These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Cyclic AMP levels in Phycomyces during a response to light  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE of the many metabolic functions attributed to adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is that of a mediator in the responses of living organisms to light stimulation. It has been associated with dopaminergic synaptic activities and also with the primary visual process in the retina. In the rod outer segments of the frog, Rana pipiens, cyclic AMP concentrations are diminished

Robert J. Cohen

1974-01-01

2

Fibroblast growth factor and cyclic AMP (cAMP) synergistically activate gene expression at a cAMP response element.  

PubMed Central

Growth factors and cyclic AMP (cAMP) are known to activate distinct intracellular signaling pathways. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activates ras-dependent kinase cascades, resulting in the activation of MAP kinases, whereas cAMP activates protein kinase A. In this study, we report that growth factors and cAMP act synergistically to stimulate proenkephalin gene expression. Positive synergy between growth factor- and cAMP-activated signaling pathways on gene expression has not been previously reported, and we suggest that these synergistic interactions represent a useful model for analyzing interactions between these pathways. Transfection and mutational studies indicate that both FGF-dependent gene activation and cAMP-dependent gene activation require cAMP response element 2 (CRE-2), a previously characterized cAMP-dependent regulatory element. Furthermore, multiple copies of this element are sufficient to confer FGF regulation upon a minimal promoter, indicating that FGF and cAMP signaling converge upon transcription factors acting at CRE-2. Among many different ATF/AP-1 factors tested, two factors, ATF-3 and c-Jun, stimulate proenkephalin transcription in an FGF- or Ras-dependent fashion. Finally, we show that ATF-3 and c-Jun form heterodimeric complexes in SK-N-MC cells and that the levels of both proteins are increased in response to FGF but not cAMP. Together, these results indicate that growth factor- and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways converge at CRE-2 to synergistically stimulate gene expression and that ATF-3 and c-Jun regulate proenkephalin transcription in response to both growth factor- and cAMP-dependent intracellular signaling pathways. Images PMID:7935470

Tan, Y; Low, K G; Boccia, C; Grossman, J; Comb, M J

1994-01-01

3

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. PMID:2848508

Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Téllez-Iñón, M T

1988-10-01

4

Mutants of PC12 cells with altered cyclic AMP responses  

SciTech Connect

PCl2 cells, derived from a rat pheochromocytoma, were mutagenized and selected in media containing agents known to elevate intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP). More than 40 clones were isolated by selection with cholera toxin or 2-chloroadenosine or both. The variants that were deficient in accumulating cAMP were obtained by using a protocol in which 1 ..mu..m 8-bromo-cAMP was included in addition to the agonist. Certain of these variants were partially characterized with respect to the site of altered cAMP metabolism. The profiles of adenylate cyclase activity responsiveness of certain variants to guanosine-5'-(BETA,..gamma..-imido) triphosphate and to forskolin resembled those of UNC and cyc phenotypes of S49 lymphoma cells, which are functionally deficient in the GTP-sensitive coupling protein, N/sub s/. Other variants were characterized by increased cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity at low substrate concentration. Diverse morphological traits were observed among the variants, but it was not possible to assign them to a particular cAMP phenotype. Two revertants of a PCl2 mutant were isolated and observed to have regained a cellular cAMP response to 2-chloroadenosine and to forskolin. It is hoped that these PCl2 mutants will have utility for defining cAMP-mediated functions, including any links to the action of nerve growth factor, in cells derived from the neural crest.

Block, T.; Kon, C.; Breckenridge, B.M.

1984-10-01

5

Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by ginsenoside Rd via activation of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins and cyclic AMP response binding protein  

SciTech Connect

Panax ginseng is a widely used herbal medicine in East Asia and is reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Here we show a unique effect of ginsenoside Rd (Rd) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Rd (100 {mu}g/ml), but not other ginsenosides induced COX-2 and increased prostaglandin E{sub 2} production. Gel shift and Western blot analyses using nuclear fractions revealed that Rd increased both the DNA binding of and the nuclear levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP){alpha}/{beta} and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), but not of p65, in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Rd increased the luciferase reporter gene activity in cells transfected with a 574-bp mouse COX-2 promoter construct. Site-specific mutation analyses confirmed that Rd-mediated transcriptional activation of COX-2 gene was regulated by C/EBP and CREB. These results provide evidence that Rd activated C/EBP and CREB, and that the activation of C/EBP and CREB appears to be essential for induction of COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells.

Jeong, Hye Gwang [BK21 Project Team, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Pokharel, Yuba Raj [BK21 Project Team, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Hee [BK21 Project Team, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [BK21 Project Team, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, South Korea (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

2007-07-20

6

Termination and activation of store-operated cyclic AMP production  

PubMed Central

Diverse pathophysiological processes (e.g. obesity, lifespan determination, addiction, and male fertility) have been linked to the expression of specific isoforms of the adenylyl cyclases (AC1-AC10), the enzymes that generate cyclic AMP (cAMP). Our lab recently discovered a new mode of cAMP production, prominent in certain cell types, that is stimulated by any maneuver causing reduction of free [Ca2+] within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store. Activation of this “store-operated” pathway requires the ER Ca2+ sensor, STIM1, but the identity of the enzymes responsible for cAMP production and how this process is regulated is unknown. Here we used sensitive FRET-based sensors for cAMP in single cells combined with silencing and overexpression approaches to show that store-operated cAMP production occurred preferentially via the isoform AC3 in NCM460 colonic epithelial cells. Ca2+ entry via the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel, Orai1, suppressed cAMP production, independent of store refilling. These findings are an important first step towards defining the functional significance and to identify the protein composition of this novel Ca2+/cAMP crosstalk system. PMID:22681560

Maiellaro, Isabella; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Moyer, Mary Pat; Curci, Silvana; Hofer, Aldebaran M.

2012-01-01

7

Calmodulin and Ca2+-dependent cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

Calmodulin has been purified from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and affinity chromatography on 2-chloro-10-(3-aminopropyl)phenotiazine-Sepharose. Upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the factor showed a polypeptide band with an apparent molecular weight of 16 000. In addition, cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity from T. cruzi epimastigote forms was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography on a brain calmodulin-Sepharose column. The enzyme was activated by homologous calmodulin as well as by bovine brain and Neurospora crassa calmodulins. The activation required micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ and it was blocked by EGTA and by some neuroleptic drugs such as chlorpromazine, fluphenazine and compound 48/80. Activations were observed at micromolar concentrations of cyclic AMP as substrate. In addition, T. cruzi calmodulin was also active in bringing about the stimulation of brain phosphodiesterase. PMID:2999589

Téllez-Iñón, M T; Ulloa, R M; Torruella, M; Torres, H N

1985-11-01

8

Activation of the RAS/cyclic AMP pathway suppresses a TOR deficiency in yeast.  

PubMed

The TOR (target of rapamycin) and RAS/cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathways are the two major pathways controlling cell growth in response to nutrients in yeast. In this study we examine the functional interaction between TOR and the RAS/cAMP pathway. First, activation of the RAS/cAMP signaling pathway confers pronounced resistance to rapamycin. Second, constitutive activation of the RAS/cAMP pathway prevents several rapamycin-induced responses, such as the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor MSN2 and induction of stress genes, the accumulation of glycogen, the induction of autophagy, the down-regulation of ribosome biogenesis (ribosomal protein gene transcription and RNA polymerase I and III activity), and the down-regulation of the glucose transporter HXT1. Third, many of these TOR-mediated responses are independent of the previously described TOR effectors TAP42 and the type 2A-related protein phosphatase SIT4. Conversely, TOR-controlled TAP42/SIT4-dependent events are not affected by the RAS/cAMP pathway. Finally, and importantly, TOR controls the subcellular localization of both the protein kinase A catalytic subunit TPK1 and the RAS/cAMP signaling-related kinase YAK1. Our findings suggest that TOR signals through the RAS/cAMP pathway, independently of TAP42/SIT4. Therefore, the RAS/cAMP pathway may be a novel TOR effector branch. PMID:14673167

Schmelzle, Tobias; Beck, Thomas; Martin, Dietmar E; Hall, Michael N

2004-01-01

9

Modulation of calcium-activated non-specific cation currents by cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation in neurones of Helix.  

PubMed Central

1. Currents through calcium-activated non-specific cation (CAN) channels were studied in the fast burster neurone of Helix aspersa and Helix pomatia. CAN currents were activated by reproducible intracellular injections of small quantities of Ca2+ utilizing a fast, quantitative pressure injection technique. 2. External application of forskolin (10-25 microM), an activator of adenylate cyclase, caused the endogenous bursting activity of the cells to be replaced by beating activity. These same concentrations of forskolin reduced CAN currents reversibly to about 50%. 3. External application of IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 100 microM), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme which breaks down cyclic AMP, reduced CAN currents reversibly to about 40%. 4. External application of the membrane-permeable cyclic AMP analogues 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (100 microM) caused almost complete block of the CAN current. A marked reduction in the CAN current was also observed following quantitative injections of cyclic AMP (internal concentrations up to 50 microM) directly into the cells from a second pressure injection pipette. 5. Similar results were obtained with quantitative injections of the catalytic subunit (C-subunit) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (internal concentrations 10(-4) units of enzyme) directly into the cells from a second pressure injection pipette. 6. Injection of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, GTP-gamma-S (internal concentrations 100 microM), which stimulates G-proteins, produced a prolonged increase in CAN current amplitude by as much as 300%. 7. External application of serotonin (100-200 microM) caused a transition from bursting to beating activity of the neurones and mimicked cyclic AMP's effects on CAN currents. Two other neurotransmitters, dopamine and acetylcholine, were not significantly effective in reducing CAN currents. 8. Injection of a peptide inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase suppressed serotonin's action on bursting and on CAN current. 9. Our results indicate that CAN currents in Helix burster neurones are modulated by cyclic AMP-dependent membrane phosphorylation. They suggest that the physiological transmitter that induces this second messenger action is serotonin. The dual control of CAN channels by two second messengers, namely Ca2+ and cyclic AMP, has important functional implications. While Ca2+ activates these channels which generate the pacemaker current in these neurones, cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation down-regulates them, thereby resulting in modulation of neuronal bursting activity. PMID:1703569

Partridge, L D; Swandulla, D; Müller, T H

1990-01-01

10

The Yeast Ras/Cyclic AMP Pathway Induces Invasive Growth by Suppressing the Cellular Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Haploid yeast cells are capable of invading agar when grown on rich media. Cells of the ?1278b genetic background manifest this property, whereas other laboratory strains are incapable of invasive growth. We show that disruption of the RAS2 gene in the ?1278b background significantly reduces invasive growth but that expression of a constitutively active Ras2p (Ras2Val19p) in this strain has a minimal effect on its invasiveness. On the other hand, expression of Ras2Val19p in another laboratory strain, SP1, rendered it invasive. These results suggest that a hyperactive Ras2 pathway induces invasive growth and that this pathway might be overactive in the ?1278b genetic background. Indeed, cells of the ?1278b are defective in the induction of stress-responsive genes, while their Gcn4 target genes are constitutively transcribed. This pattern of gene expression was previously shown to be associated with an active Ras/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway. We show that suppression of stress-related genes in ?1278b cells is a result of their inability to activate transcription through the stress response element (STRE). Disruption of RAS2, which abolished invasiveness, induced an increase in STRE activity. Further, in the SP1 genetic background, disruption of either the MSN2/4 genes (encoding activators of STRE) or the yAP-1 gene was sufficient to restore invasive growth in ras2? cells. We conclude that Ras2-mediated suppression of the stress response is sufficient to induce invasiveness. Accordingly, the fact that the stress response is suppressed in ?1278b background explains its invasiveness. It seems that invasiveness is a phenotype related to unregulated growth and is therefore manifested by cells harboring an overactive Ras/cAMP cascade. In this respect, invasiveness in yeast is reminiscent of the property of ras-transformed fibroblasts to invade soft agar. PMID:10523641

Stanhill, Ariel; Schick, Naomi; Engelberg, David

1999-01-01

11

Spatial Memory in the Morris Water Maze and Activation of Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding (CREB) Protein within the Mouse Hippocampus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of learning-induced cAMP response element-binding protein activation/phosphorylation (pCREB) in mice trained in a spatial reference memory task in the water maze. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined pCREB immunoreactivity (pCREB-ir) in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and related brain structures. During the…

Porte, Yves; Buhot, Marie Christine; Mons, Nicole E.

2008-01-01

12

Role of cyclic AMP in promoting the thromboresistance of human endothelial cells by enhancing thrombomodulin and decreasing tissue factor activities.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of forskolin, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db cyclic AMP), dibutyryl cyclic GMP (db cyclic GMP) and 3-isobutyl-l-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) were investigated on the expression of tissue factor and thrombomodulin activities on the surface of human saphenous vein endothelial cells (HSVEC) in culture. 2. Forskolin (10(-6) to 10(-4) M), PGE1 (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) and db cyclic AMP (10(-4) to 10(-3) M) caused a concentration-dependent decrease of cytokine-induced tissue factor activity. 3. Similar concentrations of forskolin, PGE1 and db cyclic AMP enhanced significantly constitutive thrombomodulin activity and reversed the decrease of this activity caused by interleukin-1 (IL-1). 4. IBMX (10(-4) M) decreased tissue factor activity and enhanced the effect of forskolin on tissue factor and thrombomodulin activities. 5. Forskolin (10(-4) M) decreased the IL-1-induced tissue factor mRNA and increased the thrombomodulin mRNA level. IL-1 did not change the thrombomodulin mRNA level after 2 h of incubation with HSVEC in culture. 6. Dibutyryl cyclic GMP (10(-4) M to 10(-3) M) did not influence tissue factor or thrombomodulin activity. 7. Our data suggest that elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels may participate in the regulation of tissue factor and thrombomodulin expression, thus contributing to promote or restore antithrombotic properties of the endothelium. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7684300

Archipoff, G.; Beretz, A.; Bartha, K.; Brisson, C.; de la Salle, C.; Froget-Léon, C.; Klein-Soyer, C.; Cazenave, J. P.

1993-01-01

13

Bacterial Cyclic AMP-Phosphodiesterase Activity Coordinates Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Biofilm-related infections are a major contributor to human disease, and the capacity for surface attachment and biofilm formation are key attributes for the pathogenesis of microbes. Serratia marcescens type I fimbriae-dependent biofilms are coordinated by the adenylate cyclase, CyaA, and the cyclic 3?,5?-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. This study uses S. marcescens as a model system to test the role of cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity in controlling biofilm formation. Herein we describe the characterization of a putative S. marcescens cAMP-phosphodiesterase gene (SMA3506), designated as cpdS, and demonstrated to be a functional cAMP-phosphodiesterase both in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of cpdS resulted in defective biofilm formation and reduced type I fimbriae production, whereas multicopy expression of cpdS conferred a type I fimbriae-dependent hyper-biofilm. Together, these results support a model in which bacterial cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity modulates biofilm formation. PMID:23923059

Kalivoda, Eric J.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Stella, Nicholas A.; Schmitt, Matthew J.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

2013-01-01

14

Phorbol esters modulate cyclic AMP accumulation in porcine thyroid cells  

SciTech Connect

In cultured porcine thyroid cells, during 60 min incubation phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on basal cyclic AMP accumulation and slightly stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or forskolin. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was significantly stimulated by PMA. On the other hand, cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by prostaglandin E/sub 1/ or E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/) was markedly depressed by simultaneous addition of PMA. These opposing effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by PGE and cholera toxin were observed in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximal effect of around 10/sup -9/ M in either case. The almost same effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation in basal and stimulated conditions were also observed in freshly prepared thyroid cells. The present study was performed in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), indicating that PMA affected adenylate cyclase activity. Therefore, it is suggested that PMA may modulate the production of cyclic AMP in response to different stimuli, possibly by affecting several sites in the adenylate cyclase complex in thyroid cells.

Emoto, T.; Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Shimoda, S.

1988-01-01

15

Phloretin differentially inhibits volume-sensitive and cyclic AMP-activated, but not Ca-activated, Cl? channels  

PubMed Central

Some phenol derivatives are known to block volume-sensitive Cl? channels. However, effects on the channel of the bisphenol phloretin, which is a known blocker of glucose uniport and anion antiport, have not been examined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of phloretin on volume-sensitive Cl? channels in comparison with cyclic AMP-activated CFTR Cl? channels and Ca2+-activated Cl? channels using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.Extracellular application of phloretin (over 10??M) voltage-independently, and in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 ?30??M), inhibited the Cl? current activated by a hypotonic challenge in human epithelial T84, Intestine 407 cells and mouse mammary C127/CFTR cells.In contrast, at 30??M phloretin failed to inhibit cyclic AMP-activated Cl? currents in T84 and C127/CFTR cells. Higher concentrations (over 100??M) of phloretin, however, partially inhibited the CFTR Cl? currents in a voltage-dependent manner.At 30 and 300??M, phloretin showed no inhibitory effect on Ca2+-dependent Cl? currents induced by ionomycin in T84 cells.It is concluded that phloretin preferentially blocks volume-sensitive Cl? channels at low concentrations (below 100??M) and also inhibits cyclic AMP-activated Cl? channels at higher concentrations, whereas phloretin does not inhibit Ca2+-activated Cl? channels in epithelial cells. PMID:11487521

Fan, Hai-Tian; Morishima, Shigeru; Kida, Hajime; Okada, Yasunobu

2001-01-01

16

Disulfiram inhibits activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein and human melanoma growth in a metal-dependent manner in vitro, in mice and in a patient with metastatic disease.  

PubMed

The thiocarbamate alcoholism drug disulfiram blocks the P-glycoprotein extrusion pump, inhibits the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB, sensitizes tumors to chemotherapy, reduces angiogenesis, and inhibits tumor growth in mice. Thiocarbamates react with critical thiols and also complex metal ions. Using melanoma as the paradigm, we tested whether disulfiram might inhibit growth by forming mixed disulfides with critical thiols in a mechanism facilitated by metal ions. Disulfiram given to melanoma cells in combination with Cu2+ or Zn2+ decreased expression of cyclin A and reduced proliferation in vitro at lower concentrations than disulfiram alone. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, disulfiram decreased transcription factor binding to the cyclic AMP-responsive element in a manner potentiated by Cu2+ ions and by the presence of glutathione, suggesting that thiocarbamates might disrupt transcription factor binding by inducing S-glutathionylation of the transcription factor DNA binding region. Disulfiram inhibited growth and angiogenesis in melanomas transplanted in severe combined immunodeficient mice, and these effects were potentiated by Zn2+ supplementation. The combination of oral zinc gluconate and disulfiram at currently approved doses for alcoholism also induced >50% reduction in hepatic metastases and produced clinical remission in a patient with stage IV metastatic ocular melanoma, who has continued on oral zinc gluconate and disulfiram therapy for 53 continuous months with negligible side effects. These findings present a novel strategy for treating metastatic melanoma by employing an old drug toward a new therapeutic use. PMID:15367699

Brar, Sukhdev S; Grigg, Claude; Wilson, Kimberly S; Holder, Walter D; Dreau, Didier; Austin, Catherine; Foster, Mareva; Ghio, Andrew J; Whorton, A Richard; Stowell, Grayson W; Whittall, Linda B; Whittle, Robert R; White, David P; Kennedy, Thomas P

2004-09-01

17

Cyclic AMP-Response Element Regulated Cell Cycle Arrests in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Recently, we have demonstrated that trichosanthin (TCS), a promising agent for the treatment of cervical adenocarcinoma, inhibited HeLa cell proliferation through the PKC/MAPK/CREB signal pathway. Furthermore, TCS down-regulated Bcl-2 expression was abrogated by a decoy oligonucleotide (OGN) to the cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE). The decoy OGN blocked the binding of CRE-binding protein (CREB) to Bcl-2. These results suggested that CRE-mediated gene expression may play a pivotal role in HeLa cell proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of TCS on cell cycle arrests, particularly, whether the genes involved in cell cycle were regulated by CRE. Our present study shows that the arrests of S, G1 and G2/M phases were accompanied by the significant down-regulation of cyclin A, D1 and CDK 2, 4 in HeLa cells, cyclin D1, E and CDK 2, 4 in Caski and C33a cells, and cyclin A, B1, E and CDK 2 in SW1990 cells. However, the cell cycle arrests were reversed via the significant up-regulation of cyclin A and D1, by the combined treatment of TCS and CRE. In conclusion, these data demonstrate for the first time that specific cell cycle arrests in cancer cells can be induced by TCS by inhibiting the binding of CREB to CRE on genes related to cell proliferation. PMID:23840351

Wang, Ping; Huang, Shuaishuai; Wang, Feng; Ren, Yu; Hehir, Michael; Wang, Xue; Cai, Jie

2013-01-01

18

Cyclic AMP activates B-Raf and ERK in cyst epithelial cells from autosomal-dominant polycystic kidneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic AMP activates B-Raf and ERK in cyst epithelial cells from autosomal-dominant polycystic kidneys.BackgroundThe proliferation of mural epithelial cells is a major cause of progressive cyst enlargement in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Adenosine 3?, 5? cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) stimulates the proliferation of cells from ADPKD cysts, but not cells from normal human kidney cortex (HKC), through the activation of

Tamio Yamaguchi; Shizuko Nagao; Darren P. Wallace; Franck A. Belibi; Benjamin D. Cowley; Jill C. Pelling; Jared J. Grantham

2003-01-01

19

Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion  

SciTech Connect

Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells.

Mukai, Atsushi [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 36-3 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 36-3 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: nao@nils.go.jp

2008-01-15

20

Enhanced phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in Brain of mice following repetitive hypoxic exposure  

SciTech Connect

Cerebral ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning (I/HPC) is a phenomenon of endogenous protection that renders Brain tolerant to sustained ischemia/hypoxia. This profound protection induced by I/HPC makes it an attractive target for developing potential clinical therapeutic approaches. However, the molecular mechanism of I/HPC is unclear. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), a selective nuclear transcriptional factor, plays a key role in the neuronal functions. Phosphorylation of CREB on Ser-133 may facilitate its transcriptional activity in response to various stresses. In the current study, we observed the changes in CREB phosphorylation (Ser-133) and protein expression in Brain of auto-hypoxia-induced HPC mice by using Western blot analysis. We found that the levels of phosphorylated CREB (Ser-133), but not protein expression of CREB, increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex of mice after repetitive hypoxic exposure (H2-H4, n = 6 for each group), when compared to that of the normoxic (H0, n = 6) or hypoxic exposure once group (H1, n = 6). In addition, a significant enhancement (p < 0.05) of CREB phosphorylation (Ser-133) could also be found in the nuclear extracts from the whole hippocampus of hypoxic preconditioned mice (H2-H4, n = 6 for each group). These results suggest that the phosphorylation of CREB might be involved in the development of cerebral hypoxic preconditioning.

Gao Yanan [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Gao Ge [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Long Caixia [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Han Song [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Zu Pengyu [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China); Fang Li [Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0517 (United States)]. E-mail: lfang@utmb.edu; Li Junfa [Institute for Biomedical Science of Pain, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Department of Neurobiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, No. 10 You AnMen Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing 100054 (China)]. E-mail: junfali@cpums.edu.cn

2006-02-10

21

G protein activation and cyclic AMP modulation by naloxone benzoylhydrazone in distinct layers of rat olfactory bulb  

PubMed Central

Naloxone benzoylhydrazone (NalBzoH) has initially been developed as an agonist of the pharmacologically defined ?3-opioid receptor and has recently been employed as an antagonist at the opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor. In the present study, we investigated the ability of NalBzoH to elicit agonist-like effects on receptor signalling in distinct layers of rat olfactory bulb, a brain region where we have demonstrated the presence of opioid and ORL1 receptors coupled to both stimulation and inhibition of cyclic AMP formation. In membranes of the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer (ON-GL), external plexiform layer (EPL) and granule cell layer (GRL), NalBzoH elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of guanosine-5?-O-(3-[35S]-thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTP?S) binding with pEC50 values ranging from 7.36 to 7.86, whereas the ?1-opioid receptor agonists (?)-U-50,488 and U-69,593 were inactive. In membranes of GRL, but not ON-GL and EPL, NalBzoH stimulated basal adenylyl cyclase activity by 40% with a pEC50 of 8.14, and significantly potentiated the net enzyme stimulation elicited by corticotropin-releasing hormone and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 38. Pertussis toxin prevented the NalBzoH stimulations of [35S]GTP?S binding and adenylyl cyclase activity. In membranes of EPL and GRL, but not ON-GL, NalBzoH elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity with pEC50 values of 8.07 and 8.08, respectively. At concentrations that completely blocked the actions of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the ORL1 receptor antagonists CompB and [Nphe1]N/OFQ(1–13)NH2 failed to antagonize either the stimulatory or the inhibitory effect of NalBzoH on cyclic AMP formation. Similarly, the ?1-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine counteracted the NalBzoH effects with relatively low potencies (pKi values=7.67–8.09). Conversely, the selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist TIPP (pKi=9.10) and the selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP (pKi=8.27) reduced the inhibitory effect of NalBzoH by 70 and 30%, respectively. Moreover, TIPP and CTAP potently inhibited the NalBzoH stimulation of cyclic AMP, each antagonist maximally causing 50% blockade of the agonist response. These data demonstrate that in the olfactory bulb NalBzoH activates receptor signalling by acting through ?- and ?-opioid receptors and independently of ORL1 and ?1-opioid receptors. PMID:15451772

Onali, Pierluigi; Olianas, Maria C

2004-01-01

22

A physiological response (plasma cyclic amp) and a psychological response (STAI-A-state) to noise exposure and/or calculation task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of 90 dB(A) noise exposure and/or a calculation task on plasma cyclic AMP concentrations (physiological index) and STAI-A-State scores (psychological index) in normal subjects are compared. Neither the plasma cyclic AMP concentration nor the STAI-A-State scores showed any significant change in response to the calculation task. STAI-A-State scores increased significantly only in response to 90 dB(A) noise exposure, while both the indices showed significant increases under the effects of both noise exposure and the calculation task. The sensitivity of the rate of increase in plasma cyclic AMP caused by noise exposure plus the calculation task was higher than that of the rate of increase in scores on the A-State scale caused by this noise exposure/task combination. The physiological effect in human subjects of noise exposure became larger when a psychological stress (calculation task) was added.

Iwamoto, M.; Ishii, F.; Yoneda, J.; Morie, T.; Harada, N.

1995-10-01

23

Activation of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway (AC) in endothelial cells (EC) exposed to different levels of mechanical strain. Bovine aortic EC were seeded to confluence on flexible membrane-bottom wells. The membranes were deformed with either 150 mm Hg (average 10% strain) or 37.5 mm Hg (average 6% strain) vacuum at 60 cycles per minute (0.5 s strain; 0.5 s relaxation) for 0-60 min. The results demonstrate that at 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain) there was a 1.5- to 2.2-fold increase in AC, cAMP, and PKA activity by 15 min when compared to unstretched controls. Further studies revealed an increase in cAMP response element binding protein in EC subjected to the 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain). These data support the hypothesis that cyclic strain activates the AC/cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathway in EC which may occur by exceeding a strain threshold and suggest that cyclic strain may stimulate the expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive promoter elements.

Cohen, C. R.; Mills, I.; Du, W.; Kamal, K.; Sumpio, B. E.

1997-01-01

24

Activation of a cyclic amp-guanine exchange factor in hepatocytes decreases nitric oxide synthase expression.  

PubMed

Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activates intracellular signaling by regulating protein kinase A, calcium influx, and cAMP-binging guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac [exchange protein directly activated by cAMP] or cAMP-GEF). Cyclic adenosine monophosphate inhibits cytokine-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hepatocytes by a protein kinase A-independent mechanism. We hypothesized that Epac mediates this effect. A cyclic AMP analog that specifically activates Epac, 8-(4-methoxyphenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (OPTmecAMP), and overexpression of liver-specific Epac2 both inhibited interleukin 1?/interferon ?-induced iNOS expression and nitrite production. OPTmecAMP inactivated Raf1/MEK/ERK signaling, but ERK had no effect on iNOS expression. OPTmecAMP induced a persistent Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes that lasted up to 8 h. Overexpression of a dominant-negative Akt blocked the inhibitory effect of OPTmecAMP on iNOS production. A specific PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, attenuated the inhibition of nitrite production and iNOS expression produced by overexpressing a liver-specific Epac2 (LEpac2). OPTmecAMP also induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in hepatocytes. Overexpression of dominant-negative JNK enhanced cytokine-induced iNOS expression and nitrite production and reversed the inhibitory effects of LEpac2 on nitrite production and iNOS expression. We conclude that Epac regulates hepatocyte iNOS expression through an Akt- and JNK-mediated signaling mechanism. PMID:23143065

Zhang, Baochun; Nweze, Ikenna; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Harbrecht, Brian G

2013-01-01

25

Glial potassium channels activated by neuronal firing or intracellular cyclic AMP in Helix.  

PubMed Central

1. Cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp experiments were performed on satellite glial cells adhering to the cell body of neurones in situ within the nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia. The underlying neurone was under current or voltage-clamp control. 2. Neuronal firing induced a delayed (20-30 s) persistent (3-4 min) increase in the opening probability of glial K+ channels. The channels were also activated by perfusing the ganglion with a depolarizing high-K+ saline, except when the underlying neurone was prevented from depolarizing under voltage-clamp conditions. 3. Two K(+)-selective channels were detected in the glial membrane. The channel responding to neuronal firing was present in 95% of the patches (n = 393). It had a unitary conductance of 56 pS, a Na+ :K+ permeability ratio < 0.02 and displayed slight inward rectification in symmetrical [K+] conditions. It was sensitive to TEA, Ba2+ and Cs+. The following results refer to this channel as studied in the cell-attached configuration. 4. The glial K+ channel was activated by bath application of the membrane-permeant cyclic AMP derivatives 8-bromo-cAMP and dibutyryl-cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the diesterase inhibitors IBMX, theophylline and caffeine. It was insensitive to cyclic GMP activators and to conditions that might alter the intracellular [Ca2+] (ionomycin, low-Ca2+ saline and Ca2+ channel blockers). 5. The forskolin-induced changes in channel behaviour (open and closed time distributions, burst duration, short and long gaps within bursts) could be accounted for by a four-state model (3 closed states, 1 open state) by simply changing one of the six rate parameters. 6. The present results suggest that the signal sent by an active neurone to satellite glial cells is confined to the glial cells round that neurone. The effect of this signal on the class of glial K+ channels studied can be mimicked by an increase in glial cAMP concentration. The subsequent delayed opening of the glial K+ channels does not appear to play a role in siphoning the excess K+ released by active neurones. It is hypothesized that the cAMP-gated glial K+ channels may be involved in the control of glial cell proliferation. PMID:8887773

Gommerat, I; Gola, M

1996-01-01

26

Mect1-Maml2 Fusion Oncogene Linked to the Aberrant Activation of Cyclic AMP\\/CREB Regulated Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant salivary gland tumors can arise from a t(11;19) translocation that fuses 42 residues from Mect1\\/Torc1, a cyclic AMP (cAMP)\\/cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)-dependent transcriptional coactivator, with 982 residues from Maml2, a NOTCH receptor coactivator. To determine if the Mect1-Maml2 fusion oncogene mediates tumorigenicity by disrupting cAMP\\/CREB signaling, we have generated in-frame deletions within the CREB-binding domain of Mect1\\/Torc1 for

Amy Coxon; Ester Rozenblum; Yoon-Soo Park; Nina Joshi; Junji Tsurutani; Phillip A. Dennis; Ilan R. Kirsch; Frederic J. Kaye

27

Cyclic AMP response in cells exposed to electric fields of different frequencies and intensities.  

PubMed

The action on intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) of therapeutically used 4000-Hz electric fields was investigated and compared with 50-Hz data. Cultured mouse fibroblasts were exposed for 5 minutes to 4000-Hz sine wave internal electric fields between 3 mV/m and 30 V/m applied within culture medium. A statistically significant decrease in cellular cAMP concentration relative to unexposed cells was observed for fields higher than 10 mV/m. The drop in cAMP was most pronounced at lower field strengths (71% of controls at 30 mV/m) and tended to disappear at higher field strengths. An increase of cAMP content was observed with 50-Hz electric fields, as was also the case when 4000-Hz fields were modulated with certain low frequencies. PMID:7938437

Knedlitschek, G; Noszvai-Nagy, M; Meyer-Waarden, H; Schimmelpfeng, J; Weibezahn, K F; Dertinger, H

1994-01-01

28

Modulators of cyclic AMP systems.  

PubMed

On the basis of the data reported here, one may conclude that although many agents that act in the central nervous system are modulators of the action of cyclic AMP, it is difficult to establish a direct connection between the pharmacologic activity and the levels of cyclic AMP in the brain. This lack of interrelation applies to the benzodiazepines as well as to the pyrazolopyridines. The data for members of the latter group are somewhat frustrating in this regard, since an excellent correlation has been shown to exist between the potency of inhibition of PDE and activity in the antianxiety test. In measurements of steroidogenesis in the isolated adrenal cell, the correlation between activity in vito and the conflict assay is even better. The data presented here and reported elsewhere (Shimizu et al., 1974; Kelly et al., 1974; Mayer and King, 1974; King and Mayer, 1974) provide evidence that agents that act as inhibitors of PDE in cell-free systems exert their influence on cyclic AMP in tissue slices of the brain of guinea pigs by mechanisms that seem not to be related to an effect on PDE. Papaverine, and possibly chlordiazepoxide, may act by releasing agonists that, in turn, stimulate the accumulation of cyclic AMP. This activity is blocked bo other inhibitors of PDE, such as theophyline. Results obtained by the use of platelets are refreshingly clear. Inhibition of aggregation has been shown to occur when the level of cyclic AMP is raised, and a suggestive exists that the most potent inhibitors of platelet PDE are the best potentiators of the action of PGE1 in blocking aggregation. The study utilizing drugs collected from a large number of therapeutic classes makes clear that it is difficult to attribute the mechanism of action for any of the classes studied to modulation of cyclic AMP. An unexpected finding of this study, however, was the fact that pharmacologic agents include an unusually large number of inhibitors of PDE as compared with agents chosen at random. This finding provides a powerful tool for the biochemical pharmacologist who is examining large numbers of compounds in the search for potential drugs. PMID:242200

Hess, S M; Chasin, M; Free, C A; Harris, D N

1975-01-01

29

Involvement of the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein in bovine leukemia virus expression in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The TAR element (Tax-responsive element; also called TxRE) is a major determinant of the regulation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expression. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of viral expression, complexes formed between proteins and the TAR enhancer DNA were analyzed by gel retardation assays. We report here that nuclear lysates from ex vivo-isolated B lymphocytes contain proteins that specifically bind to TAR. An antibody directed toward the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein supershifted a complex (C1) present only in BLV-infected B lymphocytes. The CREB protein thus appears to be a major transcription factor involved in BLV expression in vivo. Images PMID:8057465

Adam, E; Kerkhofs, P; Mammerickx, M; Kettmann, R; Burny, A; Droogmans, L; Willems, L

1994-01-01

30

Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes.  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is found in a variety of prokaryotes including both eubacteria and archaebacteria. cAMP plays a role in regulating gene expression, not only for the classic inducible catabolic operons, but also for other categories. In the enteric coliforms, the effects of cAMP on gene expression are mediated through its interaction with and allosteric modification of a cAMP-binding protein (CRP). The CRP-cAMP complex subsequently binds specific DNA sequences and either activates or inhibits transcription depending upon the positioning of the complex relative to the promoter. Enteric coliforms have provided a model to explore the mechanisms involved in controlling adenylate cyclase activity, in regulating adenylate cyclase synthesis, and in performing detailed examinations of CRP-cAMP complex-regulated gene expression. This review summarizes recent work focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of CRP-cAMP complex-mediated processes. For other bacteria, less detail is known. cAMP has been implicated in regulating antibiotic production, phototrophic growth, and pathogenesis. A role for cAMP has been suggested in nitrogen fixation. Often the only data that support cAMP involvement in these processes includes cAMP measurement, detection of the enzymes involved in cAMP metabolism, or observed effects of high concentrations of the nucleotide on cell growth. PMID:1315922

Botsford, J L; Harman, J G

1992-01-01

31

Role of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter's 19-base-pair-repeat cyclic AMP-response element in acutely infected cells.  

PubMed

Prior studies have suggested a role of the five copies of the 19-bp-repeat cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element (CRE) in major immediate-early (MIE) promoter activation, the rate-limiting step in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. We used two different HCMV genome modification strategies to test this hypothesis in acutely infected cells. We report the following: (i) the CREs do not govern basal levels of MIE promoter activity at a high or low multiplicity of infection (MOI) in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF)- or NTera2-derived neuronal cells; (ii) serum and virion components markedly increase MIE promoter-dependent transcription at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI), but this increase is not mediated by the CREs; (iii) forskolin stimulation of the cAMP signaling pathway induces a two- to threefold increase in MIE RNA levels in a CRE-specific manner at a low MOI in both HFF- and NTera2-derived neuronal cells; and (iv) the CREs do not regulate basal levels of HCMV DNA replication at a high or low MOI in HFF. Their presence does impart a forskolin-induced increase in viral DNA replication at a low MOI but only when basal levels of MIE promoter activity are experimentally diminished. In conclusion, the 19-bp-repeat CREs add to the robust MIE promoter activity that occurs in the acutely infected stimulated cells, although the CREs' greater role may be in other settings. PMID:12767986

Keller, M J; Wheeler, D G; Cooper, E; Meier, J L

2003-06-01

32

Role of the Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Promoter's 19-Base-Pair-Repeat Cyclic AMP-Response Element in Acutely Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have suggested a role of the five copies of the 19-bp-repeat cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element (CRE) in major immediate-early (MIE) promoter activation, the rate-limiting step in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. We used two different HCMV genome modification strategies to test this hypothesis in acutely infected cells. We report the following: (i) the CREs do not govern basal levels of MIE promoter activity at a high or low multiplicity of infection (MOI) in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF)- or NTera2-derived neuronal cells; (ii) serum and virion components markedly increase MIE promoter-dependent transcription at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI), but this increase is not mediated by the CREs; (iii) forskolin stimulation of the cAMP signaling pathway induces a two- to threefold increase in MIE RNA levels in a CRE-specific manner at a low MOI in both HFF- and NTera2-derived neuronal cells; and (iv) the CREs do not regulate basal levels of HCMV DNA replication at a high or low MOI in HFF. Their presence does impart a forskolin-induced increase in viral DNA replication at a low MOI but only when basal levels of MIE promoter activity are experimentally diminished. In conclusion, the 19-bp-repeat CREs add to the robust MIE promoter activity that occurs in the acutely infected stimulated cells, although the CREs' greater role may be in other settings. PMID:12767986

Keller, M. J.; Wheeler, D. G.; Cooper, E.; Meier, J. L.

2003-01-01

33

Uptake of Cyclic AMP by Natural Populations of Marine Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The major objective of this study was to describe the mechanism(s) of cyclic AMP uptake by natural populations of marine bacteria. A second objective was to determine whether this uptake could contribute to the intracellular regulatory pool of cyclic AMP. Using high-specific-activity 32P-labeled cyclic AMP, we found several high-affinity uptake systems. The highest-affinity system had a half-saturation constant of <10 pM. This system was extremely specific for cyclic nucleotides, particularly cyclic AMP. It appeared to meet the criteria for active transport. Uptake of cyclic AMP over a wide concentration range (up to 2 ?M) showed multiphasic kinetics, with half-saturation constants of 1 nM and greater. These lower-affinity systems were much less specific for cyclic nucleotides. Although much of the labeled cyclic AMP taken up by the high-affinity systems was metabolized, some remained as intact cyclic AMP within the cells during 1 h of incubation. This suggests that at least some of the bacteria use cyclic AMP dissolved in seawater to augment their intracellular pools. PMID:16345995

Ammerman, James W.; Azam, Farooq

1982-01-01

34

The 5-HT4 receptor subtype inhibits K+ current in colliculi neurones via activation of a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.  

PubMed Central

1. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on K+ current in primary culture of mouse colliculi neurones and to identify the 5-HT receptor subtype that could be involved in this effect. 2. The voltage-activated K+ current of the neurones was partially blocked by 8-bromo adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-bromo-cyclic AMP). This effect was mimicked by 5-HT and the action of 5-HT could be antagonized by H7, a non specific protein kinase inhibitor, and by PKI, the specific cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase blocker. 3. A similar cyclic AMP-dependent blockade of the K+ current was found with renzapride (BRL 24,924) and other 5-HT4 receptor agonists such as cisapride, BIMU 8, zacopride and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT). ICS 205,930, the classical 5-HT4 receptor blocker, could not be used in this study because it inhibited the studied K+ current by itself. However, the novel 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, DAU 6285 blocked the effects of 5-HT and renzapride on the K+ current. 4. The current was insensitive to the 5-HT1 and 5-HT3 receptor agonists (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin, RU 24,969, carboxamidotryptamine, 2-CH3-5-HT) as well as to 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 antagonists (methiothepin, ketanserin, ondansetron [GR 38,032]). Moreover, these antagonists did not affect the actions of the tested 5-HT4 receptor agonists. 5. The present results show that part of the voltage-activated K+ current in mouse colliculi neurones is cyclic AMP-sensitive and the blockade of the current by 5-HT involves the 5-HT4 receptor subtype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1324059

Fagni, L.; Dumuis, A.; Sebben, M.; Bockaert, J.

1992-01-01

35

Cholera toxin effects on fluid secretion, adenylate cyclase, and cyclic AMP in porcine small intestine.  

PubMed Central

The effects of cholera toxin on mucosal cyclic nucleotide concentrations and on net fluid secretion in the porcine small intestine are reported. Cholera toxin causes net secretion of fluid into the small intestine of weanling pigs, and secretory rates are dependent on the dose of the toxin placed in intestinal loops. Intestinal secretion due to cholera toxin exposure was not consistently accompanied by elevated concentrations of mucosal cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. Net fluid fluxes in individual loops did not correlate with mucosal cyclic AMP concentration in the same loop. Jejunal adenylate cyclase was activated to a lesser extent in pigs, compared with rabbits, after in vivo treatment with cholera toxin. In vitro activation in cell-free homogenates was similar for both species. Papaverine was similar to cholera toxin in causing fluid secretion without cyclic AMP accumulations, but 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine significantly increased cyclic AMP concentration and induced fluid secretion in pigs. Weanling pigs appeared to differ from rabbits in having a secretory response to cholera toxin which was independent of elevations in total mucosal cyclic AMP concentration. PMID:80378

Forsyth, G W; Hamilton, D L; Goertz, K E; Johnson, M R

1978-01-01

36

Iontophoresis of cyclic AMP.  

PubMed Central

The design, calibration, and operation of a source of controlled amounts of cyclic AMP (c-AMP) are described. Typically, 1.5 s pulses containing 10(10)-10(-12) molecules of c-AMP can be delivered to a region about 10 mum in diameter on an agar plate. The resulting concentration profiles are given as functions of distance and time. The diffusion coefficient of c-AMP in agar was measured to be 0.97 times 10(-5) cm2-s-1 at 21 degrees C. PMID:167878

Cohen, M H; Drage, D J; Robertson, A

1975-01-01

37

Modification of cardiovascular response of adenosine A 1 receptor agonist by cyclic AMP in the spinal cord of the rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to investigate the influence of the spinal adenosine A1 receptors on the central regulation of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), and to define whether its mechanism is mediated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) or cyclic GMP (cGMP). Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of drugs at the thoracic level were performed in anesthetized, artificially ventilated male Sprague-Dawyley rats.

Hyun Chul Koh; In Chul Shin; Se Jin Hwang; Doo Jin Paik

1996-01-01

38

Hepatitis C virus NS2 protein activates cellular cyclic AMP-dependent pathways  

SciTech Connect

Chronic infection of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to liver cirrhosis and cancer. The mechanism leading to viral persistence and hepatocellular carcinoma, however, has not been fully understood. In this study, we show that the HCV infection activates cellular cAMP-dependent pathways. Expression of a luciferase reporter gene controlled by a basic promoter with the cAMP response element (CRE) was significantly elevated in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells infected with the HCV JFH1. Analysis with viral subgenomic replicons indicated that the HCV NS2 protein is responsible for the effect. Furthermore, the level of cellular transcripts whose stability is known to be regulated by cAMP was specifically reduced in cells harboring NS2-expressing replicons. These results allude to the HCV NS2 protein having a novel function of regulating cellular gene expression and proliferation through the cAMP-dependent pathway.

Kim, Kyoung Mi [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Shi-Nae [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ju-Il [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Song Hee [Department of Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja Dong, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung Key [Department of Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja Dong, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byung-Yoon [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Ki [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yk-kim@korea.ac.kr

2007-05-18

39

The isolated frog skin epithelium: Permeability characteristics and responsiveness to oxytocin, cyclic AMP and theophylline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined treatment of the frog skin with collagenase and hydrostatic pressure enables complete separation of the epithelial layer from the supporting dermis. The separation entirely preserves the epithelium's passive permeability and active sodium transport capacity. The short circuit current, d.c. resistance, unidirectional fluxes of Na+ and Cl- ions, and osmotic water permeability were found identical on series of isolated

R. M. Rajerison; M. Montegut; S. Jard; F. Morel

1972-01-01

40

Co-regulation of tracheal tone by cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms.  

PubMed

The regulation of guinea pig tracheal muscle tone by cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic GMP-dependent relaxant mechanisms was investigated by studying the tracheal relaxant activities of forskolin, nitroprusside, N6-2'-O-dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and 8-bromoguanosine-cyclic GMP. In carbachol (3 X 10(-6) M)-contracted isolated tracheal rings, N6-2'-O-dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and 8-bromoguanosine-cyclic GMP each caused biphasic relaxation responses, which consisted of an acute relaxation followed by a sustained but lesser degree of relaxation. The biphasic nature of this response is suggested to result from a functional counter-balancing of cyclic nucleotide-dependent relaxant mechanisms and the contractile mechanisms stimulated by carbachol. The sensitivity of carbachol-contracted tracheal rings to forskolin and nitroprusside (activators of adenylate and guanylate cyclase, respectively) was generally not influenced by N6-2'-O-dibutyryl-cyclic AMP or 8-bromoguanosine-cyclic GMP in concentrations that induced up to 50% relaxation of the trachea. Furthermore, the partial relaxation of tracheal tension with one cyclic nucleotide analog did not alter the sensitivity of the tracheal rings to the other. These results demonstrate that cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms induce relaxations of the trachea that are functionally additive, each neither potentiating nor depressing the effects of the other. In the presence of 3 X 10(-6) M carbachol, the effectiveness of cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent relaxant mechanisms appears to be fixed, and independent of the amount of active tension being maintained by the tracheal muscle itself. PMID:2826752

Heaslip, R J; Giesa, F R; Rimele, T J; Grimes, D

1987-12-01

41

CyclicAMP content and trehalase activation in vegetative cells and ascospores of yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of glucose to yeast ascospores, glucose-grown vegetative cells from the stationary growth-phase or acetate-grown vegetative cells from the logarithmic growth-phase induces a rapid tenfold increase in the activity of trehalase. Trehalase activation is followed by a period of slow inactivation. It was possible to reverse the inactivation in the presence of glucose in all cell types immediately and completely

Johan M. Thevelein

1984-01-01

42

Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Aequorin Molecular Switch for Cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

Molecular switches are designer molecules that combine the functionality of two individual proteins into one, capable of manifesting an “on/off” signal in response to a stimulus. These switches have unique properties and functionalities and thus, can be employed as nanosensors in a variety of applications. To that end, we have developed a bioluminescent molecular switch for cyclic AMP. Bioluminescence offers many advantages over fluorescence and other detection methods including the fact that there is essentially zero background signal in physiological fluids, allowing for more sensitive detection and monitoring. The switch was created by combining the properties of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), a transcriptional regulatory protein from E. coli that binds selectively to cAMP with those of aequorin, a bioluminescent photoprotein native of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Genetic manipulation to split the genetic coding sequence of aequorin in two and genetically attach the fragments to the N and C termini of CRP, resulted in a hybrid protein molecular switch. The conformational change experienced by CRP upon the binding of cyclic AMP is suspected to result in the observed loss of bioluminescent signal from aequorin. The “on/off” bioluminescence can be modulated by cyclic AMP over a range of several orders of magnitude in a linear fashion in addition to the capacity to detect changes in cellular cyclic AMP of intact cells exposed to different external stimuli without the need to lyse the cells. We envision that the molecular switch could find applications in vitro as well as in vivo cyclic AMP detection and/or imaging. PMID:21329338

Scott, Daniel; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Ensor, C. Mark; Anderson, Kimberly W.; Daunert, Sylvia

2011-01-01

43

Bovine Brain Diacylglycerol Lipase: Substrate Specificity and Activation by Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diacylglycerol lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) was purified from bovine brain microsomes using multiple column chromatographic techniques.\\u000a The purified enzyme migrates as a single band on SDS-PAGE and has an apparent molecular weight of 27 kDa. Substrate specificity\\u000a experiments using mixed molecular species of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols indicate that low concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ have no direct effect on enzymic activity and 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols are

Thad A. Rosenberger; Akhlaq A. Farooqui; Lloyd A. Horrocks

2007-01-01

44

Overexpression of RPI1, a novel inhibitor of the yeast Ras-cyclic AMP pathway, down-regulates normal but not mutationally activated ras function.  

PubMed Central

A high-copy-number plasmid genomic library was screened for genes that when overexpressed down-regulate Ras protein activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report on the structure and characterization of one such gene, RPI1, which potentially encodes a novel 46-kDa negative regulator of the Ras-cyclic AMP pathway. Three lines of evidence suggest that the RPI1 gene product operates upstream to negatively regulate the activity of normal but not mutationally activated Ras proteins: (i) overexpressed RPI1 lowers cyclic AMP levels in wild-type yeast cells but not in yeast cells carrying the RAS2Val-19 mutation, (ii) overexpressed RPI1 suppresses the heat shock sensitivity phenotype induced by overexpression of normal RAS2 but does not suppress the same phenotype induced by RAS2Val-19, and (iii) disruption of RPI1 results in a heat shock sensitivity phenotype which can be suppressed by mutations that lower normal Ras activity. Thus, RPI1 appears to encode an inhibitor of Ras activity that shares a common feature with Ras GTPase-activating proteins in that it fails to down-regulate activated RAS2Val-19 function. We present evidence that the down-regulatory effect of RPI1 requires the presence of one of the two Ras GTPase activators, IRA1 and IRA2. Images PMID:1649384

Kim, J H; Powers, S

1991-01-01

45

Revisiting the mechanism of activation of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) by cAMP in Escherichia coli: Lessons from a subunit-crosslinked form of CRP.  

PubMed

Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), the global transcription regulator in prokaryotes, is active only as a cAMP-CRP complex. Binding of cAMP changes the conformation of CRP, transforming it from a transcriptionally 'inactive' to an 'active' molecule. These conformers are also characterized by distinct biochemical properties including the ability to form an S-S crosslink between the C178 residues of its two monomeric subunits. We studied a CRP variant (CRP(cl)), in which the subunits are crosslinked. We demonstrate that CRP(cl) can activate transcription even in the absence of cAMP. Implications of these results for the crystallographically-determined structure of cAMP-CRP are discussed. PMID:25541491

Saha, Abinit; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta; Datta, Ajit Bikram; Parrack, Pradeep

2015-01-30

46

Evidence for a "mute" catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from rat muscle and its mode of activation.  

PubMed Central

An isoenzyme of the catalytic subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from rat muscle is reported which coelutes with the classical catalytic subunit but differs from it in isoelectric point (pI 8.7 vs pI 9.1) and is enzymmatically inactive. After reaction with a heat- and acid-stable component of the protein kinase modulator fraction from the same tissue, the "mute" isoenzyme displays a high activity when assayed on isoelectric focusing gels. This activation process does not occur through proteolytic degradation and is not characteristic of a turnover-type reaction. The data imply direct interaction between the isoenzyme and a modulating protein which may subsequently be separated from the enzyme without reversal of the activation. The modulator protein thus appears to act as a template, inducing a conformational change. The implications of such a mute isoenzyme and its control through small modulator proteins are discussed. Images PMID:6248851

Gagelmann, M; Reed, J; Kübler, D; Pyerin, W; Kinzel, V

1980-01-01

47

Ethanol-induced loss of brain cyclic AMP binding proteins: correlation with growth suppression  

SciTech Connect

Brain hypoplasia secondary to maternal ethanol consumption is a common fetal defect observed in all models of fetal alcohol syndrome. The molecular mechanism by which ethanol inhibits growth is unknown but has been hypothesized to involve ethanol-induced changes in the activity of cyclic-AMP stimulated protein kinase. Acute and chronic alcohol exposure elevate cyclic AMP level in many tissues, including brain. This increase in cyclic AMP should increase the phosphorylating activity of kinase by increasing the amount of dissociated (active) kinase catalytic subunit. In 7-day embryonic chick brains, ethanol-induced growth suppression was correlated with increased brain cyclic AMP content but neither basal nor cyclic AMP stimulated kinase catalytic activity was increased. However, the levels of cyclic AMP binding protein (kinase regulatory subunit) were significantly lowered by ethanol exposure. Measured as either /sup 3/H cyclic AMP binding or as 8-azido cyclic AM/sup 32/P labeling, ethanol-exposed brains had significantly less cyclic AMP binding activity (51 +/- 14 versus 29 +/- 10 units/..mu..g protein for 8-azido cyclic AMP binding). These findings suggest that ethanol's effect on kinase activity may involve more than ethanol-induced activation of adenylate cyclase.

Pennington, S.; Kalmus, G.

1987-05-01

48

TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.  

PubMed

The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

1986-01-01

49

Association of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase with neurofilaments.  

PubMed Central

Neurofilament preparations isolated from bovine spinal cord contain cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. Treatment of this preparation with cyclic AMP, to dissociate the regulatory subunit of the kinase from the catalytic subunit, resulted in retention of the kinase activity but loss of cyclic AMP regulation. This suggests that PKA is associated via its catalytic subunit with the neurofilament preparation. The association of exogenous PKA from bovine heart with the neurofilament preparation and with neurofilaments reconstituted from purified neurofilament proteins was also investigated. Either the free catalytic subunit or combinations of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA were incubated with the preparations, and the degree of association was determined as the level of kinase activity that co-sediments with neurofilaments. The results indicate that the free catalytic subunit of PKA co-sediments with neurofilaments reconstituted from purified proteins. The regulatory subunit of PKA from bovine heart, when pre-mixed with the catalytic subunit, decreased the level of kinase that co-sediments with the neurofilament fraction in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of the regulatory subunit was reversed by inclusion of cyclic AMP in the incubation medium before centrifugation. The above findings suggest that the regulatory subunit, when attached to the catalytic subunit, has an inhibitory effect on its association with neurofilaments, with the implication that the association may be a cyclic-AMP-regulated event. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1312331

Dosemeci, A; Pant, H C

1992-01-01

50

Cyclic AMP and gastric secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several reports have appeared in the literature implicating cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the mechanism of gastric acid secretion (1-4). Although no direct correlation has yet been established between the intracellular levels of the cyclic nucleotide and gastric secretion in vivo, the generally accepted view is that elevated intracellular levels of cyclic AMP possibly trigger increased levels of acid

M. Samir Amer

1972-01-01

51

Cyclic AMP Signaling: A Molecular Determinant of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Disruption of axonal integrity during injury to the peripheral nerve system (PNS) sets into motion a cascade of responses that includes inflammation, Schwann cell mobilization, and the degeneration of the nerve fibers distal to the injury site. Yet, the injured PNS differentiates itself from the injured central nervous system (CNS) in its remarkable capacity for self-recovery, which, depending upon the length and type of nerve injury, involves a series of molecular events in both the injured neuron and associated Schwann cells that leads to axon regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional restitution. Herein we discuss the essential function of the second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), in the PNS repair process, highlighting the important role the conditioning lesion paradigm has played in understanding the mechanism(s) by which cyclic AMP exerts its proregenerative action. Furthermore, we review the studies that have therapeutically targeted cyclic AMP to enhance endogenous nerve repair. PMID:25177696

Knott, Eric P.; Assi, Mazen; Pearse, Damien D.

2014-01-01

52

Further characterization of the 5-HT receptor mediating vascular relaxation and elevation of cyclic AMP in porcine isolated vena cava.  

PubMed Central

1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) produce both smooth muscle relaxation and elevation of tissue adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels in isolated rings of neonatal porcine vena cava. We now present studies attempting to characterize in more detail the 5-HT receptor mediating these responses. 2. Both 5-HT and 5-CT relaxed porcine isolated vena cava rings (EC50 values 200 nM and 4 nM respectively) and elevated tissue cyclic AMP levels (EC50 values 1500 nM and 16 nM respectively). For both responses 5-CT was approximately 50-100 fold more potent than 5-HT. 3. Both 5-CT-induced smooth muscle relaxation and cyclic AMP elevation were potently and specifically antagonized to a similar extent by methiothepin, methysergide and spiperone. 4. At concentrations up to 1 microM, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin, buspirone, ipsapirone, n,n-dipropyl-5-CT, cyanopindolol, RU24969, ketanserin, GR38032 and GR43175 were devoid of both agonist and antagonist activity for both responses. 5. These findings suggest that the same 5-HT1-like receptor mediates both smooth muscle relaxation and elevation of cyclic AMP. This receptor is unlike any known 5-HT1 ligand binding site or adenylate cyclase-coupled 5-HT receptor in brain tissues. PMID:2541857

Sumner, M. J.; Feniuk, W.; Humphrey, P. P.

1989-01-01

53

Multiple sequence elements of a single functional class are required for cyclic AMP responsiveness of the mouse c-fos promoter.  

PubMed Central

Agents that elevate the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP) rapidly and transiently induce expression of the c-fos proto-oncogene in BALB/c 3T3 cells. We show that the mouse c-fos promoter-enhancer region contains multiple elements that contribute to cAMP responsiveness of the promoter in transient expression assays. The most potent element was found to correspond to a previously mapped basal promoter element and protein-binding site located 65 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional initiation site. This element and two less potent sites contained a match to the cAMP response element (CRE) core sequence defined in several mammalian genes. The relative potencies of these elements corresponded with their relative affinities for cellular factors that bound to the CRE in vitro. Mutation of all three elements failed to abolish completely cAMP responsiveness of the c-fos promoter in the transient expression assay. However, we present evidence that this residual responsiveness may have been due to sequences present in vector DNA. Finally, we show, by using a new microinjection competition assay, that a double-stranded oligonucleotide carrying the major c-fos CRE is sufficient to block induction of the endogenous c-fos gene by cAMP. Therefore, induction of the endogenous gene requires positively acting cellular factors that interact with a single functional class of regulatory sites in the c-fos gene. Unrelated regulatory elements, such as the serum response element and putative AP-2 sites, are not by themselves sufficient to mediate the cAMP response. Images PMID:2555687

Berkowitz, L A; Riabowol, K T; Gilman, M Z

1989-01-01

54

Separate cyclic AMP sensors for neuritogenesis, growth arrest, and survival of neuroendocrine cells.  

PubMed

Dividing neuroendocrine cells differentiate into a neuronal-like phenotype in response to ligands activating G protein-coupled receptors, leading to the elevation of the second messenger cAMP. Growth factors that act at receptor tyrosine kinases, such as nerve growth factor, also cause differentiation. We report here that two aspects of cAMP-induced differentiation, neurite extension and growth arrest, are dissociable at the level of the sensors conveying the cAMP signal in PC12 and NS-1 cells. Following cAMP elevation, neuritogenic cyclic AMP sensor/Rapgef2 is activated for signaling to ERK to mediate neuritogenesis, whereas Epac2 is activated for signaling to the MAP kinase p38 to mediate growth arrest. Neither action of cAMP requires transactivation of TrkA, the receptor for NGF. In fact, the differentiating effects of NGF do not require activation of any of the cAMP sensors protein kinase A, Epac, or neuritogenic cyclic AMP sensor/Rapgef2 but, rather, depend on ERK and p38 activation via completely independent signaling pathways. Hence, cAMP- and NGF-dependent signaling for differentiation are also completely insulated from each other. Cyclic AMP and NGF also protect NS-1 cells from serum withdrawal-induced cell death, again by two wholly separate signaling mechanisms, PKA-dependent for cAMP and PKA-independent for NGF. PMID:24567337

Emery, Andrew C; Eiden, Maribeth V; Eiden, Lee E

2014-04-01

55

Role of Inositol 1,4,5Triphosphate and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Granulocytes in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner: An Age-Related Phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is generally agreed that elderly subjects undergo progressive deterioration of their immune responsiveness, which leads to an increased susceptibility to autoimmune processes, neoplasm and inflammation. Thus there is a general consensus that regulation of inflammation results from a balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the possible alterations of cyclic AMP\\/protein kinase

Míriam Martins Chaves; Daniela Caldeira Costa; Cristina Costa Telhado Pereira; Thiago Rabelo Andrade; Bernardo Coelho Horta; José Augusto Nogueira-Machado

2007-01-01

56

Inhibitory effect of digoxin on testosterone secretion through mechanisms involving decreases of cyclic AMP production and cytochrome P450scc activity in rat testicular interstitial cells  

PubMed Central

In vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to examine inhibitory effects of digoxin on testosterone secretion and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. A single intravenous injection of digoxin (1??g?kg?1) decreased the basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated plasma testosterone concentrations in adult male rats. Digoxin (10?7–10?4?M) decreased the basal and hCG-stimulated release of testosterone from rat testicular interstitial cells in vitro. Digoxin (10?7–10?4?M) also diminished the basal and hCG-stimulated production of cyclic 3??:?5?-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and attenuated the stimulatory effects of forskolin and 8-Br-cyclic AMP on testosterone production by rat testicular interstitial cells. Digoxin (10?4?M) inhibited cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (cytochrome P450scc) activity (conversion of 25-hydroxy cholesterol to pregnenolone) in the testicular interstitial cells but did not influence the activity of other steroidogenic enzymes. These results suggest that digoxin inhibits the production of testosterone in rat testicular interstitial cells, at least in part, via attenuation of the activities of adenylyl cyclase and cytochrome P450scc. PMID:9886754

Lin, Ho; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Chen, Jiann-Jong; Chiao, Yu-Chung; Lu, Chien-Chen; Ji-Sien Huang, William; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chen, Chieh-Fu; Wang, Paulus S

1998-01-01

57

In resting COS1 cells a dominant negative approach shows that specific, anchored PDE4 cAMP phosphodiesterase isoforms gate the activation, by basal cyclic AMP production, of AKAP-tethered protein kinase A type II located in the centrosomal region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ a novel, dominant negative approach to identify a key role for certain tethered cyclic AMP specific phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) isoforms in regulating cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) sub-populations in resting COS1 cells. A fraction of PKA is clearly active in resting COS1 cells and this activity increases when cells are treated with the selective PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram.

Angela McCahill; Theresa McSorley; Elaine Huston; Elaine V. Hill; Martin J. Lynch; Irene Gall; Guy Keryer; Birgitte Lygren; Kjetil Tasken; Gino van Heeke; Miles D. Houslay

2005-01-01

58

cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production  

SciTech Connect

Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-time for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.

Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

1987-03-01

59

Cyclic AMP-regulating agents inhibit endotoxin-mediated cartilage degradation.  

PubMed Central

The influence of cyclic AMP on cartilage degradation was investigated by using phosphodiesterase inhibitors [theophylline and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)], forskolin (which activates the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase) and cyclic AMP analogues (dibutyryl and 8-bromo). Breakdown was assessed by quantification of proteoglycans released into the media of 8-day bovine nasal-septum cartilage cultures. Theophylline (1-20 mM), IBMX (0.01-2 mM) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (0.1-2 mM) had little or no influence on the rate of proteoglycan release from unstimulated (no-endotoxin) cartilages. A small but detectable increase in breakdown was observed with 8-bromo cyclic AMP (0.5-2 mM) and forskolin (50-75 micrograms/ml). To examine potential inhibitory influences of these agents, the cyclic AMP modulators were added to cultures simultaneously treated with Salmonella typhosa endotoxin (12-25 micrograms/ml), a potent stimulator of cartilage degradation. The 3-4-fold stimulation of breakdown by endotoxin was strikingly inhibited by all three classes of cyclic AMP regulators. Optimal inhibition was found at 10-20 mM-theophylline, 1-2 mM-IBMX, 50-75 micrograms of forskolin/ml, 2 mM-dibutyryl cyclic AMP and 2 mM-8-bromo cyclic AMP. Inhibition was shown to be reversible, indicating that cartilages were viable after treatment. Sepharose CL-2B chromatography of proteoglycan products released from treated cartilages showed that the endotoxin-stimulated shift to lower average Mr was significantly prevented by cyclic AMP analogues and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Together, these results show that agents which increase cyclic AMP inhibit both quantitative and qualitative aspects of endotoxin-mediated cartilage degradation. PMID:2444211

Bednar, M S; Hubbard, J R; Steinberg, J J; Broner, F A; Sledge, C B

1987-01-01

60

Cyclic AMP-regulating agents inhibit endotoxin-mediated cartilage degradation.  

PubMed

The influence of cyclic AMP on cartilage degradation was investigated by using phosphodiesterase inhibitors [theophylline and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)], forskolin (which activates the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase) and cyclic AMP analogues (dibutyryl and 8-bromo). Breakdown was assessed by quantification of proteoglycans released into the media of 8-day bovine nasal-septum cartilage cultures. Theophylline (1-20 mM), IBMX (0.01-2 mM) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (0.1-2 mM) had little or no influence on the rate of proteoglycan release from unstimulated (no-endotoxin) cartilages. A small but detectable increase in breakdown was observed with 8-bromo cyclic AMP (0.5-2 mM) and forskolin (50-75 micrograms/ml). To examine potential inhibitory influences of these agents, the cyclic AMP modulators were added to cultures simultaneously treated with Salmonella typhosa endotoxin (12-25 micrograms/ml), a potent stimulator of cartilage degradation. The 3-4-fold stimulation of breakdown by endotoxin was strikingly inhibited by all three classes of cyclic AMP regulators. Optimal inhibition was found at 10-20 mM-theophylline, 1-2 mM-IBMX, 50-75 micrograms of forskolin/ml, 2 mM-dibutyryl cyclic AMP and 2 mM-8-bromo cyclic AMP. Inhibition was shown to be reversible, indicating that cartilages were viable after treatment. Sepharose CL-2B chromatography of proteoglycan products released from treated cartilages showed that the endotoxin-stimulated shift to lower average Mr was significantly prevented by cyclic AMP analogues and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Together, these results show that agents which increase cyclic AMP inhibit both quantitative and qualitative aspects of endotoxin-mediated cartilage degradation. PMID:2444211

Bednar, M S; Hubbard, J R; Steinberg, J J; Broner, F A; Sledge, C B

1987-05-15

61

Chlorotoxin does not inhibit volume-regulated, calcium-activated and cyclic AMP-activated chloride channels  

PubMed Central

It was the aim of this study to look for a high-affinity and selective polypeptide toxin, which could serve as a probe for the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) or the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We have partially purified chlorotoxin, including new and homologous short chain insectotoxins, from the crude venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (Lqq) by means of gel filtration chromatography. Material eluting between 280 and 420?min, corresponding to fractions 15–21, was lyophilized and tested on VRAC and CaCC, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We have also tested the commercially available chlorotoxin on VRAC, CaCC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and on the glioma specific chloride channel (GCC). VRAC and the correspondent current, ICl,swell, was activated in Cultured Pulmonary Artery Endothelial (CPAE) cells by a 25% hypotonic solution. Neither of the fractions 16–21 significantly inhibited ICl,swell (n=4–5). Ca2+-activated Cl? currents, ICl,Ca, activated by loading T84 cells via the patch pipette with 1??M free Ca2+, were not inhibited by any of the tested fractions (15–21), (n=2–5). Chlorotoxin (625?nM) did neither effect ICl,swell nor ICl,Ca (n=4–5). The CFTR channel, transiently transfected in COS cells and activated by a cocktail containing IBMX and forskolin, was not affected by 1.2??M chlorotoxin (n=5). In addition, it did not affect currents through GCC. We conclude that submicromolar concentrations of chlorotoxin do not block volume-regulated, Ca2+-activated and CFTR chloride channels and that it can not be classified as a general chloride channel toxin. PMID:10683204

Maertens, Chantal; Wei, Lin; Tytgat, Jan; Droogmans, Guy; Nilius, Bernd

2000-01-01

62

Activation of Exchange Protein Activated by Cyclic-AMP Enhances Long-Lasting Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

cAMP is a critical second messenger implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory in the mammalian brain. Substantial evidence links increases in intracellular cAMP to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream effectors (transcription factors, receptors, protein kinases) necessary for long-term…

Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Banko, Jessica L.; Peters, Melinda M.; Klann, Eric; Weeber, Edwin J.; Nguyen, Peter V.

2008-01-01

63

The cyclic AMP response element-binding protein antisense oligonucleotide induced anti-nociception and decreased the expression of KIF17 in spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury in mice  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds: The cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) plays an important role in neuropathic pain. Kinesin superfamily motor protein 17 (KIF17) is involved in long-term memory formation. CREB could increase the level of KIF17 when activated by synaptic input. This study is to investigate the role and mechanism of CREB antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in mice. Results: CCI surgery decreased thresholds of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia whereas CREB antisense oligonucleotide ODN significantly attenuated these pain behaviors (P < 0.05). CCI significantly induced the protein expression of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) and KIF17, but not KIF5B, in the spinal cord of CCI mice (P < 0.05). Additionally, the mRNA expression of CREB and KIF17 was significantly increased by CCI (P < 0.05). However, CREB antisense ODN significantly decreased the protein expression of pCREB and KIF17 (but not KIF5B), and the mRNA expression of CREB and KIF17 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CREB antisense oligonucleotide ODN may reduce neuropathic pain through targeting CREB and decreasing the expression of pCREB and KIF17. PMID:25664020

Bo, Jinhua; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yan; Liu, Xiaojie; Jiang, Ming; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

2014-01-01

64

Evidence for the involvement of cyclic AMP in the pheromonal modulation of barnacle settlement  

PubMed

The involvement of cyclic AMP in the settlement of the cypris larva of Balanus amphitrite amphitrite Darwin has been examined through the use of compounds that affect intracellular cyclic AMP levels. The activation of adenylate cyclase with forskolin, and the inhibition of phosphodiesterase with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, caffeine and theophylline, significantly increased the settlement of cyprids. Although the analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP appeared to increase settlement, the effect was not significant. No marked increase in settlement resulted from the incubation of cyprids with dibutyryl cyclic GMP, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) (CPT) cyclic AMP or papaverine (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor). Miconazole nitrate, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, prevented settlement, but this effect appeared to be physico-chemical rather than pharmacological. Radioimmunoassay did not clearly show whether cyclic AMP levels changed following exposure of cyprids to a pulse of crude barnacle extract. However, exposure to forskolin significantly increased the cyclic AMP titre of cyprids. We conclude that compounds that alter intracellular cyclic AMP levels alter normal patterns of cyprid settlement. Whether this is because of an alteration in signal transduction is unclear. PMID:9318389

Clare; Thomas; Rittschof

1995-01-01

65

Sweet Taste Receptor Expressed in Pancreatic ?-Cells Activates the Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signaling Systems and Stimulates Insulin Secretion  

PubMed Central

Background Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT–PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) and cAMP ([cAMP]c) were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca2+]c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5)-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca2+]c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca2+]c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a Gq inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP]c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions Sweet taste receptor is expressed in ?-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms. PMID:19352508

Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Satoko; Hara, Akemi; Mogami, Hideo; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Lohse, Martin J.; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru

2009-01-01

66

Mitotic activation of the DISC1-inducible cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D9 (PDE4D9), through multi-site phosphorylation, influences cell cycle progression.  

PubMed

In Rat-1 cells, the dramatic decrease in the levels of both intracellular cyclic 3'5' adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP; cAMP) and in the activity of cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) observed in mitosis was paralleled by a profound increase in cAMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) activity. The decrease in PKA activity, which occurs during mitosis, was attributable to PDE4 activation as the PDE4 selective inhibitor, rolipram, but not the phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE3) inhibitor, cilostamide, specifically ablated this cell cycle-dependent effect. PDE4 inhibition caused Rat-1 cells to move from S phase into G2/M more rapidly, to transit through G2/M more quickly and to remain in G1 for a longer period. Inhibition of PDE3 elicited no observable effects on cell cycle dynamics. Selective immunopurification of each of the four PDE4 sub-families identified PDE4D as being selectively activated in mitosis. Subsequent analysis uncovered PDE4D9, an isoform whose expression can be regulated by Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) complex, as the sole PDE4 species activated during mitosis in Rat-1 cells. PDE4D9 becomes activated in mitosis through dual phosphorylation at Ser585 and Ser245, involving the combined action of ERK and an unidentified 'switch' kinase that has previously been shown to be activated by H2O2. Additionally, in mitosis, PDE4D9 also becomes phosphorylated at Ser67 and Ser81, through the action of MK2 (MAPKAPK2) and AMP kinase (AMPK), respectively. The multisite phosphorylation of PDE4D9 by all four of these protein kinases leads to decreased mobility (band-shift) of PDE4D9 on SDS-PAGE. PDE4D9 is predominantly concentrated in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but with a fraction distributed asymmetrically at the cell margins. Our investigations demonstrate that the diminished levels of cAMP and PKA activity that characterise mitosis are due to enhanced cAMP degradation by PDE4D9. PDE4D9, was found to locate primarily not only in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but also at the cell margins. We propose that the sequestration of PDE4D9 in a specific complex together with AMPK, ERK, MK2 and the H2O2-activatable 'switch' kinase allows for its selective multi-site phosphorylation, activation and regulation in mitosis. PMID:24815749

Sheppard, Catherine L; Lee, Louisa C Y; Hill, Elaine V; Henderson, David J P; Anthony, Diana F; Houslay, Daniel M; Yalla, Krishna C; Cairns, Lynne S; Dunlop, Allan J; Baillie, George S; Huston, Elaine; Houslay, Miles D

2014-09-01

67

Cyclic AMP suppresses TGF-?-mediated adaptive Tregs differentiation through inhibiting the activation of ERK and JNK.  

PubMed

The second messenger cAMP is involved in the regulation of many cellular activities partially through modulating the MAPK pathways. The role of cAMP in TGF-?-mediated adaptive Tregs differentiation remains elusive. In this work, we show that cAMP inhibits antigen-nonspecific proliferation of murine CD4+ T cells without significant promotion of apoptosis. Moreover, cAMP suppresses TGF-?-induced expression of forkhead transcription factor Foxp3. 6-MB-cAMP, a site-selective activator of PKA, mimics the role of cAMP in TGF-?-induced Foxp3 expression. Further exploration reveals that TGF-? activates ERK and JNK, but not p38. cAMP and 6-MB-cAMP block TGF-?-induced activation of ERK and JNK through transcription-independent manner and transcription-dependent manner, respectively. Since direct inhibition of ERK or JNK activity mimics the effects of cAMP during this process, our work suggests that cAMP suppresses TGF-?-mediated adaptive Tregs differentiation through, at least partially, inhibiting the activation of ERK and JNK. PMID:24055734

Cao, Junxia; Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Qingyang; Wang, Xiaoqian; Jin, Jianfeng; Zhu, Ting; Zhang, Dalin; Wang, Wendie; Li, Xinying; Li, Yan; Shen, Beifen; Zhang, Jiyan

2013-01-01

68

Cyclic AMP Levels, Adenylyl Cyclase Activity, and Their Stimulation by Serotonin Quantif?ied in Intact Neurons  

PubMed Central

In molluscan central neurons that express cAMP-gated Na+ current (INa,cAMP), estimates of the cAMP binding affinity of the channels have suggested that effective native intracellular cAMP concentrations should be much higher than characteristic of most cells. Using neurons of the marine opisthobranch snail Pleurobranchaea californica, we applied theory and conventional voltage clamp techniques to use INa,cAMP to report basal levels of endogenous cAMP and adenylyl cyclase, and their stimulation by serotonin. Measurements were calibrated to iontophoretic cAMP injection currents to enable expression of the data in molar terms. In 30 neurons, serotonin stimulated on average a 23-fold increase in submembrane [cAMP], effected largely by an 18-fold increase in adenylyl cyclase activity. Serotonin stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and [cAMP] was inversely proportional to cells' resting adenylyl cyclase activity. Average cAMP concentration at the membrane rose from 3.6 to 27.6 ?M, levels consistent with the expected cAMP dissociation constants of the INa,cAMP channels. These measures confirm the functional character of INa,cAMP in the context of high levels of native cAMP. Methods similar to those employed here might be used to establish critical characters of cyclic nucleotide metabolism in the many cells of invertebrates and vertebrates that are being found to express ion currents gated by direct binding of cyclic nucleotides. PMID:9276752

Sudlow, Leland C.; Gillette, Rhanor

1997-01-01

69

Oscillations and cyclic AMP-induced changes of the K+ concentration in Dictyostelium discoideum.  

PubMed Central

By means of a K+-sensitive electrode, the extracellular K+ concentration was monitored in cell suspensions of Dictyostelium discoideum. In aggregative cells the attractant cyclic AMP induced a transient release of K+. The response was detectable within 6-12 s and peaked at 30-40 s. The apparent rate of release amounted to 7 X 10(8)K+ ions per cell per min. Adenosine and 5' AMP, which are chemotactically inactive, did not elicit measurable K+ responses. The cyclic AMP-induced release of K+ depended on the state of differentiation of the cells. In undifferentiated cells cyclic AMP did not cause a measurable K+ release, whereas folic acid, a potent attractant at this cell stage, induced a weak but significant K+ response. The cyclic AMP-induced K+ release in aggregative cells was inhibited by K+-channel blockers such as quinine and tetraethylammonium. In suspensions of differentiated cells free running oscillations of the extracellular K+ concentration were observed. K+ oscillations were related to cyclic AMP oscillations and oscillations of the light-scattering properties of cells. Cells continuously released NH4+; however, cyclic AMP did not induce a measurable change of NH4+ release. PMID:2990896

Aeckerle, S; Wurster, B; Malchow, D

1985-01-01

70

Is a decrease in cyclic AMP a necessary and sufficient signal for maturation of amphibian oocytes  

SciTech Connect

Acetylcholine rapidly lowered the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in stage 5 and 6 Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine alone did not induce oocyte maturation, though it did accelerate maturation induced by progesterone. The effect of acetylcholine on oocyte maturation was independent of extracellular calcium concentration. Adenosine increased cyclic AMP and abolished the progesterone-induced decrease in cyclic AMP levels in follicles and in denuded oocytes. This effect of adenosine was blocked by the Ra purinergic receptor antagonist, theophylline. Despite those effects, adenosine alone induced maturation in stage 6 oocytes and accelerated progesterone-induced maturation in both stage 5 and 6 cells. Adenosine also induced a significant increase in the rate of /sup 45/Ca efflux from oocytes in the presence and the absence of external calcium. We suggest that the activation of cell surface receptors involved in the release of calcium from cellular stores may induce or accelerate oocyte maturation independently of small changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration.

Gelerstein, S.; Shapira, H.; Dascal, N.; Yekuel, R.; Oron, Y.

1988-05-01

71

Elevation of cyclic AMP decreases phosphoinositide turnover and inhibits thrombin-induced secretion in human platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in platelets inhibits agonist-induced, G protein-mediated responses and activation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) by ill-defined mechanism(s). Signal transduction steps downstream of PLC are inhibited by elevated cAMP, suggesting an inhibitory effect of cAMP, via protein kinase A, on PLC. In [32P]i-prelabeled platelets, forskolin increased intracellular cAMP (104 nmol\\/1011 cells at 10?5 M forskolin) and

Anita Ryningen; Baard Olav Jensen; Holm Holmsen

1998-01-01

72

Role of ecdysone, pupariation factors, and cyclic AMP in formation and tanning of the puparium of the fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata  

PubMed Central

Two pupariation factors, anterior retraction factor (ARF) and puparium tanning factor (PTF), are absent from the hemolymph of larvae at the time of tanning accelerated by ARF/PTF, cyclic AMP, or dopamine. ARF and PTF are not involved in derepression of dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase, aromatic L-amino-acid carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.28) synthesis initiated by ecdysone. Tanning is entirely inhibited by injection of two transcriptional inhibitors, actinomycin and BrdUrd, and two translational inhibitors, puromycin and cycloheximide. Retraction activity is more severely inhibited by the transcriptional than by the translational inhibitors. A tanning response is initiated by cyclic AMP in the presence of the transcriptional but not the translational inhibitors. Dihydric tanning substances (dopa, dopamine) initiate tanning in the presence of both types of inhibitors. Release of ARF and PTF from the central nervous system is inhibited by the four inhibitors. ARF totally reverses the inhibitory effects on retraction, whereas PTF does not reverse inhibition of tanning. These data are interpreted to mean that PTF is concerned with the regulation of two components of the tanning response: (i) acceleration of synthesis of a particular protein (associated with the tyrosine hydroxylation complex), and (ii) activation via cyclic AMP of a component of the tyrosine hydroxylating system. PMID:16592458

Seligman, Morris; Blechl, Ann; Blechl, James; Herman, Paul; Fraenkel, G.

1977-01-01

73

Cyclic AMP relaxes swine arterial smooth muscle predominantly by decreasing cell Ca2+ concentration.  

PubMed Central

1. Our objective was to evaluate the mechanism of cyclic AMP-dependent arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Cyclic AMP-dependent relaxation has been proposed to result from either (a) a decrease in intracellular [Ca2+] or (b) a decrease in [Ca2+] sensitivity of myosin light chain kinase by protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of myosin kinase. 2. We evaluated these proposed mechanisms by examining forskolin-induced changes in aequorin-estimated myoplasmic [Ca2+], [cyclic AMP], myosin phosphorylation and stress generation in agonist-stimulated or KCl-depolarized swine common carotid media tissues. 3. Forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, increased [cyclic AMP] and reduced [Ca2+], myosin phosphorylation and stress in tissues pre-contracted with phenylephrine or histamine. This relaxation was not associated with an alteration of the [Ca2+] sensitivity of phosphorylation, nor the dependence of stress on phosphorylation. 4. Forskolin pre-treatment attenuated, but did not abolish, agonist-induced increases in [Ca2+] and stress. 5. These results suggest that cyclic AMP-induced relaxation of the agonist-stimulated swine carotid media is primarily caused by cyclic AMP-mediated decreases in myoplasmic [Ca2+]. PMID:1654411

McDaniel, N L; Rembold, C M; Richard, H M; Murphy, R A

1991-01-01

74

AIB1 = amplified in breast cancer; AF-1 = activation function-1; AF-2 = activation function-2; cAMP = cyclic AMP; CBP = CREB-binding protein; DES = diethylstilbestrol; E2 = 17-estradiol; ER = estrogen receptor; ERE = estrogen response element; EGF = epide  

E-print Network

39 AIB1 = amplified in breast cancer; AF-1 = activation function-1; AF-2 = activation function-2; c; PKA = protein kinase A; SERM = selective estrogen receptor modulator. Available online http://breast-cancer, they have also been associated pathologically with an increased risk for breast and endometrial cancer [2

Brown, Myles

75

Cyclic AMP produced inside mitochondria regulates oxidative phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria constantly respond to changes in substrate availability and energy utilization to maintain cellular ATP supplies, and at the same time control reactive oxygen radical (ROS) production. Reversible phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins has been proposed to play a fundamental role in metabolic homeostasis, but very little is known about the signalling pathways involved. We show here that Protein Kinase A (PKA) regulates ATP production by phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, including subunits of cytochrome c oxidase. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) which activates mitochondrial PKA does not originate from cytoplasmic sources but is generated within mitochondria by the carbon dioxide/bicarbonate-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in response to metabolically generated carbon dioxide. We demonstrate for the first time the existence of a CO2-HCO3?-sAC-cAMP-PKA (mito-sAC) signalling cascade wholly contained within mitochondria, which serves as a metabolic sensor modulating ATP generation and ROS production in response to nutrient availability. PMID:19254571

Acin-Perez, Rebeca; Salazar, Eric; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.; Manfredi, Giovanni

2009-01-01

76

Cyclic AMP enhances progesterone action in human myometrial cells.  

PubMed

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) has been shown to promote progesterone and glucocorticoid action in a variety of cellular settings. In this study, we have used human myometrial cells to investigate whether cAMP potentiates the ability of progesterone to repress IL-1?-driven COX-2 expression. We found that forskolin enhanced progesterone-repression of IL-1?-driven COX-2 expression in association with delayed IL-1?-induced nuclear phospho-p65 entry and reduced NF-?B binding to the COX-2 promoter. Further, forskolin enhanced the progesterone-induced expression of FKBP5 and 11?HSD1, progesterone-driven activity of a progesterone response element (PRE) and progesterone receptor (PR)-B binding to a transfected PRE. In addition, forskolin treatment increased PR-B levels and reduced the PR-A:PR-B ratio while acutely decreasing the association between PR and nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR) and reducing NCoR levels after 6h. These findings are of importance in situations where enhancing progesterone activity is desirable, for example in the management of endometrial cancer, the promotion of endometrial receptivity or the maintenance of myometrial quiescence during pregnancy. PMID:24161591

Chen, Li; Lei, Kaiyu; Malawana, Johann; Yulia, Angela; Sooranna, Suren R; Bennett, Phillip R; Liang, Zhiqing; Grammatopoulos, Dimitri; Johnson, Mark R

2014-01-25

77

Effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, ouabain, and xanthine derivatives on crossbridge kinetics in rat cardiac muscle.  

PubMed

In a previous communication, we showed that beta-adrenergic stimulation of cardiac muscles was associated with an increase in the rate of cycling of crossbridges as measured by perturbation analysis in the frequency domain. In this analysis, the frequency at which dynamic stiffness is a minimum (fmin) is taken as a measure of the rate of crossbridge cycling. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the beta-adrenergic receptor-induced increase in crossbridge cycling rate is mediated by elevation of the intracellular level of cyclic AMP. The approach taken is to compare the effects on fmin in rat papillary muscles during Ba(2+)-activated contractures of 1) an agonist of cyclic AMP that can easily penetrate the cell, namely, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, 2) agents that block cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, namely, the xanthine derivatives isobutylmethylxanthine and caffeine, and 3) an inotropic agent that does not affect the intracellular level of cyclic AMP, namely, ouabain. Our results showed that dibutyryl cyclic AMP at a dose of 5 mM has the same actions as beta-adrenergic stimulation: it potentiated the isometric twitch force, reduced the time to peak tension and time to half relaxation, and shifted fmin by a factor of 1.8 +/- 0.1 (n = 5). Isobutylmethylxanthine at up to 1.1 mM also acted in the same manner, increasing fmin by a factor of 1.8 +/- 0.2 (n = 6), but ouabain, at a dose (0.03 mM) sufficient to potentiate twitch force by 40 +/- 2% (n = 4), was without effect on the time course of the twitch nor was fmin changed (n = 4). Our findings support the hypothesis that a beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated increase in crossbridge cycling rate is due to an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP level and illustrate the usefulness of the frequency domain analysis approach in the analysis of the mechanism of action of inotropic agents. PMID:1720712

Hoh, J F; Rossmanith, G H; Hamilton, A M

1991-03-01

78

Regulation of Repressible Acid Phosphatase by Cyclic Amp in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

PubMed Central

One of the cyr1 mutants (cyr1-2) in yeast produced low levels of adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP at 25° and was unable to derepress acid phosphatase. Addition of cyclic AMP to the cyr1-2 cultures elevated the level of repressible acid phosphatase activity. The bcy1 mutation, which suppresses the cyr1-2 mutation by allowing activity of a cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase, also allows acid phosphatase synthesis without restoring adenylate cyclase activity. The CYR3 mutant had structurally altered cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and was unable to derepress acid phosphatase. The cyr1 locus was different from pho2, pho4 and pho81, which were known to regulate acid phosphatase synthesis. Mutants carrying cyr1-2 and pho80, PHO81c, PHO82 or pho85 mutations, which confer constitutive synthesis of repressible acid phosphatase, produced acid phosphatase. The cyr1-2 mutant produced significantly low levels of invertase and ?- d-glucosidase. These results indicated that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase exerts its function in the synthesis of repressible acid phosphatase and other enzymes. PMID:6090271

Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Uno, Isao; Ishikawa, Tatsuo

1984-01-01

79

Genetic characterization of transactivation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 promoter: Binding of Tax to Tax-responsive element 1 is mediated by the cyclic AMP-responsive members of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors.  

PubMed Central

To achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of transactivation by Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax-responsive element 1 (TRE-1), we developed a genetic approach with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a yeast reporter strain containing the lacZ gene under the control of the CYC1 promoter associated with three copies of TRE-1. Expression of either the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) or CREB fused to the GAL4 activation domain (GAD) in this strain did not modify the expression of the reporter gene. Tax alone was also inactive. However, expression of the reporter gene was induced by coexpression of Tax and CREB. This effect was stronger with the GAD-CREB fusion protein. Analysis of different CREB mutants with this genetic system indicated that the C-terminal 92 amino acid residues, which include the basic domain and the leucine zipper, are necessary and sufficient to mediate transactivation by Tax. To identify cellular proteins binding to TRE-1 in a Tax-dependent manner, this strain was also used to screen a library of human cDNAs fused to GAD. Of five positive clones isolated from 0.75 x 10(6) yeast colonies, four were members of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF) family: CREB, two isoforms of the cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and ATF-1. Interestingly, these three proteins can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A and thus form a particular subgroup within the CREB/ATF family. Expression of ATF-2 in S. cerevisiae did not activate TRE-1 in the presence of Tax. This shows that in a eukaryotic nucleus, Tax specifically interacts with the basic domain-leucine zipper region of ATF-1, CREB, and CREM. The fifth clone identified in this screening corresponded to the Ku autoantigen p70 subunit. When fused to GAD, the C-terminal region of Ku was able to activate transcription via TRE-1 but this activation was not dependent on Tax. PMID:8628284

Bantignies, F; Rousset, R; Desbois, C; Jalinot, P

1996-01-01

80

Ca2+ channel currents in rat sensory neurones: interaction between guanine nucleotides, cyclic AMP and Ca2+ channel ligands.  

PubMed Central

1. The characteristics have been examined of the high threshold calcium channel current in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones recorded in the presence of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S; 200 microM in the patch pipette). This current, termed IBa, GTP gamma S, was slowly activating and showed little inactivation over 100 ms. 2. External application of forskolin (10 microM) to elevate internal cyclic AMP levels increased the amplitude of IBa, GTP gamma S whereas it had no effect on the control IBa. This cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKI; 25 microM). 3. The cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation induced enhancement of IBa, GTP gamma S was voltage dependent and either did not occur or was observed only transiently at a holding potential (VH) of -30 mV. The forskolin-stimulated enhancement seen at VH -80 mV was lost with a t1/2 of about 1 min when VH was depolarized to -30 mV. Cholera toxin pre-treatment also increased the amplitude of IBa, GTP gamma S at VH -80 mV but not at VH -30 mV. 4. The calcium channel antagonist (-)-202-791 (5 microM) increased the amplitude of IBa, GTP gamma S when applied at VH -80 mV, but either not, or only transiently, at VH -30 mV, as previously observed. This 'agonist' effect of (-)-202-791 was prevented by PKI and was occluded by prior enhancement of IBa, GTP gamma S with forskolin. (-)-202-791 did not increase cyclic AMP levels in DRG neurones. 5. The 'agonist' response of IBa, GTP gamma S to D600 (10 microM) was also occluded by application of forskolin (10 microM) in the patch pipette. Forskolin alone, applied in this manner, increased IBa, GTP gamma S to a similar extent to D600 applied alone. 6. The agonist effect of (+)-202-791 (5 microM) on IBa, GTP gamma S was not prevented by prior enhancement with forskolin, nor was it prevented by PKI. 7. In conclusion, internal GTP gamma S activates G proteins which may interact directly with calcium channels to influence the kinetics of activation and to reduce steady-state inactivation of the channels. There is also an indirect effect on the generation of second messengers such as cyclic AMP. It is likely that forskolin enhances IBa, GTP gamma S by increasing activated Gs coupling to adenylyl cyclase and increasing cyclic AMP generation. The mechanism of action of (-)-202-791 to enhance IBa, GTP gamma S also involves cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1653319

Dolphin, A C

1991-01-01

81

Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP may play opposing roles in influencing force of contraction in mammalian myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYCLIC AMP and cyclic GMP have been suggested to play opposing regulatory roles in several biological systems1. Supporting evidence for the yin yang hypothesis of opposing biological regulation has been obtained in sympathetic ganglia2,3 and pyramidal neurones in the rat cerebral cortex4. In the mammalian heart, the role of cyclic AMP in mediating the positive inotropic response to catecholamines was

Hermann Nawrath

1976-01-01

82

Epidermal chalone and cyclic AMP: an in vivo study.  

PubMed

Water extracts of skin contain two factors that inhibit epidermal cell proliferation: one substance inhibits epidermal cells in the G2 phase (the epidermal G2 inhibitor), and another inhibits the transit of cells from the G1 phase into the S phase (the epidermal G1 inhibitor). Pretreatment of mice with a beta-receptor antagonist (propranolol) abolished the activity of the G2 inhibitor but not that of the G1 inhibitor. After pretreatment with both propranolol and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (caffine)the G2 inhibitor had full effect. Cafine alone had a moderately inhibitory effect on epidermal G2 cells and enhanced the depressing effect of the G1 inhibitor on epidermal DNA synthesis. AMP level in epidermis to be active. Cyclic AMP is probably also involved in the regulation of the rate of transit of epidermal G1 cells into the S phase but the epidermal cyclic AMP level seems not to be so critical for the efficacy of the epidermal G2 inhibitor in epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:162919

Elgjo, K

1975-01-01

83

Characterization of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases in Leishmania mexicana and purification of a soluble form  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in Leishmania mexicana is mainly located (>95%) in the soluble fraction of the cell. The intact parasite, as well as plasma membranes, showed PDE activity, probably indicating that at least part of the activity in the particulate fraction resides on the parasite cell surface, with its catalytic domain facing the extracellular moiety. For the

Ana Rascón; Mar??a Eugenia Viloria; Loretta De-Chiara; Mar??a Eugenia Dubra

2000-01-01

84

H89, an inhibitor of PKA and MSK, inhibits cyclicAMP response element binding protein-mediated MAPK phosphatase-1 induction by lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates the production of inflammatory cytokines and the amplification of immune responses via\\u000a MAPK pathways. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) feedback-regulate the activities of MAPKs to prevent excessive immunological functions.\\u000a H89 has been used as an inhibitor of the protein kinase A (PKA) and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK) pathways.\\u000a In view of the potential roles of PKA and

Il Je Cho; Na Ri Woo; In Chul Shin; Sang Geon Kim

2009-01-01

85

Structural and Functional Conservation of Vertebrate Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Genes: Evidence for a Critical Role for a Conserved Cyclic AMP Response Element  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a central role in neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune, and behavioral re- sponses to stressors. We analyzed the proximal promoters of two Xenopus laevis CRF genes and found them to be remark- ably conserved with mammalian CRF genes. We found several conserved cis elements in the frog CRF genes including a cAMP response element (CRE), activator protein 1

Meng Yao; Mary Stenzel-Poore; Robert J. Denver

2007-01-01

86

Frequency dependence of cyclic AMP in mammalian myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH there is now good evidence that cyclic AMP is a mediator of positive inotropic effects of catecholamines in the heart, the details of the metabolism of this nucleotide in the intact myocardial cells are still unknown. It has been shown that the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP oscillates during each contraction cycle of the frog heart1,2. But little information

M. Endoh; O. E. Brodde; D. Reinhardt; H. J. Schümann

1976-01-01

87

21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....

2012-04-01

88

21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....

2014-04-01

89

21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....

2013-04-01

90

21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....

2011-04-01

91

21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....

2010-04-01

92

?2-Adrenoceptor-mediated contractions of the porcine isolated ear artery: evidence for a cyclic AMP-dependent and a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the conditions under which the ?2-adrenoceptor agonist UK14304 produces vasoconstriction in the porcine isolated ear artery. UK14304 (0.3??M) produced a small contraction of porcine isolated ear arteries which was 7.8±3.3% of the response to 60?mM KC1. Similar sized contractions were obtained after precontraction with either 30?nM angiotensin II, or 0.1??M U46619 (8.2±1.8% and 10.2±2.6% of 60?mM KC1 response, respectively). However, an enhanced ?2-adrenoceptor response was uncovered if the tissue was precontracted with U46619, and relaxed back to baseline with 1–2??M forskolin before the addition of UK14304 (46.9±9.6% of 60?mM KC1 response). The enhanced responses to UK14304 in the presence of U46619 and forskolin were not inhibited by the ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.1??M), but were inhibited by the ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (1??M), indicating that the enhanced responses were mediated via postjunctional ?2-adrenoceptors. In the presence of 0.1??M U46619 and 1?mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), 1??M forskolin produced an increase in [3H]-cyclic AMP levels in porcine isolated ear arteries. Addition of 0.3??M UK14304 prevented this increase. The enhanced UK14304 response was dependent upon the agent used to relax the tissue. After relaxation of ear arteries precontracted with 10?nM U46619 and relaxed with forskolin the UK14304 response was 46.9±9.6% of the 60?mM KC1 response, and after relaxation with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) the response was 24.8±3.3%. However, after relaxation of the tissue with levcromakalim the UK14304 response was only 8.2±1.7%, which was not different from the control response in the same tissues (12.2±5.6%). An enhanced contraction was also obtained after relaxation of the tissue with the cyclic AMP analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP (23.2±1.3%) indicating that at least part of the enhanced response to UK14304 is independent of the ability of the agonist to inhibit cyclic AMP production. Relaxation of U46619 contracted ear arteries with SNP could be inhibited by the NO-sensitive guanylyl-cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) indicating that production of cyclic GMP is necessary for the relaxant effect of SNP. However, ODQ had no effect on the relaxation of tissue by forskolin, suggesting that this compound does not act via production of cyclic GMP. Biochemical studies showed that while forskolin increases the levels of cyclic AMP in the tissues, SNP had no effect on the levels of this cyclic nucleotide. In conclusion, enhanced contractions to the ?2-adrenoceptor agonist UK14304 can be uncovered in porcine isolated ear arteries by precontracting the tissue with U46619, followed by relaxation back to baseline with forskolin, SNP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP before addition of UK14304. There was a greater contractile response to UK14304 after relaxation with forskolin than with SNP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, suggesting that cyclic AMP-dependent and- independent mechanisms are involved in the enhancement of the UK14304 response. PMID:9720780

Roberts, R E; Tomlinson, A E; Kendall, D A; Wilson, V G

1998-01-01

93

Repeated cocaine administration increases N-methyl-d-aspartate NR1 subunit, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and glutamate release in the rat dorsal striatum.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the phosphorylation state of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) NR1 subunit on serine residues 896 (Ser896) and 897 (Ser897), the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) after repeated exposure to cocaine (20 mg/kg, once daily for 9 days) in the dorsal striatum of rats. The real-time changes of glutamate concentration evoked by repeated cocaine injections were examined using a glutamate biosensor in order to evaluate the correlation between glutamate concentration and the change in these phosphoproteins. The results of this study showed that the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated (p)NMDA NR1 subunit at Ser896 and Ser897 as well as pERK1/2, but not pCREB, in the dorsal striatum was increased at 30 min and then returned to basal levels 4 h after repeated cocaine injections. Similarly, glutamate responses evoked by repeated cocaine injections were also increased 30 min after repeated cocaine injections for 3 days and were prolonged by the 9th day of treatment. However, the glutamate responses were not detected at 4 h after repeated cocaine injections for 5 days. In addition, the elevated immunoreactivity of the phosphoproteins 2 h after repeated cocaine injections was attenuated by the blockade of dopamine D1 receptors and NMDA receptors with the SCH23390 or MK801 antagonists, respectively. These findings suggest that glutamate release and dopamine D1 and NMDA receptor stimulation after repeated exposure to cocaine are associated with NMDA NR1 subunit, ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation in the dorsal striatum. PMID:18598691

Lee, Dong Kun; Bian, Shengjie; Rahman, Md Aminur; Shim, Yoon-Bo; Shim, Insop; Choe, Eun Sang

2008-08-20

94

Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram on behavior depend on cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-mediated neurogenesis in the hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP (cAMP), increases phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) and hippocampal neurogenesis, and produces antidepressant-like effects on behavior; however, causal links among these have not been established. In the present study, chronic administration of rolipram produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects on behavior in mice. It also increased cAMP and pCREB levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but increased Sox2, a marker for mitotic progenitor cells, only in the hippocampus. Chronic rolipram treatment also increased hippocampal neurogenesis, as evidenced by increased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Methylazoxymethanol (MAM), which is toxic to proliferating cells, reversed rolipram-induced increases in BrdU-positive cells and pCREB in the hippocampus and partially blocked its behavioral effects. Approximately 84% of BrdU-positive cells became newborn neurons, 93% of which co-expressed pCREB; these proportions were not altered by rolipram or MAM, either alone or in combination. Finally, three weeks following the end of MAM treatment, when neurogenesis was no longer inhibited, rolipram again increased hippocampal pCREB, with its antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects resumed. Overall, the present results suggest that rolipram produces its effects on behavior in a manner that at least partially depends on its neurogenic action in the hippocampus, targeting mitotic progenitor cells rather than newborn or mature neurons; cAMP/CREB signaling in hippocampal newborn neurons is critical for neurogenesis and contributes to the behavioral effects of rolipram. PMID:19516250

Li, Yun-Feng; Huang, Ying; Amsdell, Simon L.; Xiao, Lan; O'Donnell, James M.; Zhang, Han-Ting

2009-01-01

95

Synthesis and properties of some cyclic AMP alkyl phosphotriesters  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP was converted to its phosphotriesters according to the classical approach of phosphate activation with a sulfonyl chloride, followed by esterification with an alcohol. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and cetyl triesters were prepared, and some of their physical-chemical properties determined. Alkaline hydrolysis of these alkyl phosphotriesters resulted predominantly in ring opening. On the other hand, nucleophilic attack by thiourea led to the formation of cAMP as the main product. The conclusion can be drawn from these results that cAMP phosphotriesters could serve as suitable storage forms of cAMP, and cyclic triesters may be the best vehicle of transporting nucleotides through biological membranes. PMID:4375277

Gohil, R.N.; Gillen, R.G.; Nagyvary, J.

1974-01-01

96

Cross Talk between Adrenergic and Bradykinin B2 Receptors Results in Cooperative Regulation of Cyclic AMP Accumulation and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Costimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) may result in cross talk interactions between their downstream signaling pathways. Stimulation of GPCRs may also lead to cross talk regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and thereby to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In COS-7 cells, we investigated the interactions between two particular mitogenic receptor pathways, the endogenously expressed -adrenergic receptor (-AR)

SABINE HANKE; BERND NURNBERG; DETLEF H. GROLL; CLAUS LIEBMANN

2001-01-01

97

Evidence for the primary role for 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(v) channels in beta(3)-adrenoceptor-mediated, cyclic AMP-independent relaxations of guinea-pig gastrointestinal smooth muscles.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal smooth muscles exhibit relaxation in response to the stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors with catecholamines. Subtypes of beta-adrenoceptors which mediate catecholamine-elicited relaxations in gastrointestinal smooth muscles are predominantly atypical beta-adrenoceptors including beta(3)-adrenoceptors. Gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxations mediated via beta(3)-adrenoceptors can occur independently of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) elevation. One of the mechanisms responsible for cyclic AMP-independent smooth muscle relaxation following activation of G(s) protein-coupled receptors could be activation of voltage-gated K(+) channels. In the present study, possible contribution of two types of K(+) (large-conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive and voltage-gated K(+), BK(Ca); voltage-gated, K(v)) channels to beta(3)-adrenoceptor-mediated, cyclic AMP-independent relaxations was compared in gastric fundus and duodenum smooth muscles isolated from the guinea-pig. In these gastrointestinal smooth muscles, three catecholamines ((-)-isoprenaline, (-)-noradrenaline and (-)-adrenaline) and two beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonists ((R(*), R(*))-(+/-)-4-[2-[(2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl]phenoxyacetic acid sodium (BRL37344) and (+/-)-[4-[3-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropoxy] -1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one] hydrochloride ((+/-)-CGP12177A)) elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation in the presence of beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists. The relaxations were unaffected by an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, SQ-22536 (100 microM), which indicates their characteristic of cyclic AMP-independency. On the other hand, the SQ-22536-resistant, beta(3)-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxant components were potently attenuated when the tone was raised using high-KCl (80 mM) or in the presence of a K(v) channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1-3 mM). Iberiotoxin (100 nM), a selective blocker of BK(Ca) channels which significantly contribute to cyclic AMP-independent vascular smooth muscle relaxations induced through activation of G(s) protein-coupled receptors, did not apparently show any inhibitory effects on SQ-22536-resistant, beta(3)-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxations in these gastrointestinal smooth muscles. The present results indicate that 4-AP-sensitive K(v) channels play a primary role in beta(3)-adrenoceptor-mediated, cyclic AMP-independent relaxations of guinea-pig gastrointestinal smooth muscles. In these smooth muscles, BK(Ca) channels seem to apparently contribute insignificantly to cyclic AMP-independent relaxations following stimulation of beta(3)-type of adrenoceptors. PMID:12595962

Horinouchi, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yoshio; Koike, Katsuo

2003-02-01

98

Role of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase in catabolite inactivation of the glucose and galactose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The derepressed high-affinity glucose transport system and the induced galactose transport system are catabolite inactivated when cells with these transport systems are incubated with glucose. The role of the cyclic AMP cascade in the catabolite inactivation of these transport systems was shown by using mutants affected in the activity of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK). In tpk1(w) mutants with reduced cAPK activity, the sugar transport systems were expressed but were not catabolite inactivated. In bcy1 mutants with unbridled cAPK activity resulting from a defective regulatory subunit, the transport systems were absent or present at low levels. PMID:2542229

Ramos, J; Cirillo, V P

1989-06-01

99

Age-related effects of oxidative metabolism and cyclic AMP signaling on neutrophil apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous as well as Fas-induced polymorphonuclear cell apoptosis is unchanged in the elderly. However, a weak responsiveness to antiapoptotic signals elicited by proinflammatory molecules has been reported in neutrophils isolated from aged humans. To gain insight into this field, here we have evaluated the role of oxidative metabolism and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling on age-related neutrophil apoptotic cell death. Results

Cosimo Tortorella; Giuseppina Piazzolla; Felice Spaccavento; Emilio Jirillo; Salvatore Antonaci

1999-01-01

100

Mlc is a transcriptional activator with a key role in integrating cyclic AMP receptor protein and integration host factor regulation of leukotoxin RNA synthesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, synthesizes leukotoxin (LtxA), a protein that helps the bacterium evade the host immune response. Transcription of the ltxA operon is induced during anaerobic growth. The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) indirectly increases ltxA expression...

101

Sodium pump stimulation by oxytocin and cyclic AMP in the isolated epithelium of the frog skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Activity of the Na pump was judged by Na extrusion in epithelial cells loaded with Na by a previous incubation in K-free solutions\\u000a in the cold. Oxytocin significantly stimulated Na extrusion either at normal (3.5 mM) or low (0.25 mM) K in the medium. It\\u000a was stimulated as well by cyclic AMP. Maximal concentrations of either agent caused about the

Jorge Aceves

1977-01-01

102

Opposite effects of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP on Ca2+ current in single heart cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow inward Ca2+ current, ICa, is fundamental in the initiation of cardiac contraction and neurohormonal regulation of cardiac function1. It is increased by beta-adrenergic agonists, which stimulate synthesis of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation2-4. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine reduces ICa5-7 by an unknown mechanism8,9. There is strong evidence that acetylcholine reduces ICa by decreasing adenylate cyclase activity7, but cGMP

H. Criss Hartzell; Rodolphe Fischmeister

1986-01-01

103

The Transcriptional Activity of NF-?B Is Regulated by the I?B-Associated PKAc Subunit through a Cyclic AMP–Independent Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulation of cells with inducers of NF-?B such as LPS and IL-1 leads to the degradation of I?B-? and I?B-? proteins and translocation of NF-?B to the nucleus. We now demonstrate that, besides the physical partitioning of inactive NF-?B to the cytosol, the transcriptional activity of NF-?B is regulated through phosphorylation of NF-?B p65 by protein kinase A (PKA). The

Haihong Zhong; Helena SuYang; Hediye Erdjument-Bromage; Paul Tempst; Sankar Ghosh

1997-01-01

104

Spatial encoding of cyclic AMP signaling specificity by GPCR endocytosis.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to signal via cyclic AMP (cAMP) production at the plasma membrane, but it is now clear that various GPCRs also signal after internalization. Apart from its temporal impact through prolonging the cellular response, we wondered whether the endosome-initiated signal encodes any discrete spatial information. Using the ?2-adrenoceptor (?2-AR) as a model, we show that endocytosis is required for the full repertoire of downstream cAMP-dependent transcriptional control. Next, we describe an orthogonal optogenetic approach to definitively establish that the location of cAMP production is indeed the critical variable determining the transcriptional response. Finally, our results suggest that this spatial encoding scheme helps cells functionally discriminate chemically distinct ?2-AR ligands according to differences in their ability to promote receptor endocytosis. These findings reveal a discrete principle for achieving cellular signaling specificity based on endosome-mediated spatial encoding of intracellular second messenger production and 'location-aware' downstream transcriptional control. PMID:25362359

Tsvetanova, Nikoleta G; von Zastrow, Mark

2014-12-01

105

The Cyclic AMP Phenotype of Fragile X and Autism  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger involved in many processes including mnemonic processing and anxiety. Memory deficits and anxiety are noted in the phenotype of fragile X (FX), the most common heritable cause of mental retardation and autism. Here we review reported observations of altered cAMP cascade function in FX and autism. Cyclic AMP is a potentially useful biochemical marker to distinguish autism comorbid with FX from autism per se and the cAMP cascade may be a viable therapeutic target for both FX and autism. PMID:18601949

Kelley, Daniel J; Bhattacharyya, Anita; Lahvis, Garet P; Yin, Jerry CP; Malter, Jim; Davidson, Richard J

2008-01-01

106

Farnesol and Cyclic AMP Signaling Effects on the Hypha-to-Yeast Transition in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans, a fungal pathogen of humans, regulates its morphology in response to many environmental cues and this morphological plasticity contributes to virulence. Farnesol, an autoregulatory molecule produced by C. albicans, inhibits the induction of hyphal growth by inhibiting adenylate cyclase (Cyr1). The role of farnesol and Cyr1 in controlling the maintenance of hyphal growth has been less clear. Here, we demonstrate that preformed hyphae transition to growth as yeast in response to farnesol and that strains with increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling exhibit more resistance to farnesol. Exogenous farnesol did not induce the hypha-to-yeast transition in mutants lacking the Tup1 or Nrg1 transcriptional repressors in embedded conditions. Although body temperature is not required for embedded hyphal growth, we found that the effect of farnesol on the hypha-to-yeast transition varies inversely with temperature. Our model of Cyr1 activity being required for filamentation is also supported by our liquid assay data, which show increased yeast formation when preformed filaments are treated with farnesol. Together, these data suggest that farnesol can modulate morphology in preformed hyphal cells and that the repression of hyphal growth maintenance likely occurs through the inhibition of cAMP signaling. PMID:22886999

Lindsay, Allia K.; Deveau, Aurélie; Piispanen, Amy E.

2012-01-01

107

Development of new wound dressing composed of spongy collagen sheet containing dibutyryl cyclic AMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al though cyclic AMP has been considered to regulate cell proliferation, the mechanism of this function is largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that cyclic AMP promotes the proliferation of skin cells in a dose-dependent manner. An ointment containing dibutyryl cyclic AMP has been used in the treatment of skin ulcers and found to be effective in promoting tissue repair. To

Hirotatsu Shibata; Nobuyuki Shioya; Yoshimitsu Kuroyanagi

1997-01-01

108

Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Dependent Repression of Heat-Labile Enterotoxin ?  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is a major cause of acute diarrheal illness worldwide and is responsible for high infant and child mortality rates in developing nations. Two types of enterotoxins, one heat labile and the other heat stable, are known to cause diarrhea. The expression of soluble heat-labile toxin is subject to catabolite (glucose) activation, and three binding sites for cAMP receptor protein (CRP or CAP) were identified upstream and within the toxin promoter by DNase I footprinting. One CRP operator is centered at ?31.5, thus encompassing the promoter's ?35 hexamer. Potassium permanganate footprinting revealed that the occupancy of this operator prevents RNA polymerase from forming an open complex in vitro. However, the operator centered at ?31.5 is not sufficient for full repression in vivo because the deletion of the other two CRP binding sites partially relieved the CRP-dependent repression of the heat-labile toxin promoter. In contrast to heat-labile toxin, CRP positively regulates the expression of heat-stable toxin. Thus, the conditions for the optimal expression of one enterotoxin limit the expression of the other. Since glucose inhibits the activity of CRP by suppressing the pathogen's synthesis of cyclic AMP (cAMP), the concentration of glucose in the lumen of the small intestine may determine which enterotoxin is maximally expressed. In addition, our results suggest that the host may also modulate enterotoxin expression because cells intoxicated with heat-labile toxin overproduce and release cAMP. PMID:19075028

Bodero, Maria D.; Munson, George P.

2009-01-01

109

Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Yersinia pestis Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Crp and Impact on Virulence  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) is a transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of numerous bacterial genes, usually in response to environmental conditions and particularly by sensing the availability of carbon. In the plague pathogen Yersinia pestis, Crp regulates the expression of multiple virulence factors, including components of the type III secretion system and the plasminogen activator protease Pla. The regulation of Crp itself, however, is distinctly different from that found in the well-studied Escherichia coli system. Here, we show that at physiological temperatures, the synthesis of Crp in Y. pestis is positively regulated at the posttranscriptional level. The loss of the small RNA chaperone Hfq results in decreased Crp protein levels but not in steady-state Crp transcript levels, and this regulatory effect occurs within the 5? untranslated region (UTR) of the Crp mRNA. The posttranscriptional activation of Crp synthesis is required for the expression of pla, and decoupling crp from Hfq through the use of an exogenously controlled promoter and 5? UTR increases Pla protein levels as well as partially rescues the growth defect associated with the loss of Hfq. Finally, we show that both Hfq and the posttranscriptional regulation of Crp contribute to the virulence of Y. pestis during pneumonic plague. The Hfq-dependent, posttranscriptional regulation of Crp may be specific to Yersinia species, and thus our data help explain the dramatic growth and virulence defects associated with the loss of Hfq in Y. pestis. PMID:24520064

Lathem, Wyndham W.; Schroeder, Jay A.; Bellows, Lauren E.; Ritzert, Jeremy T.; Koo, Jovanka T.; Price, Paul A.; Caulfield, Adam J.; Goldman, William E.

2014-01-01

110

SHORT COMMUNICATION The identification of novel cyclic AMP-dependent  

E-print Network

by Robin Leatherbarrow A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) localize cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. A computational model was created to identify AKAPs that bind to the docking/dimerization domain of the RII alpha/D) domain, and the D/D domain provides an interaction surface for A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs

Wang, Wei

111

Cyclic AMP Diffusion Coefficient in Frog Olfactory Cilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the intracellular messengers that mediate odorant signal transduction in vertebrate olfactory cilia. Therefore, the diffusion coefficient of cAMP in olfactory cilia is an important factor in the transduction of the odorous signal. We have employed the excised cilium preparation from the grass frog (Rana pipiens) to measure the cAMP diffusion coefficient. In this preparation

Chunhe Chen; Tadashi Nakamura; Yiannis Koutalos

1999-01-01

112

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

In response to nitrogen starvation, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae differentiate to a filamentous growth form known as pseudohyphal differentiation. Filamentous growth is regulated by elements of the pheromone mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and a second signaling cascade involving the receptor Gpr1, the Galpha protein Gpa2, Ras2, and cyclic AMP (cAMP). We show here that the Gpr1-Gpa2-cAMP pathway signals via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), to regulate pseudohyphal differentiation. Activation of PKA by mutation of the regulatory subunit Bcy1 enhances filamentous growth. Mutation and overexpression of the PKA catalytic subunits reveal that the Tpk2 catalytic subunit activates filamentous growth, whereas the Tpk1 and Tpk3 catalytic subunits inhibit filamentous growth. The PKA pathway regulates unipolar budding and agar invasion, whereas the MAP kinase cascade regulates cell elongation and invasion. Epistasis analysis supports a model in which PKA functions downstream of the Gpr1 receptor and the Gpa2 and Ras2 G proteins. Activation of filamentous growth by PKA does not require the transcription factors Ste12 and Tec1 of the MAP kinase cascade, Phd1, or the PKA targets Msn2 and Msn4. PKA signals pseudohyphal growth, in part, by regulating Flo8-dependent expression of the cell surface flocculin Flo11. In summary, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase plays an intimate positive and negative role in regulating filamentous growth, and these findings may provide insight into the roles of PKA in mating, morphogenesis, and virulence in other yeasts and pathogenic fungi. PMID:10373537

Pan, X; Heitman, J

1999-07-01

113

Adriamycin inhibits PTH-mediated but not PGE 2 -mediated stimulation of cyclic AMP formation in isolated bone cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have examined the effect of adriamycin, an anthracycline antibiotic which modifies plasma membrane functions, on the cyclic\\u000a AMP response to PTH and PGE2 in isolated osteoblastlike cells. Adriamycin blunted the increment in bone cell cyclic AMP caused by exposure to PTH. This\\u000a effect appeared rapidly (within 3 min after bone cells were exposed to adriamycin) and disappeared soon after

Gail Kohler; Victor Shen; William A. Peck

1984-01-01

114

Age-related effects of oxidative metabolism and cyclic AMP signaling on neutrophil apoptosis.  

PubMed

Spontaneous as well as Fas-induced polymorphonuclear cell apoptosis is unchanged in the elderly. However, a weak responsiveness to antiapoptotic signals elicited by proinflammatory molecules has been reported in neutrophils isolated from aged humans. To gain insight into this field, here we have evaluated the role of oxidative metabolism and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling on age-related neutrophil apoptotic cell death. Results show that although superoxide dismutase (SOD), added exogenously to cell cultures, is able to prolong neutrophil survival in both young and aged individuals, high amounts of the enzyme are further effective in cell cultures of young donors only. Notably, the addition of catalase gives rise to a more striking, yet comparable, inhibition of neutrophil-programmed cell death in both groups of subjects. Furthermore, even low amounts of catalase are enough to restore a normal apoptotic outcome in SOD-treated cell cultures of old donors. Unlike the oxidative metabolism, cAMP signaling activation does not reveal any difference in the apoptotic response of neutrophils isolated from young and aged donors. Thus, supplementation of cell cultures with prostaglandin E2, dibutyryl cAMP or, to a lesser degree, forskolin results in a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA cleavage product appearance in both groups of subjects. The data outline that an impairment of neutrophil antioxidant shield, leading to an augmented cell oxidative load, is likely to occur as a feature of age. This may increase the apoptotic rate of stimulated cells, which may in turn account for the increased susceptibility of elderly individuals to life-threatening infections. PMID:10576248

Tortorella, C; Piazzolla, G; Spaccavento, F; Jirillo, E; Antonaci, S

1999-10-22

115

Sustained signalling by PTH modulates IP3 accumulation and IP3 receptors through cyclic AMP junctions  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates adenylyl cyclase through type 1 PTH receptors (PTH1R) and potentiates the Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol, which stimulates formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). We confirmed that in HEK cells expressing PTH1R, acute stimulation with PTH(1-34) potentiated carbachol-evoked Ca2+ release. This was mediated by locally delivered cyclic AMP (cAMP), but unaffected by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), exchange proteins activated by cAMP, cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) or substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) causes internalization of PTH1R–adenylyl cyclase signalling complexes, but the consequences for delivery of cAMP to IP3R within cAMP signalling junctions are unknown. Here, we show that sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) or with PTH analogues that do not evoke receptor internalization reduced the potentiated Ca2+ signals and attenuated carbachol-evoked increases in cytosolic IP3. Similar results were obtained after sustained stimulation with NKH477 to directly activate adenylyl cyclase, or with the membrane-permeant analogue of cAMP, 8-Br-cAMP. These responses were independent of PKA and unaffected by substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. During prolonged stimulation with PTH(1-34), hyperactive cAMP signalling junctions, within which cAMP is delivered directly and at saturating concentrations to its targets, mediate sensitization of IP3R and a more slowly developing inhibition of IP3 accumulation. PMID:25431134

Meena, Abha; Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.

2015-01-01

116

Regulation by secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and somatostatin of cyclic AMP accumulation in cultured brain cells.  

PubMed Central

Secretin stimulates the accumulation of cyclic AMP (half maximally stimulating concentration: 10-20 nM) in cultured mouse brain cells mainly consisting of glioblasts. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is much less potent in raising the level of cyclic AMP in these cultures. The effect of secretin but not that of VIP is inhibited by secretin-(5-27), a synthetic antagonist of secretin. Stimulation of the adrenergic alpha-receptors and the adenosine A1-receptors present on the cells attenuates the increase in cyclic AMP evoked by secretin and VIP. Somatostatin at low concentrations inhibits the accumulation of cyclic AMP (half-maximally inhibitory concentration: 3 nM), in the absence or presence of secretin, VIP, or isoproterenol. The results suggest that secretin might regulate the concentration of cyclic AMP in brain and provoke the question of a possible involvement of glial cells in the action of peptide hormones in the brain. PMID:6109286

van Calker, D; Müller, M; Hamprecht, B

1980-01-01

117

The effects of hypophysectomy upon the endogenous levels of cyclic AMP during forelimb regeneration of adult newts ( Notophthalmus viridescens )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic AMP is believed to play a role in limb regeneration. Using high pressure liquid chromatography, endogenous levels of cyclic AMP in regenerating tissues of normal and of hypophysectomized adult newts were estimated. In normally regenerating limbs, cyclic AMP levels were depressed 7 days after amputation and were elevated at 14 and 21 days. In contrast, limb tissues of hypophysectomized

Raymond E. Sicard

1975-01-01

119

Mechanism of the age-related decrease of epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in isolated rat ad i pocytes: p-ad renerg ic receptor bind i ng , adenylate cyclase activity, and cyclic AMP accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

adrenergic binding ( (3H)dihydroalprenolo1), adenylate cyclase activity, and cAMP accumulation were measured in adipocytes to investigate whether the mech- anism of decreased hormone-sensitive lipolytic response with age was mediated through membrane-associated events. The dose of epinephrine required for half maximal stimulation of glycerol release (ED,,) was significantly lower in 2-month-old rats (0.8 ? 0.2 pM) than in mature (6- and

M. Dax; John S. Partilla; Robert I. Gregerman

120

Transcriptional Regulation of Vibrio cholerae Hemagglutinin/Protease by the Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and RpoS  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae secretes a Zn-dependent metalloprotease, hemagglutinin/protease (HA/protease), which is encoded by hapA and displays a broad range of potentially pathogenic activities. Production of HA/protease requires transcriptional activation by the quorum-sensing regulator HapR. In this study we demonstrate that transcription of hapA is growth phase dependent and specifically activated in the deceleration and stationary growth phases. Addition of glucose in these phases repressed hapA transcription by inducing V. cholerae to resume exponential growth, which in turn diminished the expression of a rpoS-lacZ transcriptional fusion. Contrary to a previous observation, we demonstrate that transcription of hapA requires the rpoS-encoded ?s factor. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) strongly enhanced hapA transcription in the deceleration phase. Analysis of rpoS and hapR mRNA in isogenic CRP+ and CRP? strains suggested that CRP enhances the transcription of rpoS and hapR. Analysis of strains containing hapR-lacZ and hapA-lacZ fusions confirmed that hapA is transcribed in response to concurrent quorum-sensing and nutrient limitation stimuli. Mutations inactivating the stringent response regulator RelA and the HapR-controlled AphA regulator did not affect HA/protease expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift experiments showed that pure cAMP-CRP and HapR alone do not bind the hapA promoter. This result suggests that HapR activation of hapA differs from its interaction with the aphA promoter and could involve additional factors. PMID:15375117

Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.

2004-01-01

121

Gating by Cyclic AMP: Expanded Role for an Old Signaling Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The intracellular signal transduction pathway that utilizes cyclic AMP as a key messenger was the first such pathway to be described and has served as a model for many other transducing systems. Now Iyengar illustrates how this classic pathway has yet another function--in a number of different biological systems, the cyclic AMP pathway appears to gate (either negatively or positively) other signal transduction pathways.

Ravi Iyengar (City University of New York;Department of Pharmacology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine)

1996-01-26

122

Modulation of 3',5'-cyclic AMP homeostasis in human platelets by coffee and individual coffee constituents.  

PubMed

3',5'-Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most important second messengers in mammalian cells, mediating a multitude of diverse cellular signalling responses. Its homeostasis is primarily regulated by adenylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases (PDE), the activities of which are partially dependent on the downstream events of adenosine receptor signalling. The present study was conducted to determine whether coffee constituents other than caffeine can influence the homeostasis of intracellular cAMP in vitro and in vivo by evaluating the effects of selected constituents present in coffee, coffee brews and coffee extracts on platelet PDE activity. In addition, to evaluate the potential effects of these constituents on platelet cAMP concentrations and PDE activity in humans, a 7-week pilot intervention study with eight subjects was conducted. The subjects consumed a regular commercial coffee and a low-caffeine coffee at a rate of 750 ml/d for 2 weeks each. The in vivo results revealed a highly significant inhibition of PDE activity (P< 0·001) after coffee intervention that was not directly dependent on the caffeine content of coffee. Although our in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that caffeine plays some role in the modulation of platelet cAMP status, other natural and roasting-associated compounds such as pyrazines and other currently unidentified species also appear to contribute significantly. In conclusion, moderate consumption of coffee can modulate platelet PDE activity and cAMP concentrations in humans, which may contribute to the putative beneficial health effects of coffee. Further detailed mechanistic investigations will be required to substantiate these beneficial effects and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25247601

Montoya, Gina A; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eirich, Marion; Erk, Thomas; Baum, Matthias; Habermeyer, Michael; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

2014-11-14

123

Regulation of the sodium/potassium/chloride cotransporter by calcium and cyclic AMP in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

The activity of the Na/K/Cl cotransporter in smooth muscle cells cultured from rat aorta was assayed by measuring the initial rate of furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx or efflux. Five uM furosemide or 0.2 uM bumetanide inhibited influx by 50%. Furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx depended on the presence of all 3 ions in the external medium. The dependence on Na and K was hyperbolic with apparent Km values of 45 and 5 mM, respectively. The dependence on Cl was sigmoidal. Assuming a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 for Na:K:Cl, a Km for Cl of 60 mM was obtained from a Hofstee plot of the data. Rapidly growing cells had 3 fold higher cotransport activity than quiescent cells. Angiotensin II (ANG) stimulated furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb efflux by 2 fold. An ANG receptor antagonist prevented ANG from increasing cotransport activity. Two calcium ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, increased cotransport activity by 2 fold. Phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on cotransport activity. Isoproterenol, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cholera toxin, or methylisobutylxanthine inhibited furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by 35 to 50%. From these findings they conclude that increasing cytoplasmic free calcium stimulates cotransport activity, whereas increasing cellular cyclic AMP inhibits the cotransporter.

Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.; Smith, J.B.

1987-05-01

124

Autoregulation of PhoP/PhoQ and Positive Regulation of the Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Cyclic AMP Complex by PhoP in Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis is one of the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. PhoP and cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) are global regulators of Y. pestis, and they control two distinct regulons that contain multiple virulence-related genes. The PhoP regulator and its cognate sensor PhoQ constitute a two-component regulatory system. The regulatory activity of CRP is triggered only by binding to its cofactor cAMP, which is synthesized from ATP by adenylyl cyclase (encoded by cyaA). However, the association between the two regulatory systems PhoP/PhoQ and CRP-cAMP is still not understood for Y. pestis. In the present work, the four consecutive genes YPO1635, phoP, phoQ, and YPO1632 were found to constitute an operon, YPO1635-phoPQ-YPO1632, transcribed as a single primary RNA, whereas the last three genes comprised another operon, phoPQ-YPO1632, transcribed with two adjacent transcriptional starts. Through direct PhoP-target promoter association, the transcription of these two operons was stimulated and repressed by PhoP, respectively; thus, both positive autoregulation and negative autoregulation of PhoP/PhoQ were detected. In addition, PhoP acted as a direct transcriptional activator of crp and cyaA. The translational/transcriptional start sites, promoter ?10 and ?35 elements, PhoP sites, and PhoP box-like sequences were determined for these PhoP-dependent genes, providing a map of the PhoP-target promoter interaction. The CRP and PhoP regulons have evolved to merge into a single regulatory cascade in Y. pestis because of the direct regulatory association between PhoP/PhoQ and CRP-cAMP. PMID:23264579

Zhang, Yiquan; Wang, Li; Han, Yanping; Yan, Yanfeng; Tan, Yafang; Zhou, Lei; Cui, Yujun; Du, Zongmin; Wang, Xiaoyi; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Huiying; Song, Yajun; Zhang, Pingping

2013-01-01

125

Tiotropium sustains the anti-inflammatory action of olodaterol via the cyclic AMP pathway.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts) of the airway wall respond to cholinergic stimulation by releasing pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines and may thus contribute to chronic inflammation of the lung. Here, we studied the anti-inflammatory potential of olodaterol, a long acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist, and tiotropium, a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist, and whether they interact at the level of the cyclic AMP dependent signaling pathway. Pulmonary fibroblasts of asthmatic (n = 9) and non-asthmatic (n = 8) subjects were stimulated with the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol and interleukin-1? (IL-1 beta) in presence or absence of tiotropium or olodaterol alone, or their combination. We also measured cAMP levels and phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). As single components, carbachol, olodaterol and tiotropium did not affect IL-6 and IL-8 release. Carbachol concentration-dependently enhanced the production of IL-1?-induced IL-6 and IL-8, which was blocked by the simultaneous addition of tiotropium. The combination of olodaterol plus tiotropium further reduced IL-6 and IL-8 release. Olodaterol induced cAMP and the phosphorylation of CREB, an effect counteracted by carbachol, but rescued by tiotropium. We conclude that olodaterol plus tiotropium cooperate to decrease the inflammatory response in pulmonary fibroblasts in vitro. PMID:24269928

Costa, Luigi; Roth, Michael; Miglino, Nicola; Keglowich, Laura; Zhong, Jun; Lardinois, Didier; Tamm, Michael; Borger, Pieter

2014-02-01

126

The Involvement of Tyrosine Kinases, Cyclic AMP\\/Protein Kinase A, and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in IL13-Mediated Arginase I Induction in Macrophages: Its Implications in IL13Inhibited Nitric Oxide Production1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In macrophages, L-arginine can be used by NO synthase and arginase to form NO and urea, respectively. Therefore, activation of arginase may be an effective mechanism for regulating NO production in macrophages through substrate competition. Here, we examined whether IL-13 up-regulates arginase and thus reduces NO production from LPS-activated macrophages. The sig- naling molecules involved in IL-13-induced arginase activation were

Chiung-I Chang; Behyar Zoghi; James C. Liao; Lih Kuo

127

Modulation by intracellular ATP and cyclic AMP of the slow inward current in isolated single ventricular cells of the guinea-pig.  

PubMed Central

Effects of ATP and of cyclic AMP on membrane current systems were investigated in isolated single ventricular cells from guinea-pig hearts by applying the suction electrode method. The intracellular milieu was dialysed with various solutions which were perfused continuously through the suction pipette. The presence of ATP, cyclic AMP and EGTA in the perfusion solution kept the plateau phase of the action potential almost intact for as long as 30 min. With depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses from holding potentials between -30 and -40 mV, the slow inward current (isi) was activated at potentials positive to -20 mV. The inactivation time course of isi was fitted by two exponential components in the potential range between -10 mV and +30 mV. By increasing ATP from 2 to 9.5 mM in the solution, the amplitude of isi was increased and the slow component of inactivation was accelerated. The steady-state current-voltage relationship (I-V curve), exhibited a negative slope that became steeper after increasing the ATP concentration. The current was shifted towards the outward direction between -40 mV and -10 mV and became more inward between -10 mV and +40 mV. Increase of the cyclic AMP concentration from 30 to 60 microM also enhanced the amplitude of isi, but the negative slope in the steady-state I-V curve was unaffected. Assuming that the concentration of free Ca2+ in the cell was well buffered at a low level by the EGTA-Ca buffer solution in the pipette, it was concluded that [ATP]i and [cyclic AMP]i exert a direct influence on membrane current systems of the ventricular cell. PMID:6308246

Irisawa, H; Kokubun, S

1983-01-01

128

Opposing actions of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and GMP on temperature in conscious guinea-pigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the intracerebroventricular administration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Db-cAMP) induced hyperthermia in guinea pigs which was not mediated through prostaglandins or norepinephrine since a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor and an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking agent did not antagonize the hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to Db-cAMP was attenuated by the central administration of a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, which indicates that cAMP may be involved, through beta-adrenergic receptors, in the central regulation of heat production and conservation. The central administration of Db-cGMP produced hypothermia which was not mediated via histamine H1 or H2 receptors and serotonin. The antagonism of hypothermia induced by Db-cGMP and acetylcholine + physostigmine by central administration of a cholinergic muscarine receptor antagonist and not by a cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist suggests that cholinoceptive neurons and endogenous cGMP may regulate heat loss through cholinergic muscarine receptors. It is concluded that these results indicate a regulatory role in thermoregulation provided by a balance between opposing actions of cAMP and cGMP in guinea pigs.

Kandasamy, S. B.; Williaes, B. A.

1983-01-01

129

The Small Molecule Triclabendazole Decreases the Intracellular Level of Cyclic AMP and Increases Resistance to Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The Ras-adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A nutrient-sensing pathway controls metabolism, proliferation and resistance to stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genetic disruption of this pathway increases resistance to a variety of stresses. We show here that the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by the drug triclabendazole increases resistance to oxidants, heat stress and extends the chronological life. Evidence is presented that triclabendazole decreases the intracellular level of cyclic AMP by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase and triggers the parallel rapid translocation of the stress-resistance transcription factor Msn2 from the cytosol into the nucleus, as deduced from experiments employing a strain in which MSN2 is replaced with MSN2-GFP (GFP, green fluorescent protein). Msn2 and Msn4 are responsible for activating the transcription of numerous genes that encode proteins that protect cells from stress. The results are consistent with triclabendazole either inhibiting the association of Ras with adenylyl cyclase or directly inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, which in turn triggers Msn2/4 to enter the nucleus and activate stress-responsible element gene expression. PMID:23667708

Lee, Yong Joo; Shi, Runhua; Witt, Stephan N.

2013-01-01

130

Patch Clamp on the Luminal Membrane of Exocrine Gland Acini from Frog Skin (Rana esculenta) Reveals the Presence of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator-like Cl Channels Activated by Cyclic AMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride channels in the luminal membrane of exocrine gland acini from frog skin ( Rana esculenta ) constituted a single homogeneous population. In cell-attached patches, channels activated upon exposure to iso- proterenol, forskolin, or dibutyryl-cAMP and isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine rectified in the outward direction with a conductance of 10.0 6 0.4 pS for outgoing currents. Channels in stimulated cells reversed at 0

J. B. Sorensen; Erik Hviid Larsen

1998-01-01

131

Inhibition of human platelet aggregation by parathyroid hormone. Is cyclic AMP implicated?  

PubMed

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide which in different in vitro systems raises intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels via adenyl cyclase activation and stimulates Ca2+ transport across cell membranes. We tested whether, on the basis of this mechanism, PTH would inhibit human platelet aggregation. The latter was tested in vitro by a photometric technique. Platelet aggregation induced by the calcium ionophore A 23187 was inhibited by PTH at concentrations (0.5-3 USP U/ml) similar to those effective in other in vitro systems. Higher concentrations of PTH were required to prevent aggregation initiated by adenosine-5'-diphosphate, arachidonic acid, or platelet-aggregating factor. The terminal synthetic fragment 1-34 b PTH was ineffective against all aggregation stimuli. The antiaggregating effect of PTH was potentiated by verapamil and theophylline and was additive to that of PGI2. However, PTH did not appear to increase platelet cAMP levels and was not counteracted by an inhibitor of platelet adenyl cyclase. It is therefore unlikely that PTH inhibits platelet aggregation through an adenyl cyclase stimulated increase of cAMP. Since PTH levels are markedly increased in uremic plasma, it might contribute to the defective platelet function and the bleeding tendency frequently occurring in uremic patients. PMID:2996352

Benigni, A; Livio, M; Dodesini, P; Schieppati, A; Panigada, M; Mecca, G; de Gaetano, G; Remuzzi, G

1985-01-01

132

Cyclic AMP regulation of early gene expression in Dictyostelium discoideum: mediation via the cell surface cyclic AMP receptor.  

PubMed Central

We examined two sets of genes expressed early in the developmental cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum that appear to be regulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). The transcripts of both sets of genes were not detectable in vegetative cells. During normal development on filter pads, RNA complementary to these genes could be detected at about 2 h, peaked around 6 to 8 h, and decreased gradually thereafter. Expression of these genes upon starvation in shaking culture was stimulated by pulsing the cells with nanomolar levels of cAMP, a condition that mimics the in vivo pulsing during normal aggregation. Expression was inhibited by caffeine or by continuous levels of cAMP, a condition found later in development when in vivo expression of these genes decreased. The inhibition of caffeine could be overcome by pulsing cells with cAMP. These results suggest that the expression is mediated via the cell surface cAMP receptor, but does not require a rise in intracellular cAMP. mRNA from a gene of the second class was induced upon starvation, peaked by 2.5 h of development, and then declined. In contrast to the other genes, its expression was maintained by continuous levels of cAMP and repressed by cAMP pulses. These and other results on a number of classes of developmentally regulated genes indicates that changing levels of cAMP, acting via the cell surface cAMP receptor, are involved in controlling these groups of genes. We also examined the structure and partial sequence of the cAMP pulse-induced genes. The two tandemly duplicated M3 genes were almost continuously homologous over the sequenced portion of the protein-coding region except for a region near the N-terminal end. The two M3 genes had regions of homology in the 5' flanking sequence and showed slight homology to the same regions in gene D2, another cAMP pulse-induced gene. D2 showed extremely significant homology over its entire sequenced length to an acetylcholinesterase. The results presented here and by others suggest that expression of many early genes in D. discoideum is regulated via the cell surface cAMP receptor. We expect that many of these genes may play essential roles in early Dictyostelium development and could code for elements of the cAMP signal transduction pathway involved in aggregation. Images PMID:3031475

Mann, S K; Firtel, R A

1987-01-01

133

Cyclic AMP receptor protein regulates pheromone-mediated bioluminescence at multiple levels in Vibrio fischeri ES114.  

PubMed

Bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri ES114 is activated by autoinducer pheromones, and this regulation serves as a model for bacterial cell-cell signaling. As in other bacteria, pheromone concentration increases with cell density; however, pheromone synthesis and perception are also modulated in response to environmental stimuli. Previous studies suggested that expression of the pheromone-dependent bioluminescence activator LuxR is regulated in response to glucose by cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) (P. V. Dunlap and E. P. Greenberg, J. Bacteriol. 164:45-50, 1985; P. V. Dunlap and E. P. Greenberg, J. Bacteriol. 170:4040-4046, 1988; P. V. Dunlap, J. Bacteriol. 171:1199-1202, 1989; and W. F. Friedrich and E. P. Greenberg, Arch. Microbiol. 134:87-91, 1983). Consistent with this model, we found that bioluminescence in V. fischeri ES114 is modulated by glucose and stimulated by cAMP. In addition, a ?crp mutant was ?100-fold dimmer than ES114 and did not increase luminescence in response to added cAMP, even though cells lacking crp were still metabolically capable of producing luminescence. We further discovered that CRP regulates not only luxR but also the alternative pheromone synthase gene ainS. We found that His-tagged V. fischeri CRP could bind sequences upstream of both luxR and ainS, supporting bioinformatic predictions of direct regulation at both promoters. Luminescence increased in response to cAMP if either the ainS or luxR system was under native regulation, suggesting cAMP-CRP significantly increases luminescence through both systems. Finally, using transcriptional reporters in transgenic Escherichia coli, we elucidated two additional regulatory connections. First, LuxR-independent basal transcription of the luxI promoter was enhanced by CRP. Second, the effect of CRP on the ainS promoter depended on whether the V. fischeri regulatory gene litR was also introduced. These results suggest an integral role for CRP in pheromone signaling that goes beyond sensing cell density. PMID:23995643

Lyell, Noreen L; Colton, Deanna M; Bose, Jeffrey L; Tumen-Velasquez, Melissa P; Kimbrough, John H; Stabb, Eric V

2013-11-01

134

Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Regulates cspD, a Bacterial Toxin Gene, in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

cspD, a member of cspA family of cold shock genes in Escherichia coli, is not induced during cold shock. Its expression is induced during stationary phase. CspD inhibits DNA replication, and a high level of the protein is toxic to cells. Recently, CspD was proposed to be associated with persister cell formation in E. coli. Here, we show that cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) upregulates cspD transcription. Sequence analysis of the cspD upstream region revealed two tandem CRP target sites, CRP site-I (the proximal site centered at ?83.5 with respect to the transcription start) and CRP site-II (the distal site centered at ?112.5). The results from electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that CRP indeed binds to these two target sites in PcspD. The promoter-proximal CRP target site was found to play a major role in PcspD activation by CRP, as studied by transcriptional fusions carrying mutations in the target sites. The results from in vitro transcription assays demonstrated that CRP activates PcspD transcription in the absence of additional factors other than RNA polymerase. The requirement for activating region 1 of CRP in PcspD activation, along with the involvement of the 287, 265, and 261 determinants of the ?-CTD, suggest that CRP activates by a class I-type mechanism. However, only moderate activation in vitro was observed compared to high activation in vivo, suggesting there might be additional activators of PcspD. Overall, our findings show that CRP, a global metabolic regulator in E. coli, activates a gene potentially related to persistence. PMID:24509317

Shetty, Deeksha M.; Jawali, Narendra

2014-01-01

135

Phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol induces migraine-like attacks via cyclic AMP increase.  

PubMed

The initiating mechanisms of migraine attacks are very complex but may involve the cyclic AMP signalling pathway. It is unknown whether intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation induces migraine attacks. We investigated whether administration of cilostazol, which causes cyclic AMP accumulation, may induce migraine attacks. We included 14 migraine patients without aura in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. All participants received oral cilostazol or placebo on two separate days. We recorded migraine headache characteristics, associated symptoms and time of rescue medication intake using a questionnaire. Cilostazol induced delayed migraine-like attacks in 12 patients (86%) compared with two (14%) patients after placebo (P = 0.002). The median time to onset for migraine-like attacks was 6 h (range 3-11 h). Patients reported that the attacks mimicked their usual migraine attacks and that cilostazol-induced attacks responded to their usual migraine treatment. Median time of medication intake was 6 h (range 4-11 h). The present study suggests that intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation plays a crucial role in migraine induction. This knowledge is a further step in our understanding of the intracellular pathway of migraine initiation. PMID:25161294

Guo, Song; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

2014-11-01

136

Amylase and cyclic amp receptor protein expression in human diabetic parotid glands  

E-print Network

Amylase and cyclic amp receptor protein expression in human diabetic parotid glands Monica Piras1 BACKGROUND: Salivary dysfunction and oral disorders have been described in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the cellular and molecular conse- quences of diabetes on oral tissues remain to be ascer

Terasaki, Mark

137

Porcine catabolin stimulates prostaglandin E2 secretion but does not affect intracellular cyclic AMP production in pig synovial fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

Responses in vitro to partially purified porcine leucocyte catabolin were studied in pig synovial fibroblasts.In serum-free cultures catabolin was found to stimulate secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The initial stimulation of PGE2 secretion occurred only after a latent interval of six hours. In the same cell line catabolin was found to have no effect on the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) at times ranging from 30 s to 20 min, even at concentrations up to 15 times greater than that required to promote accelerated release of glycosaminoglycans from cultured bovine nasal cartilage. It is therefore concluded that in pig synovial fibroblasts catabolin evokes a delayed secretion of PGE2 but does not alter cyclic AMP production. PMID:2994582

Carroll, G J

1985-01-01

138

Rab11, but not Rab4, facilitates cyclic AMP- and tauroursodeoxycholate-induced MRP2 translocation to the plasma membrane.  

PubMed

Rab proteins (Ras homologous for brain) play an important role in vesicle trafficking. Rab4 and Rab11 are involved in vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane from early endosomes and recycling endosomes, respectively. Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) and cAMP increase bile formation, in part, by increasing plasma membrane localization of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). The goal of the present study was to determine the role of these Rab proteins in the trafficking of MRP2 by testing the hypothesis that Rab11 and/or Rab4 facilitate cAMP- and TUDC-induced MRP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Studies were conducted in HuH-NTCP cells (HuH7 cells stably transfected with human NTCP), which constitutively express MRP2. HuH-NTCP cells were transfected with Rab11-WT and GDP-locked dominant inactive Rab11-GDP or with Rab4-GDP to study the role of Rab11 and Rab4. A biotinylation method and a GTP overlay assay were used to determine plasma membrane MRP2 and activation of Rab proteins (Rab11 and Rab4), respectively. Cyclic AMP and TUDC increased plasma membrane MRP2 and stimulated Rab11 activity. Plasma membrane translocation of MRP2 by cAMP and TUDC was increased and inhibited in cells transfected with Rab11-WT and Rab11-GDP, respectively. Cyclic AMP (previous study) and TUDC increased Rab4 activity. However, cAMP- and TUDC-induced increases in MRP2 were not inhibited by Rab4-GDP. Taken together, these results suggest that Rab11 is involved in cAMP- and TUDC-induced MRP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. PMID:25190474

Park, Se Won; Schonhoff, Christopher M; Webster, Cynthia R L; Anwer, M Sawkat

2014-10-15

139

Capsaicinoids regulate airway anion transporters through Rho kinase- and cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of capsaicinoids on airway anion transporters, we recorded and analyzed transepithelial currents in human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells. Application of capsaicin (100 ?M) attenuated vectorial anion transport, estimated as short-circuit currents (I(SC)), before and after stimulation by forskolin (10 ?M) with concomitant reduction of cytosolic cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I(SC) was also observed in the response to 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM, a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases). The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I(SC) was attributed to suppression of bumetanide (an inhibitor of the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2 Cl(-) cotransporter 1)- and 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (an inhibitor of basolateral HCO(3)(-)-dependent anion transporters)-sensitive components, which reflect anion uptake via basolateral cAMP-dependent anion transporters. In contrast, capsaicin potentiated apical Cl(-) conductance, which reflects conductivity through the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, a cAMP-regulated Cl(-) channel. All these paradoxical effects of capsaicin were mimicked by capsazepine. Forskolin application also increased phosphorylated myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, and the phosphorylation was prevented by capsaicin and capsazepine, suggesting that these capsaicinoids assume aspects of Rho kinase inhibitors. We also found that the increments in apical Cl(-) conductance were caused by conventional Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 (20 ?M) and HA-1077 (20 ?M), with selective inhibition of basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2 Cl(-) cotransporter 1. Collectively, capsaicinoids inhibit cAMP-mediated anion transport through down-regulation of basolateral anion uptake, paradoxically accompanied by up-regulation of apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-mediated anion conductance. The latter is mediated by inhibition of Rho-kinase, which is believed to interact with actin cytoskeleton. PMID:21474433

Hibino, Yoshitaka; Morise, Masahiro; Ito, Yasushi; Mizutani, Takefumi; Matsuno, Tadakatsu; Ito, Satoru; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Sato, Mitsuo; Kondo, Masashi; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

2011-10-01

140

SOX9 and SF1 are involved in cyclic AMP-mediated upregulation of anti-Mullerian gene expression in the testicular prepubertal Sertoli cell line SMAT1.  

PubMed

In Sertoli cells, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) expression is upregulated by FSH via cyclic AMP (cAMP), although no classical cAMP response elements exist in the AMH promoter. The response to cAMP involves NF-?B and AP2; however, targeted mutagenesis of their binding sites in the AMH promoter do not completely abolish the response. In this work we assessed whether SOX9, SF1, GATA4, and AP1 might represent alternative pathways involved in cAMP-mediated AMH upregulation, using real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), targeted mutagenesis, luciferase assays, and immunocytochemistry in the Sertoli cell line SMAT1. We also explored the signaling cascades potentially involved. In qPCR experiments, Amh, Sox9, Sf1, and Gata4 mRNA levels increased after SMAT1 cells were incubated with cAMP. Blocking PKA abolished the effect of cAMP on Sox9, Sf1, and Gata4 expression, inhibiting PI3K/PKB impaired the effect on Sf1 and Gata4, and reducing MEK1/2 and p38 MAPK activities curtailed Gata4 increase. SOX9 and SF1 translocated to the nucleus after incubation with cAMP. Mutations of the SOX9 or SF1 sites, but not of GAT4 or AP1 sites, precluded the response of a 3,063-bp AMH promoter to cAMP. In conclusion, in the Sertoli cell line SMAT1 cAMP upregulates SOX9, SF1, and GATA4 expression and induces SOX9 and SF1 nuclear translocation mainly through PKA, although other kinases may also participate. SOX9 and SF1 binding to the AMH promoter is essential to increase the activity of the AMH promoter in response to cAMP. PMID:21693691

Lasala, Celina; Schteingart, Helena F; Arouche, Nassim; Bedecarrás, Patricia; Grinspon, Romina P; Picard, Jean-Yves; Josso, Nathalie; di Clemente, Nathalie; Rey, Rodolfo A

2011-09-01

141

Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 ? M) had mixed effects (?20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

2014-01-01

142

Cyclic AMP promotes growth and secretion in human polycystic kidney epithelial cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic AMP promotes growth and secretion in human polycystic kidney epithelial cells.BackgroundProgressive cyst enlargement, the hallmark of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal-recessive (ARPKD) polycystic kidney disease, precedes the eventual decline of function in these conditions. The expansion of individual cysts in ADPKD is determined to a major extent by mural epithelial cell proliferation and transepithelial fluid secretion. This

Franck A. Belibi; GAIL REIF; Darren P. Wallace; TAMIO YAMAGUCHI; LINCOLN OLSEN; HONG LI; George M. Helmkamp; Jared J. Grantham

2004-01-01

143

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Controls Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that infects the human central nervous system. This pathogen elaborates two specialized virulence factors: the antioxidant melanin and an antiphagocytic immunosuppressive polysaccharide capsule. A signaling cascade controlling mating and virulence was iden- tified. The PKA1 gene encoding the major cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit was identified and disrupted. pka1 mutant strains

CLETUS A. D'SOUZA; J. ANDREW ALSPAUGH; CHANGLI YUE; TOSHIAKI HARASHIMA; GARY M. COX; JOHN R. PERFECT; JOSEPH HEITMAN

2001-01-01

144

RAS/Cyclic AMP and Transcription Factor Msn2 Regulate Mating and Mating-Type Switching in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis ?  

PubMed Central

In response to harsh environmental conditions, ascomycetes produce stress-resistant spores to promote survival. As sporulation requires a diploid DNA content, species with a haploid lifestyle, such as Kluyveromyces lactis, first induce mating in response to stress. In K. lactis, mating and mating-type switching are induced by the DNA-binding protein Mts1. Mts1 expression is known to be upregulated by nutrient limitation, but the mechanism is unknown. We show that a ras2 mutation results in a hyperswitching phenotype. In contrast, strains lacking the phosphodiesterase Pde2 had lower switching rates compared to that of the wild type (WT). As Ras2 promotes cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and Pde2 degrades cAMP, these data suggest that low cAMP levels induce switching. Because the MTS1 regulatory region contains several Msn2 binding sites and Msn2 is a transcription factor that is activated by low cAMP levels, we investigated if Msn2 regulates MTS1 transcription. Consistently with this idea, an msn2 mutant strain displayed lower switching rates than the WT strain. The transcription of MTS1 is highly induced in the ras2 mutant strain. In contrast, an msn2 ras2 double mutant strain displays WT levels of the MTS1 transcript, showing that Msn2 is a critical inducer of MTS1 transcription. Strains lacking Msn2 and Pde2 also exhibit mating defects that can be complemented by the ectopic expression of Mts1. Finally, we show that MTS1 is subjected to negative autoregulation, presumably adding robustness to the mating and switching responses. We suggest a model in which Ras2/cAMP/Msn2 mediates the stress-induced mating and mating-type switching responses in K. lactis. PMID:21890818

Barsoum, E.; Rajaei, N.; Åström, S. U.

2011-01-01

145

Pharmacological properties of nociceptin/orphanin FQ-induced stimulation and inhibition of cyclic AMP formation in distinct layers of rat olfactory bulb  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and increased basal enzyme activity in membranes of the external plexiform layer (EPL) and granule cell layer (GRL), respectively, of the rat main olfactory bulb. In the present study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the inhibitory and stimulatory responses by examining the effects of various N/OFQ receptor agonists and antagonists.N/OFQ(1?–?13)NH2 fully mimicked the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of N/OFQ with EC50 values of 0.9 and 6.5?nM, respectively. N/OFQ(1?–?7) was inactive at concentrations up to 1??M, whereas Ac-RYYRIK-NH2 and [Phe1?(CH2NH)Gly2]N/OFQ(1?–?13)-NH2 behaved as partial agonists in eliciting both responses.The nonpeptidyl N/OFQ receptor antagonist J-113397 competitively counteracted the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of N/OFQ with pA2 values of 8.63 and 8.70, respectively. Similarly, the peptidyl antagonist [Nphe1]N/OFQ(1?–?13)NH2 potently antagonized the two effects with pA2 values of 8.03 and 8.45, respectively. None of the antagonists per se affected adenylyl cyclase activity.These data show that in distinct layers of rat olfactory bulb both the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of N/OFQ on cyclic AMP formation display pharmacological properties consistent with the involvement of N/OFQ receptors. PMID:11786499

Olianas, Maria C; Onali, Pierluigi

2002-01-01

146

Light-induced photoreceptor shedding in teleost retina blocked by dibutyryl cyclic AMP.  

PubMed

In retinas of lower vertebrates, at least two retinal phenomena appear to be closely tied to the diurnal light-dark cycle: photoreceptor renewal and retinomotor movements. The authors have previously reported that treatments that elevate retinal cyclic AMP levels induce dark-adaptive retinomotor movements. In the present study, the authors have tested whether cyclic nucleotides might also inhibit the burst of rod outer segment shedding expected to occur shortly following light onset. Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) entrained to a 12hL:12hD schedule were given intraocular injections 1 hr before the time of light onset and killed 1 hr after light onset. Epon sections of retinas were used for RPE phagosome counts and for measurements of photoreceptor and RPE retinomotor positions. It is reported that injection of the cyclic AMP analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP before light onset (1) completely blocked the light-induced burst of photoreceptor shedding seen at dawn in these fish; and (2) inhibited light-adaptive retinomotor movements in the pigment epithelium but not in photoreceptors. PMID:6309697

Eckmiller, M S; Burnside, B

1983-09-01

147

Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

1991-01-01

148

NGFI-B (Nurr77/Nr4a1) orphan nuclear receptor in rat pinealocytes: circadian expression involves an adrenergic-cyclic AMP mechanism.  

PubMed

NGFI-B (Nur77/Nr4a1) is a member of a nuclear steroid receptor subgroup that includes the related factors Nurr1 (Nr4a2) and NOR-1 (Nr4a3). These proteins do not have recognized ligands and in fact function independently as orphan receptors with transcriptional regulatory activity. In the present study, expression of the NGFI-B gene in the rat pineal gland was found to exhibit a robust circadian rhythm, with elevated levels of NGFI-B mRNA occurring at night. The rhythm of NGFI-B mRNA is translated into a circadian rhythm of NGFI-B protein, which accumulates in the nucleus of pinealocytes. In addition, there is a parallel marked nocturnal increase in pineal DNA binding activity to a NGFI-B response element (NBRE, AAAGGTCA). Pharmacological studies indicate that NGFI-B mRNA and protein levels are elevated via activation of adrenergic receptors. NGFI-B protein levels are also elevated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, as in other systems. In the pineal gland, regulation of NGFI-B expression also involves the AP-1 protein Fra-2, based on studies with a transgenic Fra-2 knockdown rat, in which pineal NGFI-B expression increases. This set of observations extends the number of pineal genes that are known to be regulated by Fra-2, and also provides the first indication that a member of the NGFI-B group of nuclear receptors is involved in controlling gene expression in the pineal gland. PMID:15525348

Humphries, Ann; Weller, Joan; Klein, David; Baler, Ruben; Carter, David A

2004-11-01

149

Nucleus Accumbens CREB Activity is Necessary for Nicotine Conditioned Place Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of nicotine to alter firing of dopamine neurons is the first step leading to nicotine reward, but activation of intracellular signaling pathways downstream of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is likely to be critical for longer-term consequences of nicotine exposure, including conditioned reward. The transcription factor cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB) is important for new gene transcription and in

Darlene H Brunzell; Yann S Mineur; Rachael L Neve; Marina R Picciotto

2009-01-01

150

Cyclic AMP Effectors in African Trypanosomes Revealed by Genome-Scale RNA Interference Library Screening for Resistance to the Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor CpdA  

PubMed Central

One of the most promising new targets for trypanocidal drugs to emerge in recent years is the cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity encoded by TbrPDEB1 and TbrPDEB2. These genes were genetically confirmed as essential, and a high-affinity inhibitor, CpdA, displays potent antitrypanosomal activity. To identify effectors of the elevated cAMP levels resulting from CpdA action and, consequently, potential sites for adaptations giving resistance to PDE inhibitors, resistance to the drug was induced. Selection of mutagenized trypanosomes resulted in resistance to CpdA as well as cross-resistance to membrane-permeable cAMP analogues but not to currently used trypanocidal drugs. Resistance was not due to changes in cAMP levels or in PDEB genes. A second approach, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) library screen, returned four genes giving resistance to CpdA upon knockdown. Validation by independent RNAi strategies confirmed resistance to CpdA and suggested a role for the identified cAMP Response Proteins (CARPs) in cAMP action. CARP1 is unique to kinetoplastid parasites and has predicted cyclic nucleotide binding-like domains, and RNAi repression resulted in >100-fold resistance. CARP2 and CARP4 are hypothetical conserved proteins associated with the eukaryotic flagellar proteome or with flagellar function, with an orthologue of CARP4 implicated in human disease. CARP3 is a hypothetical protein, unique to Trypanosoma. CARP1 to CARP4 likely represent components of a novel cAMP signaling pathway in the parasite. As cAMP metabolism is validated as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei, cAMP effectors highly divergent from the mammalian host, such as CARP1, lend themselves to further pharmacological development. PMID:23877697

Gould, Matthew K.; Bachmaier, Sabine; Ali, Juma A. M.; Alsford, Sam; Tagoe, Daniel N. A.; Munday, Jane C.; Schnaufer, Achim C.; Horn, David

2013-01-01

151

Regional difference in intestinal adaptation after total colectomy as judged by the changes of mucosal Na-K ATPase, cyclic AMP, and transmural potential difference.  

PubMed

Intestinal adaptation and its regional difference after total colectomy were investigated in dogs by measuring mucosal Na-K ATPase, cyclic AMP, and transmural electric potential difference (PD). Twenty-four weeks after the total proctocolectomy, Na-K ATPase activity and PD increased significantly in all intestinal sites, whereas cyclic AMP showed no significant changes. The regional difference in the remaining intestine was examined in the jejunum, ileum, and interposed jejunum (neorectum). Na-K ATPase activity showed no significant regional difference, but the largest increase was found to occur in the ileum. PD also increased markedly in the ileum and there was significant difference between the ileum and other intestinal sites. These facts suggest that the increased active ion transport mediated by mucosal Na-K ATPase and transmural PD in the ileum is closely related to the intestinal adaptation occurring after total colectomy and indicates a greater potential of the ileum for adaptive compensation than either jejunum or neorectum. PMID:2839319

Nakahara, S; Itoh, H; Mibu, R; Ikeda, S; Nakayama, F

1988-07-01

152

Sensitization of adenylate cyclase: a general mechanism of neuroadaptation to persistent activation of Galpha(i/o)-coupled receptors?  

PubMed

Acute activation of Galphas-coupled receptors stimulates cyclic AMP accumulation leading to the activation of downstream signaling cascades. These Galphas-mediated events can be countered by acute activation of inhibitory G proteins (Galpha(i/o)), which inhibit the activity of adenylate cyclase, thereby attenuating cyclic AMP accumulation. Furthermore, an additional, less direct mechanism for Galpha(i/o) proteins modulation of cyclic AMP signaling also has been described. Persistent activation of several Galpha(i/o)-coupled receptors has been shown to result in a subsequent paradoxical enhancement of adenylate cyclase activity in response to drug-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. This sensitization of adenylate cyclase likely represents a cellular adaptive response following prolonged activation of inhibitory receptors. Recent advances in our knowledge of G protein signaling, adenylate cyclase regulation, and other cellular signaling mechanisms have extensively increased our insight into this phenomenon. It is now thought that sensitization occurs as part of a compensatory mechanism by which the cell adapts to chronic inhibitory input. Such a mechanism may be involved in modulating Galphas-coupled receptor signaling following neurotransmitter elevations that occur in psychiatric disease states or following the administration of many drugs of abuse. This review will focus on recent advances in the understanding of molecular signaling pathways that are involved in sensitization and describe the potential role of sensitization in neuronal cell function. PMID:14519441

Johnston, Christopher A; Watts, Val J

2003-10-24

153

Cyclic AMP modulates electrical signaling in a weakly electric fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of electric fish show diurnal or socially elicited variation in electric organ discharge amplitude. In Sternopygus macrurus, activation of protein kinase A by 8-bromo-cAMP increases electrocyte sodium current magnitude. To determine whether the behavioral plasticity in electric organ discharge amplitude is controlled by electrocyte biophysical properties, we examined whether the effects of phosphorylation on ion currents in the

L. McAnelly; A. Silva; H. H. Zakon

2003-01-01

154

Increases in endothelial cyclic AMP levels amplify agonist-induced formation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF).  

PubMed

The interaction between intracellular cyclic AMP and agonist-induced endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) (NO) formation was investigated in pig aortic endothelial cells. Three potent stimulators of adenylate cyclase, namely forskolin, adenosine and isoprenaline, amplified bradykinin- and ATP-induced biosynthesis and release of EDRF. None of the substances by itself affected basal EDRF formation. The effects of forskolin, adenosine and isoprenaline corresponded to an enhanced agonist-induced rise in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), were mimicked by the membrane-permeable cyclic AMP analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP and were antagonized by the protein kinase inhibitor N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide dihydrochloride (H-8). Our data suggest that cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation modulates Ca(2+)-signalling and thus the function of endothelial cells. This mechanism may be of particular physiological importance, since it allows a joint regulation of endothelial functions by tissues factors such as bradykinin, which directly affects [Ca2+]i and agonists which affect intracellular cyclic AMP levels. PMID:1334403

Graier, W F; Groschner, K; Schmidt, K; Kukovetz, W R

1992-12-01

155

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in melanocytes and melanoma.  

PubMed

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which include melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), play a crucial role in melanocytes development, proliferation and differentiation. Activation of the MC1R by the ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) leads to the activation of the cAMP signaling pathway that is mainly associated with differentiation and pigment production. Some MC1R polymorphisms produce cAMP signaling impairment and pigmentary phenotypes such as the red head color and fair skin phenotype (RHC) that is usually associated with higher risk for melanoma development. Despite its importance in melanocyte biology, the role of cAMP signaling cutaneous melanoma is not well understood. Melanoma is primarily driven by mutations in the components of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. Increasing evidence, however, now suggests that cAMP signaling also plays an important role in melanoma even though genetic alterations in components of this pathway are note commonly found in melanoma. Here we review these new roles for cAMP in melanoma including its contribution to the notorious treatment resistance of melanoma. PMID:25017568

Rodríguez, Carlos Iván; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

2014-12-01

156

Effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and cyclic AMP interaction on human neutrophil apoptosis.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling interaction on human neutrophil apoptosis, either occurring spontaneously or induced by Fas antigen activation. Results show that GM-CSF, dibutyryl cAMP (a cAMP analog) and forskolin (an adenylate cyclase activator) are all able to suppress spontaneous neutrophil cell death. Of note however, when GM-CSF is used in combination with cAMP-elevating agents, an additive effect on neutrophil survival is observed with dibutyryl cAMP only, whereas supplementation of cell cultures with GM-CSF and forskolin results in a progressive reduction of antiapoptotic effects exerted by the single compounds. Moreover, although dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin do not affect Fas-triggered apoptotic events, they are still able to modulate the GM-CSF capacity to prolong neutrophil survival following anti-Fas IgM cell challenge, with effects similar to those respectively exerted on spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis. The data indicate that GM-CSF may negatively modulate the cAMP-mediated antiapoptotic pathway in human neutrophils, likely via the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. This would prevent an abnormal neutrophil survival as a result of cAMP signaling stimulation, which provides a novel insight into the role of GM-CSF as a physiological regulator of myeloid cell turnover. PMID:9927231

Tortorella, C; Piazzolla, G; Spaccavento, F; Antonaci, S

1998-01-01

157

CYCLIC AMP STIMULATION OF ELECTROGENIC UPTAKE OF Na+ AND Cl- ACROSS THE GILL EPITHELIUM OF THE CHINESE CRAB ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS  

PubMed

Split gill lamellae (epithelium plus cuticle) of hyperregulating Chinese crabs acclimated to fresh water were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber. Active and electrogenic absorption of sodium and chloride were measured as positive amiloride-sensitive and negative Cl--dependent short-circuit currents (INa, ICl), respectively. Both currents were characterized before and after treatment of the tissue with theophylline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Both drugs increased INa and ICl. A simple circuit analysis showed that INa stimulation reflected a marked increase in the transcellular Na+ conductance, whereas the respective electromotive force was unchanged. The Michaelis constant (KNa) for Na+ current saturation was decreased after INa stimulation, indicating an increased affinity of the transport mechanism for its substrate. Consequently, the affinity for the Na+ channel blocker amiloride decreased as expected for a competitive interaction between substrate and inhibitor. Analysis of the amiloride-induced current-noise revealed a marked increase in the number of apical Na+ channels after INa stimulation with theophylline, whereas there was little change in the single-channel current. Stimulation of Cl- absorption was accompanied by a substantial increase in both transcellular conductance and electromotive force, indicating an activation of the apical H+ pump that provides the driving force for active Cl- uptake via apical Cl-/HCO3- exchange and basolateral Cl- channels. PMID:9317551

Riestenpatt; Zeiske; Onken

1994-03-01

158

REVIEW: Role of cyclic AMP signaling in the production and function of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pancreatic cells express the proglucagon gene (gcg) and thereby produce the peptide hormone glucagon, which stimulates hepatic glucose production and thereby increases blood glucose levels. The same gcg gene is also expressed in the intestinal endocrine L cells and certain neural cells in the brain. In the gut, gcg expression leads to the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). This incretin hormone stimulates insulin secretion when blood glucose level is high. In addition, GLP-1 stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation, inhibits cell apoptosis, and has been utilized in the trans-differentiation of insulin producing cells. Today, a long-term effective GLP-1 receptor agonist has been developed as a drug in treating diabetes and potentially other metabolic disorders. Extensive investigations have shown that the expression of gcg and the production of GLP-1 can be activated by the elevation of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). Recent studies suggest that in addition to protein kinase A (PKA), exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), another effector of cAMP signaling, and the crosstalk between PKA and Wnt signaling pathway, are also involved in cAMP-stimulated gcg expression and GLP-1 production. Furthermore, functions of GLP-1 in pancreatic cells are mainly mediated by cAMP-PKA, cAMP-Epac and Wnt signaling pathways as well.

Yu, Zhiwen; Jin, Tianru

2008-01-01

159

Cyclic-AMP inhibition of fimbriae and prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens is strain-dependent.  

PubMed

The cyclic-nucleotide 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) is an ancient and widespread regulatory molecule. Previous studies have shown that fimbria production and secondary metabolite production are inhibited by cAMP in the prokaryote Serratia marcescens. This study used genetic manipulations to test the strain specificity of cAMP-cyclic-AMP receptor protein regulation of fimbria production and of the red pigment, prodigiosin. A surprising amount of variation was observed, as multicopy expression of the cAMP-phosphodiesterase gene, cpdS, conferred either an increase or decrease in fimbriae-dependent yeast agglutination and prodigiosin production depending upon the strain background. Mutation of crp, the gene coding for the cAMP-receptor protein, similarly conferred strain-dependent phenotypes. This study shows that three distinct biological properties, modulated by a conserved genetic regulatory molecule, can vary significantly among strains. Such variation can complicate the functional analysis of bacterial phenotypic properties which are dependent upon global genetic regulators such as cAMP. PMID:24619531

Stella, Nicholas A; Shanks, Robert M Q

2014-05-01

160

Roles of Intracellular Cyclic AMP Signal Transduction in the Capacitation and Subsequent Hyperactivation of Mouse and Boar Spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

It is not until accomplishment of a variety of molecular changes during the transit through the female reproductive tract that mammalian spermatozoa are capable of exhibiting highly activated motility with asymmetric whiplash beating of the flagella (hyperactivation) and undergoing acrosomal exocytosis in the head (acrosome reaction). These molecular changes of the spermatozoa are collectively termed capacitation and promoted by bicarbonate, calcium and cholesterol acceptors. Such capacitation-promoting factors can stimulate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction in the spermatozoa. Meanwhile, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction are essential to sperm fertilization with oocytes and are apparently triggered by a sufficient increase of intracellular Ca2+ in the sperm flagellum and head, respectively. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between cAMP signal transduction and calcium signaling cascades in the spermatozoa for the purpose of understanding the molecular basis of capacitation. In this review, I cover updated insights regarding intracellular cAMP signal transduction, the acrosome reaction and flagellar motility in mammalian spermatozoa and then account for possible roles of intracellular cAMP signal transduction in the capacitation and subsequent hyperactivation of mouse and boar spermatozoa. PMID:24162806

HARAYAMA, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

161

Mechanism of action of hydrogen sulfide on cyclic AMP formation in rat retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a colorless gas with the pungent odor of rotten eggs has been reported to produce pharmacological actions in ocular and non-ocular tissues. We have evidence that H(2)S, using sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) as donors can increase cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in neural retina. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of action of H(2)S on cyclic nucleotide production in rat retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE-J). Cultured RPE-J cells were incubated for 30 min in culture medium containing the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, IBMX (2 mM). Cells were exposed to varying concentrations of NaHS, the H(2)S substrate (L-cysteine), cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors or the diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin in the presence or absence of H(2)S biosynthetic enzymes or the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel antagonist, glibenclamide. Following drug-treatment at different time intervals, cell homogenates were prepared for cAMP assay using a well established methodology. In RPE-J cells, NaHS (10 nM-1 ?M) produced a time-dependent increase in cAMP concentrations over basal levels which reached a maximum at 20 min. At this time point, both NaHS (1 nM-100 ?M) and L-cysteine (1 nM-10 ?M) produced a concentration-dependent significant (p<0.05) increase in cAMP concentrations over basal level. The effects of NaHS on cAMP levels in RPE-J cells was enhanced significantly (p<0.01) in the presence of the COX inhibitors, indomethacin and flurbiprofen. In RPE-J cells, the effects caused by forskolin (10 ?M) on cAMP production were potentiated by addition of low concentrations of NaHS. Both the inhibitor of cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, 1 mM) and the inhibitor of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), proparglyglycine (PAG, 1mM) significantly attenuated the increased effect of L-cysteine on cAMP production. The K(ATP) channel antagonist, glibenclamide (100 ?M) caused inhibition of NaHS induced-increase of cAMP formation in RPE-J cells. We conclude that, H(2)S (using H(2)S donor and substrate) can increase cAMP production in RPE-J cells, and removal of the apparent inhibitory effect of prostaglandins unmasks an excitatory activity of H(2)S on cAMP. Effects elicited by the H(2)S substrate on cAMP formation are dependent on biosynthesis of H(2)S catalyzed by the biosynthetic enzymes, CBS and CSE. In addition to the adenylyl cylcase pathway, K(ATP) channels are involved in mediating the observed effects of the H(2)S on cAMP production. PMID:22445555

Njie-Mbye, Ya Fatou; Kulkarni, Madhura; Opere, Catherine A; Ohia, Sunny E

2012-05-01

162

The effect of chronic treatment with trandolapril on cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent relaxations in aortic segments of rats with chronic heart failure  

PubMed Central

Characteristics of cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-mediated relaxation in aortic segments of rats with chronic heart failure (CHF) and the effects of chronic treatment with an angiotensin?I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, trandolapril, were examined 8 weeks after coronary artery ligation.Cardiac output indices of coronary artery-ligated and sham-operated rats were 125±8 and 189±10?ml?min?1?kg?1, respectively (P<0.05), indicating the development of CHF at this period.The maximal relaxant response of aortic segments to 10??M acetylcholine in rats with CHF and sham-operated rats was 64.0±5.7 and 86.9±1.9%, respectively (P<0.05), whereas the relaxant response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) remained unchanged. Tissue cyclic GMP content in rats with CHF was lower than that of sham-operated rats.In endothelium-intact segments of rats with CHF, the maximal relaxant response to 10??M isoprenaline (44.5±6.7%) was lower that sham-operated rats (81.3±2.5%, P<0.05) and the concentration-response curve for NKH477, a water-soluble forskolin, was shifted to the right without a reduction in the maximal response. Isoprenaline-induced relaxation of aortic segments was attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in sham-operated rats, but not in rats with CHF. Relaxation to 30??M dibutyryl cyclic AMP in rats with CHF (26.8±2.7%) was lower than that in sham-operated rats (63.4±11.8%, P<0.05).Trandolapril (3?mg?kg?1?day?1) was orally administered from the 2nd to 8th week after the operation. Aortic blood flow of rats with CHF (38.5±3.6?ml?min?1) was lower than that of sham-operated rats (55.0±3.0?ml?min?1), and this reduction was reversed (54.1±3.4?ml?min?1) by treatment with trandolapril. The diminished responsiveness described above was normalized in the trandolapril-treated rat with CHF (i.e., the maximal relaxation to acetylcholine, 94.7±1.0%; that to isoprenaline, 80.5±2.8%; that to dibutyryl cyclic AMP, 54.7±6.2%). However, aortic segments of trandolapril-treated rats with CHF, L-NAME did not attenuate isoprenaline-induced relaxation and the tissue cyclic GMP level was not fully restored, suggesting that the ability of the endothelium to produce NO was still partially damaged.The results suggest that vasorelaxation in CHF, diminished mainly due to dysfunction in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production and cyclic AMP-mediated signal transduction, was partially restored by long-term treatment with trandolapril. The mechanism underlying the restoration may be attributed in part to prevention of CHF-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:9489624

Toyoshima, Hiroko; Nasa, Yoshihisa; Kohsaka, Yumi; Isayama, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Fuminari; Sanbe, Atsushi; Takeo, Satoshi

1998-01-01

163

Cyclic AMP Signaling Functions as a Bimodal Switch in Sympathoadrenal Cell Development in Cultured Primary Neural Crest Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of the vertebrate neural crest (crest cells) are an invaluable model system to address cell fate specification. Crest cells are amenable to tissue culture, and they differentiate to a variety of neuronal and nonneuronal cell types. Earlier studies have determined that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2, -4, and -7) and agents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) stimulate the development

MATTHEW L. BILODEAU; THERESA BOULINEAU; RONALD L. HULLINGER; OURANIA M. ANDRISANI

2000-01-01

164

Identification of Cyclic AMP-Regulated Genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Bacteria under Low-Oxygen Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), which kills approximately 2 million people a year despite current treatment options. A greater understanding of the biology of this bacterium is needed to better combat TB disease. The M. tuberculosis genome encodes as many as 15 adenylate cyclases, suggesting that cyclic AMP (cAMP) has an important, yet overlooked, role in

Michaela A. Gazdik; Kathleen A. McDonough

2005-01-01

165

Rat adipose-tissue glycerol phosphate acyltransferase can be inactivated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.  

PubMed Central

Rat adipose-tissue glycerol phosphate acyltransferase can be inactivated in a phosphorylation reaction catalysed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and reactivated by treatment with alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that phosphorylation of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase may be involved in the hormonal control of esterification. PMID:217367

Nimmo, H G; Houston, B

1978-01-01

166

AKAP79-mediated Targeting of the Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase to the 1-Adrenergic Receptor Promotes  

E-print Network

AKAP79-mediated Targeting of the Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase to the 1-Adrenergic Receptor is compartmentalized near target substrates by interacting with protein kinase A anchor- ing proteins (AKAPs), the present study was undertaken to identify the AKAP involved in PKA-mediated phosphoryla- tion of the 1-AR

Scott, John D.

167

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling of the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Signaling Pathway during Morphogenic Transitions of Candida albicans? †  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes systemic candidiasis as well as superficial mucosal candidiasis. In response to the host environment, C. albicans transitions between yeast and hyphal forms. In particular, hyphal growth is important in facilitating adhesion and invasion of host tissues, concomitant with the expression of various hypha-specific virulence factors. In previous work, we showed that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in morphogenic transitions and virulence of C. albicans by studying genes encoding adenylate cyclase-associated protein (CAP1) and high-affinity phosphodiesterase (PDE2) (Y. S. Bahn, J. Staab, and P. Sundstrom, Mol. Microbiol. 50:391-409, 2003; and Y. S. Bahn and P. Sundstrom, J. Bacteriol. 183:3211-3223, 2001). However, little is known about the downstream targets of the cAMP signaling pathway that are responsible for morphological transitions and the expression of virulence factors. Here, microarrays were probed with RNA from strains with hypoactive (cap1/cap1 null mutant), hyperactive (pde2/pde2 null mutant), and wild-type cAMP signaling pathways to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of virulence that are regulated by cAMP and that are related to the morphogenesis of C. albicans. Genes controlling metabolic specialization, cell wall structure, ergosterol/lipid biosynthesis, and stress responses were modulated by cAMP during hypha formation. Phenotypic traits predicted to be regulated by cAMP from the profiling results correlated with the relative strengths of the mutants when tested for resistance to azoles and subjected to heat shock stress and oxidative/nitrosative stress. The results from this study provide important insights into the role of the cAMP signaling pathway not only in morphogenic transitions of C. albicans but also for adaptation to stress and for survival during host infections. PMID:17951520

Bahn, Yong-Sun; Molenda, Matthew; Staab, Janet F.; Lyman, Courtney A.; Gordon, Laura J.; Sundstrom, Paula

2007-01-01

168

The isoprostane 8-iso-PGE2 stimulates endothelial cells to bind monocytes via cyclic AMP- and p38 MAP kinase-dependent signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Increased levels of isoprostanes have been detected in human atherosclerotic lesions. To examine a possible role for 8-iso-prostaglandin E(2) (8-iso-PGE(2)) in atherogenesis, we tested the effect of 8-iso-PGE(2) on adhesion of leukocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC). We demonstrate that 8-iso-PGE(2) stimulates EC to bind monocytes, but not neutrophils. This effect was inhibited by the thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonist SQ29548. Moreover, 8-iso-PGE(2) increased levels of cyclic AMP in EC, and monocyte adhesion induced by 8-iso-PGE(2) was blocked by a protein kinase A inhibitor, H89. In addition, 8-iso-PGE(2 )induced phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stimulated expression of EGR-1. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase (SB203580) abrogated monocyte binding, whereas an inhibitor of the ERK pathway (PD98059) did not block monocyte adhesion induced by 8-iso-PGE(2). Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and expression of NFkappaB-dependent genes intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin were not induced by 8-iso-PGE(2). Taken together, these results demonstrate that 8-iso-PGE(2) stimulates EC to specifically bind monocytes, but not neutrophils. This effect is mediated by cyclic AMP/protein kinase A- and p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathways and is independent of the classical inflammatory NFkappaB pathway. Thus, formation of 8-iso-PGE(2) may play an important role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis by increasing adhesion and extravasation of monocytes. PMID:12716476

Huber, Joakim; Bochkov, Valery N; Binder, Bernd R; Leitinger, Norbert

2003-04-01

169

Cloning and characterization of BCY1, a locus encoding a regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

We have cloned a gene (BCY1) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes a regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The encoded protein has a structural organization similar to that of the RI and RII regulatory subunits of the mammalian cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Strains of S. cerevisiae with disrupted BCY1 genes do not display a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro, fail to grow on many carbon sources, and are exquisitely sensitive to heat shock and starvation. Images PMID:3037314

Toda, T; Cameron, S; Sass, P; Zoller, M; Scott, J D; McMullen, B; Hurwitz, M; Krebs, E G; Wigler, M

1987-01-01

170

Expression of a Subset of Heat Stress Induced Genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Regulated by 3',5'-Cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) secretes excess of a second messenger molecule, 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP), which plays a critical role in the survival of Mtb in host macrophages. Although Mtb produces cAMP in abundance, its exact role in the physiology of mycobacteria is elusive. In this study we have analyzed the expression of 16 adenylate cyclases (ACs) and kinetics of intracellular cAMP levels in Mtb during in vitro growth under the regular culture conditions, and after exposure to different stress agents. We observed a distinct expression pattern of these ACs which is correlated with intracellular cAMP levels. Interestingly cAMP levels are significantly elevated in Mtb following heat stress, whereas other stress conditions such as oxidative, nitrosative or low pH do not affect intracellular cAMP pool in vitro. A significant increase in expression by >2-fold of five ACs namely Rv1647, Rv2212, Rv1625c, Rv2488c and Rv0386 after heat stress further suggested that cAMP plays an important role in controlling Mtb response to heat stress. In the light of these observations, effect of exogenous cAMP on global gene expression profile was examined by using microarrays. The microarray gene expression analysis demonstrated that cAMP regulates expression of a subset of heat stress-induced genes comprising of dnaK, grpE, dnaJ, and Rv2025c. Further we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assay by using cAMP-receptor protein of Mtb (CRPM), which demonstrated that CRPM specifically recognizes a sequence ?301AGCGACCGTCAGCACG?286 in 5'-untranslated region of dnaK. PMID:24587015

Choudhary, Eira; Bishai, William; Agarwal, Nisheeth

2014-01-01

171

Identification of electrostatic interaction sites between the regulatory and catalytic subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.  

PubMed

Two classes of molecules inhibit the catalytic subunit (C) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) and the regulatory (R) subunits. Basic sites on C, previously identified as important for R/C interaction in yeast TPK1 and corresponding to Lys213, Lys217, and Lys189 in murine C alpha, were replaced with either Ala or Thr and characterized for their kinetic properties and ability to interact with RI and PKI. rC(K213A) and rC(K217A) were both defective in forming holoenzyme with RI but were inhibited readily with PKI. This contrasts with rC(R133A), which is defective in binding PKI but not RI (Wen & Taylor, 1994). Thus, the C-subunit employs two distinct electrostatic surfaces to achieve high-affinity binding with these two types of inhibitory molecules even though all inhibitors share a common consensus site that occupies the active site cleft. Unlike TPK1, mutation of Lys189 had no effect. The mutant C subunits that were defective in binding RI, rC(K213A) and rC(K217A), were then paired with three RI mutants, rRI(D140A), rRI(E143A), and rRI(D258A), shown previously to be defective in recognition of C. Although the mutations at Asp140 and Asp258 in RI were additive with respect to the C mutations. rC(K213A) and rRI(E143A) were compensatory, thus identifying a specific electrostatic interaction site between RI and C. The results are discussed in terms of the RI and C crystal structures and the sequence homology between the yeast and mammalian enzymes. PMID:9300482

Gibson, R M; Ji-Buechler, Y; Taylor, S S

1997-09-01

172

The Role of Cyclic AMP in Normalizing the Function of Engineered Human Blood Microvessels in Microfluidic Collagen Gels  

PubMed Central

Nearly all engineered tissues must eventually be vascularized to survive. To this end, we and others have recently developed methods to synthesize extracellular matrix-based scaffolds that contain open microfluidic networks. These scaffolds serve as templates for the formation of endothelial tubes that can be perfused; whether such microvascular structures are stable and/or functional is largely unknown. Here, we show that compounds that elevate intracellular concentrations of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) strongly normalize the phenotype of engineered human microvessels in microfluidic type I collagen gels. Cyclic AMP-elevating agents promoted vascular stability and barrier function, and reduced cellular turnover. Under conditions that induced the highest levels of cAMP, the physiology of engineered microvessels in vitro quantitatively mirrored that of native vessels in vivo. Computational analysis indicated that cAMP stabilized vessels partly via its enhancement of barrier function. PMID:20303168

Wong, Keith H. K.; Truslow, James G.; Tien, Joe

2010-01-01

173

Involvement of cyclic AMP systems in morphine physical dependence in mice: prevention of development of morphine dependence by rolipram, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined whether morphine dependence was inhibited by rolipram, a cyclic AMP selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor in mice, since a role for the cyclic AMP systems in the development of morphine dependence has been reported. Mice, which received morphine (10?mg?kg?1 s.c.) twice a day for 5 days showed withdrawal syndromes such as jumping, rearing and forepaw tremor following naloxone challenge (5?mg?kg?1 i.p.) on the 6th day. Such mice exhibited a significant elevation of cyclic AMP levels in the thalamus compared to control mice. However, co-administration of rolipram (1?mg?kg?1 i.p.) with morphine for 5 days significantly attenuated the severity of the withdrawal syndrome and the increase in the cyclic AMP levels after the administration of naloxone. In naïve mice, acute morphine treatment (10?mg?kg?1 s.c.) decreased cyclic AMP levels in the thalamus and cerebral cortex 10?min later. The decrease of cyclic AMP levels induced by acute morphine treatment was blocked by co-administration of rolipram (1?mg?kg?1 i.p.). However, acute rolipram did not affect the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome. These results suggest that the elevation of the cyclic AMP levels is involved in the development of morphine withdrawal syndrome and that blockade of the morphine-induced reduction of cyclic AMP levels by chronic rolipram inhibits the development of dependence and the behavioural and biochemical changes induced by naloxone. Furthermore, rolipram may be a useful drug for attenuating the development of morphine dependence. PMID:11226142

Mamiya, Takayoshi; Noda, Yukihiro; Ren, Xiuhai; Hamdy, Moustafa; Furukawa, Shoei; Kameyama, Tsutomu; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

2001-01-01

174

L E T T E R S AKAP-Lbc enhances cyclic AMP control of the ERK1/2  

E-print Network

L E T T E R S AKAP-Lbc enhances cyclic AMP control of the ERK1/2 cascade F. Donelson Smith1-kinase-anchoring protein AKAP-Lbc and the scaffolding protein kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR-1) form the core of a signalling network that efficiently relay signals from RAF, through MEK, and on to ERK1/2. AKAP-Lbc functions

Scott, John D.

175

The Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Is Dependent on GcvA for Regulation of the gcv Operon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Escherichia coli gcv operon is transcriptionally regulated by the GcvA, GcvR, Lrp, and PurR proteins. In this study, the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) is shown to be involved in positive regulation of the gcv operon. A crp deletion reduced expression of a gcvT-lacZ fusion almost fourfold in glucose minimal (GM) medium. The phenotype was complemented by both

LAURA D. WONDERLING; GEORGE V. STAUFFER

1999-01-01

176

Roles of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic AMP in mast cell histamine release induced by radiographic contrast media.  

PubMed

Mast cell histamine release is considered to be associated with the etiology of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated radiographic contrast media (RCM). In the present study, the effects of various ionic and non-ionic RCM on histamine release from mast cells were compared, and the possible mechanisms of the histamine release were subsequently determined. Both ionic (ioxaglate and amidotrizoate) and non-ionic (iohexol, ioversol, iomeprol, iopamidol and iotrolan) RCM increased histamine release from the dissociated rat pulmonary cells, whereby ionic materials were more potent than non-ionic agents. There was no significant correlation between the extent of histamine release and the osmolarity of each RCM solution. In addition, hyperosmotic mannitol solution (1000 mOsm/kg) caused no marked histamine release. Thus, it is unlikely that the hyperosmolarity of RCM solutions contributes to the histamine release. RCM also stimulated, but to a lesser extent, the histamine release from rat peritoneal cells. The RCM-induced histamine release from both types of cells was inhibited by dibutyl cyclic AMP or combined treatment with forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Corresponding to these results, RCM markedly reduced the cellular cyclic AMP content. On the other hand, the removal of intracellular but not the extracellular Ca2+ attenuated the RCM-induced mast cell histamine release. From these findings, it is suggested that the decrease in cellular cyclic AMP content and an increase in intracellular Ca2+ contribute at least in part to the RCM-induced mast cell histamine release. PMID:12690428

Saito, Mami; Itoh, Yoshinori; Yano, Takahisa; Sendo, Toshiaki; Goromaru, Takeshi; Sakai, Naoko; Oishi, Ryozo

2003-04-01

177

5-Carboxamidotryptamine: a potent agonist mediating relaxation and elevation of cyclic AMP in the isolated neonatal porcine vena cava.  

PubMed

5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) caused concentration dependent relaxation of isolated rings from the porcine vena cava contracted with either prostaglandin F2 alpha, histamine or alpha-methyl 5-hydroxytryptamine. Relaxation was not inhibited by propranolol (l microM), atropine (1 microM), indomethacin (3 microM), mepyramine (1 microM), cimetidine (1 microM), or cocaine (10 microM). Methysergide, but not cyproheptadine, was a competitive antagonist of the relaxant effect of 5-CT with a pA2 value of 7.88. 5-Carboxamidotryptamine also increased the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, an effect which was antagonised by methysergide (apparent pA2: 7.95) but not cyproheptadine. The alpha-methyl analogue of 5-hydroxytryptamine did not cause relaxation or elevate cyclic AMP. These results suggest that 5-CT causes relaxation and elevation of cyclic AMP by interaction with a specific 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor which is '5-HT1-like'. PMID:2422518

Trevethick, M A; Feniuk, W; Humphrey, P P

1986-04-21

178

Cyclic AMP restores a normal phenotype to sis oncogene transformed cells and inhibits inositol phospholipid turnover  

SciTech Connect

The sis oncogene encodes the A chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with the cloned sis oncogene display a malignant phenotype and have enhanced turnover of the regulatory phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate (PIP2). They have found that elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP can restore many aspects of normal growth and morphology to sis-transformed cells. Cells rapidly become less refractile, flatten on the substratum, develop actomyosin bundles, and acquire a more tranquil membrane. Growth rate and saturation density are reduced. Cultures become contact-inhibited and, at confluence, assume a normal fibrobastic morphology. The ability to grow in low serum or suspension is lost. Following addition of 8-Br-cAMP, cellular levels of PIP and PIP2 increase to those in untransformed cells. Concurrently, the steady-state levels of inositol phosphates are reduced to normal values. They have found a similar effect of cAMP on inositol phospholipid metabolism in cells transformed by the human H-ras oncogene. These results suggest that cAMP, acting through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, antagonizes ras and sis oncogene expression by inhibiting polyphosphoinositide turnover. Such action might occur by phosphorylation of the PDGF (sis) receptor or of a ras-stimulated phospholipase C.

Murphy, S.K.; Lazarus, A.; Pendergas, M.; Lockwood, A.H.

1987-05-01

179

Cyclic AMP in oocytes controls meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary.  

PubMed

In mammalian ovaries, a fixed population of primordial follicles forms during the perinatal stage and the oocytes contained within are arrested at the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase I. In the current study, we provide evidence that the level of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in oocytes regulates oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary. Our results show that the early meiotic development of oocytes is closely correlated with increased levels of intra-oocyte cAMP. Inhibiting cAMP synthesis in fetal ovaries delayed oocyte meiotic progression and inhibited the disassembly and degradation of synaptonemal complex protein 1. In addition, inhibiting cAMP synthesis in in vitro cultured fetal ovaries prevented primordial follicle formation. Finally, using an in situ oocyte chromosome analysis approach, we found that the dictyate arrest of oocytes is essential for primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions. Taken together, these results suggest a role for cAMP in early meiotic development and primordial follicle formation in the mouse ovary. PMID:25503411

Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Li, Ge; Mu, Xinyi; Wang, Zhengpin; Feng, Lizhao; Niu, Wanbao; Huang, Kun; Xiang, Xi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Guoliang

2015-01-15

180

Role of phosphodiesterase 4-mediated cyclic AMP signaling in pharmacotherapy for substance dependence.  

PubMed

The harmful effects caused by misuse of psychoactive substances have raised both medical and social problems. Substance dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder, which appears to involve neuroadaptive changes in cellular signaling and downstream gene expression. The unchanged consumption of present substances and increasing demand for new psychostimulants make the development of novel management/treatment strategies challenging. Emerging evidence has shown that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling cascade plays a critical role in the initiation and development of dependence. Thus, phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), the primary hydrolytic enzyme for intracellular cAMP, is considered a potential target for future therapeutics dealing with prevention and intervention of substance dependence. This implication is supported by recent data from preclinical studies, and the rapid development of PDE4 inhibitors. Taken together, specific inhibitors of PDE4 and its subtypes possibly represent a novel class of pharmacotherapies for the prevention and abstinence of substance dependence. Here we discuss the modulatory role of cAMP signal transduction in the process of substance dependence and highlight recent evidence that PDE4 inhibitors might be a promising approach to substance dependence therapy. PMID:25159074

Wen, Rui-Ting; Feng, Wan-Yu; Liang, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Han-Ting

2015-01-01

181

A mitogen-responsive promoter region that is synergistically activated through multiple signalling pathways.  

PubMed Central

A regulatory region of the human transferrin receptor gene promoter was found to be required for increased expression in response to serum or growth factors. This region contains two elements that appear to cooperate for full responsiveness. We found that sodium orthovanadate treatment of cells significantly activated expression of promoter constructs containing these elements. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate alone induced a twofold increase in expression but acted synergistically with vanadate to generate a highly elevated level of expression. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP alone had no effect on expression, but when added together with vanadate and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, led to superinduction of the promoter construct. Induction of expression by these reagents was delayed several hours, and the kinetics were identical to those observed for serum induction. Images PMID:8382776

Ouyang, Q; Bommakanti, M; Miskimins, W K

1993-01-01

182

Cyclic AMP levels during induction and repression of cellulase biosynthesis in Thermomonospora curvata  

SciTech Connect

Specific cellulase production rates (SCPR) were compared with intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata, during growth on several carbon sources in a chemically defined medium. SCPR and cAMP levels were 0.03 U (endoglucanase (EG) units) and 2 pmol per mg of dry cells, respectively, during exponential growth on glucose. These values increased to about 6 and 25, respectively, during growth on cellulose. Detectable EG production ceased when cAMP levels dropped below 10. Cellobiose (usually considered to be a cellulase inducer) caused a sharp decrease in cAMP levels and repressed EG production when added to cellulose-grown cultures. 2-deoxy-D-glucose, although nometabolizable in T. curvata, depressed cAMP to levels observed with glucose, but unlike glucose, the 2DG effect persisted until cells were washed and transferred to fresh medium. SCPR values and cAMP levels in cells grown in continuous culture under conditions of cellobiose limitation were markedly influenced by dilution rate (D). The maxima for both occurred at D = 0.085 (culture generation time of 11.8 h). When D was held constant and cellobiose concentration was increased over a 14-fold range to support higher steady state population levels, SCPR values decreased about fivefold, indicating that extracellular catabolite accumulation may be a factor in EG repression. The role of cAMP in the mechanism of this repression appears to be neither simple nor direct, since large changes (up to 200-fold) in SCPR accompany relatively small changes (10-fold) in cellular cAMP levels.

Wood, W.E.; Neubauer, D.G.; Stutzenberger, F.J.

1984-12-01

183

Effects of prostaglandin E2, cholera toxin and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression of cytokines in human macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) appears to regulate macrophage cytokine production through the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs protein)-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent transmembrane signal transduction pathway. In this study, we used PGE2, cholera toxin (CT; a direct G alpha s protein stimulator) and 8-bromo-cAMP (a membrane permeable cAMP analogue) to stimulate this pathway, and investigated their influence on cytokine gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human macrophages. The mRNA expression for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-8 were determined employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. We demonstrated that PGE2, CT and 8-bromo-cAMP inhibited the LPS-induced gene activation of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha, and had no effect on the gene activation of IL-1 beta and IL-8. Further, our data indicate that PGE2 suppressed the gene activation of IL-6 following LPS stimulation, but neither CT nor 8-bromo-cAMP had an effect. These data suggest that PGE2 alters LPS-stimulated gene activation of only some of the early macrophage cytokines, and does so either by a Gs transmembrane cAMP-dependent or an independent system. Images Figure 1 PMID:7751029

Zhong, W W; Burke, P A; Drotar, M E; Chavali, S R; Forse, R A

1995-01-01

184

Suppression of a yeast cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase defect by overexpression of SOK1, a yeast gene exhibiting sequence similarity to a developmentally regulated mouse gene.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A kinase) activity is essential for growth and cell cycle progression. Dependence on A kinase function can be partially relieved by the inactivation of a second kinase encoded by the gene YAK1. We have isolated two new genes, SOK1 and SOK2 (suppressor of kinase), as gene dosage suppressors of the conditional growth defect of several temperature-sensitive A kinase mutants. Overexpression of SOK1, like lesions in YAK1, also restores growth to a strain (tpk1 tpk2 tpk3) lacking all A kinase activity. The SOK1 gene is not essential, but a sok1::HIS3 disruption abrogates suppression of an A kinase defect by yak1. These results suggest that Yak1 and Sok1 define a linear pathway that is partially redundant with that of the A kinase. Activation of Sok1, by SOK1 overexpression or by inactivation of the negative regulator Yak1, renders a cell independent of A kinase function. The implications of such a model are particularly intriguing in light of the nuclear localization pattern of the overexpressed Sok1 protein and the primary sequence homology between SOK1 and a recently described, developmentally regulated mouse gene. PMID:8065298

Ward, M P; Garrett, S

1994-09-01

185

Selective unresponsiveness to the inhibition of p38 MAPK activation by cAMP helps L929 fibroblastoma cells escape TNF-?-induced cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway has been reported to either promote or suppress cell death, in a cell context-dependent manner. Our previous study has shown that the induction of dynein light chain (DLC) by cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is required for cAMP-mediated inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 activation in fibroblasts, which leads to suppression of

Jing Wang; Ruihong Tang; Ming Lv; Jiyan Zhang; Beifen Shen

2010-01-01

186

Human thyroid cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Its characterization and the effect of several hormones on the activity.  

PubMed

Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities (3',5'-cyclic AMP 5'-nucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.17) were investigated in the human thyroid gland from patients with hyperthyroidism. Low substrate concentration (0.4 muM) was used. About 60% of the cyclic-AMP and 80% of the cyclic-GMP hydrolytic activities in the homogenate were obtained in the soluble fraction (105 000 X g supernatant). The thyroid gland contains two forms of cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase, one with a Km of 1.3-10(-5) M and the second with a Km of 2-10(-6) M. Cyclic-AMP and cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase were purified by gel filtration on a Sepharose-6B column. Cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activities were found in a broad area corresponding to molecular weights ranging from approx. 200 000 to 250 000 and cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity was found in a single area corresponding to a molecular weight of 260 000. Cyclis-AMP phosphodiesterase activities were stimulated by the protein activator which was found in human thyroid and this stimulation was dependent on Ca2+. Stimulation of cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase by the activator was not significant even in the presence of enough Ca2+. The effect of D,L-triiodothyronine, D,L-thyroxine, L-diiodotyrosine, L-monoiodotyrosine, L-thyronine, L-diiodothyronine, thyrotropin, hydrocortisone, adrenocorticotropin, cyclic-AMP and cyclic-GMP on the phosphodiesterase activities was studied. Cyclic-AMP, cyclic-GMP, D,L-triiosothyronine, D,L-thyroxine, adrenocorticotropin and hydrocortisone where found to inhibit the phophodiesterase. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine inhibited cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase more effectively than cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. Thyroxine was a more potent inhibitor than triiodothyronine. The concentration of cyclic AMP producing a 50% inhibition of cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity was 5-10(-5) M, while the concentration of cyclic GMP producing a 50% inhibition of cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase was 3-10(-3) M. Both cyclic-AMP and cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activities in the homogenate of hyperthyroidism, thyroid carcinoma and adenoma were higher than in normal thyroid tissue, when assayed with a low concentration of the substrate (0.4 muM). When a higher concentration (1 mM) of cyclic nucleotides was used as the substrate, cyclic-AMP hydrolytic activity in adenoma tissue was similar to that of normal tissue, while the other activities were higher than normal. PMID:182233

Nagasaka, A; Hidaka, H

1976-07-01

187

Genome-Wide Identification of In Vivo Binding Sites of GlxR, a Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Type Regulator in Corynebacterium glutamicum?†  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium glutamicum GlxR is a cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-type regulator. Although over 200 GlxR-binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome are predicted in silico, studies on the physiological function of GlxR have been hindered by the severe growth defects of a glxR mutant. This study identified the GlxR regulon by chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray (ChIP-chip) analyses. In total, 209 regions were detected as in vivo GlxR-binding sites. In vitro binding assays and promoter-reporter assays demonstrated that GlxR directly activates expression of genes for aerobic respiration, ATP synthesis, and glycolysis and that it is required for expression of genes for cell separation and mechanosensitive channels. GlxR also directly represses a citrate uptake gene in the presence of citrate. Moreover, ChIP-chip analyses showed that GlxR was still able to interact with its target sites in a mutant with a deletion of cyaB, the sole adenylate cyclase gene in the genome, even though binding affinity was markedly decreased. Thus, GlxR is physiologically functional at the relatively low cAMP levels in the cyaB mutant, allowing the cyaB mutant to grow much better than the glxR mutant. PMID:21665967

Toyoda, Koichi; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

2011-01-01

188

Changes in expression of adenyl cyclase activity in human endometrium during hormone replacement therapy and ovarian stimulation.  

PubMed

We have investigated membrane fractions prepared from human endometrium for activity of the signalling adenyl cyclase (AC). We characterized the AC guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and examined the changes in AC activity during evaluation cycles of oestrogen and progesterone replacement therapy as well during ovarian stimulation cycles. AC activity was determined by the conversion of substrate ATP into cyclic AMP under basal conditions and in the presence of guanine nucleotide or forskolin. G proteins were determined by Western Blot using specific polyclonal antibodies against Gsalpha, Gi1,2alpha and Gi3alpha. Our results indicate that endometrial AC was highly responsive to activation by both guanine nucleotide and forskolin and its rate of cyclic AMP production was highly pronounced. Mean activity reached 920 pmol/l/min/mg membrane protein in the presence of forskolin, a value approximately 5-fold higher than those detected in corpus luteum. Hormonal induction of AC activities increased Gsalpha protein, which couples with and stimulates the catalytic component of AC. We conclude that human endometrium is rich in AC and that enzyme activity is induced by oestrogen and progesterone treatment. These data strongly support the concept that the transmembrane signalling AC system and its messenger cyclic AMP are major regulators of endometrial function in the human. PMID:10508224

Bernardini, L; Moretti-Rojas, I; Brush, M; Rojas, F J; Balmaceda, J P

1999-10-01

189

Circadian responses of teleostean oocytes to gonadotropins and prostaglandins determined by cyclic AMP concentration  

E-print Network

fontinalis, Salmo gairdneri and Notemigonus crysoleucas (O'Connor, 1972 ; De Vlaming and Vodicnik, 1977 in N. crysoleucas, and a maximal stimulatory effect of gonadotro- pins for inducing ovulation in vitro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Volume 159, number 1,2 FEBS 0638 August 1983 Specific DNA binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein to a  

E-print Network

Volume 159, number 1,2 FEBS 0638 August 1983 Specific DNA binding of the cyclic AMP receptor receptor protein (CRP) of Escherichia coli regulates the transcription of at least 20 genes including its (HPLC) as in [18]. CAMP was purchased from Sigma, and used without further purification. All other

Clore, G. Marius

191

CREB DNA binding activation by a 50Hz magnetic field in HL60 cells is dependent on extra- and intracellular Ca 2+ but not PKA, PKC, ERK, or p38 MAPK  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the possible mechanism of gene transcription changes induced by magnetic field (MF), we examined the DNA binding behavior of the transcription factor cyclic-AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in HL60 cells after exposure to a 0.1mT 50-Hz extremely low frequency (ELF) sinusoidal MF by a gel shift assay. Magnetic field induced a time-dependent activation of CREB binding. The

Jiliang Zhou; Gengdong Yao; Jingsong Zhang; Zongliang Chang

2002-01-01

192

Prior exposure to gonadotrophins prevents the subsequent antigonadotrophic actions of cloprostenol by a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism in cultured human granulosa cells.  

PubMed

The antigonadotrophic action of a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue, cloprostenol, has been investigated in human granulosa cells obtained from cycles stimulated for in-vitro fertilization and induced to secrete luteal quantities of progesterone by culture in serum-supplemented medium. Cells were exposed to conditions which may mimic those occurring in early pregnancy to establish the roles of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) versus LH and that of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the anti-gonadotrophic action of cloprostenol. When human granulosa cells were cultured in the absence of treatment for 3 days, exposure to cloprostenol had no effect on basal progesterone production but inhibited hCG-stimulated progesterone (60% decrease; P less than 0.01), hCG-stimulated cAMP (40% decrease; P less than 0.05) and the progesterone response to dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP; 70% decrease; P less than 0.01), suggesting pre- and post-cAMP sites of cloprostenol action. The inhibitory actions of cloprostenol were prevented when the granulosa cells were either continuously exposed to treatment from the start of culture or pre-exposed for 3 days to maximum concentrations of LH, hCG, dbcAMP or 8-bromo-cAMP. We conclude that prior exposure either in vivo or in vitro to LH or hCG prevents the subsequent antigonadotrophic action of cloprostenol via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Prevention of the antigonadotrophic action of cloprostenol after exposure to hCG may be a mechanism through which CG prevents regression of the corpus luteum in early pregnancy, while the suppressive effect of LH pretreatment may account for the refractory response of the early corpus luteum to cloprostenol following the midcycle LH surge. PMID:1660521

Michael, A E; Webley, G E

1991-11-01

193

Synthesis of interleukin 6 (interferon-. beta. /sub 2//B cell stimulatory factor 2) in human fibroblasts is triggered by an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP  

SciTech Connect

Interleukin 6 (IL-6; also referred to as interferon-..beta../sub 2/, 26-kDa protein, and B cell stimulatory factor 2) is a cytokine whose actions include a stimulation of immunoglobulin synthesis, enhancement of B cell growth, and modulation of acute phase protein synthesis by hepatocytes. Synthesis of IL-6 is stimulated by interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or platelet-derived growth factor. The authors examined the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signal transduction pathway in IL-6 gene expression. Several activators of adenylate cyclase, including prostaglandin E1, forskolin, and cholera toxin, as well as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine and the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP, shared the ability to cause a dramatic and sustained increase in IL-6 mRNA levels in human FS-4 fibroblasts. Actinomycin D treatment abolished this enhancement. Treatments that increased intracellular cAMP also stimulated the secretion of the IL-6 protein in a biologically active form. Increased intracellular cAMP appears to enhance IL-6 gene expression by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism because down-regulation of protein kinase C by a chronic exposure of cells to a high dose of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate did not abolish the enhancement of IL-6 expression by treatments that increase cAMP. IL-1 and TNF too increased IL-6 mRNA levels by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. The results suggest a role for the cAMP-dependent pathway(s) in IL-6 gene activation by TNF and IL-1.

Zhange, Y.; Lin, J.X.; Vilcek, J.

1988-05-05

194

Cyclic AMP Activates Anion Channels in Cultured Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion coupled fluid transport by the corneal endothelium is stimulated by adenosine through a cAMP dependent mechanism. This study examines if anion conductance is enhanced by cAMP and, hence by adenosine. Cl?fluxes, measured by changes in fluorescence of the Cl?sensitive dye SPQ, following removal or re-addition of Cl?Ringer, could be accelerated by 20 ?Mforskolin or 10 ?Madenosine. The cAMP cocktail

JOSEPH A BONANNO; S. P SRINIVAS

1997-01-01

195

Production and release of cyclic AMP by Daphnia pulex: implications of grazing activity  

SciTech Connect

Daphnia pulex, a common cladoceran zooplankton species, contains tissue cAMP concentrations similar to those found in algae, bacteria, and aquatic macrophytes. Daphnia release significant quantities of cAMP into the extracellular medium. Release of algal cellular cAMP as a result of digstive degradation of algal cells may also be an important source of dissolved cAMP in lakewater.

Francko, D.A. (Michigan State Univ., Hickory Corners); Wetzel, R.G.

1982-04-01

196

Production and release of cyclic AMP by Daphnia pulex: implications of grazing activity  

SciTech Connect

Daphnia pulex, a common cladoceran zooplankton species, contains tissue cAMP concentrations similar to those found in algae, bacteria, and aquatic macrophytes. Daphnia release significant quantities of cAMP into the extracellular medium. Release of algal cellular cAMP as a result of digestive degradation of algal cells may also be an important source of dissolved cAMP in lakewater.

Francko, D.A.; Wetzel, R.G.

1982-04-01

197

Putting on the Brakes: Cyclic AMP as a Multipronged Controller of Macrophage Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Macrophages orchestrate innate immune responses in tissues by activating various proinflammatory signaling programs. A key mechanism for preventing inflammatory disease states that result from excessive activation of such programs is the generation of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by ligation of certain guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs). The pleiotropic actions of this cyclic nucleotide on various inflammatory functions of macrophages are mediated by diverse molecular mechanisms, including the assembly of distinct multiprotein complexes. A better understanding of crosstalk between cAMP signaling and proinflammatory pathways in macrophages may provide a basis for improved immunomodulatory strategies.

Marc Peters-Golden (Ann Arbor;University of Michigan Medical School REV)

2009-06-16

198

Presence of free cyclic AMP receptor protein and regulation of its level by cyclic AMP in neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells.  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells of line 108CC-5 were found to contain high levels of soluble adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase activity and high levels of two specific cAMP receptor proteins, RI and RII. Treatment of the hybrid cells with dibutyryl cAMP increased the level of RI but did not significantly affect the level either of RII or of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. The effect of dibutyryl cAMP could be mimicked by prostaglandin E1 and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, both of which are known to raise cAMP levels in neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells. Both in control as well as in dibutyryl cAMP-treated cells, RII but not RI was associated with cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Several lines of evidence suggest that RI represents the free regulatory subunit of type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The presence of this regulatory subunit as free cAMP receptor protein in neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells may be of significance with respect to the regulation of growth and differentiation in tumor cells. Images PMID:226964

Walter, U; Costa, M R; Breakefield, X O; Greengard, P

1979-01-01

199

Modulation of a human lymphoblastoid B cell line by cyclic AMP. Ig secretion and phosphatidylcholine metabolism  

SciTech Connect

A transformed human B cell line, LA350, was found to be sensitive to cAMP-elevating agents by responding with rapid (0 to 2 h) severalfold elevations of intracellular cAMP to treatment with cholera toxin, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), forskolin, and dibutyryl cAMP (all p less than 0.001). These cAMP-elevating agents also produced significant inhibitions of subsequent (48 to 72 h) Ig secretion by the same B cells as measured by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay and an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay for IgM (both p less than 0.001). PMA- and IBMX-treated cells were particularly responsive to the effects of cholera toxin, showing a doubling of cAMP content and profound decrease in Ig production (p less than 0.001). Because our previous studies had correlated activation of the metabolic turnover of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) fraction of membrane phospholipids with enhanced Ig secretion, we examined the sensitivity of PC metabolism to cAMP in control and PMA-stimulated cells. Formation of PC was found to be inhibited by forskolin and IBMX (both p less than 0.002) but breakdown of PC was stimulated (p less than 0.001). These findings imply that as the enzymatic products of PC, choline phosphate and diacylglycerol, are depleted due to the combined effects of cAMP upon synthesis and turnover of PC, there is a decrease in Ig secretion. Since diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C, it appears reasonable that Ig secretion is at least partially regulated by cAMP-responsive alterations in PC metabolism produced by protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation. We conclude that the early cAMP-sensitive changes in PC metabolism in this activated B cell line may signal for subsequent alterations in Ig secretion.

Shearer, W.T.; Patke, C.L.; Gilliam, E.B.; Rosenblatt, H.M.; Barron, K.S.; Orson, F.M.

1988-09-01

200

Cyclic AMP and its Receptor Protein Negatively Regulate the Coordinate Expression of Cholera Toxin and Toxin-Coregulated Pilus in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insertion mutations in two Vibrio cholerae genes, cya and crp, which encode adenylate cyclase and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP), respectively, derepressed the expression of a chromosomal cholera toxin (CT) promoter-lacZ fusion at the nonpermissive temperature of 37 degrees C. In the classical biotype strain O395, the crp mutation increased the production of both CT and toxin-coregulated pilus

Karen Skorupski; Ronald K. Taylor

1997-01-01

201

Activation of cAMP and mitogen responsive genes relies on a common nuclear factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NUMBER of signalling pathways stimulate transcription of target genes through nuclear factors whose activities are primarily regul-ated by phosphorylation. Cyclic AMP regulates the expression of numerous genes, for example, through the protein kinase-A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB at Ser 1331,2. Although phosphorylation may stimulate transcrip-tional activators by modulating their nuclear transport or DNA-binding affinity3, CREB belongs to

J. Arias; A. S. Alberts; P. Brindle; F. X. Claret; T. Smeal; M. Karin; J. Feramisco; M. Montminy

1994-01-01

202

TGF-beta 1 and cyclic AMP promote apoptosis in resting human B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

TGF-beta and agents that elevate intracellular cAMP levels are potent inhibitors of B cell activation in vitro and have been shown to arrest stimulated B cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We tested the effects of TGF-beta 1 and the cAMP-inducing agent, forskolin, on the viability of resting B cells from human peripheral blood, and found that both agents caused a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell death relative to spontaneous death in medium alone, as measured by vital dye staining with propidium iodide. Apoptosis was shown to be the overall mode of death by demonstrating DNA fragmentation using DNA nick end labeling and by verifying the characteristic morphologic changes. In contrast with TGF-beta 1 and forskolin, various B cell activation stimuli generally inhibited spontaneous apoptosis of resting cells. The most potent effects were observed with IL-4 and the phorbol ester, O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C. IL-4 also partly inhibited TGF-beta 1 and forskolin-induced apoptosis. In contrast, TPA completely reversed cell death in forskolin-treated cultures, but had no effect on TGF-beta 1-induced apoptosis, indicating that TGF-beta 1 and forskolin promote apoptosis by different mechanisms. The relative protein expression of bcl-2, a proto-oncogene that inhibits apoptosis, was unaltered by the apoptotic as well as the survival stimuli tested, suggesting that apoptosis was regulated by a bcl-2-independent mechanism. We conclude that apoptosis is a regulated phenomenon in resting human B cells. Furthermore, TGF-beta and cAMP may inhibit B cell responses not only by blocking cell cycle progression in activated cells, but also by inducing apoptosis in resting cells. PMID:7836748

Lømo, J; Blomhoff, H K; Beiske, K; Stokke, T; Smeland, E B

1995-02-15

203

Biophysical properties and microfilament assembly in neutrophils: modulation by cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

The microfilament lattice, composed primarily of filamentous (F)-actin, determines in large part the mechanical (deformability) properties of neutrophils, and thus may regulate the ability of neutrophils to transit a microvascular bed. Circulating factors may stimulate the neutrophil to become rigid and therefore be retained in the capillaries. We hypothesized that cell stiffening might be attenuated by an increase in intracellular cAMP. A combination of cell filtration and cell poking (mechanical indentation) was used to measure cell deformability. Neutrophils pretreated with dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) or the combination of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a stimulator of adenylate cyclase) and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase) demonstrated significant inhibition of the n-formyl- methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-inducing stiffening. The inhibition of cell stiffening was associated with an increase in intracellular cAMP as measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) and an increase in the activity of the cAMP-dependent kinase (A-kinase). Treatment with PGE2 and IBMX also resulted in a decrease in the F-actin content of stimulated neutrophils as assayed by NBD-phallacidin staining and flow cytometry or by changes in right angle light scattering. Direct addition of cAMP to electropermeabilized neutrophils resulted in attenuation of fMLP-induced actin assembly. Neutrophils stimulated with fMLP demonstrated a rapid redistribution of F-actin from a diffuse cortical location to a peripheral ring as assessed by conventional and scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Pretreatment of neutrophils with the combination of IBMX and PGE2 resulted in incomplete development and fragmentation of the cortical ring. We conclude that assembly and redistribution of F-actin may be responsible for cell stiffening after exposure to stimulants and that this response was attenuated by agents that increase intracellular cAMP, by altering the amount and spatial organization of the microfilament component of the cytoskeleton. PMID:1716633

1991-01-01

204

Cyclic nucleotide responses and radiation-induced mitotic delay in Physarum polycephalum  

SciTech Connect

The response of the plasmodial levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in Physarum polycephalum to several putative phosphodiesterase inhibitors and to ionizing radiation has been measured. Isobutylmethylxanthine (2 mM) induces a rapid transient threefold elevation of cyclic AMP alone, with maximum response in about 10 min and return to the base line in about 30 min. Theophylline (2 mM) induces a rapid, sustained twofold elevation of cyclic GMP only. Caffeine (2mM) and Ro-20-1724 (18 ..mu..M) both elicit a rapid transient rise in cyclic AMP, resembling the isobutylmethylxanthine response, and a slow transient elevation of the cyclic GMP level. Of particular interest is the rapid threefold transient elevation of the cyclic AMP, but not of the cyclic GMP, level by ..gamma.. radiation.

Daniel, J.W.; Oleinick, N.L.

1984-02-01

205

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Catabolite Repression Is the Dominant Control Mechanism of Metabolic Fluxes under Glucose Limitation in Escherichia coli? †  

PubMed Central

Although a whole arsenal of mechanisms are potentially involved in metabolic regulation, it is largely uncertain when, under which conditions, and to which extent a particular mechanism actually controls network fluxes and thus cellular physiology. Based on 13C flux analysis of Escherichia coli mutants, we elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, CreB, CreC, Crp, Cya, Fnr, Hns, Mlc, OmpR, and UspA on aerobic glucose catabolism in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a growth rate of 0.1 h?1. The by far most relevant control mechanism was cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent catabolite repression as the inducer of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-glyoxylate cycle and thus low tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes. While all other mutants and the reference E. coli strain exhibited high glyoxylate shunt and PEP carboxykinase fluxes, and thus high PEP-glyoxylate cycle flux, this cycle was essentially abolished in both the Crp and Cya mutants, which lack the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein complex. Most other mutations were phenotypically silent, and only the Cra and Hns mutants exhibited slightly altered flux distributions through PEP carboxykinase and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. The Cra effect on PEP carboxykinase was probably the consequence of a specific control mechanism, while the Hns effect appears to be unspecific. For central metabolism, the available data thus suggest that a single transcriptional regulation process exerts the dominant control under a given condition and this control is highly specific for a single pathway or cycle within the network. PMID:18223071

Nanchen, Annik; Schicker, Alexander; Revelles, Olga; Sauer, Uwe

2008-01-01

206

Cyclic AMP Modulation of Ion Transport Across Frog Retinal Pigment Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ? In the frog retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the cellular levels ofcyclic AMP (CAMP)were measured,in control,conditionsandaftertreatment with,substances,that,are known,to,inhibit,phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity (isobutyl-l-methylxanthine, SQ65442) or stimulate adenylate cyclase activity (forskolin) . TRPE .

Sheldon Miller; Debora Farber

207

The differential stimulation of brain and heart cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase by oncomodulin.  

PubMed

Ca2+/calmodulin dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, from the bovine heart and brain, purified by monoclonal antibody chromatography were tested with respect to activation by oncomodulin. The heart and brain enzymes which have previously been shown to have slightly different electrophoretic mobilities (1), were found to also differ in the oncomodulin dose-dependent activation of cAMP hydrolysis. Oncomodulin was shown to activate the heart enzyme to the same extent as calmodulin. However, this study indicates that the heart phosphodiesterase has approximately 25-fold higher affinity for oncomodulin than the brain enzyme. The oncomodulin concentration required for the half-maximal activation of the heart phosphodiesterase was estimated to be 2 X 10(-7)M. In addition, the possibility of the observed activation by oncomodulin being due to calmodulin contamination can be ruled out as the oncomodulin activation profiles were unaltered subsequent to chromatography on organomercurial agarose and the activation by oncomodulin could not be reversed by anti-calmodulin IgG. PMID:2994666

Mutus, B; Karuppiah, N; Sharma, R K; MacManus, J P

1985-08-30

208

[Effect of cyclic AMP on retrogression of the Mullerian ducts in chick embryos].  

PubMed

Theophyllin and puromycine, inhibitors of the enzyme phosphodiesterase and AMPc are all able to inhibit the retrogression of mullerian ducts in the female chick embryo, grafted with an embryonic testis. We can think that these results are explained by an inhibitory action of AMPc on the mechanisms responsible for the mullerian retrogression. So the chick embryo reacts similarly as do the mammalian embryo. PMID:199323

Stoll, R; Rashedi, M; Maraud, R

1977-01-01

209

Handb Exp Pharmacol . Author manuscript AMP-activated protein kinase and metabolic control  

E-print Network

effects of physical activity or those of calorie restriction by acting on multiple cellular targets Keywords Anti-Obesity Agents ; pharmacology ; therapeutic use ; Caloric Restriction ; Cyclic AMP ; physiology ; Enzyme Inhibitors ; pharmacology ; therapeutic use ; Exercise ; physiology ; Humans

210

Discovery of a cAMP Deaminase That Quenches Cyclic AMP-Dependent Regulation  

PubMed Central

An enzyme of unknown function within the amidohydrolase superfamily was discovered to catalyze the hydrolysis of the universal second messenger, cyclic-3’, 5’-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The enzyme, which we have named CadD, is encoded by the human pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans. Although CadD is annotated as an adenosine deaminase, the protein specifically deaminates cAMP to cyclic-3’, 5’-inosine monophosphate (cIMP) with a kcat/Km of 2.7 ± 0.4 × 105 M?1 s?1 and has no activity on adenosine, adenine, or 5’-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This is the first identification of a deaminase specific for cAMP. Expression of CadD in Escherichia coli mimics the loss of adenylate cyclase in that it blocks growth on carbon sources that require the cAMP-CRP transcriptional activator complex for expression of the cognate genes. The cIMP reaction product cannot replace cAMP as the ligand for CRP binding to DNA in vitro and cIMP is a very poor competitor of cAMP activation of CRP for DNA binding. Transcriptional analyses indicate that CadD expression represses expression of several cAMP-CRP dependent genes. CadD adds a new activity to the cAMP metabolic network and may be a useful tool in intracellular study of cAMP-dependent processes. PMID:24074367

Goble, Alissa M.; Feng, Youjun; Raushel, Frank M.; Cronan, John E.

2013-01-01

211

Cyclic AMP Stimulates Neurite Outgrowth of Lamprey Reticulospinal Neurons without Substantially Altering Their Biophysical Properties  

PubMed Central

Reticulospinal (RS) neurons are critical for initiation of locomotor behavior, and following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, the axons of these neurons regenerate and restore locomotor behavior within a few weeks. For lamprey RS neurons in culture, experimental induction of calcium influx, either in the growth cone or cell body, is inhibitory for neurite outgrowth. Following SCI, these neurons partially downregulate calcium channel expression, which would be expected to reduce calcium influx and possibly provide supportive conditions for axonal regeneration. In the present study, it was tested whether activation of second messenger signaling pathways stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey RS neurons without altering their electrical properties (e.g. spike broadening) so as to possibly increase calcium influx and compromise axonal growth. First, activation of cAMP pathways with forskolin or dbcAMP stimulated neurite outgrowth of RS neurons in culture in a PKA-dependent manner, while activation of cGMP signaling pathways with dbcGMP inhibited outgrowth. Second, neurophysiological recordings from uninjured RS neurons in isolated lamprey brain-spinal cord preparations indicated that dbcAMP or dbcGMP did not significantly affect any of the measured electrical properties. In contrast, for uninjured RS neurons, forskolin increased action potential duration, which might have increased calcium influx, but did not significantly affect most other electrical properties. Importantly, for injured RS neurons during the period of axonal regeneration, forskolin did not significantly alter their electrical properties. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of cAMP signaling by dbcAMP stimulates neurite outgrowth, but does not alter the electrical properties of lamprey RS neurons in such a way that would be expected to induce calcium influx. In conclusion, our results suggest that activation of cAMP pathways alone, without compensation for possible deleterious effects on electrical properties, is an effective approach for stimulating axonal regeneration of RS neuron following SCI. PMID:23603516

Pale, Timothée; Frisch, Emily B.; McClellan, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

212

Cyclic Amp-Dependent Resuscitation of Dormant Mycobacteria by Exogenous Free Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

One third of the world population carries a latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, which may reactivate leading to active disease. Although TB latency has been known for many years it remains poorly understood. In particular, substances of host origin, which may induce the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, have not yet been described. In vitro models of dormant (“non-culturable”) cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis (mc2155) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were used. We found that the resuscitation of dormant M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells in liquid medium was stimulated by adding free unsaturated fatty acids (FA), including arachidonic acid, at concentrations of 1.6–10 µM. FA addition enhanced cAMP levels in reactivating M. smegmatis cells and exogenously added cAMP (3–10 mM) or dibutyryl-cAMP (0.5–1 mM) substituted for FA, causing resuscitation of M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis dormant cells. A M. smegmatis null-mutant lacking MSMEG_4279, which encodes a FA-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC), could not be resuscitated by FA but it was resuscitated by cAMP. M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells hyper-expressing AC were unable to form non-culturable cells and a specific inhibitor of AC (8-bromo-cAMP) prevented FA-dependent resuscitation. RT-PCR analysis revealed that rpfA (coding for resuscitation promoting factor A) is up-regulated in M. smegmatis in the beginning of exponential growth following the cAMP increase in lag phase caused by FA-induced cell activation. A specific Rpf inhibitor (4-benzoyl-2-nitrophenylthiocyanate) suppressed FA-induced resuscitation. We propose a novel pathway for the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria involving the activation of adenylyl cyclase MSMEG_4279 by FAs resulted in activation of cellular metabolism followed later by increase of RpfA activity which stimulates cell multiplication in exponential phase. The study reveals a probable role for lipids of host origin in the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, which may function during the reactivation of latent TB. PMID:24376605

Shleeva, Margarita; Goncharenko, Anna; Kudykina, Yuliya; Young, Danielle; Young, Michael; Kaprelyants, Arseny

2013-01-01

213

AKAP-Lbc: A molecular scaffold for the integration of cyclic AMP and Rho transduction pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are a family of functionally related proteins involved in the targeting of the PKA holoenzyme towards specific physiological substrates. We have recently identified a novel anchoring protein expressed in cardiomyocytes, called AKAP-Lbc, that functions as a PKA-targeting protein as well as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates the GTPase RhoA. Here, we discuss the

Dario Diviani; Laurent Baisamy; Aline Appert-Collin

2006-01-01

214

Genetic regulation of galactokinase in Tetrahymena by cyclic AMP, glucose, and epinephrine  

PubMed Central

We have found evidence that transcription of the galactokinase (ATP:D-galactose 1-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.6) gene is inhibited, in the animal-like protozoan Tetrahymena, by dibutyryl adenosine 3?:5?-cyclic monophosphate, glucose, and epinephrine. The specific activities of galactokinase in Tetrahymena cells grown in defined media with galactose or glycerol as the principal carbon source are equivalent; the specific activity in glucose minimal medium is [unk] the value. Thus, while there seems to be no specific induction of the enzyme by the substrate, galactose, there is a strong “repression” by glucose. This repression by glucose is mimicked, in glycerol-grown cells, by the addition of millimolar amounts of dibutyryl adenosine 3?:5?-cyclic monophosphate or phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as caffeine and theophylline. When glucose-grown cells are washed and resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium, the galactokinase specific activity increases by as much as 10-fold within 12 hr. This increase is blocked by dibutyryl adenosine 3?:5?-cyclic monophosphate and by epinephrine (synthesized by Tetrahymena, and previously shown to activate a membrane-bound adenylate cyclase in extracts of this organism), as well as by inhibitors of mRNA synthesis, maturation, and translation. Our results suggest that glucose and epinephrine can regulate transcription of the galactokinase gene by modulation of cyclic nucleotide levels. The observation that the nonmetabolized sugars 2-deoxyglucose, 2-deoxygalactose, and ?-methylglucoside are as effective as glucose suggests that the sugar itself, or an immediate metabolite such as the 1-phosphate derivative, may be the effector. PMID:205871

Roberts, Charles T.; Morse, Daniel E.

1978-01-01

215

Cyclic AMP regulates the migration and invasion potential of human pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Aggressive dissemination and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) results in poor prognosis and marked lethality. Rho monomeric G protein levels are increased in pancreatic cancer tissue. As the mechanisms underlying PDAC malignancy are little understood, we investigated the role for cAMP in regulating monomeric G protein regulated invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment of PDAC cells with cAMP elevating agents that activate adenylyl cyclases, forskolin, protein kinase A (PKA), 6-Bnz-cAMP, or the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor cilostamide significantly decreased migration and Matrigel invasion of PDAC cell lines. Inhibition was dose-dependent and not significantly different between forskolin or cilostamide treatment. cAMP elevating drugs not only blocked basal migration, but similarly abrogated transforming-growth factor-?-directed PDAC cell migration and invasion. The inhibitory effects of cAMP were prevented by the pharmacological blockade of PKA. Drugs that increase cellular cAMP levels decreased levels of active RhoA or RhoC, with a concomitant increase in phosphorylated RhoA. Diminished Rho signaling was correlated with the appearance of thickened cortical actin bands along the perimeter of non-motile forskolin or cilostamide-treated cells. Decreased migration did not reflect alterations in cell growth or programmed cell death. Collectively these data support the notion that increased levels of cAMP specifically hinder PDAC cell motility through F-actin remodeling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24115212

Zimmerman, Noah P; Roy, Ishan; Hauser, Andrew D; Wilson, Jessica M; Williams, Carol L; Dwinell, Michael B

2015-03-01

216

Cyclic AMP regulates the proportion of functional acetylcholine receptors on chicken ciliary ganglion neurons.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the number of functional acetylcholine receptors (AcChoRs) on chicken ciliary ganglion neurons in culture is considerably smaller than the total number of AcChoRs detected on the neurons by labeled receptor probes. Here we use patch-clamp recording to show that a cAMP-dependent process enhances the AcCho response of the neurons by a mechanism likely to involve an increase in the number of functional AcChoRs. The increase occurs without requiring protein synthesis and without involving a detectable increase in the total number of AcChoRs on the cell surface measured with a labeled receptor probe. The results imply that the neurons have functional and nonfunctional pools of AcChoRs and that functional receptors can be recruited from intracellular receptors or from nonfunctional receptors on the cell surface by a cAMP-dependent process. A cAMP-dependent regulation of the number of functional neurotransmitter receptors would provide a reversible mechanism by which cell-cell interactions could modulate synaptic transmission in the nervous system. PMID:2446319

Margiotta, J F; Berg, D K; Dionne, V E

1987-01-01

217

Cyclic AMP-stimulated chloride fluxes in dialyzed barnacle muscle fibers  

PubMed Central

Unidirectional chloride efflux and influx were studied in giant barnacle muscle fibers that were internally dialyzed. When cyclic 3'5'- adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was included in the dialysis fluid, both unidirectional fluxes were stimulated by about the same amount. This stimulation was not associated with measurable changes either in membrane electrical conductance or with net movements of chloride. The stimulation required the trans-side presence of chloride. The stimulated flux was inhibited by the sulfonic acid stilbene derivatives 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2',2'-disulfonate (SITS) and 4,4'- diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) or by furosemide. When cAMP was presented in high concentrations (10-5 M), the effect on chloride fluxes was characterized by a desensitization phenomenon. This desensitization was not the result of an increased amount of phosphodiesterase activity, but may be related to ATP and/or intracellular calcium levels. These results further support the hypothesis that the barnacle sarcolemma possesses a specialized chloride transport mechanism that largely engages in Cl-Cl exchange under conditions of normal intracellular pH. PMID:6273494

1981-01-01

218

Cyclic AMP-mediated endocytosis of intestinal epithelial NHE3 requires binding to synaptotagmin 1  

PubMed Central

The apical membrane Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE)3 is regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, which inhibits its activity through membrane endocytosis. The clathrin complex adaptor protein synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) appears to be essential to this process, but little is known about its expression in intestinal epithelial cells or interaction with NHE3. The intestinal epithelial expression and apical location of Syt 1 were determined by Syt 1 mRNA profiling and immunolocalization. Tandem mass spectrometry was used for protein identification. Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) cross linking suggested that NHE3 and Syt 1 were in a membrane complex following cAMP stimulation of Caco2BBE (Brush Border Expressions) cells. To investigate the regulation of NHE3 appearance in a Syt 1-containing membrane compartment, doxycycline-inducible hemaglutinin (HA)-tagged NHE3 was expressed in Caco2BBE cells. HA-NHE3 correctly targeted to the apical membrane, where, upon cAMP stimulation, it was internalized with a Syt 1-containing compartment. Site-directed mutagenesis of NHE3 showed that serine 605 (S605) was pivotal to NHE3 and Syt 1 association and internalization. Direct Syt 1 interaction with NHE3 was suggested by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. The physiological role of S552 was less clear. By FRET, this serine residue appeared to be involved in cAMP-induced Syt 1 binding of NHE3. However, when HA-tagged NHE3 S552A was expressed in Caco2 cells, the mutated construct was not inserted into the apical membrane. We conclude that intestinal epithelial Syt 1 plays an important role in cAMP-stimulated endocytosis of apical NHE3 through cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of S605 that is required for NHE3 and Syt 1 association. PMID:19926819

Musch, Mark W.; Arvans, Donna L.; Wang, Yunwei; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Solomaha, Elena

2010-01-01

219

Cyclic AMP efflux, via MRPs and A1 adenosine receptors, is critical for bovine sperm capacitation.  

PubMed

Sperm capacitation has been largely associated with an increase in cAMP, although its relevance in the underlying mechanisms of this maturation process remains elusive. Increasing evidence shows that the extrusion of cAMP through multidrug resistance associated protein 4 (MRP4) regulates cell homeostasis not only in physiological but also in pathophysiological situations and studies from our laboratory strongly support this assumption. In the present work we sought to establish the role of cAMP efflux in the regulation of sperm capacitation. Sperm capacitation was performed in vitro by exposing bovine spermatozoa to bicarbonate 40 and 70 mM; cAMP; probenecid (a MRPs general inhibitor) and an adenosine type 1 receptor (A1 adenosine receptor) selective antagonist (DPCPX). Capacitation was assessed by chlortetracycline assay and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction assessed by PSA-FITC staining. Intracellular and extracellular cAMP was measured by radiobinding the regulatory subunit of PKA under the same experimental conditions. MRP4 was detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Results showed that the inhibition of soluble adenylyl cyclase significantly inhibited bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. Furthermore, in the presence of 40 and 70 mM bicarbonate bovine spermatozoa synthesized and extruded cAMP. Interestingly, in the absence of IBMX (a PDEs inhibitor) cAMP efflux still operated in sperm cells, suggesting that cAMP extrusion would be a physiological process in the spermatozoa complementary to the action of PDE. Blockade of MRPs by probenecid abolished the efflux of the cyclic nucleotide resulting not only in the accumulation of intracellular cAMP but also in the inhibition of bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. The effect of probenecid was abolished by exposing sperm cells to cAMP. The high-affinity efflux pump for cAMP, MRP4 was expressed in bovine spermatozoa and localized to the midpiece of the tail as previously reported for soluble adenylyl cyclase and A1 adenosine receptor. Additionally, blockade of A1 adenosine receptor abolished not only bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation but also that stimulated by cAMP. Present findings strongly support that cAMP efflux, presumably through MRP4, and the activation of A1 adenosine receptor regulate some events associated with bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation, and further suggest a paracrine and/or autocrine role for cAMP. PMID:23907162

Osycka-Salut, Claudia; Diez, Federico; Burdet, Juliana; Gervasi, María Gracia; Franchi, Ana; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

2014-01-01

220

Cyclic AMP and c-KIT Signaling in Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Predisposition  

PubMed Central

Background: Familial testicular germ cell tumors (FTGCTs) are hypothesized to result from the combined interaction of multiple low-penetrance genes. We reported inactivating germline mutations of the cAMP-binding phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) as modifiers of FTGCT risk. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the KITLG gene, the ligand for the cKIT tyrosine kinase receptor, as strong modifiers of susceptibility to both familial and sporadic testicular germ cell tumors. Design: We studied 94 patients with FTGCTs and 50 at-risk male relatives from 63 unrelated kindreds, in whom the PDE11A gene had been sequenced by investigating the association between KITLG genome-wide association study single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs3782179 and rs4474514 and FTGCT risk in these patients and in 692 controls. We also examined cAMP and c-KIT signaling in testicular tissues and cell lines and extended the studies to 2 sporadic cases, one with a PDE11A defect and one without, as a comparison. Results: We found a higher frequency of the KITLG risk alleles in FTGCT patients who also had a PDE11A sequence variant, compared with those with a wild-type PDE11A sequence. In NTERA-2 and Tcam-2 cells transfected with the mutated forms of PDE11A (R52T, F258Y, Y727C, R804H, V820M, R867G, and M878V), cAMP levels were significantly higher, and the relative phosphodiesterase activity was lower than in the wild-type cells. KITLG expression was consistently increased in the presence of PDE11A-inactivating defects, both at the RNA and protein levels, in familial testicular germ cell tumors. The 2 sporadic cases that were studied, one with a PDE11A defect and another without, agreed with the data in FTGTCT and in the cell lines. Conclusions: Patients with FTGCT and PDE11A defects also carry KITLG risk alleles more frequently. There may be an interaction between cAMP and c-KIT signaling in predisposition to testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:23771924

Azevedo, Monalisa F.; Horvath, Anelia; Bornstein, Ethan R.; Almeida, Madson Q.; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Faucz, Fabio R.; Gourgari, Evgenia; Nadella, Kiran; Remmers, Elaine F.; Quezado, Martha; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Kratz, Christian P.; Nesterova, Maria; Greene, Mark H.

2013-01-01

221

The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit selectively enhances calcium currents in rat nodose neurones.  

PubMed Central

1. The whole-cell variation of the patch clamp technique was used to study the effect of the purified catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A kinase catalytic subunit: AK-C) on the calcium current components of acutely dissociated rat nodose ganglion neurones. 2. The transient low-threshold calcium current component (T) was stable during whole-cell recording. In contrast, currents containing the transient high-threshold (N) and slowly inactivating high-threshold (L) current components declined steadily after stabilization of the currents during the first 5-7 min of recording. When AK-C was included in the recording pipette at physiological concentrations (50 micrograms/ml, approximately 1 microM), currents containing the N- and L-components increased in magnitude beginning 7-9 min after patch rupture, but there was no effect on the isolated T-current. The current-voltage relation of the T-current component was similar to controls, but the current-voltage relation for the N- and L-current components was shifted slightly to more depolarized clamp potentials (Vc), approximately 10 mV. 3. The effect of AK-C on currents containing the N- and L-currents was concentration dependent. There was no effect of 0.1 microgram/ml AK-C, the lowest concentration tested. Currents evoked from holding potentials (Vh) = -80 mV increased 5-10% during a 20 min recording in the presence of 1 microgram/ml AK-C and 30-35% in the presence of 50 micrograms/ml AK-C. In contrast, currents evoked from Vh = -40 mV increased 5-10% in the presence of either 1 or 50 micrograms/ml AK-C. The increase in current magnitude was associated with an increased rate of current inactivation and was evident particularly in currents evoked from Vh = -80 mV. 4. These effects were blocked by prior incubation of AK-C (1 microgram/ml) with a specific peptide inhibitor (protein kinase inhibitor peptide, PKIP; 0.2 mg/ml). 5. We evoked calcium currents using very long (1 s) voltage commands and modelled the traces using a multiexponential function in order to determine the effects of AK-C on the N- and L-current components. The (curve-fitted) N- and L-current components each declined approximately 50% during a 20 min recording in control neurones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2177506

Gross, R A; Uhler, M D; Macdonald, R L

1990-01-01

222

Activities and some properties of adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase in muscle, liver and nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates in relation to the control of the concentration of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate.  

PubMed Central

1. The basal and fluoride-stimulated activities of adenylate cyclase, and the maximal activities of 3':5'-cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase and 3':5'-cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, together with the Km values for their respective substrates, were measured in muscle, liver and nervous tissues from a large range of animals to provide information on the mechanism of control of cyclic AMP concentrations in these tissues. High activities of adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP diesterase are found in nervous tissues and in the more aerobic muscles (e.g. insect flight muscles, cardiac muscle and some vertebrate skeletal muscles). The activities of these enzymes in liver are similar to those in the heart of the same animal. The Km values for the enzymes from different tissues and animals are remarkably similar. 2. The comparison of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities suggests that in vertebrate tissues only one enzyme (the high-Km enzyme), which possesses dual specificity, exists, whereas in invertebrate tissues there are at least two phosphodiesterases with separate specificities. 3. A simple quantitative model to explain the control of the steady-state concentrations of cyclic AMP is proposed. The maximum increase in cyclic AMP concentration predicted by comparison of basal with fluoride-stimulated activities of adenylate cyclase is compared with the maximum increases in concentration produced in the intact tissue by hormonal stimulation: reasonable agreement is obtained. The model is also used to predict the actual concentrations and the rates of turnover of cyclic AMP in different tissues and, where possible, these values are compared with reported values. Reasonable agreement is found between predicted and reported values. The possible physiological significances of different rates of turnover of cyclic AMP and the different ratios of high- and low-Km phosphodiesterases in different tissues are discussed. PMID:186042

Arch, J R; Newsholme, E A

1976-01-01

223

Calcium accumulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in two populations of chemically skinned human muscle fibers. Effects of calcium and cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

In previous efforts to characterize sarcoplasmic reticulum function in human muscles, it has not been possible to distinguish the relative contributions of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers. In this study, we have used light scattering and 45Ca to monitor Ca accumulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum of isolated, chemically skinned human muscle fibers in the presence and absence of oxalate. Oxalate (5 mM) increased the capacity for Ca accumulation by a factor of 35 and made it possible to assess both rate of Ca uptake and relative sarcoplasmic reticulum volume in individual fibers. At a fixed ionized Ca concentration, the rate and maximal capacity (an index of sarcoplasmic reticulum volume) both varied over a wide range, but fibers fell into two distinct groups (fast and slow). Between the two groups, there was a 2- to 2.5-fold difference in oxalate-supported Ca uptake rates, but no difference in average sarcoplasmic reticulum volumes. Intrinsic differences in sarcoplasmic reticulum function (Vmax, K0.5, and n) were sought to account for the distinction between fast and slow groups. In both groups, rate of Ca accumulation increased sigmoidally as [Ca++] was increased from 0.1 to 1 microM. Apparent affinities for Ca++ (K0.5) were similar in the two groups, but slow fibers had a lower Vmax and larger n values. Slow fibers also differed from fast fibers in responding with enhanced Ca uptake upon addition of cyclic AMP (10(-6) M, alone or with protein kinase). Acceleration by cyclic AMP was adequate to account for adrenaline-induced increases in relaxation rates previously observed in human muscles containing mixtures in fast- twitch and slow-twitch fibers. PMID:6279758

1982-01-01

224

Protein Kinase a functions as a negative regulator of c?jun n?terminal kinase but not of p38 mitogen?activated protein Kinase in PC12 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic?AMP?dependent protein kinase (PKA) seems to function as a negative regulator of the c?Jun NH2?terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. We demonstrate here that the activity of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) is reduced in apoptotic PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Apoptotic progress was inhibited by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), an analog of cAMP. The rescue by dbcAMP was attributable to inhibition of

Kyu Chung Hur

2005-01-01

225

Evolutionary Conservation of the Signaling Proteins Upstream of Cyclic AMP-Dependent Kinase and Protein Kinase C in Gastropod Mollusks  

PubMed Central

The protein kinase C (PKC) and the cAMP-dependent kinase (protein kinase A; PKA) pathways are known to play important roles in behavioral plasticity and learning in the nervous systems of a wide variety of species across phyla. We briefly review the members of the PKC and PKA family and focus on the evolution of the immediate upstream activators of PKC and PKA i.e., phospholipase C (PLC) and adenylyl cyclase (AC), and their conservation in gastropod mollusks, taking advantage of the recent assembly of the Aplysia californica and Lottia gigantea genomes. The diversity of PLC and AC family members present in mollusks suggests a multitude of possible mechanisms to activate PKA and PKC; we briefly discuss the relevance of these pathways to the known physiological activation of these kinases in Aplysia neurons during plasticity and learning. These multiple mechanisms of activation provide the gastropod nervous system with tremendous flexibility for implementing neuromodulatory responses to both neuronal activity and extracellular signals. PMID:20029183

Sossin, Wayne S.; Abrams, Thomas W.

2009-01-01

226

Membrane physical properties do not explain increased cyclic AMP production in hepatocytes from rats fed menhaden oil.  

PubMed

To study the effect of altering plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the glucagon signal transduction pathway, cAMP accumulation was measured in hepatocytes from rats fed diets containing either menhaden oil (MO) or coconut oil (CO). Hepatocytes from MO-fed animals produced significantly more cAMP in response to glucagon and forskolin compared to CO-fed animals. Glucagon receptor number and affinity were similar in MO- and CO-fed rats. Liver plasma membranes from MO-fed animals were enriched in long-chain n-3 fatty acids and contained significantly lower amounts of saturated C10-C16 and 18:1n-9 than CO-fed animals. Membrane physical properties were examined using both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). FTIR analysis revealed that below 34 degrees C, CO membranes were more ordered than MO membranes. However, as assay temperature approached 37 degrees C, MO and CO membranes became similarly ordered. DPH polarization values indicated no differences in membrane order at 37 degrees C, whereas membrane order was decreased in CO-fed animals at 25 degrees C. These data indicate the importance of assay temperature in assessing the influence of membrane physical properties on the activity of signal transduction pathways. Whereas increased signal transduction activity has been correlated to reduced membrane order in MO-fed animals, these data indicate that at physiological temperatures membrane order did not vary between groups. Enhanced cAMP accumulation in response to forskolin indicates that adenylate cyclase activity or content may be elevated in MO- vs. CO-fed rats. Enhanced adenylate cyclase activity may result, in part, from changes in specific fatty acids in hepatocyte plasma membranes without demonstrable changes in membrane physical properties. PMID:10901419

Bizeau, M E; Hazel, J R

2000-06-01

227

The Escherichia coli RhaS Transcriptional Activator: Transcriptional Activation by the DNA-Binding Domain, The Interdomain Effector Response, and Negative Autoregulation  

E-print Network

relative to the rhaSR transcription start site, while the other potential site (rhaO2) is centered at -499 relative to the rhaT transcription start site. 26 Figure 5. In vivo transcription activation by His6-RhaS-CTD or RhaS. The indicated Rha...: The AraC/XylS family activator RhaS negatively 78 autoregulates rhaSR expression by preventing cyclic AMP receptor protein activation 1 CHAPTER 1 Transcription Activation by the DNA-Binding Domain of the AraC Family Protein Rha...

Skredenske, Jeffrey M.

2012-05-31

228

Prostaglandin D2 inhibits collagen secretion from lung fibroblasts by activating the DP receptor.  

PubMed

Lung fibroblasts are responsible for collagen secretion during normal tissue repair and the development of fibrosis. Many other prostaglandins have been reported to regulate collagen synthesis in lung fibroblasts, but the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of PGD2 on type I collagen secretion in human lung fibroblasts. Pretreatment with PGD2 (0.1 - 10 ?M, 1 h) significantly attenuated type I collagen secretion to the cell supernatant induced by transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Although an agonist on chemoattractant receptorhomologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) did not have any effect, the prostanoid DP-receptor agonist BW245C (0.01 - 1 ?M) suppressed TGF-?-induced collagen secretion. PGD2 and BW245C significantly increased intracellular cAMP level. One-hour pretreatment with forskolin (0.1 - 10 ?M), dibutyryl-cAMP (0.01 - 1 mM), and the protein kinase A (PKA)-activator N(6)-phenyl-cyclic AMP (100 ?M) significantly reduced TGF-?-induced collagen secretion, while exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) activator 8-bromo-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic AMP (10 ?M) did not affect collagen deposition. These results suggest that PGD2 inhibits TGF-?-induced collagen secretion via intracellular cAMP accumulation through activating DP receptor. PMID:23538675

Ayabe, Shinya; Kida, Taiki; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa

2013-01-01

229

Cyclic AMP Signaling Inhibits Megakaryocytic Differentiation by Targeting Transcription Factor 3 (E2A) Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) Transcriptional Axis*  

PubMed Central

Signaling via the intracellular second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) has long been implicated in the repression of megakaryocytic differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which cAMP signaling impairs megakaryopoiesis have never been elucidated. In a human CD34+ cell culture model, we show that the adenylyl cyclase agonist forskolin inhibits megakaryocytic differentiation in a protein kinase A-dependent manner. Using this system to screen for downstream effectors, we identified the transcription factor E2A as a key target in a novel repressive signaling pathway. Specifically, forskolin acting through protein kinase A-induced E2A down-regulation and enforced expression of E2A overrode the inhibitory effects of forskolin on megakaryopoiesis. The dependence of megakaryopoiesis on critical thresholds of E2A expression was confirmed in vivo in haploinsufficient mice and ex vivo using shRNA knockdown in human progenitors. Using a variety of approaches, we further identified p21 (encoded by CDKN1A) as a functionally important megakaryopoietic regulator residing downstream of E2A. These results thus implicate the E2A-CDKN1A transcriptional axis in the control of megakaryopoiesis and reveal the lineage-selective inhibition of this axis as a likely mechanistic basis for the inhibitory effects of cAMP signaling. PMID:22514271

Rubinstein, Jeremy D.; Elagib, Kamaleldin E.; Goldfarb, Adam N.

2012-01-01

230

Cyclic AMP-dependent cell type-specific modulation of mitogenic signaling by retinoids in normal and neoplastic lung cells.  

PubMed Central

Condensed Abstract Preclinical studies suggest that retinoids have the potential to inhibit the development of lung cancer while they have disappointed in clinical trials. The current study shows that the retinoids 9-Cis-retinoic acid and 13-Cis-retinoic acid stimulate via cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells and small airway epithelial cells while inhibiting the proliferation of small cell lung carcinoma cells and large airway epithelial cells. Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the lung cancer risk. However, clinical trials with beta-carotene and retinoids have disappointed, resulted in increased mortality from lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Methods We have investigated the effects of the two major retinol metabolites, 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-Cis-RA), and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-Cis-RA), on cell proliferation (MTT assays), intracellular cAMP (cAMP immunoassays), PKA activation (non-radioactive PKA activation assays), and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (Western blots) in immortalized human small airway epithelial cells, HPL1D, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI-H322, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, and in the human small cell lung carcinoma cell line, NCI-H69. Results Both retinoids increased intracellular cAMP and PKA activation in all cell lines. In BEAS-2B and NCI-H69 cells, the stimulation of cAMP/PKA reduced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and inhibited cell proliferation whereas phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and cell proliferation were increased in HPL1D and NCI-H322 cells. Conclusions Our data have identified a novel mechanism of action of 9-Cis-RA and 13-Cis-RA: activation of PKA in response to increased cAMP. The observed stimulation of cAMP/PKA may inhibit the development of small cell lung carcinoma and other tumors derived from large airway epithelia whereas it may selectively promote the development of lung tumors derived from small airway epithelial cells, such as adenocarcinoma. PMID:17067750

Al-Wadei, Hussein A. N.; Schuller, Hildegard M.

2006-01-01

231

The small molecule PKA-specific cyclic AMP analogue as an inducer of osteoblast-like cells differentiation and mineralization.  

PubMed

Osteoblastic differentiation is an important landmark for bone formation, bone repair and regeneration; however, it is a very complex process controlled by different signalling mechanisms. Several groups have reported that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling system is responsible for regulating osteoblast cell differentiation. Nonetheless, to date, the principle role of the cAMP molecules related to this process remains controversial. Moreover, the underlying cAMP-dependent signalling cascade governing the osteoblastic differentiation has not been clarified. In this study we investigated the roles of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signalling in proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, using the PKA-specific small molecule cAMP analogue, 6-Bnz-cAMP, at 100 µM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, runt transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) protein expressions were used as osteoblast-specific markers to demonstrate osteoblastic differentiation. Further, calcium measurement of the extracellular matrix was employed as the hallmark of matrix mineralization or calcification. We report here that activation of PKA by the small molecule 6-Bnz-cAMP induces osteoblastic differentiation and matrix mineralization of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, 6-Bnz-cAMP does not induce cytotoxicity to the cells, as revealed by our cell proliferation studies. Therefore, based on these findings, we propose that the PKA-specific small molecule 6-Bnz-cAMP may serve as a novel bone-inducing growth factor for repairing and regenerating bone tissues during bone-regenerative engineering. PMID:21312339

Lo, Kevin W-H; Kan, Ho Man; Ashe, Keshia M; Laurencin, Cato T

2012-01-01

232

A polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum inhibits tumor growth by induction of apoptosis and activation of immune response in CT26-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Ganoderma atrum is one species of edible and pharmaceutical mushroom with various biological activities. Recently, a novel polysaccharide, PSG-1, was purified from G. atrum. The antitumor activity and its mechanism of action were studied. In vitro, PSG-1 has little effect on inhibiting proliferation of CT26 tumor cells. However, the tumor size was significantly decreased in PSG-1-treated mice. The results showed that PSG-1 induced apoptosis in CT26 cells. Moreover, the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were markedly increased in PSG-1-treated mice. In contrast, the contents of cyclic GMP and DAG and the PKC activity were decreased. Similarly, the expression of PKA protein was upregulated, while PKC protein expression in PSG-1-treated group was lowered. Additionally, PSG-1 increased the immune organ index and serum biochemistry parameter. In general, PSG-1 enhances the antitumor immune response, induces apoptosis in CT26-bearing mice, and could be a safe and effective adjuvant for tumor therapy or functional food. PMID:25179589

Zhang, Shenshen; Nie, Shaoping; Huang, Danfei; Huang, Jianqin; Feng, Yanling; Xie, Mingyong

2014-09-24

233

Interactions between the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and cyclic AMP signaling pathways regulate larval molting in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

Larval molting in Drosophila, as in other insects, is initiated by the coordinated release of the steroid hormone ecdysone, in response to neural signals, at precise stages during development. In this study we have analyzed, using genetic and molecular methods, the roles played by two major signaling pathways in the regulation of larval molting in Drosophila. Previous studies have shown that mutants for the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor gene (itpr) are larval lethals. In addition they exhibit delays in molting that can be rescued by exogenous feeding of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Here we show that mutants for adenylate cyclase (rut) synergize, during larval molting, with itpr mutant alleles, indicating that both cAMP and InsP(3) signaling pathways function in this process. The two pathways act in parallel to affect molting, as judged by phenotypes obtained through expression of dominant negative and dominant active forms of protein kinase A (PKA) in tissues that normally express the InsP(3) receptor. Furthermore, our studies predict the existence of feedback inhibition through protein kinase A on the InsP(3) receptor by increased levels of 20-hydroxyecdysone. PMID:11333238

Venkatesh, K; Siddhartha, G; Joshi, R; Patel, S; Hasan, G

2001-01-01

234

Netrin-1 Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Invasiveness and Angiogenesis by Multiple Pathways Including Activation of RhoA, Cathepsin B, and cAMP-response Element-binding Protein*  

PubMed Central

Glioblastomas are very difficult tumors to treat because they are highly invasive and disseminate within the normal brain, resulting in newly growing tumors. We have identified netrin-1 as a molecule that promotes glioblastoma invasiveness. As evidence, netrin-1 stimulates glioblastoma cell invasion directly through Matrigel-coated transwells, promotes tumor cell sprouting and enhances metastasis to lymph nodes in vivo. Furthermore, netrin-1 regulates angiogenesis as shown in specific angiogenesis assays such as enhanced capillary endothelial cells (EC) sprouting and by increased EC infiltration into Matrigel plugs in vivo, as does VEGF-A. This netrin-1 signaling pathway in glioblastoma cells includes activation of RhoA and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). A novel finding is that netrin-1-induced glioblastoma invasiveness and angiogenesis are mediated by activated cathepsin B (CatB), a cysteine protease that translocates to the cell surface as an active enzyme and co-localizes with cell surface annexin A2 (ANXA2). The specific CatB inhibitor CA-074Me inhibits netrin-1-induced cell invasion, sprouting, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. Silencing of CREB suppresses netrin-1-induced glioblastoma cell invasion, sprouting, and CatB expression. It is concluded that netrin-1 plays an important dual role in glioblastoma progression by promoting both glioblastoma cell invasiveness and angiogenesis in a RhoA-, CREB-, and CatB-dependent manner. Targeting netrin-1 pathways may be a promising strategy for brain cancer therapy. PMID:23195957

Shimizu, Akio; Nakayama, Hironao; Wang, Priscilla; König, Courtney; Akino, Tomoshige; Sandlund, Johanna; Coma, Silvia; Italiano, Joseph E.; Mammoto, Akiko; Bielenberg, Diane R.; Klagsbrun, Michael

2013-01-01

235

CREB and the CRTC co-activators: sensors for hormonal and metabolic signals  

PubMed Central

The cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is phosphorylated in response to a wide variety of signals, yet target gene transcription is only increased in a subset of cases. Recent studies indicate that CREB functions in concert with a family of latent cytoplasmic co-activators called cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activators (CRTCs), which are activated through dephosphorylation. A dual requirement for CREB phosphorylation and CRTC dephosphorylation is likely to explain how these activator–co-activator cognates discriminate between different stimuli. Following their activation, CREB and CRTCs mediate the effects of fasting and feeding signals on the expression of metabolic programmes in insulin-sensitive tissues. PMID:21346730

Altarejos, Judith Y.; Montminy, Marc

2014-01-01

236

The “Finger,” a Unique Multicellular Morphology of Candida albicans Induced by CO2 and Dependent upon the Ras1-Cyclic AMP Pathway  

PubMed Central

Most experiments exploring the basic biology of pathogenic microbes are performed in vitro under conditions that do not usually mimic those of their host niche. Hence, developmental programs initiated by specific host cues may be missed in vitro. We have tested the effects of growing low-density agar cultures of the yeast pathogen Candida albicans in concentrations of CO2 found in the gastrointestinal tract. It is demonstrated that in physiological concentrations of CO2 at 37°C, yeast cells form a heretofore undescribed multicellular “finger” morphology distinct from a previously described stalk-like structure induced by high doses of UV irradiation that kills more than 99.99% of cells. The finger extends aerially, is uniform in diameter, and is visible to the naked eye, attaining lengths of 3 mm. It is composed of a basal yeast cell monolayer adhering to a semispherical crater formed in the agar and connected to a basal bulb of yeast cells at a fragile interface. The bulb extends into the long shaft. We propose that a single, centrally located hypha extending the length of the shaft forms buds at compartment junctions that serve as the source of the yeast cells in the shaft. A mutational analysis reveals finger formation is dependent upon the pathway Ras1?Cdc35?cyclic AMP (cAMP) (PDE2—|)?Tpk2?Tec1. Because of the mechanically fragile interface and the compactness of bulb and shaft, we suggest that the finger may function as a multicellular dispersal mechanism produced in host niches containing high levels of CO2. PMID:22923045

Daniels, Karla J.; Pujol, Claude; Srikantha, Thyagarajan

2012-01-01

237

Cooperative DNA binding of heterologous proteins: evidence for contact between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and RNA polymerase.  

PubMed Central

Four cAMP-independent receptor protein mutants (designated CRP* mutants) isolated previously are able to activate in vivo gene transcription in the absence of cAMP and their activity can be enhanced by cAMP or cGMP. One of the four mutant proteins, CRP*598 (Arg-142 to His, Ala-144 to Thr), has been characterized with regard to its conformational properties and ability to bind to and support abortive initiation from the lac promoter. In the absence of cGMP, CRP*598 shows a more open conformation than CRP, as indicated by its sensitivity to proteolytic attack and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-mediated subunit crosslinking. Binding of wild-type CRP to its site on the lac promoter and activation of abortive initiation by RNA polymerase on this promoter are effected by cAMP but not by cGMP. CRP*598 can activate lacP+-directed abortive initiation in the presence of cAMP and less efficiently in the presence of cGMP or in the absence of cyclic nucleotide. DNase I protection ("foot-printing") indicates that cAMP-CRP* binds to its site on the lac promoter whereas unliganded CRP* and cGMP-CRP* form a stable complex with the [32P]lacP+ fragment only in the presence of RNA polymerase, showing cooperative binding of two heterologous proteins. This cooperative binding provides strong evidence for a contact between CRP and RNA polymerase for activation of transcription. Although cGMP binds to CRP, it cannot replace cAMP in effecting the requisite conformational transition necessary for site-specific promoter binding. In contrast, the weakly active unliganded CRP*598 can be shifted to a functional state not only by cAMP but also by cGMP and RNA polymerase. Images PMID:2837757

Ren, Y L; Garges, S; Adhya, S; Krakow, J S

1988-01-01

238

Modulation of spasmogen-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation and functional responses by selective inhibitors of types 3 and 4 phosphodiesterase in airways smooth muscle  

PubMed Central

The effects of isoenzyme-selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterases PDE3 and PDE4 on cyclic AMP concentration, two indices of phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and contractile responses to spasmogens have been investigated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM).Neither the PDE3-selective inhibitor ORG 9935, nor the PDE4-selective inhibitor rolipram increased cyclic AMP levels in BTSM. However, rolipram addition in the presence of PDE3 inhibition (ORG 9935; 1??M) concentration-dependently (?log EC50 (M), 6.55±0.15; n=3) increased cyclic AMP levels to about 70% of the maximal response to the ?-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline.Rolipram per se inhibited histamine-stimulated [3H]-inositol (poly)phosphate ([3H]-InsPX) accumulation by >80% (?log EC50 (M), 6.92±0.11; n=3). Although ORG 9935 (1??M) had little effect on histamine-stimulated [3H]-InsPX accumulation alone it greatly facilitated the inhibitory action of rolipram (?log EC50 (M), 8.82±0.39; n=3). The effects of PDE3 and/or PDE4 inhibition on [3H]-InsPX accumulation stimulated by muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor activation were less marked. However, combined PDE3/4 inhibition significantly decreased this response at a submaximal concentration of mACh receptor agonist (carbachol; 1??M).The greater-than-additive effect of combined PDE3/4 inhibition was also observed at the level of contractile responses to histamine and carbachol. In experiments designed to investigate the effects of PDE3 and/or 4 inhibitors on the carbachol-mediated phasic contraction, additions of rolipram (10??M) or ORG 9935 (1??M) were without effect, whereas added together the inhibitors caused a significant (P<0.01) 40% reduction in the peak phasic contractile response.The effect on contraction correlated with a substantial inhibitory effect of PDE3/4 inhibition on the initial increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) accumulation stimulated by spasmogen. Thus, in the presence of ORG 9935 (1??M) rolipram concentration-dependently inhibited carbachol-stimulated InsP3 accumulation by ?50% (?log EC50 (M), 6.77±0.21; n=4).Carbachol (100??M) addition caused a rapid decrease (by 67% at 10?s) in BTSM cyclic AMP level in the presence of PDE3/4 inhibition. However, omission of Ca2+ from the incubation medium prevented the carbachol-evoked decrease in cyclic AMP and this coincided with a greater inhibition (?80%) of the carbachol-stimulated InsP3 response.These data indicate that combined PDE3 and PDE4 inhibition has greater-than-additive effects on second messenger and functional responses to spasmogens in BTSM. Furthermore, the ability of PDE3/4 inhibition significantly to attenuate mACh receptor-mediated contractile responses, may be, at least in part, attributed to an effect exerted at the level of InsP3 generation. PMID:9630342

Challiss, R A John; Adams, David; Mistry, Rajendra; Nicholson, C David

1998-01-01

239

Intracellular signaling in the regulation of renal Na-K-ATPase. I. Role of cyclic AMP and phospholipase A2.  

PubMed Central

We have reported that dopamine (DA) inhibits Na-K-ATPase activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) by stimulating the DA1 receptor, and the present study was designed to evaluate the mechanism of this effect. Short-term exposure (15-30 min) of microdissected rat CCD to DA, a DA1 agonist (fenoldopam), vasopressin (AVP), forskolin, or dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP), which increase cAMP content by different mechanisms, strongly (approximately 60%) inhibited Na-K-ATPase activity. 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, completely blocked Na-K-ATPase inhibition by DA or fenoldopam, and IP20, an inhibitor peptide of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), abolished the Na:K pump effect of all the cAMP agonists listed above. To verify whether the mechanism of pump inhibition by agents that increase cell cAMP involves phospholipase A2 (PLA2), we used mepacrine, a PLA2 inhibitor, which also abolished Na-K-ATPase inhibition by DA or fenoldopam, as well as by AVP, forskolin, or dBcAMP. Arachidonic acid (10(-7) - 10(-4) M) inhibited Na-K-ATPase activity in dose-dependent fashion. Corticosterone, which induces lipomodulin, a PLA2 inhibitor protein inactivated by PKA, equally abolished the pump effects of DA, fenoldopam, forskolin, and dBcAMP, suggesting that lipomodulin might act between PKA and PLA2 in cAMP-dependent pump regulation. We conclude that dopamine inhibits Na-K-ATPase activity in the CCD through a DA1 receptor-mediated cAMP-PKA pathway that involves the stimulation of PLA2 and arachidonic acid release, possibly mediated by inactivation of lipomodulin. This pathway is shared by other agonists that increase cell cAMP and thus stimulate PKA activity. PMID:1349027

Satoh, T; Cohen, H T; Katz, A I

1992-01-01

240

Characterization of the non-nitrergic NANC relaxation responses in the rabbit vaginal wall  

PubMed Central

Electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation responses in the rabbit vaginal wall were investigated. These NANC responses were partially inhibited with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 500??M), NG-nitro-L-arginine (300??M) or N-iminoethyl-L-ornithine (500??M) or the selective soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10??M). Application of L-NAME and ODQ concomitantly did not increase the degree of inhibition. L-NAME or ODQ were observed to be more effective at low frequencies. The resistant part of the responses was more pronounced at higher frequencies and was completely inhibited by tetrodotoxin (1??M). Exogenous application of the peptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP-27 and PACAP-38), peptide histidine methionine (PHM), peptide histidine valine (PHV), helospectin-I or -II induced a relaxation response. Calcitonin gene-related peptide or substance P did not cause any relaxation. The peptidase ?-chymotrypsin (type II; 2 units?ml?1) did not affect non-nitrergic NANC responses, although it did inhibit relaxation responses elicited by exogenous VIP, PACAP-27, PACAP-38, PHM, PHV, helospectin-I or -II. K+ channel inhibitors apamin (1??M) or charybdotoxin (100?nM) when used alone or in conjunction did not affect non-nitrergic NANC responses. The non-nitrergic NANC responses were not associated with any increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine-3?, 5?-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) or cyclic guanosine-3?, 5?-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) concentrations. The peptide-induced relaxations were all associated with increases in cyclic AMP concentrations. These results suggest that a neuronal factor elicits non-nitrergic NANC responses in the rabbit vaginal wall. The identity of this factor remains to be established. PMID:11815390

Ziessen, Tom; Moncada, Salvador; Cellek, Selim

2002-01-01

241

Characterization of the MKS1 gene, a new negative regulator of the Ras-cyclic AMP pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

In order to isolate genes that function downstream of the Ras-cAMP pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a YEp13-based genomic library was screened for clones that inhibit growth of cells with diminished A-kinase activity. One such gene, MKS1, was found to encode a hydrophilic 52 kDa protein that shares weak homology with the yeast SPT2/SIN1 gene product. Three lines of evidence suggest that the MKS1 gene product is a negative regulator downstream of the Ras-cAMP pathway: (i) overexpression of MKS1 inhibits growth of cyr1 disruptant cells on YPD medium containing a low concentration of cAMP; (ii) overexpression of MKS1 does not affect TPK1 expression; and (iii) the temperature-sensitive cyr1-230 mutation is partially suppressed by mks1 disruption. The mks1 mutant shows similar phenotypes to gal11/spt13, i.e., it cannot grow on YPGal containing ethidium bromide at 25 degrees C, or on YPGly or SGal at 37 degrees C. The mks1 gal11 double mutant shows more marked phenotypic changes than the single mutants. These results suggest that MKS1 is involved in transcriptional regulation of several genes by cAMP. PMID:8386801

Matsuura, A; Anraku, Y

1993-04-01

242

(S)-?-Chlorohydrin Inhibits Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation through Blocking Cyclic AMP - Protein Kinase A Pathway in Spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

?-Chlorohydrin is a common contaminant in food. Its (S)-isomer, (S)-?-chlorohydrin (SACH), is known for causing infertility in animals by inhibiting glycolysis of spermatozoa. The aim of present work was to examine the relationship between SACH and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP), which plays a critical role in regulating mammalian sperm capacitation. In vitro exposure of SACH 50 µM to isolated rat epididymal sperm inhibited PTP. Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) activities, the intracellular adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) levels, 3?-5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) substrates in rat sperm were diminished dramatically, indicating that both glycolysis and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway were impaired by SACH. The inhibition of both PTP and phosphorylation of PKA substrates by SACH could be restored by addition of cAMP analog dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP) and phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Moreover, addition of glycerol protected glycolysis, ATP levels, phosphorylation of PKA substrates and PTP against the influence of SACH. These results suggested SACH inhibited PTP through blocking cAMP/PKA pathway in sperm, and PTP inhibition may play a role in infertility associated with SACH. PMID:22916194

Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Bei; Pi, Jingbo; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

2012-01-01

243

Cyclic AMP Signaling in Trypanosomatids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curative interference with signal transduction pathways is a spectacularly successful concept in many domains of modern pharmacology; indeed, the ‘wonder drug’ Viagra is but a humble inhibitor of a cyclic GMP (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase and, thus, interferes with cGMP-signaling in a strategic organ. In fact, about half of the 100 most successful drugs currently on the market act through modulating cellular

C Naula; T Seebeck

2000-01-01

244

Differential modulation of voltage-activated conductances by intracellular and extracellular cyclic nucleotides in leech salivary glands.  

PubMed Central

1. Two-electrode voltage clamp was used to study the effects of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) on voltage-dependent ion channels in salivary gland cells of the leech, Haementeria ghilianii. 2. Intracellular cyclic AMP specifically blocked delayed rectifier K+ channels. This was shown by use of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor), forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase) and intracellular injection of cyclic AMP and its dibutyryl and 8-bromo analogues. Cyclic AMP appeared to be the second messenger for the putative neuroglandular transmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine. 3. Intracellular injection of cyclic GMP specifically potentiated high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ current and the effect was mimicked by zaprinast, an inhibitor of cyclic GMP-dependent phosphodiesterase. 4. Extracellularly, cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP specifically decreased the amplitude and increased the rate of inactivation of HVA Ca2+ current. These effects of the cyclic nucleotides are identical to those known for extracellular ATP, which activates a presumed purinoceptor. The pyrimidine nucleotide, UTP, was almost equipotent to ATP (threshold dose < 10(-6) M), indicative of a vertebrate-type nucleotide receptor. However, suramin (5 x 10(-5) M), a non-specific P2-receptor antagonist, failed to block the effects of 5 x 10(-6) M ATP (higher suramin doses could not be reliably tested because of the depolarization and increase in membrane conductance produced by the drug). 5. Activation of the putative purinoceptor by ATP did not affect inward rectifier Na+/K+ current which is known to be potentiated by intracellular cyclic AMP and reduced by intracellular cyclic GMP. 6. The preparation may provide a useful model for study of nucleotide actions, and interactions, in channel modulation. It has technical advantages such as large cells (1200 microns in diameter) which lack intercellular coupling and may be individually dissected for biochemical studies. PMID:8528570

Everill, B.; Berry, M. S.

1995-01-01

245

Agonist activity of naloxone benzoylhydrazone at recombinant and native opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we examined the pharmacological activity of the putative ?3-opioid receptor agonist naloxone benzoylhydrazone (NalBzoH) at recombinant human opioid receptors individually expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and native opioid receptors present in rat striatum. At the ?-opioid receptor (MOR), NalBzoH stimulated guanosine-5?-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTP?S) binding (pEC50=8.59) and inhibited cyclic AMP accumulation (pEC50=8.74) with maximal effects (Emax) corresponding to 55 and 65% of those obtained with the MOR agonist DAMGO, respectively. The MOR antagonist CTAP blocked the stimulatory effects of NalBzoH and DAMGO with similar potencies. At the ?-opioid receptor (KOR), NalBzoH stimulated [35S]GTP?S binding (pEC50=9.70) and inhibited cyclic AMP formation (pEC50=9.45) as effectively as the selective KOR agonist (?)-U-50,488. The NalBzoH effect was blocked by the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) (pKi=10.30). In CHO cells expressing the ?-opioid receptor (DOR), NalBzoH increased [35S]GTP?S binding (pEC50=8.49) and inhibited cyclic AMP formation (pEC50=8.61) almost as effectively as the DOR agonist DPDPE. Naltrindole (NTI), a selective DOR antagonist, completely blocked the response to NalBzoH (pKi of 10.40). In CHO cells expressing the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor (NOP), NalBzoH failed to exert agonist effects and antagonized the agonist-induced receptor activation. When compared to other opioid receptor ligands, NalBzoH showed an efficacy that was lower than that of morphine at MOR, but higher at KOR and DOR. In rat striatum, NalBzoH enhanced [35S]GTP?S binding and inhibited adenylyl cyclase activity. These effects were antagonized by either CTAP, nor-BNI or NTI, each antagonist blocking a fraction of the NalBzoH response. These data demonstrate that NalBzoH displays agonist activity at MOR, DOR and KOR expressed either in a heterologous cell system or in a native environment. PMID:16402046

Olianas, Maria C; Concas, Danilo; Onali, Pierluigi

2006-01-01

246

Control of survival of proliferating L1210 cells by soluble guanylate cyclase and p44\\/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase modulators 1 1 Abbreviations: L-NMMA, N G-monomethyl- l-arginine; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NO, nitric oxide; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; ODQ, 1 H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3- a]quinoxalin-1-one; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKA, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase; PMA, phorbol myristate acetate; sGC, soluble guanylate cyclase; and SNAP, S-nitroso- N-acetyl- d, l-penicillamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular signaling pathways involved in the survival of proliferating L1210 leukemia cells were investigated by using specific modulators. Among the various inhibitors tested, only 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, was found to induce a marked increase in caspase activity, which was associated with a loss of cell viability and a reduction in cGMP content. ODQ also

Flavio Flamigni; Annalisa Facchini; Ivana Stanic; Benedetta Tantini; Francesca Bonavita; Claudio Stefanelli

2001-01-01

247

The adenylyl cyclase activity of anthrax edema factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax, secretes edema factor (EF) to disrupt intracellular signaling pathways. Upon translocation into host cells and association with a calcium sensor, calmodulin (CaM), EF becomes a highly active adenylyl cyclase (AC) that raises the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP). Growing evidence shows that EF plays a key role in anthrax pathogenesis by affecting

Wei-Jen Tang; Qing Guo

2009-01-01

248

Localization of the murine activating transcription factor 4 gene to mouse chromosome 15  

SciTech Connect

Restriction fragment length variant analysis employing a mouse cDNA probe was used to localize the gene encoding murine activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4) to mouse chromosome 15 in close proximity to Sis (the cellular homolog of the simian sarcoma virus oncoprotein). Previous studies suggest that conserved linkage relationships exist between this region of mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 22q. The chromosomal locations of genes encoding most members of the ATF and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) subfamilv of b-zip proteins have not been determined. This study demonstrates that the location of the gene for murine ATF-4 is not linked to the genes for JUN family members, CREB1 and CREB2. Further mapping of individual ATF/ CREB subfamily members in the mouse will provide insight into the evolution of this multigene family. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Mielnicki, L.M.; Elliott, R.W.; Pruitt, S.C. (Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States))

1993-01-01

249

Long-term memory of visually cued fear conditioning: roles of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has a role in late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory (LTM) formation. Our recent studies implicated NO signaling in contextual and auditory cued fear conditioning. The present study investigated the role of NO signaling in visually cued fear conditioning. First, visually cued fear conditioning was investigated in wild-type (WT)

J. B. Kelley; K. L. Anderson; S. L. Altmann; Y. Itzhak

2011-01-01

250

Inhibition of CREB Activity in the Dorsal Portion of the Striatum Potentiates Behavioral Responses to Drugs of Abuse  

PubMed Central

The striatum participates in multiple forms of behavioral adaptation, including habit formation, other forms of procedural memory, and short- and long-term responses to drugs of abuse. The cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors has been implicated in various forms of behavioral plasticity, but its role in the dorsal portion of the striatum-has been little explored. We previously showed that in transgenic mice in which CREB function is inhibited in the dorsal striatum, bidirectional synaptic plasticity and certain forms of long-term procedural memory are impaired. Here we show, in startling contrast, that inhibition of striatal CREB facilitates cocaine- and morphine-place conditioning and enhances locomotor sensitization to cocaine. These findings propose CREB as a positive regulator of dorsal striatum-dependent procedural learning but a negative regulator of drug-related learning. PMID:19826621

Fasano, Stefania; Pittenger, Christopher; Brambilla, Riccardo

2009-01-01

251

Phosphorylation of synaptic-membrane proteins from ox cerebral cortex in vitro. Partition of substrates and protein kinase activities with triton X-100.  

PubMed Central

Synaptic-membrane fragments from ox cerebral cortex contain basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase activity catalysing the phosphorylation of endogenous substrates. Extraction of membrane fragments with Triton X-100 solubilized less than 20% of the kinase activity and left the major part of the endogenous substrates in the insoluble fraction. PMID:186029

Dunkley, P R; Holmes, H; Rodnight, R

1976-01-01

252

Conserved and Distinct Modes of CREB\\/ATF Transcription Factor Regulation by PP2A\\/B56? and Genotoxic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and the closely related proteins CREB (cyclic AMP resonse element binding protein) and CREM (cyclic AMP response element modulator) constitute a subfamily of bZIP transcription factors that play critical roles in the regulation of cellular growth, metabolism, and survival. Previous studies demonstrated that CREB is phosphorylated on a cluster of conserved Ser residues, including Ser-111

Naval P. Shanware; Lihong Zhan; John A. Hutchinson; Sang Hwa Kim; Leah M. Williams; Randal S. Tibbetts

2010-01-01

253

Non-hyperpolarizing GABAB receptor activation regulates neuronal migration and neurite growth and specification by cAMP/LKB1.  

PubMed

?-Aminobutyric acid is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in adults, acting through ionotropic chloride-permeable GABAA receptors (GABAARs), and metabotropic GABABRs coupled to calcium or potassium channels, and cyclic AMP signalling. During early development, ?-aminobutyric acid is the main neurotransmitter and is not hyperpolarizing, as GABAAR activation is depolarizing while GABABRs lack coupling to potassium channels. Despite extensive knowledge on GABAARs as key factors in neuronal development, the role of GABABRs remains unclear. Here we address GABABR function during rat cortical development by in utero knockdown (short interfering RNA) of GABABR in pyramidal-neuron progenitors. GABABR short interfering RNA impairs neuronal migration and axon/dendrite morphological maturation by disrupting cyclic AMP signalling. Furthermore, GABABR activation reduces cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of LKB1, a kinase involved in neuronal polarization, and rescues LKB1 overexpression-induced defects in cortical development. Thus, non-hyperpolarizing activation of GABABRs during development promotes neuronal migration and morphological maturation by cyclic AMP/LKB1 signalling. PMID:23653212

Bony, Guillaume; Szczurkowska, Joanna; Tamagno, Ilaria; Shelly, Maya; Contestabile, Andrea; Cancedda, Laura

2013-01-01

254

Synergistic activation of insect cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (type II) by cyclicAMP and cyclicGMP  

E-print Network

GMP Gerard Leboulle1 , Uli Muller* Institut fur Biologie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Neurobiologie Konigin). In mammals, four genes encode two classes of R subunits (RIa; b and RIIa; b) and three genes encode the cat

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

255

Appetitive Cue-Evoked ERK Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Requires NMDA and D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation and Regulates CREB Phosphorylation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conditioned stimuli (CS) can modulate reward-seeking behavior. This modulatory effect can be maladaptive and has been implicated in excessive reward seeking and relapse to drug addiction. We previously demonstrated that exposure to an appetitive CS causes an increase in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP

Kirschmann, Erin K. Z.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Willis, Cory M.; Foster, Rebecca L.; Chipman, Amanda M.; Thiels, Edda

2014-01-01

256

Inhibition of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide induced relaxation of guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle by charybdotoxin.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not charybdotoxin (CAS 95751-30-7, ChTX), a selective and potent Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel blocker, inhibits the relaxation of guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptides with 27 residues (PACAP27) and with 38 residues (PACAP38). Two forms of PACAP were discovered in hypothalamic tissues, and are known to increase the tissues cyclic AMP levels and to be independent of beta-adrenoceptors. The relaxant effects of these polypeptides were evaluated by measuring the isometric tension of tracheal smooth muscle of guinea-pig in vitro. Both forms of PACAP showed dose-dependent relaxant effects. The pD2 of PACAP27 was 7.01 +/- 0.04 and that of PACAP38 was 6.43 +/- 0.05. ChTX (10(-12)-3 x 10(-9) mol/l) did not affect the resting tension of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle. ChTX (10(-8) mol/l) slightly increased the tension, in some experiments being considered as a phasic tension change. ChTX (10(-8) mol/l) caused a small but significant rightward shift in the concentration-response curves of PACAP27 and PACAP38. ChTX decreased the pD2 of PACAP27 to 6.74 +/- 0.03 and that of PACAP38 to 6.25 +/- 0.04. These results suggest that cyclic AMP-mediated activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels may play an important role in the relaxation of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle induced by both forms of PACAP as well as beta-agonist. PMID:7544130

Hiramatsu, T; Kume, H; Yamaki, K; Takagi, K

1995-06-01

257

Role of cyclic AMP sensor Epac1 in masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition induced by ?2-adrenoceptor stimulation.  

PubMed

The predominant isoform of ?-adrenoceptor (?-AR) in skeletal muscle is ?2-AR and that in the cardiac muscle is ?1-AR. We have reported that Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1), a new protein kinase A-independent cAMP sensor, does not affect cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or chronic isoproterenol (isoprenaline) infusion. However, the role of Epac1 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy remains poorly understood. We thus examined the effect of disruption of Epac1, the major Epac isoform in skeletal muscle, on masseter muscle hypertrophy induced by chronic ?2-AR stimulation with clenbuterol (CB) in Epac1-null mice (Epac1KO). The masseter muscle weight/tibial length ratio was similar in wild-type (WT) and Epac1KO at baseline and was significantly increased in WT after CB infusion, but this increase was suppressed in Epac1KO. CB treatment significantly increased the proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb at the expense of that of MHC IId/x in both WT and Epac1KO, indicating that Epac1 did not mediate the CB-induced MHC isoform transition towards the faster isoform. The mechanism of suppression of CB-mediated hypertrophy in Epac1KO is considered to involve decreased activation of Akt signalling. In addition, CB-induced histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) phosphorylation on serine 246 mediated by calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), which plays a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, was suppressed in Epac1KO. Our findings suggest that Epac1 plays a role in ?2-AR-mediated masseter muscle hypertrophy, probably through activation of both Akt signalling and CaMKII/HDAC4 signalling. PMID:25344550

Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Umeki, Daisuke; Mototani, Yasumasa; Jin, Huiling; Cai, Wenqian; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Saeki, Yasutake; Fujita, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

2014-12-15

258

Regulation by intracellular Ca sup 2+ and cyclic AMP of the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis  

SciTech Connect

Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce formation of ruffling membranes and stimulate the fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. An increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration by treatment with A23187, a calcium ionophore, or an increase in intracellular cAMP level by treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin almost completely inhibited the insulin-, IGF-I-, or EGF-induced formation of ruffling membranes. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} or cAMP concentration also inhibited almost completely the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis elicited by these growth factors. These results suggest that the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis have a common regulatory mechanism involving intracellular concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP. {sup 125}I-EGF binding assays and immunoprecipitation experiments with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that treatment of KB cells with A23187, dibutyryl cAMP, or forskolin did not inhibit the EGF binding to the cells nor subsequent tyrosine autophosphorylation of its receptors. These results indicate that Ca{sup 2+}- and/or cAMP-sensitive intracellular reactions exist downstream from the receptor kinase activation in the process of these early cellular responses.

Miyata, Yoshihiko (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan) Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Medical Science (Japan)); Nishida, Eisuke; Sakai, Hikoichi (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Koyasu, Shigeo; Yahara, Ichiro (Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Medical Science (Japan))

1989-04-01

259

Regulation of gene expression in PC12 cells via an activator of dual second messengers: pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide.  

PubMed Central

In this study we demonstrate that the activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA motif, initially considered to be unresponsive to cyclic AMP (cAMP), does function as a cAMP-response element in PC12 cells. A luciferase reporter gene driven by the collagenase promoter that contains the AP-1 motif is responsive to cAMP as well as phorbol esters when transfected in PC12 cells. We have recently shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) has neurotrophic properties and activates both adenylylcyclase and the inositol lipid cascade in PC12 cells. Consistent with these actions, we demonstrate that PACAP is an effective activator of luciferase reporter genes whose promoters bear the AP-1 motif, as well as the related DNA element that binds the protein CREB. Both the cAMP and inositol lipid pathways appear to play a role in the activation of these motifs by PACAP. Mutation of the AP-1 motif and its juxtaposition to a heterologous promoter proves that the AP-1 motif is a locus for response to cAMP and PACAP. The luciferase reporter genes bearing the AP-1 motif are not cAMP responsive in HeLa tk- cells, indicating that the mode of second-messenger responsiveness is cell-type specific. PMID:1392081

Schadlow, V C; Barzilai, N; Deutsch, P J

1992-01-01

260

Inhibition of forskolin-induced sensitisation of frog skin nociceptors by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A antagonist H-89  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) in nociceptor sensitisation has been studied in frog skin in vitro. Multifibre nerve responses during noxious heating were enhanced by adding forskolin, an agent that elevates cAMP. H-89, a PKA antagonist, blocked the increased responses due to forskolin, but did not affect baseline responses. Thus, cAMP appears to act via PKA

B Lynn; N. R O'Shea

1998-01-01

261

Deciphering Dynamic Dose Responses of Natural Promoters and Single cis Elements upon Osmotic and Oxidative Stress in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Fine-tuned activation of gene expression in response to stress is the result of dynamic interactions of transcription factors with specific promoter binding sites. In the study described here we used a time-resolved luciferase reporter assay in living Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells to gain insights into how osmotic and oxidative stress signals modulate gene expression in a dose-sensitive manner. Specifically, the dose-response behavior of four different natural promoters (GRE2, CTT1, SOD2, and CCP1) reveals differences in their sensitivity and dynamics in response to different salt and oxidative stimuli. Characteristic dose-response profiles were also obtained for artificial promoters driven by only one type of stress-regulated consensus element, such as the cyclic AMP-responsive element, stress response element, or AP-1 site. Oxidative and osmotic stress signals activate these elements separately and with different sensitivities through different signaling molecules. Combination of stress-activated cis elements does not, in general, enhance the absolute expression levels; however, specific combinations can increase the inducibility of the promoter in response to different stress doses. Finally, we show that the stress tolerance of the cell critically modulates the dynamics of its transcriptional response in the case of oxidative stress. PMID:23530054

Dolz-Edo, Laura; Rienzo, Alessandro; Poveda-Huertes, Daniel

2013-01-01

262

A specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (DDA) and a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (H-89) block the action of equine growth hormone on in vitro maturation of equine oocytes.  

PubMed

Summary The objectives of this study were firstly to determine whether the stimulatory function of equine growth hormone (eGH) on equine oocyte maturation in vitro is mediated via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); and secondly if the addition of eGH in vitro influences oocyte nuclear maturation and if this effect is removed when GH inhibitors are added to the culture. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from follicles <25 mm in diameter and randomly allocated as follows: (i) control (no additives); and (ii) 400 ng/ml of eGH. A specific inhibitor against cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (H-89; 10-9, 10-11 or 10-15 M concentration) and a specific adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA; 10-8, 10-10 or 10-14 M concentration) were used to observe whether they could block the eGH effect. After 30 h of in vitro maturation at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 in air, oocytes were stained with 10 ?g/ml of Hoechst to evaluate nuclear status. More mature oocytes (P < 0.05) were detected when COCs were incubated with eGH (29 of 84; 34.5%) than in the control group (18 of 82; 21.9%). The H-89 inhibitor used at a concentration of 10-9 M (4 of 29; 13.8%) decreased (P < 0.05) the number of oocytes reaching nuclear maturation when compared with eGH (11 of 29; 38%). The DDA inhibitor at a concentration of 10-8 M (2 of 27; 7.4%) also reduced (P < 0.05) the number of oocytes reaching maturity when compared with the eGH group (9 of 30; 30%). Results from the present study show that H-89 and DDA can be used in vitro to block the eGH effect on equine oocyte maturation. PMID:25257826

Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Lorenzo, Pedro Luis; Carneiro, Gustavo Ferrer; Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie; Kastelic, John; Liu, Irwin K M

2014-09-26

263

CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE INDUCTION BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) STIMULATES CREB PHOSPHORYLATION VIA A CALCIUM-DEPENDENT, PKC-INDEPENDENT PATHWAY IN CORTICAL NEURONS.  

EPA Science Inventory

We have previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254), increases the phosphorylated form of CREB (pCREB), the cAMP-responsive element binding protein. This transcription factor is important in nervous system development and plasticity. Phosphorylation of C...

264

Enhanced sensitivity to stimulation of sodium transport and cyclic AMP by antidiuretic hormone after Ca 2+ depletion of isolated frog skin epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The role of Ca2+ in the stimulation by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) of active sodium transport across the isolated epithelium of frog skin was investigated. This has been done by bathing the blood side with Ca2+-free solution containing 0.1mm EGTA. This Ca2+ depletion halved the resistance but had no significant effect on the short-circuit current (SCC). The sensitivity of both

A. H. Johnsen; R. Nielsen

1982-01-01

265

REGULATION OF IL17, IFN-? AND IL10 IN HUMAN CD8 +T CELLS BY CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the expression of interleukin 17 (IL-17) by human CD8+T lymphocytes and its regulation following PKA activation was determined and compared with that of interferon ? (IFN-?) and IL-10. IL-17 mRNA was highly expressed in human CD8+T lymphocytes at least at the same level than in CD4+T cells that were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

Hyun Chul K. Shin; Naima Benbernou; Hakim Fekkar; Stephane Esnault; Moncef Guenounou

1998-01-01

266

Cyclic AMP inhibits translation of cyclin D3 in T lymphocytes at the level of elongation by inducing eEF2-phosphorylation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to understand the mechanism by which activated protein kinase A (PKA) leads to down-regulation of cyclin D3 in lymphocytes. By using Jurkat cells as a model system, we have been able to demonstrate that cyclin D3 is reduced at the level of translation by inhibition of elongation. One of the important factors involved in translational elongation is the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). eEF2 promotes translation in its unphosphorylated form, and we observed a rapid phosphorylation of the eEF2-protein upon forskolin treatment. When using specific inhibitors of the eEF2-kinase prior to forskolin treatment, we were able to inhibit the increased phosphorylation of eEF2. Furthermore, inhibition of eEF2-kinase prevented the forskolin-mediated down-regulation of cyclin D3. Taken together, it appears that activation of PKA in Jurkat cells reduces the expression of cyclin D3 at the level of translational elongation by increasing the phosphorylation of eEF2 and thereby inhibiting its activity. PMID:12834812

Gutzkow, Kristine B; Låhne, Hege U; Naderi, Soheil; Torgersen, Knut Martin; Skålhegg, Bjørn; Koketsu, Mamoru; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Blomhoff, Heidi Kiil

2003-09-01

267

RGS2 regulates signal transduction in olfactory neurons by attenuating activation of adenylyl cyclase III  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterotrimeric G-protein Gs couples cell-surface receptors to the activation of adenylyl cyclases and cyclic AMP production (reviewed in refs 1, 2). RGS proteins, which act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for the G-protein alpha-subunits alphai and alphaq, lack such activity for alphas (refs 3,4,5,6). But several RGS proteins inhibit cAMP production by Gs-linked receptors. Here we report that RGS2 reduces

Srikumar Sinnarajah; Carmen W. Dessauer; Deepa Srikumar; Jun Chen; John Yuen; Solomon Yilma; John C. Dennis; Edward E. Morrison; Vitaly Vodyanoy; John H. Kehrl

2001-01-01

268

Resveratrol Inhibits LPS-Induced MAPKs Activation via Activation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound that has cardioprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the capacity of resveratrol to protect RAW 264.7 cells from inflammatory insults and explored mechanisms underlying inhibitory effects of resveratrol on RAW 264.7 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Murine RAW 264.7 cells were treated with resveratrol (1, 5, and 10 µM) and/or LPS (5 µg/ml). Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by Griess reagent and ELISA. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory proteins and cytokines were analysed by ELISA, RT-PCR and double immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Phosphorylation levels of Akt, cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascades, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and expression of SIRT1(Silent information regulator T1) were measured by western blot. Wortmannin (1 µM), a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, was used to determine if PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway might be involved in resveratrol’s action on RAW 264.7 cells. Resveratrol significantly attenuated the LPS-induced expression of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in RAW 264.7 cells. Resveratrol increased Akt phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Wortmannin, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, blocked the effects of resveratrol on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells activation. In addition, PI3-K inhibition partially abolished the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascades. Meanwhile, PI3-K is essential for resveratrol-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK and expression of SIRT1. Conclusion and Implications This investigation demonstrates that PI3-K/Akt activation is an important signaling in resveratrol-mediated activation of AMPK phosphorylation and SIRT1 expression, and inhibition of phosphorylation of CREB and MAPKs activation, proinflammatory mediators and cytokines production in response to LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:22952890

Liu, Bin; Deng, Yi-Shu; Zhan, Dong; Chen, Yuan-Li; He, Ying; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zong-Ji; Sun, Jun; Lu, Di

2012-01-01

269

Stimulation of creatine kinase BB activity by parathyroid hormone and by prostaglandin E2 in cultured bone cells.  

PubMed Central

Bone cells in culture responded to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by a 2-fold increase in creatine kinase (CK) activity. Combined treatment resulted in a higher response than with PTH alone. Calcitonin (CT) failed to stimulate CK activity, did not affect the response of CK to PTH, but inhibited slightly the increase in CK activity by PGE2. Bone-cell cultures grown in low [Ca2+] (0.125 mM), enriched in PTH-responsive osteoblast-like cells, responded to PTH, but not to PGE2 or CT, by increased CK activity. In both normal and low-[Ca2+] cultures, 8-bromo cyclic AMP did not affect CK activity, nor did it change the response of the cells to PTH, PGE2 or CT. The increase in CK activity was time- and dose-dependent and inhibited both by cycloheximide and by actinomycin D. The isoenzyme of CK stimulated was the CKBB form, the isoenzyme induced by other hormones. This appears to be the first report of the stimulation of CK activity by a polypeptide hormone or a prostaglandin. We suggest that stimulation of CKBB can serve as a marker for the action of a variety of hormones and growth promoters. PMID:3856427

Sömjen, D; Kaye, A M; Binderman, I

1985-01-01

270

Astrocyte responses to neuronal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years, it has been established that astrocytes sense neuronal activity and are involved in signal transmission. Neuronal stimulation trig- gered electrophysiological and\\/or Ca2 responses in astrocyte cultures and in acute brain slices. Present even within one given brain region, different pathways of neuron-to- astrocyte communication involving different receptor systems have been described. These mechanisms include glutamatergic

Carola G. Schipke; Helmut Kettenmann

2004-01-01

271

Effects of cold exposure on cyclic AMP concentration in plasma, liver, and brown and white adipose tissues in cold-acclimated rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of acute cold exposure on plasma energy substrates and tissue 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were analyzed in intact rats, to define an involvement of the nucleotide in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and resultant cold acclimation. After an acute cold exposure to -5°C, the plasma glucose level increased gradually in warm-kept control rats (C) while it decreased significantly in cold-acclimated rats (CA). However, it was increased considerably by an extreme cold exposure to -15°C in both C and CA. By contrast, plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) increased immediately after cold exposure and the release lasted during the period of exposure especially in C. The cold exposure also increased plasma cAMP concentration but no concomitant increase was found in the liver. In both brown (IBAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues the nucleotide concentration showed a stepwise decrease. The observed correlation between lipolysis and plasma cAMP response after cold exposure suggests an involvement of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system in NST via lipid metabolism, at least, in the early stages of cold acclimation.

Habara, Yoshiaki

1989-06-01

272

Expression in Escherichia coli of BCY1, the regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Purification and characterization.  

PubMed

The regulatory (R) subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Escherichia coli by engineering the gene for yeast R, BCY1, into an E. coli expression vector that contained a promoter from phage T7. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to create an NdeI restriction site at the natural ATG of the yeast R. This facilitated construction of the T7 expression vector so that the sequence of the protein produced was identical to the natural R subunit. Yeast R was highly expressed in a soluble form. 20 mg of purified yeast R was obtained from 4 liters of E. coli. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that the expressed protein began with the natural sequence. 60% of the molecules contained an N-terminal methionine, and 40% initiated with valine, the second amino acid of yeast R. The protein produced in E. coli migrated on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel with an Mr of 52,000. The yeast R bound 2 mol of cAMP/mol of R monomer with a Kd of 76 nM. The protein was treated with urea to remove bound cAMP. Sedimentation values before and after the urea treatment were identical (s20,w = 5.1). Addition of purified R subunit to a preparation of yeast C subunit (TPK1) rendered catalytic activity cAMP-dependent with an activity ratio of 4.6. The yeast R was autophosphorylated by yeast C to a level of 0.8 mol of phosphate/mol of R monomer. By these criteria, the R subunit produced in E. coli was structurally and functionally identical to the natural yeast R subunit and similar to mammalian type II R subunits. PMID:3036817

Johnson, K E; Cameron, S; Toda, T; Wigler, M; Zoller, M J

1987-06-25

273

Ca2+-activated Cl? currents are dispensable for olfaction.  

PubMed

Canonical olfactory signal transduction involves the activation of cyclic AMP-activated cation channels that depolarize the cilia of receptor neurons and raise intracellular calcium. Calcium then activates Cl(-) currents that may be up to tenfold larger than cation currents and are believed to powerfully amplify the response. We identified Anoctamin2 (Ano2, also known as TMEM16B) as the ciliary Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel of olfactory receptor neurons. Ano2 is expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and in the vomeronasal organ (VNO), which also expresses the related Ano1 channel. Disruption of Ano2 in mice virtually abolished Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in the MOE and VNO. Ano2 disruption reduced fluid-phase electro-olfactogram responses by only ?40%, did not change air-phase electro-olfactograms and did not reduce performance in olfactory behavioral tasks. In contrast with the current view, cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels do not need a boost by Cl(-) channels to achieve near-physiological levels of olfaction. PMID:21516098

Billig, Gwendolyn M; Pál, Balázs; Fidzinski, Pawel; Jentsch, Thomas J

2011-06-01

274

Interaction between phosphoinositide turnover system and cyclic AMP pathway for the secretion of pancreastatin and somatostatin from QGP-1N cells.  

PubMed

It is found that secretion of pancreastatin and somatostatin from QGP-1N cells is regulated through muscarinic receptor-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositide hydrolysis system. In this report, whether the cAMP pathway interacts with the phosphoinositide turnover system for the secretion of pancreastatin and somatostatin from QGP-1N cells through muscarinic receptors was studied. Stimulation of QGP-1N cells with carbachol increased intracellular cAMP levels. The carbachol-induced increase in cAMP levels was inhibited by atropine. Calcium ionophore (A23187) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased cAMP synthesis. Dibutyryl cAMP, forskolin and theophylline stimulated secretion of pancreastatin and somatostatin. When either dibutyryl cAMP, forskolin or theophylline was added in culture medium with A23187, phorbol ester or carbachol, a synergistic effect was found on pancreastatin and somatostatin secretion. These results suggest that interaction between the phosphoinositide turnover system and the cAMP pathway occurs in QGP-1N cells through muscarinic receptor stimulation for the secretion of pancreastatin and somatostatin. PMID:1352680

Tateishi, K; Funakoshi, A; Kitayama, N; Matsuoka, Y

1992-06-30

275

Anaerobic growth of Rhodopseudomonas palustris on 4-hydroxybenzoate is dependent on AadR, a member of the cyclic AMP receptor protein family of transcriptional regulators.  

PubMed Central

The purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris converts structurally diverse aromatic carboxylic acids, including lignin monomers, to benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate under anaerobic conditions. These compounds are then further degraded via aromatic ring-fission pathways. A gene termed aadR, for anaerobic aromatic degradation regulator, was identified by complementation of mutants unable to grow anaerobically on 4-hydroxybenzoate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the aadR product is similar to a family of transcriptional regulators which includes Escherichia coli Fnr and Crp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Anr, and rhizobial FixK and FixK-like proteins. A mutant with a deletion in aadR failed to grow on 4-hydroxybenzoate under anaerobic conditions and grew very slowly on benzoate. It also did not express aromatic acid-coenzyme A ligase II, an enzyme that catalyzes the first step of 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation, and it was defective in 4-hydroxybenzoate-induced expression of benzoate-coenzyme A ligase. The aadR deletion mutant was unaffected in other aspects of anaerobic growth. It grew normally on nonaromatic carbon sources and also under nitrogen-fixing conditions. In addition, aerobic growth on 4-hydroxybenzoate was indistinguishable from that of the wild type. These results indicate that AadR functions as a transcriptional activator of anaerobic aromatic acid degradation. Images PMID:1522059

Dispensa, M; Thomas, C T; Kim, M K; Perrotta, J A; Gibson, J; Harwood, C S

1992-01-01

276

Perilipin 5 regulates islet lipid metabolism and insulin secretion in a cyclic AMP dependent manner: Implication of its role in the postprandial insulin secretion.  

PubMed

Elevation of circulating fatty acids (FA) during fasting supports postprandial (PP) insulin secretion that is critical for glucose homeostasis and impaired in diabetes. We tested our hypothesis that lipid droplet (LD) protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) in beta cells aids PP insulin secretion by regulating intracellular lipid metabolism. We demonstrated that PLIN5 serves as a LD protein in human islets. In vivo, Plin5 and triglycerides were increased by fasting in mouse islets. MIN6 expressing PLIN5 (Ad-PLIN5) and those expressing perilipin 2 (PLIN2) (Ad-PLIN2) had higher [(3)H]FA incorporation into triglycerides than Ad-GFP control, which support their roles as LD proteins. However, AD-PLIN5 cells had higher lipolysis than Ad-PLIN2 cells, which increased further by 8-Br-cAMP, indicating that PLIN5 facilitates FA mobilization upon cAMP stimulation as seen postprandially. Ad-PLIN5 in islets enhanced the augmentation of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by FA and 8-Br-cAMP in G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and cAMP activated protein kinase dependent manners respectively. When PLIN5 was increased in mouse beta cells in vivo, glucose tolerance following acute exenatide challenge was improved. Therefore, the elevation of islet PLIN5 during fasting allows partitioning of FA into LD that is released upon re-feeding to support PP insulin secretion in cAMP and GPR40 dependent manners. PMID:25392244

Trevino, Michelle B; Machida, Yui; Hallinger, Daniel R; Garcia, Eden; Christensen, Aaron; Dutta, Sucharita; Peake, David A; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Imai, Yumi

2014-11-12

277

Involvement of VILIP-1 (visinin-like protein) and opposite roles of cyclic AMP and GMP signaling in in vitro cell migration of murine skin squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

VILIP-1 (visinin-like protein 1) is downregulated in various human squamous cell carcinoma. In a mouse skin SCC model VILIP-1 expression is reduced in aggressive tumor cells, accompanied by reduced cAMP levels. Overexpression of VILIP-1 in aggressive SCC cells led to enhanced cAMP production, in turn causing a reduction in invasive properties. Moreover, in primary neurons and neuronal tumor lines VILIP-1 enhanced cGMP-signaling. Here, we set out to determine whether and how cAMP and cGMP-signaling contribute to the VILIP-1 effect on enhanced SCC model cell migration, and thus most likely invasiveness in vivo. We found stronger increase in cGMP levels in aggressive, VILIP-1-negative SCC cells following stimulation of guanylyl cyclases NPR-A and -B with the natriuretic peptides ANP and CNP, respectively. Incubation with ANP or 8Br-cGMP to increase cGMP levels further enhanced the migration capacity of aggressive cells, whereas cell adhesion was unaffected. Increased cGMP was caused by elevated expression levels of NPR-A and NPR-B. However, the expression level of VILIP-1 did not affect cGMP signaling and guanylyl cyclase expression in SCC. In contrast, VILIP-1 led to reduced migration of aggressive SCC cells depending on cAMP levels as shown by use of adenylyl cyclase inhibitor 2?,3?-dideoxyadenosine. Involvement of cAMP-effectors PKA and EPAC play a role downstream of adenylyl cyclase activation. VILIP-1-positive and -negative cells did not differ in mRNA expression of adenylyl cyclases, but an effect on enhanced protein expression and membrane localization of ACs was shown to underlie enhancement of cAMP production and, thus, reduction in cell migration by VILIP-1. PMID:21480386

Schönrath, Katharina; Pan, Wensheng; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Braunewell, Karl-Heinz

2011-01-01

278

Chloride conductance activated by external agonists and internal messengers in rat peritoneal mast cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Stimulation of mast cells by externally applied secretagogues activated a slowly developing membrane current. With high external and low internal chloride (Cl-) concentrations, the current reversed at about -40 mV, but when external Cl- was made equal to internal Cl-, the reversal potential shifted to about 0 mV, demonstrating that the current carrier was Cl-. 2. In addition to external agonists, internally applied cyclic AMP and high concentrations of intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i could also activate the Cl- current. However, elevated [Ca2+]i produced only slow and incomplete activation. This suggests that the Cl- current is not directly Ca2+ activated. Also, activation of Cl- current by external agonists and by cyclic AMP was unimpaired when [Ca2+]i was clamped to low levels with internal ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), indicating that elevated [Ca2+]i is not necessary for activation of the Cl- current. Although activation by cyclic AMP was faster than that produced by elevated [Ca2+]i, it still required tens of seconds; thus the effect of cyclic AMP was also likely to be indirect. 3. Internal guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S) could also activate the Cl- current, suggesting the involvement of a G protein in the control of the current. 4. The variance associated with the Cl- current was small, and noise analysis gave a lower limit of about 1-2 pS for the single-channel conductance. The Cl- current was reduced by 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulphonate (DIDS), and during DIDS blockade, the variance of the current increased. This suggests that DIDS enters and blocks the open channel. 5. Activation of the Cl- current would make the membrane potential negative following stimulation of a mast cell, thus providing a driving force for entry of external calcium via the stimulation-induced influx pathways described in the preceding paper (Matthews, Neher & Penner, 1989). PMID:2559969

Matthews, G; Neher, E; Penner, R

1989-01-01

279

Synergistic activation of yeast-expressed rat androgen receptor by modulators of protein kinase-A 1 1 Edited by K. Yamamoto  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have employed a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) based rat androgen receptor expression system to examine the cross-talk between different signalling pathways. We report here the synergistic modulation of androgen regulated transcriptional activation of ?-galactosidase reporter activity by the activators of protein kinase-A, like forskolin and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. A similar ligand-dependent enhancement of reporter activity compared to a DHT treated control

Seema Rana; Deepa Bisht; Pradip K Chakraborti

1999-01-01

280

Activating transcription factor 2 controls Bcl-2 promoter activity in growth plate chondrocytes.  

PubMed

Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) is expressed ubiquitously in mammals. Mice deficient in ATF-2 (ATF-2 m/m) are slightly smaller than their normal littermates at birth. Approximately 50% of mice born mutant in both alleles die within the first month. Those that survive develop a hypochondroplasia-like dwarfism, characterized by shortened growth plates and kyphosis. Expression of ATF-2 within the growth plate is limited to the resting and proliferating zones. We have previously shown that ATF-2 targets the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoters of cyclin A and cyclin D1 in growth plate chondrocytes to activate their expression. Here, we demonstrate that Bcl-2, a cell death inhibitor that regulates apoptosis, is expressed within the growth plate in proliferative and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. However, Bcl-2 expression declines in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The Bcl-2 promoter contains a CRE at -1,552 bp upstream of the translation start. Mutations within this CRE cause reduced Bcl-2 promoter activity. We show here that the absence of ATF-2 in growth plate chondrocytes corresponds to a decline in Bcl-2 promoter activity, as well as a reduction in Bcl-2 protein levels. In addition, we show that ATF-2 as well as CREB, a transcription factor that can heterodimerize with ATF-2, bind to the CRE within the Bcl-2 promoter. These data identify the Bcl-2 gene as a novel target of ATF-2 and CREB in growth plate chondrocytes. PMID:17219413

Ma, Qin; Li, Xinying; Vale-Cruz, Dustin; Brown, Mark L; Beier, Frank; LuValle, Phyllis

2007-05-15

281

Active Response Gravity Offload System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

2011-01-01

282

Sensitization of adenylate cyclase by short-term activation of 5-HT1A receptors.  

PubMed

Long-term (18 h) activation of 5-HT1A receptors alters 5-HT1A receptor-G protein coupling and leads to heterologous sensitization of adenylate cyclase. In contrast, the effects of short-term (2 h) 5-HT1A receptor activation on subsequent adenylate cyclase activity have not been determined. The present study examined and characterized 5-HT1A receptor-induced heterologous sensitization following short-term activation in CHO-5-HT1A cells. Short-term activation of 5-HT1A receptors with full agonists, as well as the partial agonist, buspirone, markedly enhanced subsequent forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. This heterologous sensitization was evident after 30 min treatment with 5HT and appeared to be near maximal following 2 h agonist treatment. Sensitization was characterized by a dose-dependent increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and was prevented by WAY 100635 or by pertussis toxin treatment. The ability of the 5-HT1A agonists to induce heterologous sensitization was not significantly altered by agents shown previously to modulate 5-HT1A-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation. PMID:14575866

Lisinicchia, Joshua G; Watts, Val J

2003-12-01

283

A cAMP-activated pathway, including PKA and PI3K, regulates neuronal differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal differentiation is a complex process in which many different signalling pathways may be involved. An increase in the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) has been shown to induce neuronal differentiation and also to cooperate with NGF to induce PC12 neurite outgrowth in a Ras-dependent manner. However, the neuritogenic activities associated with cAMP are still not well understood.The purpose

S Sánchez; C Jiménez; A. C Carrera; J Diaz-Nido; J Avila; F Wandosell

2004-01-01

284

Utilization of signal transduction pathway by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I transcriptional activator tax  

SciTech Connect

The human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) trans-activator (tax)-inducible enhancer was localized to three copies of 21-base-pair repeats within the long terminal repeat. Interestingly, the TGACG motif found in the center of the 21-base-pair tax-responsive element (TRE) is also present in the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive elements (CREs) and activating transcription factor (ATF)-binding sites. In this study, the authors demonstrate that the three TRE-binding proteins, TREB-1, TREB-2, and TREB-3, also bind to various CREs and ATF-binding sites and that the TREs can confer upon a heterologous promoter responsiveness to various inducing agents, including tax, cAMP, and E1a. Furthermore, the transcriptional activation of the HTLV-I promoter by tax can be inhibited by several protein kinase inhibitors, including sangivamycin. The results indicate that the TREs, CREs, and ATF-binding sites are similar cis-acting elements and further suggest (i) that the transcriptional activation of the HTLV-I promoter by tax involves the action of a protein kinase an (ii) that induction by tax, cAMP, and E1a might be mediated by distinct factors or kinases.

Tan, Tsehua; Jia, R.; Goeder, R.G. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA))

1989-09-01

285

Sex differences in the responses of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area and feeding behavior to fasting.  

PubMed

Because there are sex differences in feeding-related behavior and orexin neurons are involved in feeding, we looked for a possible sex difference in the response of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area to fasting, using the phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) as a marker of neural activity. Intact male and female rats at proestrus, estrus, or diestrus, were fed normally or fasted for 48h. After fasting, they were intravenously injected with saline or glucose and subjected to immunohistochemical processing for the detection of orexin and pCREB. In the rats fed normally and injected with saline, only a small population of orexin neurons expressed pCREB in both male and female rats. However, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons with pCREB (double-stained cells) in female rats regardless of the estrous day but not in male rats, revealing a significant sex difference in the response of orexin neurons to fasting. Glucose injection in fasted rats decreased the number of double-stained cells in female rats, and the magnitude of glucose-dependent decrease was greater at proestrus and estrus than at diestrus 2. We also found that female rats, but not male rats, showed an increase in total food intake after fasting (rebound feeding). We speculate that the demonstrated sex differences in the response of orexin neurons to fasting reflect the vulnerability of feeding mechanisms in females. PMID:19616070

Funabashi, Toshiya; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Mogi, Kazutaka; Mitsushima, Dai; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Kimura, Fukuko

2009-09-29

286

Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Requires Direct Access to DNA for Recruitment of CREB Binding Protein to the Viral Promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) replication and viral gene expression are dependent upon the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. To activate HTLV-1 transcription, Tax interacts with the cellular DNA binding protein cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and recruits the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP), forming a nucleoprotein complex on the three viral cyclic AMP-responsive elements (CREs) in

BRIAN A. LENZMEIER; HOLLI A. GIEBLER; JENNIFER K. NYBORG

287

Appetitive cue-evoked ERK signaling in the nucleus accumbens requires NMDA and D1 dopamine receptor activation and regulates CREB phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Conditioned stimuli (CS) can modulate reward-seeking behavior. This modulatory effect can be maladaptive and has been implicated in excessive reward seeking and relapse to drug addiction. We previously demonstrated that exposure to an appetitive CS causes an increase in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP response-element binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats, and that CS-evoked ERK activation is critical for CS control over reward seeking. To elucidate the mechanism that mediates CS-driven ERK activation in the NAc, we selectively blocked NMDA glutamate or D1 dopamine receptors in the NAc. To determine whether CS-driven ERK and CREB activation are linked, we selectively blocked ERK signaling in the NAc. We found that both NMDA and D1 receptors are critical for CS-driven ERK signaling in the NAc, and that this recruitment of the ERK cascade is responsible for increased CREB activation in the presence of the CS. Our findings suggest that activation of the NMDAR-D1R/ERK/CREB signal transduction pathway plays a critical role in the control of reward-seeking behavior by reward-predictive cues. PMID:25322796

Kirschmann, Erin K Z; Mauna, Jocelyn C; Willis, Cory M; Foster, Rebecca L; Chipman, Amanda M; Thiels, Edda

2014-11-01

288

Differential Biological and Adjuvant Activities of Cholera Toxin and Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Two bacterial products that have been demonstrated to function as mucosal adjuvants are cholera toxin (CT), produced by various strains of Vibrio cholerae, and the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by some enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli. Although LT and CT have many features in common, they are clearly distinct molecules with biochemical and immunologic differences which make them unique. The goal of this study was to determine the basis for these biological differences by constructing and characterizing chimeric CT-LT molecules. Toxin gene fragments were subcloned to create two constructs, each expressing the enzymatically active A subunit of one toxin and the receptor binding B subunit of the other toxin. These hybrid toxins were purified, and the composition and assembly of CT A subunit (CT-A)-LT B subunit (LT-B) and LT A subunit (LT-A)-CT B subunit (CT-B) were confirmed. Hybrids were evaluated for enzymatic activity, as measured by the accumulation of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and the enterotoxicity of each toxin was assessed in a patent-mouse assay. The results demonstrated that LT-A–CT-B induces the accumulation of lower levels of cyclic AMP and has less enterotoxicity than either wild-type toxin or the other hybrid. Nonetheless, this hybrid retains adjuvant activity equivalent to or greater than that of either wild-type toxin or the other hybrid when used in conjunction with tetanus toxoid for intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice. Importantly, the ability of LT to induce a type 1 cytokine response was found to be a function of LT-A. Specifically, LT-A–CT-B was able to augment the levels of antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?) and interleukin 5 to levels comparable to those achieved with native LT, while CT-A–LT-B and native CT both produced lower levels of antigen-specific IFN-?. Thus, these toxin hybrids possess unique biological characteristics and provide information about the basis for differences in the biological activities observed for CT and LT. PMID:11179323

Bowman, Christal C.; Clements, John D.

2001-01-01

289

Sensitivity of HCN channel deactivation to cAMP is amplified by an S4 mutation combined with activation mode shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperpolarisation–activation of HCN ion channels relies on the movement of a charged S4 transmembrane helix, preferentially\\u000a stabilising the open conformation of the ion pore gate. The open state is additionally stabilised, (a) when cyclic AMP (cAMP)\\u000a is bound to a cytoplasmic C-terminal domain or (b) when the “mode I” open state formed initially by gate opening undergoes\\u000a a “mode shift”

Nadine L. Wicks; Kerry S. C. Chan; Zarina Madden; Bina Santoro; Edgar C. Young

2009-01-01

290

Mechanism for fetal hemoglobin induction by histone deacetylase inhibitors involves ?-globin activation by CREB1 and ATF-2  

PubMed Central

The histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDA-CIs) butyrate and trichostatin A activate ?-globin expression via a p38 mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. We hypothesized that down-stream effectors of p38 MAPK, namely activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) and cyclic AMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB), are intimately involved in fetal hemoglobin induction by these agents. In this study, we observed increased ATF-2 and CREB1 phosphorylation mediated by the HDACIs in K562 cells, in conjunction with histone H4 hyperacetylation. Moreover, enhanced DNA-protein interactions occurred in the CRE in the G?-globin promoter (G-CRE) in vitro after drug treatments; subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed ATF-2 and CREB1 binding to the G-CRE in vivo. Enforced expression of ATF-2 and CREB produced G?-promoter trans-activation which was abolished by a 2-base pair mutation in the putative G-CRE. The data presented herein demonstrate that ?-gene induction by butyrate and trichostatin A involves ATF-2 and CREB1 activation via p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:16896160

Sangerman, Jose; Lee, Moo Seung; Yao, Xiao; Oteng, Eugene; Hsiao, Cheng-Hui; Li, Wei; Zein, Sima; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F.; Pace, Betty S.

2006-01-01

291

Signaling dynamics of palmitate-induced ER stress responses mediated by ATF4 in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Palmitic acid, the most common saturated free fatty acid, has been implicated in ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress-mediated apoptosis. This lipoapotosis is dependent, in part, on the upregulation of the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4). To better understand the mechanisms by which palmitate upregulates the expression level of ATF4, we integrated literature information on palmitate-induced ER stress signaling into a discrete dynamic model. The model provides an in silico framework that enables simulations and predictions. The model predictions were confirmed through further experiments in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and the results were used to update the model and our current understanding of the signaling induced by palmitate. Results The three key things from the in silico simulation and experimental results are: 1) palmitate induces different signaling pathways (PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase), PERK (PKR-like ER kinase), PKA (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A) in a time dependent-manner, 2) both ATF4 and CREB1 (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1) interact with the Atf4 promoter to contribute to a prolonged accumulation of ATF4, and 3) CREB1 is involved in ER-stress induced apoptosis upon palmitate treatment, by regulating ATF4 expression and possibly Ca2+ dependent-CaM (calmodulin) signaling pathway. Conclusion The in silico model helped to delineate the essential signaling pathways in palmitate-mediated apoptosis. PMID:23339444

2013-01-01

292

Combinatorial regulation of a signal-dependent activator by phosphorylation and acetylation.  

PubMed

In the fasted state, increases in catecholamine signaling promote adipocyte function via the protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). CREB activity is further up-regulated in obesity, despite reductions in catecholamine signaling, where it contributes to the development of insulin resistance. Here we show that obesity promotes the CREB binding protein (CBP)-mediated acetylation of CREB at Lys136 in adipose. Under lean conditions, CREB acetylation was low due to an association with the energy-sensing NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SirT1; amounts of acetylated CREB were increased in obesity, when SirT1 undergoes proteolytic degradation. Whereas CREB phosphorylation stimulated an association with the KIX domain of CBP, Lys136 acetylation triggered an interaction with the CBP bromodomain (BRD) that augmented recruitment of this coactivator to the promoter. Indeed, coincident Ser133 phosphorylation and Lys136 acetylation of CREB stimulated the formation of a ternary complex with the KIX and BRD domains of CBP by NMR analysis. As disruption of the CREB:BRD complex with a CBP-specific BRD inhibitor blocked effects of CREB acetylation on target gene expression, our results demonstrate how changes in nutrient status modulate cellular gene expression in response to hormonal signals. PMID:25404345

Paz, Jose C; Park, Sangho; Phillips, Naomi; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Tsai, Wen-Wei; Kasper, Lawryn; Brindle, Paul K; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Wright, Peter E; Montminy, Marc

2014-12-01

293

The In Vivo Activity of Ime1, the Key Transcriptional Activator of Meiosis-Specific Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Is Inhibited by the Cyclic AMP\\/Protein Kinase A Signal Pathway through the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-  Homolog Rim11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorylation is the main mode by which signals are transmitted to key regulators of developmental pathways. The glycogen synthase kinase 3 family plays pivotal roles in the development and well-being of all eukaryotic organisms. Similarly, the budding yeast homolog Rim11 is essential for the exit of diploid cells from the cell cycle and for entry into the meiotic developmental pathway.

Ifat Rubin-Bejerano; Shira Sagee; Osnat Friedman; Lilach Pnueli; Yona Kassir

2004-01-01

294

Genomic structure of murine methylmalonyl-CoA mutase: evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms determining enzyme activity.  

PubMed Central

Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial matrix enzyme. We have reported characterization of murine MCM and cloning of a murine MCM cDNA and now describe the murine Mut locus, its promoter and evidence for tissue-specific variation in MCM mRNA, enzyme and holo-enzyme levels. The Mut locus spans 30 kb and contains 13 exons constituting a unique transcription unit. A B1 repeat element was found in the 3' untranslated region (exon 13). The transcription initiation site was identified and upstream sequences were shown to direct expression of a reporter gene in cultured cells. The promoter contains sequence motifs characteristic of: (1) TATA-less housekeeping promoters; (2) enhancer elements purportedly involved in co-ordinating expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins; and (3) regulatory elements including CCAAT boxes, cyclic AMP-response elements and potential AP-2-binding sites. Northern blots demonstrate a greater than 10-fold variation in steady-state mRNA levels, which correlate with tissue levels of enzyme activity. However, the ratio of holoenzyme to total enzyme varies among different tissues, and there is no correlation between steady-state mRNA levels and holoenzyme activity. These results suggest that, although there may be regulation of MCM activity at the level of mRNA, the significance of genetic regulation is unclear owning to the presence of epigenetic regulation of holoenzyme formation. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7904153

Wilkemeyer, M F; Andrews, E R; Ledley, F D

1993-01-01

295

A carbon responsive G-protein coupled receptor modulates broad developmental and genetic networks in the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana.  

PubMed

In fungi, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) link ligand/nutrient sensing to growth, mating, developmental/life-stage activation and pathogenesis. A GPCR was characterized from the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (BbGPCR3), which links nutrient sensing to stress response and development. ?BbGPCR3 mutants grew slower on various carbohydrates and displayed increased sensitivity to osmotic, oxidative and cell wall stresses. Gene expression profiling revealed a set of heat-shock and antioxidant factors that failed to be induced under oxidative stress and aberrant regulation of compatible solute-forming enzymes and cell wall biosynthesis/remodelling proteins in ?BbGPCR3 after osmotic stress. Glucose-specific developmental defects included reduced (>?90%) conidiation and reduced dimorphic transition to the production of yeast-like blastospores, effects suppressed in media containing trehalose or glycerol, but not by addition of cyclic AMP. Insect bioassays revealed reduced virulence in topical assays but no effect in intrahaemoceol injection assays, indicating that BbGPCR3 was important in sensing signals during the initial interaction with the host but dispensable for post-penetration events. Comparative gene expression profiling of ?BbGPCR3 mutants grown in glucose media compared with wild-type/glucose and ?BbGPCR3/trehalose grown cells revealed sets of genes misregulated and recovered, respectively. These data link BbGPCR3 to broad developmental and genetic networks that include the major MAP kinase pathways. PMID:23809710

Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang; Keyhani, Nemat O

2013-06-01

296

Multiple mRNA isoforms of the transcription activator protein CREB: generation by alternative splicing and specific expression in primary spermatocytes.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized cDNA clones representing mouse CREB (cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein) mRNA isoforms. These include CREB delta and CREB alpha, of which the rat and human homologues have been previously identified. Both encode proteins with CRE-binding activity and identical transactivation potential. The additional CREB mRNA isoforms potentially encode CREB related proteins. From the structural organization of the mouse CREB gene we conclude that the multiple transcripts are generated by alternative splicing. Furthermore we show that specific CREB mRNA isoforms are expressed at a high level in the adult testis. Expression of these isoforms is induced after commencement of spermatogenesis. In situ hybridization suggests that this expression occurs predominantly in the primary spermatocytes. Comparison of the CREB gene with the recently isolated CREM (cAMP responsive element modulator) cDNAs illustrates that the two genes have arisen by gene duplication and have diverged to encode transcriptional activators and repressors of the cAMP signal transduction pathway. Images PMID:1532935

Ruppert, S; Cole, T J; Boshart, M; Schmid, E; Schütz, G

1992-01-01

297

Stress reorganisation and response in active solids  

E-print Network

We present a microscopic model of a disordered viscoelastic active solid, i.e. an active material whose long time behaviour is elastic as opposed to viscous. It is composed of filaments, passive crosslinks and molecular motors powered by stored chemical energy, e.g. actomyosin powered by ATP. Our model allows us to study the collective behaviour of contractile active elements and how their interaction with each other and the passive elastic elements determines the macroscopic mechanical properties of the active material. As a result of the (un)binding dynamics of the active elements, we find that this system provides a highly responsive material with a dynamic mechanical response strongly dependent on the amount of deformation.

Rhoda J. Hawkins; Tanniemola B. Liverpool

2014-07-14

298

Diverse signaling systems activated by the sweet taste receptor in human GLP-1-secreting cells.  

PubMed

Sweet taste receptor regulates GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine L-cells. We investigated the signaling system activated by this receptor using Hutu-80 cells. We stimulated them with sucralose, saccharin, acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin. These sweeteners stimulated GLP-1 secretion, which was attenuated by lactisole. All these sweeteners elevated cytoplasmic cyclic AMP ([cAMP]c) whereas only sucralose and saccharin induced a monophasic increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]c). Removal of extracellular calcium or sodium and addition of a Gq/11 inhibitor greatly reduced the [Ca(2+)]c responses to two sweeteners. In contrast, acesulfame K induced rapid and sustained reduction of [Ca(2+)]c. In addition, glycyrrhizin first reduced [Ca(2+)]c which was followed by an elevation of [Ca(2+)]c. Reductions of [Ca(2+)]c induced by acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin were attenuated by a calmodulin inhibitor or by knockdown of the plasma membrane calcium pump. These results indicate that various sweet molecules act as biased agonists and evoke strikingly different patterns of intracellular signals. PMID:25017733

Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Takeda, Shigeki; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Kojima, Itaru

2014-08-25

299

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specified surface of the body. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes: (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1994-09-01

300

The mitogenic signaling pathway but not the plasminogen activator- inducing pathway of basic fibroblast growth factor is mediated through protein kinase C in fetal bovine aortic endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces cell proliferation and plasminogen activator (PA) activity in transformed fetal bovine aortic endothelial (FBAE) GM 7373 cells. A similar response is observed after treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In these cells, bFGF and TPA cause activation of protein kinase C (PKC), as demonstrated by the induction of the phosphorylation of an 87-kD PKC substrate in intact cells and by the increase in membrane-associated PKC activity. Activation of PKC by bFGF or TPA is inhibited in cells made PKC-deficient by pretreatment with high concentrations of TPA. The mitogenic activity of bFGF or of TPA is completely inhibited in PKC- deficient cells or in naive cells treated with the PKC inhibitor H-7. However, these cells proliferate in response to serum, epidermal growth factor, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Similar results are obtained in normal FBAE AG 7680 cells. These data indicate that activation of PKC is responsible for the mitogenic activity of bFGF in FBAE cells. On the contrary, the PA-inducing activity of bFGF is unaffected by down- regulation of PKC or by treatment with the PKC inhibitor H-7 in both transformed GM 7373 and normal AG 7680 cells. bFGF induces a rapid 45Ca influx in naive and in PKC-deprived GM 7373 cells. In these cells, addition of EGTA to the incubation medium prevents both the 45Ca influx and the increase in PA activity induced by bFGF, without affecting its mitogenic activity. Even though the involvement of PKC in the increase of cell-associated PA activity induced by bFGF can not be completely dismissed, the present results suggest a role of calcium entry in the modulation of the PA-inducing activity of bFGF. PMID:2551911

1989-01-01

301

Heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli: in vitro effects on guanylate cyclase activity, cyclic GMP concentration, and ion transport in small intestine.  

PubMed Central

A partially purified preparation of the heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli caused a rapid and persistent increase in electric potential difference and short-circuit current when added in vitro to the luminal surface of isolated rabbit ileal mucosa. As little as 1 ng/ml produced an easily detectable response. Under short-circuit condition, the enterotoxin abolished net Cl- absorption; this change was half that produced by theophylline, which stimulated net secretion. The enterotoxin did not change cyclic AMP concentration but caused large and persistent increases in cyclic GMP concentration. The electrical and nucleotide responses exhibited similar and unusually broad concentration-dependences and maximal effects could not be demonstrated. Theophylline elevated cyclic GMP concentration 3-fold both in the presence and absense of the enterotoxin, suggesting no effect of the toxin on cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. Guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphatelyase(cyclizing); EC 4.6.1.2] activity in a crude membrane fraction from intestinal epithelial cells was stimulated 7-fold by the enterotoxin. These results suggest that guanylate cyclase stimulation is the basis for the toxin's diarrheagenic effect. PMID:26915

Field, M; Graf, L H; Laird, W J; Smith, P L

1978-01-01

302

Dynamic response of active twist rotor blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic characteristics of active twist rotor (ATR) blades are investigated analytically and experimentally in this paper. The ATR system is intended for vibration and potentially for noise reductions in helicopters through individual blade control. An aeroelastic model is developed to identify frequency response characteristics of the ATR blade with integral, generally anisotropic, strain actuators embedded in its composite construction. An

Carlos E. S. Cesnik; Sang Joon Shin; Matthew L. Wilbur

2001-01-01

303

Low dielectric response in enzyme active site  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of charge transfer depend crucially on the dielectric reorganization of the medium. In enzymatic reactions that involve charge transfer, atomic dielectric response of the active site and of its surroundings determines the efficiency of the protein as a catalyst. We report direct spectroscopic measurements of the reorganization energy associated with the dielectric response in the active site of ?-chymotrypsin. A chromophoric inhibitor of the enzyme is used as a spectroscopic probe. We find that water strongly affects the dielectric reorganization in the active site of the enzyme in solution. The reorganization energy of the protein matrix in the vicinity of the active site is similar to that of low-polarity solvents. Surprisingly, water exhibits an anomalously high dielectric response that cannot be described in terms of the dielectric continuum theory. As a result, sequestering the active site from the aqueous environment inside low-dielectric enzyme body dramatically reduces the dielectric reorganization. This reduction is particularly important for controlling the rate of enzymatic reactions. PMID:10681440

Mertz, Edward L.; Krishtalik, Lev I.

2000-01-01

304

Influenza matrix protein 2 alters CFTR expression and function through its ion channel activity  

PubMed Central

The human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-activated chloride (Cl?) channel in the lung epithelium that helps regulate the thickness and composition of the lung epithelial lining fluid. We investigated whether influenza M2 protein, a pH-activated proton (H+) channel that traffics to the plasma membrane of infected cells, altered CFTR expression and function. M2 decreased CFTR activity in 1) Xenopus oocytes injected with human CFTR, 2) epithelial cells (HEK-293) stably transfected with CFTR, and 3) human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o?) expressing native CFTR. This inhibition was partially reversed by an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Next we investigated whether the M2 inhibition of CFTR activity was due to an increase of secretory organelle pH by M2. Incubation of Xenopus oocytes expressing CFTR with ammonium chloride or concanamycin A, two agents that alkalinize the secretory pathway, inhibited CFTR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of M2- and CFTR-expressing oocytes with the M2 ion channel inhibitor amantadine prevented the loss in CFTR expression and activity; in addition, M2 mutants, lacking the ability to transport H+, did not alter CFTR activity in Xenopus oocytes and HEK cells. Expression of an M2 mutant retained in the endoplasmic reticulum also failed to alter CFTR activity. In summary, our data show that M2 decreases CFTR activity by increasing secretory organelle pH, which targets CFTR for destruction by the ubiquitin system. Alteration of CFTR activity has important consequences for fluid regulation and may potentially modify the immune response to viral infection. PMID:23457187

Londino, James D.; Lazrak, Ahmed; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Collawn, James F.; Noah, James W.

2013-01-01

305

Rapamycin Induces Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) Expression through Activation of Protein Kinase B and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Pathways*  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), also known as dual specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP-1), plays a crucial role in the deactivation of MAPKs. Several drugs with immune-suppressive properties modulate MKP-1 expression as part of their mechanism of action. We investigated the effect of mTOR inhibition through rapamycin and a dual mTOR inhibitor (AZD2014) on MKP-1 expression. Low dose rapamycin led to a rapid activation of both AKT and ERK pathways with a subsequent increase in MKP-1 expression. Rapamycin treatment led to phosphorylation of CREB, transcription factor 1 (ATF1), and ATF2, three transcription factors that bind to the cyclic AMP-responsive elements on the Mkp-1 promoter. Inhibition of either the MEK/ERK or the AKT pathway attenuated rapamycin-mediated MKP-1 induction. AZD2014 did not activate AKT but activated the ERK pathway, leading to a moderate MKP-1 induction. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) derived from wild-type (WT) mice or mice deficient in AKT1 and AKT2 isoforms or BMDM from targeted deficiency in MEK1 and MEK2, we show that rapamycin treatment led to an increased MKP1 expression in BMDM from WT but failed to do so in BMDMs lacking the AKT1 isoform or MEK1 and MEK2. Importantly, rapamycin pretreatment inhibited LPS-mediated p38 activation and decreased nitric oxide and IL-6 production. Our work provides a conceptual framework for the observed immune modulatory effect of mTOR inhibition. PMID:24126911

Rastogi, Ruchi; Jiang, Zhongliang; Ahmad, Nisar; Rosati, Rita; Liu, Yusen; Beuret, Laurent; Monks, Robert; Charron, Jean; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Samavati, Lobelia

2013-01-01

306

Rapamycin induces mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression through activation of protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase pathways.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), also known as dual specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP-1), plays a crucial role in the deactivation of MAPKs. Several drugs with immune-suppressive properties modulate MKP-1 expression as part of their mechanism of action. We investigated the effect of mTOR inhibition through rapamycin and a dual mTOR inhibitor (AZD2014) on MKP-1 expression. Low dose rapamycin led to a rapid activation of both AKT and ERK pathways with a subsequent increase in MKP-1 expression. Rapamycin treatment led to phosphorylation of CREB, transcription factor 1 (ATF1), and ATF2, three transcription factors that bind to the cyclic AMP-responsive elements on the Mkp-1 promoter. Inhibition of either the MEK/ERK or the AKT pathway attenuated rapamycin-mediated MKP-1 induction. AZD2014 did not activate AKT but activated the ERK pathway, leading to a moderate MKP-1 induction. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) derived from wild-type (WT) mice or mice deficient in AKT1 and AKT2 isoforms or BMDM from targeted deficiency in MEK1 and MEK2, we show that rapamycin treatment led to an increased MKP1 expression in BMDM from WT but failed to do so in BMDMs lacking the AKT1 isoform or MEK1 and MEK2. Importantly, rapamycin pretreatment inhibited LPS-mediated p38 activation and decreased nitric oxide and IL-6 production. Our work provides a conceptual framework for the observed immune modulatory effect of mTOR inhibition. PMID:24126911

Rastogi, Ruchi; Jiang, Zhongliang; Ahmad, Nisar; Rosati, Rita; Liu, Yusen; Beuret, Laurent; Monks, Robert; Charron, Jean; Birnbaum, Morris J; Samavati, Lobelia

2013-11-22

307

Structural basis for Hif-1?/CBP recognition in the cellular hypoxic response  

PubMed Central

The cellular response to low tissue oxygen concentrations is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1 activates transcription of critical adaptive genes by recruitment of the general coactivators CBP/p300 through interactions with its ?-subunit (Hif-1?). Disruption of the Hif-1?/p300 interaction has been linked to attenuation of tumor growth. To delineate the structural basis for this interaction, we have determined the solution structure of the complex between the carboxy-terminal activation domain (CAD) of Hif-1? and the zinc-binding TAZ1 (CH1) motif of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP). Despite the overall similarity of the TAZ1 structure to that of the TAZ2 (part of the CH3) domain of CBP, differences occur in the packing of helices that can account for differences in specificity. The unbound CAD is intrinsically disordered and remains relatively extended upon binding, wrapping almost entirely around the TAZ1 domain in a groove through much of its surface. Three short helices are formed upon binding, stabilized by intermolecular interactions. The Asn-803 side chain, which functions as a hypoxic switch, is located on the second of these helices and is buried in the molecular interface. The third helix of the Hif-1? CAD docks in a deep hydrophobic groove in TAZ1, providing extensive intermolecular hydrophobic interactions that contribute to the stability of the complex. The structure of this complex provides new insights into the mechanism through which Hif-1? recruits CBP/p300 in response to hypoxia. PMID:11959977

Dames, Sonja A.; Martinez-Yamout, Maria; De Guzman, Roberto N.; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E.

2002-01-01

308

The cAMP-responsive Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Epac, induces smooth muscle relaxation by down-regulation of RhoA activity.  

PubMed

Agonist activation of the small GTPase, RhoA, and its effector Rho kinase leads to down-regulation of smooth muscle (SM) myosin light chain phosphatase activity, an increase in myosin light chain (RLC(20)) phosphorylation and force. Cyclic nucleotides can reverse this process. We report a new mechanism of cAMP-mediated relaxation through Epac, a GTP exchange factor for the small GTPase Rap1 resulting in an increase in Rap1 activity and suppression of RhoA activity. An Epac-selective cAMP analog, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP ("007"), significantly reduced agonist-induced contractile force, RLC(20), and myosin light chain phosphatase phosphorylation in both intact and permeabilized vascular, gut, and airway SMs independently of PKA and PKG. The vasodilator PGI(2) analog, cicaprost, increased Rap1 activity and decreased RhoA activity in intact SMs. Forskolin, phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine, and isoproterenol also significantly increased Rap1-GTP in rat aortic SM cells. The PKA inhibitor H89 was without effect on the 007-induced increase in Rap1-GTP. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced RhoA activity was reduced by treatment with 007 in WT but not Rap1B null fibroblasts, consistent with Epac signaling through Rap1B to down-regulate RhoA activity. Isoproterenol-induced increase in Rap1 activity was inhibited by silencing Epac1 in rat aortic SM cells. Evidence is presented that cooperative cAMP activation of PKA and Epac contribute to relaxation of SM. Our findings demonstrate a cAMP-mediated signaling mechanism whereby activation of Epac results in a PKA-independent, Rap1-dependent Ca(2+) desensitization of force in SM through down-regulation of RhoA activity. Cyclic AMP inhibition of RhoA is mediated through activation of both Epac and PKA. PMID:21454546

Zieba, Bartosz J; Artamonov, Mykhaylo V; Jin, Li; Momotani, Ko; Ho, Ruoya; Franke, Aaron S; Neppl, Ronald L; Stevenson, Andra S; Khromov, Alexander S; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Somlyo, Avril V

2011-05-13

309

The cAMP-responsive Rap1 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Epac, Induces Smooth Muscle Relaxation by Down-regulation of RhoA Activity*  

PubMed Central

Agonist activation of the small GTPase, RhoA, and its effector Rho kinase leads to down-regulation of smooth muscle (SM) myosin light chain phosphatase activity, an increase in myosin light chain (RLC20) phosphorylation and force. Cyclic nucleotides can reverse this process. We report a new mechanism of cAMP-mediated relaxation through Epac, a GTP exchange factor for the small GTPase Rap1 resulting in an increase in Rap1 activity and suppression of RhoA activity. An Epac-selective cAMP analog, 8-pCPT-2?-O-Me-cAMP (“007”), significantly reduced agonist-induced contractile force, RLC20, and myosin light chain phosphatase phosphorylation in both intact and permeabilized vascular, gut, and airway SMs independently of PKA and PKG. The vasodilator PGI2 analog, cicaprost, increased Rap1 activity and decreased RhoA activity in intact SMs. Forskolin, phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine, and isoproterenol also significantly increased Rap1-GTP in rat aortic SM cells. The PKA inhibitor H89 was without effect on the 007-induced increase in Rap1-GTP. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced RhoA activity was reduced by treatment with 007 in WT but not Rap1B null fibroblasts, consistent with Epac signaling through Rap1B to down-regulate RhoA activity. Isoproterenol-induced increase in Rap1 activity was inhibited by silencing Epac1 in rat aortic SM cells. Evidence is presented that cooperative cAMP activation of PKA and Epac contribute to relaxation of SM. Our findings demonstrate a cAMP-mediated signaling mechanism whereby activation of Epac results in a PKA-independent, Rap1-dependent Ca2+ desensitization of force in SM through down-regulation of RhoA activity. Cyclic AMP inhibition of RhoA is mediated through activation of both Epac and PKA. PMID:21454546

Zieba, Bartosz J.; Artamonov, Mykhaylo V.; Jin, Li; Momotani, Ko; Ho, Ruoya; Franke, Aaron S.; Neppl, Ronald L.; Stevenson, Andra S.; Khromov, Alexander S.; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Somlyo, Avril V.

2011-01-01

310

The small polyphenolic molecule kaempferol increases cellular energy expenditure and thyroid hormone activation.  

PubMed

Disturbances in energy homeostasis can result in obesity and other metabolic diseases. Here we report a metabolic pathway present in normal human skeletal muscle myoblasts that is activated by the small polyphenolic molecule kaempferol (KPF). Treatment with KPF leads to an approximately 30% increase in skeletal myocyte oxygen consumption. The mechanism involves a several-fold increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) generation and protein kinase A activation, and the effect of KPF can be mimicked via treatment with dibutyryl cAMP. Microarray and real-time PCR studies identified a set of metabolically relevant genes influenced by KPF including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, mitochondrial transcription factor 1, citrate synthase, and uncoupling protein-3, although KPF itself is not a direct mitochondrial uncoupler. The cAMP-responsive gene for type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2), an intracellular enzyme that activates thyroid hormone (T3) for the nucleus, is approximately threefold upregulated by KPF; furthermore, the activity half-life for D2 is dramatically and selectively increased as well. The net effect is an approximately 10-fold stimulation of D2 activity as measured in cell sonicates, with a concurrent increase of approximately 2.6-fold in the rate of T3 production, which persists even 24 h after KPF has been removed from the system. The effects of KPF on D2 are independent of sirtuin activation and only weakly reproduced by other small polyphenolic molecules such as quercetin and fisetin. These data document a novel mechanism by which a xenobiotic-activated pathway can regulate metabolically important genes as well as thyroid hormone activation and thus may influence metabolic control in humans. PMID:17327447

da-Silva, Wagner S; Harney, John W; Kim, Brian W; Li, Jing; Bianco, Suzy D C; Crescenzi, Alessandra; Christoffolete, Marcelo A; Huang, Stephen A; Bianco, Antonio C

2007-03-01

311

A PKA activity sensor for quantitative analysis of endogenous GPCR signaling via 2-photon FRET-FLIM imaging  

PubMed Central

Neuromodulators have profound effects on behavior, but the dynamics of their intracellular effectors has remained unclear. Most neuromodulators exert their function via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One major challenge for understanding neuromodulator action is the lack of dynamic readouts of the biochemical signals produced by GPCR activation. The adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) module is a central component of such biochemical signaling. This module is regulated by several behaviorally important neuromodulator receptors. Furthermore, PKA activity is necessary for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. In order to monitor PKA activity in brain tissue, we have developed a 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2pFLIM) compatible PKA sensor termed FLIM-AKAR, which is based on the ratiometric FRET sensor AKAR3. FLIM-AKAR shows a large dynamic range and little pH sensitivity. In addition, it is a rapidly diffusible cytoplasmic protein that specifically reports net PKA activity in situ. FLIM-AKAR expresses robustly in various brain regions with multiple transfection methods, can be targeted to genetically identified cell types, and responds to activation of both endogenous GPCRs and spatial-temporally specific delivery of glutamate. Initial experiments reveal differential regulation of PKA activity across subcellular compartments in response to neuromodulator inputs. Therefore, the reporter FLIM-AKAR, coupled with 2pFLIM, enables the study of PKA activity in response to neuromodulator inputs in genetically identified neurons in the brain, and sheds light on the intracellular dynamics of endogenous GPCR activation. PMID:24765076

Chen, Yao; Saulnier, Jessica L.; Yellen, Gary; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

2014-01-01

312

Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and TyrR Are Required for Acid pH and Anaerobic Induction of hyaB and aniC in Salmonella typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella typhimurium undergoes extensive molecular and physiological changes following both subtle and dramatic al- terations in environmental pH (5, 12). Changes that occur in response to acid pH shifts include an adaptation to acid stress called the acid tolerance response (ATR), which helps protect the organism from potentially lethal acid environments (13). The ATR involves the induction of a series

KYEONG R. PARK; JEAN-CHRISTOPHE GIARD; JUNO H. EOM; SHAWN BEARSON; JOHN W. FOSTER

1999-01-01

313

Multiple MAPK Cascades Regulate the Transcription of IME1, the Master Transcriptional Activator of Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The choice between alternative developmental pathways is primarily controlled at the level of transcription. Induction of meiosis in budding yeasts in response to nutrient levels provides a system to investigate the molecular basis of cellular decision-making. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, entry into meiosis depends on multiple signals converging upon IME1, the master transcriptional activator of meiosis. Here we studied the regulation of the cis-acting regulatory element Upstream Activation Signal (UAS)ru, which resides within the IME1 promoter. Guided by our previous data acquired using a powerful high-throughput screening system, here we provide evidence that UASru is regulated by multiple stimuli that trigger distinct signal transduction pathways as follows: (i) The glucose signal inhibited UASru activity through the cyclic AMP (cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, targeting the transcription factors (TFs), Com2 and Sko1; (ii) high osmolarity activated UASru through the Hog1/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and its corresponding TF Sko1; (iii) elevated temperature increased the activity of UASru through the cell wall integrity pathway and the TFs Swi4/Mpk1 and Swi4/Mlp1; (iv) the nitrogen source repressed UASru activity through Sum1; and (v) the absence of a nitrogen source was detected and transmitted to UASru by the Kss1 and Fus3 MAPK pathways through their respective downstream TFs, Ste12/Tec1 and Ste12/Ste12 as well as by their regulators Dig1/2. These signaling events were specific to UASru; they did not affect the mating and filamentation response elements that are regulated by MAPK pathways. The complex regulation of UASru through all the known vegetative MAPK pathways is unique to S. cerevisiae and is specific for IME1, likely because it is the master regulator of gametogenesis. PMID:24236068

Kahana-Edwin, Smadar; Stark, Michal; Kassir, Yona

2013-01-01

314

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either (a) less than or equal to or (b) slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1992-01-01

315

Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to, or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

Martinson, Scott D.; Gray, David L.; Carraway, Debra L.; Reda, Daniel C.

1994-05-01

316

Dynamic response of active twist rotor blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic characteristics of active twist rotor (ATR) blades are investigated analytically and experimentally in this paper. The ATR system is intended for vibration and potentially for noise reductions in helicopters through individual blade control. An aeroelastic model is developed to identify frequency response characteristics of the ATR blade with integral, generally anisotropic, strain actuators embedded in its composite construction. An ATR prototype blade was designed and manufactured to experimentally study the vibration reduction capabilities of such systems. Several bench and hover tests were conducted and those results are presented and discussed here. Selected results on sensitivity of the ATR system to collective setting (i.e. blade loading), blade rpm (i.e. centrifugal force and blade station velocity), and media density (i.e. altitude) are presented. They indicated that the twist actuation authority of the ATR blade is independent of the collective setting up to approximately 10P, and dependent on rotational speed and altitude near the torsional resonance frequency due to its dependency on the aerodynamic damping. The proposed model captures very well the physics and sensitivities to selected test parameters of the ATR system. The numerical result of the blade torsional loads show an average error of 20% in magnitude and virtually no difference in phase for the blade frequency response. Overall, the active blade model is in very good agreement with the experiments and can be used to analyze and design future active helicopter blade systems.

Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, Sang Joon; Wilbur, Matthew L.

2001-02-01

317

Characterization of a novel protein kinase C response element in the glucagon gene.  

PubMed Central

To maintain glucose levels in blood within narrow limits, the synthesis and secretion of pancreatic islet hormones are controlled by a variety of neural, hormonal, and metabolic messengers that act through multiple signal transduction pathways. Glucagon gene transcription is stimulated by cyclic AMP and depolarization-induced calcium influx. In this study, the effect of protein kinase C on glucagon gene transcription was investigated. After transient transfection of a glucagon-reporter fusion gene into the glucagon-producing islet cell line alphaTC2, activation of protein kinase C by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulated glucagon gene transcription. By 5' deletions, 3' deletions, internal deletion, and oligonucleotide cassette insertion, the TPA-responsive element was mapped to the G2 element (from -165 to -200). Like TPA, overexpression of oncogenic Ras (V-12 Ras) stimulated G2-mediated transcription whereas overexpression of a dominant negative Ras mutant (N-17 Ras) blocked the effect of TPA. A mutational analysis of G2 function and nuclear protein binding indicated that protein kinase C and Ras responsiveness is conferred to the glucagon gene by HNF-3beta functionally interacting with a protein that binds to a closely associated site with sequence similarity to binding sites of Ets family proteins. HNF-3beta belongs to the winged-helix family of transcription factors and has been implicated in the control of cell-specific and developmental gene expression. The results of the present study show that the cell lineage-specific transcription factor HNF-3beta is an essential component of a novel protein kinase C response element in the glucagon gene. PMID:9121428

Fürstenau, U; Schwaninger, M; Blume, R; Kennerknecht, I; Knepel, W

1997-01-01

318

Active zoom imaging for operationally responsive space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deployment costs of large aperture systems in space or near-space are directly related to the weight of the system. In order to minimize the weight of conventional primary mirrors and simultaneously achieve an agile system that is capable of a wider field-of-view (FOV) and true optical zoom without macroscopic moving parts, we are proposing a revolutionary alternative to conventional zoom systems where moving lenses/mirrors and gimbals are replaced with lightweight carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) variable radius-of-curvature mirrors (VRMs) and MEMS deformable mirrors (DMs). CFRP and MEMS DMs can provide a variable effective focal length, generating the flexibility in system magnification that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion. By adjusting the actuation of the CFRP VRM and MEMS DM in concert, the focal lengths of these adjustable elements, and thus the magnification of the whole system, can be changed without macroscopic moving parts on a millisecond time scale. In addition, adding optical tilt and higher order aberration correction will allow us to image off-axis, providing additional flexibility. Sandia National Laboratories, the Naval Research Laboratory, Narrascape, Inc., and Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. are at the forefront of active optics research, leading the development of active systems for foveated imaging, active optical zoom, phase diversity, and actively enhanced multi-spectral imaging. Integrating active elements into an imaging system can simultaneously reduce the size and weight of the system, while increasing capability and flexibility. In this paper, we present recent progress in developing active optical (aka nonmechanical) zoom and MEMS based foveated imaging for active imaging with a focus on the operationally responsive space application.

Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David V.; Cowan, William D.; Spahn, Olga Blum; Sweatt, William C.; Martinez, Ty; Restaino, Sergio R.; Andrews, Jonathan R.; Wilcox, Christopher C.; Payne, Don M.; Romeo, Robert

2007-02-01

319

Metabolic responses to simulated extravehicular activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic control of the liquid cooling garment (LCG) worn by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA) would more efficiently regulate astronaut thermal comfort and improve astronaut productivity. An experiment was conducted in which subjects performed exercise profiles on a unique, supine upper body ergometer to elicit physiological and thermal responses similar to those achieved during zero-g EVAs. Results were analyzed to quantify metabolic rate, various body temperatures, and other heat balance parameters. Such data may lead to development of a microprocessor-based system to automatically maintain astronaut heat balance during extended EVAs.

Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Rendon, Lisa R.

1992-01-01

320

T3-induced liver AMP-activated protein kinase signaling: Redox dependency and upregulation of downstream targets  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the redox dependency and promotion of downstream targets in thyroid hormone (T3)-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling as cellular energy sensor to limit metabolic stresses in the liver. METHODS: Fed male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single ip dose of 0.1 mg T3/kg or T3 vehicle (NaOH 0.1 N; controls) and studied at 8 or 24 h after treatment. Separate groups of animals received 500 mg N-acetylcysteine (NAC)/kg or saline ip 30 min prior T3. Measurements included plasma and liver 8-isoprostane and serum ?-hydroxybutyrate levels (ELISA), hepatic levels of mRNAs (qPCR), proteins (Western blot), and phosphorylated AMPK (ELISA). RESULTS: T3 upregulates AMPK signaling, including the upstream kinases Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-? and transforming growth factor-?-activated kinase-1, with T3-induced reactive oxygen species having a causal role due to its suppression by pretreatment with the antioxidant NAC. Accordingly, AMPK targets acetyl-CoA carboxylase and cyclic AMP response element binding protein are phosphorylated, with the concomitant carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1? (CPT-1?) activation and higher expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? co-activator-1? and that of the fatty acid oxidation (FAO)-related enzymes CPT-1?, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and acyl-CoA thioesterase 2. Under these conditions, T3 induced a significant increase in the serum levels of ?-hydroxybutyrate, a surrogate marker for hepatic FAO. CONCLUSION: T3 administration activates liver AMPK signaling in a redox-dependent manner, leading to FAO enhancement as evidenced by the consequent ketogenic response, which may constitute a key molecular mechanism regulating energy dynamics to support T3 preconditioning against ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25516653

Videla, Luis A; Fernández, Virginia; Cornejo, Pamela; Vargas, Romina; Morales, Paula; Ceballo, Juan; Fischer, Alvaro; Escudero, Nicolás; Escobar, Oscar

2014-01-01

321

The A Subunit of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Functions as a Mucosal Adjuvant and Promotes IgG2a, IgA, and Th17 Responses to Vaccine Antigens  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produces both heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins and is a major cause of diarrhea in infants in developing countries and in travelers to those regions. In addition to inducing fluid secretion, LT is a powerful mucosal adjuvant capable of promoting immune responses to coadministered antigens. In this study, we examined purified A subunit to further understand the toxicity and adjuvanticity of LT. Purified A subunit was enzymatically active but sensitive to proteolytic degradation and unable to bind gangliosides, and even in the presence of admixed B subunit, it displayed low cyclic AMP (cAMP) induction and no enterotoxicity. Thus, the AB5 structure plays a key role in protecting the A subunit from proteolytic degradation and in delivering the enzymatic signals required for secretion. In contrast, the A subunit alone was capable of activating dendritic cells and enhanced immune responses to multiple antigens following intranasal immunization; therefore, unlike toxicity, LT adjuvanticity is not dependent on the AB5 holotoxin structure or the presence of the B subunit. However, immune responses were maximal when signals were received from both subunits either in an AB5 structure or with A and B admixed. Furthermore, the quality of the immune response (i.e., IgG1/IgG2 balance and mucosal IgA and IL-17 secretion) was determined by the presence of an A subunit, revealing for the first time induction of Th17 responses with the A subunit alone. These results have important implications for understanding ETEC pathogenesis, unraveling immunologic responses induced by LT-based adjuvants, and developing new mucosal vaccines. PMID:22526674

Norton, Elizabeth B.; Lawson, Louise B.; Mahdi, Zaid; Freytag, Lucy C.

2012-01-01

322

Lower Ionosphere Response to Solar Activity Forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two basic channels of solar activity impact on the lower ionosphere (ionosphere below 90-100 km). The first one is through changes of solar electromagnetic ionizing radiation, solar EUV and X-ray flux; particularly the X-ray flux can change by orders of magnitude both during the 11-year solar cycle and strong solar flares. The other channel is via variable solar wind and its interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), which cause geomagnetic storms and other space weather/climate phenomena including variability of penetrating/precipitating high-energy particle flux and via modulation of galactic cosmic rays by IMF. The lower ionosphere response to solar forcing has been studied for more than 50 years by various ground-based methods and with the use of in-situ rocket measurements. In this review the sources of solar activity impact on the lower ionosphere and methods used for investigating lower ionosphere response will be summarized and selected results will be presented. It should be stressed that during strong events of solar origin the electron density in the lower ionosphere may be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude.

Lastovicka, Jan

2012-07-01

323

Continental response to active ridge subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apatite fission track ages from a ~2000 m elevation transect from the Patagonian fold and thrust belt (47.5°S) allow us to quantify the denudational and orographic response of the upper plate to active ridge subduction. Accelerated cooling started at 17 Ma, predating the onset of ridge collision (14-10 Ma), and was followed by reheating between 10 and 6 Ma. Thermal modeling favors reheating on the order of 60°C at ~28°C/Ma due to east-migration of a slab window after the ridge-trench collision. Final rapid cooling since 4 Ma of ~18°C/Ma (geothermal gradient of 14°C/km) correlates with the presence of an orographic barrier and >1 km rock uplift in this region between 17.1 and 6.3 Ma. Increased precipitation and erosion since 4 Ma caused asymmetric exhumation, with 3-4 km on the leeside. Repeated crustal unroofing in response to active ridge subduction can explain the positive gravity anomaly south of the Chile Triple Junction.

Haschke, M.; Sobel, E. R.; Blisniuk, P.; Strecker, M. R.; Warkus, F.

2006-08-01

324

Mutants of type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa with altered ganglioside-binding activities and diminished toxicity are potent mucosal adjuvants.  

PubMed

The structure and function LT-IIa, a type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, are closely related to the structures and functions of cholera toxin and LT-I, the type I heat-labile enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, respectively. While LT-IIa is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant, recent studies demonstrated that mutant LT-IIa(T34I), which exhibits no detectable binding activity as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with gangliosides GD1b, GD1a, and GM1 is a very poor adjuvant. To evaluate whether other mutant LT-IIa enterotoxins that also exhibit diminished ganglioside-binding activities have greater adjuvant activities, BALB/c mice were immunized by the intranasal route with the surface adhesin protein AgI/II of Streptococcus mutans alone or in combination with LT-IIa, LT-IIa(T14S), LT-IIa(T14I), or LT-IIa(T14D). All three mutant enterotoxins potentiated strong mucosal immune responses that were equivalent to the response promulgated by wt LT-IIa. All three mutant enterotoxins augmented the systemic immune responses that correlated with their ganglioside-binding activities. Only LT-IIa and LT-IIa(T14S), however, enhanced expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and the costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86 on splenic dendritic cells. LT-IIa(T14I) and LT-IIa(T14D) had extremely diminished toxicities in a mouse Y1 adrenal cell bioassay and reduced abilities to induce the accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP in a macrophage cell line. PMID:17118982

Nawar, Hesham F; Arce, Sergio; Russell, Michael W; Connell, Terry D

2007-02-01

325

Modulation of active Ca2+ uptake by the islet-cell endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed Central

The possible effects of calmodulin and cyclic AMP on active Ca2+ uptake by the islet-cell endoplasmic reticulum were investigated. Neither calmodulin nor cyclic AMP affected the rate of active Ca2+ uptake, or the steady-state filling capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum when measured in the absence of oxalate. Consistent with these results, calmodulin did not activate the Ca2+-stimulated ATPase activity associated with this cell fraction. During the course of these experiments., it was unexpectedly discovered that the rate of Ca2+ uptake, as well as the steady-state Ca2+ filling capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum, were markedly increased by unidentified factor(s) in the cytosol. This effect could be demonstrated by reconstitution of the membranes in cytosol, or by direct addition of fresh or dialysed cytosol to the Ca2+ uptake assays. The degree of activation by the cytosol indicates that the endoplasmic reticulum may play a prominent role in controlling beta-cell Ca2+ concentrations and that the unidentified activator(s) present in the cytosol may be involved in regulation of this function. PMID:6307286

Colca, J R; Kotagal, N; Lacy, P E; McDaniel, M L

1983-01-01

326

Histone deacetylase inhibitors synergize p300 autoacetylation that regulates its transactivation activity and complex formation.  

PubMed

p300/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-binding protein (CBP) are general coactivators for multiple transcription factors involved in various cellular processes. Several highly conserved domains of p300/CBP serve as interacting sites for transcription factors and regulatory proteins. Particularly, the intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and transactivation domains (TAD) play essential roles for their coactivating function. Autoacetylation of p300/CBP is commonly observed in cell-free HAT assays and has been implicated in the regulation of their HAT activity. Here, we show that six lysine-rich regions in several highly conserved functional domains of p300 are targeted by p300HAT for acetylation in cell-free systems. We show that p300 is susceptible to acetylation in cultured tumor cells and that its acetylation status is affected by histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. We further show that either treatment with deacetylase inhibitors or coexpression of Gal4-p300HAT, which alone has no transactivation activity, stimulates the activity of the COOH-terminal TAD of p300 (p300C-TAD). We have defined the minimal p300C-TAD and show that it is sufficient to respond to deacetylase inhibitors and is a substrate for p300HAT. Finally, we show that acetylated p300 possesses enhanced ability to interact with p53. Taken together, our data suggest that acetylation regulates p300C-TAD and that acetylation of p300/CBP may contribute to the dynamic regulation of their complex formation with various interacting partners. PMID:17332356

Stiehl, Daniel P; Fath, Donna M; Liang, Dongming; Jiang, Yubao; Sang, Nianli

2007-03-01

327

Docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid release in rat brain astrocytes is mediated by two separate isoforms of phospholipase A2 and is differently regulated by cyclic AMP and Ca2+  

PubMed Central

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are important for central nervous system function during development and in various pathological states. Astrocytes are involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs in neuronal tissue. Here, we investigated the mechanism of DHA and AA release in cultured rat brain astrocytes. Primary astrocytes were cultured under standard conditions and prelabeled with [14C]DHA or with [3H]AA. Adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) (20 ?M applied for 15 min), the P2Y receptor agonist, stimulates release of both DHA (289% of control) and AA (266% of control) from astrocytes. DHA release stimulated by ATP is mediated by Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2), since it is blocked by the selective iPLA2 inhibitor 4-bromoenol lactone (BEL, 5 ?M) and is not affected either by removal of Ca2+ from extracellular medium or by suppression of intracellular Ca2+ release through PLC inhibitor (U73122, 5 ?M). AA release, on the other hand, which is stimulated by ATP, is attributed to Ca2+-dependent cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2). AA release is abolished by U73122 and, by removal of extracellular Ca2+, is insensitive to BEL and can be selectively suppressed by methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (3 ?M), a general inhibitor of intracellular PLA2 s. Western blot analysis confirms the presence in rat brain astrocytes of 85 kDa cPLA2 and 40 kDa protein reactive to iPLA2 antibodies. The influence of cAMP on regulation of PUFA release was investigated. Release of DHA is strongly amplified by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin (10 ?M), and by the protein kinase A (PKA) activator dibutyryl-cAMP (1 mM). In contrast, release of AA is not affected by forskolin or dibutyryl-cAMP, but is almost completely blocked by 2,3-dideoxyadenosine (20 ?M) and inhibited by 34% by H89 (10 ?M), inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase and PKA, respectively. Other neuromediators, such as bradykinin, glutamate and thrombin, stimulate release of DHA and AA, which is comparable to the release stimulated by ATP. Different sensitivities of iPLA2 and cPLA2 to Ca2+ and cAMP reveal new pathways for the regulation of fatty acid release and reflect the significance of astrocytes in control of DHA and AA metabolism under normal and pathological conditions in brain. PMID:12839876

Strokin, Mikhail; Sergeeva, Marina; Reiser, Georg

2003-01-01

328

Fractalkine/CX3CL1 engages different neuroprotective responses upon selective glutamate receptor overactivation  

PubMed Central

Neuronal death induced by overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) is implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke, epilepsy and traumatic brain injury. This toxic effect is mainly mediated by NR2B-containing extrasynaptic NMDARs, while NR2A-containing synaptic NMDARs contribute to cell survival, suggesting the possibility of therapeutic approaches targeting specific receptor subunits. We report that fractalkine/CX3CL1 protects hippocampal neurons from NMDA-induced cell death with a mechanism requiring the adenosine receptors type 2A (A2AR). This is different from CX3CL1-induced protection from glutamate (Glu)-induced cell death, that fully depends on A1R and requires in part A3R. We show that CX3CL1 neuroprotection against NMDA excitotoxicity involves D-serine, a co-agonist of NR2A/NMDAR, resulting in cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. PMID:25653593

Lauro, Clotilde; Catalano, Myriam; Di Paolo, Eleonora; Chece, Giuseppina; de Costanzo, Ida; Trettel, Flavia; Limatola, Cristina

2015-01-01

329

Desensitization of enucleated cells to hormones and role of cytoskeleton in control of normal hormonal response.  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic hormone l-isoproterenol stimulated cyclic AMP formation in both nucleated and enucleated myeloid leukemic cells that could be induced to differentiate normally to mature cells by the macrophage- and granulocyte-inducing protein MGI (MGI+D+ cells). Enucleated as well as nucleated MGI+D+ cells also desensitized to these hormones, indicating that this desensitization is an extranuclear process. Nucleated or enucleated mutant myeloid leukemic cells that are not induced to differentiate (MGI-D- cells) were not desensitized to these hormones. The antitubulin alkaloids colchicine and vinblastine, but not the antimicrofilament compound cytochalasin B, increased the maximal hormone-induced formation of cyclic AMP in nucleated MGI+D+ cells but not in the MGI-D- cells. These alkaloids also inhibited the development of desensitization to l-isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1 in enucleated MGI+D+ cells. The results indicate that in MGI+D+ cells the cytoskeletal system puts constraints on the cells' ability to respond to these hormones and that these constraints are absent in the mutant MGI-D- cells. Because MGI+D+ but not MGI-D- cells can be induced to differentiate by the macrophage- and granulocyte-inducing protein, cytoskeletal constraints, which are also found in normal myeloid cells, may be necessary for cell competence to differentiate. The results support the suggestion that membrane cytoskeletal constraints generate may control the normal response and desensitization to membrane-mediated cell inducers. PMID:6254040

Simantov, R; Shkolnik, T; Sachs, L

1980-01-01

330

LASTING BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) was studied in specific pathogen-free mice exposed to neonatal infection with mouse enterovirus or to malnutrition during early life. Metabolic activity was determined by measuring the turnover of cyclic AMP-8-14C to respiratory 14CO2, its incorporation into various organs and plasma, and the binding activity of synaptosome for cyclic AMP. Early malnutrition increased the catabolism of cyclic AMP as measured by expiration in respiratory CO2. The level of cyclic AMP was lower in plasma and its incorporation into various tissues was decreased in infected and malnourished animals. Metabolic products of cyclic AMP were isolated from plasma by ion exchange chromatography. Cyclic AMP-8-14C had completely disappeared 9 hr after injection. Fewer metabolites of cyclic AMP were detected in infected or malnourished groups than in controls and the metabolic reaction from 5'-AMP to adenosine seemed to be slow in these animals. The ability to incorporate cyclic AMP to synaptosome was also impaired in the experimental groups. The concentrations of brain cyclic AMP were lower in infected or malnourished animals than in controls. Depression of accumulation of cyclic AMP probably resulted from excessive activity of phosphodiesterase, rather than from impairment of adenyl cyclase. Intraperitoneal administration of theophylline brought the activity level of phosphodiesterase to normal in infected or malnourished mice; this fact probably accounted for enhanced accumulation of brain cyclic AMP. PMID:4334097

Lee, Chi-Jen; Dubos, René

1972-01-01

331

Influence of cations on activity and distribution of protein kinase C in S49 lymphoma cells  

SciTech Connect

In S49 lymphoma cells, the distribution of protein kinase C (PKC) between soluble and membrane fractions can be regulated by the concentration of Ca in the homogenization buffer. When cells are fractionated with 10 M Ca and low Mg (0.3mM), PKC is largely (56%) membrane-bound. Mg inhibits this effect of Ca by 75%; the EC50 for Mg reducing the translocation induced by 10 M Ca is 1mM, as detected by binding of (TH) phorbol dibutyrate ((TH)PDB). Other divalent cations have different effects. When Cu (1mM) is included in the homogenization buffer, both the enzymic activity of PKC and its capacity to bind (TH)PDB are lost in both the cytosolic and membrane fractions. Cd and Zn (at 1mM) also inhibit the binding of (TH)PDB to PKC in cytosolic fractions. K , Li , Co and Mn at 1mM do not mimic these effects. With Ca at 500 M, the EC50 for inhibition by Cu of (TH)PDB binding and enzymic activity of PKC are 25 M and 75 M, respectively. These effects of Cu are also noticeable when the cation is added to intact S49 cells. The effect of Cu on PKC is only relatively specific: (Cu ) greater than or equal to 100 M inhibits the activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro. Knowledge of these effects of heavy metals on PKC may prove helpful in manipulation of the enzyme pharmacologically as well as in determining the role of PKC in the cellular responses to heavy metals.

Brunton, L.; Watson, M.; Schultz, M.; Trejo, J.; Speizer, L.

1987-05-01

332

Evaluation of the role of MAPK1 and CREB1 polymorphisms on treatment resistance, response and remission in mood disorder patients.  

PubMed

Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a significant clinical and public health problem. Among others, neuroplasticity and inflammatory pathways seem to play a crucial role in the pathomechanisms of antidepressant efficacy. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within two genes implicated in neuroplasticity and inflammatory processes (the mitogen activated protein kinase 1, MAPK1 (rs3810608, rs6928, rs13515 and rs8136867), and the cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein 1, CREB1 (rs889895, rs6740584, rs2551922 and rs2254137)) was associated with antidepressant treatment resistance (according to two different definitions), in 285 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients. As secondary aims, we investigated the genetic modulation of the same SNPs on response, remission and other clinical features both in MDD patients and in a larger sample including 82 Bipolar Disorder (BD) patients as well. All patients were screened in the context of a European multicenter project. No association between both the investigated genes and treatment resistance and response was found in MDD patients. However, considering remission, higher rates of CREB1 rs889895 GG genotype were reported in MDD patients. Moreover, MAPK1 rs8136867 AG genotype was found to be associated with remission in the whole sample (MDD and BD). Present results suggest that some genetic polymorphisms in both CREB1 and MAPK1 could be associated with treatment remission. Although further research is needed to draw more definitive conclusions, such results are intriguing since suggest a potential role of two genes implicated in neuroplasticity and inflammatory processes in symptom remission after antidepressant treatment. PMID:23537502

Calati, Raffaella; Crisafulli, Concetta; Balestri, Martina; Serretti, Alessandro; Spina, Edoardo; Calabrò, Marco; Sidoti, Antonina; Albani, Diego; Massat, Isabelle; Höfer, Peter; Amital, Daniela; Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; Souery, Daniel; Montgomery, Stuart; Mendlewicz, Julien

2013-07-01

333

Ultrastructural changes and cyclic AMP in frog oxyntic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In vitro frog gastric mucosa,was,employed,as a model,for a combined,physiologi- cal, biochemical, and ultrastructural study of the morphological changes which accompany,the,onset,of acid,secretion,by,the,oxyntic,cell. The histamine,1-12- receptor,antagonist,metiamide,was,used,to provide,a reproducible,control,state. Stimulation,of acid,production,by theophylline,resulted,in a 10-fold increase,in plasma,membrane,surface,area,and,a distinct change,in the,conformation,of mitochondrial cristae. Studies using the acid secretion inhibitors, thiocyanate and anoxia, demonstrated that neither acid production per se nor oxidative metabo- lism is

K. S. Carlisle; C. S. Chew; S. J. Hersey

1978-01-01

334

Artefactual Origins of Cyclic AMP in Higher Plant Tissues  

PubMed Central

A highly sensitive radioimmunoassay has been used to determine the levels of adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in five higher plants (Lactuca sativa, Helianthus annuus, Oryza sativa, Pinus pinaster, Nicotiana tabacum). Particular attention was paid to the three main sources of errors in the characterization of cAMP in plants: presence of interfering substances in plant tissues; possible artefactual formation of cAMP from endogenous ATP during extraction, purification, and assay; and microbial origin of cAMP. In all the tested tissues, the cAMP level was below the detection limit of 0.5 picomole per gram fresh weight, a value much lower than those reported for similar materials of the same species in many previous studies. This result is not in favor of cAMP-dependent regulations in higher plants. PMID:16667078

Spiteri, Anne; Viratelle, Odile M.; Raymond, Philippe; Rancillac, Michel; Labouesse, Julie; Pradet, Alain

1989-01-01

335

CYCLIC AMP AND THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF GONADOTROPIN  

E-print Network

to two main problems : first the binding of LH-RH to the receptor sites of the pituitary gland. - STUDIES ON THE BINDING OF I,H-RH TO THE RECEPTOR SITES OF THE PITUITARY GLAND Many experimental results ovine anterior pituitary glands were prepared by a simple and rapid method schematized in figure i

Boyer, Edmond

336

Regulation of lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by protein kinase C- and pertussis toxin-dependent pathways in the endothelial cell line EAhy 926.  

PubMed Central

In the endothelial cell line EAhy 926, 1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of the pp42 isoform of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Maximum phosphorylation was observed within 5 min of LPA addition, but the response was sustained for up to 120 min. Re-addition of LPA after 60 min stimulated a further sustained increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase. In cells pretreated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 24 h) or preincubated with the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro-318220, LPA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of pp42 MAP kinase was substantially reduced at 2 min but potentiated at 60 min. Ro-318220 in combination with either PMA or pertussis toxin pretreatment abolished the LPA response at all time points, suggesting an involvement of protein kinase C in the pertussis toxin-sensitive part of the pathway. Agents which raised intracellular cyclic AMP levels did not affect the initial phase of LPA-stimulated MAP kinase activation, but abolished the late phase. However, this effect was prevented by Ro-318220, implicating a greater role for protein kinase C than protein kinase A in the regulation of sustained MAP kinase responses. LPA stimulated an increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase pp125 (pp125FAK) in EAhy 926 cells which was both protein kinase C- and pertussis toxin-independent. These results are discussed in terms of the pathways regulating both MAP kinase and pp125FAK in response to LPA in the EAhy 926 endothelial cells line. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7741705

McLees, A; Graham, A; Malarkey, K; Gould, G W; Plevin, R

1995-01-01

337

Soluble Factors Released by Toxoplasma gondii-Infected Astrocytes Down-Modulate Nitric Oxide Production by Gamma Interferon-Activated Microglia and Prevent Neuronal Degeneration  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of a benign chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection is mainly dependent on the persistent presence of gamma interferon (IFN-?) in the central nervous system (CNS). However, IFN-?-activated microglia are paradoxically involved in parasitism control and in tissue damage during a broad range of CNS pathologies. In this way, nitric oxide (NO), the main toxic metabolite produced by IFN-?-activated microglia, may cause neuronal injury during T. gondii infection. Despite the potential NO toxicity, neurodegeneration is not a common finding during chronic T. gondii infection. In this work, we describe a significant down-modulation of NO production by IFN-?-activated microglia in the presence of conditioned medium of T. gondii-infected astrocytes (CMi). The inhibition of NO production was paralleled with recovery of neurite outgrowth when neurons were cocultured with IFN-?-activated microglia in the presence of CMi. Moreover, the modulation of NO secretion and the neuroprotective effect were shown to be dependent on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by T. gondii-infected astrocytes and autocrine secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) by microglia. These events were partially eliminated when infected astrocytes were treated with aspirin and cocultures were treated with anti-IL-10 neutralizing antibodies and RP-8-Br cyclic AMP (cAMP), a protein kinase A inhibitor. Further, the modulatory effects of CMi were mimicked by the presence of exogenous PGE2 and by forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator. Altogether, these data point to a T. gondii-triggered regulatory mechanism involving PGE2 secretion by astrocytes and cAMP-dependent IL-10 secretion by microglia. This may reduce host tissue inflammation, thus avoiding neuron damage during an established Th1 protective immune response. PMID:12654825

Rozenfeld, Claudia; Martinez, Rodrigo; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Lima, Flávia R. S.; Pires, Ana Lúcia; Silva, Patrícia M.; Bonomo, Adriana; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; De Souza, Wanderley; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo

2003-01-01

338

Phosphorylation within the transactivation domain of adenovirus E1A protein by mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates expression of early region 4.  

PubMed Central

A critical role of the 289-residue (289R) E1A protein of human adenovirus type 5 during productive infection is to transactivate expression of all early viral transcription. Sequences within and proximal to conserved region 3 (CR3) promote expression of these viral genes through interactions with a variety of transcription factors requiring the zinc binding motif in CR3 and in some cases a region at the carboxy-terminal end of CR3, including residues 183 to 188. It is known that 3',5' cyclic AMP (cAMP) reduces the level of phosphorylation of the 289R E1A protein through the activation of protein phosphatase 2A by the E4orf4 protein. This study was designed to identify the E1A phosphorylation sites affected by E4orf4 expression and to determine their importance in regulation of E1A activity. We report here that two previously unidentified sites at Ser-185 and Ser-188 are the targets for decreased phosphorylation in response to cAMP. At least one of these sites, presumably Ser-185, is phosphorylated in vitro by purified mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and both are hyperphosphorylated in cells which express a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase. Analysis of E1A-mediated transactivation activity indicated that elevated phosphorylation at these sites increased expression of the E4 promoter but not that of E3. We have recently shown that one or more E4 products induce cell death due to p53-independent apoptosis, and thus it seems likely that one role of the E4orf4 protein is to limit production of toxic E4 products by limiting expression of the E4 promoter. PMID:9094626

Whalen, S G; Marcellus, R C; Whalen, A; Ahn, N G; Ricciardi, R P; Branton, P E

1997-01-01

339

Targeted Activation of Conventional and Novel Protein Kinases C through Differential Translocation Patterns  

PubMed Central

Activation of the two ubiquitous families of protein kinases, protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), is thought to be independently coupled to stimulation of G?s and G?q, respectively. Live-cell confocal imaging of protein kinase C fluorescent protein fusion constructs revealed that simultaneous activation of G?s and G?q resulted in a differential translocation of the conventional PKC? to the plasma membrane while the novel PKC? was recruited to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We demonstrate that the PKC? translocation was driven by a novel G?s-cyclic AMP-EPAC-RAP-PLC? pathway resulting in specific diacylglycerol production at the membrane of the ER. Membrane-specific phosphorylation sensors revealed that directed translocation resulted in phosphorylation activity confined to the target membrane. Specific stimulation of PKC? caused phosphorylation of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and dampening of global Ca2+ signaling revealed by graded flash photolysis of caged inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate. Our data demonstrate a novel signaling pathway enabling differential decoding of incoming stimuli into PKC isoform-specific membrane targeting, significantly enhancing the versatility of cyclic AMP signaling, thus demonstrating the possible interconnection between the PKA and PKC pathways traditionally treated independently. We thus provide novel and elementary understanding and insights into intracellular signaling events. PMID:24732802

Hui, Xin; Reither, Gregor; Kaestner, Lars

2014-01-01

340

Prefrontal cortex activity related to abstract response strategies.  

PubMed

Many monkeys adopt abstract response strategies as they learn to map visual symbols to responses by trial and error. According to the repeat-stay strategy, if a symbol repeats from a previous, successful trial, the monkeys should stay with their most recent response choice. According to the change-shift strategy, if the symbol changes, the monkeys should shift to a different choice. We recorded the activity of prefrontal cortex neurons while monkeys chose responses according to these two strategies. Many neurons had activity selective for the strategy used. In a subsequent block of trials, the monkeys learned fixed stimulus-response mappings with the same stimuli. Some neurons had activity selective for choosing responses based on fixed mappings, others for choosing based on abstract strategies. These findings indicate that the prefrontal cortex contributes to the implementation of the abstract response strategies that monkeys use during trial-and-error learning. PMID:16039571

Genovesio, Aldo; Brasted, Peter J; Mitz, Andrew R; Wise, Steven P

2005-07-21

341

Ginger improves cognitive function via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation in the hippocampus of the mouse.  

PubMed

Ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used worldwide for many centuries in cooking and for treatment of several diseases. The main pharmacological properties of ginger include anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antiarthritic, antiemetic and neuroprotective actions. Recent studies demonstrated that ginger significantly enhances cognitive function in various cognitive disorders as well as in healthy brain. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the ginger-mediated enhancement of cognition have not yet been studied in normal or diseased brain. In the present study, we assessed the memory-enhancing effects of dried ginger extract (GE) in a model of scopolamine-induced memory deficits and in normal animals by performing a novel object recognition test. We found that GE administration significantly improved the ability of mice to recognize novel objects, indicating improvements in learning and memory. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanisms of GE-mediated cognitive enhancement, we focused on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signaling pathways. NGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that GE administration led to elevated NGF levels in both the mouse hippocampus and rat glioma C6 cells. GE administration also resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), as revealed by Western blotting analysis. Neutralization of NGF with a specific NGF antibody inhibited GE-triggered activation of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus. Also, GE treatment significantly increased pre- and postsynaptic markers, synaptophysin and PSD-95, which are related to synapse formation in the brain. These data suggest that GE has a synaptogenic effect via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation, resulting in memory enhancement. PMID:25049196

Lim, Soonmin; Moon, Minho; Oh, Hyein; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-10-01

342

Activation of the renin-angiotensin system, specifically in the subfornical organ is sufficient to induce fluid intake.  

PubMed

Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system within the brain elevates fluid intake, blood pressure, and resting metabolic rate. Renin and angiotensinogen are coexpressed within the same cells of the subfornical organ, and the production and action of ANG II through the ANG II type 1 receptor in the subfornical organ (SFO) are necessary for fluid intake due to increased activity of the brain renin-angiotensin system. We generated an inducible model of ANG II production by breeding transgenic mice expressing human renin in neurons controlled by the synapsin promoter with transgenic mice containing a Cre-recombinase-inducible human angiotensinogen construct. Adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase causes SFO-selective induction of human angiotensinogen expression. Selective production of ANG II in the SFO results in increased water intake but did not change blood pressure or resting metabolic rate. The increase in water intake was ANG II type 1 receptor-dependent. When given a choice between water and 0.15 M NaCl, these mice increased total fluid and sodium, but not water, because of an increased preference for NaCl. When provided a choice between water and 0.3 M NaCl, the mice exhibited increased fluid, water, and sodium intake, but no change in preference for NaCl. The increase in fluid intake was blocked by an inhibitor of PKC, but not ERK, and was correlated with increased phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein in the subfornical organ. Thus, increased production and action of ANG II specifically in the subfornical organ are sufficient on their own to mediate an increase in drinking through PKC. PMID:24965793

Coble, Jeffrey P; Cassell, Martin D; Davis, Deborah R; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

2014-08-15

343

CONCEALED TRANSEPITHELIAL POTENTIALS AND CURRENT RECTIFICATION IN TSETSE FLY MALPIGHIAN TUBULES  

PubMed

1. Electrophysiological techniques have been applied to tsetse fly Malpighian tubules for the first time. 2. In either Cl- or SO42- Ringer, both non-perfused and perfused tubules displayed transtubular potentials (Vt) at or close to 0 mV. Exposure to cyclic AMP elicited a marked secretory response and, in SO42- Ringer, a sharp (lumen-positive) increase in Vt. In Cl- Ringer, despite more than double the secretory response, there was little or no change in Vt. 3. Replacing Cl- with SO42- Ringer, in the presence of cyclic AMP, promptly increased Vt. In perfused tubules, this occurred irrespective of the Cl- or SO42- composition of the perfusate. 4. In Cl- Ringer, the transepithelial resistance (Rtrans) was less than half that previously reported in Malpighian tubules of other species. Cyclic AMP reduced Rtrans still further, whether tubules were bathed in Cl- or SO42- Ringer. 5. Current­voltage (I/V) plots often displayed current rectification, both before and more frequently after exposure to cyclic AMP, thus permitting estimation of both the electromotive force of the Na+ transport mechanism (ENa) and of the shunt resistance (Rshunt). Both ENa and Rshunt were markedly lower in tubules bathed in Cl- than in SO42- Ringer. Cyclic AMP was without effect on ENa and Rshunt, in either Cl- or SO42- Ringer. 6. In terms of the equivalent electrical circuit, the secretory response to cyclic AMP was due solely to a fall in resistance of the active transport pathway (Rseries). The absence of an appreciable Vt, in Cl- Ringer, is consistent with an apical Cl- shunt. PMID:9317633

Isaacson; Nicolson

1994-01-01

344

Requirement of p38 stress-activated MAP kinase for cell death in the developing retina depends on the stage of cell differentiation.  

PubMed

The p38 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily are activated by both environmental stress and endogenous signals, and may have either permissive or inhibitory roles upon both cell proliferation and cell death in the retina. We have previously shown that anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, and 2-aminopurine, a specific inhibitor of the double stranded-RNA dependent protein kinase, block apoptosis of ganglion cells induced by axotomy, and induce apoptosis of cells in the neuroblastic layer in developing rat retina. Using a specific inhibitor, we found that p38-stress activated MAP kinase is required for the death of post-mitotic cells induced by anisomycin, but not for the death of proliferating cells induced by 2-aminopurine, nor of axon-damaged retinal ganglion cells. We also show that p38 activation occurs either upstream of or parallel to the requirement for cyclic AMP to block apoptosis of post-mitotic cells, since the cyclic AMP-producing agent forskolin did not prevent p38 phosphorylation induced by anisomycin. Finally, the lack of immunostaining for phospho-p38 in apoptotic profiles suggests that p38 activation does not kill retinal cells directly, but more likely through the mediation of neighboring cells. PMID:16782232

Campos, Claudia B L; Bédard, Pierre-André; Linden, Rafael

2006-10-01

345

Inhibition of human mast cell activation with the novel selective adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist 3-isobutyl-8-pyrrolidinoxanthine (IPDX)(2).  

PubMed

The antiasthmatic drug enprofylline was the first known selective, though not potent, A(2B) antagonist. On the basis of structure-activity relationships (SARs) of xanthine derivatives, we designed a novel selective adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist, 3-isobutyl-8-pyrrolidinoxanthine (IPDX), with potency greater than that of enprofylline. IPDX displaced [3H]ZM241385 ([3H]4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a]-[1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol) from human A(2B) adenosine receptors with a K(i) value of 470 +/- 2 nM and inhibited A(2B)-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells with a K(B) value of 625 +/- 71 nM. We found that IPDX was more selective than enprofylline toward human A(2B) receptors. It was 38-, 55-, and 82-fold more selective for human A(2B) than for human A(1) (K(i) value of 24 +/- 8 microM), human A(2A) (K(B) value of 36 +/- 8 microM), and human A(3) (K(i) value of 53 +/- 10 microM) adenosine receptors, respectively. IPDX inhibited NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine)-induced interleukin-8 secretion in human mast cells (HMC-1) with a potency close to that determined for A(2B)-mediated cAMP accumulation in HEL cells, thus confirming the role of A(2B) adenosine receptors in mediating human mast cell activation. Since adenosine triggers bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients through human mast cell activation, IPDX may become a basis for the development of new antiasthmatic drugs with improved properties compared with those of enprofylline. Our data demonstrate that IPDX can be used as a tool to differentiate between A(2B) and other adenosine receptor-mediated responses. PMID:11705449

Feoktistov, I; Garland, E M; Goldstein, A E; Zeng, D; Belardinelli, L; Wells, J N; Biaggioni, I

2001-11-01

346

The Neurophysiology of Response Competition: Motor Cortex Activation and Inhibition following Subliminal Response Priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some widely used tasks in cognitive neuroscience depend on the induction of a response conflict between choice alternatives, involving partial activation of the incorrect response before the correct response is emitted. Although such conflict tasks are often used to investigate frontal-lobe-based conflict-monitoring processes, it is not known how response competition evolves in the motor cortex. To investigate the dynamics of

Peter Praamstra; Ellen Seiss

2005-01-01

347

George Arcement Explains USGS Flood Response Activities  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement explains USGS' activities during the 2011 to WAFB Meteorologist Jay Grymes. USGS has crews measuring streamflow, sediment and water quality throughout South Louisiana, including daily measurements at the Morganza and Bonnet Carre Spillways...

348

Rotor Flapping Response to Active Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotor active control using higher harmonic blade pitch has been proposed as a means to reduce both rotor radiated noise and airframe vibration and to enhance rotor performance. The higher harmonic input, however, can affect rotor thrust and cyclic flapping - the basic trim characteristics of the rotor. Some of the trim changes can negate the active control benefits. For example, wind tunnel test results of a full scale BO-105 rotor with individual-blade control indicate some rotor performance improvements, accompanied with changes in rotor trim, using two-per-rev blade pitch input. The observed performance benefits could therefore be a simple manifestation of the trim change rather than an efficient redistribution of the rotor airloads. More recently, the flight test of the BO-105 helicopter equip,ped with individual-blade-control actuators also reported trim changes whenever the two-per-rev blade pitch for noise reduction was activated. The pilot had to adjust the trim control to maintain the aircraft under a constant flight path. These two cases highlight the, importance of trim considerations in the application of active control to rotorcraft.

Nguyen, Khanh; Johnson, Wayne

2004-01-01

349

Response of global lightning activity to air temperature variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is an issue of great attention but yet not very clear whether lightning activities increase or decrease on a warmer world.\\u000a Reeve et al. presented that lightning activities in global land and the Northern Hemisphere land have positive response to\\u000a the increase of wet bulb temperature at l000hPa. Is this positive response restricted only to wet bulb temperature or

Ming Ma; Shanchang Tao; Baoyou Zhu; Weitao Lü; Yongbo Tan

2005-01-01

350

Responsiveness of the Rehabilitation Activities Profile and the Barthel Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to compare the responsiveness for clinically meaningful change over time of a newly designed functional status scale, the Rehabilitation Activities Profile (RAP), with the more frequently used Barthel Index (BI). Four techniques for the quantification of responsiveness were utilized: effect sizes, p-values, t-statistics and ROC curves. The patient's return home was chosen as external

Coen A. M. van Bennekom; Frank Jelles; Gustaaf J. Lankhorst; Lex M. Bouter

1996-01-01

351

Pythium infection activates conserved plant defense responses in mosses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The moss Physcomitrella patens (P. patens) is a useful model to study abiotic stress responses since it is highly tolerant to drought, salt and osmotic stress. However, little is known about the defense mechanisms activated in this moss after pathogen assault. Here the induction of defense responses...

352

Magnetospheric impulse response for many levels of geomagnetic activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The temporal relationship between the solar wind and magnetospheric activity has been studied using 34 intervals of high time resolution IMP 8 solar wind data and the corresponding AL auroral activity index. The median values of the AL index for each interval were utilized to rank the intervals according to geomagnetic activity level. The linear prediction filtering technique was then applied to model magnetospheric response as measured by the AL index to the solar wind input function VB(s). The linear prediction filtering routine produces a filter of time-lagged response coefficients which estimates the most general linear relationship between the chosen input and output parameters of the magnetospheric system. It is found that the filters are composed of two response pulses speaking at time lags of 20 and 60 min. The amplitude of the 60-min pulse is the larger for moderate activity levels, while the 20-min pulse is the larger for strong activity levels. A possible interpretation is that the 20-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven directly by solar wind coupling and that the 60-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven by the release of energy previously stored in the magnetotail. If this interpretation is correct, the linear filtering results suggest that both the driven and the unloading models of magnetospheric response are important facets of a more comprehensive response model.

Bargatze, L. F.; Baker, D. N.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Mcpherron, R. L.

1985-01-01

353

Effect of foreknowledge on neural activity of primary “go” responses relates to response stopping and switching  

PubMed Central

Being able to stop (or inhibit) an action rapidly as in a stop-signal task (SST) is an essential human ability. Previous studies showed that when a pre-stimulus cue warned of the possible need to stop a response in an upcoming trial, participants’ response time (RT) increased if the subsequent trial required a “go” response (i.e., “go” RT cost) relative to a trial where this uncertainty was not present. This increase of the “go” RT correlated with more efficient response stopping. However, it remains a question whether foreknowledge of upcoming inhibition trials given prior to the task is sufficient to modulate neural activity associated with the primary “go” responses irrespective of whether stopping an overt response is required. We presented three task conditions with identical primary (i.e., “go”) response trials but without pre-stimulus cues. Participants were informed that Condition 1 had only “go” trials (All-go condition), Condition 2 required a “stop” response for some trials (Stop condition), and Condition 3 required a response incongruent with the primary response (i.e., Switch response) for some trials (Switch condition). Participants performed the tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Results showed a significant increase in the “go” RT (cost) in the Stop and Switch conditions relative to the All-go condition. The “go” RT cost was correlated with decreased inhibition time. fMRI activation in the frontal-basal-ganglia regions during the “go” responses in the Stop and Switch conditions was also correlated with the efficiency of Stop and Switch responses. These results suggest that foreknowledge prior to the task is sufficient to influence neural activity associated with the primary response and modulate inhibition efficiency, irrespective of whether stopping an overt response is required.

Xu, Benjamin; Levy, Sarah; Butman, John; Pham, Dzung; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Sandrini, Marco

2015-01-01

354

Snowmobile Activity and Glucocorticoid Stress Responses in Wolves and Elk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of human activities on animal populations is widely debated, particularly since a recent decision by the U.S. Department of the Interior to ban snowmobiles from national parks. Immunoassays of fecal glucocorticoid levels provide a sensitive and noninvasive method of measuring the physiological stress responses of wildlife to disturbances. We tested for associations between snowmobile activity and glucocorti- coid

Scott Creel; Jennifer E. Fox; Amanda Hardy; Jennifer Sands; Bob Garrott; Rolf O. Peterson

2002-01-01

355

Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) response towards human activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the question of how human activities and infrastructure influence reindeer\\/caribou's (Rangifer tarandus) behaviour and habitat use and review studies based on current methodologies. Anthropogenic activities have a direct affect on Rangifer behaviour through the senses hearing, sight and smell, and all of these are important tools for behavioural risk assessment. Short term indirect responses, such as habituation, sensitisation,

356

Nimodipine Activates TrkB Neurotrophin Receptors and Induces Neuroplastic and Neuroprotective Signaling Events in the Mouse Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex.  

PubMed

The L-type calcium channel blocker nimodipine improves clinical outcome produced by delayed cortical ischemia or vasospasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. While vasoactive mechanisms are strongly implicated in these therapeutic actions of nimodipine, we sought to test whether nimodipine might also regulate neurotrophic and neuroplastic signaling events associated with TrkB neurotrophin receptor activation. Adult male mice were acutely treated with vehicle or nimodipine (10 mg/kg, s.c., 1.5 h) after which the phosphorylation states of TrkB, cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) and p70S6 kinase (p70S6k) from prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were assessed. Nimodipine increased the phosphorylation of the TrkB catalytic domain and the phosphoslipase-C?1 (PLC?1) domain, whereas phosphorylation of the TrkB Shc binding site remained unaltered. Nimodipine-induced TrkB phosphorylation was associated with increased phosphorylation levels of Akt and CREB in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus whereas phosphorylation of ERK, mTor and p70S6k remained unaltered. Nimodipine-induced TrkB signaling was not associated with changes in BDNF mRNA or protein levels. These nimodipine-induced changes on TrkB signaling mimic those produced by antidepressant drugs and thus propose common mechanisms and long-term functional consequences for the effects of these medications. This work provides a strong basis for investigating the role of TrkB-associated signaling underlying the neuroprotective and neuroplastic effects of nimodipine in translationally relevant animal models of brain trauma or compromised synaptic plasticity. PMID:25204460

Koskimäki, Janne; Matsui, Nobuaki; Umemori, Juzoh; Rantamäki, Tomi; Castrén, Eero

2014-09-10

357

Substance P primes lipoteichoic acid- and Pam3CysSerLys4-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating Toll-like receptor 2  

PubMed Central

Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide with neuroimmunoregulatory activity that may play a role in susceptibility to infection. Human mast cells, which are important in innate immune responses, were analysed for their responses to pathogen-associated molecules via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the presence of SP. Human cultured mast cells (LAD2) were activated by SP and TLR ligands including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and mast cell leukotriene and chemokine production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gene expression by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Mast cell degranulation was determined using a ?-hexosaminidase (?-hex) assay. SP treatment of LAD2 up-regulated mRNA for TLR2, TLR4, TLR8 and TLR9 while anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) stimulation up-regulated expression of TLR4 only. Flow cytometry and western blot confirmed up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR8. Pretreatment of LAD2 with SP followed by stimulation with Pam3CSK4 or LTA increased production of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and interleukin (IL)-8 compared with treatment with Pam3CSK4 or LTA alone (> 2-fold; P < 0·01). SP alone activated 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) nuclear translocation but also augmented Pam3CSK4 and LTA-mediated 5-LO translocation. Pam3CSK4, LPS and LTA did not induce LAD2 degranulation. SP primed LTA and Pam3CSK4-mediated activation of JNK, p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the nuclear translocation of c-Jun, nuclear factor (NF)-?B, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) and cyclic-AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) transcription factors. Pretreatment with SP followed by LTA stimulation synergistically induced production of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8)/IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6 protein. SP primes TLR2-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating TLR expression and potentiating signalling pathways associated with TLR. These results suggest that neuronal responses may influence innate host defence responses. PMID:20497485

Tancowny, Brian P; Karpov, Victor; Schleimer, Robert P; Kulka, Marianna

2010-01-01

358

Patterning of sympathetic nerve activity in response to vestibular stimulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growing evidence suggests a role for the vestibular system in regulation of autonomic outflow during postural adjustments. In the present paper we review evidence for the patterning of sympathetic nerve activity elicited by vestibular stimulation. In response to electrical activation of vestibular afferents, firing of sympathetic nerves located throughout the body is altered. However, activity of the renal nerve is most sensitive to vestibular inputs. In contrast, high-intensity simultaneous activation of cutaneous and muscle inputs elicits equivalent changes in firing of the renal, superior mesenteric and lumbar colonic nerves. Responses of muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) efferents to vestibular stimulation are either inhibitory (Type I) or are comprised of a combination of excitation and inhibition (Type II). Interestingly, single MVC units located in the hindlimb exhibited predominantly Type I responses while those located in the forelimb and face exhibited Type II responses. Furthermore, brachial and femoral arterial blood flows were dissociated in response to vestibular stimulation, such that brachial vascular resistance increased while femoral resistance decreased. These studies demonstrate that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned according to both the anatomical location and innervation target of a particular sympathetic nerve, and can lead to distinct changes in local blood flow.

Kerman, I. A.; McAllen, R. M.; Yates, B. J.

2000-01-01

359

Phorbol esters alter adenylate cyclase responses to vasoactive intestinal peptide and forskolin in the GH cell line  

SciTech Connect

Activation of protein kinase C with phorbol ester modifies cyclic AMP production in several anterior pituitary cell systems. In the GH cell line from a rat pituitary tumor, exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA: 100 nM) for 30 minutes significantly reduces vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP: 100 nM) stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in subsequent membrane preparations to 62 + 4% of control (n = 6 independent studies). In contrast, these same membrane preparations respond to forskolin (1 ..mu..M) with significantly more activity, 130 +/- 6% of controls (n = 6 independent studies). Finally, phorbol ester does not block an inhibitory hormone input into the AC system; somatostatin (100 nM) reduction of VIP-stimulated AC activity is not significantly different in membrane preparations from PMA treated and control cells (n = 3 independent studies). These other findings lead the authors to propose that protein kinase C can modify several sites in the AC complex in anterior pituitary cells.

Summers, S.; Florio, T.; Cronin, M.

1986-05-01

360

Modification of the positive inotropic effects of catecholamines, cardiac glycosides and Ca2+ by the orally active male contraceptive, gossypol, in isolated guinea-pig heart.  

PubMed

Gossypol is an orally active male contraceptive with cardio-depressant side effects. To understand the mechanism of its cardiac actions, the interaction of gossypol with positive inotropic drugs was examined in isolated atrial muscle preparations obtained from guinea-pig heart. Gossypol delayed the onset of arrhythmias caused by digoxin. In the presence of gossypol, the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol declined rapidly, and the effect of isoproterenol to increase tissue cyclic AMP concentrations was smaller. Pretreatment of atrial muscle with the combination of gossypol and isoproterenol markedly reduced effects of isoproterenol on developed tension and cyclic AMP concentrations when these effects were tested after the washout of the first dose of isoproterenol. These effects, however, were not specific to isoproterenol. The gossypol-isoproterenol pretreatment reduced the positive inotropic effect of ouabain or extracellular Ca2+. These results indicate that gossypol has pharmacodynamic interactions with several positive inotropic agents that are known to enhance developed tension by increasing intracellular Ca2+ transients. PMID:2557505

Ye, Y X; Akera, T; Ng, Y C

1989-01-01

361

Identification of cyclic GMP-activated nonselective Ca2+-permeable cation channels and associated CNGC5 and CNGC6 genes in Arabidopsis guard cells.  

PubMed

Cytosolic Ca(2+) in guard cells plays an important role in stomatal movement responses to environmental stimuli. These cytosolic Ca(2+) increases result from Ca(2+) influx through Ca(2+)-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and Ca(2+) release from intracellular organelles in guard cells. However, the genes encoding defined plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity remain unknown in guard cells and, with some exceptions, largely unknown in higher plant cells. Here, we report the identification of two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cation channel genes, CNGC5 and CNGC6, that are highly expressed in guard cells. Cytosolic application of cyclic GMP (cGMP) and extracellularly applied membrane-permeable 8-Bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-cGMP both activated hyperpolarization-induced inward-conducting currents in wild-type guard cells using Mg(2+) as the main charge carrier. The cGMP-activated currents were strongly blocked by lanthanum and gadolinium and also conducted Ba(2+), Ca(2+), and Na(+) ions. cngc5 cngc6 double mutant guard cells exhibited dramatically impaired cGMP-activated currents. In contrast, mutations in CNGC1, CNGC2, and CNGC20 did not disrupt these cGMP-activated currents. The yellow fluorescent protein-CNGC5 and yellow fluorescent protein-CNGC6 proteins localize in the cell periphery. Cyclic AMP activated modest inward currents in both wild-type and cngc5cngc6 mutant guard cells. Moreover, cngc5 cngc6 double mutant guard cells exhibited functional abscisic acid (ABA)-activated hyperpolarization-dependent Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel currents, intact ABA-induced stomatal closing responses, and whole-plant stomatal conductance responses to darkness and changes in CO2 concentration. Furthermore, cGMP-activated currents remained intact in the growth controlled by abscisic acid2 and abscisic acid insensitive1 mutants. This research demonstrates that the CNGC5 and CNGC6 genes encode unique cGMP-activated nonselective Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis guard cells. PMID:24019428

Wang, Yong-Fei; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Ren, Hui-Min; Robert, Nadia; Han, Michelle; Puzõrjova, Irina; Kollist, Hannes; Lee, Stephen; Mori, Izumi; Schroeder, Julian I

2013-10-01

362

Epac1 mediates protein kinase A-independent mechanism of forskolin-activated intestinal chloride secretion.  

PubMed

Intestinal Cl- secretion is stimulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Recent studies show that protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) are downstream targets of cAMP. Therefore, we tested whether both PKA and Epac are involved in forskolin (FSK)/cAMP-stimulated Cl- secretion. Human intestinal T84 cells and mouse small intestine were used for short circuit current (I(sc)) measurement in response to agonist-stimulated Cl- secretion. FSK-stimulated Cl- secretion was completely inhibited by the additive effects of the PKA inhibitor, H89 (1 microM), and the [Ca2+]i chelator, 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetraacetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM; 25 microM). Both FSK and the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (50 microM) elevated [Ca2+]i, activated Ras-related protein 2, and induced Cl- secretion in intact or basolateral membrane-permeabilized T84 cells and mouse ileal sheets. The effects of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP were completely abolished by BAPTA-AM, but not by H89. In contrast, T84 cells with silenced Epac1 had a reduced I(sc) response to FSK, and this response was completely inhibited by H89, but not by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 or BAPTA-AM. The stimulatory effect of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP on Cl- secretion was not abolished by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance (CFTR) inhibitor 172 or glibenclamide, suggesting that CFTR channels are not involved. This was confirmed by lack of effect of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP on whole cell patch clamp recordings of CFTR currents in Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently expressing the human CFTR channel. Furthermore, biophysical characterization of the Epac1-dependent Cl- conductance of T84 cells mounted in Ussing chambers suggested that this conductance was hyperpolarization activated, inwardly rectifying, and displayed a Cl->Br->I- permeability sequence. These results led us to conclude that the Epac-Rap-PLC-[Ca2+]i signaling pathway is involved in cAMP-stimulated Cl- secretion, which is carried by a novel, previously undescribed Cl- channel. PMID:20038525

Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Woodward, Owen M; van Rossum, Damian B; Zachos, Nicholas C; Chen, Linxi; Leung, George P H; Guggino, William B; Guggino, Sandra E; Tse, Chung-Ming

2010-01-01

363

Behavioral Responses of North American Elk to Recreational Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-road recreation on public lands in North America has increased dramatically in recent years. Wild ungulates are sensitive to human activities, but the effect of off-road recreation, both motorized and nonmotorized, is poorly understood. We measured responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to recreational disturbance in northeast Oregon, USA, from April to October, 2003 and 2004. We subjected elk to 4

Leslie M. Naylor; Michael J. Wisdom; Robert G. Anthony

2009-01-01

364

Anergic T cells as active regulators of the immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

T cell anergy is one of the mechanisms leading to the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Recent data from our and other laboratories indicate that anergic T cells are not functionally inert but in fact are capable of regulating the immune response in an active manner. In this review, we describe our viewpoint on how anergic self-reactive T cells

Leonie S Taams; Marca H. M Wauben

2000-01-01

365

Educating for Political Activity: A Younger Generational Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a response to Professor Chitty's "Educational Review" Guest Lecture article, "Educating for political activity". I address the three sections of his paper: a global and national-based politics of war, corporate manipulation and parliamentary scandals. This provides a basis to draw upon empirical material from a recent critical…

Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin

2010-01-01

366

Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian immune system has innate and adaptive components, which cooperate to protect the host against microbial infections. The innate immune system consists of functionally distinct 'modules' that evolved to provide different forms of protection against pathogens. It senses pathogens through pattern-recognition receptors, which trigger the activation of antimicrobial defences and stimulate the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune system,

Ruslan Medzhitov

2007-01-01

367

SHORT REPORT Open Access Immunological response to highly active  

E-print Network

is currently limited on the long-term follow up of HIV-1 infected women who are on highly active antiretroviral-month immunological response to HAART in HIV-1 infected women in Côte d'Ivoire. The women were tested at four weeks postpartum. In addition, at 36 months, 23% of women were lost to follow up, dead

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Hydroxyurea Triggers Cellular Responses that Actively Cause Bacterial Cell Death  

E-print Network

Hydroxyurea Triggers Cellular Responses that Actively Cause Bacterial Cell Death Tobias Bollenbach1 of Escherichia coli in the presence of the drug hydroxyurea. Sometimes, we are met with unprece- dented to the drug hydroxyurea (HU) in ways that success- fully ensure its survival for several hours but promote

Kishony, Roy

369

Dynamics of lung macrophage activation in response to helminth infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most of our understanding of the development and phenotype of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) has been obtained from studies investigating the response of bone marrow- and peritoneal-derived cells to IL-4 or IL-13 stimulation. Comparatively little is known about the development of the AAM...

370

Analyses of signal transduction cascades reveal an essential role of calcium ions for regulation of melatonin biosynthesis in the light-sensitive pineal organ of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

Signal transduction processes regulating melatonin production in the light-sensitive trout pineal organ were investigated by immunocytochemical and immunochemical demonstration of phosphorylated cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (pCREB) and measurements of cyclic AMP, melatonin, and calcium levels. Melatonin levels were tightly controlled by light and darkness. Elevation of cyclic AMP levels by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, forskolin, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine increased the levels of pCREB and melatonin in light- or dark-adapted pineal organs in vitro. Without pharmacological treatment, the levels of pCREB and cyclic AMP remained constant for several hours before and after light onset. Inhibition of cyclic AMP-dependent proteasomal proteolysis by lactacystin, MG 132, and calpain inhibitor I did not prevent the rapid, light-induced suppression of melatonin biosynthesis. However, changes in the intracellular calcium concentration by drugs affecting voltage-gated calcium channels of the L type and intracellular calcium oscillations (cobalt chloride, nifedipine, Bay K 8644) had dramatic effects on the rapid, light-dependent changes in melatonin levels. These effects were not accompanied by changes in cyclic AMP levels. Thus, the rapid, light-dependent changes in melatonin levels in the trout pineal organ are regulated apparently by a novel calcium signaling pathway and do not involve changes in cyclic AMP levels, cyclic AMP-dependent proteasomal proteolysis, or phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein. PMID:10820209

Kroeber, S; Meissl, H; Maronde, E; Korf, H W

2000-06-01

371

Nonconscious activation of placebo and nocebo pain responses  

PubMed Central

The dominant theories of human placebo effects rely on a notion that consciously perceptible cues, such as verbal information or distinct stimuli in classical conditioning, provide signals that activate placebo effects. However, growing evidence suggest that behavior can be triggered by stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness. Here, we performed two experiments in which the responses to thermal pain stimuli were assessed. The first experiment assessed whether a conditioning paradigm, using clearly visible cues for high and low pain, could induce placebo and nocebo responses. The second experiment, in a separate group of subjects, assessed whether conditioned placebo and nocebo responses could be triggered in response to nonconscious (masked) exposures to the same cues. A total of 40 healthy volunteers (24 female, mean age 23 y) were investigated in a laboratory setting. Participants rated each pain stimulus on a numeric response scale, ranging from 0 = no pain to 100 = worst imaginable pain. Significant placebo and nocebo effects were found in both experiment 1 (using clearly visible stimuli) and experiment 2 (using nonconscious stimuli), indicating that the mechanisms responsible for placebo and nocebo effects can operate without conscious awareness of the triggering cues. This is a unique experimental verification of the influence of nonconscious conditioned stimuli on placebo/nocebo effects and the results challenge the exclusive role of awareness and conscious cognitions in placebo responses. PMID:23019380

Jensen, Karin B.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Kirsch, Irving; Raicek, Jacqueline; Lindstrom, Kara M.; Berna, Chantal; Gollub, Randy L.; Ingvar, Martin; Kong, Jian

2012-01-01

372

Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.  

PubMed

Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8?kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122?dB re: 1??Pa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well. PMID:25324099

Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

2014-10-01

373

Characterizing wind turbine system response to lightning activity  

SciTech Connect

A lightning protection research program was instituted by National Renewable Energy Laboratory to minimize lightning damage to wind turbines and to further the understanding of effective damage mitigation techniques. To that end, a test program is under way to observe lightning activity, protection system response, and damage at a wind power plant in the Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Turbine Verification Program. The authors installed Lightning activated surveillance cameras along with a special storm tracking device to observe the activity in the wind plant area. They instrumented the turbines with lightning and ground current detection devices to log direct and indirect strike activity at each unit. They installed a surge monitor on the utility interface to track incoming activity from the transmission lines. Maintenance logs are used to verify damage and determine downtime and repair costs. Actual strikes to turbines were recorded on video and ancillary devices. The test setup and some results are discussed in this paper.

McNiff, B.; LaWhite, N. [McNiff Light Industry, Harborside, ME (United States); Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-07-01

374

Dose–response relation between physical activity and sick leave  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the dose–response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one prospective cohort study. A distinction was made between duration, frequency and intensity of physical activity. The outcome measure was the number of days of sick leave. Analyses of variance were used to compare sick leave (in days) for workers with different amounts of physical activity, in particular workers meeting the physical activity recommendations v those who did not. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to obtain effect estimates in the prospective cohort study, with the generalised estimating equation (GEE) method. Results No relation was found between moderate physical activity and sick leave. In two databases, workers meeting the recommendation of vigorous physical activity (active at a vigorous level for at least three times a week) had significantly less sick leave: more than one day over two months and more than four days over a year. The duration of vigorous physical activity was not associated with sick leave. Conclusion Physical activity at a vigorous intensity level for at least three times a week, as in the CDC/ACSM recommendation, has a positive effect on sick leave. PMID:16432007

Proper, K I; van den Heuvel, S G; De Vroome, E M; Hildebrandt, V H; Van der Beek, A J

2006-01-01

375

Localization and activity of haem oxygenase and functional effects of carbon monoxide in the feline lower oesophageal sphincter.  

PubMed Central

1. In the feline lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS), the distribution of the carbon monoxide (CO) producing enzymes haem oxygenase (HO)-1 and -2 was studied by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, the HO activity was measured and the possible role for CO as a mediator of relaxation was investigated. 2. HO-2 immunoreactivity was abundant in nerve cell bodies of the submucosal and myenteric plexus. Approximately 50% of the HO-2-containing myenteric cell bodies were also nitric oxide synthase- and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-immunoreactive. In addition, HO-2 immunoreactivity was seen in nerve fibres, in non-neuronal cells dispersed in the smooth muscle and in arterial endothelium. HO-1 immunoreactivity was confined to non-neuronal cells in the smooth muscle, similar to those positive for HO-2. 3. Activity of HO, measured as CO production, was observed in LOS homogenates at a rate of 1.00 +/- 0.05 nmol mg-1 protein h-1. This production was inhibited by the HO inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP). 4. In isolated circular smooth muscle strips of LOS, developing spontaneous tone, exogenously administered CO evoked a concentration-dependent relaxation reaching a maximum of 93 +/- 3%. This relaxation was accompanied by an increase in cyclic GMP, but not cyclic AMP levels. The relaxant response was attenuated by methylene blue, but unaffected by tetrodotoxin. Repeated exposure to CO resulted in a progressive reduction of the relaxant response. 5. ZnPP caused a rightward-shift of the concentration-response curves for the relaxant responses to VIP, peptide histidine isoleucine, and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide 27. 6. ZnPP and tin protoporphyrin-IX (another inhibitor of HO) did not affect nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxations induced by electrical field stimulation. Nor did ZnPP affect relaxations induced by 3-morpholino-sydnonimine or forskolin. 7. The present findings, showing localization of HO immunoreactivity to both neuronal and nonneuronal cells of the feline LOS, ability of LOS to produce CO and a relaxant effect of CO in circular LOS muscle, suggest a role for CO as a peripheral messenger. Images Figure 1 PMID:8735643

Ny, L.; Alm, P.; Ekström, P.; Larsson, B.; Grundemar, L.; Andersson, K. E.

1996-01-01

376

Hemodynamic responses to functional activation accessed by optical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) based optical imaging system was developed to visualize the changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation following functional activation simultaneously in rodent cortex. The 2-D blood flow image was accessed by laser speckle contrast imaging, and the spectroscopic imaging of intrinsic signal was used for the calculation of oxyhemoglobin (HbO), deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration. The combination of spectroscopic imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging provides the capability to simultaneously investigate the spatial and temporal blood flow and hemoglobin concentration changes with high resolution, which may lead to a better understanding of the coupling between neuronal activation and vascular responses. The optical imaging system been built is compact and convenient to investigators. And it is reliable to acquire raw data. In present study, the hemodynamic responses to cortical spreading depression (CSD) in parietal cortex of ~-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats were demonstrated.

Ni, Songlin; Li, Pengcheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xiaohua; Luo, Qingming

2006-01-01

377

Effects of three activities on annoyance responses to recorded flyovers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subjects participated in an experiment in which they were engaged in TV viewing, telephone listening, or reverie (no activity) for a 1/2-hour session. During the session, they were exposed to a series of recorded aircraft sounds at the rate of one flight every 2 minutes. Within each session, four levels of flyover noise, separated by 5dB increments, were presented several times in a Latin Square balanced sequence. The peak level of the noisiest flyover in any session was fixed at 95, 90, 85, 75, or 70 dBA. At the end of the test session, subjects recorded their responses to the aircraft sounds, using a bipolar scale which covered the range from 'very pleasant' to 'extremely annoying'. Responses to aircraft noises were found to be significantly affected by the particular activity in which the subjects were engaged. Furthermore, not all subjects found the aircraft sounds to be annoying.

Gunn, W. J.; Shepherd, W. T.; Fletcher, J. L.

1975-01-01

378

Photodynamic therapy for cancer and activation of immune response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT for cancer due to the acute inflammatory response, exposure and presentation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins and other danger signals. Nevertheless effective, powerful tumor-specific immune response in both animal models and also in patients treated with PDT for cancer, is the exception rather than the rule. Research in our laboratory and also in others is geared towards identifying reasons for this sub-optimal immune response and discovering ways of maximizing it. Reasons why the immune response after PDT is less than optimal include the fact that tumor-antigens are considered to be self-like and poorly immunogenic, the tumor-mediated induction of CD4+CD25+foxP3+ regulatory T-cells (T-regs), that are able to inhibit both the priming and the effector phases of the cytotoxic CD8 T-cell anti-tumor response and the defects in dendritic cell maturation, activation and antigen-presentation that may also occur. Alternatively-activated macrophages (M2) have also been implicated. Strategies to overcome these immune escape mechanisms employed by different tumors include combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments such as products obtained from pathogenic microorganisms against which mammals have evolved recognition systems such as PAMPs and toll-like receptors (TLR). This paper will cover the use of CpG oligonucleotides (a TLR9 agonist found in bacterial DNA) to reverse dendritic cell dysfunction and methods to remove the immune suppressor effects of T-regs that are under active study.

Mroz, Pawel; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.

2010-02-01

379

Glacier responses to recent volcanic activity in Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers in Southern Chile (39–43°S) are characterized by frontal retreats and area losses in response to the ongoing climatic changes at a timescale of decades. Superimposed on these longer-term trends, volcanic activity is thought to impact glaciers in variable ways. Debris–ash covered Glaciar Pichillancahue-Turbio only retreated slightly in recent decades in spite of been located on Volcán Villarrica which has

Andrés Rivera; Francisca Bown; Daniela Carrión; Pablo Zenteno

2012-01-01

380

Spontaneous olfactory receptor neuron activity determines follower cell response properties  

PubMed Central

Noisy or spontaneous activity is common in neural systems and poses a challenge to detecting and discriminating signals. Here we use the locust to answer fundamental questions about noise in the olfactory system: Where does spontaneous activity originate? How is this activity propagated or reduced throughout multiple stages of neural processing? What mechanisms favor the detection of signals despite the presence of spontaneous activity? We found that spontaneous activity long observed in the secondary projection neurons (PNs) originates almost entirely from the primary olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) rather than from spontaneous circuit interactions in the antennal lobe, and that spontaneous activity in ORNs tonically depolarizes the resting membrane potentials of their target PNs and local neurons (LNs), and indirectly tonically depolarizes tertiary Kenyon cells (KCs). However, because these neurons have different response thresholds, in the absence of odor stimulation, ORNs and PNs display a high spontaneous firing rate but KCs are nearly silent. Finally, we used a simulation of the olfactory network to show that discrimination of signal and noise in the KCs is best when threshold levels are set so that baseline activity in PNs persists. Our results show how the olfactory system benefits from making a signal detection decision after a point of maximal information convergence, e.g., after KCs pool inputs from many PNs. PMID:22357872

Joseph, Joby; Dunn, Felice A.; Stopfer, Mark

2012-01-01

381

Spontaneous olfactory receptor neuron activity determines follower cell response properties.  

PubMed

Noisy or spontaneous activity is common in neural systems and poses a challenge to detecting and discriminating signals. Here we use the locust to answer fundamental questions about noise in the olfactory system: Where does spontaneous activity originate? How is this activity propagated or reduced throughout multiple stages of neural processing? What mechanisms favor the detection of signals despite the presence of spontaneous activity? We found that spontaneous activity long observed in the secondary projection neurons (PNs) originates almost entirely from the primary olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) rather than from spontaneous circuit interactions in the antennal lobe, and that spontaneous activity in ORNs tonically depolarizes the resting membrane potentials of their target PNs and local neurons (LNs) and indirectly tonically depolarizes tertiary Kenyon cells (KCs). However, because these neurons have different response thresholds, in the absence of odor stimulation, ORNs and PNs display a high spontaneous firing rate but KCs are nearly silent. Finally, we used a simulation of the olfactory network to show that discrimination of signal and noise in the KCs is best when threshold levels are set so that baseline activity in PNs persists. Our results show how the olfactory system benefits from making a signal detection decision after a point of maximal information convergence, e.g., after KCs pool inputs from many PNs. PMID:22357872

Joseph, Joby; Dunn, Felice A; Stopfer, Mark

2012-02-22

382

Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale Across Active and Non-Active Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need to examine whether measurement structure holds across groups (e.g., active vs.

Laura C. Carpenter; Sara Anne Tompkins; Sarah J. Schmiege; Renea Nilsson; Angela Bryan

2010-01-01

383

AMP-activated protein kinase, stress responses and cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is one of the key players in maintaining intracellular homoeostasis. AMPK is well known as an energy sensor and can be activated by increased intracellular AMP levels. Generally, the activation of AMPK turns on catabolic pathways that generate ATP, while inhibiting cell proliferation and biosynthetic processes that consume ATP. In recent years, intensive investigations on the regulation and the function of AMPK indicates that AMPK not only functions as an intracellular energy sensor and regulator, but is also a general stress sensor that is important in maintaining intracellular homoeostasis during many kinds of stress challenges. In the present paper, we will review recent literature showing that AMPK functions far beyond its proposed energy sensor and regulator function. AMPK regulates ROS (reactive oxygen species)/redox balance, autophagy, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, cellular polarity, mitochondrial function and genotoxic response, either directly or indirectly via numerous downstream pathways under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:22390198

WANG, Shaobin; SONG, Ping; ZOU, Ming-Hui

2012-01-01

384

Activation of DNA damage response signaling by condensed chromatin  

PubMed Central

Summary The DNA damage response (DDR) occurs in the context of chromatin structure, and architectural features of chromatin contribute to DNA damage signaling and repair. While the role of chromatin decondensation in the DDR is established, we show here that chromatin condensation is integral to DDR signaling. We find that upon DNA damage, chromatin regions transiently expand before undergoing extensive compaction. Using a protein-chromatin tethering system to create defined chromatin domains, we show that interference with chromatin condensation results in failure to fully activate DDR. Conversely, forced induction of local chromatin condensation promotes ATM- and ATR-dependent activation of upstream DDR signaling in a break-independent manner. Finally, while persistent chromatin compaction enhanced upstream DDR signaling from irradiation-induced breaks, it reduced recovery and survival after damage. Our results demonstrate that chromatin condensation is sufficient for activation of DDR signaling and is an integral part of physiological DDR signaling. PMID:25464843

Burgess, Rebecca C.; Burman, Bharat; Kruhlak, Michael; Misteli, Tom

2014-01-01

385

Mucosal adjuvant properties of mutant LT-IIa and LT-IIb enterotoxins that exhibit altered ganglioside-binding activities.  

PubMed

LT-IIa and LT-IIb, the type II heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli, are closely related in structure and function to cholera toxin and LT-I, the type I heat-labile enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and E. coli, respectively. Recent studies from our group demonstrated that LT-IIa and LT-IIb are potent systemic and mucosal adjuvants. To determine whether binding of LT-IIa and LT-IIb to their specific ganglioside receptors is essential for adjuvant activity, LT-IIa and LT-IIb enterotoxins were compared with their respective single-point substitution mutants which have no detectable binding activity for their major ganglioside receptors [e.g., LT-IIa(T34I) and LT-IIb(T13I)]. Both mutant enterotoxins exhibited an extremely low capacity for intoxicating mouse Y1 adrenal cells and for inducing production of cyclic AMP in a macrophage cell line. BALB/c female mice were immunized by the intranasal route with the surface adhesin protein AgI/II of Streptococcus mutans alone or in combination with LT-IIa, LT-IIa(T34I), LT-IIb, or LT-IIb(T13I). Both LT-IIa and LT-IIb potentiated strong mucosal and systemic immune responses against AgI/II. Of the two mutant enterotoxins, only LT-IIb(T13I) had the capacity to strongly potentiate mucosal anti-AgI/II and systemic anti-AgI/II antibody responses. Upon boosting with AgI/II, however, both LT-IIa(T34I) and LT-IIb(T13I) enhanced humoral memory responses to AgI/II. Flow cytometry demonstrated that LT-IIa(T34I) had no affinity for cervical lymph node lymphocytes. In contrast, LT-IIb(T13I) retained binding activity for T cells, B cells, and macrophages, indicating that this immunostimulatory mutant enterotoxin interacts with one or more unknown lymphoid cell receptors. PMID:15731030

Nawar, Hesham F; Arce, Sergio; Russell, Michael W; Connell, Terry D

2005-03-01

386

Lysyl oxidase activity regulates oncogenic stress response and tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence, a stable proliferation arrest, is induced in response to various stresses. Oncogenic stress-induced senescence (OIS) results in blocked proliferation and constitutes a fail-safe program counteracting tumorigenesis. The events that enable a tumor in a benign senescent state to escape from OIS and become malignant are largely unknown. We show that lysyl oxidase activity contributes to the decision to maintain senescence. Indeed, in human epithelial cell the constitutive expression of the LOX or LOXL2 protein favored OIS escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize OIS. The relevance of these in vitro observations is supported by in vivo findings: in a transgenic mouse model of aggressive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), increasing lysyl oxidase activity accelerates senescence escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize senescence, delay tumorigenesis, and increase survival. Mechanistically, we show that lysyl oxidase activity favors the escape of senescence by regulating the focal-adhesion kinase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that lysyl oxidase activity participates in primary tumor growth by directly impacting the senescence stability. PMID:24113189

Wiel, C; Augert, A; Vincent, D F; Gitenay, D; Vindrieux, D; Le Calvé, B; Arfi, V; Lallet-Daher, H; Reynaud, C; Treilleux, I; Bartholin, L; Lelievre, E; Bernard, D

2013-01-01

387

Lysyl oxidase activity regulates oncogenic stress response and tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Cellular senescence, a stable proliferation arrest, is induced in response to various stresses. Oncogenic stress-induced senescence (OIS) results in blocked proliferation and constitutes a fail-safe program counteracting tumorigenesis. The events that enable a tumor in a benign senescent state to escape from OIS and become malignant are largely unknown. We show that lysyl oxidase activity contributes to the decision to maintain senescence. Indeed, in human epithelial cell the constitutive expression of the LOX or LOXL2 protein favored OIS escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize OIS. The relevance of these in vitro observations is supported by in vivo findings: in a transgenic mouse model of aggressive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), increasing lysyl oxidase activity accelerates senescence escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize senescence, delay tumorigenesis, and increase survival. Mechanistically, we show that lysyl oxidase activity favors the escape of senescence by regulating the focal-adhesion kinase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that lysyl oxidase activity participates in primary tumor growth by directly impacting the senescence stability. PMID:24113189

Wiel, C; Augert, A; Vincent, D F; Gitenay, D; Vindrieux, D; Le Calvé, B; Arfi, V; Lallet-Daher, H; Reynaud, C; Treilleux, I; Bartholin, L; Lelievre, E; Bernard, D

2013-01-01

388

Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active res