affinity binding proteins was eliminated in cya and crp mutants, while these properties were not affected in the rpoS mutant. As expected, transcription of numerous stress defence genes was negatively affected by the rpoS knock-out mutation. Interestingly, several genes of the RpoS stress response regulon were also down-regulated in the cAMP-negative strain indicating a coordinated global regulation. The results demonstrate that cAMP is crucial for catabolic flexibility during slow, carbon-limited growth, whereas RpoS is primarily involved in the regulation of stress response systems necessary for the survival of this bacterium under hunger conditions. PMID:26204448

  10. Rap1 Activation Plays a Regulatory Role in Pancreatic Amylase Secretion*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Maria E.; Chen, Xuequn; Ernst, Stephen A.; Williams, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Rap1 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins and is localized on pancreatic zymogen granules. The current study was designed to determine whether GTP-Rap1 is involved in the regulation of amylase secretion. Rap1A/B and the two Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Epac1 and CalDAG-GEF III, were identified in mouse pancreatic acini. A fraction of both Rap1 and Epac1 colocalized with amylase in zymogen granules, but only Rap1 was integral to the zymogen granule membranes. Stimulation with cholecystokinin (CCK), carbachol, and vasoactive intestinal peptide all induced Rap1 activation, as did calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol ester, forskolin, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, and the Epac-specific cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP. The phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 abolished carbachol- but not forskolin-induced Rap1 activation. Co-stimulation with carbachol and 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP led to an additive effect on Rap1 activation, whereas a synergistic effect was seen on amylase release. Although the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 abolished forskolin-stimulated CREB phosphorylation, it did not modify forskolin-induced GTP-Rap1 levels, excluding PKA participation. Overexpression of Rap1 GTPase-activating protein, which blocked Rap1 activation, reduced the effect of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP, and vasoactive intestinal peptide on amylase release by 60% and reduced CCK- as well as carbachol-stimulated pancreatic amylase release by 40%. These findings indicate that GTP-Rap1 is required for pancreatic amylase release. Rap1 activation not only mediates the cAMP-evoked response via Epac1 but is also involved in CCK- and carbachol-induced amylase release, with their action most likely mediated by CalDAG-GEF III. PMID:18577515

  11. Molecular structure of the dihydropyridazinone cardiotonic 1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-pyridazinyl)- 2H-indol-2-one, a potent inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D W; Jones, N D; Krushinski, J H; Pollock, G D; Swartzendruber, J K; Hayes, J S

    1987-04-01

    The cardiotonic 1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-3- pyridazinyl)-2H-indol-2-one (1, LY195115) is a potent, competitive inhibitor (Ki = 80 nM) of sarcoplasmic reticulum derived phosphodiesterase (SR-PDE). Moreover, the compound is a potent positive inotrope both in vitro and in vivo. To assist further cardiotonic drug-design studies, we have mapped the three-dimensional structure of 1 using X-ray crystallography. From a global viewpoint, this drug was essentially planar, but two small regions of nonplanarity were apparent. These involved the geminal methyl substituents in the indol-2-one moiety and the C5' methylene unit of the dihydropyridazinone ring. Because of our previous studies involving the bipyridine cardiotonics amrinone and milrinone, the conformational relationship between the plane of the phenyl ring and the horizontal symmetry plane defined by N2', C3', and C4' of 1 was of particular interest. The C6-C5-C3'-C4' dihedral angle was -2.7 degrees, whereas the C6-C5-C3'-N2' dihedral angle was 174.6 degrees. Therefore the two rings maintain a high degree of coplanarity. Compound 4, the congener of 1 possessing a completely unsaturated pyridazinone ring was also studied. In terms of inotropic activity, this compound, devoid of any puckering in the pyridazinone moiety, was equipotent with 1. Methyl substitution at the 4-position of the dihydropyridazinone and pyridazinone rings provided disparate results. Compound 2, the 4-methyl analogue of 1, was 2-fold more potent than 1, and the methyl substituent probably caused only minor perturbations in overall molecular topology. However 5, the 4-methyl analogue of the pyridazinone 4, was 4.4-fold less active than 4, perhaps as a result of methyl-induced molecular nonplanarity. PMID:3031290

  12. The Neuroprotective Effect of Lithium in cannabinoid Dependence is Mediated through Modulation of Cyclic AMP, ERK1/2 and GSK-3? Phosphorylation in Cerebellar Granular Neurons of Rat.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Ejtemaei-Mehr, Shahram; Razmi, Ali; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Lithium (Li), a glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) inhibitor, has used to attenuate the cannabinoid-induced dependence/withdrawal signs, but molecular mechanisms related to this are unclear. Recent studies indicate the involvement of upstream extracellular signal kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and downstream GSK-3? pathways in the development of cannabinoid-induced dependence. This is mediated through cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) enriched in cerebellar granular neurons (CGNs). Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of modulatory/neuroprotective effects of Li on a cannabinoid agonist (WIN 55,212-2 (WIN))-induced dependence, through quantitative analysis of some involved proteins such as ERK1/2, GSK-3? and related signaling pathways including their phosphorylated forms; and cAMP level as the other molecular mechanisms leading to dependence, in CGNs model. The CGNs were prepared from 7-day-old Wistar rat pup in a 12-well plate, pretreated with Li (1mM) and an ERK1/2 inhibitor SL327 (SL, 10 M). The WIN (1 M) was added 30 minutes prior to treatment and AM251 (AM, 1 M), as a cannabinoid antagonist was co-treated with WIN. The cAMP level, as an indicator of cannabinoid-induced dependence, was measured by ELISA following forskolin (FSK) stimulation. Western blot analyses determined the phosphorylated forms of ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), GSK-3? (p-GSK-3?) as well as their total expressions in various treatment times and doses in CGNs. WIN alone could down regulate the cAMP/p-ERK1/2 cascade compared to AM treatment. However, P-GSK-3? was up-regulated with Li and WIN or with SL and Li pretreatment to AM-induced cellular response, which was the highest 60 minutes after CGNs exposure. Results further suggested the potential role of Li pretreatment to diminish the development of cannabinoid-induced dependence/neuronal injury through possible mechanisms of modulating the cAMP/p-ERK1/2 cascade independent of p-GSK-3? signaling pathway in-vitro. PMID:26664379

  13. The Neuroprotective Effect of Lithium in cannabinoid Dependence is Mediated through Modulation of Cyclic AMP, ERK1/2 and GSK-3β Phosphorylation in Cerebellar Granular Neurons of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Ejtemaei-Mehr, Shahram; Razmi, Ali; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Lithium (Li), a glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor, has used to attenuate the cannabinoid-induced dependence/withdrawal signs, but molecular mechanisms related to this are unclear. Recent studies indicate the involvement of upstream extracellular signal kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and downstream GSK-3β pathways in the development of cannabinoid-induced dependence. This is mediated through cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) enriched in cerebellar granular neurons (CGNs). Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of modulatory/neuroprotective effects of Li on a cannabinoid agonist (WIN 55,212-2 (WIN))-induced dependence, through quantitative analysis of some involved proteins such as ERK1/2, GSK-3β and related signaling pathways including their phosphorylated forms; and cAMP level as the other molecular mechanisms leading to dependence, in CGNs model. The CGNs were prepared from 7-day-old Wistar rat pup in a 12-well plate, pretreated with Li (1mM) and an ERK1/2 inhibitor SL327 (SL, 10 µM). The WIN (1 µM) was added 30 minutes prior to treatment and AM251 (AM, 1 µM), as a cannabinoid antagonist was co-treated with WIN. The cAMP level, as an indicator of cannabinoid-induced dependence, was measured by ELISA following forskolin (FSK) stimulation. Western blot analyses determined the phosphorylated forms of ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β) as well as their total expressions in various treatment times and doses in CGNs. WIN alone could down regulate the cAMP/p-ERK1/2 cascade compared to AM treatment. However, P-GSK-3β was up-regulated with Li and WIN or with SL and Li pretreatment to AM-induced cellular response, which was the highest 60 minutes after CGNs exposure. Results further suggested the potential role of Li pretreatment to diminish the development of cannabinoid-induced dependence/neuronal injury through possible mechanisms of modulating the cAMP/p-ERK1/2 cascade independent of p-GSK-3β signaling pathway in-vitro. PMID:26664379

  14. The impact of social status on the erythrocyte beta-adrenergic response in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J B; Gilmour, K M

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether chronic increases in circulating cortisol concentrations, resulting from the occupation of subordinate status in rainbow trout social hierarchies, resulted in an enhancement of the erythrocyte adrenergic response. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were confined in fork length matched pairs for 6 h, 18 h, 48 h or 5-7 days, and social status was assigned through observations of behaviour. Erythrocyte adrenergic responsiveness, determined in vitro as changes in water content following incubation with the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol, was significantly greater in subordinate than dominant fish at 48 h of social interactions but not after 5-7 days, nor when assessed as changes in extracellular pH (pHe). However, the activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger (beta-NHE), assessed in vitro as the pHe change following incubation with the permeable cyclic AMP analogue 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, was significantly lower in subordinate fish. The number of erythrocyte membrane-bound adrenergic receptors (Bmax) was significantly higher in subordinate than dominant fish at 48 h, but had decreased by 5-7 days to a value that was not significantly different from that for dominant fish. The apparent dissociation constant (KD) of these receptors was not significantly impacted by either social status or interaction time. Finally, the relative expressions of beta-3b adrenergic receptor (AR) and beta-NHE mRNA were determined using real-time PCR and were found to be minimally affected by social rank. Relative to a control group, beta-3b AR mRNA was significantly up-regulated in both dominant and subordinate trout at all time periods, whereas the expression of beta-NHE was in general significantly down-regulated. Unlike the situation in rainbow trout treated with exogenous cortisol, elevations in circulating cortisol resulting from low social status did not "pre-adapt" the erythrocyte adrenergic response, but rather may have served to offset the potentially adverse effects elicited by plasma catecholamines, which were elevated during social hierarchy formation. PMID:16403476

  15. KLF2 Is a Novel Transcriptional Regulator of Endothelial Proinflammatory Activation

    PubMed Central

    SenBanerjee, Sucharita; Lin, Zhiyong; Atkins, G. Brandon; Greif, Daniel M.; Rao, Ravi M.; Kumar, Ajay; Feinberg, Mark W.; Chen, Zhiping; Simon, Daniel I.; Luscinskas, F. William; Michel, Thomas M.; Gimbrone, Michael A.; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Jain, Mukesh K.

    2004-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a critical regulator of vascular function. Diverse stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines and hemodynamic forces modulate endothelial phenotype and thereby impact on the development of vascular disease states. Therefore, identification of the regulatory factors that mediate the effects of these stimuli on endothelial function is of considerable interest. Transcriptional profiling studies identified the Kruppel-like factor (KLF)2 as being inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β and induced by laminar shear stress in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Overexpression of KLF2 in umbilical vein endothelial cells robustly induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and total enzymatic activity. In addition, KLF2 overexpression potently inhibited the induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial adhesion molecule E-selectin in response to various proinflammatory cytokines. Consistent with these observations, in vitro flow assays demonstrate that T cell attachment and rolling are markedly attenuated in endothelial monolayers transduced with KLF2. Finally, our studies implicate recruitment by KLF2 of the transcriptional coactivator cyclic AMP response element–binding protein (CBP/p300) as a unifying mechanism for these various effects. These data implicate KLF2 as a novel regulator of endothelial activation in response to proinflammatory stimuli. PMID:15136591

  16. Identification and Functional Characterization of Rca1, a Transcription Factor Involved in both Antifungal Susceptibility and Host Response in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Pradervand, Sylvain; Ischer, Françoise; Coste, Alix T.; Ferrari, Sélène; Harshman, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The identification of novel transcription factors associated with antifungal response may allow the discovery of fungus-specific targets for new therapeutic strategies. A collection of 241 Candida albicans transcriptional regulator mutants was screened for altered susceptibility to fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine. Thirteen of these mutants not yet identified in terms of their role in antifungal response were further investigated, and the function of one of them, a mutant of orf19.6102 (RCA1), was characterized by transcriptome analysis. Strand-specific RNA sequencing and phenotypic tests assigned Rca1 as the regulator of hyphal formation through the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathway and the transcription factor Efg1, but also probably through its interaction with a transcriptional repressor, most likely Tup1. The mechanisms responsible for the high level of resistance to caspofungin and fluconazole observed resulting from RCA1 deletion were investigated. From our observations, we propose that caspofungin resistance was the consequence of the deregulation of cell wall gene expression and that fluconazole resistance was linked to the modulation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our large-scale screening of a C. albicans transcription factor mutant collection allowed the identification of new effectors of the response to antifungals. The functional characterization of Rca1 assigned this transcription factor and its downstream targets as promising candidates for the development of new therapeutic strategies, as Rca1 influences host sensing, hyphal development, and antifungal response. PMID:22581526

  17. Strain activation of bovine aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and alignment: study of strain dependency and the role of protein kinase A and C signaling pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, I.; Cohen, C. R.; Kamal, K.; Li, G.; Shin, T.; Du, W.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype can be altered by physical forces as demonstrated by cyclic strain-induced changes in proliferation, orientation, and secretion of macromolecules. However, the magnitude of strain required and the intracellular coupling pathways remain ill defined. To examine the strain requirements for SMC proliferation, we selectively seeded bovine aortic SMC either on the center or periphery of silastic membranes which were deformed with 150 mm Hg vacuum (0-7% center; 7-24% periphery). SMC located in either the center or peripheral regions showed enhanced proliferation compared to cells grown under the absence of cyclic strain. Moreover, SMC located in the center region demonstrated significantly (P < 0.005) greater proliferation as compared to those in the periphery. In contrast, SMC exposed to high strain (7-24%) demonstrated alignment perpendicular to the strain gradient, whereas SMC in the center (0-7%) remained aligned randomly. To determine the mechanisms of these phenomena, we examined the effect of cyclic strain on bovine aortic SMC signaling pathways. We observed strain-induced stimulation of the cyclic AMP pathway including adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic AMP accumulation. In addition, exposure of SMC to cyclic strain caused a significant increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity and enzyme translocation from the cytosol to a particulate fraction. Further study was conducted to examine the effect of strain magnitude on signaling, particularly protein kinase A (PKA) activity as well as cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein levels. We observed significantly (P < 0.05) greater PKA activity and CRE binding protein levels in SMC located in the center as compared to the peripheral region. However, inhibition of PKA (with 10 microM Rp-cAMP) or PKC (with 5-20 ng/ml staurosporine) failed to alter either the strain-induced increase in SMC proliferation or alignment. These data characterize the strain determinants for activation of SMC proliferation and alignment. Although strain activated both the AC/cAMP/PKA and the PKC pathways in SMC, singular inhibition of PKA and PKC failed to prevent strain-induced alignment and proliferation, suggesting either their lack of involvement or the multifactorial nature of these responses.

  18. Cyclic AMP induces differentiation in vitro of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, L; Schreyer, M; Mach, J P; Carrel, S

    1988-03-15

    Treating human melanoma lines with dibutyryl adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (dbc AMP) resulted in morphologic changes associated with the altered expression of cell surface antigens. After treatment, cells developed long cellular projections characteristic of mature melanocytes and showed the presence of an increased number of Stage II premelanosomes. In addition, induction of melanin synthesis, detected as brown perinuclear pigmentation, was observed. The AMP further drastically reduced the growth rate of the five melanoma cell lines that were tested. The influence of dbc AMP was completely reversible 3 days after the agent was removed from the culture medium. The antigenic phenotype of the melanoma lines was compared before and after dbc AMP treatment. This was done with four monoclonal antibodies directed against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II antigens and 11 monoclonal antibodies defining eight different melanoma-associated antigenic systems. Treatment with dbc AMP reduced the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC antigens and beta-2-microglobulin in five of five melanoma lines. In the two HLA-DR-positive cell lines dbc AMP reduced the expression of this antigen in one line and enhanced it in the other. No induction of HLA-DR or HLA-DC antigens was observed in the Class II negative cell lines. Furthermore, dbc-AMP modulated the expression of the majority of the melanoma antigenic systems tested. The expression of a 90-kilodalton (KD) antigen, which has been found to be upregulated by interferon-gamma, was markedly decreased in all the five cell lines. A similar decrease in the expression of the high molecular weight proteoglycan-associated antigen (220-240 KD) was observed. The reduced expression of Class I and II MHC antigens as well as the altered expression of the melanoma-associated antigens studied were shown to be reversible after dbc AMP was removed. Our results collectively show that the monoclonal antibody-defined melanoma-associated molecules are linked to differentiation. They could provide useful tools for monitoring the maturation of melanomas in vivo induced by chemical agents or natural components favoring differentiation. PMID:2830005

  19. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  20. Dopamine counteracts octopamine signalling in a neural circuit mediating food response in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Suo, Satoshi; Culotti, Joseph G; Van Tol, Hubert H M

    2009-08-19

    Animals assess food availability in their environment by sensory perception and respond to the absence of food by changing hormone and neurotransmitter signals. However, it is largely unknown how the absence of food is perceived at the level of functional neurocircuitry. In Caenorhabditis elegans, octopamine is released from the RIC neurons in the absence of food and activates the cyclic AMP response element binding protein in the cholinergic SIA neurons. In contrast, dopamine is released from dopaminergic neurons only in the presence of food. Here, we show that dopamine suppresses octopamine signalling through two D2-like dopamine receptors and the G protein Gi/o. The D2-like receptors work in both the octopaminergic neurons and the octopamine-responding SIA neurons, suggesting that dopamine suppresses octopamine release as well as octopamine-mediated downstream signalling. Our results show that C. elegans detects the absence of food by using a small neural circuit composed of three neuron types in which octopaminergic signalling is activated by the cessation of dopamine signalling. PMID:19609300

  1. A novel family of dehydrin-like proteins is involved in stress response in the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Hoi, Joanne Wong Sak; Lamarre, Claude; Beau, Rémi; Meneau, Isabelle; Berepiki, Adokiye; Barre, Annick; Mellado, Emilia; Read, Nick D.; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

     During a search for genes controlling conidial dormancy in Aspergillus fumigatus, two dehydrin-like genes, DprA and DprB, were identified. The deduced proteins had repeated stretches of 23 amino acids that contained a conserved dehydrin-like protein (DPR) motif. Disrupted DprAΔ mutants were hypersensitive to oxidative stress and to phagocytic killing, whereas DprBΔ mutants were impaired in osmotic and pH stress responses. However, no effect was observed on their pathogenicity in our experimental models of invasive aspergillosis. Molecular dissection of the signaling pathways acting upstream showed that expression of DprA was dependent on the stress-activated kinase SakA and the cyclic AMP-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathways, which activate the bZIP transcription factor AtfA, while expression of DprB was dependent on the SakA mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and the zinc finger transcription factor PacC. Fluorescent protein fusions showed that both proteins were associated with peroxisomes and the cytosol. Accordingly, DprA and DprB were important for peroxisome function. Our findings reveal a novel family of stress-protective proteins in A. fumigatus and, potentially, in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:21490150

  2. PakD, a putative p21-activated protein kinase in Dictyostelium discoideum, regulates actin.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Miguel; Ray, Sibnath; Brown, Isaiah; Irom, Jon; Brazill, Derrick

    2014-01-01

    Proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cell function and ultimately for survival. Tight control of actin dynamics is required for many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, adhesion, chemotaxis, endocytosis, exocytosis, and multicellular development. Here we describe a putative p21-activated protein kinase, PakD, that regulates the actin cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum. We found that cells lacking pakD are unable to aggregate and thus unable to develop. Compared to the wild type, cells lacking PakD have decreased membrane extensions, suggesting defective regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. pakD(-) cells show poor chemotaxis toward cyclic AMP (cAMP) but normal chemotaxis toward folate, suggesting that PakD mediates some but not all chemotaxis responses. pakD(-) cells have decreased polarity when placed in a cAMP gradient, indicating that the chemotactic defects of the pakD(-) cells may be due to an impaired cytoskeletal response to cAMP. In addition, while wild-type cells polymerize actin in response to global stimulation by cAMP, pakD(-) cells exhibit F-actin depolymerization under the same conditions. Taken together, the results suggest that PakD is part of a pathway coordinating F-actin organization during development. PMID:24243792

  3. PakD, a Putative p21-Activated Protein Kinase in Dictyostelium discoideum, Regulates Actin

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Miguel; Ray, Sibnath; Brown, Isaiah; Irom, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cell function and ultimately for survival. Tight control of actin dynamics is required for many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, adhesion, chemotaxis, endocytosis, exocytosis, and multicellular development. Here we describe a putative p21-activated protein kinase, PakD, that regulates the actin cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum. We found that cells lacking pakD are unable to aggregate and thus unable to develop. Compared to the wild type, cells lacking PakD have decreased membrane extensions, suggesting defective regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. pakD? cells show poor chemotaxis toward cyclic AMP (cAMP) but normal chemotaxis toward folate, suggesting that PakD mediates some but not all chemotaxis responses. pakD? cells have decreased polarity when placed in a cAMP gradient, indicating that the chemotactic defects of the pakD? cells may be due to an impaired cytoskeletal response to cAMP. In addition, while wild-type cells polymerize actin in response to global stimulation by cAMP, pakD? cells exhibit F-actin depolymerization under the same conditions. Taken together, the results suggest that PakD is part of a pathway coordinating F-actin organization during development. PMID:24243792

  4. Stress Reorganization and Response in Active Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Rhoda J.; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.

    2014-07-01

    We present a microscopic model of a disordered viscoelastic active solid, i.e., an active material whose long time behavior is elastic as opposed to viscous. It is composed of filaments, passive cross-links, and molecular motors powered by stored chemical energy, e.g., actomyosin powered by adenosine triphosphate. Our model allows us to study the collective behavior of contractile active elements and how their interaction with each other and the passive elastic elements determines the macroscopic mechanical properties of the active material. As a result of the (un)binding dynamics of the active elements, we find that this system provides a highly responsive material with a dynamic mechanical response strongly dependent on the amount of deformation.

  5. Gliadins induce TNFalpha production through cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activation in intestinal cells (Caco-2).

    PubMed

    Laparra Llopis, Jos Moiss; Sanz Herranz, Yolanda

    2010-06-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to gliadins. In this study the effects of two gliadin-derived peptides (PA2, PQPQLPYPQPQLP and PA9, QLQPFPQPQLPY) on TNFalpha production by intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) and whether these effects were related to protein kinase A (PKA) and/or -C (PKC) activities have been evaluated. Caco-2 cell cultures were challenged with several sets of gliadin peptides solutions (0.25 mg/mL), with/without different activators of PKA or PKC, bradykinin (Brdkn) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). The gliadin-derived peptides assayed represent the two major immunodominant epitopes of the peptide 33-mer of alpha-gliadin (56-88) (LQLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQPF). Both peptides induced the TNFalpha production triggering the inflammatory cell responses, the PA2 being more effective. The addition of the peptides in the presence of dibutyril cyclic AMP (cAMP), Brdkn or PDTC, inhibited the TNFalpha production. The PKC-activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-diacetate additionally increased the PA2- and PA9-induced TNFalpha production. These results link the gliadin-derived peptides induced TNFalpha production through cAMP-dependent PKA activation, where ion channels controlling calcium influx into cells could play a protective role, and requires NF-kappaB activation. PMID:20514534

  6. Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Scott D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specified surface of the body. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes: (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature.

  7. Molecular correlates of impaired prefrontal plasticity in response to chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, S D; Trentani, A; Den Boer, J A; Ter Horst, G J

    2003-06-01

    Disturbed adaptations at the molecular and cellular levels following stress could represent compromised neural plasticity that contributes to the pathophysiology of stress-induced disorders. Evidence illustrates atrophy and cell death of stress-vulnerable neurones in the prefrontal cortex. Reduced plasticity may be realized through the destabilized function of selective proteins involved in organizing the neuronal skeleton and translating neurotrophic signals. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects, rats were exposed to chronic footshock stress. Patterns of c-fos, phospho-extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), calcineurin and phospho-cyclic-AMP response-element binding protein (CREB) expression were subsequently investigated. The results indicate chronic stress-induced impairments in prefrontal and cingulate signal transduction cascades underlying neuronal plasticity. The medial prefrontal cortex, demonstrated functional hyperactivity and dendritic phospho-ERK1/2 hyperphosphorylation, while reduced c-fos and calcineurin immunoreactivity occurred in the cingulate cortex. Significantly reduced phospho-CREB expression in both cortical regions, considering its implication in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcription, suggests reduced synaptic plasticity. This data confirms the damaging effect of stress on cortical activity, on a molecular level. Due to the association of these markers in the regulation of BDNF signalling, these findings suggest a central role for intracellular neurotrophin transduction members in the pathways underlying cellular actions of stress in the brain. PMID:12753089

  8. Particular nuclear transcription factors responsive to systemic administration of kainic acid in murine brain.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Y; Ogita, K; Yoneda, Y

    1996-09-01

    Gel retardation electrophoresis revealed that binding of a radiolabeled double stranded oligonucleotide probe for the nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP1) was markedly potentiated 2 h after the intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA) at a dose range of 10-40 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner in the murine hippocampus. The potentiation was seen in a manner independent of the crisis of convulsive seizures following the administration of KA at different doses. At the highest dose employed, the systemic KA significantly potentiated the AP1 binding in most central discrete structures examined except the cerebellum. In contrast, KA significantly potentiated binding of a radiolabeled probe for cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent fashion in the hippocampus, without altering that in other parts of murine brain. No significant alteration was detected in binding of a probe for c-Myc in any brain regions examined 2 h after the administration of KA at different doses. However, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that KA was ineffective in altering endogenous levels of both CREB and CREB phosphorylated at serine133 in the hippocampus and cerebellum. These results suggest that in vivo systemic KA signals may be selectively transduced to nuclear AP1 in the hippocampus through a mechanism different from phosphorylation of CREB at serine133 in murine brain. PMID:8885288

  9. 1-Bromopropane up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression via NF-κB and C/EBP activation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Hee; Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Hyung-Kyun; Choi, Jae Ho; Khanal, Tilak; Do, Minh Truong; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Kwang Youl; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2012-05-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been used in industry as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents. In the present study, we examined the effect of 1-BP on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression and analyzed the molecular mechanism of its activity in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. 1-BP dose-dependently increased COX-2 protein and mRNA levels, as well as COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity in macrophages. Additionally, exposure to 1-BP markedly enhanced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a major COX-2 metabolite, in macrophages. Transfection experiments with several human COX-2 promoter constructs revealed that 1-BP activated the transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), but not AP-1 or the cyclic AMP response element binding protein. Furthermore, Akt and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases were significantly activated by 1-BP. These results demonstrated that 1-BP induced COX-2 expression via NF-κB and C/EBP activation through the Akt/ERK and p38 MAP kinase pathways. These findings provide further insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the inflammatory effects of 1-BP. PMID:22353212

  10. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK). Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress. PMID:26649137

  11. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK). Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress. PMID:26649137

  12. Rigor and Responsiveness in Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomspon, Jessica; Hagenah, Sara; Kang, Hosun; Stroupe, David; Braaten, Melissa; Colley, Carolyn; Windschitl, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: There are few examples from classrooms or the literature that provide a clear vision of teaching that simultaneously promotes rigorous disciplinary activity and is responsive to all students. Maintaining rigorous and equitable classroom discourse is a worthy goal, yet there is no clear consensus of how this actually works in a…

  13. Hypoxia-activated metabolic pathway stimulates phosphorylation of p300 and CBP in oxygen-sensitive cells

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, Adriana; Schnell, Phillip O.; Striet, Justin B.; Hui, Anna; Robbins, Jennifer R.; Petrovic, Milan; Conforti, Laura; Gozal, David; Wathelet, Marc G.; Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F.

    2006-01-01

    Transcription co-activators and histone acetyltransferases, p300 and cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP), participate in hypoxic activation of hypoxia-inducible genes. Here, we show that exposure of PC12 and cells to 1–10% oxygen results in hyperphosphorylation of p300/CBP. This response is fast, long lasting and specific for hypoxia, but not for hypoxia-mimicking agents such as desferioxamine or Co2+ ions. It is also cell-type specific and occurs in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and the carotid body of rats but not in hepatoblastoma cells. The p300 hyperphosphorylation specifically depends on the release of intracellular calcium from inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores. However, it is not inhibited by pharmacological inhibitors of any of the kinases traditionally known to be directly or indirectly calcium regulated. On the other hand, p300 hyperphosphorylation is inhibited by several different inhibitors of the glucose metabolic pathway from generation of NADH by glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, through the transfer of NADH through the glycerol phosphate shuttle to ubiquinone and complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Inhibition of IP3-sensitive calcium stores decreases generation of ATP, and this inhibition is significantly stronger in hypoxia than in normoxia. We propose that the NADH glycerol phosphate shuttle participates in generating a pool of ATP that serves either as a co-factor or a modulator of the kinases involved in the phosphorylation of p300/CBP during hypoxia. PMID:16000154

  14. A CaMK cascade activates CRE-mediated transcription in neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshishige; Corcoran, Ethan E; Eto, Koh; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Muramatsu, Masa-Aki; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Freedman, Jonathan H; Mitani, Shohei; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Means, Anthony R; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2002-10-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) signals regulate a diverse set of cellular responses, from proliferation to muscular contraction and neuro-endocrine secretion. The ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor, calmodulin (CaM), translates changes in local intracellular Ca2+ concentrations into changes in enzyme activities. Among its targets, the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinases I and IV (CaMKs) are capable of transducing intraneuronal signals, and these kinases are implicated in neuronal gene regulation that mediates synaptic plasticity in mammals. Recently, the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) has been proposed as a target for a CaMK cascade involving not only CaMKI or CaMKIV, but also an upstream kinase kinase that is also CaM regulated (CaMKK). Here, we report that all components of this pathway are coexpressed in head neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Utilizing a transgenic approach to visualize CREB-dependent transcription in vivo, we show that this CaMK cascade regulates CRE-mediated transcription in a subset of head neurons in living nematodes. PMID:12231504

  15. Effects of the cell type-specific ablation of the cAMP-responsive transcription factor in noradrenergic neurons on locus coeruleus firing and withdrawal behavior after chronic exposure to morphine.

    PubMed

    Parlato, Rosanna; Cruz, Hans; Otto, Christiane; Murtra, Patricia; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez; Martin, Miquel; Bura, Simona A; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; von Bohlen und Halbach, Oliver; Maldonado, Rafael; Schütz, Günther; Lüscher, Christian

    2010-11-01

    Repeated exposure to opiates leads to cellular and molecular changes and behavioral alterations reflecting a state of dependence. In noradrenergic neurons, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent pathways are activated during opiate withdrawal, but their contribution to the activity of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons and behavioral manifestations remains controversial. Here, we test whether the cAMP-dependent transcription factors cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) in noradrenergic neurons control the cellular markers and the physical signs of morphine withdrawal in mice. Using the Cre/loxP system we ablated the Creb1 gene in noradrenergic neurons. To avoid adaptive effects because of compensatory up-regulation of CREM, we crossed the conditional Creb1 mutant mice with a Crem-/- line. We found that the enhanced expression of tyrosine hydroxylase normally observed during withdrawal was attenuated in CREB/CREM mutants. Moreover, the withdrawal-associated cellular hyperactivity and c-fos expression was blunted. In contrast, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, such as jumping, paw tremor, tremor and mastication were preserved. We conclude by a specific genetic approach that the withdrawal-associated hyperexcitability of noradrenergic neurons depends on CREB/CREM activity in these neurons, but does not mediate several behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal. PMID:20367754

  16. By activating matrix metalloproteinase-7, shear stress promotes chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and lung colonization

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Pei-Pei; Yu, Xin; Guo, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yue; Wang, Tao; Li, Jia-Yi; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Zhan-You; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow and associated shear stress are relevant mechanical signals in cartilage and bone (patho)physiology. However, their effects on chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and metastasis have yet to be delineated. Using human SW1353, HS.819.T and CH2879 chondrosarcoma cell lines as model systems, we found that fluid shear stress induces the accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which in turn markedly enhance chondrosarcoma cell motility and invasion via the induction of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7). Specifically, shear-induced cAMP and IL-1β activate PI3-K, ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, which lead to the synthesis of MMP-7 via transactivating NF-κB and c-Jun in human chondrosarcoma cells. Importantly, MMP-7 upregulation in response to shear stress exposure has the ability to promote lung colonization of chondrosarcomas in vivo. These findings offer a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MMP-7 activation in shear-stimulated chondrosarcoma cells, and provide insights on designing new therapeutic strategies to interfere with chondrosarcoma invasion and metastasis. PMID:25823818

  17. Activation state of the hyperpolarization-activated current modulates temperature-sensitivity of firing in locus coeruleus neurons from bullfrogs.

    PubMed

    Santin, Joseph M; Hartzler, Lynn K

    2015-06-15

    Locus coeruleus neurons of anuran amphibians contribute to breathing control and have spontaneous firing frequencies that, paradoxically, increase with cooling. We previously showed that cooling inhibits a depolarizing membrane current, the hyperpolarization-activated current (I h) in locus coeruleus neurons from bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus (Santin JM, Watters KC, Putnam RW, Hartzler LK. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 305: R1451-R1464, 2013). This suggests an unlikely role for I h in generating cold activation, but led us to hypothesize that inhibition of I h by cooling functions as a physiological brake to limit the cold-activated response. Using whole cell electrophysiology in brain slices, we employed 2 mM Cs(+) (an I h antagonist) to isolate the role of I h in spontaneous firing and cold activation in neurons recorded with either control or I h agonist (cyclic AMP)-containing artificial intracellular fluid. I h did not contribute to the membrane potential (V m) and spontaneous firing at 20°C. Although voltage-clamp analysis confirmed that cooling inhibits I h, its lack of involvement in setting baseline firing and V m precluded its ability to regulate cold activation as hypothesized. In contrast, neurons dialyzed with cAMP exhibited greater baseline firing frequencies at 20°C due to I h activation. Our hypothesis was supported when the starting level of I h was enhanced by elevating cAMP because cold activation was converted to more ordinary cold inhibition. These findings indicate that situations leading to enhancement of I h facilitate firing at 20°C, yet the hyperpolarization associated with inhibiting a depolarizing cation current by cooling blunts the net V m response to cooling to oppose normal cold-depolarizing factors. This suggests that the influence of I h activation state on neuronal firing varies in the poikilothermic neuronal environment. PMID:25833936

  18. Glucose Inhibition of Adenylate Cyclase in Intact Cells of Escherichia coli B

    PubMed Central

    Peterkofsky, Alan; Gazdar, Celia

    1974-01-01

    Previous studies in E. coli B have demonstrated an inverse correlation between the presence of glucose in the medium and the accumulation of cyclic AMP in the medium. This observation could not be explained by the action of glucose as a repressor of adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) synthesis, as a stabilizer of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17) activity, or as a direct inhibitor of adenylate cyclase activity in cell-free preparations. The recent development of an in vivo assay for adenylate cyclase has provided a basis for further exploring the inhibitory action of glucose in intact cells. With this assay it has been possible to show that, while glucose does not affect adenylate cyclase in vitro, it rapidly inhibits the enzyme activity in intact cells. Extensive metabolism of glucose is not required, since α-methylglucoside also inhibits adenylate cyclase in vivo. When cells are grown on glucose as carbon source, some sugars (mannose, glucosamine) substitute for glucose as adenylate cyclase inhibitors while others (e.g., fructose) do not. Dose-response studies indicate that low concentrations of glucose lead to essentially complete inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity while only moderately decreasing intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. The evidence presented suggests that the decreased cellular cyclic AMP levels resulting from glucose addition can be accounted for by inhibition of adenylate cyclase without any significant effect on cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase or the transport of cyclic AMP from the cells to the medium. PMID:4366761

  19. The cellular transcription factor CREB corresponds to activating transcription factor 47 (ATF-47) and forms complexes with a group of polypeptides related to ATF-43.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, H C; Masson, N; Jones, N C; Lee, K A

    1990-01-01

    Promoter elements containing the sequence motif CGTCA are important for a variety of inducible responses at the transcriptional level. Multiple cellular factors specifically bind to these elements and are encoded by a multigene family. Among these factors, polypeptides termed activating transcription factor 43 (ATF-43) and ATF-47 have been purified from HeLa cells and a factor referred to as cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been isolated from PC12 cells and rat brain. We demonstrated that CREB and ATF-47 are identical and that CREB and ATF-43 form protein-protein complexes. We also found that the cis requirements for stable DNA binding by ATF-43 and CREB are different. Using antibodies to ATF-43 we have identified a group of polypeptides (ATF-43) in the size range from 40 to 43 kDa. ATF-43 polypeptides are related by their reactivity with anti-ATF-43, DNA-binding specificity, complex formation with CREB, heat stability, and phosphorylation by protein kinase A. Certain cell types vary in their ATF-43 complement, suggesting that CREB activity is modulated in a cell-type-specific manner through interaction with ATF-43. ATF-43 polypeptides do not appear simply to correspond to the gene products of the ATF multigene family, suggesting that the size of the ATF family at the protein level is even larger than predicted from cDNA-cloning studies. Images PMID:2147221

  20. Diverse signaling systems activated by the sweet taste receptor in human GLP-1-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Takeda, Shigeki; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Kojima, Itaru

    2014-08-25

    Sweet taste receptor regulates GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine L-cells. We investigated the signaling system activated by this receptor using Hutu-80 cells. We stimulated them with sucralose, saccharin, acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin. These sweeteners stimulated GLP-1 secretion, which was attenuated by lactisole. All these sweeteners elevated cytoplasmic cyclic AMP ([cAMP]c) whereas only sucralose and saccharin induced a monophasic increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]c). Removal of extracellular calcium or sodium and addition of a Gq/11 inhibitor greatly reduced the [Ca(2+)]c responses to two sweeteners. In contrast, acesulfame K induced rapid and sustained reduction of [Ca(2+)]c. In addition, glycyrrhizin first reduced [Ca(2+)]c which was followed by an elevation of [Ca(2+)]c. Reductions of [Ca(2+)]c induced by acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin were attenuated by a calmodulin inhibitor or by knockdown of the plasma membrane calcium pump. These results indicate that various sweet molecules act as biased agonists and evoke strikingly different patterns of intracellular signals. PMID:25017733

  1. Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Scott D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to, or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

  2. Regulation of endothelial cell cyclic nucleotide metabolism by prostacyclin.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, N K; Gorman, R R

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of prostaglandin-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed prostacyclin (PGI2) to be the most potent agonist followed by prostaglandin (PG)H2, which was more potent than PGE2, while PGD2 was essentially inactive. The endothelial cells studied apparently have a high rate of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity because significant PGI2-mediated increases in cyclic AMP could not be shown in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (MIX). Endoperoxide PGH2-stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation was inhibited 75--80% by the prostacyclin synthetase inhibitors 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid or 9,11-azoprosta-5,13-dienoic acid. These data indicate that the PGH2-stimulation is due primarily to conversion to PGI2. The beta-adrenergic agonist L-isoproterenol stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in the endothelial cells. This accumulation was completely blocked by propranolol. However, stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation by the beta-adrenergic agent did not equal that induced by PGI2. Furthermore, the PGI2 response could not be blocked by propranolol. Thrombin-stimulated PGI2 biosynthesis was attenuated by PGE1 or isoproterenol in the presence of MIX. MIX alone was less effective than a combination of PGE1 or isoproterenol plus MIX. These data suggest two potential effects of PGI2 biosynthesis by endothelial cells: first, the PGI2 can elevate cyclic AMP in platelets, and second, endothelial cell cyclic AMP can be elevated as well, so that subsequent PGI2 synthesis will be attenuated. PMID:6257764

  3. Context-Dependent Activation Kinetics Elicited by Soluble versus Outer Membrane Vesicle-Associated Heat-Labile Enterotoxin ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chutkan, Halima; Kuehn, Meta J.

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of traveler's diarrhea and children's diarrhea worldwide. Among its virulence factors, ETEC produces heat-labile enterotoxin (LT). Most secreted LT is associated with outer membrane vesicles that are rich in lipopolysaccharide. The majority of prior studies have focused on soluble LT purified from ETEC periplasm. We investigated the hypothesis that the extracellular vesicle context of toxin presentation might be important in eliciting immune responses. We compared the polarized epithelial cell responses to apically applied soluble LT and LT-containing vesicles (LT+ vesicles) as well as controls using a catalytically inactive mutant of LT and vesicles lacking LT. Although vesicle treatments with no or catalytically inactive LT induced a modest amount of interleukin-6 (IL-6), samples containing catalytically active LT elicited higher levels. A combination of soluble LT and LT-deficient vesicles induced significantly higher IL-6 levels than either LT or LT+ vesicles alone. The responses to LT+ vesicles were found to be independent of the canonical LT pathway, because the inhibition of cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation did not lead to a decrease in cytokine gene expression levels. Furthermore, soluble LT caused earlier phosphorylation of CREB and activation of CRE compared with LT+ vesicles. Soluble LT also led to the activation of activator protein 1, whereas LT+ vesicle IL-6 responses appeared to be mediated by NF-κB. In summary, the results demonstrate that soluble LT and vesicle-bound LT elicit ultimately similar cytokine responses through distinct different activation pathways. PMID:21708992

  4. Androgen-Induced Activation of Gonadotropin-Regulated Testicular RNA Helicase (GRTH/Ddx25) Transcription: Essential Role of a Nonclassical Androgen Response Element Half-Site

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Joaquin; Tsai-Morris, Chon-Hwa; Dai, Lisheng

    2012-01-01

    GRTH, a testis-specific member of the DEAD-box family of RNA helicases essential for spermatogenesis, is present in Leydig cells (LC) and germ cells. In LC, it exerts an autocrine negative regulation on androgen production induced by gonadotropin. GRTH is transcriptionally upregulated by gonadotropin via cyclic AMP/androgen through androgen receptors (AR). For studies of GRTH regulation by androgen in LC, we utilized in vitro/in vivo models. Androgen-induced GRTH expression was prevented by an AR antagonist. Two putative atypical ARE half-sites are present at bp ?200 and ?827 (ARE1 and ARE2). Point mutation of ARE2 prevented androgen-induced AR binding/function and upregulation of GRTH transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed recruitment of AR, SRC-1, Med-1, transcription factor IIB (TFIIB), and polymerase II (PolII) to GRTH ARE2 (bp ?980/?702) and to the promoter region (bp ?80/+63). ChIP3C assays revealed short-range chromosomal looping between AR/ARE2 and the core transcriptional machinery at the promoter. Knockdown of Med-1 and/or SRC-1 demonstrated the presence of a nonproductive complex which included AR, TFIIB, and PolII and the essential role of these coactivators in the transcriptional activation of GRTH. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of androgen-regulated transcription in LC. PMID:22331472

  5. Continental response to active ridge subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschke, M.; Sobel, E. R.; Blisniuk, P.; Strecker, M. R.; Warkus, F.

    2006-08-01

    Apatite fission track ages from a ~2000 m elevation transect from the Patagonian fold and thrust belt (47.5S) allow us to quantify the denudational and orographic response of the upper plate to active ridge subduction. Accelerated cooling started at 17 Ma, predating the onset of ridge collision (14-10 Ma), and was followed by reheating between 10 and 6 Ma. Thermal modeling favors reheating on the order of 60C at ~28C/Ma due to east-migration of a slab window after the ridge-trench collision. Final rapid cooling since 4 Ma of ~18C/Ma (geothermal gradient of 14C/km) correlates with the presence of an orographic barrier and >1 km rock uplift in this region between 17.1 and 6.3 Ma. Increased precipitation and erosion since 4 Ma caused asymmetric exhumation, with 3-4 km on the leeside. Repeated crustal unroofing in response to active ridge subduction can explain the positive gravity anomaly south of the Chile Triple Junction.

  6. Synergistic activation of transcription by bacteriophage lambda cI protein and E. coli cAMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Joung, J K; Koepp, D M; Hochschild, A

    1994-09-23

    Two heterologous prokaryotic activators, the bacteriophage lambda cI protein (lambda cI) and the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), were shown to activate transcription synergistically from an artificial promoter bearing binding sites for both proteins. The synergy depends on a functional activation (positive control) surface on each activator. These results imply that both proteins interact directly with RNA polymerase and thus suggest a precise mechanism for transcriptional synergy: the interaction of two activators with two distinct surfaces of RNA polymerase. PMID:8091212

  7. Cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate in cerebrospinal fluid during thermoregulation and fever.

    PubMed Central

    Dascombe, M J; Milton, A S

    1976-01-01

    1. Samples of cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) have been taken from the cisterna magna of unanaesthetized cats, whilst rectal temperature was recorded, during exposure of the animals to various ambient temperatures and during fever induced by pyrogen. The concentration of adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in samples of c.s.f. has been assayed. 2. Cats exposed to low ambient temperatures (-2 to +2 degrees C) for 3 h maintained body temperature by both behavioural and autonomic heat gain activity. Exposure of cats to high ambient temperatures (44 - 45 degrees C) for 3.5 h caused a rise in body temperatures of about 2.5 degrees C, despite behavioural and autonomic heat loss activity. Neither cold nor heat stress had a significant effect on c.s.f. cyclic AMP. 3. Fever induced by intravenous Shigella dysenteriae (2 and 20 mug/kg) was associated with a dose-related increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP in c.s.f. Paracetamol (75 mg/kg) injected I.P. before the onset of fever, suppressed the increase in both temperature and c.s.f. cyclic AMP in response to pyrogen. Paracetamol (50 and 100 mg/kg), injected after the onset of fever, caused a fall in temperature, which was not associated with a decrease in the concentration of cyclic AMP in c.s.f. 4. Fever induced in cats by intravenous Shigella dysenteriae (20 mug/kg) was associated with an increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP in plasma as well as in c.s.f. 5. The sodium salt of cyclic AMP (0.1-10 mg/kg) injected I.V. into unanaesthetized cats caused a dose-related hypothermia, which was associated with autonomic heat loss activity and a dose-related increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP in cisternal c.s.f., which was not mimicked by adenosine. 6. It is concluded that the raised concentrations of cyclic AMP in c.s.f., in response to pyrogen I.V., do not mediate fever in the cat and that the concentration of cyclic AMP in cisternal c.s.f. may be affected by changes in the plasma concentration of the nucleotide. PMID:190383

  8. Transcriptional regulation of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster in insulin-secreting β-cells by cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activator 1 and salt-inducible kinases.

    PubMed

    Malm, Helena Anna; Mollet, Inês G; Berggreen, Christine; Orho-Melander, Marju; Esguerra, Jonathan Lou S; Göransson, Olga; Eliasson, Lena

    2016-03-15

    MicroRNAs are central players in the control of insulin secretion, but their transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate cAMP-mediated transcriptional regulation of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster and involvement of further upstream proteins in insulin secreting β-cells. cAMP induced by forskolin+IBMX or GLP-1 caused increased expression of miR-212/miR-132, and elevated phosphorylation of cAMP-response-element-binding-protein (CREB)/Activating-transcription-factor-1 (ATF1) and Salt-Inducible-Kinases (SIKs). CyclicAMP-Regulated Transcriptional Co-activator-1 (CRTC1) was concomitantly dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus. Silencing of miR-212/miR-132 reduced, and overexpression of miR-212 increased, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Silencing of CRTC1 expression resulted in decreased insulin secretion and miR-212/miR-132 expression, while silencing or inhibition of SIKs was associated with increased expression of the microRNAs and dephosphorylation of CRTC1. CRTC1 protein levels were reduced after silencing of miR-132, suggesting feed-back regulation. Our data propose cAMP-dependent co-regulation of miR-212/miR-132, in part mediated through SIK-regulated CRTC1, as an important factor for fine-tuned regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:26797246

  9. Protein kinase activators alter glial cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-05-01

    Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.

  10. A PKA activity sensor for quantitative analysis of endogenous GPCR signaling via 2-photon FRET-FLIM imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Saulnier, Jessica L.; Yellen, Gary; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulators have profound effects on behavior, but the dynamics of their intracellular effectors has remained unclear. Most neuromodulators exert their function via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One major challenge for understanding neuromodulator action is the lack of dynamic readouts of the biochemical signals produced by GPCR activation. The adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) module is a central component of such biochemical signaling. This module is regulated by several behaviorally important neuromodulator receptors. Furthermore, PKA activity is necessary for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. In order to monitor PKA activity in brain tissue, we have developed a 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2pFLIM) compatible PKA sensor termed FLIM-AKAR, which is based on the ratiometric FRET sensor AKAR3. FLIM-AKAR shows a large dynamic range and little pH sensitivity. In addition, it is a rapidly diffusible cytoplasmic protein that specifically reports net PKA activity in situ. FLIM-AKAR expresses robustly in various brain regions with multiple transfection methods, can be targeted to genetically identified cell types, and responds to activation of both endogenous GPCRs and spatial-temporally specific delivery of glutamate. Initial experiments reveal differential regulation of PKA activity across subcellular compartments in response to neuromodulator inputs. Therefore, the reporter FLIM-AKAR, coupled with 2pFLIM, enables the study of PKA activity in response to neuromodulator inputs in genetically identified neurons in the brain, and sheds light on the intracellular dynamics of endogenous GPCR activation. PMID:24765076

  11. Correlation of protein kinase activation and testosterone production after stimulation of Leydig cells with luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, B A; Lindh, M L; Janszen, F H

    1976-01-01

    The effect of different doses of luteinizing hormone on activation of protein kinases, cyclic AMP and testosterone production was studied in purified rat testis Leydig-cell preparations in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor). In addition, the nature of the protein kinases present in these cells and other tissues was investigated. The following results were obtained. 1. With all the amounts of luteinizing hormone used (0.1-1000 ng/ml), both activation of protein kinase and stimulation of testosterone production were demonstrated. With the lowest amount of luteinizing hormone (0.1 ng/ml), an 8.4+/-0.9% (S.E.M.,n=6) stimulation of protein kinase activation occurred, increasing to 100% with 1000 ng/ml, compared with 3.2+/-1.0%(S.E.M.,n=7) and 100% stimulation of testosterone production with 0.1 and 100 ng/ml respectively. 2. With amounts of luteinizing hormone up to 1 ng/ml (which gave half-maximal stimulation of testosterone production) no detectable increases in net cyclic AMP production were obtained. With higher amounts of luteinizing hormone, cyclic AMP production increased, but maximal production was not reached with 1000 ng/ml. 3. Two isoenzymic forms of protein kinase were present in Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; type I was eluted with 0.075 M-and type II with 0.22-0.25 m-NaCl from DEAE-cellulose columns. 4. The protein kinase activity was not affected by the presence of erythrocytes in the Leydig-cell preparation, but varied depending on the type of histone used as substrate (histone F2b greater than mixed greater than histone F1). PMID:189752

  12. Adenosine modulates light responses of rat retinal ganglion cell photoreceptors througha cAMP-mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Puneet; Hartwick, Andrew T E

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is an established neuromodulator in the mammalian retina, with A1 adenosine receptors being especially prevalent in the innermost ganglion cell layer. Activation of A1 receptors causes inhibition of adenylate cyclase, decreases in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA). In this work, our aim was to characterize the effects of adenosine on the light responses of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and to determine whether these photoreceptors are subject to neuromodulation through intracellular cAMP-related signalling pathways. Using multielectrode array recordings from postnatal and adult rat retinas, we demonstrated that adenosine significantly shortened the duration of ipRGC photoresponses and reduced the number of light-evoked spikes fired by these neurons. The effects were A1 adenosine receptor-mediated, and the expression of this receptor on melanopsin-containing ipRGCs was confirmed by calcium imaging experiments on isolated cells in purified cultures. While inhibition of the cAMP/PKA pathway by adenosine shortened ipRGC light responses, stimulation of this pathway with compounds such as forskolin had the opposite effect and lengthened the duration of ipRGC spiking. Our findings reveal that the modification of ipRGC photoresponses through a cAMP/PKA pathway is a general feature of rat ganglion cell photoreceptors, and this pathway can be inhibited through activation of A1 receptors by adenosine. As adenosine levels in the retina rise at night, adenosinergic modulation of ipRGCs may serve as an internal regulatory mechanism to limit transmission of nocturnal photic signals by ipRGCs to the brain. Targeting retinal A1 adenosine receptors for ipRGC inhibition represents a potential therapeutic target for sleep disorders and migraine-associated photophobia. PMID:25038240

  13. A genetic method for dissecting the mechanism of transcriptional activator synergy by identical activators.

    PubMed

    Langdon, R C; Hochschild, A

    1999-10-26

    Pairs of transcriptional activators in prokaryotes have been shown to activate transcription synergistically from promoters with two activator binding sites. In some cases, such synergistic effects result from cooperative binding, but in other cases each DNA-bound activator plays a direct role in the activation process by interacting simultaneously with separate surfaces of RNA polymerase. In such cases, each DNA-bound activator must possess a functional activating region, the surface that mediates the interaction with RNA polymerase. When transcriptional activation depends on two or more identical activators, it is not straightforward to test the requirement of each activator for a functional activating region. Here we describe a method for directing a mutationally altered activator to either one or the other binding site, and we demonstrate the use of this method to examine the mechanism of transcriptional activator synergy by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) working at an artificial promoter bearing two CRP-binding sites. PMID:10535981

  14. A genetic method for dissecting the mechanism of transcriptional activator synergy by identical activators

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Robert C.; Hochschild, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Pairs of transcriptional activators in prokaryotes have been shown to activate transcription synergistically from promoters with two activator binding sites. In some cases, such synergistic effects result from cooperative binding, but in other cases each DNA-bound activator plays a direct role in the activation process by interacting simultaneously with separate surfaces of RNA polymerase. In such cases, each DNA-bound activator must possess a functional activating region, the surface that mediates the interaction with RNA polymerase. When transcriptional activation depends on two or more identical activators, it is not straightforward to test the requirement of each activator for a functional activating region. Here we describe a method for directing a mutationally altered activator to either one or the other binding site, and we demonstrate the use of this method to examine the mechanism of transcriptional activator synergy by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) working at an artificial promoter bearing two CRP-binding sites. PMID:10535981

  15. Actions of adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonists on CFTR antibody-inhibited β-adrenergic mucin secretion response

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, M M C; Lloyd Mills, C; Dormer, R L; McPherson, M A

    1998-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis gene protein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) acts as a chloride channel and is a key regulator of mucin secretion. The mechanism by which 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) corrects the defect in CFTR mediated β-adrenergic stimulation of mucin secretion has not been determined. The present study has investigated the actions of adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonists to determine whether ability to stimulate mucin secretion correlates with correction of CFTR antibody inhibited β-adrenergic response and whether excessive cyclic AMP rise is required.CFTR antibodies were introduced into living rat submandibular acini by hypotonic swelling. Following recovery, mucin secretion in response to isoproterenol was measured.The adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, 8 cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT) was a less potent stimulator of mucin secretion than was the A2 receptor antagonist dimethylpropargylxanthine (DMPX). A concentration of CPT close to the Ki for A1 receptor antagonism (10 nM) did not stimulate mucin secretion.DMPX, although a potent stimulator of mucin secretion, did not correct CFTR antibody inhibited mucin secretion.CPT corrected defective CFTR antibody inhibited mucin secretion at a high (1 mM) concentration, suggesting a mechanism other than adenosine receptor antagonism.DMPX potentiated the isoproterenol induced cyclic AMP rise, whereas CPT did not.Correction of the defective CFTR mucin secretion response did not correlate with ability to stimulate mucin secretion and did not require potentiation of β-adrenergic induced increases in cyclic AMP. This affords real promise for the development of a selective drug treatment for cystic fibrosis. PMID:9831904

  16. Decreased hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone content and pituitary responsiveness in hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Katakami, H; Downs, T R; Frohman, L A

    1986-01-01

    The effects of thyroidectomy (Tx) and thyroxine replacement (T4Rx) on pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion and hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GRH) concentration were compared to define the mechanism of hypothyroid-associated GH deficiency. Thyroidectomized rats exhibited a complete loss of pulsatile GH secretion with extensive reduction in GRH responsiveness and pituitary GH content. Cultured pituitary cells from Tx rats exhibited reduced GRH sensitivity, maximal GH responsiveness, and intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation to GRH, while somatostatin (SRIF) suppressive effects on GH secretion were increased. Hypothalamic GRH content was also markedly reduced. T4Rx completely restored hypothalamic GRH content and spontaneous GH secretion despite only partial recovery of pituitary GH content, GRH and SRIF sensitivity, and intracellular cyclic AMP response to GRH. The results indicate multiple effects of hypothyroidism on GH secretion and suggest that a critical role of T4 in maintaining normal GH secretion, in addition to restoring GH synthesis, is related to its effect on hypothalamic GRH. Images PMID:2871046

  17. T3-induced liver AMP-activated protein kinase signaling: Redox dependency and upregulation of downstream targets

    PubMed Central

    Videla, Luis A; Fernández, Virginia; Cornejo, Pamela; Vargas, Romina; Morales, Paula; Ceballo, Juan; Fischer, Alvaro; Escudero, Nicolás; Escobar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the redox dependency and promotion of downstream targets in thyroid hormone (T3)-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling as cellular energy sensor to limit metabolic stresses in the liver. METHODS: Fed male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single ip dose of 0.1 mg T3/kg or T3 vehicle (NaOH 0.1 N; controls) and studied at 8 or 24 h after treatment. Separate groups of animals received 500 mg N-acetylcysteine (NAC)/kg or saline ip 30 min prior T3. Measurements included plasma and liver 8-isoprostane and serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels (ELISA), hepatic levels of mRNAs (qPCR), proteins (Western blot), and phosphorylated AMPK (ELISA). RESULTS: T3 upregulates AMPK signaling, including the upstream kinases Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase-1, with T3-induced reactive oxygen species having a causal role due to its suppression by pretreatment with the antioxidant NAC. Accordingly, AMPK targets acetyl-CoA carboxylase and cyclic AMP response element binding protein are phosphorylated, with the concomitant carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (CPT-1α) activation and higher expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α and that of the fatty acid oxidation (FAO)-related enzymes CPT-1α, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and acyl-CoA thioesterase 2. Under these conditions, T3 induced a significant increase in the serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, a surrogate marker for hepatic FAO. CONCLUSION: T3 administration activates liver AMPK signaling in a redox-dependent manner, leading to FAO enhancement as evidenced by the consequent ketogenic response, which may constitute a key molecular mechanism regulating energy dynamics to support T3 preconditioning against ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25516653

  18. Cholera toxin induces synthesis of phospholipase A2-activating protein.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, J W; Saini, S S; Dickey, W D; Klimpel, G R; Bomalaski, J S; Clark, M A; Xu, X J; Chopra, A K

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of cholera toxin (CT)-stimulated arachidonate metabolism was evaluated. CT caused rapid in vitro synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in murine smooth muscle-like cells (BC3H1), reaching maximal levels within 3 to 4 min. In comparison, cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were unchanged, and addition of dibutyryl cAMP did not affect PGE2 synthesis. CT-induced PGE2 synthesis was prevented by actinomycin D or cycloheximide, indicating a need for de novo protein synthesis. Northern blot analysis of total RNA from BC3H1 cells revealed that exposure to CT resulted in an increase in abundance of mRNA encoding phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-activating protein (PLAP). PLAP is a regulatory protein that increases the enzymatic activity of cellular PLA(2), which in turn causes increased hydrolysis of arachidonate from membrane phospholipids. Furthermore, CT evoked the accumulation of PLAP mRNA in J774 (murine monocyte/macrophage) and Caco-2 (human intestinal epithelial) cells in vitro, but the responses were more delayed than that of BC3H1 cells. A protein band of approximately 35 kDa, which corresponded to the size of PLAP, was observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of Caco-2 cells by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis using affinity-purified antibodies to PLAP synthetic peptides. Synthesis of PLAP protein was increased after 2 h of exposure to CT. Exposure of mouse intestinal loops to either CT or live Salmonella typhimurium for 3 h increased mucosal PLAP mRNA levels. The role of PLAP in CT-induced PGE2 synthesis provides an attractive explanation for the reported suppression of CT-induced intestinal secretion by inhibitors of protein synthesis. PMID:8675318

  19. Inhibition of P2Y6 receptor-mediated phospholipase C activation and Ca(2+) signalling by prostaglandin E2 in J774 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Isao

    2015-02-15

    Extracellular nucleotides act as inflammatory mediators through activation of multiple purinoceptors. Under inflammatory conditions, the purinergic signalling is affected by various inflammatory mediators. We previously showed that prostaglandin (PG) E2 suppressed the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) stimulated by P2X4, P2Y2, and P2Y6 receptors in J774 murine macrophages. In this study, we examined the mechanism of PGE2 inhibitory effects on P2Y6 receptor-mediated function in J774 cells. The P2Y6 receptor agonist UDP induced a sustained elevation of [Ca(2+)]i by stimulating the phospholipase C (PLC) signalling pathway. PGE2 inhibited [Ca(2+)]i elevation and phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis in a concentration-dependent manner. J774 cells highly expressed the E-type prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor subtype, a Gs-coupled receptor. PGE2 and a selective EP2 receptor agonist caused cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in J774 cells. The inhibitory effects of PGE2 on P2Y6 receptor-mediated responses were mimicked by the selective EP2 receptor agonist. Although EP2 receptor is linked to adenylyl cyclase activation, PGE2-induced inhibition of Ca(2+) response and PI hydrolysis could not be mimicked by a lipophilic cAMP derivative, dibutyryl cAMP, or an adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin. The inhibition of UDP-induced PLC activation by PGE2 was not affected by down-regulation of protein kinase C by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate treatment. PGE2 inhibited PLC activation induced by aluminium fluoride, but not by the Ca(2+)-ionophore, ionomycin. Finally, the inhibition of UDP-induced PLC activation by PGE2 was impaired by Gs knockdown using siRNA. These results suggest that EP2 receptor activation in macrophages negatively controls the Gq/11-PLC signalling through a Gs-mediated, but cAMP-independent signalling mechanism. PMID:25614334

  20. Mechanisms of Inflammasome Activation by Vibrio cholerae Secreted Toxins Vary with Strain Biotype

    PubMed Central

    Queen, Jessica; Agarwal, Shivani; Dolores, Jazel S.; Stehlik, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Activation of inflammasomes is an important aspect of innate immune respo