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Sample records for activates toll-like receptor

  1. Mincle suppresses Toll-like receptor 4 activation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Mahmood, Syed Kashif; Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Ochi, Atsuo; Batel, Jennifer; Deutsch, Michael; Barilla, Rocky; Seifert, Lena; Pachter, H Leon; Daley, Donnele; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Hundeyin, Mautin; Mani, Vishnu R; Miller, George

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of Toll-like receptor responses is critical for limiting tissue injury and autoimmunity in both sepsis and sterile inflammation. We found that Mincle, a C-type lectin receptor, regulates proinflammatory Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Specifically, Mincle ligation diminishes Toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammation, whereas Mincle deletion or knockdown results in marked hyperresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide in vitro, as well as overwhelming lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, Mincle deletion does not up-regulate Toll-like receptor 4 expression or reduce interleukin 10 production after Toll-like receptor 4 ligation; however, Mincle deletion decreases production of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibitory intermediate suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, A20, and ABIN3 and increases expression of the Toll-like receptor 4 coreceptor CD14. Blockade of CD14 mitigates the increased sensitivity of Mincle(-/-) leukocytes to Toll-like receptor 4 ligation. Collectively, we describe a major role for Mincle in suppressing Toll-like receptor 4 responses and implicate its importance in nonmycobacterial models of inflammation. PMID:26747838

  2. Allergens and Activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Response.

    PubMed

    Monie, Tom P; Bryant, Clare E

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) provide a crucial function in the detection of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first family of PRRs to be discovered and have been extensively studied since. Whilst TLRs remain the best characterized family of PRRs there is still much to be learnt about their mode of activation and the mechanisms of signal transduction they employ. Much of our understanding of these processes has been gathered through the use of cell based signaling assays utilizing specific gene-reporters or cytokine secretion based readouts. More recently it has become apparent that the repertoire of ligands recognized by these receptors may be wider than originally assumed and that their activation may be sensitized, or at least modulated by the presence of common household allergens such as the cat dander protein Fel d 1, or the house dust mite allergen Der p 2. In this chapter we provide an overview of the cell culture and stimulation processes required to study TLR signaling in HEK293 based assays and in bone marrow-derived macrophages. PMID:26803639

  3. DIFFERENTIAL TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN LUNG ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Patrick; Merry, Heather E.; Hwang, Billanna; Mulligan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The requirement for toll-like receptors in lung ischemia reperfusion injury (LIRI) has been demonstrated but not fully characterized. We have previously reported that toll-like receptor-4 is required by alveolar macrophages but not pulmonary endothelial or epithelial cells for the development of LIRI. Additionally, we have demonstrated differential patterns of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cytokine release in these cell types during LIRI. We sought to determine whether the differences in their activation responses related to cell specific toll-like receptor activation requirements. Methods Primary cultures of alveolar macrophages, pulmonary endothelial, and immortalized epithelial cells were pretreated with toll-like receptor-2 or -4 short interference (si)RNA prior to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Cell lysates and media were analyzed for receptor knockdown, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and cytokine production. Rats were pretreated with toll-like receptor-2 or -4 siRNA prior to lung ischemia reperfusion and changes in lung vascular permeability were assessed. Results Toll-like receptor-2 knockdown in alveolar macrophages did not affect mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation or cytokine secretion. Conversely, toll-like receptor-2 knockdown in pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cells demonstrated significant reductions in ERK 1/2 activation and cytokine secretion. Toll-like receptor-4, but not toll-like receptor-2, decreased lung permeability index in LIRI. Conclusions Differential toll-like receptor signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in response to LIRI appear to be cell specific. siRNA provides an outstanding tool for examination of the underlying mechanism. PMID:25911179

  4. Therapeutic potential of Toll-like receptor 9 activation.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Arthur M

    2006-06-01

    In the decade since the discovery that mouse B cells respond to certain unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial DNA, a specific receptor for these 'CpG motifs' has been identified, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), and a new approach to immunotherapy has moved into the clinic based on the use of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as TLR9 agonists. This review highlights the current understanding of the mechanism of action of these CpG ODN, and provides an overview of the preclinical data and early human clinical trial results using these drugs to improve vaccines and treat cancer, infectious disease and allergy/asthma. PMID:16763660

  5. Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Lien, Egil; Ingalls, Robin R

    2002-01-01

    The ability of a host to sense invasion by pathogenic organisms and to respond appropriately to control infection is paramount to survival. In the case of sepsis and septic shock, however, an exaggerated systemic response may, in fact, contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with overwhelming infections. The innate immune system has evolved as the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a part of this innate immune defense, recognizing conserved patterns on microorganisms. These TLRs and their signaling pathways are represented in such diverse creatures as mammals, fruit flies, and plants. Ten members of the TLR family have been identified in humans, and several of them appear to recognize specific microbial products, including lipopolysaccharide, bacterial lipoproteins, peptidoglycan, and bacterial DNA. Signals initiated by the interaction of TLRs with specific microbial patterns direct the subsequent inflammatory response. Thus, TLR signaling represents a key component of the innate immune response to microbial infection. PMID:11782555

  6. Toll-Like Receptors in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Nicotra, Lauren; Loram, Lisa C; Watkins, Linda R; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Proinflammatory central immune signaling contributes significantly to the initiation and maintenance of heightened pain states. Recent discoveries have implicated the innate immune system, pattern recognition Toll-like receptors in triggering these proinflammatory central immune signaling events. These exciting developments have been complemented by the discovery of neuronal expression of Toll-like receptors, suggesting pain pathways can be activated directly by the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns or danger associated molecular patterns. This review will examine the evidence to date implicating Toll-like receptors and their associated signaling components in heightened pain states. In addition, insights into the impact Toll-like receptors have on priming central immune signaling systems for heightened pain states will be discussed. The influence possible sex differences in Toll-like receptor signaling have for female pain and the recognition of small molecule xenobiotics by Toll-like receptors will also be reviewed. PMID:22001158

  7. Cleavage and activation of a Toll-like receptor by microbial proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bouwman, Lieneke I.; Keestra, A. Marijke; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that show high conservation throughout the animal kingdom. Most TLRs can be clustered into phylogenetic groups that respond to similar types of ligands. One exception is avian TLR15. This receptor does not categorize into one of the existing groups of TLRs and its ligand is still unknown. Here we report that TLR15 is a sensor for secreted virulence-associated fungal and bacterial proteases. Activation of TLR15 involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor ectodomain and stimulation of NF-κB–dependent gene transcription. Receptor activation can be mimicked by the expression of a truncated TLR15 of which the entire ectodomain is removed, suggesting that receptor cleavage alleviates receptor inhibition by the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results indicate TLR15 as a unique type of innate immune receptor that combines TLR characteristics with an activation mechanism typical for the evolutionary distinct protease-activated receptors. PMID:21383168

  8. Cleavage and activation of a Toll-like receptor by microbial proteases.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Marcel R; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Keestra, A Marijke; van Putten, Jos P M

    2011-03-22

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that show high conservation throughout the animal kingdom. Most TLRs can be clustered into phylogenetic groups that respond to similar types of ligands. One exception is avian TLR15. This receptor does not categorize into one of the existing groups of TLRs and its ligand is still unknown. Here we report that TLR15 is a sensor for secreted virulence-associated fungal and bacterial proteases. Activation of TLR15 involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor ectodomain and stimulation of NF-κB-dependent gene transcription. Receptor activation can be mimicked by the expression of a truncated TLR15 of which the entire ectodomain is removed, suggesting that receptor cleavage alleviates receptor inhibition by the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results indicate TLR15 as a unique type of innate immune receptor that combines TLR characteristics with an activation mechanism typical for the evolutionary distinct protease-activated receptors. PMID:21383168

  9. Sleep Deprivation and Divergent Toll-like Receptor-4 Activation of Cellular Inflammation in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Judith E.; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard; Witarama, Tuff; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Yokomizo, Megumi; Seeman, Teresa E.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep disturbance and aging are associated with increases in inflammation, as well as increased risk of infectious disease. However, there is limited understanding of the role of sleep loss on age-related differences in immune responses. This study examines the effects of sleep deprivation on toll-like receptor activation of monocytic inflammation in younger compared to older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Community-dwelling adults (n = 70) who were categorized as younger (25–39 y old, n = 21) and older (60–84 y old, n = 49) participants, underwent a sleep laboratory-based experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, sleep deprivation (sleep restricted to 03:00–07:00), and recovery. Measurement and Results: Blood samples were obtained each morning to measure toll-like receptor-4 activation of monocyte intracellular production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Partial sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in the production of IL-6 and/or TNF-α that persisted after a night of recovery sleep (F(2,121.2) = 3.8, P < 0.05). Age moderated the effects of sleep loss, such that younger adults had an increase in inflammatory cytokine production that was not present in older adults (F(2,121.2) = 4.0, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Older adults exhibit reduced toll-like receptor 4 stimulated cellular inflammation that, unlike in younger adults, is not activated after a night of partial sleep loss. Whereas sleep loss increases cellular inflammation in younger adults and may contribute to inflammatory disorders, blunted toll-like receptor activation in older adults may increase the risk of infectious disease seen with aging. Citation: Carroll JE, Carrillo C, Olmstead R, Witarama T, Breen EC, Yokomizo M, Seeman TE, Irwin MR. Sleep deprivation and divergent toll-like receptor-4 activation of cellular inflammation in aging. SLEEP

  10. Toll-like receptor activation of XBP1 regulates innate immune responses in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Martinon, Fabio; Chen, Xi; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    2011-01-01

    Sensors of pathogens, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), detect microbes to activate transcriptional programs that orchestrate adaptive responses to specific insults. Here we report that TLR4 and TLR2 specifically activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress sensor kinase IRE1α and its downstream target, the transcription factor XBP1. Previously described XBP1 ER stress target genes were not induced by TLR signaling. Instead, TLR-activated XBP1 was required for optimal and sustained production of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Consistent with this finding, IRE1α activation by ER-stress synergized with TLR activation for cytokine production. Moreover, XBP1 deficiency markedly increased bacterial burden in animals infected with the TLR2-activating human pathogen Francisella tularensis. Our findings uncover an unsuspected critical new function for the XBP1 transcription factor in mammalian host defenses. PMID:20351694

  11. Structure-Activity Relationships in Human Toll-like Receptor 7-Active Imidazoquinoline Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Nikunj M.; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; Mutz, Cole A.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; David, Sunil A.

    2010-01-01

    Engagement of toll-like receptors serve to link innate immune responses with adaptive immunity and can be exploited as powerful vaccine adjuvants for eliciting both primary and anamnestic immune responses. TLR7 agonists are highly immunostimulatory without inducing dominant proinflammatory cytokine responses. A structure-activity study was conducted on the TLR7-agonistic imidazoquinolines, starting with 1-(4-amino-2-((ethylamino)methyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)-2-methylpropan-2-ol as a lead. Modifications of the secondary amine of the C2 ethylaminomethylene sidechain are poorly tolerated. The 4-amino group must be retained for activity. Replacement of the imidazole ring of the scaffold with triazole or cyclic urea led to complete loss of activity. A systematic exploration of N1-benzyl-C2-alkyl substituents showed a very distinct relationship between alkyl length and TLR7-agonistic potency with the optimal compound bearing a C2-n-butyl group. Transposition of the N1 and C2 substituents led to the identification of an extremely active TLR7-agonistic compound with an EC50 value of 8.6 nM. The relative potencies in human TLR7-based primary reporter gene assays were paralleled by interferon-α induction activities in whole human blood models. PMID:20481492

  12. Adenomatous polyposis coli genotype-dependent toll-like receptor 4 activity in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Meng; Guo, Fuchun; Sang, Yaxiong; Qin, Qing; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs)/NF-κB activation stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was associated with diverse biological response in colon cancer, but the underlying mechanism was largely unknown. In the current study, we reported cell proliferation was elevated in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutated- and APC knockdown cell lines, while the proliferation was inhibited in APC wild-type cell lines. Besides, in vivo experiments showed that LPS promoted APC knockdown tumor growth while inhibited proliferation of APC wild type. Further study confirmed that activation of TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway by LPS cross regulated with APC/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway, which were depend on APC status of cell lines. Taken together, APC genotypes play a key role in LPS induced different colon cancer biological response by cross-regulating β-catenin and NF-κB, which may provide a novel strategy for carcinogenesis prevention. PMID:26760960

  13. Detection of Neu1 Sialidase Activity in Regulating TOLL-like Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Abdulkhalek, Samar

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Not only are TLRs crucial sensors of microbial (e.g., viruses, bacteria and parasite) infections, they also play an important role in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases, inflammatory diseases, and possibly in autoimmune diseases. Thus, the intensity and duration of TLR responses against infectious diseases must be tightly controlled. It follows that understanding the structural integrity of sensor receptors, their ligand interactions and signaling components is essential for subsequent immunological protection. It would also provide important opportunities for disease modification through sensor manipulation. Although the signaling pathways of TLR sensors are well characterized, the parameters controlling interactions between the sensors and their ligands still remain poorly defined. We have recently identified a novel mechanism of TLR activation by its natural ligand, which has not been previously observed 1,2. It suggests that ligand-induced TLR activation is tightly controlled by Neu1 sialidase activation. We have also reported that Neu1 tightly regulates neurotrophin receptors like TrkA and TrkB 3, which involve Neu1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cross-talk in complex with the receptors 4. The sialidase assay has been initially use to find a novel ligand, thymoquinone, in the activation of Neu4 sialidase on the cell surface of macrophages, dendritic cells and fibroblast cells via GPCR Gαi proteins and MMP-9 5. For TLR receptors, our data indicate that Neu1 sialidase is already in complex with TLR-2, -3 and -4 receptors, and is induced upon ligand binding to either receptor. Activated Neu1 sialidase hydrolyzes sialyl α-2,3-linked β-galactosyl residues distant from ligand binding to remove steric hinderance to TLR-4 dimerization, MyD88/TLR4 complex recruitment, NFkB activation and pro-inflammatory cell responses. In a

  14. HIGH GLUCOSE INDUCES TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN MONOCYTES: MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Hyperglycemia induced inflammation is central in diabetes complications and monocytes are important in orchestrating these effects. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses as well as inflammation. However, there is a paucity of data examining the expression a...

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 stimulates macrophage activation through Toll-like Receptor-4.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kamlesh K; Xu, Zhi; Castellino, Francis J; Ploplis, Victoria A

    2016-08-26

    While inflammation is often associated with increased Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the functional consequences of PAI-1 in inflammation have yet to be fully determined. The aim of this study was to establish the in vivo relevance of PAI-1 in inflammation. A mouse model of systemic inflammation was employed in wild-type (WT) and PAI-1 deficient (PAI-1(-/-)) mice. Mice survival, macrophage infiltration into the lungs, and plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. In vitro experiments were conducted to examine changes in LPS-induced inflammatory responses after PAI-1 exposure. PAI-1 was shown to regulate inflammation, in vivo, and affect macrophage infiltration into lungs. Further, PAI-1 activated macrophages, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at both the mRNA and protein levels in these cells. The effect of PAI-1 on macrophage activation was dose-dependent and LPS-independent. Proteolytic inhibitory activity and Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein (LRP) and vitronectin (VN) binding functions, were not involved in PAI-1-mediated activation of macrophages. However, the effect of PAI-1 on macrophage activation was partially blocked by a TLR4 neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, PAI-1-induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-2 (MIP-2) expression was reduced in TLR4(-/-) macrophages compared to WT macrophages. These results demonstrate that PAI-1 is involved in the regulation of host inflammatory responses through Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4)-mediated macrophage activation. PMID:27317488

  16. Murine retroviruses activate B cells via interaction with toll-like receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Rassa, John C.; Meyers, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Yuanming; Kudaravalli, Rama; Ross, Susan R.

    2002-01-01

    Although most retroviruses require activated cells as their targets for infection, it is not known how this is achieved in vivo. A candidate protein for the activation of B cells by either mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) or murine leukemia virus is the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a component of the innate immune system. MMTV caused B cell activation in C3H/HeN mice but not in C3H/HeJ or BALB/c (C.C3H Tlr4lps-d) congenic mice, both of which have a mutant TLR4 gene. This activation was independent of viral gene expression, because it occurred after treatment of MMTV with ultraviolet light or 2,2′-dithiodipyridine and in azidothymidine-treated mice. Nuclear extracts prepared from the lymphocytes of MMTV-injected C3H/HeN but not C3H/HeJ mice showed increased nuclear factor κB activity. Additionally, the MMTV- and Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope proteins coimmunoprecipitated with TLR4 when expressed in 293T cells. The MMTV receptor failed to coimmunoprecipitate with TLR4, suggesting that MMTV/TLR4 interaction is independent of virus attachment and fusion. These results identify retroviral proteins that interact with a mammalian toll receptor and show that direct activation by such viruses may initiate in vivo infection pathways. PMID:11854525

  17. Polysaccharide of Dendrobium huoshanense activates macrophages via toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xie, Song-Zi; Hao, Ran; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Pan, Li-Hua; Liu, Jian; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and immunostimulatory mechanism of a purified Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide (DHP). We found that DHP could bind to the surface of macrophages and stimulate macrophages to secrete NO, TNF-α and IL-1β. To unravel the mechanism for the binding of DHP to macrophages, flow cytometry, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, affinity electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were employed to verify the type of PRR responsible for the recognition of DHP by RAW264.7 macrophages and peritoneal macrophages of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ macrophages. Results showed that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was an essential receptor for macrophages to directly bind DHP. Further, the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, Akt and p38 were observed to be time-dependently promoted by DHP, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. These results suggest that DHP activates macrophages via its direct binding to TLR4 to trigger TLR4 signaling pathways. PMID:27112877

  18. Methamphetamine inhibits Toll-like receptor 9-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cen, Ping; Ye, Li; Su, Qi-Jian; Wang, Xu; Li, Jie-Liang; Lin, Xin-Qin; Liang, Hao; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2013-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is one of the key sensors that recognize viral infection/replication in the host cells. Studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH) dysregulated host cell innate immunity and facilitated HIV infection of macrophages. In this study, we present new evidence that METH suppressed TLR9-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages. Activation of TLR9 by its agonist CpG-ODN 2216 inhibits HIV replication, which was demonstrated by increased expression of TLR9, interferon (IFN)-α, IFN regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and myxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) in macrophages. However, METH treatment of macrophages greatly compromised the TLR9 signaling-mediated anti-HIV effect and inhibited the expression of TLR9 downstream signaling factors. Dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonists (SCH23390) could block METH-mediated inhibition of anti-HIV activity of TLR9 signaling. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the METH action showed that METH treatment selectively down-regulated the expression of TLR9 on macrophages, whereas it had little effect on the expression of other TLRs. Collectively, our results provide further evidence that METH suppresses host cell innate immunity against HIV infection by down-regulating TLR9 expression and its signaling-mediated antiviral effect in macrophages. PMID:23751096

  19. Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 Activity Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Liaunardy-Jopeace, Ardiyanto; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    As well as being the primary signaling receptor for bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide Toll-like receptor-4 function is modulated by numerous factors not only in the context of microbial pathogenesis but also autoimmune and allergic diseases. TLR4 is subject to multiple levels of endogenous control and regulation from biosynthesis and trafficking to signal transduction and degradation. On the other hand regulation of TLR4 activity breaks down during Gram −ve sepsis leading to systemic damage, multi organ failure, and death. In this article, we review how TLR4 traffics from the early secretory pathway, the cis/trans Golgi to the cell surface and endolysosomal compartments. We will present evidence about how these processes influence signaling and can potentially lead to increased sensitivity to ligand-dependent activation as well as ligand-independent constitutive activation that may contribute to pathogenesis in sepsis. We will also discuss how sustained signaling may be coupled to endocytosis and consider the potential molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulators that modify TLR4 signaling function including the cat allergen FelD1 and endogenous protein ligands such as the extracellular matrix protein tenascin C and calprotectin (MRP8/14). PMID:25339952

  20. Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)-7 and -8 Modulatory Activities of Dimeric Imidazoquinolines

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Nikunj M.; Mutz, Cole A.; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; Warshakoon, Hemamali J.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; David, Sunil A.

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific molecular patterns present in molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens, but are structurally distinct from host molecules. The TLR7-agonistic imidazoquinolines are of interest as vaccine adjuvants given their ability to induce pronounced Th1-skewed humoral responses. Minor modifications on the imidazoquinoline scaffold result in TLR7-antagonistic compounds which may be of value in addressing innate immune activation-driven immune exhaustion observed in HIV. We describe the syntheses and evaluation of TLR7 and TLR8 modulatory activities of dimeric constructs of imidazoquinoline linked at the C2, C4, C8, and N1-aryl positions. Dimers linked at the C4, C8 and N1-aryl positions were agonistic at TLR7; only the N1-aryl dimer with a 12-carbon linker was dual TLR7/8 agonistic. Dimers linked at C2 position showed antagonistic activities at TLR7 and TLR8; the C2 dimer with a propylene spacer was maximally antagonistic at both TLR7 and TLR8. PMID:22239408

  1. The active contribution of Toll-like receptors to allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keqiang; Xiang, Yi; Yao, Xiaohong; Liu, Ying; Gong, Wanghua; Yoshimura, Teizo; Wang, Ji Ming

    2011-10-01

    Epithelia lining the respiratory tract represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms and allergens and are equipped with innate and adaptive immune signaling receptors for host protection. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize microbial components and evoke diverse responses in cells of the respiratory system. TLR stimulation by microorganism-derived molecules activates antigen presenting cells, control T helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17 immune cell differentiation, cytokine production by mast cells, and activation of eosinophils. It is clear that TLR are involved in the pathophysiology of allergic airway diseases such as asthma. Dendritic cells (DCs), a kind of antigen presenting cells, which play a key role in the induction of allergic airway inflammation, are privileged targets for pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). During the allergic responses, engagement of TLRs on DCs determines the Th2 polarization of the T cells. TLR signaling in mast cells increases the release of IL-5, and TLR activation of airway epithelial cells forces the generation of proallergic Th2 type of cytokines. Although these responses aim to protect the host, they may also result in inflammatory tissue damage in the airway. Under certain conditions, stimulation of TLRs, in particular, TLR9, may reduce Th2-dependent allergic inflammation by induction of Th1 responses. Therefore, understanding the complex regulatory roles of TLRs in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation should facilitate the development of preventive and therapeutic measures for asthmatic patients. PMID:21624504

  2. Toll-like receptor 4-related immunostimulatory polysaccharides: Primary structure, activity relationships, and possible interaction models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaorui; Qi, Chunhui; Guo, Yan; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2016-09-20

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is an important polysaccharide receptor; however, the relationships between the structures and biological activities of TLR4 and polysaccharides remain unknown. Many recent findings have revealed the primary structure of TLR4/MD-2-related polysaccharides, and several three-dimensional structure models of polysaccharide-binding proteins have been reported; and these models provide insights into the mechanisms through which polysaccharides interact with TLR4. In this review, we first discuss the origins of polysaccharides related to TLR4, including polysaccharides from higher plants, fungi, bacteria, algae, and animals. We then briefly describe the glucosidic bond types of TLR4-related heteroglycans and homoglycans and describe the typical molecular weights of TLR4-related polysaccharides. The primary structures and activity relationships of polysaccharides with TLR4/MD-2 are also discussed. Finally, based on the existing interaction models of LPS with TLR4/MD-2 and linear polysaccharides with proteins, we provide insights into the possible interaction models of polysaccharide ligands with TLR4/MD-2. To our knowledge, this review is the first to summarize the primary structures and activity relationships of TLR4-related polysaccharides and the possible mechanisms of interaction for TLR4 and TLR4-related polysaccharides. PMID:27261743

  3. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  4. Release of Toll-Like Receptor-2-Activating Bacterial Lipoproteins in Shigella flexneri Culture Supernatants

    PubMed Central

    Aliprantis, Antonios O.; Weiss, David S.; Radolf, Justin D.; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2001-01-01

    Shigella spp. cause dysentery, a severe form of bloody diarrhea. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is induced during Shigella infections and has been proposed to be a key event in the pathogenesis of dysentery. Here, we describe a novel cytotoxic activity in the sterile-culture supernatants of Shigella flexneri. An identical activity was identified in purified S. flexneri endotoxin, defined here as a mixture of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and endotoxin-associated proteins (EP). Separation of endotoxin into EP and LPS revealed the activity to partition exclusively to the EP fraction. Biochemical characterization of S. flexneri EP and culture supernatants, including enzymatic deactivation, reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and a Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) activation assay, indicates that the cytotoxic component is a mixture of bacterial lipoproteins (BLP). We show that biologically active BLP are liberated into culture supernatants of actively growing S. flexneri. In addition, our data indicate that BLP, and not LPS, are the component of endotoxin of gram-negative organisms responsible for activating TLR2. The activation of apoptosis by BLP shed from S. flexneri is discussed as a novel aspect of the interaction of bacteria with the host. PMID:11553567

  5. Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Immune Activation and Tolerance in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Kanai, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Liver has a unique vascular system receiving the majority of the blood supply from the gastrointestinal tract through the portal vein and faces continuous exposure to foreign pathogens and commensal bacterial products. These gut-derived antigens stimulate liver cells and result in a distinctive immune response via a family of pattern recognition receptors, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs are expressed on Kupffer cells, dendritic cells, hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, and hepatocytes in the liver. The crosstalk between gut-derived antigens and TLRs on immune cells trigger a distinctive set of mechanisms to induce immunity, contributing to various acute and chronic liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has shown that TLRs stimulation by foreign antigens induces the production of immunoactivating and immunoregulatory cytokines. Furthermore, the immunoregulatory arm of TLR stimulation can also control excessive tissue damage. With this knowledge at hand, it is important to clarify the dual role of disease-specific TLRs as activators and regulators, especially in the liver. We will review the current understanding of TLR signaling and subsequent immune activation and tolerance by the innate immune system in the liver. PMID:24904576

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Reduces Oxidative Injury via Glutathione Activity in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shoulong; Yu, Kun; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Baolu; Liu, Guoshi; Liu, Yixun; Lian, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important sensor of Gram-negative bacteria and can trigger activation of the innate immune system. Increased activation of TLR4 can lead to the induction of oxidative stress. Herein, the pathway whereby TLR4 affects antioxidant activity was studied. In TLR4-overexpressing sheep, TLR4 expression was found to be related to the integration copy number when monocytes were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Consequently, production of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased, which could increase the activation of prooxidative stress enzymes. Meanwhile, activation of an antioxidative enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), was increased. Real-time PCR showed that expression of activating protein-1 (AP-1) and the antioxidative-related genes was increased. By contrast, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT) were reduced. In transgenic sheep, glutathione (GSH) levels were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, transgenic sheep were intradermally injected with LPS in each ear. The amounts of inflammatory infiltrates were correlated with the number of TLR4 copies that were integrated in the genome. Additionally, the translation of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) was increased. Our findings indicated that overexpression of TLR4 in sheep could ameliorate oxidative injury through GSH secretion that was induced by LPS stimulation. Furthermore, TLR4 promoted γ-GCS translation through the AP-1 pathway, which was essential for GSH synthesis. PMID:26640618

  7. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Reduces Oxidative Injury via Glutathione Activity in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shoulong; Yu, Kun; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Baolu; Liu, Guoshi; Liu, Yixun; Lian, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important sensor of Gram-negative bacteria and can trigger activation of the innate immune system. Increased activation of TLR4 can lead to the induction of oxidative stress. Herein, the pathway whereby TLR4 affects antioxidant activity was studied. In TLR4-overexpressing sheep, TLR4 expression was found to be related to the integration copy number when monocytes were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Consequently, production of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased, which could increase the activation of prooxidative stress enzymes. Meanwhile, activation of an antioxidative enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), was increased. Real-time PCR showed that expression of activating protein-1 (AP-1) and the antioxidative-related genes was increased. By contrast, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT) were reduced. In transgenic sheep, glutathione (GSH) levels were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, transgenic sheep were intradermally injected with LPS in each ear. The amounts of inflammatory infiltrates were correlated with the number of TLR4 copies that were integrated in the genome. Additionally, the translation of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) was increased. Our findings indicated that overexpression of TLR4 in sheep could ameliorate oxidative injury through GSH secretion that was induced by LPS stimulation. Furthermore, TLR4 promoted γ-GCS translation through the AP-1 pathway, which was essential for GSH synthesis. PMID:26640618

  8. Structure-Activity Relationships in Toll-like Receptor-2 agonistic Diacylthioglycerol Lipopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenyan; Li, Rongti; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; Warshakoon, Hemamali J.; Kimbrell, Matthew R.; Amolins, Michael W.; Ukani, Rehman; Datta, Apurba; David, Sunil A.

    2010-01-01

    The N-termini of bacterial lipoproteins are acylated with a (S)-(2,3-bisacyloxypropyl)cysteinyl residue. Lipopeptides derived from lipoproteins activate innate immune responses by engaging Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and are highly immunostimulatory and yet without apparent toxicity in animal models. The lipopeptides may therefore be useful as potential immunotherapeutic agents. Previous structure-activity relationships in such lipopeptides have largely been obtained using murine cells and it is now clear that significant species-specific differences exist between human and murine TLR responses. We have examined in detail the role of the highly conserved Cys residue as well as the geometry and stereochemistry of the Cys-Ser dipeptide unit. (R)-diacylthioglycerol analogues are maximally active in reporter gene assays using human TLR2. The Cys-Ser dipeptide unit represents the minimal part-structure, but its stereochemistry was found not to be a critical determinant of activity. The thioether bridge between the diacyl and dipeptide units is crucial, and replacement by an oxoether bridge results in a dramatic decrease in activity. PMID:20302301

  9. Toll-like Receptor 9 Can be Activated by Endogenous Mitochondrial DNA to Induce Podocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wenduona; Xia, Hong; Liang, Yaojun; Ye, Yuting; Lu, Yuqiu; Xu, Xiaodong; Duan, Aiping; He, Jing; Chen, Zhaohong; Wu, Yan; Wang, Xia; Zheng, Chunxia; Liu, Zhihong; Shi, Shaolin

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) senses bacterial DNA characteristic of unmethylated CpG motifs to induce innate immune response. TLR9 is de novo expressed in podocytes of some patients with glomerular diseases, but its role in podocyte injury remains undetermined. Since TLR9 activates p38 MAPK and NFkB that are known to mediate podocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that TLR9 induces podocyte apoptosis in glomerular diseases. We treated immortalized podocytes with puromycin aminonucleosides (PAN) and observed podocyte apoptosis, accompanied by TLR9 upregulation. Prevention of TLR9 upregulation by siRNA significantly attenuated NFκB p65 or p38 activity and apoptosis, demonstrating that TLR9 mediates podocyte apoptosis. We next showed that endogenous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whose CpG motifs are also unmethylated, is the ligand for TLR9, because PAN induced mtDNA accumulation in endolysosomes where TLR9 is localized, overexpression of endolysosomal DNase 2 attenuated PAN-induced p38 or p65 activity and podocyte apoptosis, and DNase 2 silencing was sufficient to activate p38 or p65 and induce apoptosis. In PAN-treated rats, TLR9 was upregulated in the podocytes, accompanied by increase of apoptosis markers. Thus, de novo expressed TLR9 may utilize endogenous mtDNA as the ligand to facilitate podocyte apoptosis, a novel mechanism underlying podocyte injury in glomerular diseases. PMID:26934958

  10. Starring role of toll-like receptor-4 activation in the gut-liver axis

    PubMed Central

    Carotti, Simone; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Morini, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of the term “gut-liver axis”, many studies have focused on the functional links of intestinal microbiota, barrier function and immune responses to liver physiology. Intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases alter microbiota composition and lead to dysbiosis, which aggravates impaired intestinal barrier function via increased lipopolysaccharide translocation. The subsequent increased passage of gut-derived product from the intestinal lumen to the organ wall and bloodstream affects gut motility and liver biology. The activation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) likely plays a key role in both cases. This review analyzed the most recent literature on the gut-liver axis, with a particular focus on the role of TLR-4 activation. Findings that linked liver disease with dysbiosis are evaluated, and links between dysbiosis and alterations of intestinal permeability and motility are discussed. We also examine the mechanisms of translocated gut bacteria and/or the bacterial product activation of liver inflammation and fibrogenesis via activity on different hepatic cell types. PMID:26600967

  11. Structure-Activity Relationships in Toll-like Receptor 2-Agonists Leading to Simplified Monoacyl Lipopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Geetanjali; Crall, Breanna M.; Lewis, Tyler C.; Day, Timothy P.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Warshakoon, Hemamali J.; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; David, Sunil A.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 2-agonistic lipopeptides typified by S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-S-serine (PAM2CS) compounds are potential vaccine adjuvants. In continuation of previously reported structure-activity relationships on this chemotype, we have determined that at least one acyl group of optimal length (C16) and an appropriately orientated ester carbonyl group is essential for TLR2-agonistic activity. The spacing between one of the palmitoyl ester carbonyl and the thioether is crucial to allow for an important H-bond, which observed in the crystal structure of the lipopeptide:TLR2 complex; consequently, activity is lost in homologated compounds. Penicillamine-derived analogues are also inactive, likely due to unfavorable steric interactions with the carbonyl of Ser 12 in TLR2. The thioether in this chemotype can be replaced with a selenoether. Importantly, the thioglycerol motif can be dispensed with altogether, and can be replaced with a thioethanol bridge. These results have led to a structurally simpler, synthetically more accessible, and water-soluble analogue possessing strong TLR2-agonistic activities in human blood. PMID:22007676

  12. Modulation of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Activity by Toll-Like Receptors: Implications on Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    DelaRosa, Olga; Lombardo, Eleuterio

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of special interest as therapeutic agents in the settings of both chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands have been linked with the perpetuation of inflammation in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases due to the permanent exposure of the immune system to TLR-specific stimuli. Therefore, MSCs employed in therapy can be potentially exposed to TLR ligands, which may modulate MSC therapeutic potential in vivo. Recent results demonstrate that MSCs are activated by TLR ligands leading to modulation of the differentiation, migration, proliferation, survival, and immunosuppression capacities. However inconsistent results among authors have been reported suggesting that the source of MSCs, TLR stimuli employed or culture conditions play a role. Notably, activation by TLR ligands has not been reported to modulate the “immunoprivileged” phenotype of MSCs which is of special relevance regarding the use of allogeneic MSC-based therapies. In this review, we discuss the available data on the modulation of MSCs activity through TLR signalling. PMID:20628526

  13. Rice bran feruloylated oligosaccharides activate dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi Chen; Chen, Hua Han; Chen, Yu Kuo; Chang, Hung Chia; Lin, Ping Yi; Pan, I-Hong; Chen, Der-Yuan; Chen, Chuan Mu; Lin, Su Yi

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the effects of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) of rice bran on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and the potential pathway through which the effects are mediated. We found that FOs induced phenotypic maturation of DCs, as shown by the increased expression of CD40, CD80/CD86 and MHC-I/II molecules. FOs efficiently induced maturation of DCs generated from C3H/HeN or C57BL/6 mice with normal toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) or TLR-2 but not DCs from mice with mutated TLR4 or TLR2. The mechanism of action of FOs may be mediated by increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and increased NF-kB activity, which are important signaling molecules downstream of TLR-4 and TLR-2. These data suggest that FOs induce DCs maturation through TLR-4 and/or TLR-2 and that FOs might have potential efficacy against tumor or virus infection or represent a candidate-adjuvant approach for application in immunotherapy and vaccination. PMID:24762969

  14. Activation of toll like receptor-3 induces corneal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Jiang, Hua; Gao, Hongrui; Wang, Guangjie

    2015-06-01

    The epithelial barrier is critical in the maintenance of the homeostasis of the cornea. A number of eye disorders are associated with the corneal epithelial barrier dysfunction. Viral infection is one common eye disease type. This study aims to elucidate the mechanism by which the activation of toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) in the disruption of the corneal epithelial barrier. In this study, HCE cells (a human corneal epithelial cell line) were cultured into epithelial layers using as an in vitro model of the corneal epithelial barrier. PolyI:C was used as a ligand of TLR3. The transepithelial electric resistance (TER) and permeability of the HCE epithelial layer were assessed using as the parameters to evaluate the corneal epithelial barrier integrity. The results showed that exposure to PolyI:C markedly decreased the TER and increased the permeability of the HCE epithelial layers; the levels of cell junction protein, E-cadherin, were repressed by PolyI:C via increasing histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), the latter binding to the promoter of E-cadherin and repressed the transcription of E-cadherin. The addition of butyrate (an inhibitor of HDAC1) to the culture blocked the corneal epithelial barrier dysfunction caused by PolyI:C. In conclusion, activation of TLR3 can disrupt the corneal epithelial barrier, which can be blocked by the inhibitor of HDAC1. PMID:25912142

  15. Toll-like receptor 2 activation depends on lipopeptide shedding by bacterial surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Hanzelmann, Dennis; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Hertlein, Tobias; Stevanovic, Stefan; Macek, Boris; Wolz, Christiane; Götz, Friedrich; Otto, Michael; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis caused by Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is a major fatal disease but its molecular basis remains elusive. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been implicated in the orchestration of inflammation and sepsis but its role appears to vary for different pathogen species and clones. Accordingly, Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates differ substantially in their capacity to activate TLR2. Here we show that strong TLR2 stimulation depends on high-level production of phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides in response to the global virulence activator Agr. PSMs are required for mobilizing lipoproteins, the TLR2 agonists, from the staphylococcal cytoplasmic membrane. Notably, the course of sepsis caused by PSM-deficient S. aureus is similar in wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice, but TLR2 is required for protection of mice against PSM-producing S. aureus. Thus, a crucial role of TLR2 depends on agonist release by bacterial surfactants. Modulation of this process may lead to new therapeutic strategies against Gram-positive infections. PMID:27470911

  16. Toll-like receptor 2 activation depends on lipopeptide shedding by bacterial surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hanzelmann, Dennis; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Hertlein, Tobias; Stevanovic, Stefan; Macek, Boris; Wolz, Christiane; Götz, Friedrich; Otto, Michael; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis caused by Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is a major fatal disease but its molecular basis remains elusive. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been implicated in the orchestration of inflammation and sepsis but its role appears to vary for different pathogen species and clones. Accordingly, Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates differ substantially in their capacity to activate TLR2. Here we show that strong TLR2 stimulation depends on high-level production of phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides in response to the global virulence activator Agr. PSMs are required for mobilizing lipoproteins, the TLR2 agonists, from the staphylococcal cytoplasmic membrane. Notably, the course of sepsis caused by PSM-deficient S. aureus is similar in wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice, but TLR2 is required for protection of mice against PSM-producing S. aureus. Thus, a crucial role of TLR2 depends on agonist release by bacterial surfactants. Modulation of this process may lead to new therapeutic strategies against Gram-positive infections. PMID:27470911

  17. Toll-like receptor 9 trafficking and signaling for type I interferons requires PIKfyve activity.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kachiko; Sasai, Miwa; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2015-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) traffic to distinct membranes for signaling. TLR7 and TLR9 recognize viral nucleic acids in the endosomes and induce robust anti-viral program. Signaling from these TLRs bifurcate at the level of distinct endosomal compartments, namely VAMP3(+) and LAMP(+) endosomes, to mediate the induction of cytokine and type I interferon (IFN) genes, respectively. The formation of the TLR9 endosome competent for IFNs induction requires AP-3. Phosphoinositides (PIs) mark distinct subcellular membranes and control membrane trafficking. However, their role in TLR trafficking and signaling in different dendritic cell (DC) subsets remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of phosphatidylinositol 3P 5-kinase, PIKfyve, in TLR9 trafficking and signaling. We demonstrate that inhibition of PIKfyve activity preferentially blocks TLR9 signaling for type I IFN induction in FLT3L-bone marrow-derived DCs. By confocal microscopy using RAW264.7 cells, we show that trafficking of both TLR9 and CpG to the LAMP1(+) compartment was blocked by PIKfyve inhibitor treatment, whereas their trafficking to the VAMP3(+) endosome remained intact. Further, AP-3 recruitment to TLR9 endosomes was impaired by PIKfyve inhibition. These data indicate that PIKfyve provides critical PIs necessary for the formation of endosome from which TLR9 signals to induce type I IFNs. PMID:25925170

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis infection activates cells through toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Zariffard, M Reza; Harwani, Sailesh; Novak, Richard M; Graham, Parrie J; Ji, Xin; Spear, Gregory T

    2004-04-01

    While Trichomonas vaginalis infection can cause inflammation and influx of leukocytes into the female genital tract, the molecular pathways important in inducing these effects are not known. This study determined if infection with T. vaginalis activates cells through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Genital tract secretions from infected women stimulated TNF-alpha production by cells with functional TLR4 (350 pg/ml) but significantly less by cells that are unresponsive to TLR4 ligands (44 pg/ml, P = 0.001). Secretions collected after clearance of infection also induced significantly lower responses by cells with functional TLR4 (136 pg/ml, P = 0.008). TNF-alpha responses were not reduced by Polymyxin B and did not correlate with beta(2)-defensin levels, indicating that stimulation of cells was not through lipopolysaccharide or beta(2)-defensin. These studies show that T. vaginalis infection results in the appearance in the genital tract of substance(s) that stimulate cells through TLR4, suggesting a mechanism for the inflammation caused by this infection. PMID:15093558

  19. Differential immunomodulatory activity of tumor cell death induced by cancer therapeutic toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johanna C; Wild, Clarissa A; Lang, Stephan; Brandau, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands stimulate defined immune cell subsets and are currently tested as novel immunotherapeutic agents against cancer with, however, varying clinical efficacy. Recent data showed the expression of TLR receptors also on tumor cells. In this study we investigated immunological events associated with the induction of tumor cell death by poly(I:C) and imiquimod. A human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line was exposed to poly(I:C) and imiquimod, which were delivered exogenously via culture medium or via electroporation. Cell death and cell biological consequences thereof were analyzed. For in vivo analyses, a human xenograft and a syngeneic immunocompetent mouse model were used. Poly(I:C) induced cell death only if delivered by electroporation into the cytosol. Cell death induced by poly(I:C) resulted in cytokine release and activation of monocytes in vitro. Monocytes activated by the supernatant of cancer cells previously exposed to poly(I:C) recruited significantly more Th1 cells than monocytes exposed to control supernatants. If delivered exogenously, imiquimod also induced tumor cell death and some release of interleukin-6, but cell death was not associated with release of Th1 cytokines, interferons, monocyte activation and Th1 recruitment. Interestingly, intratumoral injection of poly(I:C) triggered tumor cell death in tumor-bearing mice and reduced tumor growth independent of TLR signaling on host cells. Imiquimod did not affect tumor size. Our data suggest that common cancer therapeutic RNA compounds can induce functionally diverse types of cell death in tumor cells with implications for the use of TLR ligands in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27034235

  20. Activation of human and chicken toll-like receptors by Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Marcel R; Keestra, A Marijke; Roszczenko, Paula; van Putten, Jos P M

    2010-03-01

    Campylobacter infection in humans is accompanied by severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, in contrast to colonization of chicken. The basis for the differential host response is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense and respond to microbes in the body and participate in the induction of an inflammatory response. Thus far, the interaction of Campylobacter with chicken TLRs has not been studied. Here, we investigated the potential of four Campylobacter strains to activate human TLR1/2/6, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 and chicken TLR2t2/16, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR21. Live bacteria showed no or very limited potential to activate TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 of both the human and chicken species, with minor but significant differences between Campylobacter strains. In contrast, lysed bacteria induced strong NF-kappaB activation through human TLR1/2/6 and TLR4 and chicken TLR2t2/16 and TLR4 but not via TLR5 of either species. Interestingly, C. jejuni induced TLR4-mediated beta interferon in human but not chicken cells. Furthermore, isolated chromosomal Campylobacter DNA was unable to activate human TLR9 in our system, whereas chicken TLR21 was activated by DNA from all of the campylobacters tested. Our data are the first comparison of TLR-induced immune responses in humans and chickens. The results suggest that differences in bacterial cell wall integrity and in TLR responses to Campylobacter LOS and/or DNA may contribute to the distinct clinical manifestation between the species. PMID:20038539

  1. Activation of Human and Chicken Toll-Like Receptors by Campylobacter spp.▿

    PubMed Central

    de Zoete, Marcel R.; Keestra, A. Marijke; Roszczenko, Paula; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter infection in humans is accompanied by severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, in contrast to colonization of chicken. The basis for the differential host response is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense and respond to microbes in the body and participate in the induction of an inflammatory response. Thus far, the interaction of Campylobacter with chicken TLRs has not been studied. Here, we investigated the potential of four Campylobacter strains to activate human TLR1/2/6, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 and chicken TLR2t2/16, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR21. Live bacteria showed no or very limited potential to activate TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 of both the human and chicken species, with minor but significant differences between Campylobacter strains. In contrast, lysed bacteria induced strong NF-κB activation through human TLR1/2/6 and TLR4 and chicken TLR2t2/16 and TLR4 but not via TLR5 of either species. Interestingly, C. jejuni induced TLR4-mediated beta interferon in human but not chicken cells. Furthermore, isolated chromosomal Campylobacter DNA was unable to activate human TLR9 in our system, whereas chicken TLR21 was activated by DNA from all of the campylobacters tested. Our data are the first comparison of TLR-induced immune responses in humans and chickens. The results suggest that differences in bacterial cell wall integrity and in TLR responses to Campylobacter LOS and/or DNA may contribute to the distinct clinical manifestation between the species. PMID:20038539

  2. Central role of liver in anticancer and radioprotective activities of Toll-like receptor 5 agonist.

    PubMed

    Burdelya, Lyudmila G; Brackett, Craig M; Kojouharov, Bojidar; Gitlin, Ilya I; Leonova, Katerina I; Gleiberman, Anatoli S; Aygun-Sunar, Semra; Veith, Jean; Johnson, Christopher; Haderski, Gary J; Stanhope-Baker, Patricia; Allamaneni, Shyam; Skitzki, Joseph; Zeng, Ming; Martsen, Elena; Medvedev, Alexander; Scheblyakov, Dmitry; Artemicheva, Nataliya M; Logunov, Denis Y; Gintsburg, Alexander L; Naroditsky, Boris S; Makarov, Sergei S; Gudkov, Andrei V

    2013-05-14

    Vertebrate Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes bacterial flagellin proteins and activates innate immune responses to motile bacteria. In addition, activation of TLR5 signaling can inhibit growth of TLR5-expressing tumors and protect normal tissues from radiation and ischemia-reperfusion injuries. To understand the mechanisms behind these phenomena at the organismal level, we assessed nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation (indicative of TLR5 signaling) in tissues and cells of mice treated with CBLB502, a pharmacologically optimized flagellin derivative. This identified the liver and gastrointestinal tract as primary CBLB502 target organs. In particular, liver hepatocytes were the main cell type directly and specifically responding to systemic administration of CBLB502 but not to that of the TLR4 agonist LPS. To assess CBLB502 impact on other pathways, we created multireporter mice with hepatocytes transduced in vivo with reporters for 46 inducible transcription factor families and found that along with NF-κB, CBLB502 strongly activated STAT3-, phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PREM), and activator protein 1 (AP-1-) -driven pathways. Livers of CBLB502-treated mice displayed induction of numerous immunomodulatory factors and massive recruitment of various types of immune cells. This led to inhibition of growth of liver metastases of multiple tumors regardless of their TLR5 status. The changed liver microenvironment was not, however, hepatotoxic, because CBLB502 induced resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in normal liver cells. Temporary occlusion of liver blood circulation prevented CBLB502 from protecting hematopoietic progenitors in lethally irradiated mice, indicating involvement of a factor secreted by responding liver cells. These results define the liver as the key mediator of TLR5-dependent effects in vivo and suggest clinical applications for TLR5 agonists as hepatoprotective and antimetastatic agents. PMID:23630282

  3. Select steroid hormone glucuronide metabolites can cause toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Susannah S; Hutchinson, Mark R; Frick, Morin M; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F; Sammakia, Tarek; Rice, Kenner C; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-02-01

    We have recently shown that several classes of glucuronide metabolites, including the morphine metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide and the ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide, cause toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signaling in vitro and enhanced pain in vivo. Steroid hormones, including estrogens and corticosterone, are also metabolized through glucuronidation. Here we demonstrate that in silico docking predicts that corticosterone, corticosterone-21-glucuronide, estradiol, estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide all dock with the MD-2 component of the TLR4 receptor complex. In addition to each docking with MD-2, the docking of each was altered by pre-docking with (+)-naloxone, a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. As agonist versus antagonist activity cannot be determined from these in silico interactions, an in vitro study was undertaken to clarify which of these compounds can act in an agonist fashion. Studies using a cell line transfected with TLR4, necessary co-signaling molecules, and a reporter gene revealed that only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide increased reporter gene product, indicative of TLR4 agonism. Finally, in in vivo studies, each of the 5 drugs was injected intrathecally at equimolar doses. In keeping with the in vitro results, only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide caused enhanced pain. For both compounds, pain enhancement was blocked by the TLR4 antagonist lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, evidence for the involvement in TLR4 in the resultant pain enhancement. These findings have implications for several chronic pain conditions, including migraine and temporomandibular joint disorder, in which pain episodes are more likely in cycling females when estradiol is decreasing and estradiol metabolites are at their highest. PMID:25218902

  4. Select steroid hormone glucuronide metabolites can cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Frick, Morin M.; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F.; Sammakia, Tarek; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that several classes of glucuronide metabolites, including the morphine metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide and the ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide, cause toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signalling in vitro and enhanced pain in vivo. Steroid hormones, including estrogens and corticosterone, are also metabolized through glucuronidation. Here we demonstrate that in silico docking predicts that corticosterone, corticosterone-21-glucuronide, estradiol, estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide all dock with the MD-2 component of the TLR4 receptor complex. In addition to each docking with MD-2, the docking of each was altered by pre-docking with (+)-naloxone, a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. As agonist versus antagonist activity cannot be determined from these in silico interactions, an in vitro study was undertaken to clarify which of these compounds can act in an agonist fashion. Studies using a cell line transfected with TLR4, necessary co-signaling molecules, and a reporter gene revealed that only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide increased reporter gene product, indicative of TLR4 agonism. Finally, in in vivo studies, each of the 5 drugs was injected intrathecally at equimolar doses. In keeping with the in vitro results, only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide caused enhanced pain. For both compounds, pain enhancement was blocked by the TLR4 antagonist lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, evidence for the involvement in TLR4 in the resultant pain enhancement. These findings have implications for several chronic pain conditions, including migraine and tempromandibular joint disorder, in which pain episodes are more likely in cycling females when estradiol is decreasing and estradiol metabolites are at their highest. PMID:25218902

  5. Characterization of suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides that inhibit Toll-like receptor-9-mediated activation of innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Mirjam; Bode, Konrad; Lipford, Grayson B; Eberle, Florian; Heeg, Klaus; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG sequences (CpG-ODNs) stimulate Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9), thereby activating innate immunity. Stimulatory CpG-ODNs have been shown to be valuable in modifying immune responses in allergy, infection and cancer. Recently, it has been reported that the stimulation of TLR-9 by endogenous DNA might contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We here report the identification of a suppressive, guanosine-rich ODN (G-ODN) that inhibited the activation of TLR-9 by stimulatory CpG-ODNs. The G-ODN was suppressive in murine macrophages and dendritic cells as well as in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells in vitro. G-ODN blocked the secretion of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-12p40 and interfered with the up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and costimulatory molecules. G-ODN was inhibitory even at a molar ratio of 1 : 10 (G-ODN:CpG-ODN) and when administered up to 7 hr after stimulation with CpG. G-ODN specifically inhibited TLR-9 but not other TLRs. Inhibition was dependent on a string of five guanosines. G-ODN was also inhibitory in an in vivo model of CpG/galactosamin (GalN) lethal shock. G-ODN interfered with upstream TLR-9 signalling. However, by extensive analysis we can exclude that G-ODN acts at the stage of cellular uptake. G-ODN therefore represents a class of suppressive ODNs that could be of therapeutic use in situations with pathologic TLR-9 activation, as has been proposed for certain autoimmune diseases. PMID:17961163

  6. Modulation of Toll-Like Receptor Activity by Leukocyte Ig-Like Receptors and Their Effects during Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pilsbury, Louise E.; Allen, Rachel L.; Vordermeier, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a potent trigger for inflammatory immune responses. Without tight regulation their activation could lead to pathology, so it is imperative to extend our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that govern TLR expression and function. One family of immunoregulatory proteins which can provide a balancing effect on TLR activity are the Leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LILRs), which act as innate immune receptors for self-proteins. Here we describe the LILR family, their inhibitory effect on TLR activity in cells of the monocytic lineage, their signalling pathway, and their antimicrobial effects during bacterial infection. Agents have already been identified which enhances or inhibits LILR activity raising the future possibility that modulation of LILR function could be used as a means to modulate TLR activity. PMID:20634939

  7. Toll-like receptor 9 regulates melanogenesis through NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Pan, Shengjun; Yang, Yuejin; Sun, Jingying; Liang, Daoyan; Wang, Xin; Xie, Xin; Hu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors play essential roles in the modulation of melanogenesis, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hyper- or hypopigmentation-related diseases. However, little is currently known regarding the role of TLR9 in human melanocytes. TLR9 recognizes unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine motif-containing oligodeoxynucleotides, and cytosine-phosphate-guanine ODN2006 acts as an hTLR9 agonist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cytosine-phosphate-guanine ODN2006 on melanogenesis in the human melanocyte cells. MTT assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that ODN2006 stimulation (0, 1, 5, 10 µM) dose-dependently reduced cell viability and promoted the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in PIG1 melanocytes. The mRNA and protein levels of PMEL and TYRosinase were elevated at 6 h, and then decreased 24 h later, but were significantly augmented 72 h later following ODN2006 stimulation; whereas, TLR9 expressions were time-dependently increased in PIG1 melanocytes. Moreover, ultraviolet B irradiation combined with ODN2006 stimulation induced much more significant enhancement of PMEL, TYRosinase, and TLR9 mRNA and protein after three days in PIG1 melanocytes, and the similar results were obtained using the primary human melanocytes. The expression of TLR9 protein was down-regulated by TLR9 siRNA transfection. ODN2006 had an additive effect on ultraviolet B-induced melanogenesis and PMEL expression, as well as NF-κB activation, which could be blocked by TLR9 knockdown, the NF-κB specific inhibitor PDTC, or the TBK1 inhibitor BX795. Collectively, we concluded that TLR9 regulates melanogenesis through NF-κB activation, suggesting that TLR9 may play a role in microbial-induced melanogenesis. PMID:27075928

  8. Leishmania lipophosphoglycan (LPG) activates NK cells through toll-like receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ingeborg; Salaiza, Norma; Aguirre, Magdalena; Delgado, José; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Kobeh, Laila Gutiérrez; Ruiz, Adriana; Cervantes, Rocely; Torres, Armando Pérez; Cabrera, Nallely; González, Augusto; Maldonado, Carmen; Isibasi, Armando

    2003-08-31

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate the cellular response to conserved molecular patterns shared by microorganisms. We report that TLR-2 on human NK cells is upregulated and stimulated by Leishmania major lipophosphoglycan (LPG), a phosphoglycan belonging to a family of unique Leishmania glycoconjugates. We found that purified L. major LPG upregulates both mRNA and the membrane expression of TLR-2 in NK cells. Additionally, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB was enhanced. The activation effect was more intense with LPG purified from infectious metacyclic parasites than from noninfectious procyclic Leishmania. Since the difference between the molecules derived from these two stages of the parasite growth cycle lies exclusively in the number of phosphosaccharide repeat domains and in the composition of glycan side chains that branch off these domains, we propose that TLR-2 possibly distinguishes between phosphorylated glycan repeats on LPG molecules. The effect of LPG on cytokine production and on membrane expression of TLR-2 could be blocked with F(ab')2 fragments of the mAb against LPG (WIC 79.3). Confocal microscopy demonstrated the co-localization of LPG and TLR-2 on the NK cell membrane. Binding of LPG to TLR-2 in NK cells was demonstrated by immunoprecipitations done with anti-TLR-2 and anti-LPG mAb followed by immunoblotting with anti-LPG and anti-TLR-2, respectively. Both antibodies recognized the immune complexes. These results suggest that NK cells are capable of recognition of, and activation by, Leishmania LPG through TLR-2, enabling them to participate autonomously in the innate immune system and thereby increasing the effective destruction of the parasite. PMID:12946842

  9. Counteracting Interactions between Lipopolysaccharide Molecules with Differential Activation of Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hajishengallis, George; Martin, Michael; Schifferle, Robert E.; Genco, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated counteracting interactions between the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Escherichia coli (Ec-LPS) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS), which induce cellular activation through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2, respectively. We found that Ec-LPS induced tolerance in THP-1 cells to subsequent tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) induction by Pg-LPS, though the reverse was not true, and looked for explanatory differential effects on the signal transduction pathway. Cells exposed to Pg-LPS, but not to Ec-LPS, displayed persisting expression of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase without apparent degradation, presumably allowing prolonged relay of downstream signals. Accordingly, cells pretreated with Pg-LPS, but not with Ec-LPS, were effectively activated in response to subsequent exposure to either LPS molecule, as evidenced by assessing nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity. In fact, Pg-LPS primed THP-1 cells for enhanced NF-κB activation and TNF-α release upon restimulation with the same LPS. This was a dose-dependent effect and correlated with upregulation of surface TLR2 expression. Furthermore, we observed inhibition of NF-κB-dependent transcription in a reporter cell line pretreated with Ec-LPS and restimulated with Pg-LPS (compared to cells pretreated with medium only and restimulated with Pg-LPS), but not when the reverse treatment was made. Although Pg-LPS could not make cells tolerant to subsequent activation by Ec-LPS, Pg-LPS inhibited Ec-LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 release when the two molecules were added simultaneously into THP-1 cell cultures. Pg-LPS also suppressed P. gingivalis FimA protein-induced NF-κB-dependent transcription in the 3E10/huTLR4 reporter cell line, which does not express TLR2. This rules out competition for common signaling intermediates, suggesting that Pg-LPS may block component(s) of the TLR4 receptor complex. Interactions between TLR2 and TLR4 agonists may be important in the

  10. Toll-like Receptors in Tumor Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Paulos, Chrystal M.; Kaiser, Andrew; Wrzesinski, Claudia; Hinrichs, Christian S.; Cassard, Lydie; Boni, Andrea; Muranski, Pawel; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Palmer, Douglas C.; Yu, Zhiya; Antony, Paul A.; Gattinoni, Luca; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2007-01-01

    Lymphodepletion with chemotherapeutic agents or total body irradiation (TBI) before adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cells is a critical advancement in the treatment of patients with melanoma. More than 50% of patients that are refractory to other treatments experience an objective or curative response with this approach. Emerging data indicate that the key mechanisms underlying how TBI augments the functions of adoptively transferred T cells include (a) the depletion of regulatory Tcells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells that limit the function and proliferation of adoptively transferred cells; (b) the removal of immune cells that act as “sinks” for homeostatic cytokines, whose levels increase after lymphodepletion; and (c) the activation of the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling, which is engaged by microbial lipopolysaccharide that translocated across the radiation-injured gut. Here, we review these mechanisms and focus on the effect of Toll-like receptor agonists in adoptive immunotherapy. We also discuss alternate regimens to chemotherapy or TBI, which might be used to safely treat patients with advanced disease and promote tumor regression. PMID:17875756

  11. The biology of Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Means, T K; Golenbock, D T; Fenton, M J

    2000-09-01

    In 1997, a human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein was described, a protein later to be designated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Since that time, additional human and murine TLR proteins have been identified. Mammalian TLR proteins appear to represent a conserved family of innate immune recognition receptors. These receptors are coupled to a signaling pathway that is conserved in mammals, insects, and plants, resulting in the activation of genes that mediate innate immune defenses. Numerous studies have now identified a wide variety of chemically-diverse bacterial products that serve as putative ligands for TLR proteins. More recent studies have identified the first endogenous protein ligands for TLR proteins. TLR signaling represents a key feature of innate immune response to pathogen invasion. PMID:10817965

  12. Mycobacterial signaling through toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Joyoti; Shin, Dong-Min; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    Studies over the past decade have helped to decipher molecular networks dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, in mycobacteria-infected macrophages. Stimulation of TLRs by mycobacteria and their antigenic components rapidly induces intracellular signaling cascades involved in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play important roles in orchestrating proinflammatory responses and innate defense through generation of a variety of antimicrobial effector molecules. Recent studies have provided evidence that mycobacterial TLR-signaling cross talks with other intracellular antimicrobial innate pathways, the autophagy process and functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling. In this article we describe recent advances in the recognition, responses, and regulation of mycobacterial signaling through TLRs. PMID:23189273

  13. Lipopolysaccharides belonging to different Salmonella serovars are differentially capable of activating Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chessa, Daniela; Spiga, Luisella; De Riu, Nicola; Delaconi, Paola; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Ganau, Giulia; Rubino, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar (serotype) Abortusovis is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae. This serotype is naturally restricted to ovine species and does not infect humans. Limited information is available about the immune response of sheep to S. Abortusovis. S. Abortusovis, like Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi, causes a systemic infection in which, under natural conditions, animals are not able to raise a rapid immune response. Failure to induce the appropriate response allows pathogens to reach the placenta and results in an abortion. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are specific to bacteria and are not synthesized by the host. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of receptors that specifically recognize PAMPs. As a first step, we were able to identify the presence of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the ovine placenta by using an immunohistochemistry technique. To our knowledge, this is the first work describing the interaction between S. Abortusovis LPS and TLR4. Experiments using an embryonic cell line (HEK293) transfected with human and ovine TLR4s showed a reduction of interleukin 8 (IL-8) production by S. Abortusovis and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi upon LPS stimulation compared to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Identical results were observed using heat-killed bacteria instead of LPS. Based on data obtained with TLR4 in vitro stimulation, we demonstrated that the serotype S. Abortusovis is able to successfully evade the immune system whereas S. Typhimurium and other serovars fail to do so. PMID:25135686

  14. Human lung cancer cells express functionally active Toll-like receptor 9

    PubMed Central

    Droemann, Daniel; Albrecht, Dirk; Gerdes, Johannes; Ulmer, Artur J; Branscheid, Detlev; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Dalhoff, Klaus; Zabel, Peter; Goldmann, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    Background CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN), which induce signaling through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), are currently under investigation as adjuvants in therapy against infections and cancer. CpG-ODN function as Th-1 adjuvants and are able to activate dendritic cells. In humans TLR9 has been described to be strongly expressed in B-lymphocytes, monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and at low levels in human respiratory cells. We determined whether a direct interaction of bacterial DNA with the tumor cells themselves is possible and investigated the expression and function of TLR9 in human malignant solid tumors and cell lines. TLR9 expression by malignant tumor cells, would affect treatment approaches using CpG-ODN on the one hand, and, on the other hand, provide additional novel information about the role of tumor cells in tumor-immunology. Methods The expression of TLR9 in HOPE-fixed non-small lung cancer, non-malignant tissue and tumor cell lines was assessed using immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and DNA-sequencing. Apoptosis and chemokine expression was detected by FACS analysis and the Bio-Plex system. Results We found high TLR9 signal intensities in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in the majority of lung cancer specimens as well as in all tested tumor cell lines. In contrast to this non-malignant lung tissues showed only sporadically weak expression. Stimulation of HeLa and A549 cells with CpG-ODN induced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and reduction of spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis. Conclusions Here we show that TLR9 is expressed in a selection of human lung cancer tissues and various tumor cell lines. The expression of functionally active TLR9 in human malignant tumors might affect treatment approaches using CpG-ODN and shows that malignant cells can be regarded as active players in tumor-immunology. PMID:15631627

  15. Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Takumi; Kawai, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play crucial roles in the innate immune system by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns derived from various microbes. TLRs signal through the recruitment of specific adaptor molecules, leading to activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and IRFs, which dictate the outcome of innate immune responses. During the past decade, the precise mechanisms underlying TLR signaling have been clarified by various approaches involving genetic, biochemical, structural, cell biological, and bioinformatics studies. TLR signaling appears to be divergent and to play important roles in many aspects of the innate immune responses to given pathogens. In this review, we describe recent progress in our understanding of TLR signaling regulation and its contributions to host defense. PMID:25309543

  16. Evidence of activation of the Toll-like receptor-4 proinflammatory pathway in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    García-Bueno, Borja; Gassó, Patricia; MacDowell, Karina S.; Callado, Luis F.; Mas, Sergi; Bernardo, Miguel; Lafuente, Amalia; Meana, J. Javier; Leza, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alterations in the innate immune/inflammatory system may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but we do not understand the mechanisms involved. The main agents of innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which detect molecular patterns associated with damage and pathogens. The TLR first reported was TLR4, and it is still the most studied one. Methods We aimed to describe putative modifications to the TLR4 proinflammatory pathway using 2 different strategies in 2 cohorts of patients with schizophrenia and matched controls: 1) quantification of protein and mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal cortex samples from 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 controls, and 2) identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the risk of schizophrenia using whole blood samples from 214 patients with schizophrenia and 216 controls. Results We found evidence of alterations in the expression of the initial elements of the TLR4 signalling pathway (TLR4, Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 [MyD88] and nuclear factor-κ B [NF-κB]) in the PFC of patients with schizophrenia. These alterations seem to depend on the presence/absence of antipsychotic treatment at death. Moreover, a polymorphism within the MyD88 gene was significantly associated with schizophrenia risk. Limitations The use of 2 different approaches in 2 different cohorts, the lack of a complementary neuropsychiatric group, the possible confounding effects of antipsychotic treatment and suicide are the main limitations of our study. Conclusion The evidence from this dual approach suggests there is an altered innate immune response in patients with chronic schizophrenia in which the TLR4 proinflammatory pathway could be affected. Improved understanding of the stimuli and mechanisms responsible for this response could lead to improved schizophrenia treatment and better control of the side effects of current antipsychotics. PMID:27070349

  17. Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are newly established immune receptors which are critical for host defense through the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs can recognize molecules with both microbial and non-microbial origins. Emerging evidence now suggests that TLRs are implicated in th...

  18. Analysis by Flow Cytometry of B-Cell Activation and Antibody Responses Induced by Toll-Like Receptors.

    PubMed

    Pone, Egest J

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in B lymphocytes and contribute to B-cell activation, antibody responses, and their maturation. TLR stimulation of mouse B cells induces class switch DNA recombination (CSR) to isotypes specified by cytokines, and also induces formation of IgM(+) as well as class-switched plasma cells. B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, while on its own inducing limited B-cell proliferation and no CSR, can enhance CSR driven by TLRs. Particular synergistic or antagonistic interactions among TLR pathways, BCR, and cytokine signaling can have important consequences for B-cell activation, CSR, and plasma cell formation. This chapter outlines protocols for the induction and analysis of B-cell activation and antibody production by TLRs with or without other stimuli. PMID:26803633

  19. Activation of toll-like receptor signaling pathways leading to nitric oxide-mediated antiviral responses.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Amarasinghe, Aruna; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), well-characterized pattern-recognizing receptors of the innate arm of the immune system, are vital in detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The TLR-PAMP interaction initiates an intracellular signaling cascade, predominantly culminating in upregulation of antiviral components, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). After activation, various TLR pathways can promote iNOS production via the myeloid differentiation primary response-88 (MyD-88) adapter protein. Subsequently, iNOS facilitates production of nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive and potent antiviral molecule that can inhibit replication of RNA and DNA viruses. Furthermore, NO can diffuse freely across cell membranes and elicit antiviral mechanisms in various ways, including direct and indirect damage to viral genomes. This review emphasizes current knowledge of NO-mediated antiviral responses elicited after activation of TLR signaling pathways. PMID:27233799

  20. Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of B cells by a polysaccharide from marine fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Ding, Ran; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Rui; Liu, Wei; Jin, Lei; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    Various natural polysaccharides are capable of activating the immune system and therefore can be employed as biological response modifiers in anti-tumor therapy. We previously found a homogenous polysaccharide from the mycelium of marine fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108, named YCP, exhibiting strong in vivo antitumor ability via enhancement of the host immune responses. To further elucidate the role of YCP as a biological response modifier, the immunomodulating activities of YCP in B cells was investigated in the current study. We demonstrated that stimulation of YCP with murine splenic B cells resulted in cell proliferation and generation of IgM antibody response. Binding of YCP to B cells was a direct, saturable and reversible event and required TLR2 and TLR4 involvement. TLR2 and TLR4 defunctionalization by either antibody blocking or allele-specific mutation significantly impaired the B-cell proliferative and IgM responses to YCP. YCP interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 led to the activation of intracellular p38, ERK and JNK, as well as the translocation of transcriptional factor NF-κB into nucleus. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of p38, ERK, JNK and NF-κB could attenuate the ability of YCP to induce B cell proliferation and IgM production. Taken together, this study has indicated for the first time the immunostimulating properties of YCP on B cells through a receptor-mediated mechanism, which involves TLR2 and TLR4 and resultant activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, thereby highlighting the role of YCP as an efficacious biological response modifier in oncologic immunotherapy. PMID:23556003

  1. Structure of toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Gay, Nicholas J; Gangloff, Monique

    2008-01-01

    The ten human Toll-like receptors are able to respond to an extremely diverse range of microbial products ranging from di- and tri-acylated lipids to nucleic acids. An understanding of the molecular structure adopted by the receptor extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains and the way in which these structures interact with ligands and downstream signaling adapters can explain how recognition and signal transduction are achieved at a molecular level. In this article we discuss how the leucine-rich repeats of the receptor ectodomain have evolved to bind a wide variety of biological molecules. We also discuss how ligand binding induces dimerization of two receptor chains and initiates a series of protein conformational changes that lead to a signaling event in the cytoplasm of the immune system cell. Thus, the signaling process of the TLRs can be viewed as a unidirectional molecular switch. PMID:18071660

  2. Treponema denticola Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Pathways through Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, John; Rehani, Kunal; Martin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Treponema denticola, a spirochete indigenous to the oral cavity, is associated with host inflammatory responses to anaerobic polymicrobial infections of the root canal, periodontium, and alveolar bone. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of T. denticola by the innate immune system and the underlying cell signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory response to T. denticola are currently unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that T. denticola induces innate immune responses via the utilization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4. Assessment of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers revealed that T. denticola predominantly utilizes TLR2/6 for the induction of cellular responses. Analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in T. denticola-stimulated monocytes identified a prolonged up-regulation of the MAPK extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, while no discernible increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) levels was observed. With the aid of pharmacological inhibitors selectively targeting ERK1/2 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 kinase and p38, we further demonstrate that ERK1/2 and p38 play a major role in T. denticola-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:17923521

  3. Ischemia/reperfusion activates myocardial innate immune response: the key role of the toll-like receptor

    PubMed Central

    Vilahur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Recent data have indicated that the myocardium may act as an immune organ initiating cardiac innate immune response and inflammation. It has been suggested that activation of the immune system occurs upon the interaction of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated and released during ischemic damage with pattern recognition receptors (Toll like receptors; TLR) present in cardiac cells. Among TLRs, TLR4, and TLR2 are the ones mostly expressed in cardiac tissue. Whereas TLR4 has shown to play a detrimental role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the effect elicited by TLR2 activation remains controversial. Once activated, TLR signaling may occur via the Myd88- and Trif- dependent pathways leading to NFκB and IFN-3 activation, respectively, and subsequent stimulation of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine gene expression. Cytokine release contributes to neutrophils activation, recruitment, adhesion and infiltration to the site of cardiac injury further perpetuating the inflammatory process. This mini-review will focus on the current knowledge regarding the role of the heart in inducing and coordinating the innate inflammatory response via the TLR signaling pathway in myocardial I/R injury. PMID:25566092

  4. Activation of macrophages stimulated by the bengkoang fiber extract through toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Kumalasari, Ika Dyah; Nishi, Kosuke; Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Sugahara, Takuya

    2014-07-25

    Bengkoang (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) is an edible root tuber containing fairly large amounts of carbohydrates and crude fibers. Our previous studies showed that the bengkoang fiber extract (BFE) stimulates activation of macrophages, leading to induction of phagocytotic activity and cytokine production. In the present study we investigated the mechanism underlying activation of murine macrophages by BFE. BFE increased production of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide by J774.1 cells. In addition BFE also facilitated the gene expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. We examined the effect of a TLR4 inhibitor on cytokine production to investigate the membrane receptor of macrophage activation by BFE. Treatment of J774.1 cells with the TLR4 inhibitor significantly inhibited production of IL-6 and TNF-α, suggesting that TLR4 is the target membrane receptor for BFE. The main signal molecules located downstream of TLR4 such as JNK, p38, ERK, and NF-κB were activated by BFE treatment. The immunostimulatory effect of BFE was cancelled by the pectinase treatment, suggesting that the active ingredient in BFE is pectin-like molecules. Overall results suggested that BFE activates J774.1 cells via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:24770453

  5. Fibrinogen, an endogenous ligand of Toll-like receptor 4, activates monocytes in pre-eclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam; Coffelt, Seth B; Anumba, Dilly O

    2014-06-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) remains the leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity, urging the need for a better understanding of its aetiology and pathophysiological progression. A key characteristic of PE is a systemic, exaggerated, inflammatory condition involving abnormal cytokine levels in serum, altered immune cell phenotype and Th1/Th2-type immunological imbalance. However, it is unknown how this heightened inflammatory condition manifests. We previously reported increased expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), on monocytes from PE patients compared with normotensive, pregnant patients (NP). This upregulation of TLR4 on PE monocytes was accompanied by a hyper-responsiveness to bacterial TLR4 ligands. To determine whether non-microbial, endogenous TLR4 ligands also activate monocytes from PE patients, we investigated the expression of host-derived TLR4 ligands and the response of monocytes to these endogenous ligands. Plasma levels of fibrinogen - but not fibronectin or heparan sulphate - were higher in PE patients than in NP. Exposure to fibrinogen was associated with significantly increased production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes from PE patients. Interestingly, this effect was not observed with NP monocytes. Our findings suggest that the fibrinogen-TLR4 axis might play an important role in the atypical activation of monocytes observed in PE patients that may contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory condition. PMID:24661950

  6. Toll-like receptor activation enhances cell-mediated immunity induced by an antibody vaccine targeting human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Venky; Vasilakos, John P; Tario, Joseph D; Berger, Marc A; Wallace, Paul K; Keler, Tibor

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we have successfully targeted the mannose receptor (MR) expressed on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) using a fully human MR-specific antibody, B11, as a vehicle to deliver whole protein tumor antigens such as the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCGβ). Since MRs play a role in bridging innate immunity with adaptive immunity we have explored several toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific ligands that may synergize with MR targeting and be applicable as adjuvants in the clinic. We demonstrate that antigen-specific helper and cytolytic T cells from both healthy donors and cancer patients were effectively primed with B11-hCGβ-treated autologous DCs when a combination of one or several TLR ligands is used. Specifically, concomitant signaling of DCs via TLR3 with dsRNA (poly I:C) and DC TLR 7/8 with Resiquimod (R-848), respectively, elicited efficient antigen presentation-mediated by MR-targeting. We demonstrate that MR and TLRs contribute towards maturation and activation of DCs by a mechanism that may be driven by a combination of adjuvant and antibody vaccines that specifically deliver antigenic targets to DCs. PMID:17254349

  7. Activation of epidermal toll-like receptor 2 enhances tight junction function: implications for atopic dermatitis and skin barrier repair.

    PubMed

    Kuo, I-Hsin; Carpenter-Mendini, Amanda; Yoshida, Takeshi; McGirt, Laura Y; Ivanov, Andrei I; Barnes, Kathleen C; Gallo, Richard L; Borkowski, Andrew W; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Leung, Donald Y; Georas, Steve N; De Benedetto, Anna; Beck, Lisa A

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by epidermal tight junction (TJ) defects and a propensity for Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. S. aureus is sensed by many pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). We hypothesized that an effective innate immune response will include skin barrier repair, and that this response is impaired in AD subjects. S. aureus-derived peptidoglycan (PGN) and synthetic TLR2 agonists enhanced TJ barrier and increased expression of TJ proteins, claudin-1 (CLDN1), claudin-23 (CLDN23), occludin, and Zonulae occludens 1 (ZO-1) in primary human keratinocytes. A TLR2 agonist enhanced skin barrier recovery in human epidermis wounded by tape stripping. Tlr2(-/-) mice had a delayed and incomplete barrier recovery following tape stripping. AD subjects had reduced epidermal TLR2 expression as compared with nonatopic subjects, which inversely correlated (r=-0.654, P=0.0004) with transepidermal water loss (TEWL). These observations indicate that TLR2 activation enhances skin barrier in murine and human skin and is an important part of a wound repair response. Reduced epidermal TLR2 expression observed in AD patients may have a role in their incompetent skin barrier. PMID:23223142

  8. Hyper-responsive Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 activation in NADPH oxidase-deficient B lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    McLetchie, Shawna; Volpp, Bryan D; Dinauer, Mary C; Blum, Janice S

    2015-12-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency linked with mutations in the multi-subunit leucocyte NADPH oxidase. Myeloid-derived phagocytic cells deficient in NADPH oxidase fail to produce sufficient levels of reactive oxygen species to clear engulfed pathogens. In this study we show that oxidase also influences B-cell functions, including responses to single-stranded RNA or unmethylated DNA by endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 9. In response to TLR7/9 ligands, B-cell lines derived from patients with CGD with mutations in either the NADPH oxidase p40(phox) or p47(phox) subunits produced only low levels of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, cytokine secretion and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by these oxidase-deficient B cells was significantly increased upon TLR7/9 activation when compared with oxidase-sufficient B cells. Increased TLR responsiveness was also detected in B cells from oxidase-deficient mice. NADPH oxidase-deficient patient-derived B cells also expressed enhanced levels of TLR7 and TLR9 mRNA and protein compared with the same cells reconstituted to restore oxidase activity. These data demonstrate that the loss of oxidase function associated with CGD can significantly impact B-cell TLR signalling in response to nucleic acids with potential repercussions for auto-reactivity in patients. PMID:26340429

  9. T-cell activation is enhanced by targeting IL-10 cytokine production in toll-like receptor-stimulated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Ryan M; Elliott, Steven T; Blanco, Felix C; Snyder, Jason A; Jacobi, Ashley M; Rose, Scott D; Behlke, Mark A; Salem, Aliasger K; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Sandler, Anthony D

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists represent potentially useful cancer vaccine adjuvants in their ability to stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and subsequently amplify the cytotoxic T-cell response. The purpose of this study was to characterize APC responses to TLR activation and to determine the subsequent effect on lymphocyte activation. We exposed murine primary bone marrow-derived macrophages to increasing concentrations of agonists to TLRs 2, 3, 4, and 9. This resulted in a dose-dependent increase in production of not only tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-α), a surrogate marker of the proinflammatory response, but also interleukin 10 (IL-10), a well-described inhibitory cytokine. Importantly, IL-10 secretion was not induced by low concentrations of TLR agonists that readily produced TNF-α. We subsequently stimulated lymphocytes with anti-CD3 antibody in the presence of media from macrophages activated with higher doses of TLR agonists and observed suppression of interferon gamma release. Use of both IL-10 knockout macrophages and IL-10 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) ablated this suppressive effect. Finally, IL-10 siRNA was successfully used to suppress CpG-induced IL-10 production in vivo. We conclude that TLR-mediated APC stimulation can induce a paradoxical inhibitory effect on T-cell activation mediated by IL-10.

  10. Unique Toll-Like Receptor 4 Activation by NAMPT/PBEF Induces NFκB Signaling and Inflammatory Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Camp, Sara M; Ceco, Ermelinda; Evenoski, Carrie L; Danilov, Sergei M; Zhou, Tong; Chiang, Eddie T; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Mapes, Brandon; Zhao, Jieling; Gursoy, Gamze; Brown, Mary E; Adyshev, Djanybek M; Siddiqui, Shahid S; Quijada, Hector; Sammani, Saad; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Saadat, Laleh; Yousef, Mohammed; Wang, Ting; Liang, Jie; Garcia, Joe G N

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-induced inflammatory lung injury (VILI) is mechanistically linked to increased NAMPT transcription and circulating levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (NAMPT/PBEF). Although VILI severity is attenuated by reduced NAMPT/PBEF bioavailability, the precise contribution of NAMPT/PBEF and excessive mechanical stress to VILI pathobiology is unknown. We now report that NAMPT/PBEF induces lung NFκB transcriptional activities and inflammatory injury via direct ligation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Computational analysis demonstrated that NAMPT/PBEF and MD-2, a TLR4-binding protein essential for LPS-induced TLR4 activation, share ~30% sequence identity and exhibit striking structural similarity in loop regions critical for MD-2-TLR4 binding. Unlike MD-2, whose TLR4 binding alone is insufficient to initiate TLR4 signaling, NAMPT/PBEF alone produces robust TLR4 activation, likely via a protruding region of NAMPT/PBEF (S402-N412) with structural similarity to LPS. The identification of this unique mode of TLR4 activation by NAMPT/PBEF advances the understanding of innate immunity responses as well as the untoward events associated with mechanical stress-induced lung inflammation. PMID:26272519

  11. Toll-Like Receptors and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu; Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Qingyuan; Wang, Fen; Zhang, Dekai

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25101092

  12. Lubricin/Proteoglycan 4 binds to and regulates the activity of Toll-Like Receptors In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, S M; Leonard, C; Regmi, S C; De Rantere, D; Tailor, P; Ren, G; Ishida, H; Hsu, Cy; Abubacker, S; Pang, D Sj; Salo, P T; Vogel, H J; Hart, D A; Waterhouse, C C; Jay, G D; Schmidt, T A; Krawetz, R J

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4/lubricin) is secreted by cells that reside in articular cartilage and line the synovial joint. Lubricin may play a role in modulating inflammatory responses through interaction with CD44. This led us to examine if lubricin could be playing a larger role in the modulation of inflammation/immunity through interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells overexpressing TLRs 2, 4 or 5 and surface plasmon resonance were employed to determine if full length recombinant human lubricin was able to bind to and activate TLRs. Primary human synovial fibroblasts were also examined using flow cytometry and Luminex multiplex ELISA. A rat destabilization model of osteoarthritis (OA) was used to determine if lubricin injections were able to regulate pain and/or inflammation in vivo. Lubricin can bind to and regulate the activity of TLRs, leading to downstream changes in inflammatory signalling independent of HA. We confirmed these findings in vivo through intra-articular injections of lubricin in a rat OA model where the inhibition of systemic inflammatory signaling and reduction in pain were observed. Lubricin plays an important role in regulating the inflammatory environment under both homeostatic and tissue injury states. PMID:26752378

  13. Lubricin/Proteoglycan 4 binds to and regulates the activity of Toll-Like Receptors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, S.M.; Leonard, C.; C. Regmi, S.; De Rantere, D.; Tailor, P.; Ren, G.; Ishida, H.; Hsu, CY.; Abubacker, S.; Pang, D. SJ.; T. Salo, P.; Vogel, H.J.; Hart, D.A.; Waterhouse, C.C.; Jay, G.D; Schmidt, T.A.; Krawetz, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4/lubricin) is secreted by cells that reside in articular cartilage and line the synovial joint. Lubricin may play a role in modulating inflammatory responses through interaction with CD44. This led us to examine if lubricin could be playing a larger role in the modulation of inflammation/immunity through interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells overexpressing TLRs 2, 4 or 5 and surface plasmon resonance were employed to determine if full length recombinant human lubricin was able to bind to and activate TLRs. Primary human synovial fibroblasts were also examined using flow cytometry and Luminex multiplex ELISA. A rat destabilization model of osteoarthritis (OA) was used to determine if lubricin injections were able to regulate pain and/or inflammation in vivo. Lubricin can bind to and regulate the activity of TLRs, leading to downstream changes in inflammatory signalling independent of HA. We confirmed these findings in vivo through intra-articular injections of lubricin in a rat OA model where the inhibition of systemic inflammatory signaling and reduction in pain were observed. Lubricin plays an important role in regulating the inflammatory environment under both homeostatic and tissue injury states. PMID:26752378

  14. Antitumor NK activation induced by the Toll-like receptor 3-TICAM-1 (TRIF) pathway in myeloid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Takashi; Ebihara, Takashi; Okuno, Manabu; Okuda, Yu; Shingai, Masashi; Tsujimura, Kunio; Takahashi, Toshitada; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru; Inoue, Norimitsu; Okamoto-Tanaka, Miki; Ishizaki, Hiroyoshi; Miyoshi, Jun; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2007-01-01

    Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) recognize and respond to polyI:C, an analog of dsRNA, by endosomal Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and cytoplasmic receptors. Natural killer (NK) cells are activated in vivo by the administration of polyI:C to mice and in vivo are reciprocally activated by mDCs, although the molecular mechanisms are as yet undetermined. Here, we show that the TLR adaptor TICAM-1 (TRIF) participates in mDC-derived antitumor NK activation. In a syngeneic mouse tumor implant model (C57BL/6 vs. B16 melanoma with low H-2 expresser), i.p. administration of polyI:C led to the retardation of tumor growth, an effect relied on by NK activation. This NK-dependent tumor regression did not occur in TICAM-1−/− or IFNAR−/− mice, whereas a normal NK antitumor response was induced in PKR−/−, MyD88−/−, IFN-β−/−, and wild-type mice. IFNAR was a prerequisite for the induction of IFN-α/β and TLR3. The lack of TICAM-1 did not affect IFN production but resulted in unresponsiveness to IL-12 production, mDC maturation, and polyI:C-mediated NK-antitumor activity. This NK activation required NK-mDC contact but not IL-12 function in in vivo transwell analysis. Implanted tumor growth in IFNAR−/− mice was retarded by adoptively transferring polyI:C-treated TICACM-1-positive mDCs but not TICAM-1−/− mDCs. Thus, TICAM-1 in mDCs critically facilitated mDC-NK contact and activation of antitumor NK, resulting in the regression of low MHC-expressing tumors. PMID:17190817

  15. Toll-Like Receptors of Deuterostome Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Satake, Honoo; Sekiguchi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates, including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates) and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates). Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and Ci-TLR2, were shown to possess “hybrid” functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates among deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs. PMID:22566918

  16. Messenger RNA encoding constitutively active Toll-like receptor 4 enhances effector functions of human T cells.

    PubMed

    Pato, A; Eisenberg, G; Machlenkin, A; Margalit, A; Cafri, G; Frankenburg, S; Merims, S; Peretz, T; Lotem, M; Gross, G

    2015-11-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy of cancer employs a large number of ex-vivo-propagated T cells which recognize their targets either by virtue of their endogenous T cell receptor (TCR) or via genetic reprogramming. However, both cell-extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms often diminish the in-vivo potency of these therapeutic T cells, limiting their clinical efficacy and broader use. Direct activation of human T cells by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands induces T cell survival and proliferation, boosts the production of proinflammatory cytokines and augments resistance to regulatory T cell (Treg) suppression. Removal of the TLR ligand-binding region results in constitutive signalling triggered by the remaining cytosolic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The use of such TIR domains therefore offers an ideal means for equipping anti-tumour T cells with the arsenal of functional attributes required for improving current clinical protocols. Here we show that constitutively active (ca)TLR-4 can be expressed efficiently in human T cells using mRNA electroporation. The mere expression of caTLR-4 mRNA in polyclonal CD8 and CD4 T cells induced the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, triggered the surface expression of CD25, CD69 and 4-1BB and up-regulated a panel of cytokines and chemokines. In tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes prepared from melanoma patients, caTLR-4 induced robust IFN-γ secretion in all samples tested. Furthermore, caTLR-4 enhanced the anti-melanoma cytolytic activity of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and augmented the secretion of IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for at least 4 days post-transfection. Our results demonstrate that caTLR-4 is capable of exerting multiple T cell-enhancing effects and can potentially be used as a genetic adjuvant in adoptive cell therapy. PMID:26212048

  17. Toll-like receptor stimulation in splenic marginal zone lymphoma can modulate cell signaling, activation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Eleonora; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Reverberi, Daniele; Ntoufa, Stavroula; Scarfò, Lydia; Ranghetti, Pamela; Cutrona, Giovanna; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Xochelli, Aliki; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Belessi, Chrysoula; Davis, Zadie; Piris, Miguel A.; Oscier, David; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Muzio, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on splenic marginal zone lymphoma identified distinct mutations in genes belonging to the B-cell receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, thus pointing to their potential implication in the biology of the disease. However, limited data is available regarding the exact role of TLRs. We aimed at characterizing the expression pattern of TLRs in splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells and their functional impact on the activation, proliferation and viability of malignant cells in vitro. Cells expressed significant levels of TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10 mRNA; TLR2 and TLR4 showed a low, variable pattern of expression among patients whereas TLR3 and TLR5 mRNAs were undetectable; mRNA specific for TLR signaling molecules and adapters was also expressed. At the protein level, TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10 were detected. Stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 with their respective ligands triggered the activation of IRAK kinases, MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and the induction of CD86 and CD25 activation molecules, although in a heterogeneous manner among different patient samples. TLR-induced activation and cell viability were also inhibited by a specific IRAK1/4 inhibitor, thus strongly supporting the specific role of TLR signaling in these processes. Furthermore, TLR2/6 and TLR9 stimulation also significantly increased cell proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells are equipped with functional TLR and signaling molecules and that the stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 may play a role in regulating disease pathobiology, likely promoting the expansion of the neoplastic clone. PMID:26294727

  18. Toll-like receptor stimulation in splenic marginal zone lymphoma can modulate cell signaling, activation and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Eleonora; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Reverberi, Daniele; Ntoufa, Stavroula; Scarfò, Lydia; Ranghetti, Pamela; Cutrona, Giovanna; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Xochelli, Aliki; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Belessi, Chrysoula; Davis, Zadie; Piris, Miguel A; Oscier, David; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Muzio, Marta

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on splenic marginal zone lymphoma identified distinct mutations in genes belonging to the B-cell receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, thus pointing to their potential implication in the biology of the disease. However, limited data is available regarding the exact role of TLRs. We aimed at characterizing the expression pattern of TLRs in splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells and their functional impact on the activation, proliferation and viability of malignant cells in vitro. Cells expressed significant levels of TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10 mRNA; TLR2 and TLR4 showed a low, variable pattern of expression among patients whereas TLR3 and TLR5 mRNAs were undetectable; mRNA specific for TLR signaling molecules and adapters was also expressed. At the protein level, TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10 were detected. Stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 with their respective ligands triggered the activation of IRAK kinases, MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and the induction of CD86 and CD25 activation molecules, although in a heterogeneous manner among different patient samples. TLR-induced activation and cell viability were also inhibited by a specific IRAK1/4 inhibitor, thus strongly supporting the specific role of TLR signaling in these processes. Furthermore, TLR2/6 and TLR9 stimulation also significantly increased cell proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells are equipped with functional TLR and signaling molecules and that the stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 may play a role in regulating disease pathobiology, likely promoting the expansion of the neoplastic clone. PMID:26294727

  19. Prenatal Activation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 Dampens Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in An IL-6 Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mouihate, Abdeslam

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal immune challenge has been associated with alteration in brain development and plasticity that last into adulthood. We have previously shown that prenatal activation of toll-like receptor 4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces IL-6-dependent STAT-3 signaling pathway in the fetal brain. Whether this IL-6-dependent activation of fetal brain results in long lasting impact in brain plasticity is still unknown. Furthermore, it has been shown that prenatal LPS heightens the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) response in adulthood. In the present study we tested whether LPS administration during pregnancy affects neurogenesis in adult male offspring. Because corticosterone, the end-product of HPA axis activity in rats, alters neurogenesis we tested whether this enhanced HPA axis responsiveness in adult male offspring played a role in the long lasting impact of LPS on neurogenesis during adulthood. Pregnant rats were given either LPS, or LPS and an IL-6 neutralizing antibody (IL-6Ab). The newly born neurons were monitored in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus of adult male offspring by monitoring doublecortin and T-box brain protein-2 expression: two well-established markers of newly born neurons. Prenatal LPS decreased the number of newly born neurons in the DG, but not in the SVZ of adult offspring. This decreased number of newly born neurons in the DG was absent when IL-6Ab was co-injected with LPS during pregnancy. Furthermore, administration of a corticosterone receptor blocker, RU-486, to adult offspring blunted the prenatal LPS induced decrease in newly born neurons in the DG. These data suggest that maternally triggered IL-6 plays a crucial role in the long lasting impact of LPS on adult neurogenesis. PMID:27445700

  20. Mycobacterium indicus pranii and Mycobacterium bovis BCG lead to differential macrophage activation in Toll-like receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Tyagi, Rohit; Das, Gobardhan; Bhaskar, Sangeeta

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is an atypical mycobacterial species possessing strong immunomodulatory properties. It is a potent vaccine candidate against tuberculosis, promotes Th1 immune response and protects mice from tumours. In previous studies, we demonstrated higher protective efficacy of MIP against experimental tuberculosis as compared with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Since macrophages play an important role in the pathology of mycobacterial diseases and cancer, in the present study, we evaluated the MIP in live and killed form for macrophage activation potential, compared it with BCG and investigated the underlying mechanisms. High levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), IL-6 and nitric oxide were produced by MIP-stimulated macrophages as compared with BCG-stimulated macrophages. Prominent up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 was also observed in response to MIP. Loss of response in MyD88-deficient macrophages showed that both MIP and BCG activate the macrophages in a MyD88-dependent manner. MyD88 signalling pathway culminates in nuclear factor-κB/activator protein-1 (NF-κB/AP-1) activation and higher activation of NF-κB/AP-1 was observed in response to MIP. With the help of pharmacological inhibitors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) -deficient macrophages, we observed the role of TLR2, TLR4 and intracellular TLRs in MIP-mediated macrophage activation. Stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TLR2 in homodimeric or heterodimeric form showed that MIP has a distinctly higher level of TLR2 agonist activity compared with BCG. Further experiments suggested that TLR2 ligands are well exposed in MIP whereas they are obscured in BCG. Our findings establish the higher macrophage activation potential of MIP compared with BCG and delineate the underlying mechanism. PMID:24766519

  1. Interleukin-7 and Toll-Like Receptor 7 Induce Synergistic B Cell and T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bikker, Angela; Kruize, Aike A.; van der Wurff-Jacobs, Kim M. G.; Peters, Rogier P.; Kleinjan, Marije; Redegeld, Frank; de Jager, Wilco; Lafeber, Floris P. J. G.; van Roon, Joël A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the potential synergy of IL-7-driven T cell-dependent and TLR7-mediated B cell activation and to assess the additive effects of monocyte/macrophages in this respect. Methods Isolated CD19 B cells and CD4 T cells from healthy donors were co-cultured with TLR7 agonist (TLR7A, Gardiquimod), IL-7, or their combination with or without CD14 monocytes/macrophages (T/B/mono; 1 : 1 : 0,1). Proliferation was measured using 3H-thymidine incorporation and Ki67 expression. Activation marker (CD19, HLA-DR, CD25) expression was measured by FACS analysis. Immunoglobulins were measured by ELISA and release of cytokines was measured by Luminex assay. Results TLR7-induced B cell activation was not associated with T cell activation. IL-7-induced T cell activation alone and together with TLR7A synergistically increased numbers of both proliferating (Ki67+) B cells and T cells, which was further increased in the presence of monocytes/macrophages. This was associated by up regulation of activation markers on B cells and T cells. Additive or synergistic induction of production of immunoglobulins by TLR7 and IL-7 was associated by synergistic induction of T cell cytokines (IFNγ, IL-17A, IL-22), which was only evident in the presence of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions IL-7-induced CD4 T cell activation and TLR7-induced B cell activation synergistically induce T helper cell cytokine and B cell immunoglobulin production, which is critically dependent on monocytes/macrophages. Our results indicate that previously described increased expression of IL-7 and TLR7 together with increased numbers of macrophages at sites of inflammation in autoimmune diseases like RA and pSS significantly contributes to enhanced lymphocyte activation. PMID:24740301

  2. TRADITIONAL BIOCHEMICAL ASSAYS FOR STUDYING TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 9

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Cynthia A.; Rose, William A.; Botelho, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of receptor activation and regulation can offer therapeutic targets for disease treatment. Evidence is emerging for a role of the normally foreign responsive Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the development of autoimmunity through response to self-patterns. Regulatory mechanisms governing this class of receptors are poorly understood, and failures within this system likely contribute to development of autoimmunity. In this article, we review biochemical assays used to study one of the self-pattern responsive TLRs, TLR9, and suggest that these studies are critical for development of new targets for autoimmune therapies. PMID:23323977

  3. Viral and host factors induce macrophage activation and loss of Toll Like Receptor tolerance in chronic HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Dolganiuc, Angela; Norkina, Oxana; Kodys, Karen; Catalano, Donna; Bakis, Gennadiy; Marshall, Christopher; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2007-01-01

    Background&Aims Persistent inflammation contributes to progression of liver damage in chronic HCV (cHCV) infection. Repeated exposure to Toll like receptor (TLR) ligands results in tolerance, a protective mechanism aimed at limiting inflammation. Methods Monocytes/macrophages were repeatedly stimulated via pro-inflammatory cytokine-inducing TLRs and evaluated for activation markers. Results Unlike monocytes (Mo) of controls or patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the Mo of cHCV patients were hyper-responsive and failed to show homo- or hetero-tolerance to TLR ligands, manifested by elevated TNFα production. Serum levels of IFNγ, endotoxin (TLR4 ligand) and HCV core protein (TLR2 ligand) were elevated in cHCV patients suggesting potential mechanisms for in vivo monocyte pre-activation. Treatment of normal monocytes with IFNγ resulted in loss of tolerance to LPS or HCV core protein. Further, we found increased levels of MyD88-IRAK1 complexes and NFκB activity both in monocytes of cHCV patients and in normal monocytes that lost TLR tolerance after IFNγ+LPS pretreatment. In vitro differentiation of TLR tolerant cHCV monocytes into macrophages restored their capacity to exhibit TLR tolerance to LPS and HCV core protein and this could be reversed by administration of IFNγ. cHCV patients exhibited increased TNFα in the circulation and in the liver. In cHCV livers we found Kupffer cell/macrophage activation indicated by increased CD163 and CD33 expression. Conclusions We identified that host-derived factors (IFNγ and endotoxin) and viral factors (HCV core protein) act in tandem to induce and maintain monocyte/macrophage activation, thus favoring persistent inflammation in patients with cHCV infection. PMID:17916356

  4. Antitumor activity and immune response induction of a dual agonist of Toll-like receptors 7 and 8.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daqing; Precopio, Melissa; Lan, Tao; Yu, Dong; Tang, Jimmy X; Kandimalla, Ekambar R; Agrawal, Sudhir

    2010-06-01

    Viral and synthetic single-stranded RNAs are the ligands for Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 (TLR7 and TLR8). We have reported a novel class of synthetic oligoribonucleotides, referred to as stabilized immune-modulatory RNA compounds, which act as agonists of TLR7, TLR8, or both TLR7 and TLR8 depending on the sequence composition and the presence of specific chemical modifications. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of a dual TLR7/8 agonist in tumor-bearing mice with peritoneal disseminated CT26.CL25 colon and 3LL-C75 lung carcinomas. Peritoneal administration of dual TLR7/8 agonist in mice bearing CT26.CL25 colon carcinomas had potent dose-dependent antitumor activity, which was associated with a marked decrease in CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells and a significant increase in tumor antigen-specific IFN-gamma-secreting effector cell responses in splenocytes and local tumor-infiltrating cells. In 3LL-C75 lung carcinoma, dual TLR7/8 agonist induced strong immune responses and antitumor effects in C57BL/6 and TLR9(-/-) mice, but not in TLR7(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice, indicating that the agonist induces immune responses via TLR7 and through the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. TLR8 is not functional in mice. Additionally, s.c. administration of TLR7/8 agonist effectively prevented lung metastasis of tumors in the CT26.CL25 pulmonary metastasis model. These studies show that the dual TLR7/8 agonist induced Th1-type immune responses and potent antitumor activity in mice via TLR7 and through the MyD88-dependent pathway. PMID:20515950

  5. Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Yvonne; Zeissig, Sebastian; Kim, Seong-Jun; Barisani, Donatella; Wieser, Herbert; Leffler, Daniel A.; Zevallos, Victor; Libermann, Towia A.; Dillon, Simon; Freitag, Tobias L.; Kelly, Ciaran P.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of wheat, barley, or rye triggers small intestinal inflammation in patients with celiac disease. Specifically, the storage proteins of these cereals (gluten) elicit an adaptive Th1-mediated immune response in individuals carrying HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 as major genetic predisposition. This well-defined role of adaptive immunity contrasts with an ill-defined component of innate immunity in celiac disease. We identify the α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) CM3 and 0.19, pest resistance molecules in wheat, as strong activators of innate immune responses in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ATIs engage the TLR4–MD2–CD14 complex and lead to up-regulation of maturation markers and elicit release of proinflammatory cytokines in cells from celiac and nonceliac patients and in celiac patients’ biopsies. Mice deficient in TLR4 or TLR4 signaling are protected from intestinal and systemic immune responses upon oral challenge with ATIs. These findings define cereal ATIs as novel contributors to celiac disease. Moreover, ATIs may fuel inflammation and immune reactions in other intestinal and nonintestinal immune disorders. PMID:23209313

  6. Toll-like Receptor 4 in CNS Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Madison M.; Hutchinson, Mark; Watkins, Linda R.; Yin, Hang

    2010-01-01

    The responses of the brain to infection, ischemia and trauma share remarkable similarities. These and other conditions of the CNS coordinate an innate immune response marked by activation of microglia, the macrophage-like cells of the nervous system. An important contributor to microglial activation is toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor known to initiate an inflammatory cascade in response to various CNS stimuli. The present review traces new efforts to characterize and control the contribution of TLR4 to inflammatory etiologies of the nervous system. PMID:20402965

  7. CCL-34, a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 activator, modulates differentiation and maturation of myeloid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shu-Ling; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Liu, Sheng-Hung; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2016-03-01

    CCL-34, a synthetic α-galactosylceramide analog, has been reported as an activator of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages. TLR4 is highly expressed in dendritic cell (DC) and several TLR4 agonists are known to trigger DC maturation. We herein evaluated the effect of CCL-34 on DC maturation. Human CD14+ monocyte-derived immature DC were treated with CCL-34, its inactive structural analog CCL-44, or LPS to assess the DC maturation. CCL-34 induced DC maturation according to their characteristically dendrite-forming morphology, CD83 expression and IL-12p70 production. The allostimulatory activity of DC on proliferation of naive CD4+CD45+RA+ T cells and their secretion of interferon-γ was increased by CCL-34. Phagocytosis, an important function of immature DC, was reduced after CCL-34 treatment. All these effects related to DC maturation were evidently induced by positive control LPS but not by CCL-44 treatment. TLR4 neutralization impaired human DC maturation triggered by CCL-34. The induction of IL-12, a hallmark of DC maturation, by CCL-34 and LPS was only evident in TLR4-competent C3H/HeN, but not in TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice. CCL-34 could further elicit the antigen presentation capability in mice inoculated with doxorubicin-treated colorectal cancer cells. In summary, CCL-34 triggers DC maturation via a TLR4-dependent manner, which supports its potential application as an immunostimulator. PMID:26883191

  8. CCL-34, a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 activator, modulates differentiation and maturation of myeloid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shu-Ling; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Liu, Sheng-Hung; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2016-01-01

    CCL-34, a synthetic α-galactosylceramide analog, has been reported as an activator of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages. TLR4 is highly expressed in dendritic cell (DC) and several TLR4 agonists are known to trigger DC maturation. We herein evaluated the effect of CCL-34 on DC maturation. Human CD14+ monocyte-derived immature DC were treated with CCL-34, its inactive structural analog CCL-44, or LPS to assess the DC maturation. CCL-34 induced DC maturation according to their characteristically dendrite-forming morphology, CD83 expression and IL-12p70 production. The allostimulatory activity of DC on proliferation of naive CD4+CD45+RA+ T cells and their secretion of interferon-γ was increased by CCL-34. Phagocytosis, an important function of immature DC, was reduced after CCL-34 treatment. All these effects related to DC maturation were evidently induced by positive control LPS but not by CCL-44 treatment. TLR4 neutralization impaired human DC maturation triggered by CCL-34. The induction of IL-12, a hallmark of DC maturation, by CCL-34 and LPS was only evident in TLR4-competent C3H/HeN, but not in TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice. CCL-34 could further elicit the antigen presentation capability in mice inoculated with doxorubicin-treated colorectal cancer cells. In summary, CCL-34 triggers DC maturation via a TLR4-dependent manner, which supports its potential application as an immunostimulator. PMID:26883191

  9. Type I Helicobacter pylori Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Activates Mitogen Oxidase 1 in Gastric Pit Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Tsukasa; Teshima, Shigetada; Oka, Ayuko; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Kishi, Kyoichi; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2001-01-01

    Guinea pig gastric pit cells express an isozyme of gp91-phox, mitogen oxidase 1 (Mox1), and essential components for the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (p67-, p47-, p40-, and p22-phox). Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Escherichia coli LPS have been shown to function as potent activators for the Mox1 oxidase. These cells spontaneously secreted about 10 nmol of superoxide anion (O2−)/mg of protein/h under LPS-free conditions. They expressed the mRNA and protein of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not those of TLR2. LPS from type I H. pylori at 2.1 endotoxin units/ml or higher stimulated TLR4-mediated phosphorylations of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 and its binding protein 1 induced TLR4 and p67-phox and up-regulated O2− production 10-fold. In contrast, none of these events occurred with H. pylori LPS from complete or partial deletion mutants of the cag pathogenicity island. Lipid A was confirmed to be a bioactive component for the priming effects, while removal of bisphosphates from lipid A completely eliminated the effects, suggesting the importance of the phosphorylation pattern besides the acylation pattern for the bioactivity. H. pylori LPS is generally accepted as having low toxicity; however, our results suggest that type I H. pylori lipid A may be a potent stimulator for innate immune responses of gastric mucosa by stimulating the TLR4 cascade and Mox1 oxidase in pit cells. PMID:11401977

  10. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 amplifies mesenchymal stem cell trophic factors and enhances therapeutic potency.

    PubMed

    Mastri, Michalis; Shah, Zaeem; McLaughlin, Terence; Greene, Christopher J; Baum, Leah; Suzuki, Gen; Lee, Techung

    2012-11-15

    Clinical trials of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy have thus far demonstrated moderate and inconsistent benefits, indicating an urgent need to improve therapeutic efficacy. Although administration of sufficient cells is necessary to achieve maximal therapeutic benefits, documented MSC clinical trials have largely relied on injections of ∼1 × 10(6) cells/kg, which appears too low to elicit a robust therapeutic response according to published preclinical studies. However, repeated cell passaging necessary for large-scale expansion of MSC causes cellular senescence and reduces stem cell potency. Using the RNA mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] to engage MSC Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), we found that poly(I:C), signaling through multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, induced therapeutically relevant trophic factors such as interleukin-6-type cytokines, stromal-derived factor 1, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor while slightly inhibiting the proliferation and migration potentials of MSC. At the suboptimal injection dose of 1 × 10(6) cells/kg, poly(I:C)-treated MSC, but not untreated MSC, effectively stimulated regeneration of the failing hamster heart 1 mo after cell administration. The regenerating heart exhibited increased CD34(+)/Ki67(+) and CD34(+)/GATA4(+) progenitor cells in the presence of decreased inflammatory cells and cytokines. Cardiac functional improvement was associated with a ∼50% reduction in fibrosis, a ∼40% reduction in apoptosis, and a ∼55% increase in angiogenesis, culminating in prominent cardiomyogenesis evidenced by abundant distribution of small myocytes and a ∼90% increase in wall thickening. These functional, histological, and molecular characterizations thus establish the utility of TLR3 engagement for enabling the low-dose MSC therapy that may be translated to more efficacious clinical applications. PMID:22843797

  11. Toll-like receptor sensing of human herpesvirus infection

    PubMed Central

    West, John A.; Gregory, Sean M.; Damania, Blossom

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved pathogen sensors that constitute the first line of defense in the human immune system. Herpesviruses are prevalent throughout the world and cause significant disease in the human population. Sensing of herpesviruses via TLRs has only been documented in the last 10 years and our understanding of the relationship between these sentinels of the immune system and herpesvirus infection has already provided great insight into how the host cell responds to viral infection. This report will summarize the activation and modulation of TLR signaling in the context of human herpesvirus infections. PMID:23061052

  12. Different activations of toll-like receptors and antimicrobial peptides in chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Andor; Kiss, Maria; Kadocsa, Edit; Polyanka, Hilda; Szabo, Kornelia; Razga, Zsolt; Bella, Zsolt; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Kemeny, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    Both up- and down-regulation of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of the sinonasal mucosa have already been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with (CRSwNP) or without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of all known TLR and several AMP genes and some selected proteins in association with allergy, asthma and aspirin intolerance (ASA) in CRS subgroups. RT-PCR was applied to measure the mRNA expressions of 10 TLRs, four defensins, lysozyme, cathelicidin and lactoferrin (LTF) in sinonasal samples from patients with CRSsNP (n = 19), CRSwNP [ASA(-): 17; ASA(+): 7] and in control subjects (n = 12). Protein expressions were detected with immunohistochemistry (n = 10). Statistical analysis was done with the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Student t test. TLR2, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, β-defensins 1 and 4, cathelicidin and LTF mRNA expressions were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in CRSwNP, whereas only TLR2 and LTF were up-regulated in CRSsNP compared to controls. There was no statistical difference in respect of allergy, aspirin intolerance and smoking between CRSsNP, ASA(-) and ASA(+) CRSwNP patients. TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, LTF, β defensin 2 and lysozyme protein expressions were found to be elevated in macrophages of CRSwNP samples (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed markedly different expressions in CRSwNP (6 out of 10 TLR and 4 out of 7 AMP genes were up-regulated) compared to CRSsNP (1/10, 1/7). The distinct activation of the innate immunity may support the concept that CRSsNP and CRSwNP are different subtypes of CRS. These findings were found to be independent from allergy, asthma, smoking, aspirin intolerance and systemic steroid application. PMID:26518209

  13. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory activity of Grifola frondosa polysaccharide via toll-like receptor 4-mitogen-activated protein kinases-nuclear factor κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolei; Meng, Meng; Han, Lirong; Cheng, Dai; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunling

    2016-06-15

    We isolated a neutral polysaccharide from the fruiting body of a mushroom Grifola frondosa (GFP-A). The aim of this study was to characterize a neutral α-d-polysaccharide derived from G. frondosa and evaluate its immunomodulatory effect on toll-like receptor 4, mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor κB pathways of protein expression in macrophages. The structural features of GFP-A were characterized by physicochemical and instrumental analyses. Its molecular weight was found to be 8.48 × 10(2) kDa. The main chain of GFP-A consisted of (1 → 4)-linked and (1 → 6)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl, and (1 → 3,6)-linked α-d-mannopyranosyl residues, which branched at C-3. The branches consisted of (1 → 6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl and t-l-rhamnopyranosyl residues. An in vitro immunomodulatory assay for pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, etc.) using the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, revealed that GFP-A exhibited significant immunomodulatory activity by stimulating the toll-like receptor 4, mitogen-activated protein kinases to nuclear factor κB/pathway. PMID:27220562

  14. Discovery and Structure-Activity Relationships of the Neoseptins: A New Class of Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4) Agonists.

    PubMed

    Morin, Matthew D; Wang, Ying; Jones, Brian T; Su, Lijing; Surakattula, Murali M R P; Berger, Michael; Huang, Hua; Beutler, Elliot K; Zhang, Hong; Beutler, Bruce; Boger, Dale L

    2016-05-26

    Herein, we report studies leading to the discovery of the neoseptins and a comprehensive examination of the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of this new class of small-molecule mouse Toll-like receptor 4 (mTLR4) agonists. The compounds in this class, which emerged from screening an α-helix mimetic library, stimulate the immune response, act by a well-defined mechanism (mouse TLR4 agonist), are easy to produce and structurally manipulate, exhibit exquisite SARs, are nontoxic, and elicit improved and qualitatively different responses compared to lipopolysaccharide, even though they share the same receptor. PMID:27050713

  15. A Temporal Gate for Viral Enhancers to Co-opt Toll-Like-Receptor Transcriptional Activation Pathways upon Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kropp, Kai A.; Hsieh, Wei Yuan; Isern, Elena; Forster, Thorsten; Krause, Eva; Brune, Wolfram; Angulo, Ana; Ghazal, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Viral engagement with macrophages activates Toll-Like-Receptors (TLRs) and viruses must contend with the ensuing inflammatory responses to successfully complete their replication cycle. To date, known counter-strategies involve the use of viral-encoded proteins that often employ mimicry mechanisms to block or redirect the host response to benefit the virus. Whether viral regulatory DNA sequences provide an opportunistic strategy by which viral enhancer elements functionally mimic innate immune enhancers is unknown. Here we find that host innate immune genes and the prototypical viral enhancer of cytomegalovirus (CMV) have comparable expression kinetics, and positively respond to common TLR agonists. In macrophages but not fibroblasts we show that activation of NFκB at immediate-early times of infection is independent of virion-associated protein, M45. We find upon virus infection or transfection of viral genomic DNA the TLR-agonist treatment results in significant enhancement of the virus transcription-replication cycle. In macrophage time-course infection experiments we demonstrate that TLR-agonist stimulation of the viral enhancer and replication cycle is strictly delimited by a temporal gate with a determined half-maximal time for enhancer-activation of 6 h; after which TLR-activation blocks the viral transcription-replication cycle. By performing a systematic siRNA screen of 149 innate immune regulatory factors we identify not only anticipated anti-viral and pro-viral contributions but also new factors involved in the CMV transcription-replication cycle. We identify a central convergent NFκB-SP1-RXR-IRF axis downstream of TLR-signalling. Activation of the RXR component potentiated direct and indirect TLR-induced activation of CMV transcription-replication cycle; whereas chromatin binding experiments using wild-type and enhancer-deletion virus revealed IRF3 and 5 as new pro-viral host transcription factor interactions with the CMV enhancer in macrophages. In a

  16. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Susannah S; Hutchinson, Mark R; Zhang, Yingning; Hund, Dana K; Maier, Steven F; Rice, Kenner C; Watkins, Linda R

    2013-05-01

    We have previously observed that the non-opioid morphine metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, enhances pain via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether TLR4-dependent pain enhancement generalizes to other classes of glucuronide metabolites. In silico modeling predicted that glucuronic acid alone and ethyl glucuronide, a minor but long-lasting ethanol metabolite, would dock to the same MD-2 portion of the TLR4 receptor complex previously characterized as the docking site for morphine-3-glucuronide. Glucuronic acid, ethyl glucuronide and ethanol all caused an increase in TLR4-dependent reporter protein expression in a cell line transfected with TLR4 and associated co-signaling molecules. Glucuronic acid-, ethyl glucuronide-, and ethanol-induced increases in TLR4 signaling were blocked by the TLR4 antagonists LPS-RS and (+)-naloxone. Glucuronic acid and ethyl glucuronide both caused allodynia following intrathecal injection in rats, which was blocked by intrathecal co-administration of the TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS. The finding that ethyl glucuronide can cause TLR4-dependent pain could have implications for human conditions such as hangover headache and alcohol withdrawal hyperalgesia, as well as suggesting that other classes of glucuronide metabolites could have similar effects. PMID:23348028

  17. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Zhang, Yingning; Hund, Dana K.; Maier, Steven F.; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously observed that the non-opioid morphine metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, enhances pain via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether TLR4-dependent pain enhancement generalizes to other classes of glucuronide metabolites. In silico modeling predicted that glucuronic acid alone and ethyl glucuronide, a minor but long-lasting ethanol metabolite, would dock to the same MD-2 portion of the TLR4 receptor complex previously characterized as the docking site for morphine-3-glucuronide. Glucuronic acid, ethyl glucuronide and ethanol all caused an increase in TLR4-dependent reporter protein expression in a cell line transfected with TLR4 and associated co-signaling molecules. Glucuronic acid-, ethyl glucuronide-, and ethanol-induced increases in TLR4 signaling were blocked by the TLR4 antagonists LPS-RS and (+)-naloxone. Glucuronic acid and ethyl glucuronide both caused allodynia following intrathecal injection in rats, which was blocked by intrathecal co-administration of the TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS. The finding that ethyl glucuronide can cause TLR4-dependent pain could have implications for human conditions such as hangover headache and alcohol withdrawal hyperalgesia, as well as suggesting that other classes of glucuronide metabolites could have similar effects. PMID:23348028

  18. Toll-like receptors and diabetes complications: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Rosa Ramirez, Sandra; Ravi Krishna Dasu, Mohan

    2012-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease with constellation of metabolic aberrations resulting in debilitating complications. The prevalence of DM worldwide was 2.8% (171 million people) in 2000 and estimated to be at 4.4% (366 million people) in 2030. DM is a major risk factor for heart, kidney diseases, and lower limb amputations. Emerging in vitro and in vivo data suggest that systemic inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of DM complications via innate immune receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key innate immune receptors that mediate the inflammatory responses in DM. There are no reviews that collectively summarize and examine the detrimental role of TLRs in the manifestation of DM complications namely heart disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and wound healing. Thus, in this review, we will provide summaries of the TLR expression and activation and elucidate their role in propagating inflammation seen in DM complications. PMID:22934553

  19. Novel drugs targeting Toll-like receptors for antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge CG

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sentinel receptors of the host innate immune system that recognize conserved ‘pathogen-associated molecular patterns’ of invading microbes, including viruses. The activation of TLRs establishes antiviral innate immune responses and coordinates the development of long-lasting adaptive immunity in order to control viral pathogenesis. However, microbe-induced damage to host tissues may release ‘danger-associated molecular patterns’ that also activate TLRs, leading to an overexuberant inflammatory response and, ultimately, to tissue damage. Thus, TLRs have proven to be promising targets as therapeutics for the treatment of viral infections that result in inflammatory damage or as adjuvants in order to enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Here, we explore recent advances in TLR biology with a focus on novel drugs that target TLRs (agonists and antagonists) for antiviral therapy. PMID:25620999

  20. Dysregulation of Human Toll-like Receptor Function in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Albert C.; Panda, Alexander; Joshi, Samit R.; Qian, Feng; Allore, Heather G.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

    2010-01-01

    Studies addressing immunosenescence in the immune system have expanded to focus on the innate as well as the adaptive responses. In particular, aging results in alterations in the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the first described pattern recognition receptor family of the innate immune system. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the consequences of aging on TLR function in human cohorts and add to existing findings performed in animal models. In general, these studies show that human TLR function is impaired in the context of aging, and in addition there is evidence for inappropriate persistence of TLR activation in specific systems. These findings are consistent with an overarching theme of age-associated dysregulation of TLR signaling that likely contributes to the increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases found in geriatric patients. PMID:21074638

  1. Toll-Like Receptors and Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gesuete, Raffaella; Kohama, Steven G.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are master regulators of innate immunity and play an integral role in the activation of the inflammatory response during infections. In addition, TLRs influence the body’s response to numerous forms of injury. Recent data have shown that TLRs play a modulating role in ischemic brain damage after stroke. Interestingly, their stimulation prior to ischemia induces a tolerant state that is neuroprotective. This phenomenon, referred to as TLR preconditioning, is the result of reprogramming of the TLR response to ischemic injury. This review addresses the role of TLRs in brain ischemia and the activation of endogenous neuroprotective pathways in the setting of preconditioning. We highlight the protective role of the interferon-related response and the potential site of action for TLR preconditioning involving the blood-brain-barrier. Pharmacological modulation of TLR activation to promote protection against stroke is a promising approach for the development of prophylactic and acute therapies targeting ischemic brain injury. PMID:24709682

  2. Antiinfective applications of toll-like receptor 9 agonists.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Arthur M

    2007-07-01

    The innate immune system detects pathogens by the presence of highly conserved pathogen-expressed molecules, which trigger host immune defenses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 detects unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial or viral DNA, and can be stimulated for therapeutic applications with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing immune stimulatory "CpG motifs." TLR9 activation induces both innate and adaptive immunity. The TLR9-induced innate immune activation can be applied in the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases, and the adaptive immune-enhancing effects can be harnessed for improving vaccines. This article highlights the current understanding of the mechanism of action of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, and provides an overview of the preclinical data and early human clinical trial results, applying these TLR9 agonists in the field of infectious diseases. PMID:17607015

  3. MAPPING OF TOLL LIKE RECEPTOR (TLR) GENES IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that recognize conserved pathogen structures to induce innate immune effector molecules. In vertebrates, TLRs can distinguish among classes of pathogens and serve an important role in orchestrating the appropriate adaptive immune resp...

  4. Toll-like receptors as sensors of pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hallman, M; Rämet, M; Ezekowitz, R A

    2001-09-01

    Initial recognition of microbes, as they enter the body, is based on germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors that selectively bind to essential components of pathogens. This allows the body to respond immediately to the microbial invasion before the development of active immunity. The signal-transducing receptors that trigger the acute inflammatory cascade have been elusive until very recently. On the basis of their genetic similarity to the Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila, mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified. By now, nine transmembrane proteins in the TLR family have been described. Mammalian TLR4 is the signal-transducing receptor activated by the bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The activation of TLR4 leads to DNA binding of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, resulting in activation of the inflammatory cascade. Activation of other TLRs is likely to have similar consequences. TLR2 mediates the host response to Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. TLR1 and TLR6 may participate in the activation of macrophages by Gram-positive bacteria, whereas TLR9 appears to respond to a specific sequence of bacterial DNA. The TLRs that control the onset of an acute inflammatory response are critical antecedents for the development of adaptive acquired immunity. Genetic and developmental variation in the expression of microbial pattern recognition receptors may affect the individual's predisposition to infections in childhood and may contribute to susceptibility to severe neonatal inflammatory diseases, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:11518816

  5. Breast milk protects against the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through inhibition of Toll Like Receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Egan, Charlotte E.; Afrazi, Amin; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Branca, Maria F.; Ma, Congrong; Prindle, Thomas; Mielo, Samantha; Pompa, Anthony; Hodzic, Zerina; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease which is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal injury and repair. We now hypothesize that breast milk protects against NEC by inhibiting TLR4 within the intestinal epithelium, and sought to determine the mechanisms involved. Breast milk protected against NEC and reduced TLR4 signaling in wild-type neonatal mice, but not in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), while selective removal of EGF from breast milk reduced its protective properties, indicating that breast milk inhibits NEC and attenuates TLR4 signaling via EGF/EGFR activation. Over-expression of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium reversed the protective effects of breast milk. The protective effects of breast milk occurred via inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis and restoration of enterocyte proliferation. Importantly, in IEC-6 enterocytes, breast milk inhibited TLR4 signaling via inhibition of GSK3β. Taken together, these findings offer mechanistic insights into the protective role for breast milk in NEC, and support a link between growth factor and innate immune receptors in NEC pathogenesis. PMID:25899687

  6. Current Views of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    On microbial invasion, the host immediately evokes innate immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play crucial roles in innate responses that lead not only to the clearance of pathogens but also to the efficient establishment of acquired immunity by directly detecting molecules from microbes. In terms of intracellular TLR-mediated signaling pathways, cytoplasmic adaptor molecules containing Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domains play important roles in inflammatory immune responses through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and type I interferon, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. In this paper, we will describe our current understanding of the relationship between TLRs and their ligands derived from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Moreover, we will review the historical and current literature to describe the mechanisms behind TLR-mediated activation of innate immune responses. PMID:21197425

  7. Toll-Like Receptors in Leishmania Infections: Guardians or Promoters?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Marilia S.; Reis, Flavia C. G.; Lima, Ana Paula C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Protozoa of the genus Leishmania cause a wide variety of pathologies ranging from self-healing skin lesions to visceral damage, depending on the parasite species. The outcome of infection depends on the quality of the adaptive immune response, which is determined by parasite factors and the host genetic background. Innate responses, resulting in the generation of mediators with anti-leishmanial activity, contribute to parasite control and help the development of efficient adaptive responses. Among those, the potential contribution of members of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) family in the control of Leishmania infections started to be investigated about a decade ago. Although most studies appoint a protective role for TLRs, there is growing evidence that in some cases, TLRs facilitate infection. This review highlights recent advances in TLR function during Leishmania infections and discusses their potential role in restraining parasite growth versus yielding disease. PMID:22523644

  8. Reprint of: Microglial toll-like receptors and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Su, Fan; Bai, Feng; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    Microglial activation represents an important pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and emerging data highlight the involvement of microglial toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the course of AD. TLRs have been observed to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on AD-related pathologies, and transgenic animal models have provided direct and credible evidence for an association between TLRs and AD. Moreover, analyses of genetic polymorphisms have suggested interactions between genetic polymorphisms in TLRs and AD risk, further supporting the hypothesis that TLRs are involved in AD. In this review, we summarize the key evidence in this field. Future studies should focus on exploring the mechanisms underlying the potential roles of TLRs in AD. PMID:27255539

  9. Mechanisms for the activation of Toll-like receptor 2/4 by saturated fatty acids and inhibition by docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Daniel H; Kim, Jeong-A; Lee, Joo Young

    2016-08-15

    Saturated fatty acids can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 but polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit the activation. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipopetides, ligands for TLR4 and TLR2, respectively, are acylated by saturated fatty acids. Removal of these fatty acids results in loss of their ligand activity suggesting that the saturated fatty acyl moieties are required for the receptor activation. X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that these saturated fatty acyl groups of the ligands directly occupy hydrophobic lipid binding domains of the receptors (or co-receptor) and induce the dimerization which is prerequisite for the receptor activation. Saturated fatty acids also induce the dimerization and translocation of TLR4 and TLR2 into lipid rafts in plasma membrane and this process is inhibited by DHA. Whether saturated fatty acids induce the dimerization of the receptors by interacting with these lipid binding domains is not known. Many experimental results suggest that saturated fatty acids promote the formation of lipid rafts and recruitment of TLRs into lipid rafts leading to ligand independent dimerization of the receptors. Such a mode of ligand independent receptor activation defies the conventional concept of ligand induced receptor activation; however, this may enable diverse non-microbial molecules with endogenous and dietary origins to modulate TLR-mediated immune responses. Emerging experimental evidence reveals that TLRs play a key role in bridging diet-induced endocrine and metabolic changes to immune responses. PMID:27085899

  10. [Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signalling].

    PubMed

    Antosz, Halina; Choroszyńska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of innate immunity is based on the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that recognize molecular patterns associated with pathogens (PAMPs). Among PRR receptors Toll-like receptors (TLR) are distinguished. As a result of contact with pathogens, TLRs activate specific intracellular signaling pathways. It happens through proteins such as adaptor molecules, e.g. MyD88, TIRAP, TRIF, TRAM, and IPS-1, which participate in the cascade activation of kinases (IKK, MAP, RIP-1, TBK-1) as well as transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1) and regulatory factor (IRF3). The result of this activation is the production of active proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, interferons and enzymes. The PRR pathways are controlled by extra- and intracellular molecules to prevent overexpression of PRR. They include soluble receptors (sTLR), transmembrane proteins (ST2, SIGIRR, RP105, TRAIL-R) and intracellular inhibitors (SOCS-1, SOCS-3, sMyD88, TOLLIP, IRAK-M, SARM, A20, β-arrestin, CYLD, SHP). These molecules maintain the balance between activation and inhibition and ensure balancing of the beneficial and adverse effects of antigen recognition. PMID:23619234

  11. Cross-talk between toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is involved in vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, M; Vellecco, V; Harrington, L; Brancaleone, V; Roviezzo, F; Mattace Raso, G; Ianaro, A; Lungarella, G; De Palma, R; Meli, R; Cirino, G

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in innate immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cross-talk between PAR2 and TLR4 in vessels in physiological condition and how it varies following stimulation of TLR4 by using in vivo and ex vivo models. Experimental Approach Thoracic aortas were harvested from both naïve and endotoxaemic rats for in vitro studies. Arterial blood pressure was monitored in anaesthetized rats in vivo. LPS was used as a TLR4 agonist while PAR2 activating peptide (AP) was used as a PAR2 agonist. Aortas harvested from TLR4–/– mice were also used to characterize the PAR2 response. Key Results PAR2, but not TLR4, expression was enhanced in aortas of endotoxaemic rats. PAR2AP-induced vasorelaxation was increased in aortic rings of LPS-treated rats. TLR4 inhibitors, curcumine and resveratrol, reduced PAR2AP-induced vasorelaxation and PAR2AP-induced hypotension in both naïve and endotoxaemic rats. Finally, in aortic rings from TLR4–/– mice, the expression of PAR2 was reduced and the PAR2AP-induced vasodilatation impaired compared with those from wild-type mice and both resveratrol and curcumine were ineffective. Conclusions and Implications Cross-talk between PAR2 and TLR4 contributes to vascular homeostasis. PMID:22957757

  12. Brain Interleukin-1β and the Intrinsic Receptor Antagonist Control Peripheral Toll-Like Receptor 3-Mediated Suppression of Spontaneous Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, Masanori; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Eguchi, Asami; Kume, Satoshi; Miyashige, Yukiharu; Nakano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2014-01-01

    During acute viral infections such as influenza, humans often experience not only transient fever, but also prolonged fatigue or depressive feelings with a decrease in social activity for days or weeks. These feelings are thought to be due to neuroinflammation in the brain. Recent studies have suggested that chronic neuroinflammation is a precipitating event of various neurological disorders, but the mechanism determining the duration of neuroinflammation has not been elucidated. In this study, neuroinflammation was induced by intraperitoneal injection of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), a Toll-like receptor-3 agonist that mimics viral infection in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and then investigated how the neuroinflammation shift from acute to the chronic state. The rats showed transient fever and prolonged suppression of spontaneous activity for several days following poly I:C injection. NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, completely prevented fever, but did not improve spontaneous activity, indicating that suppression of spontaneous activity was not induced by the arachidonate cascade that generated the fever. The animals overexpressed interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in the brain including the cerebral cortex. Blocking the IL-1 receptor in the brain by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of recombinant IL-1ra completely blocked the poly I:C-induced suppression of spontaneous activity and attenuated amplification of brain interferon (IFN)-α expression, which has been reported to produce fatigue-like behavior by suppressing the serotonergic system. Furthermore, i.c.v. infusion of neutralizing antibody for IL-1ra prolonged recovery from suppression of spontaneous activity. Our findings indicated that IL-1β is the key trigger of neuroinflammation and that IL-1ra prevents the neuroinflammation entering the chronic state. PMID:24621600

  13. Differential expression of key regulators of Toll-like receptors in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a role for Tollip and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; MacSharry, J; Darby, T; Fanning, A; Shanahan, F; Houston, A; Brint, E

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system is currently seen as the probable initiator of events which culminate in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) known to be involved in this disease process. Many regulators of TLRs have been described, and dysregulation of these may also be important in the pathogenesis of IBD. The aim of this study was to perform a co-ordinated analysis of the expression levels of both key intestinal TLRs and their inhibitory proteins in the same IBD cohorts, both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), in order to evaluate the potential roles of these proteins in the pathogenesis of IBD. Of the six TLRs (TLRs 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 9) examined, only TLR-4 was increased significantly in IBD, specifically in active UC. In contrast, differential alterations in expression of TLR inhibitory proteins were observed. A20 and suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) were increased only in active UC while interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-m) and B cell lymphoma 3 protein (Bcl-3) were increased in both active UC and CD. In contrast, expression of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and Toll interacting protein (Tollip) was decreased in both active and inactive UC and CD and at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, expression of both PPARγ and A20 expression was increased by stimulation of a colonic epithelial cell line Caco-2 with both TLR ligands and commensal bacterial strains. These data suggest that IBD may be associated with distinctive changes in TLR-4 and TLR inhibitory proteins, implying that alterations in these may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:26462859

  14. Subverting Toll-Like Receptor Signaling by Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Victoria A.; Arthur, J. Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria are detected by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on innate immune cells, which activate intracellular signal transduction pathways to elicit an immune response. Toll-like receptors are, perhaps, the most studied of the PRRs and can activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. These pathways are critical for mounting an effective immune response. In order to evade detection and promote virulence, many pathogens subvert the host immune response by targeting components of these signal transduction pathways. This mini-review highlights the diverse mechanisms that bacterial pathogens have evolved to manipulate the innate immune response, with a particular focus on those that target MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Understanding the elaborate strategies that pathogens employ to subvert the immune response not only highlights the importance of these proteins in mounting effective immune responses, but may also identify novel approaches for treatment or prevention of infection. PMID:26648936

  15. Determinants of Activity at Human Toll-like Receptors 7 and 8: Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship (QSAR) of Diverse Heterocyclic Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 8 agonists are potential vaccine adjuvants, since they directly activate APCs and enhance Th1-driven immune responses. Previous SAR investigations in several scaffolds of small molecule TLR7/8 activators pointed to the strict dependence of the selectivity for TLR7 vis-à-vis TLR8 on the electronic configurations of the heterocyclic systems, which we sought to examine quantitatively with the goal of developing “heuristics” to define structural requisites governing activity at TLR7 and/or TLR8. We undertook a scaffold-hopping approach, entailing the syntheses and biological evaluations of 13 different chemotypes. Crystal structures of TLR8 in complex with the two most active compounds confirmed important binding interactions playing a key role in ligand occupancy and biological activity. Density functional theory based quantum chemical calculations on these compounds followed by linear discriminant analyses permitted the classification of inactive, TLR8-active, and TLR7/8 dual-active compounds, confirming the critical role of partial charges in determining biological activity. PMID:25192394

  16. Neu1 desialylation of sialyl alpha-2,3-linked beta-galactosyl residues of TOLL-like receptor 4 is essential for receptor activation and cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Amith, Schammim Ray; Jayanth, Preethi; Franchuk, Susan; Finlay, Trisha; Seyrantepe, Volkan; Beyaert, Rudi; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2010-02-01

    The ectodomain of TOLL-like receptors (TLR) is highly glycosylated with several N-linked gylcosylation sites located in the inner concave surface. The precise role of these sugar N-glycans in TLR receptor activation is unknown. Recently, we have shown that Neu1 sialidase and not Neu2, -3 and -4 forms a complex with TLR-2, -3 and -4 receptors on the cell-surface membrane of naïve and activated macrophage cells (Glycoconj J DOI 10.1007/s10719-009-9239-8). Activation of Neu1 is induced by TLR ligands binding to their respective receptors. Here, we show that endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MyD88/TLR4 complex formation and subsequent NFkappaB activation is dependent on the removal of alpha-2,3-sialyl residue linked to beta-galactoside of TLR4 by the Neu1 activity associated with LPS-stimulated live primary macrophage cells, macrophage and dendritic cell lines but not with primary Neu1-deficient macrophage cells. Exogenous alpha-2,3 sialyl specific neuraminidase (Streptoccocus pneumoniae) and wild-type T. cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) but not the catalytically inactive mutant TSAsp98-Glu mediate TLR4 dimerization to facilitate MyD88/TLR4 complex formation and NFkappaB activation similar to those responses seen with LPS. These same TLR ligand-induced NFkappaB responses are not observed in TLR deficient HEK293 cells, but are re-established in HEK293 cells stably transfected with TLR4/MD2, and are significantly inhibited by alpha-2,3-sialyl specific Maackia amurensis (MAL-2) lectin, alpha-2,3-sialyl specific galectin-1 and neuraminidase inhibitor Tamiflu but not by alpha-2,6-sialyl specific Sambucus nigra lectin (SNA). Taken together, the findings suggest that Neu1 desialylation of alpha-2,3-sialyl residues of TLR receptors enables in removing a steric hinderance to receptor association for TLR activation and cellular signaling. PMID:19796680

  17. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and nuclear factor-κB in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Necela, Brian M; Su, Weidong; Thompson, E Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in macrophages and plays an important role in suppressing the inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), reduced PPARγ expression and function in peritoneal macrophages and macrophage cell lines. Moreover, pretreatment with the synthetic PPARγ ligand, rosiglitazone did not prevent LPS-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. Inhibition of PPARγ expression was not blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that de novo protein synthesis is not required for LPS-mediated suppression of PPARγ. Destabilization of PPARγ messenger RNA (mRNA) was not observed in LPS-stimulated macrophages, suggesting that LPS regulates the synthesis of PPARγ mRNA. LPS had no effect on PPARγ expression in macrophages from TLR4 knockout mice, whereas LPS inhibited PPARγ expression in cells that had been reconstituted to express functional TLR4. Targeting the TLR4 pathway with inhibitors of MEK1/2, p38, JNK and AP-1 had no effect on PPARγ downregulation by LPS. However, inhibitors that target NEMO, IκB and NF-κB abolished LPS-mediated downregulation of PPARγ in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Our data indicate that activation of TLR4 inhibits PPARγ mRNA synthesis by an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Low-density genomic profiling of macrophage-specific PPARγ knockout cells indicated that PPARγ suppresses inflammation under basal conditions, and that loss of PPARγ expression is sufficient to induce a proinflammatory state. Our data reveal a regulatory feedback loop in which PPARγ represses NF-κB-mediated inflammatory signalling in unstimulated macrophages; however, upon activation of TLR4, NF-κB drives down PPARγ expression and thereby obviates any potential anti-inflammatory effects of PPARγ in LPS-stimulated macrophages. PMID:18422969

  18. Toll-Like Receptor 7-Targeted Therapy in Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lebold, Katie M.; Jacoby, David B.; Drake, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract characterized by an excessive type-2 T helper cell (Th2) immune response. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a single-stranded viral RNA receptor expressed in the airway that initiates a Th1 immune response and has garnered interest as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. In animal models, synthetic TLR7 agonists reduce airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway remodeling while decreasing Th2-associated cytokines. Furthermore, activation of TLR7 rapidly relaxes airway smooth muscle via production of nitric oxide. Thus, TLR7 has dual bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. Two TLR7 ligands with promising pharmacologic profiles have entered clinical trials for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Moreover, TLR7 agonists are potential antiviral therapies against respiratory viruses. TLR7 agonists enhance influenza vaccine efficacy and also reduce viral titers when given during an active airway infection. In this review, we examine the current data supporting TLR7 as a therapeutic target in allergic airway diseases. PMID:27226793

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 7-Targeted Therapy in Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Lebold, Katie M; Jacoby, David B; Drake, Matthew G

    2016-03-01

    Allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract characterized by an excessive type-2 T helper cell (Th2) immune response. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a single-stranded viral RNA receptor expressed in the airway that initiates a Th1 immune response and has garnered interest as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. In animal models, synthetic TLR7 agonists reduce airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway remodeling while decreasing Th2-associated cytokines. Furthermore, activation of TLR7 rapidly relaxes airway smooth muscle via production of nitric oxide. Thus, TLR7 has dual bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. Two TLR7 ligands with promising pharmacologic profiles have entered clinical trials for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Moreover, TLR7 agonists are potential antiviral therapies against respiratory viruses. TLR7 agonists enhance influenza vaccine efficacy and also reduce viral titers when given during an active airway infection. In this review, we examine the current data supporting TLR7 as a therapeutic target in allergic airway diseases. PMID:27226793

  20. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein Stimulates Complement C3 Expression and Secretion via Liver X Receptor and Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation in Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Mogilenko, Denis A.; Kudriavtsev, Igor V.; Trulioff, Andrey S.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Missyul, Boris V.; Zhakhov, Alexander V.; Ischenko, Alexander M.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.; Orlov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 is a pivotal component of three cascades of complement activation. C3 is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in atherogenesis. However, the mechanism of C3 accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions is not well elucidated. We show that acetylated low density lipoprotein and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) increase C3 gene expression and protein secretion by human macrophages. Modified LDL (mLDL)-mediated activation of C3 expression mainly depends on liver X receptor (LXR) and partly on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas C3 secretion is increased due to TLR4 activation by mLDL. LXR agonist TO901317 stimulates C3 gene expression in human monocyte-macrophage cells but not in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. We find LXR-responsive element inside of the promoter region of the human C3 gene, which binds to LXRβ in macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. We show that C3 expression and secretion is decreased in IL-4-treated (M2) and increased in IFNγ/LPS-stimulated (M1) human macrophages as compared with resting macrophages. LXR agonist TO901317 potentiates LPS-induced C3 gene expression and protein secretion in macrophages, whereas oxLDL differently modulates LPS-mediated regulation of C3 in M1 or M2 macrophages. Treatment of human macrophages with anaphylatoxin C3a results in stimulation of C3 transcription and secretion as well as increased oxLDL accumulation and augmented oxLDL-mediated up-regulation of the C3 gene. These data provide a novel mechanism of C3 gene regulation in macrophages and suggest new aspects of cross-talk between mLDL, C3, C3a, and TLR4 during development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22194611

  1. Toll-like receptor signaling in primary immune deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J; Simchoni, Noa; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation of the immune system. Patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) affecting TLR signaling can elucidate the importance of these proteins to the human immune system. Defects in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) lead to susceptibility to infections with bacteria, while mutations in nuclear factor-κB essential modulator (NEMO) and other downstream mediators generally induce broader susceptibility to bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In contrast, TLR3 signaling defects are specific for susceptibility to herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis. Other PIDs induce functional alterations of TLR signaling pathways, such as common variable immunodeficiency in which plasmacytoid dendritic cell defects enhance defective responses of B cells to shared TLR agonists. Dampening of TLR responses is seen for TLRs 2 and 4 in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Enhanced TLR responses, meanwhile, are seen for TLRs 5 and 9 in CGD, TLRs 4, 7/8, and 9 in XLA, TLRs 2 and 4 in hyper IgE syndrome, and for most TLRs in adenosine deaminase deficiency. PMID:25930993

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 9 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sandholm, Jouko; Selander, Katri S.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a cellular DNA receptor of the innate immune system. DNA recognition via TLR9 results in an inflammatory reaction, which eventually also activates a Th1-biased adaptive immune attack. In addition to cells of the immune system, TLR9 mRNA and protein are also widely expressed in breast cancer cell lines and in clinical breast cancer specimens. Although synthetic TLR9-ligands induce cancer cell invasion in vitro, the role of TLR9 in cancer pathophysiology has remained unclear. In the studies conducted so far, tumor TLR9 expression has been shown to have prognostic significance only in patients that have triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Specifically, high tumor TLR9 expression predicts good prognosis among TNBC patients. Pre-clinical studies suggest that TLR9 expression may affect tumor immunophenotype and contribute to the immunogenic benefit of chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss the possible contribution of tumor TLR9 to the pathogenesis and treatment responses in breast cancer. PMID:25101078

  3. Cathepsins are required for Toll-like receptor 9 responses

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Fumi; Saitoh, Shin-ichiroh; Fukui, Ryutaroh; Kobayashi, Toshihiko; Tanimura, Natsuko; Konno, Kazunori; Kusumoto, Yutaka; Akashi-Takamura, Sachiko; Miyake, Kensuke

    2008-03-14

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize a variety of microbial products and activate defense responses. Pathogen sensing by TLR2/4 requires accessory molecules, whereas little is known about a molecule required for DNA recognition by TLR9. After endocytosis of microbes, microbial DNA is exposed and recognized by TLR9 in lysosomes. We here show that cathepsins, lysosomal cysteine proteases, are required for TLR9 responses. A cell line Ba/F3 was found to be defective in TLR9 responses despite enforced TLR9 expression. Functional cloning with Ba/F3 identified cathepsin B/L as a molecule required for TLR9 responses. The protease activity was essential for the complementing effect. TLR9 responses were also conferred by cathepsin S or F, but not by cathepsin H. TLR9-dependent B cell proliferation and CD86 upregulation were apparently downregulated by cathepsin B/L inhibitors. Cathepsin B inhibitor downregulated interaction of CpG-B with TLR9 in 293T cells. These results suggest roles for cathepsins in DNA recognition by TLR9.

  4. Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a wealth of knowledge about how different Ser/Thr protein kinases participate in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. In many cases, we know the identities of the Ser/Thr residues of various components of the TLR-signaling pathways that are phosphorylated, the functional consequences of the phosphorylation and the responsible protein kinases. In contrast, the analysis of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins is currently incomplete, because several existing analyses are not systematic or they do not rely on robust experimental data. Nevertheless, it is clear that many TLRs require, for signaling, ligand-dependent phosphorylation of specific Tyr residues in their cytoplasmic domains; the list includes TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR8 and TLR9. In this article, we discuss the current status of knowledge on the effect of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins on their biochemical and biological functions, the possible identities of the relevant protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and the nature of regulations of PTK-mediated activation of TLR signaling pathways. PMID:25022196

  5. Activation of Human Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)·Myeloid Differentiation Factor 2 (MD-2) by Hypoacylated Lipopolysaccharide from a Clinical Isolate of Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Kubik, Łukasz; Oblak, Alja; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Cigana, Cristina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Hamad, Mohamad A; De Soyza, Anthony; Silipo, Alba; Jerala, Roman; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Valvano, Miguel A; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles; Molinaro, Antonio

    2015-08-28

    Lung infection by Burkholderia species, in particular Burkholderia cenocepacia, accelerates tissue damage and increases post-lung transplant mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. Host-microbe interplay largely depends on interactions between pathogen-specific molecules and innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which recognizes the lipid A moiety of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The human TLR4·myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) LPS receptor complex is strongly activated by hexa-acylated lipid A and poorly activated by underacylated lipid A. Here, we report that B. cenocepacia LPS strongly activates human TLR4·MD-2 despite its lipid A having only five acyl chains. Furthermore, we show that aminoarabinose residues in lipid A contribute to TLR4-lipid A interactions, and experiments in a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxic shock confirmed the proinflammatory potential of B. cenocepacia penta-acylated lipid A. Molecular modeling combined with mutagenesis of TLR4-MD-2 interactive surfaces suggests that longer acyl chains and the aminoarabinose residues in the B. cenocepacia lipid A allow exposure of the fifth acyl chain on the surface of MD-2 enabling interactions with TLR4 and its dimerization. Our results provide a molecular model for activation of the human TLR4·MD-2 complex by penta-acylated lipid A explaining the ability of hypoacylated B. cenocepacia LPS to promote proinflammatory responses associated with the severe pathogenicity of this opportunistic bacterium. PMID:26160169

  6. Deviation from major codons in the Toll-like receptor genes is associated with low Toll-like receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Fei; Cao, Weiping; Chan, Edmund; Tay, Puei Nam; Cahya, Florence Feby; Zhang, Haifeng; Lu, Jinhua

    2005-01-01

    Microbial structures activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR-mediated cell signalling elicits and regulates host immunity. Most TLRs are poorly expressed but the underlying expression mechanism is not clear. Examination TLR sequences revealed that most human TLR genes deviated from using major human codons. CD14 resembles TLRs in sequence but its gene preferentially uses major codons. Indeed, CD14 expression on monocytes was higher than expression of TLR1 and TLR2. The TLR9 gene is abundant in major codons and it also showed higher expression than TLR1, TLR2 and TLR7 in transfected 293T cells. Change of the 5′-end 302 base pairs of the TLR2 sequence into major human codons markedly increased TLR2 expression, which led to increased TLR2-mediated constitutive nuclear factor-κB activation. Change of the 5′-end 381 base pairs of the CD14 sequence into prevalent TLR codons markedly reduced CD14 expression. These results collectively show that the deviation of TLR sequences from using major codons dictates the low TLR expression and this may protect the host against excessive inflammation and tissue damages. PMID:15606798

  7. Review of the innate immune response in acne vulgaris: activation of Toll-like receptor 2 in acne triggers inflammatory cytokine responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disorder that affects 40-50 million people in the USA alone. The pathogenesis of acne is multifactorial, including hormonal, microbiological and immunological mechanisms. One of the factors that contributes to the pathogenesis of acne is Propionibacterium acnes; yet, the molecular mechanism by which P. acnes induces inflammation is not known. Recent studies have demonstrated that microbial agents trigger cytokine responses via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns conserved among microorganisms and elicit immune responses. We investigated whether TLR2 mediates P. acnes-induced cytokine production in acne. Using transfectant cells we found that TLR2 was sufficient for NF-kappaB activation in response to P. acnes. In addition, peritoneal macrophages from wild-type, TLR6 knockout and TLR1 knockout mice, but not TLR2 knockout mice, produced IL-6 in response to P. acnes.P. acnes induced activation of IL-12 and IL-8 production by primary human monocytes, and this cytokine production was inhibited by anti-TLR2-blocking antibody. Finally, in acne lesions, TLR2 was expressed on the cell surface of macrophages surrounding pilosebaceous follicles. These data suggest that P. acnes triggers inflammatory cytokine responses in acne by activation of TLR2. As such, TLR2 may provide a novel target for the treatment of this common skin disease. PMID:16205063

  8. Critical residues involved in Toll-like receptor 4 activation by cationic lipid nanocarriers are not located at the lipopolysaccharide-binding interface.

    PubMed

    Lonez, Caroline; Irvine, Kate L; Pizzuto, Malvina; Schmidt, Boris I; Gay, Nick J; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Gangloff, Monique; Bryant, Clare E

    2015-10-01

    DiC14-amidine is a cationic lipid that was originally designed as a lipid nanocarrier for nucleic acid transport, and turned out to be a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist as well. We found that while E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a TLR4 agonist in all species, diC14-amidine nanoliposomes are full agonists for human, mouse and cat receptors but weak horse agonists. Taking advantage of this unusual species specificity, we used chimeric constructs based on the human and horse sequences and identified two regions in the human TLR4 that modulate the agonist activity of diC14-amidine. Interestingly, these regions lie outside the known LPS-binding domain. Competition experiments also support our hypothesis that diC14-amidine interacts primarily with TLR4 hydrophobic crevices located at the edges of the TLR4/TLR4* dimerization interface. We have characterized potential binding modes using molecular docking analysis and suggest that diC14-amidine nanoliposomes activate TLR4 by facilitating its dimerization in a process that is myeloid differentiation 2 (MD-2)-dependent and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14)-independent. Our data suggest that TLR4 may be activated through binding at different anchoring points, expanding the repertoire of TLR4 ligands to non-MD-2-binding lipids. PMID:25956320

  9. A Role for Syntaxin 3 in the Secretion of IL-6 from Dendritic Cells Following Activation of Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Laura E.; DeCourcey, Joseph; Rochfort, Keith D.; Kristek, Maja; Loscher, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    The role of dendritic cells (DCs) in directing the immune response is due in part to their capacity to produce a range of cytokines. Importantly, DCs are a source of cytokines, which can promote T cell survival and T helper cell differentiation. While it has become evident that soluble-N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor accessory-protein receptors (SNAREs) are involved in membrane fusion and ultimately cytokine release, little is known about which members of this family facilitate the secretion of specific cytokines from DCs. We profiled mRNA of 18 SNARE proteins in DCs in response to activation with a panel of three Toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands and show differential expression of SNAREs in response to their stimulus and subsequent secretion patterns. Of interest, STX3 mRNA was up-regulated in response to TLR4 and TLR7 activation but not TLR2 activation. This correlated with secretion of IL-6 and MIP-1α. Abolishment of STX3 from DCs by RNAi resulted in the attenuation of IL-6 levels and to some extent MIP-1α levels. Analysis of subcellular location of STX3 by confocal microscopy showed translocation of STX3 to the cell membrane only in DCs secreting IL-6 or MIP-1α, indicating a role for STX3 in trafficking of these immune mediators. Given the role of IL-6 in Th17 differentiation, these findings suggest the potential of STX3 as therapeutic target in inflammatory disease. PMID:25674084

  10. Stimulation by toll-like receptors inhibits osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Takami, Masamichi; Kim, Nacksung; Rho, Jaerang; Choi, Yongwon

    2002-08-01

    Osteoclasts, the cells capable of resorbing bone, are derived from hemopoietic precursor cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage. The same precursor cells can also give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells, which are essential for proper immune responses to various pathogens. Immune responses to microbial pathogens are often triggered because various microbial components induce the maturation and activation of immunoregulatory cells such as macrophages or dendritic cells by stimulating Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Since osteoclasts arise from the same precursors as macrophages, we tested whether TLRs play any role during osteoclast differentiation. We showed here that osteoclast precursors prepared from mouse bone marrow cells expressed all known murine TLRs (TLR1-TLR9). Moreover, various TLR ligands (e.g., peptidoglycan, poly(I:C) dsRNA, LPS, and CpG motif of unmethylated DNA, which act as ligands for TLR2, 3, 4, and 9, respectively) induced NF-kappa B activation and up-regulated TNF-alpha production in osteoclast precursor cells. Unexpectedly, however, TLR stimulation of osteoclast precursors by these microbial products strongly inhibited their differentiation into multinucleated, mature osteoclasts induced by TNF-related activation-induced cytokine. Rather, TLR stimulation maintained the phagocytic activity of osteoclast precursors in the presence of osteoclastogenic stimuli M-CSF and TNF-related activation-induced cytokine. Taken together, these results suggest that TLR stimulation of osteoclast precursors inhibits their differentiation into noninflammatory mature osteoclasts during microbial infection. This process favors immune responses and may be critical to prevent pathogenic effects of microbial invasion on bone. PMID:12133979

  11. Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression during Trichinella spiralis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sin; Park, Mi Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun

    2015-01-01

    In Trichinella spiralis infection, type 2 helper T (Th2) cell-related and regulatory T (Treg) cell-related immune responses are the most important immune events. In order to clarify which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely associated with these responses, we analyzed the expression of mouse TLR genes in the small intestine and muscle tissue during T. spiralis infection. In addition, the expression of several chemokine- and cytokine-encoding genes, which are related to Th2 and Treg cell mediated immune responses, were analyzed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-associated proteins (TIRAP) and Toll receptor-associated activator of interferons (TRIF) adapter protein deficient and wild type (WT) mice. The results showed significantly increased TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression in the small intestine after 2 weeks of T. spiralis infection. In the muscle, TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 gene expression significantly increased after 4 weeks of infection. Only the expression of the TLR4 and TLR9 genes was significantly elevated in WT MEF cells after treatment with excretory-secretory (ES) proteins. Gene expression for Th2 chemokine genes were highly enhanced by ES proteins in WT MEF cells, while this elevation was slightly reduced in MyD88/TIRAP-/- MEF cells, and quite substantially decreased in TRIF-/- MEF cells. In contrast, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels were not elevated in MyD88/TIRAP-/- MEF cells. In conclusion, we suggest that TLR4 and TLR9 might be closely linked to Th2 cell and Treg cell mediated immune responses, although additional data are needed to convincingly prove this observation. PMID:26323841

  12. Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression during Trichinella spiralis Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin; Park, Mi Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun

    2015-08-01

    In Trichinella spiralis infection, type 2 helper T (Th2) cell-related and regulatory T (Treg) cell-related immune responses are the most important immune events. In order to clarify which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely associated with these responses, we analyzed the expression of mouse TLR genes in the small intestine and muscle tissue during T. spiralis infection. In addition, the expression of several chemokine- and cytokine-encoding genes, which are related to Th2 and Treg cell mediated immune responses, were analyzed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-associated proteins (TIRAP) and Toll receptor-associated activator of interferons (TRIF) adapter protein deficient and wild type (WT) mice. The results showed significantly increased TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression in the small intestine after 2 weeks of T. spiralis infection. In the muscle, TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 gene expression significantly increased after 4 weeks of infection. Only the expression of the TLR4 and TLR9 genes was significantly elevated in WT MEF cells after treatment with excretory-secretory (ES) proteins. Gene expression for Th2 chemokine genes were highly enhanced by ES proteins in WT MEF cells, while this elevation was slightly reduced in MyD88/TIRAP(-/-) MEF cells, and quite substantially decreased in TRIF(-/-) MEF cells. In contrast, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels were not elevated in MyD88/TIRAP(-/-) MEF cells. In conclusion, we suggest that TLR4 and TLR9 might be closely linked to Th2 cell and Treg cell mediated immune responses, although additional data are needed to convincingly prove this observation. PMID:26323841

  13. Differential activation of the Toll-like receptor 2/6 complex by lipoproteins of Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 9.

    PubMed

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J; Rebel, Johanna M J; Smits, Mari A; van Putten, Jos P M; Smith, Hilde E

    2010-07-14

    Streptococcus suis causes invasive infections in pigs and occasionally in humans. Worldwide, S. suis serotype 2 is most frequently isolated from diseased piglets, but the less virulent serotype 9 is emerging, at least in Europe. We compared the activation of human Toll-like receptors (hTLRs) by S. suis serotype 2 and 9 strains to better understand the role of the innate immune response in fighting S. suis infections. Neither live nor heat-killed log phase grown S. suis activated the hTLR1/2, hTLR2/6 and hTLR4/MD-2 complexes. However, the hTLR2/6 complex was specifically activated by both serotypes after disruption of the cell wall synthesis using penicillin. Activation levels of the hTLR2/6 complex were higher for serotype 9 strains compared to serotype 2 strains suggesting intrinsic differences in cell wall composition between both serotypes. The hTLR2/6 activating fractions decreased in molecular size after digestion with proteinase K and were sensitive for lipoprotein lipase digestion and NaOH hydrolysis, indicating lipoprotein(s) as active component(s). Overall, our results indicate that S. suis lipoproteins activate TLR2/6 but not TLR1/2 and that the clinically different serotypes 2 and 9 display differential release of TLR ligand when cell wall integrity is compromised. PMID:20044219

  14. Nucleic acid recognizing Toll-like receptors and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    von Landenberg, Philipp; Bauer, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    The understanding of autoimmune diseases experienced an impressive boost since the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified as possible key players in autoimmune pathophysiology. Although these receptors recognize a variety of structures derived from viruses, bacteria, and fungi leading to subsequent initiation of the relevant immune responses, recent data support the idea that TLRs are crucial in the induction and perpetuation of certain autoimmune diseases, especially the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this review, we will summarize recent data on involvement of TLRs in the development of autoimmune diseases. We will focus on TLRs 7, 8, and 9 that were originally identified as receptors specific for bacterial and viral RNA/DNA, but more recent in vitro and in vivo studies have linked these receptors to the detection of host RNA, DNA, and RNA-associated or DNA-associated proteins in the context of autoimmunity. PMID:18060756

  15. Macrophage immunomodulation by breast cancer-derived exosomes requires Toll-like receptor 2-mediated activation of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Amy; Zhou, Weiying; Liu, Liang; Fong, Miranda Y.; Champer, Jackson; Van Haute, Desiree; Chin, Andrew R.; Ren, Xiubao; Gugiu, Bogdan Gabriel; Meng, Zhipeng; Huang, Wendong; Ngo, Vu; Kortylewski, Marcin; Wang, Shizhen Emily

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence links tumor progression with chronic inflammatory processes and dysregulated activity of various immune cells. In this study, we demonstrate that various types of macrophages internalize microvesicles, called exosomes, secreted by breast cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. Although both types of exosomes targeted macrophages, only cancer-derived exosomes stimulated NF-κB activation in macrophages resulting in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNFα, GCSF, and CCL2. In vivo mouse experiments confirmed that intravenously injected exosomes are efficiently internalized by macrophages in the lung and brain, which correlated with upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. In mice bearing xenografted human breast cancers, tumor-derived exosomes were internalized by macrophages in axillary lymph nodes thereby triggering expression of IL-6. Genetic ablation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or MyD88, a critical signaling adaptor in the NF-κB pathway, completely abolished the effect of tumor-derived exosomes. In contrast, inhibition of TLR4 or endosomal TLRs (TLR3/7/8/9) failed to abrogate NF-κB activation by exosomes. We further found that palmitoylated proteins present on the surface of tumor-secreted exosomes contributed to NF-κB activation. Thus, our results highlight a novel mechanism used by breast cancer cells to induce pro-inflammatory activity of distant macrophages through circulating exosomal vesicles secreted during cancer progression. PMID:25034888

  16. Coordinated Activation of Toll-Like Receptor8 (TLR8) and NLRP3 by the TLR8 Agonist, VTX-2337, Ignites Tumoricidal Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dietsch, Gregory N.; Lu, Hailing; Yang, Yi; Morishima, Chihiro; Chow, Laura Q.; Disis, Mary L.; Hershberg, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    VTX-2337 (USAN: motolimod) is a selective toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist, which is in clinical development as an immunotherapy for multiple oncology indications, including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Activation of TLR8 enhances natural killer cell activation, increases antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and induces Th1 polarizing cytokines. Here, we show that VTX-2337 stimulates the release of mature IL-1β and IL-18 from monocytic cells through coordinated actions on both TLR8 and the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex. In vitro, VTX-2337 primed monocytic cells to produce pro-IL-1β, pro-IL-18, and caspase-1, and also activated the NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby mediating the release of mature IL-1β family cytokines. Inhibition of caspase-1 blocked VTX-2337-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but had little impact on production of other TLR8-induced mediators such as TNFα. IL-18 activated natural killer cells and complemented other stimulatory pathways, including FcγRIII and NKG2D, resulting in IFNγ production and expression of CD107a. NLRP3 activation in vivo was confirmed by a dose-related increase in plasma IL-1β and IL-18 levels in cynomolgus monkeys administered VTX-2337. These results are highly relevant to clinical studies of combination VTX-2337/cetuximab treatment. Cetuximab, a clinically approved, epidermal growth factor receptor-specific monoclonal antibody, activates NK cells through interactions with FcγRIII and facilitates ADCC of tumor cells. Our preliminary findings from a Phase I open-label, dose-escalation, trial that enrolled 13 patients with recurrent or metastatic SCCHN show that patient NK cells become more responsive to stimulation by NKG2D or FcγRIII following VTX-2337 treatment. Together, these results indicate that TLR8 stimulation and inflammasome activation by VTX-2337 can complement FcγRIII engagement and may augment clinical responses in SCCHN

  17. Suppression of the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway of Toll-like receptors by luteolin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in induction of immune and inflammatory responses by recognizing invading pathogens. TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways activated through the interaction with adaptor molecules, MyD88 and TRIF, leading to the expression of proinflammat...

  18. Toll Like Receptor-4 Mediates Vascular Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular dysfunction is a major complication of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The current studies were undertaken to determine if inflammatory responses are activated in the vasculature of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), and if so, whether Toll Like Receptor-4 (TLR4), a ke...

  19. Mycobacterium leprae Activates Toll-Like Receptor-4 Signaling and Expression on Macrophages Depending on Previous Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Polycarpou, Anastasia; Holland, Martin J; Karageorgiou, Ioannis; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Walker, Stephen L; Willcocks, Sam; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1 and TLR2 have been shown to be receptors for Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), yet it is unclear whether M. leprae can signal through alternative TLRs. Other mycobacterial species possess ligands for TLR4 and genetic association studies in human populations suggest that people with TLR4 polymorphisms may be protected against leprosy. Using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells co-transfected with TLR4, we demonstrate that M. leprae activates TLR4. We used human macrophages to show that M. leprae stimulation of cytokine production is diminished if pre-treated with TLR4 neutralizing antibody. TLR4 protein expression was up-regulated on macrophages derived from non-bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated healthy volunteers after incubation with M. leprae, whereas it was down-regulated in macrophages derived from BCG-vaccinated donors. Finally, pre-treatment of macrophages derived from BCG-naive donors with BCG reversed the effect of M. leprae on TLR4 expression. This may be a newly described phenomenon by which BCG vaccination stimulates "non-specific" protection to the human immune system. PMID:27458573

  20. Mycobacterium leprae Activates Toll-Like Receptor-4 Signaling and Expression on Macrophages Depending on Previous Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Polycarpou, Anastasia; Holland, Martin J.; Karageorgiou, Ioannis; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Walker, Stephen L.; Willcocks, Sam; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1 and TLR2 have been shown to be receptors for Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), yet it is unclear whether M. leprae can signal through alternative TLRs. Other mycobacterial species possess ligands for TLR4 and genetic association studies in human populations suggest that people with TLR4 polymorphisms may be protected against leprosy. Using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells co-transfected with TLR4, we demonstrate that M. leprae activates TLR4. We used human macrophages to show that M. leprae stimulation of cytokine production is diminished if pre-treated with TLR4 neutralizing antibody. TLR4 protein expression was up-regulated on macrophages derived from non-bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated healthy volunteers after incubation with M. leprae, whereas it was down-regulated in macrophages derived from BCG-vaccinated donors. Finally, pre-treatment of macrophages derived from BCG-naive donors with BCG reversed the effect of M. leprae on TLR4 expression. This may be a newly described phenomenon by which BCG vaccination stimulates “non-specific” protection to the human immune system. PMID:27458573

  1. Unique Toll-Like Receptor 4 Activation by NAMPT/PBEF Induces NFκB Signaling and Inflammatory Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Sara M.; Ceco, Ermelinda; Evenoski, Carrie L.; Danilov, Sergei M.; Zhou, Tong; Chiang, Eddie T.; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Mapes, Brandon; Zhao, Jieling; Gursoy, Gamze; Brown, Mary E.; Adyshev, Djanybek M.; Siddiqui, Shahid S.; Quijada, Hector; Sammani, Saad; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Saadat, Laleh; Yousef, Mohammed; Wang, Ting; Liang, Jie; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-induced inflammatory lung injury (VILI) is mechanistically linked to increased NAMPT transcription and circulating levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (NAMPT/PBEF). Although VILI severity is attenuated by reduced NAMPT/PBEF bioavailability, the precise contribution of NAMPT/PBEF and excessive mechanical stress to VILI pathobiology is unknown. We now report that NAMPT/PBEF induces lung NFκB transcriptional activities and inflammatory injury via direct ligation of Toll–like receptor 4 (TLR4). Computational analysis demonstrated that NAMPT/PBEF and MD-2, a TLR4-binding protein essential for LPS-induced TLR4 activation, share ~30% sequence identity and exhibit striking structural similarity in loop regions critical for MD-2-TLR4 binding. Unlike MD-2, whose TLR4 binding alone is insufficient to initiate TLR4 signaling, NAMPT/PBEF alone produces robust TLR4 activation, likely via a protruding region of NAMPT/PBEF (S402-N412) with structural similarity to LPS. The identification of this unique mode of TLR4 activation by NAMPT/PBEF advances the understanding of innate immunity responses as well as the untoward events associated with mechanical stress-induced lung inflammation. PMID:26272519

  2. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 impair insulin-mediated brain activity by interleukin-6 and osteopontin and alter sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Tina; Lutz, Stefan Z; Hoene, Miriam; Waak, Jens; Peter, Andreas; Weigert, Cora; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Kahle, Philipp J; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M

    2012-05-01

    Impaired insulin action in the brain represents an early step in the progression toward type 2 diabetes, and elevated levels of saturated free fatty acids are known to impair insulin action in prediabetic subjects. One potential mediator that links fatty acids to inflammation and insulin resistance is the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Therefore, C3H/HeJ/TLR2-KO (TLR2/4-deficient) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and insulin action in the brain as well as cortical and locomotor activity was analyzed by using telemetric implants. TLR2/4-deficient mice were protected from HFD-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in the brain and displayed an improvement in cortical and locomotor activity that was not observed in C3H/HeJ mice. Sleep recordings revealed a 42% increase in rapid eye movement sleep in the deficient mice during daytime, and these mice spent 41% more time awake during the night period. Treatment of control mice with a neutralizing IL-6 antibody improved insulin action in the brain as well as cortical activity and diminished osteopontin protein to levels of the TLR2/4-deficient mice. Together, our data suggest that the lack of functional TLR2/4 protects mice from a fat-mediated impairment in insulin action, brain activity, locomotion, and sleep architecture by an IL-6/osteopontin-dependent mechanism. PMID:22278939

  3. Filarial Lymphatic Pathology Reflects Augmented Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Mediated Proinflammatory Cytokine Production ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Subash; Anuradha, R.; Kumar, N. Pavan; George, P. Jovvian; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with the development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are thought to play a major role in the development of filarial pathology. To elucidate the role of TLRs in the development of lymphatic pathology, we examined cytokine responses to different Toll ligands in patients with chronic lymphatic pathology (CP), infected patients with subclinical pathology (INF), and uninfected, endemic-normal (EN) individuals. TLR2, -7, and -9 ligands induced significantly elevated production of Th1 and other proinflammatory cytokines in CP patients in comparison to both INF and EN patients. TLR adaptor expression was not significantly different among the groups; however, both TLR2 and TLR9 ligands induced significantly higher levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (MAPK) as well as increased activation of NF-κB in CP individuals. Pharmacologic inhibition of both ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase pathways resulted in significantly diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines in CP individuals. Our data, therefore, strongly suggest an important role for TLR2- and TLR9-mediated proinflammatory cytokine induction and activation of both the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the development of pathology in human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:21875961

  4. Interaction of Toll-Like Receptors with the Molecular Chaperone Gp96 Is Essential for Its Activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiwei; Chen, Mi; Li, Xinghui; Zhao, Bao; Hou, Junwei; Zheng, Huaguo; Qiu, Lipeng; Li, Zihai; Meng, Songdong

    2016-01-01

    The heat shock protein gp96 elicits specific T cell responses to its chaperoned peptides against cancer and infectious diseases in both rodent models and clinical trials. Although gp96-induced innate immunity, via a subset of Toll like receptors (TLRs), and adaptive immunity, through antigen presentation, are both believed to be important for priming potent T cell responses, direct evidence for the role of gp96-mediated TLR activation related to its functional T cell activation is lacking. Here, we report that gp96 containing mutations in its TLR-binding domain failed to activate macrophages, but peptide presentation was unaffected. Moreover, we found that peptide-specific T cell responses, as well as antitumor T cell immunity induced by gp96, are severely impaired when the TLR-binding domain is mutated. These data demonstrate the essential role of the gp96-TLR interaction in priming T cell immunity and provide further molecular basis for the coupling of gp96-mediated innate with adaptive immunity. PMID:27183126

  5. Endotoxin·albumin complexes transfer endotoxin monomers to MD-2 resulting in activation of Toll-Like Receptor-4a

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, Gregory A.; Teghanemt, Athmane; Zhang, DeSheng; Gioannini, Theresa L.; Weiss, Jerrold P.

    2013-01-01

    Response to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is partially mediated by the recognition of GNB-derived endotoxin (E) by host cells. Potent host response to E depends on the sequential interaction of E with lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, MD-2 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4). While CD14 facilitates the efficient transfer of E monomers to MD-2 and MD-2·TLR4, activation of MD-2·TLR4 can occur in the absence of CD14, through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that incubation of purified E aggregates (Eagg, Mr ≥ 20 million) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with ≥ 0.1% albumin in the absence of divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+, yields E·albumin complexes (Mr ~70,000). E·albumin transfers E monomers to sMD-2 or sMD-2·TLR4 ectodomain (TLR4ecd) with a “Kd” of ~4 nM and induces MD-2·TLR4-dependent, CD14-independent cell activation with a potency only 10-fold less than that of monomeric E·CD14 complexes. Our findings demonstrate for the first time a mechanistic basis for delivery of endotoxin monomers to MD-2 and for activation of TLR4 that is independent of CD14. PMID:21994253

  6. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity enhances the anti-tumour effects of a Toll-like receptor 7 agonist in an established cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Saito, Kuniaki; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been shown to have anti-tumour activity in basic research and clinical studies. However, TLR agonist monotherapy does not sufficiently eliminate tumours. Activation of the innate immune response by TLR agonists is effective at driving adaptive immunity via interleukin-12 (IL-12) or IL-1, but is counteracted by the simultaneous induction of immunosuppressive cytokines and other molecules, including IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). In the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect of the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod (IMQ), in the absence of IDO activity. The administration of IMQ in IDO knockout (KO) mice inoculated with tumour cells significantly suppressed tumour progression compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice, and improved the survival rate. Moreover, injection with IMQ enhanced the tumour antigen-specific T helper type 1 response in IDO-KO mice with tumours. Combination therapy with IMQ and an IDO inhibitor also significantly inhibited tumour growth. Our results indicated that the enhancement of IDO expression with TLR agonists in cancer treatment might impair host anti-tumour immunity while the inhibition of IDO could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TLR agonists via the increase of T helper type 1 immune response. PMID:25322876

  7. Toll-like Receptors of the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Michio; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Kusumoto, Shoichi; Satake, Honoo

    2009-01-01

    Key transmembrane proteins in the innate immune system, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), have been suggested to occur in the genome of non-mammalian organisms including invertebrates. However, authentic invertebrate TLRs have been neither structurally nor functionally investigated. In this paper, we originally present the structures, localization, ligand recognition, activities, and inflammatory cytokine production of all TLRs of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, designated as Ci-TLR1 and Ci-TLR2. The amino acid sequence of Ci-TLR1 and Ci-TLR2 were found to possess unique structural organization with moderate sequence similarity to functionally characterized vertebrate TLRs. ci-tlr1 and ci-tlr2 genes were expressed predominantly in the stomach and intestine as well as in hemocytes. Ci-TLR1 and Ci-TLR2 expressed in HEK293 cells, unlike vertebrate TLRs, were localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes. Intriguingly, both Ci-TLR1 and Ci-TLR2 stimulate NF-κB induction in response to multiple pathogenic ligands such as double-stranded RNA, and bacterial cell wall components that are differentially recognized by respective vertebrate TLRs, revealing that Ci-TLRs recognize broader pathogen-associated molecular patterns than vertebrate TLRs. The Ci-TLR-stimulating pathogenic ligands also induced the expression of Ci-TNFα in the intestine and stomach where Ci-TLRs are expressed. These results provide evidence that the TLR-triggered innate immune systems are essentially conserved in ascidians, and that Ci-TLRs possess “hybrid” biological and immunological functions, compared with vertebrate TLRs. Moreover, it is presumed that chordate TLR ancestors also acquired the Ci-TLR-like multiple cellular localization and pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition. PMID:19651780

  8. Structural Determination and Toll-like Receptor 2-dependent Proinflammatory Activity of Dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol from Mycobacterium marinum*

    PubMed Central

    Elass-Rochard, Elisabeth; Rombouts, Yoann; Coddeville, Bernadette; Maes, Emmanuel; Blervaque, Renaud; Hot, David; Kremer, Laurent; Guérardel, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Although it was identified in the cell wall of several pathogenic mycobacteria, the biological properties of dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol have not been documented yet. In this study an apolar glycolipid, presumably corresponding to dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol, was purified from Mycobacterium marinum and subsequently identified as a 5-O-mycolyl-β-Araf-(1→2)-5-O-mycolyl-α-Araf-(1→1′)-glycerol (designated Mma_DMAG) using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analyses. Lipid composition analysis revealed that mycolic acids were dominated by oxygenated mycolates over α-mycolates and devoid of trans-cyclopropane functions. Highly purified Mma_DMAG was used to demonstrate its immunomodulatory activity. Mma_DMAG was found to induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β) in human macrophage THP-1 cells and to trigger the expression of ICAM-1 and CD40 cell surface antigens. This activation mechanism was dependent on TLR2, but not on TLR4, as demonstrated by (i) the use of neutralizing anti-TLR2 and -TLR4 antibodies and by (ii) the detection of secreted alkaline phosphatase in HEK293 cells co-transfected with the human TLR2 and secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase reporter genes. In addition, transcriptomic analyses indicated that various genes encoding proinflammatory factors were up-regulated after exposure of THP-1 cells to Mma_DMAG. Importantly, a wealth of other regulated genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, including chemokines/cytokines and their respective receptors, adhesion molecules, and metalloproteinases, were found to be modulated by Mma_DMAG. Overall, this study suggests that DMAG may be an active cell wall glycoconjugate driving host-pathogen interactions and participating in the immunopathogenesis of mycobacterial infections. PMID:22798072

  9. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier Arturo; Caballero, Ignacio; Montazeri, Mehrnaz; Maslehat, Nasim; Elliott, Sarah; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Calle, Alexandra; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH). TLR 2/6 ligation reduced the endometrial myometrial and glandular indexes and increased the luminal index. Furthermore, TLR 2/6 activation increased the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in UH lavages in the preimplantation day and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the implantation day. The engagement of TLR 2/6 with its ligand in the UH during embryo transfer severely affected the rate of embryonic implantation (45.00% ± 6.49% vs. 16.69% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05, control vs. test, respectively). Furthermore, this interference with the embryo implantation process was verified using an in vitro model of human embryo implantation where trophoblast spheroids failed to adhere to a monolayer of TLR 2- and TLR 2/6-activated endometrial cells. The inhibition of TLR receptors 2 and 6 in the presence of their specific ligands restored the ability of the spheroids to bind to the endometrial cells. In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success. PMID:24621922

  10. Up-regulation of human monocyte CD163 upon activation of cell-surface Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lehn K; Pioli, Patricia A; Wardwell, Kathleen; Vogel, Stefanie N; Guyre, Paul M

    2007-03-01

    The hemoglobin (Hb) scavenger receptor, CD163, is a cell-surface glycoprotein that is expressed exclusively on monocytes and macrophages. It binds and internalizes haptoglobin-Hb complexes and has been implicated in the resolution of inflammation. Furthermore, the regulation of CD163 during an innate immune response implies an important role for this molecule in the host defense against infection. LPS, derived from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, activates TLR4 to cause acute shedding of CD163 from human monocytes, followed by recovery and induction of surface CD163 to higher levels than observed on untreated monocytes. We now report that the TLR2 and TLR5 agonists--Pam3Cys and bacterial flagellin--have similar effects on CD163 surface expression. Up-regulation of CD163 following treatment of human PBMC with TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 agonists parallels increased production of IL-6 and IL-10, and neutralization of IL-6 and/or IL-10 blocks CD163 up-regulation. Furthermore, simultaneous stimulation of TLR2 or TLR5 in combination with TLR4 activation results in enhanced up-regulation of CD163. It is notable that exogenous recombinant IFN-gamma (rIFN-gamma) suppresses cell-surface, TLR-mediated IL-10 production as well as CD163 up-regulation. Sustained down-regulation of CD163 mediated by rIFN-gamma can be partially rescued with exogenous rIL-10 but not with exogenous rIL-6. This divergent regulation of CD163 by cytokines demonstrates that human monocytes react differently to infectious signals depending on the cytokine milieu they encounter. Thus, surface CD163 expression on mononuclear phagocytes is a carefully regulated component of the innate immune response to infection. PMID:17164428

  11. Unique features of chicken Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Vaezirad, Mahdi M; van Putten, Jos P M

    2013-11-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of innate immune pattern recognition receptors that have a key role in immune homeostasis and the defense against infections. The research explosion that followed the discovery of TLRs more than a decade ago has boosted fundamental knowledge on the function of the immune system and the resistance against disease, providing a rational for clinical modulation of the immune response. In addition, the conserved nature of the ancient TLR system throughout the animal kingdom has enabled a comparative biology approach to understand the evolution, structural architecture, and function of TLRs. In the present review we focus on TLR biology in the avian species, and, especially, on the unique functional properties of the chicken TLR repertoire. PMID:23628643

  12. Application potential of toll-like receptors in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ming; Chen, Xi; Ye, Kangruo; Yao, Yuanfei; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as the most important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity, play a pivotal role in inducing immune response through recognition of microbial invaders or specific agonists. Recent studies have suggested that TLRs could serve as important regulators in the development of a variety of cancer. However, increasing evidences have shown that TLRs may display quite opposite outcomes in cancer development. Although several potential therapeutic Toll-like receptor ligands have been found, the mechanism and therapy prospect of TLRs in cancer development has to be further elucidated to accelerate the clinical application. By performing a systematic review of the present findings on TLRs in cancer immunology, we attempted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of TLRs in cancer therapy and elucidate the potential mechanism of cancer progress regulated by TLR signaling and the reported targets on TLRs for clinical application. An electronic databases search was conducted in PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database from their inception to February 1, 2016. The following keywords were used to search the databases: Toll-like receptors, cancer therapy, therapeutic target, innate immunity. Of 244 studies that were identified, 97 nonrelevant studies were excluded. In total, 147 full-text articles were assessed, and from these, 54 were excluded as they did not provide complete key information. Thus, 93 studies were considered eligible and included in the analysis. According to the data from the included trials, 14 TLR ligands (77.8%) from 82 studies have been demonstrated to display antitumor property in various cancers, whereas 4 ligands (22.2%) from 11 studies promote tumors. Among them, only 3 TLR ligands have been approved for cancer therapy, and 9 ligands were in clinical trials. In addition, the potential mechanism of recently reported targets on TLRs for clinical application was also

  13. Innate Immune Regulation by Toll-Like Receptors in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mallard, Carina

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system plays an important role in cerebral health and disease. In recent years the role of innate immune regulation by toll-like receptors in the brain has been highlighted. In this paper the expression of toll-like receptors and endogenous toll-like receptor ligands in the brain and their role in cerebral ischemia will be discussed. Further, the ability of systemic toll-like receptor ligands to induce cerebral inflammation will be reviewed. Finally, the capacity of toll-like receptors to both increase (sensitization) and decrease (preconditioning/tolerance) the vulnerability of the brain to damage will be disclosed. Studies investigating the role of toll-like receptors in the developing brain will be emphasized. PMID:23097717

  14. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 increases mouse aortic vascular smooth muscle cell contractility through ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hardigan, Trevor; Spitler, Kathryn; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Carrillo-Sepulveda, Maria Alicia

    2015-11-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system, is associated with vascular complications. However, whether activation of TLR3 alters vascular contractility is unknown. We, therefore, hypothesized that TLR3 activation augments vascular contractility and activates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contractile apparatus proteins. Male mice were treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C group, 14 days), a TLR3 agonist; control mice received saline (vehicle, 14 days). At the end of protocol, blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. Aortas were isolated and assessed for contractility experiments using a wire myograph. Aortic protein content was used to determine phosphorylated/total interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a downstream target of TLR3 signaling, and ERK1/2 using Western blot. We investigated the TLR3/IRF3/ERK1/2 signaling pathway and contractile-related proteins such as phosphorylated/total myosin light chain (MLC) and caldesmon (CaD) in aortic VSMC primary cultures. Poly I:C-treated mice exhibited (vs. vehicle-treated mice) (1) elevated systolic blood pressure. Moreover, Poly I:C treatment (2) enhanced aortic phenylephrine-induced maximum contraction, which was suppressed by PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), and (3) increased aortic levels of phosphorylated IRF3 and ERK1/2. Stimulation of mouse aortic VSMCs with Poly I:C resulted in increased phosphorylation of IRF3, ERK1/2, MLC, and CaD. Inhibition of ERK1/2 abolished Poly I:C-mediated phosphorylation of MLC and CaD. Our data provide functional evidence for the role of TLR3 in vascular contractile events, suggesting TLR3 as a potential new therapeutic target in vascular dysfunction and regulation of blood pressure. PMID:25724934

  15. Differential Activation of Human and Mouse Toll-Like Receptor 4 by the Adjuvant Candidate LpxL1 of Neisseria meningitidis▿

    PubMed Central

    Steeghs, Liana; Keestra, A. Marijke; van Mourik, Andries; Uronen-Hansson, Heli; van der Ley, Peter; Callard, Robin; Klein, Nigel; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis LpxL1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bearing penta-acylated lipid A is considered a promising adjuvant candidate for inclusion in future N. meningitidis vaccines, as it elicits a markedly reduced endotoxic response in human macrophages relative to that in wild-type (hexa-acylated) LPS, while it is an equally effective adjuvant in mice. As dendritic cells (DC) and Toll-like receptors (TLR) are regarded as central mediators in the initiation of an immune response, here we evaluated the ability of LpxL1 LPS to mature and to activate human DC and examined its TLR4-/MD-2-activating properties. Unexpectedly, purified LpxL1 LPS displayed minimal human DC-stimulating properties compared to wild-type LPS. Although whole bacteria induced DC maturation and activation irrespective of their type of LPS, the LpxL1 mutant failed to activate the human recombinant TLR4/MD-2 complex expressed in HeLa cells. Similarly, purified LpxL1 LPS was unable to activate human TLR4/MD-2 and it even acted as an antagonist of wild-type LPS. Both wild-type and LpxL1 LPSs activated the murine TLR4/MD-2 complex, consistent with their abilities to induce maturation and activation of murine DC. Assays with cells transfected with different combinations of human and murine TLR4 and MD-2 indicated that TLR4 was a more-major determinant of the LPS response than MD-2. The species-specific activation of the TLR4/MD-2 complex by LpxL1 LPS may have an impact on the use of LpxL1 LPS as an adjuvant and the use of murine immunization models in human meningococcal vaccine development. PMID:18490457

  16. Differential activation of human and mouse Toll-like receptor 4 by the adjuvant candidate LpxL1 of Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Steeghs, Liana; Keestra, A Marijke; van Mourik, Andries; Uronen-Hansson, Heli; van der Ley, Peter; Callard, Robin; Klein, Nigel; van Putten, Jos P M

    2008-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis LpxL1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bearing penta-acylated lipid A is considered a promising adjuvant candidate for inclusion in future N. meningitidis vaccines, as it elicits a markedly reduced endotoxic response in human macrophages relative to that in wild-type (hexa-acylated) LPS, while it is an equally effective adjuvant in mice. As dendritic cells (DC) and Toll-like receptors (TLR) are regarded as central mediators in the initiation of an immune response, here we evaluated the ability of LpxL1 LPS to mature and to activate human DC and examined its TLR4-/MD-2-activating properties. Unexpectedly, purified LpxL1 LPS displayed minimal human DC-stimulating properties compared to wild-type LPS. Although whole bacteria induced DC maturation and activation irrespective of their type of LPS, the LpxL1 mutant failed to activate the human recombinant TLR4/MD-2 complex expressed in HeLa cells. Similarly, purified LpxL1 LPS was unable to activate human TLR4/MD-2 and it even acted as an antagonist of wild-type LPS. Both wild-type and LpxL1 LPSs activated the murine TLR4/MD-2 complex, consistent with their abilities to induce maturation and activation of murine DC. Assays with cells transfected with different combinations of human and murine TLR4 and MD-2 indicated that TLR4 was a more-major determinant of the LPS response than MD-2. The species-specific activation of the TLR4/MD-2 complex by LpxL1 LPS may have an impact on the use of LpxL1 LPS as an adjuvant and the use of murine immunization models in human meningococcal vaccine development. PMID:18490457

  17. Participation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 in Toll-Like Receptor 2– and 4–Induced Neutrophil Activation and Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lorne, Emmanuel; Zhao, Xia; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W.; Liu, Gang; Park, Young-Jun; Tsuruta, Yuko; Abraham, Edward

    2009-01-01

    mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a central role in cell growth and cellular responses to metabolic stress. Although mTORC1 has been shown to be activated after Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 engagement, there is little information concerning the role that mTORC1 may play in modulating neutrophil function and neutrophil-dependent inflammatory events, such as acute lung injury. To examine these issues, we determined the effects of rapamycin-induced inhibition of mTORC1 on TLR2- and TLR4-induced neutrophil activation. mTORC1 was dose- and time-dependently activated in murine bone marrow neutrophils cultured with the TLR4 ligand, LPS, or the TLR2 ligand, Pam3 Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 (PAM). Incubation of PAM- or LPS-stimulated neutrophils with rapamycin inhibited expression of TNF-α and IL-6, but not IκB-α degradation or nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Exposure of PAM or LPS-stimulated neutrophils to rapamycin inhibited phosphorylation of serine 276 in the NF-κB p65 subunit, a phosphorylation event required for optimal transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Rapamycin pretreatment inhibited PAM- or LPS-induced mTORC1 activation in the lungs. Administration of rapamycin also decreased the severity of lung injury after intratracheal LPS or PAM administration, as determined by diminished neutrophil accumulation in the lungs, reduced interstitial pulmonary edema, and diminished levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results indicate that mTORC1 activation is essential in TLR2- and TLR4-induced neutrophil activation, as well as in the development and severity of acute lung injury. PMID:19131641

  18. Toll-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Sandra N.; Li, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental sensor molecules of the host innate immune system, which detect conserved molecular signatures of a wide range of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses via distinct signaling pathways. Various TLRs are implicated in the early interplay of host cells with invading viruses, which regulates viral replication and/or host responses, ultimately impacting on viral pathogenesis. To survive the host innate defense mechanisms, many viruses have developed strategies to evade or counteract signaling through the TLR pathways, creating an advantageous environment for their propagation. Here we review the current knowledge of the roles TLRs play in antiviral innate immune responses, discuss examples of TLR-mediated viral recognition, and describe strategies used by viruses to antagonize the host antiviral innate immune responses. PMID:24316048

  19. Degranulation of Paneth Cells via Toll-Like Receptor 9

    PubMed Central

    Rumio, Cristiano; Besusso, Dario; Palazzo, Marco; Selleri, Silvia; Sfondrini, Lucia; Dubini, Francesco; Ménard, Sylvie; Balsari, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The release of antimicrobial peptides and growth factors by Paneth cells is thought to play an important role in protecting the small intestine, but the mechanisms involved have remained obscure. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that Paneth cells express Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in the granules. Injection of mice with oligonucleotides containing CpG sequence (CpG-ODNs) led to a down-modulation of TLR9 and a striking decrease in the number of large secretory granules, consistent with degranulation. Moreover CpG-ODN treatment increased resistance to oral challenge with virulent Salmonella typhimurium. Moreover, our findings demonstrate a sentinel role for Paneth cells through TLR9. PMID:15277213

  20. Assembly and localization of Toll-like receptor signalling complexes.

    PubMed

    Gay, Nicholas J; Symmons, Martyn F; Gangloff, Monique; Bryant, Clare E

    2014-08-01

    Signal transduction by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is central to host defence against many pathogenic microorganisms and also underlies a large burden of human disease. Thus, the mechanisms and regulation of signalling by TLRs are of considerable interest. In this Review, we discuss the molecular basis for the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the nature of the protein complexes that mediate signalling, and the way in which signals are regulated and integrated at the level of allosteric assembly, post-translational modification and subcellular trafficking of the components of the signalling complexes. These fundamental molecular mechanisms determine whether the signalling output leads to a protective immune response or to serious pathologies such as sepsis. A detailed understanding of these processes at the molecular level provides a rational framework for the development of new drugs that can specifically target pathological rather than protective signalling in inflammatory and autoimmune disease. PMID:25060580

  1. Toll-like receptor signaling and regulation of intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Karishma; Nguyen, Vivien; DePaolo, R William

    2013-04-01

    The intestine is a complex organ that must maintain tolerance to innocuous food antigens and commensal microbiota while being also able to mount inflammatory responses against invading pathogenic microorganisms. The ability to restrain tolerogenic responses while permitting inflammatory responses requires communication between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells. Disruption or improper signaling between any of these factors may lead to uncontrolled inflammation and the development of inflammatory diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize conserved molecular motifs of microorganisms and, not surprisingly, are important for maintaining tolerance to commensal microbiota, as well as inducing inflammation against pathogens. Perturbations in individual TLR signaling can lead to a number of different outcomes and illustrate a system of regulation within the intestine in which each TLR plays a largely non-redundant role in mucosal immunity. This review will discuss recent findings on the roles of individual TLRs and intestinal homeostasis. PMID:23334153

  2. The Toll-like receptor 4-activated neuroprotective microglia subpopulation survives via granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and JAK2/STAT5 signaling.

    PubMed

    Kamigaki, Mayumi; Hide, Izumi; Yanase, Yuhki; Shiraki, Hiroko; Harada, Kana; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Seki, Takahiro; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Michihiro; Sakai, Norio

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mediates inflammation and is also known to trigger apoptosis in microglia. Our time-lapse observations showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced rapid death in primary cultures of rat microglia, while a portion of the microglia escaped from death and survived for much longer than 2 days, in which time, all of the control cells had died. However, it remains unclear how the LPS-stimulated microglia subpopulation could continue to survive in the absence of any supplied growth factors. In the present study, to clarify the mechanism underlying the LPS-stimulated survival, we investigated whether microglia could produce their own survival factors in response to LPS, focusing on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-34, which are mainly supplied by astrocytes or neurons. The LPS-stimulated microglia drastically induced the expression of the GM-CSF mRNA and protein, while M-CSF and IL-34 levels were unchanged. The surviving microglia also significantly upregulated the expression of GM-CSF receptor (GM-CSFR) mRNA without affecting M-CSFR. As for the GM-CSFR downstream signal, LPS resulted in the phosphorylation of STAT5 and its translocation to the nucleus in the surviving microglia. Moreover, a specific JAK2 inhibitor, NVP-BSK805, suppressed STAT5 phosphorylation and microglia survival in response to LPS, indicating a critical role of the JAK2/STAT5 pathway in this survival mechanism. Together, these results suggest that a subpopulation of TLR4-activated microglia may survive by producing GM-CSF and up-regulating GM-CSFR. This autocrine GM-CSF pathway may activate the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway, which controls the transcription of survival-related genes. Finally, these surviving microglia may have neuroprotective functions because the neurons remained viable in co-cultures with these microglia. PMID:26802935

  3. Expression of Toll-like receptor-3 is enhanced in active inflammatory bowel disease and mediates the excessive release of lipocalin 2

    PubMed Central

    Østvik, A E; Granlund, A v B; Torp, S H; Flatberg, A; Beisvåg, V; Waldum, H L; Flo, T H; Espevik, T; Damås, J K; Sandvik, A K

    2013-01-01

    Anti-microbial peptides might influence the pathogenesis and course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We sought to clarify the role of the anti-microbial glycoprotein lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in the colon by determining its localization and regulation in IBD. Following a microarray gene expression study of colonic biopsies from a large IBD population (n = 133), LCN2 was localized using immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Moreover, we examined the regulation of LCN2 in HT-29 cells with a panel of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and sought evidence by immunohistochemistry that the most relevant PRR, the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, was indeed expressed in colonic epithelium in IBD. LCN2 was among the 10 most up-regulated genes in both active ulcerative colitis (UCa) and active Crohn's disease (CDa) versus healthy controls. LCN2 protein was found in both epithelial cells and infiltrating neutrophils, while mRNA synthesis was located solely to epithelial cells, indicating that de-novo synthesis and thus regulation of LCN2 as measured in the gene expression analysis takes place in the mucosal epithelial cells. LCN2 is a putative biomarker in faeces for intestinal inflammation, different from calprotectin due to its epithelial site of synthesis. LCN2 release from the colonic epithelial cell line HT-29 was enhanced by both interleukin (IL)-1β and the TLR-3 ligand poly(I:C), and TLR-3 was shown to be expressed constitutively in colonic epithelial cells and markedly increased during inflammation. PMID:23668802

  4. Paliperidone Prevents Brain Toll-Like Receptor 4 Pathway Activation and Neuroinflammation in Rat Models of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress

    PubMed Central

    MacDowell, KS; Caso, JR; Martín-Hernández, D; Madrigal, JL; Leza, JC

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alterations in the innate immune/inflammatory system have been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of psychotic disease, but the mechanisms implicated remain elusive. The main agents of the innate immunity are the family of toll-like receptors (TLRs), which detect circulating pathogen-associated molecular patterns and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS). Current antipsychotics are able to modulate pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways, but their actions on TLRs remain unexplored. Methods: This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of paliperidone (1mg/Kg i.p.) on acute (6 hours) and chronic (6 hours/day during 21 consecutive days) restraint stress–induced TLR-4 pathway activation and neuroinflammation, and the possible mechanism(s) related (bacterial translocation and/or DAMPs activation). The expression of the elements of a TLR-4-dependent proinflammatory pathway was analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels in prefrontal cortex samples. Results: Paliperidone pre-treatment prevented TLR-4 activation and neuroinflammation in the prefrontal cortices of stressed rats. Regarding the possible mechanisms implicated, paliperidone regulated stress-induced increased intestinal inflammation and plasma lipopolysaccharide levels. In addition, paliperidone also prevented the activation of the endogenous activators of TLR-4 HSP70 and HGMB-1. Conclusions: Our results showed a regulatory role of paliperidone on brain TLR-4, which could explain the therapeutic benefits of its use for the treatment of psychotic diseases beyond its effects on dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. The study of the mechanisms implicated suggests that gut-increased permeability, inflammation, and bacterial translocation of Gram-negative microflora and HSP70 and HGMB1 expression could be potential adjuvant therapeutic targets for the treatment of psychotic and other stress-related psychiatric pathologies. PMID:25522409

  5. Activation of myeloid dendritic cells by deoxynucleic acids from Cordyceps sinensis via a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Miyazato, Akiko; Abe, Yuzuru; Zhang, Tiantuo; Nakamura, Kiwamu; Inden, Ken; Tanaka, Misuzu; Tanno, Daiki; Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Ishii, Keiko; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito; Yamamoto, Natsuo; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism by which host cells recognize Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese herbal medicine that is known to exhibit immunomodulating activity, remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether the DNA of this fungus could activate mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs). Upon stimulation with C. sinensis DNA, BM-DCs released IL-12p40 and TNF-alpha and expressed CD40. Cytokine production and CD40 expression were attenuated by chloroquin and bafilomycin A. Activation of BM-DCs by C. sinensis DNA was almost completely abrogated in TLR9KO mice. According to a luciferase reporter assay, C. sinensis DNA activated NF-kappaB in HEK293T cells transfected with the TLR9 gene. Finally, a confocal microscopic analysis showed that C. sinensis DNA was co-localized with CpG-ODN and partly with TLR9 and LAMP-1, a late endosomal marker, in BM-DCs. Our results demonstrated that C. sinensis DNA caused activation of BM-DCs in a TLR9-dependent manner. PMID:20451901

  6. Endotoxin Tolerance Inhibits Lyn and c-Src Phosphorylation and Association with Toll-Like Receptor 4 but Increases Expression and Activity of Protein Phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanbao; Murphy, Michael; Manavalan, Tissa T; Pattabiraman, Goutham; Qiu, Fu; Chang, Hui-Hsin; Ho, I-Cheng; Medvedev, Andrei E

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance protects the host by limiting excessive 'cytokine storm' during sepsis, but compromises the ability to counteract infections in septic shock survivors. It reprograms Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 responses by attenuating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines without suppressing anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators, but the mechanisms of reprogramming remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the induction of endotoxin tolerance in human monocytes, THP-1 and MonoMac-6 cells inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated phosphorylation of Lyn, c-Src and their recruitment to TLR4, but increased total protein phosphatase (PP) activity and the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B, PP2A, PTP nonreceptor type (PTPN) 22 and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1. Chemical PP inhibitors, okadaic acid, dephostatin and cantharidic acid markedly decreased or completely abolished LPS tolerance, indicating the importance of phosphatases in endotoxin tolerization. Overexpression of PTPN22 decreased LPS-mediated nuclear factor (NF)-x03BA;B activation, p38 phosphorylation and CXCL8 gene expression, while PTPN22 ablation upregulated LPS-induced p65 NF-x03BA;B and p38 phosphorylation and the expression of TNF-α and pro-IL-1β mRNA, indicating PTPN22 as an inhibitor of TLR4 signaling. Thus, LPS tolerance interferes with TLR4 signaling by inhibiting Lyn and c-Src phosphorylation and their recruitment to TLR4, while increasing the phosphatase activity and expression of PP2A, PTPN22, PTP1B and MKP1. PMID:26457672

  7. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis CobT activates dendritic cells via engagement of Toll-like receptor 4 resulting in Th1 cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eui-Hong; Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Jong-Seok; Won, Choul-Jae; Choi, Han-Gyu; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Cho, Sang-Nae; Lee, Keehoon; Zhang, Tiejun; Hur, Gang Min; Shin, Sung Jae

    2012-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne disease in animals and MAP involvement in human Crohn disease has been recently emphasized. Evidence from M. tuberculosis studies suggests mycobacterial proteins activate dendritic cells (DCs) via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, eventually determining the fate of immune responses. Here, we investigated whether MAP CobT contributes to the development of T cell immunity through the activation of DCs. MAP CobT recognizes TLR4, and induces DC maturation and activation via the MyD88 and TRIF signaling cascades, which are followed by MAP kinases and NF-κB. We further found that MAP CobT-treated DCs activated naive T cells, effectively polarized CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to secrete IFN-γ and IL-2, but not IL-4 and IL-10, and induced T cell proliferation. These data indicate that MAP CobT contributes to T helper (Th) 1 polarization of the immune response. MAP CobT-treated DCs specifically induced the expansion of CD4(+)/CD8(+)CD44(high)CD62L(low) memory T cells in the mesenteric lymph node of MAP-infected mice in a TLR4-dependent manner. Our results indicate that MAP CobT is a novel DC maturation-inducing antigen that drives Th1 polarized-naive/memory T cell expansion in a TLR4-dependent cascade, suggesting that MAP CobT potentially links innate and adaptive immunity against MAP. PMID:23019321

  8. Inhibition of microglial activity alters spinal wide dynamic range neuron discharge and reduces microglial Toll-like receptor 4 expression in neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, Samad; Manaheji, Homa; Noorbakhsh, Syyed Mohammad; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-07-01

    It is believed that neuropathic pain results from aberrant neuronal discharges although some evidence suggests that the activation of glia cells contributes to pain after an injury to the nervous system. This study aimed to evaluate the role of microglial activation on the hyper-responsiveness of wide dynamic range neurons (WDR) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 30 g) underwent surgery for induction of CCI neuropathy. Six days after surgery, administration of minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated and continued until day 14. After administration of the last dose of minocycline or saline, a behavioral test was conducted, then animals were sacrificed and lumbar segments of the spinal cord were collected for Western blot analysis of TLR4 expression. The electrophysiological properties of WDR neurons were investigated by single unit recordings in separate groups. The findings showed that after CCI, in parallel with thermal hyperalgesia, the expression of TLR4 in the spinal cord and the evoked response of the WDR neurons to electrical, mechanical, and thermal stimulation significantly increased. Post-injury administration of minocycline effectively decreased thermal hyperalgesia, TLR4 expression, and hyper-responsiveness of WDR neurons in CCI rats. The results of this study indicate that post-injury, repeated administration of minocycline attenuated neuropathic pain by suppressing microglia activation and reducing WDR neuron hyper-responsiveness. This study confirms that post-injury modulation of microglial activity is a new strategy for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:25933029

  9. Toll Like Receptor 4 Dependent Kupffer Cell Activation and Liver Injury in a Novel Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    El Kasmi, Karim C.; Anderson, Aimee L.; Devereaux, Michael W.; Fillon, Sophie A.; Harris, J. Kirk; Lovell, Mark A.; Finegold, Milton J.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with intestinal failure who are parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent may develop cholestatic liver injury and cirrhosis (PN-associated liver injury: PNALI). The pathogenesis of PNALI remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that intestinal injury with increased intestinal permeability combined with administration of PN promotes LPS-TLR4 signaling dependent Kupffer cell activation as an early event in the pathogenesis of PNALI. We developed a mouse model in which intestinal injury and increased permeability were induced by oral treatment for 4 days with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) followed by continuous infusion of soy lipid-based PN solution through a central venous catheter for 7 (PN/DSS7d) and 28 (PN/DSS28d) days. Liver injury and cholestasis were evaluated by serum AST, ALT, bile acids, total bilirubin, and by histology. Purified Kupffer cells were probed for transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PN/DSS7d mice showed elevated portal vein LPS levels, evidence of hepatocyte injury and cholestasis, and increased Kupffer cell expression of IL6, TNFα, and TGFβ. Serological markers of liver injury remained elevated in PN/DSS28d mice associated with focal inflammation, hepatocyte apoptosis, peliosis, and Kupffer cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia. PN infusion without DSS pre-treatment or DSS pre-treatment alone did not result in liver injury or Kupffer cell activation. Suppression of the intestinal microbiota with broad spectrum antibiotics or ablation of TLR4 signaling in TLR4 mutant mice resulted in significantly reduced Kupffer cell activation and markedly attenuated liver injury in PN/DSS7d mice. Conclusion These data suggest that intestinal-derived LPS activates Kupffer cells through TLR4 signaling in early stages of PNALI. PMID:22120983

  10. Intrahepatic Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Chronic HBV Infection Subjects: Asymptomatic Carriers, Active Chronic Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jia Wen; Ping Huang, Mao; Zhong, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Background The entire disease spectrum of chronic HBV infection (CHB) includes asymptomatic carriers (AC), active chronic hepatitis (ACH), cirrhosis (Cir), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous study have demonstrated that the costimulation profiles from the livers of patients influenced immune responses and played various immunological roles in AC, ACH, Cir, and HCC. In addition, activation of TLR3 signaling in the liver may contribute to HBV clearance, although some HBV components are able to block TLR3 signaling and counteract HBV clearance through positive or negative feedback loops. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated that different TLR3 expressions are present in ACH patients, but no studies investigated the expression of TLR3 proteins in the livers of patients with AC, Cir, or HCC. Objectives This study investigated intrahepatic TLR3 expression throughout the entire disease spectrum of CHB patients and assessed the interrelations between TLR3 and costimulation proteins. Patients and Methods Patients with ACH, Cir, HCC, and AC and healthy donors (HD) were recruited. TLR3 expression in the livers of patients were investigated using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Correlations between TLR3 and costimulation proteins, including CD80, CD86, CD83, CD28, CTLA-4, CD40, and ICAM-1, were assessed. Results The TLR3 protein in the ACH group tended toward reduction although the P Value of the comparison between the ACH group and HD group was not statistically significant. The TLR3 levels in the HCC, AC, and Cir groups were higher than those in the HD and ACH groups. TLR3 was not interrelated with all costimulation proteins in the DCs and T cells in all five groups. No group presented any interrelation between TLR3 and CD40, except the AC group. Conclusions The AC, HCC, and Cir patients displayed increased levels of the intrahepatic TLR3 protein compared to the HD and AC patients. Both activation of TLR3/INF-β signaling and inhibition of

  11. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau Extracts: Inhibition of Cytokine Production and Toll-Like Receptor-4 Activation.

    PubMed

    Mai, Chun W; Yap, Kok S I; Kho, Mee T; Ismail, Nor H; Yusoff, Khatijah; Shaari, Khozirah; Chin, Swee Y; Lim, Erin S H

    2016-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans has had a long history of use in folk medicine in Malaysia and Southeast Asia; mostly in the relief of inflammatory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of different extracts of C. nutans upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation in order to identify its mechanism of action. Extracts of leaves and stem bark of C. nutans were prepared using polar and non-polar solvents to produce four extracts, namely polar leaf extract (LP), non-polar leaf extract (LN), polar stem extract (SP), and non-polar stem extracts (SN). The extracts were standardized by determining its total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Its anti-inflammatory effects were assessed on LPS induced nitrite release in RAW264.7 macrophages and Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) activation in TLR-4 transfected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-Blue(TM)-hTLR4 cells). The levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, and IL-17) in treated RAW264.7 macrophages were quantified to verify its anti-inflammatory effects. Western blotting was used to investigate the effect of the most potent extract (LP) on TLR-4 related inflammatory proteins (p65, p38, ERK, JNK, IRF3) in RAW264.7 macrophages. All four extracts produced a significant, concentration-dependent reduction in LPS-stimulated nitric oxide, LPS-induced TLR-4 activation in HEK-Blue(TM)-hTLR4 cells and LPS-stimulated cytokines production in RAW264.7 macrophages. The most potent extract, LP, also inhibited all LPS-induced TLR-4 inflammatory proteins. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of C. nutans extracts. PMID:26869924

  12. Polygonum cuspidatum and Its Active Components Inhibit Replication of the Influenza Virus through Toll-Like Receptor 9-Induced Interferon Beta Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao-jen; Lin, Hui-Ju; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Hsu, Yu-An; Liu, Chin-San; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Wan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus infection is a global public health issue. The effectiveness of antiviral therapies for influenza has been limited by the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify novel antiviral therapies. Here we tested the effects of 300 traditional Chinese medicines on the replication of various influenza virus strains in a lung cell line, A549, using an influenza-specific luciferase reporter assay. Of the traditional medicines tested, Polygonum cuspidatum (PC) and its active components, resveratrol and emodin, were found to attenuate influenza viral replication in A549 cells. Furthermore, they preferentially inhibited the replication of influenza A virus, including clinical strains isolated in 2009 and 2011 in Taiwan and the laboratory strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). In addition to inhibiting the expression of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, PC, emodin, and resveratrol also increased the expression of interferon beta (IFN-β) through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Moreover, the anti-viral activity of IFN-β or resveratrol was reduced when the A549 cells were treated with neutralizing anti-IFN-β antibodies or a TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that IFN-β likely acts synergistically with resveratrol to inhibit H1N1 replication. This potential antiviral mechanism, involving direct inhibition of virus replication and simultaneous activation of the host immune response, has not been previously described for a single antiviral molecule. In conclusion, our data support the use of PC, resveratrol or emodin for inhibiting influenza virus replication directly and via TLR-9–induced IFN-β production. PMID:25658356

  13. Polygonum cuspidatum and its active components inhibit replication of the influenza virus through toll-like receptor 9-induced interferon beta expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Jen; Lin, Hui-Ju; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Hsu, Yu-An; Liu, Chin-San; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Wan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus infection is a global public health issue. The effectiveness of antiviral therapies for influenza has been limited by the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify novel antiviral therapies. Here we tested the effects of 300 traditional Chinese medicines on the replication of various influenza virus strains in a lung cell line, A549, using an influenza-specific luciferase reporter assay. Of the traditional medicines tested, Polygonum cuspidatum (PC) and its active components, resveratrol and emodin, were found to attenuate influenza viral replication in A549 cells. Furthermore, they preferentially inhibited the replication of influenza A virus, including clinical strains isolated in 2009 and 2011 in Taiwan and the laboratory strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). In addition to inhibiting the expression of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, PC, emodin, and resveratrol also increased the expression of interferon beta (IFN-β) through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Moreover, the anti-viral activity of IFN-β or resveratrol was reduced when the A549 cells were treated with neutralizing anti-IFN-β antibodies or a TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that IFN-β likely acts synergistically with resveratrol to inhibit H1N1 replication. This potential antiviral mechanism, involving direct inhibition of virus replication and simultaneous activation of the host immune response, has not been previously described for a single antiviral molecule. In conclusion, our data support the use of PC, resveratrol or emodin for inhibiting influenza virus replication directly and via TLR-9-induced IFN-β production. PMID:25658356

  14. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau Extracts: Inhibition of Cytokine Production and Toll-Like Receptor-4 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Chun W.; Yap, Kok S. I.; Kho, Mee T.; Ismail, Nor H.; Yusoff, Khatijah; Shaari, Khozirah; Chin, Swee Y.; Lim, Erin S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans has had a long history of use in folk medicine in Malaysia and Southeast Asia; mostly in the relief of inflammatory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of different extracts of C. nutans upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation in order to identify its mechanism of action. Extracts of leaves and stem bark of C. nutans were prepared using polar and non-polar solvents to produce four extracts, namely polar leaf extract (LP), non-polar leaf extract (LN), polar stem extract (SP), and non-polar stem extracts (SN). The extracts were standardized by determining its total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Its anti-inflammatory effects were assessed on LPS induced nitrite release in RAW264.7 macrophages and Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) activation in TLR-4 transfected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-BlueTM-hTLR4 cells). The levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, and IL-17) in treated RAW264.7 macrophages were quantified to verify its anti-inflammatory effects. Western blotting was used to investigate the effect of the most potent extract (LP) on TLR-4 related inflammatory proteins (p65, p38, ERK, JNK, IRF3) in RAW264.7 macrophages. All four extracts produced a significant, concentration-dependent reduction in LPS-stimulated nitric oxide, LPS-induced TLR-4 activation in HEK-BlueTM-hTLR4 cells and LPS-stimulated cytokines production in RAW264.7 macrophages. The most potent extract, LP, also inhibited all LPS-induced TLR-4 inflammatory proteins. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of C. nutans extracts. PMID:26869924

  15. Prolonged Subcutaneous Administration of 852A, a Novel Systemic Toll-like Receptor 7 Agonist, to Activate Innate Immune Responses in Patients with Advanced Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Brenda J.; Cooley, Sarah; DeFor, Todd; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Chen, Wei; Blazar, Bruce R.; Miller, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    The toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonist 852A, a small-molecule imidazoquinoline, stimulates plasmacytoid dendritic cells to produce multiple cytokines. We conducted a Phase II study of 852A in patients with recurrent hematologic malignancies. The primary objective was assessing the activity of 852A administered subcutaneously twice weekly for 12 weeks. Secondary objectives were assessing the safety of 852A and its ability to activate the immune system with prolonged dosing. Methods Patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies of any age with adequate organ function were eligible. Patients initiated dosing at 0.6 mg/m2 twice weekly and escalated by 0.2 mg/m2 after every 2 doses as tolerated to a target dose of 1.2 mg/m2. Patients with responses or stable disease were eligible for additional cycles. Results Seventeen patients (15 males) entered the study: 6 with AML, 5 ALL, 4 NHL, 1 Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and 1 multiple myeloma. The mean age was 41 years (12–71 years). The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens was 5 (range=1–14). Thirteen patients completed all 24 injections. Grade 3–4 toxicities included nausea, dyspnea, fever, myalgia, malaise, and cough. Responses included 1 complete response (ALL), 1 partial response (AML), 2 stable disease (AML and NHL), and 9 progressive disease. Conclusions This is the first in-human hematologic malignancy trial of a subcutaneously (SC) delivered TLR7 agonist using a prolonged dosing schedule. 852A was safely administered up to 1.2 mg/m2 twice weekly with evidence of sustained tolerability and clinical activity in hematologic malignancies. Systemic TLR agonists for the treatment of hematologic malignancies warrant further study. PMID:22718533

  16. Central role of endogenous Toll-like receptor-2 activation in regulating inflammation, reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent neointimal formation after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Shishido, Tetsuro . E-mail: Tetsuro_Shishido@URMC.Rochester.edu; Nozaki, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takanori; Niizeki, Takeshi; Koyama, Yo; Abe, Jun-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kubota, Isao

    2006-07-14

    Background: It is now evident that inflammation after vascular injury has significant impact on the restenosis after revascularization procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass grafting. However, the mechanisms that regulate inflammation and repair after vascular injury are incompletely understood. Here, we report that vascular injury-mediated cytokine expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as subsequent neointimal formation requires Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) mediated signaling pathway in vivo. Methods and results: Vascular injury was induced by cuff-placement around the femoral artery in non-transgenic littermates (NLC) and TLR-2 knockout (TLR-2KO) mice. After cuff-placement in NLC mice, expression of TLR-2 was significantly increased in both smooth muscle medial layer and adventitia. Interestingly, we found that inflammatory genes expression such as tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were markedly decreased in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. In addition, ROS production after vascular injury was attenuated in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. Since we observed the significant role of endogenous TLR-2 activation in regulating inflammatory responses and ROS production after vascular injury, we determined whether inhibition of endogenous TLR-2 activation can inhibit neointimal proliferation after vascular injury. Neointimal hyperplasia was markedly suppressed in TLR-2KO mice compared with WT mice at both 2 and 4 weeks after vascular injury. Conclusions: These findings suggested that endogenous TLR-2 activation might play a central role in the regulation of vascular inflammation as well as subsequent neointimal formation in injured vessels.

  17. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide LBPF4-OL may be a new Toll-like receptor 4/MD2-MAPK signaling pathway activator and inducer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-rui; Qi, Chun-hui; Cheng, Jun-ping; Liu, Gang; Huang, Lin-juan; Wang, Zhong-fu; Zhou, Wen-xia; Zhang, Yong-xiang

    2014-03-01

    Recognition of the utility of the traditional Chinese medicine Lycium barbarum L. has been gradually increasing in Europe and the Americas. Many immunoregulation and antitumor effects of L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) have been reported, but its molecular mechanism is not yet clear. In this study, we reported that the activity of the polysaccharide LBPF4-OL, which was purified from LBP, is closely associated with the TLR4-MAPK signaling pathway. We found that LBPF4-OL can significantly induce TNF-α and IL-1β production in peritoneal macrophages isolated from wild-type (C3H/HeN) but not TLR4-deficient mice (C3H/HeJ). We also determined that the proliferation of LBPF4-OL-stimulated lymphocytes from C3H/HeJ mice is significantly weaker than that of lymphocytes from C3H/HeN mice. Furthermore, through a bio-layer interferometry assay, we found that LPS but not LBPF4-OL can directly associate with the TLR4/MD2 molecular complex. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that LBPF4-OL markedly upregulates TLR4/MD2 expression in both peritoneal macrophages and Raw264.7 cells. As its mechanism of action, LBPF4-OL increases the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and inhibits the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK1/2, as was observed through Western blot analysis. These data suggest that the L. barbarum polysaccharide LBPF4-OL is a new Toll-like receptor 4/MD2-MAPK signaling pathway activator and inducer. PMID:24462389

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian Folk Remedy, through Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Durbadal; Mukherjee, Hemanta; Mondal, Supriya; Jena, Aditya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Mondal, Keshab C.; Malhotra, Bharti; Samanta, Amalesh; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB) for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA), using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12). Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-Bα) by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway. PMID:25153081

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian folk remedy, through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Durbadal; Mukherjee, Hemanta; Mondal, Supriya; Jena, Aditya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Mondal, Keshab C; Malhotra, Bharti; Samanta, Amalesh; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB) for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA), using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12). Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-Bα) by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway. PMID:25153081

  20. Toll-like receptor signalling and their therapeutic targeting in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Moossavi, Shirin; Rezaei, Nima

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is dependent on the proper host/microbiota interaction via pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors are a specialised group of membrane receptors which detect pathogen-associated conserved structures. They are present in the intestinal tract and are required for intestinal homeostasis. Dysregulation in the Toll-like receptor signalling can conceivably result in a dysregulated immune response which could contribute to major intestinal pathologies including colorectal cancer. Evidence for the role of microbiota and toll-like receptors in colorectal cancer is emerging. In this report the evidence for the contribution of toll-like receptors to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer; potential mechanisms affecting toll-like receptor signalling; and their therapeutic targeting in colorectal cancer are reviewed. PMID:23602501

  1. Increased expression of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 in myasthenia gravis thymus characterized by active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Paola; Galbardi, Barbara; Franzi, Sara; Marcuzzo, Stefania; Barzago, Claudia; Bonanno, Silvia; Camera, Giorgia; Maggi, Lorenzo; Kapetis, Dimos; Andreetta, Francesca; Biasiucci, Amelia; Motta, Teresio; Giardina, Carmelo; Antozzi, Carlo; Baggi, Fulvio; Mantegazza, Renato; Bernasconi, Pia

    2016-04-01

    Considerable data implicate the thymus as the main site of autosensitization to the acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis (MG), a B-cell-mediated autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction. We recently demonstrated an active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the thymus of MG patients, suggesting that EBV might contribute to the onset or maintenance of the autoimmune response within MG thymus, because of its ability to activate and immortalize autoreactive B cells. EBV has been reported to elicit and modulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7- and TLR9-mediated innate immune responses, which are known to favor B-cell dysfunction and autoimmunity. Aim of this study was to investigate whether EBV infection is associated with altered expression of TLR7 and TLR9 in MG thymus. By real-time PCR, we found that TLR7 and TLR9 mRNA levels were significantly higher in EBV-positive MG compared to EBV-negative normal thymuses. By confocal microscopy, high expression levels of TLR7 and TLR9 proteins were observed in B cells and plasma cells of MG thymic germinal centers (GCs) and lymphoid infiltrates, where the two receptors co-localized with EBV antigens. An increased frequency of Ki67-positive proliferating B cells was found in MG thymuses, where we also detected proliferating cells expressing TLR7, TLR9 and EBV antigens, thus supporting the idea that EBV-associated TLR7/9 signaling may promote abnormal B-cell activation and proliferation. Along with B cells and plasma cells, thymic epithelium, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and macrophages exhibited enhanced TLR7 and TLR9 expression in MG thymus; TLR7 was also increased in thymic myeloid dendritic cells and its transcriptional levels positively correlated with those of interferon (IFN)-β. We suggested that TLR7/9 signaling may be involved in antiviral type I IFN production and long-term inflammation in EBV-infected MG thymuses. Our overall findings indicate that EBV-driven TLR7- and TLR9-mediated innate immune

  2. Sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide attenuates production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Da Hee; Lee, Min Sung; Lee, Chung Soo

    2015-09-01

    Microbial product lipopolysaccharide has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. Parthenolide present in extracts of the herb feverfew has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of parthenolide on the Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathway activation-induced productions of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes has not been studied. Using human keratinocytes, we investigated the effect of parthenolide on the inflammatory mediator production in relation to the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated-Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathways, which regulate the transcription genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Parthenolide, Akt inhibitor, Bay 11-7085, and N-acetylcysteine each attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of IL-1β and PGE2, increase in the levels of cyclooxygenase, formation of reactive oxygen species, increase in the levels of Toll-like receptor-4, and activation of the Akt/mTOR and NF-κB in keratinocytes. The results show that parthenolide appears to attenuate the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes by suppressing the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways. The activation of signaling transduction pathways appear to be regulated by reactive oxygen species. Parthenolide appears to attenuate the microbial product-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25971793

  3. Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Qing; Szodoray, Peter; Zeher, Margit

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a family of chronic systemic inflammatory disorders, characterized by the dysregulation of the immune system which finally results in the break of tolerance to self-antigen. Several studies suggest that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. TLRs belong to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLRs are type I transmembrane proteins and located on various cellular membranes. Two main groups have been classified based on their location; the extracelluar group referred to the ones located on the plasma membrane while the intracellular group all located in endosomal compartments responsible for the recognition of nucleic acids. They are released by the host cells and trigger various intracellular pathways which results in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, as well as the expression of co-stimulatory molecules to protect against invading microorganisms. In particular, TLR pathway-associated proteins, such as IRAK, TRAF, and SOCS, are often dysregulated in this group of diseases. TLR-associated gene expression profile analysis together with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assessment could be important to explain the pathomechanism driving autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings on TLR pathway regulation in various autoimmune diseases, including Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and psoriasis. PMID:25687121

  4. Gain-of-Function Mutations in the Toll-Like Receptor Pathway: TPL2-Mediated ERK1/ERK2 MAPK Activation, a Path to Tumorigenesis in Lymphoid Neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Simon; Martel, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms form a family of cancers affecting B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) signaling adapter molecule MYD88 is the most frequently mutated gene in these neoplasms. This signaling adaptor relays signals from TLRs to downstream effector pathways such as the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways to regulate innate immune responses. Gain-of-function mutations such as MYD88[L265P] activate downstream signaling pathways in absence of cognate ligands for TLRs, resulting in increased cellular proliferation and survival. This article reports an analysis of non-synonymous somatic mutations found in the TLR signaling network in lymphoid neoplasms. In accordance with previous reports, mutations map to MYD88 pro-inflammatory signaling and not TRIF-mediated Type I IFN production. Interestingly, the analysis of somatic mutations found downstream of the core TLR-signaling network uncovered a strong association with the ERK1/2 MAPK cascade. In support of this analysis, heterologous expression of MYD88[L265P] in HEK293 cells led to ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in addition to NFκB activation. Moreover, this activation is dependent on the protein kinase Tumor Promoting Locus 2 (TPL2), activated downstream of the IKK complex. Activation of ERK1/2 would then lead to activation, amongst others, of MYC and hnRNPA1, two proteins previously shown to contribute to tumor formation in lymphoid neoplasms. Taken together, this analysis suggests that TLR-mediated ERK1/2 activation via TPL2 may be a novel path to tumorigenesis. Therefore, the hypothesis proposed is that inhibition of ERK1/2 MAPK activation would prevent tumor growth downstream of MYD88[L265]. It will be interesting to test whether pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway show efficacy in primary tumor cells derived from hematologic malignancies such as Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, where the majority of the cells carry the MYD88[L265P

  5. Translational Mini-Review Series on Toll-like Receptors: Toll-like receptor ligands as novel pharmaceuticals for allergic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family and associated signalling pathways provides a key molecular basis for our understanding of the relationship between exposure to microbial products and susceptibility to immune-mediated disorders. Indeed, ligation of TLR controls innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing synthesis of pro- as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines and activation of effector as well as regulatory lymphocytes. TLRs are therefore considered as major targets for the development of vaccine adjuvants, but also of new immunotherapies. Herein, we review the potential of TLR ligands as a novel class of pharmaceuticals for the prevention or treatment of allergic disorders. PMID:17223960

  6. Substance P primes lipoteichoic acid- and Pam3CysSerLys4-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Tancowny, Brian P; Karpov, Victor; Schleimer, Robert P; Kulka, Marianna

    2010-10-01

    Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide with neuroimmunoregulatory activity that may play a role in susceptibility to infection. Human mast cells, which are important in innate immune responses, were analysed for their responses to pathogen-associated molecules via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the presence of SP. Human cultured mast cells (LAD2) were activated by SP and TLR ligands including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and mast cell leukotriene and chemokine production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gene expression by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Mast cell degranulation was determined using a β-hexosaminidase (β-hex) assay. SP treatment of LAD2 up-regulated mRNA for TLR2, TLR4, TLR8 and TLR9 while anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) stimulation up-regulated expression of TLR4 only. Flow cytometry and western blot confirmed up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR8. Pretreatment of LAD2 with SP followed by stimulation with Pam3CSK4 or LTA increased production of leukotriene C4 (LTC(4) ) and interleukin (IL)-8 compared with treatment with Pam3CSK4 or LTA alone (>2-fold; P<0·01). SP alone activated 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) nuclear translocation but also augmented Pam3CSK4 and LTA-mediated 5-LO translocation. Pam3CSK4, LPS and LTA did not induce LAD2 degranulation. SP primed LTA and Pam3CSK4-mediated activation of JNK, p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the nuclear translocation of c-Jun, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) and cyclic-AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) transcription factors. Pretreatment with SP followed by LTA stimulation synergistically induced production of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8)/IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6 protein. SP primes TLR2-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating TLR expression and

  7. The Co-Stimulatory Effects of MyD88-Dependent Toll-Like Receptor Signaling on Activation of Murine γδ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guorui; Welte, Thomas; Saxena, Vandana; Wicker, Jason; Mann, Brian; Soong, Lynn; Barrett, Alan; Born, Willi; O'Brien, Rebecca; Wang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    γδ T cells express several different toll-like receptor (TLR)s. The role of MyD88- dependent TLR signaling in TCR activation of murine γδ T cells is incompletely defined. Here, we report that Pam3CSK4 (PAM, TLR2 agonist) and CL097 (TLR7 agonist), but not lipopolysaccharide (TLR4 agonist), increased CD69 expression and Th1-type cytokine production upon anti-CD3 stimulation of γδ T cells from young adult mice (6-to 10-week-old). However, these agonists alone did not induce γδ T cell activation. Additionally, we noted that neither PAM nor CL097 synergized with anti-CD3 in inducing CD69 expression on γδ T cells of aged mice (21-to 22-month-old). Compared to young γδ T cells, PAM and CL097 increased Th-1 type cytokine production with a lower magnitude from anti-CD3- stimulated, aged γδ T cells. Vγ1+ and Vγ4+ cells are two subpopulations of splenic γδ T cells. PAM had similar effects in anti-CD3-activated control and Vγ4+ subset- depleted γδ T cells; whereas CL097 induced more IFN-γ production from Vγ4+ subset-depleted γδ T cells than from the control group. Finally, we studied the role of MyD88-dependent TLRs in γδ T cell activation during West Nile virus (WNV) infection. γδ T cell, in particular, Vγ1+ subset expansion was significantly reduced in both MyD88- and TLR7- deficient mice. Treatment with TLR7 agonist induced more Vγ1+ cell expansion in wild-type mice during WNV infection. In summary, these results suggest that MyD88-dependent TLRs provide co-stimulatory signals during TCR activation of γδ T cells and these have differential effects on distinct subsets. PMID:25232836

  8. Microbiota regulates type 1 diabetes through Toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Michael P.; Volchkov, Pavel; Kobayashi, Koichi S.; Chervonsky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Deletion of the innate immune adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D) results in microbiota-dependent protection from the disease: MyD88-negative mice in germ-free (GF), but not in specific pathogen-free conditions develop the disease. These results could be explained by expansion of particular protective bacteria (“specific lineage hypothesis”) or by dominance of negative (tolerizing) signaling over proinflammatory signaling (“balanced signal hypothesis”) in mutant mice. Here we found that colonization of GF mice with a variety of intestinal bacteria was capable of reducing T1D in MyD88-negative (but not wild-type NOD mice), favoring the balanced signal hypothesis. However, the receptors and signaling pathways involved in prevention or facilitation of the disease remained unknown. The protective signals triggered by the microbiota were revealed by testing NOD mice lacking MyD88 in combination with knockouts of several critical components of innate immune sensing for development of T1D. Only MyD88- and TIR-domain containing adapter inducing IFN β (TRIF) double deficient NOD mice developed the disease. Thus, TRIF signaling (likely downstream of Toll-like receptor 4, TLR4) serves as one of the microbiota-induced tolerizing pathways. At the same time another TLR (TLR2) provided prodiabetic signaling by controlling the microbiota, as reduction in T1D incidence caused by TLR2 deletion was reversed in GF TLR2-negative mice. Our results support the balanced signal hypothesis, in which microbes provide signals that both promote and inhibit autoimmunity by signaling through different receptors, including receptors of the TLR family. PMID:26216961

  9. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Impairs Motor Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian-Wei; Li, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhao-Tao; Jia, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellum plays an essential role in balance and motor coordination. Purkinje cells (PCs) are the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex and are critical for the execution of its functions, including motor coordination. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is involved in the innate immune response and is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system; however, little is known about its role in cerebellum-related motor functions. To address this question, we evaluated motor behavior in TLR4 deficient mice. We found that TLR4−∕− mice showed impaired motor coordination. Morphological analyses revealed that TLR4 deficiency was associated with a reduction in the thickness of the molecular layer of the cerebellum. TLR4 was highly expressed in PCs but not in Bergmann glia or cerebellar granule cells; however, loss of TLR4 decreased the number of PCs. These findings suggest a novel role for TLR4 in cerebellum-related motor coordination through maintenance of the PC population. PMID:26909014

  10. Toll-like receptors: potential targets for lupus treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan-wei; Tang, Wei; Zuo, Jian-ping

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of tolerance to self-nuclear antigens. Accumulating evidence shows that Toll-like receptors (TLRs), previously proven to be critical for host defense, are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by recognition of self-molecules. Genome-wide association studies, experimental mouse models and clinical sample studies have provided evidence for the involvement of TLRs, including TLR2/4, TLR5, TLR3 and TLR7/8/9, in SLE pathogenesis. A number of downstream proteins in the TLR signaling cascade (such as MyD88, IRAKs and IFN-α) are identified as potential therapeutic targets for SLE treatment. Numerous antagonists targeting TLR signaling, including oligonucleotides, small molecular inhibitors and antibodies, are currently under preclinical studies or clinical trials for SLE treatment. Moreover, the emerging new manipulation of TLR signaling by microRNA (miRNA) regulation shows promise for the future treatment of SLE. PMID:26592511

  11. Selective Toll-Like Receptor Expression in Human Fetal Lung

    PubMed Central

    Petrikin, Joshua E; Gaedigk, Roger; Leeder, J Steven; Truog, William E

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical components of the innate immune system, acting as pattern recognition molecules and triggering an inflammatory response. TLR associated gene products are of interest in modulating inflammatory related pulmonary diseases of the neonate. The ontogeny of TLR related genes in human fetal lung has not been previously described and could elucidate additional functions and identify strategies for attenuating the effects of fetal inflammation. We examined the expression of 84 TLR related genes on 23 human fetal lung samples from three groups with estimated ages of 60 (57-59d), 90 (89-91d), and 130 (117-154d) days. Using a false detection rate algorithm, we identified 32 genes displaying developmental regulation with TLR2 having the greatest up-regulation of TLR genes (9.2 fold increase) and TLR4 unchanged. We confirmed the TLR2 up-regulation by examining an additional 133 fetal lung tissue samples with a fluorogenic polymerase chain reaction assay (TaqMan®) and found an exponential best-fit curve over the time studied. The best-fit curve predicts a 6.1 fold increase from 60d to 130d. We conclude that TLR2 is developmentally expressed from the early pseudoglandular stage of lung development to the canalicular stage. PMID:20581745

  12. A species-specific activation of Toll-like receptor signaling in bovine and sheep bronchial epithelial cells triggered by Mycobacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Han, Fei; Liang, Jinping; Yang, Jiali; Shi, Juan; Xue, Jing; Yang, Li; Li, Yong; Luo, Meihui; Wang, Yujiong; Wei, Jun; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis caused by a Mycobacterium infection remains a major public health problem in most part of the world, in part owing to the transmission of its pathogens between hosts including human, domestic and wild animals. To date, molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of TB are still incompletely understood. In addition to alveolar macrophages, airway epithelial cells have also been recently recognized as main targets for Mycobacteria infections. In an effort to understand the pathogen-host interaction between Mycobacteria and airway epithelial cells in domestic animals, in present study, we investigated the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in bovine and sheep airway epithelial cells in response to an infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis avirulent H37Ra stain or Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain, using primary air-liquid interface (ALI) bronchial epithelial culture models. Our results revealed a host and pathogen species-specific TLR-mediated recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), induction and activation of TLR signaling pathways, and substantial induction of inflammatory response in bronchial epithelial cells in response to Mycobacteria infections between these two species. Interestingly, the activation TLR signaling in bovine bronchial epithelial cells induced by Mycobacteria infection was mainly through a myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-independent TLR signaling pathway, while both MyD88-dependent and independent TLR signaling cascades could be induced in sheep epithelial cells. Equally noteworthy, a BCG infection was able to induce both MyD88-dependent and independent signaling in sheep and bovine airway epithelial cells, but more robust inflammatory responses were induced in sheep epithelial cells relative to the bovines; whereas an H37Ra infection displayed an ability to mainly trigger a MyD88-independent TLR signaling cascade in these two host species, and induce a more extent expression of

  13. Evidence for adaptation of porcine Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Darfour-Oduro, Kwame A; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Roca, Alfred; Groenen, Martien A M; Schook, Lawrence B

    2016-03-01

    Naturally endemic infectious diseases provide selective pressures for pig populations. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent the first line of immune defense against pathogens and are likely to play a crucial adaptive role for pig populations. This study was done to determine whether wild and domestic pig populations representing diverse global environments demonstrate local TLR adaptation. The genomic sequence encoding the ectodomain, responsible for interacting with pathogen ligands of bacterial (TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6) and viral (TLR3, TLR7 and TLR8) receptors, was obtained. Mitochondrial D-loop region sequences were obtained and a phylogenetic analysis using these sequences revealed a clear separation of animals into Asian (n = 27) and European (n = 40) clades. The TLR sequences were then analyzed for population-specific positive selection signatures within wild boars and domesticated pig populations derived from Asian and European clades. Using within-population and between-population tests for positive selection, a TLR2-derived variant 376A (126Thr), estimated to have arisen in 163,000 years ago with a frequency of 83.33% within European wild boars, 98.00% within domestic pig breeds of European origin, 40.00% within Asian wild boars, and 11.36% within Asian domestic pigs, was identified to be under positive selection in pigs of European origin. The variant is located within the N terminal domain of the TLR2 protein 3D crystal structure and could affect ligand binding. This study suggests the TLR2 gene contributing to responses to bacterial pathogens has been crucial in adaptation of pigs to pathogens. PMID:26701185

  14. Sevoflurane Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κB Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Inflammatory Lung Injury via Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xi Jia; Li, Xiao Qian; Wang, Xiao Long; Tan, Wen Fei; Wang, Jun Ke

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection is a common cause of acute lung injury (ALI). This study was aimed to explore whether Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) play a role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and potential mechanisms. Methods In vivo: A sensitizing dose of LPS (50 µg) was administered i.p. to female mice before anesthesia with either 3% sevoflurane or phenobarbital i.p. After stabilization, the mice were challenged with 5 µg of intratracheal LPS to mimic inflammatory attack. The effects of sevoflurane were assessed by measurement of airway responsiveness to methacholine, histological examination, and IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Protein and gene expression of TLR4 and NF-κB were also assessed. In vitro: After pre-sensitization of ASMCs and ASM segments for 24h, levels of TLR4 and NF-κB proteins in cultured ASMCs were measured after continuous LPS exposure for 1, 3, 5, 12 and 24h in presence or absence of sevoflurane. Constrictor and relaxant responsiveness of ASM was measured 24 h afterwards. Results The mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB and TLR4 in ASM were increased and maintained at high level after LPS challenge throughout 24h observation period, both in vivo and in vitro. Sevoflurane reduced LPS-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, lung inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines release in BALF as well as maximal isometric contractile force of ASM segments to acetylcholine, but it increased maximal relaxation response to isoproterenol. Treatment with specific NF-κB inhibitor produced similar protections as sevoflurane, including decreased expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB in cultured ASMCs and improved pharmacodynamic responsiveness of ASM to ACh and isoproterenol. Conclusions This study demonstrates the crucial role of TLR4 activation in ASMCs during ALI in response to LPS. Sevoflurane exerts direct relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo

  15. Penehyclidine ameliorates acute lung injury by inhibiting Toll-like receptor 2/4 expression and nuclear factor-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, NA; SU, YUE; CHE, XIANG-MING; ZHENG, HUI; SHI, ZHI-GUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of penehyclidine (PHC) on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI), as well as to examine the mechanism underlying this effect. A total of 60 rats were randomly divided into five groups, including the control (saline), LPS and three LPS + PHC groups. ALI was induced in the rats by injection of 8 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/kg body weight. The rats were then treated with or without PHC at 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg body weight 1 min following LPS injection. After 6 h, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined by ELISA. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the lung tissue samples, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 protein expression levels were examined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that lung injury was ameliorated by treatment with PHC (1 and 3 mg/kg body weight) as compared with treatment with LPS alone. Injection of LPS significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4, as well as the protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the lung tissue samples. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were also upregulated by LPS injection. Treatment of the rats with PHC following LPS injection suppressed the LPS-induced increase in TLR2/4 mRNA and NF-κB p65 protein expression levels. PHC also inhibited the increase in TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels. In addition, PHC reduced LPS-induced ALI and decreased the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6, possibly by downregulating TLR2/4 mRNA expression and inhibiting NF-κB activity, and consequently alleviating the inflammatory response. PMID:27168812

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) knockout rats produced by transcriptional activator-like effector nuclease- (TALEN)-mediated gene inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Carolyn; McKay, Matthew; Harris, R. Adron; Homanics, Gregg E.

    2013-01-01

    Genetically engineered mice are a valuable resource for studies of the behavioral effects of ethanol. However, for some behavioral tests of ethanol action, the rat is a superior model organism. Production of genetically engineered rats has been severely hampered due to technical limitations. Here we utilized a promising new technique for efficient site-specific gene modification to create a novel gene knockout rat line. This approach is based on Transcriptional Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs). TALENs function in pairs and bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Upon binding to the target sequence, a functional nuclease is reconstituted that creates double-stranded breaks in the DNA that are efficiently repaired by non-homologous end joining. This error-prone process often results in deletions of varying lengths at the targeted locus. The toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) gene was selected for TALEN-mediated gene inactivation. Tlr4 has been implicated in ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, as well as multiple ethanol-induced behavioral effects. To generate Tlr4 knockout rats, a pair of TALEN constructs was created that specifically target Exon 1 immediately downstream of the start of translation. TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into the cytoplasm of one-cell Wistar rat embryos. Of 13 live-born pups that resulted, one harbored a mutation in Exon 1 of Tlr4. The mutated allele consisted of a 13 base-pair deletion that was predicted to create a frameshift mutation after amino acid 25. This founder rat successfully transmitted the mutation to F1 offspring. Heterozygous F1 offspring were interbred to produce homozygous F2 animals. Homozygous mutants expressed the 13-bp deletion in Tlr4 mRNA. In contrast to control rats that produced a robust increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge, homozygous rats had a markedly attenuated response. Thus, the mutant Tlr4 allele generated by TALEN-mediated gene

  17. Toll like receptor polymorphisms in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kornblit, Brian; Enevold, Christian; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen; Haagenson, Mike; Lee, Stephanie J; Müller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of the genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLR) on outcome after allogeneic myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) we have investigated 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across 10 TLRs in 816 patients and donors. Only donor genotype of TLR8 rs3764879, which is located on the X chromosome, was significantly associated with outcome at the Bonferroni corrected level P≤0.001. Male hemizygosity and female homozygosity for the minor allele were significantly associated with disease free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.85); P=0.001). Further analysis stratified by donor sex due to confounding by sex, was suggestive for associations with overall survival (male donor: HR 1.41 (95% CI 1.09–1.83), P=0.010); female donor: (HR 2.78 (95% CI 1.43–5.41), P=0.003), DFS (male donor: HR 1.45 (95% CI 1.12–1.87), P=0.005; female donor: HR 2.34 (95% CI 1.18–4.65), P=0.015) and treatment related mortality (male donor: HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.09–2.04), P=0.012; female donor: HR 3.12 (95% CI 1.44–6.74), P=0.004). In conclusion our findings suggest that the minor allele of TLR8 rs3764879 of the donor is associated with outcome after myeloablative conditioned allogeneic HCT. PMID:25464115

  18. Study of Toll-like receptor gene loci in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, M; Kwiatkowski, R; Albrecht, M; Fischer, A; Hampe, J; Müller-Quernheim, J; Schwinger, E; Schreiber, S

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-factorial systemic disease of granulomatous inflammation. Current concepts of the aetiology include interactions of unknown environmental triggers with an inherited susceptibility. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are main components of innate immunity and therefore TLR genes are candidate susceptibility genes in sarcoidosis. Ten members of the human TLR gene family have been identified and mapped to seven chromosomal segments. The aim of this study was to investigate all known TLR gene loci for genetic linkage with sarcoidosis and to follow positive signals with different methods. We analysed linkage of TLR gene loci to sarcoidosis by use of closely flanking microsatellite markers in 83 families with 180 affected siblings. We found significant linkage between sarcoidosis and markers of the TLR4 gene locus on chromosome 9q (non-parametric linkage score 2·63, P = 0·0043). No linkage was found for the remaining TLR gene loci. We subsequently genotyped 1203 sarcoidosis patients from 997 families, 1084 relatives and 537 control subjects for four single nucleotide polymorphisms of TLR4, including Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile. This genotype data set was studied by case–control comparisons and transmission disequilibrium tests, but showed no significant results. In summary, TLR4 − w ith significant genetic linkage results − appears to be the most promising member of the TLR gene family for further investigation in sarcoidosis. However, our results do not confirm the TLR4 polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile as susceptibility markers. Our results rather point to another as yet unidentified variant within or close to TLR4 that might confer susceptibility to sarcoidosis. PMID:18422738

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Fruit Fractions in Vitro, Mediated through Toll-Like Receptor 4 and 2 in the Context of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nasef, Noha Ahmed; Mehta, Sunali; Murray, Pamela; Marlow, Gareth; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4) are important in detecting and responding to stress and bacterial stimuli. Defect or damage in the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways can lead to sustained inflammation, characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to identify fruit fractions that can be tested further to develop them as complementary therapies for IBD. In order to do this, we identified fruit fractions that mediate their anti-inflammatory response through the TLR4 and TLR2 pathway. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK)-hTLR4 and hTLR2 cells were stimulated with their respective ligands to induce inflammation. These cells were treated with one of the 12 fractionated fruits and the inflammatory effect measured. 10 of the fruits came up as anti-inflammatory in the hTLR4 assay and nine in the hTLR2 assays. Many of the fruit fractions mediated their anti-inflammatory actions either mainly in their hydrophobic fractions (such as elderberry) or hydrophilic fractions (such as red raspberry), or both. The strongest anti-inflammatory effects were seen for feijoa and blackberry. This study shows that fruits can have multiple fractions eliciting anti-inflammatory effects in a pathway specific manner. This suggests that the compounds found in fruits can act together to produce health benefits by way of reducing inflammation. Exploiting this property of fruits can help develop complimentary therapies for inflammatory diseases. PMID:25415606

  20. Characterization, expression analysis and localization pattern of toll-like receptor 1 (tlr1) and toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) genes in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    He, L B; Wang, H; Luo, L F; Jiang, S H; Liu, L Y; Li, Y M; Huang, R; Liao, L J; Zhu, Z Y; Wang, Y P

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the toll-like receptor 1 (tlr1) and toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) genes of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were cloned and characterized. tlr1 and tlr2 were found to be highly expressed in immune system organs such as spleen, middle kidney and heart kidney. The expression level of tlr1 and tlr2 was found to be up-regulated at the later stage of viral challenge process. Moreover, subcellular localization indicated that Tlr1 and Tlr2 shared similar localization pattern and both of them may locate in the plasma membrane of transfected cells. PMID:27221024

  1. Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: recent and emerging translational developments

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Laura; O’Reilly, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are defined as the loss of self-tolerance in which an inflammatory response to self-antigens occurs, which are a significant global burden. Toll-like receptors are key pattern recognition receptors, which integrate signals leading to the activation of transcription factors and ultimately proinflammatory cytokines. Recently, it has become apparent that these are at the nexus of autoinflammatory diseases making them viable and attractive drug targets. The aim of this review was to evaluate the role of innate immunity in autoinflammatory conditions alongside the role of negative regulation while suggesting possible therapeutic targets. PMID:27579291

  2. Syntheses of fluorescent imidazoquinoline conjugates as probes of Toll-like receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Nikunj M.; Mutz, Cole A.; Ukani, Rehman; Warshakoon, Hemamali J.; Moore, David S.; David, Sunil A.

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 agonists show prominent immunostimulatory activities. The synthesis of a TLR7-active N1-(4-aminomethyl)benzyl substituted imidazoquinoline 5d served as a convenient precursor for the covalent attachment of fluorophores without significant loss of activity. Fluorescence microscopy experiments show that the fluorescent analogues are internalized and distributed in the endosomal compartment. Flow cytometry experiments using whole human blood show differential partitioning into B, T, and natural killer (NK) lymphocytic subsets, which correlate with the degree of activation in these subsets. These fluorescently-labeled imidazoquinolines will likely be useful in examining the trafficking of TLR7 in immunological synapses. PMID:20933417

  3. Modeling the interactions of bacteria and Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Julia; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Siggers, Richard; Afrazi, Amin; Hackam, David; Vodovotz, Yoram; Rubin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe disease of the gastrointestinal tract in premature infants, characterized by a disrupted intestinal epithelium and an exaggerated pro-inflammatory response. Since the activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) blocks cell migration and proliferation and contributes to an uncontrolled inflammatory response within the intestine, this receptor has been identified as a key contributor to the development of NEC. Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) has been shown to sense bacterial genome components (CpG DNA) and to play an anti-inflammatory role in NEC. We present in vitro results demonstrating direct inhibition of TLR4 activation by CpG DNA, and we develop a mathematical model of bacteria–immune interactions within the intestine to investigate how such inhibition of TLR4 signaling might alter inflammation, associated bacterial invasion of tissue, and resulting outcomes. The model predicts that TLR9 can inhibit both the beneficial and detrimental effects of TLR4, and thus a proper balance of action by these two receptors is needed to promote intestinal health. The model results are also used to explore three interventions that could potentially prevent the development of NEC: reducing bacteria in the mucus layer, administering probiotic treatment, and blocking TLR4 activation. While the model shows that these interventions would be successful in most cases, the model is also used to identify situations in which the proposed treatments might be harmful. PMID:23238281

  4. Toll-like receptor signaling increases production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in bovine macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation of macrophages can occur through Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP). Recently, it has been discovered that TLR signaling can increase 1alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp27B1) expression in human and mouse macrophages. The enzymatic activity of 1alp...

  5. Toll-Like Receptor Activation by Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens from Lipid A Mutants of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Omar; Caboni, Mariaelena; Negrea, Aurel; Necchi, Francesca; Alfini, Renzo; Micoli, Francesca; Saul, Allan; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a neglected disease with high mortality in children and HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, caused primarily by Africa-specific strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. A vaccine using GMMA (generalized modules for membrane antigens) from S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis containing lipid A modifications to reduce potential in vivo reactogenicity is under development. GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A showed the greatest reduction in the level of cytokine release from human peripheral blood monocytes from that for GMMA with wild-type lipid A. Deletion of the lipid A modification genes msbB and pagP was required to achieve pure penta-acylation. Interestingly, ΔmsbB ΔpagP GMMA from S. Enteritidis had a slightly higher stimulatory potential than those from S. Typhimurium, a finding consistent with the higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulatory potential of the former. Also, TLR5 ligand flagellin was found in Salmonella GMMA. No relevant contribution to the stimulatory potential of GMMA was detected even when the flagellin protein FliC from S. Typhimurium was added at a concentration as high as 10% of total protein, suggesting that flagellin impurities are not a major factor for GMMA-mediated immune stimulation. Overall, the stimulatory potential of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis ΔmsbB ΔpagP GMMA was close to that of Shigella sonnei GMMA, which are currently in phase I clinical trials. PMID:26865597

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through Toll-like receptor 4-mediated suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Lee, Hye Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is the main functional component of the Cordyceps species, which has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine. This compound possesses many pharmacological properties, such as an ability to enhance immune function, as well as antioxidant, antiaging, and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin using a murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell model. Our data demonstrated that cordycepin suppressed production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by inhibiting inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression. Cordycepin also inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1-beta, through downregulation of respective mRNA expression. In addition, pretreatment with cordycepin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activating protein kinases and attenuated nuclear translocation of NF-κB by LPS, which was associated with abrogation of inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation. Furthermore, cordycepin potently inhibited the binding of LPS to macrophages and LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages are associated with suppression of mitogen-activating protein kinases and activation of NF-κB by inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. PMID:25342887

  7. The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Infectious and Noninfectious Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Molteni, Monica; Gemma, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). They are highly conserved receptors that recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), thus representing the first line of defense against infections. TLR4 has been long recognized as the sensing receptor for gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, it also binds endogenous molecules produced as a result of tissue injury. Hence, TLR4 represents a key receptor on which both infectious and noninfectious stimuli converge to induce a proinflammatory response. TLR4-mediated inflammation, triggered by exogenous or endogenous ligands, is also involved in several acute and chronic diseases, having a pivotal role as amplifier of the inflammatory response. This review focuses on the research progress about the role of TLR4 activation in infectious and noninfectious (e.g., sterile) inflammation and the effects of TLR4 signaling in some pathological conditions. PMID:27293318

  8. Advanced glycation end products induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ down-regulation-related inflammatory signals in human chondrocytes via Toll-like receptor-4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying Ju; Sheu, Meei Ling; Tsai, Keh Sung; Yang, Rong Sen; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in joints is important in the development of cartilage destruction and damage in age-related osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in AGEs-induced inflammatory signalings in human OA chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were isolated and cultured. The productions of metalloproteinase-13 and interleukin-6 were quantified using the specific ELISA kits. The expressions of related signaling proteins were determined by Western blotting. Our results showed that AGEs enhanced the productions of interleukin-6 and metalloproteinase-13 and the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and high-mobility group protein B1 and resulted in the reduction of collagen II expression in human OA chondrocytes. AGEs could also activate nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. Stimulation of human OA chondrocytes with AGEs significantly induced the up-regulation of TLR4 and RAGE expressions and the down-regulation of PPARγ expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Neutralizing antibodies of TLR4 and RAGE effectively reversed the AGEs-induced inflammatory signalings and PPARγ down-regulation. PPARγ agonist pioglitazone could also reverse the AGEs-increased inflammatory signalings. Specific inhibitors for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-κB suppressed AGEs-induced PPARγ down-regulation and reduction of collagen II expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that AGEs induce PPARγ down-regulation-mediated inflammatory signalings and reduction of collagen II expression in human OA chondrocytes via TLR4 and RAGE, which may play a crucial role in the development of osteoarthritis pathogenesis induced by AGEs accumulation. PMID:23776688

  9. Differential roles of Toll-like receptors in the elicitation of type I interferon responses by alveolar macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of virus replication initially depends on rapid activation of the innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are potent inducers of innate immunity against viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) initiates infection in pulmonary alveolar...

  10. P2X4 receptor in the dorsal horn partially contributes to brain-derived neurotrophic factor oversecretion and toll-like receptor-4 receptor activation associated with bone cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Li-Na; Zuo, Jian-Ling; Yang, Jian-Ping; Liu, Si-Lan

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the microglial P2X7 purinoceptor is involved in the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) following activation of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which is associated with nociceptive behavior. In addition, this progress is evoked by the activation of the P2X4 purinoceptor (P2X4R). Although P2X4R is also localized within spinal microglia in the dorsal horn, little is known about its role in cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP), which is in some ways unique. With the present rat model of CIBP, we demonstrate a critical role of the microglial P2X4R in the enhanced nociceptive transmission, which is associated with TLR4 activation and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TNFα in the dorsal horn. We assessed mechanical threshold and spontaneous pain of CIBP rats. Moreover, P2X4R small interfering RNA (siRNA) was administered intrathecally, and real-time PCR, Western blots, immunofluorescence histochemistry, and ELISA were used to detect the expression of P2X4R, TLR4, OX-42, phosphorylated-p38 MAPK (p-p38), BDNF, and TNFα. Compared with controls, intrathecal injection of P2X4R siRNA could prevent nociceptive behavior induced by ATP plus lipopolysaccharide and CIBP and reduce the expression of P2X4R, TLR4, p-p38, BDNF, and TNFα. In addition, the increase of BDNF protein in rat microglial cells depended on P2X4 receptor signaling, which is partially associated with TLR4 activation. The ability of microglial P2X4R to activate TLR4 in spinal cord leading to behavioral hypersensitivity and oversecretion of BDNF could provide an opportunity for the prevention and treatment of CIBP. PMID:24984884

  11. Toll-like receptors in bony fish: from genomics to function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Receptors that recognize conserved pathogen molecules are the first line of cellular innate immunity defense. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best understood of the innate immune receptors that detect infections in mammals. Key features of the fish TLRs and the factors involved in their signali...

  12. Patents for Toll-like receptor ligands as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Pollard, Harvey B

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation exposure induces apoptosis of tissues in the hematopoietic, digestive, cutaneous, cardiovascular and nervous systems; extensive apoptosis of these tissues ultimately leads to acute radiation syndrome. A novel strategy for developing radiation countermeasures has been to imitate the genetic mechanisms acquired by radiation-resistant tumors. Two mechanisms that underlie this ability of tumor cells are the p53 and NF-κB pathways. The loss of p53 function results in the inactivation of pro-apoptotic control mechanisms, while constitutive activation of NF-κB results in the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes. Various Toll-like receptor ligands are capable of up regulating the NF-κB pathway, which increases radio-resistance and reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in various tissues. Several Toll-like receptor ligands have been patented and are currently under development as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome. Ongoing studies suggest that a few of these attractive agents are progressing well along the US FDA approval pathway to become radiation countermeasures. PMID:26135043

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for diverse bacterial products.

    PubMed

    Lien, E; Sellati, T J; Yoshimura, A; Flo, T H; Rawadi, G; Finberg, R W; Carroll, J D; Espevik, T; Ingalls, R R; Radolf, J D; Golenbock, D T

    1999-11-19

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 are signal transducers for lipopolysaccharide, the major proinflammatory constituent in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We observed that membrane lipoproteins/lipopeptides from Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma fermentans activated cells heterologously expressing TLR2 but not those expressing TLR1 or TLR4. These TLR2-expressing cells were also stimulated by living motile B. burgdorferi, suggesting that TLR2 recognition of lipoproteins is relevant to natural Borrelia infection. Importantly, a TLR2 antibody inhibited bacterial lipoprotein/lipopeptide-induced tumor necrosis factor release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and TLR2-null Chinese hamster macrophages were insensitive to lipoprotein/lipopeptide challenge. The data suggest a role for the native protein in cellular activation by these ligands. In addition, TLR2-dependent responses were seen using whole Mycobacterium avium and Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating that this receptor can function as a signal transducer for a wide spectrum of bacterial products. We conclude that diverse pathogens activate cells through TLR2 and propose that this molecule is a central pattern recognition receptor in host immune responses to microbial invasion. PMID:10559223

  14. Cleavage of fibrinogen by proteinases elicits allergic responses through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Shaw, Joanne; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Mak, Garbo; Roberts, Luz; Song, Li-Zhen; Knight, J Morgan; Creighton, Chad J; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B

    2013-08-16

    Proteinases and the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are essential for expression of allergic inflammation and diseases such as asthma. A mechanism that links these inflammatory mediators is essential for explaining the fundamental basis of allergic disease but has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that TLR4 is activated by airway proteinase activity to initiate both allergic airway disease and antifungal immunity. These outcomes were induced by proteinase cleavage of the clotting protein fibrinogen, yielding fibrinogen cleavage products that acted as TLR4 ligands on airway epithelial cells and macrophages. Thus, allergic airway inflammation represents an antifungal defensive strategy that is driven by fibrinogen cleavage and TLR4 activation. These findings clarify the molecular basis of allergic disease and suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23950537

  15. Red blood cell alloimmunization is influenced by the delay between Toll-like receptor agonist injection and transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Elayeb, Rahma; Tamagne, Marie; Bierling, Philippe; Noizat-Pirenne, France; Vingert, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Murine models of red blood cell transfusion show that inflammation associated with viruses or methylated DNA promotes red blood cell alloimmunization. In vaccination studies, the intensity of antigen-specific responses depends on the delay between antigen and adjuvant administration, with a short delay limiting immune responses. In mouse models of alloimmunization, the delay between the injection of Toll-like receptor agonists and transfusion is usually short. In this study, we hypothesized that the timing of Toll-like receptor 3 agonist administration affects red blood cell alloimmunization. Poly(I:C), a Toll-like receptor 3 agonist, was administered to B10BR mice at various time points before the transfusion of HEL-expressing red blood cells. For each time point, we measured the activation of splenic HEL-presenting dendritic cells, HEL-specific CD4+ T cells and anti-HEL antibodies in serum. The phenotype of activated immune cells depended on the delay between transfusion and Toll-like receptor-dependent inflammation. The production of anti-HEL antibodies was highest when transfusion occurred 7 days after agonist injection. The proportion of HEL-presenting CD8α+ dendritic cells producing interleukin-12 was highest in mice injected with poly(I:C) 3 days before transfusion. Although the number of early-induced HEL-specific CD4+ T cells was similar between groups, a high proportion of these cells expressed CD134, CD40 and CD44 in mice injected with poly(I:C) 7 days before transfusion. This study clearly shows that the delay between transfusion and Toll-like receptor-induced inflammation influences the immune response to transfused red blood cells. PMID:26430173

  16. The emerging role of Toll-like receptor 4 in myocardial inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y; Lv, J; Jiang, S; Ma, Z; Wang, D; Hu, W; Deng, C; Fan, C; Di, S; Sun, Y; Yi, W

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors involved in cardiovascular diseases. Notably, numerous studies have demonstrated that TLR4 activates the expression of several of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes that play pivotal roles in myocardial inflammation, particularly myocarditis, myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure. In addition, TLR4 is an emerging target for anti-inflammatory therapies. Given the significance of TLR4, it would be useful to summarize the current literature on the molecular mechanisms and roles of TLR4 in myocardial inflammation. Thus, in this review, we first introduce the basic knowledge of the TLR4 gene and describe the activation and signaling pathways of TLR4 in myocardial inflammation. Moreover, we highlight the recent progress of research on the involvement of TLR4 in myocardial inflammation. The information reviewed here may be useful to further experimental research and to increase the potential of TLR4 as a therapeutic target. PMID:27228349

  17. Use of toll-like receptor agonists to reduce Salmonella colonization in neonatal swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are members of a highly conserved group of receptors which recognize conserved molecular aspects of microbes. The purpose of these experiments were to ascertain the effects of the administration of the TLR 9 agonist, CpG, on the colonization of neonatal swine with Salmonel...

  18. Toll-Like Receptors: A Key Marker for Periodontal Disease and Preterm Birth – A Contemporary Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    The receptors of the innate immune system have evolved to recognize pathogenic bacteria in a complex manner. Out of these immune receptors, the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll like receptors have gained importance off late to play a key role in the activation of cascade of inflammatory cytokines in pathogenesis of preterm birth. Preterm birth has become leading cause of neonatal deaths globally. The concept of oral infection influencing the occurrence of preterm delivery has gained importance. Translocation of periodontal pathogens and inflammatory mediators play role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. The transmembrane toll like receptors of innate immunity have been recently implicated in the association of periodontal infection and preterm labour. The TLRs are considered as a key marker and TLR blockade can be a critical method for treating women who are exposed to periodontal pathogens. This review is aimed at discussing the role of TLR in periodontal disease and its relationship with preterm birth. PMID:26501032

  19. Recent insights into the role of Toll-like receptors in viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Carty, M; Bowie, A G

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a central role in innate immunity as they detect conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on a range of microbes, including viruses, leading to innate immune activation and orchestration of the adaptive immune response. To date, a large number of viruses have been shown to trigger innate immunity via TLRs, suggesting that these receptors are likely to be important in the outcome to viral infection. This suggestion is supported by the observation that many viruses have evolved mechanisms not only to evade the innate immune system, but also to subvert it for the benefit of the virus. In this review we will discuss earlier evidence, mainly from knock-out mice studies, implicating TLRs in the innate immune response to viruses, in light of more recent clinical data demonstrating that TLRs are important for anti-viral immunity in humans. PMID:20560984

  20. DAT isn’t all that: cocaine reward and reinforcement requires Toll Like Receptor 4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Northcutt, A.L.; Hutchinson, M.R.; Wang, X.; Baratta, M.V.; Hiranita, T.; Cochran, T.A.; Pomrenze, M.B.; Galer, E.L.; Kopajtic, T.A.; Li, C.M.; Amat, J.; Larson, G.; Cooper, D.C.; Huang, Y.; O’Neill, C.E.; Yin, H.; Zahniser, N.R.; Katz, J.L.; Rice, K.C.; Maier, S.F.; Bachtell, R.K.; Watkins, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The initial reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, are largely attributed to their ability to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. Resulting increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are traditionally thought to result from cocaine’s ability to block dopamine transporters (DATs). Here we demonstrate that cocaine also interacts with the immunosurveillance receptor complex, Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), on microglial cells to initiate central innate immune signaling. Disruption of cocaine signaling at TLR4 suppresses cocaine-induced extracellular dopamine in the NAc, as well as cocaine conditioned place preference and cocaine self-administration. These results provide a novel understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying cocaine reward/reinforcement that includes a critical role for central immune signaling, and offer a new target for medication development for cocaine abuse treatment. PMID:25644383

  1. A new Vitreoscilla filiformis extract grown on spa water-enriched medium activates endogenous cutaneous antioxidant and antimicrobial defenses through a potential Toll-like receptor 2/protein kinase C, zeta transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Mahe, Yann F; Perez, Marie-Jesus; Tacheau, Charlotte; Fanchon, Chantal; Martin, Richard; Rousset, Françoise; Seite, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Vitreoscilla filiformis (VF) biomass (VFB) has been widely used in cosmetic preparations and shown to modulate the major inducible free-radical scavenger mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in skin cells. By adding La Roche-Posay (LRP) thermal spring water to the VF culture medium, we obtained a biomass (LRP-VFB) with a similar mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activation capacity to VF. Also, the new biomass more powerfully stimulated mRNA expression and antimicrobial peptides in reconstructed epidermis. Interestingly, a predictive computer model that analyzed transducing events within skin epidermal cells suggested that this protective activity may involve the Toll-like receptor 2/protein kinase C, zeta transduction pathway. Protein kinase C, zeta inhibition was effectively shown to abolish VFB-induced gene stimulation and confirmed this hypothesis. This thus opens new avenues for investigation into the improvement of skin homeostatic defense in relation to the control of its physiological microbiota and innate immunity. PMID:24039440

  2. Control of B-cell responses by Toll-like receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasare, Chandrashekhar; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2005-11-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect microbial infection and have an essential role in the induction of immune responses. TLRs can directly induce innate host defence responses, but the mechanisms of TLR-mediated control of adaptive immunity are not fully understood. Although TLR-induced dendritic cell maturation is required for activation of T-helper (TH) cells, the role of TLRs in B-cell activation and antibody production in vivo is not yet known. Here we show that activation and differentiation of TH cells is not sufficient for the induction of T-dependent B-cell responses. We find that, in addition to CD4+ T-cell help, generation of T-dependent antigen-specific antibody responses requires activation of TLRs in B cells.

  3. Innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 signalling in neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    García Bueno, B; Caso, J R; Madrigal, J L M; Leza, J C

    2016-05-01

    The innate immunity is a stereotyped first line of defense against pathogens and unspecified damage signals. One of main actors of innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and one of the better characterized members of this family is TLR-4, that it is mainly activated by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide. In brain, TLR-4 organizes innate immune responses against infections or cellular damage, but also possesses other physiological functions. In the last years, some evidences suggest a role of TLR-4 in stress and stress-related neuropsychiatric diseases. Peripheral and brain TLR-4 activation triggers sickness behavior, and its expression is a risk factor of depression. Some elements of the TLR-4 signaling pathway are up-regulated in peripheral samples and brain post-mortem tissue from depressed and suicidal patients. The "leaky gut" hypothesis of neuropsychiatric diseases is based on the existence of an increase of the intestinal permeability which results in bacterial translocation able to activate TLR-4. Enhanced peripheral TLR-4 expression/activity has been described in subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and in autistic children. A role for TLR-4 in drugs abuse has been also proposed. The therapeutic potential of pharmacological/genetic modulation of TLRs signaling pathways in neuropsychiatry is promising, but a great preclinical/clinical scientific effort is still needed. PMID:26905767

  4. Incorporation of Phosphonate into Benzonaphthyridine Toll-like Receptor 7 Agonists for Adsorption to Aluminum Hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Alex; Li, Yongkai; Miller, Andrew T; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Yue, Kathy; Maginnis, Jillian; Hampton, Janice; Hall, De Shon; Shapiro, Michael; Nayak, Bishnu; D'Oro, Ugo; Li, Chun; Skibinski, David; Mbow, M Lamine; Singh, Manmohan; O'Hagan, Derek T; Cooke, Michael P; Valiante, Nicholas M; Wu, Tom Y-H

    2016-06-23

    Small molecule Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists have been used as vaccine adjuvants by enhancing innate immune activation to afford better adaptive response. Localized TLR7 agonists without systemic exposure can afford good adjuvanticity, suggesting peripheral innate activation (non-antigen-specific) is not required for immune priming. To enhance colocalization of antigen and adjuvant, benzonaphthyridine (BZN) TLR7 agonists are chemically modified with phosphonates to allow adsorption onto aluminum hydroxide (alum), a formulation commonly used in vaccines for antigen stabilization and injection site deposition. The adsorption process is facilitated by enhancing aqueous solubility of BZN analogs to avoid physical mixture of two insoluble particulates. These BZN-phosphonates are highly adsorbed onto alum, which significantly reduced systemic exposure and increased local retention post injection. This report demonstrates a novel approach in vaccine adjuvant design using phosphonate modification to afford adsorption of small molecule immune potentiator (SMIP) onto alum, thereby enhancing co-delivery with antigen. PMID:27270029

  5. The acylation state of mycobacterial lipomannans modulates innate immunity response through toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Gilleron, Martine; Nigou, Jérôme; Nicolle, Delphine; Quesniaux, Valérie; Puzo, Germain

    2006-01-01

    Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens by professional phagocytes via toll-like receptors (TLR) contributes to controlling chronic M. tuberculosis infection. Lipomannans (LM), which are major lipoglycans of the mycobacterial envelope, were recently described as agonists of TLR2 with potent activity on proinflammatory cytokine regulation. LM correspond to a heterogeneous population of acyl- and glyco-forms. We report here the purification and the complete structural characterization of four LM acyl-forms from Mycobacterium bovis BCG using MALDI MS and 2D (1)H-(31)P NMR analyses. All this biochemical work provided the tools to investigate the implication of LM acylation degree on its proinflammatory activity. The latter was ascribed to the triacylated LM form, essentially an agonist of TLR2, using TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers for signaling. Altogether, these findings shed more light on the molecular basis of LM recognition by TLR. PMID:16426970

  6. The role of Toll-like receptors in host defense against microbial infection.

    PubMed

    Krutzik, S R; Sieling, P A; Modlin, R L

    2001-02-01

    The Toll family of proteins is central to Drosophila host defense against microbial infection. Maintained throughout evolution, mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are proteins that participate in innate immunity to bacteria in at least four ways. First, TLRs participate in the recognition of molecular patterns present on microorganisms. Second, TLRs are expressed at the interface with the environment, the site of microbial invasion. Third, activation of TLRs induces expression of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines that instruct the adaptive immune response. Fourth, activation of TLRs leads to direct antimicrobial effector pathways that can result in elimination of the foreign invader. The recent investigation of TLRs in these areas has provided new insights into mechanisms of innate immunity. PMID:11154925

  7. Toll-like receptors: cellular signal transducers for exogenous molecular patterns causing immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kirschning, C J; Bauer, S

    2001-09-01

    Innate immunity initiates protection of the host organism against invasion and subsequent multiplication of microbes by specific recognition. Germ line-encoded receptors have been identified for microbial products such as mannan, lipopeptide, peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG-DNA. The Drosophila Toll protein has been shown to be involved in innate immune response of the adult fruitfly. Members of the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in vertebrates have been implicated as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Ten TLRs are known and six of these have been demonstrated to mediate cellular activation by distinct microbial products. TLR4 has been implicated as activator of adaptive immunity, and analysis of systemic LPS responses in mice led to the identification of LPS-resistant strains instrumental in its identification as a transmembrane LPS signal transducer. Structural similarities between TLRs and receptor molecules involved in immune responses such as CD14 and the IL-1 receptors (IL-1Rs), as well as functional analysis qualified TLR2 as candidate receptor for LPS and other microbial products. Targeted disruption of the TLR9 gene in mice led to identification of TLR9 as CpG-DNA signal transducer. Involvement of TLR5 in cell activation by bacterial flagellin has been demonstrated. Further understanding of recognition and cellular signaling activated through the ancient host defense system represented by Toll will eventually lead to means for its therapeutic modulation. PMID:11680785

  8. Toll-Like Receptor Interactions Measured by Microscopic and Flow Cytometric FRET.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Gabor L; Langhoff, Pia; Latz, Eicke

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions regulate biological networks. The most proximal events that initiate signal transduction frequently are receptor dimerization or conformational changes in receptor complexes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane receptors that are activated by a number of exogenous and endogenous ligands. Most TLRs can respond to multiple ligands and the different TLRs recognize structurally diverse molecules ranging from proteins, sugars, lipids, and nucleic acids. TLRs can be expressed on the plasma membrane or in endosomal compartments and ligand recognition thus proceeds in different microenvironments. Not surprisingly, distinctive mechanisms of TLR receptor activation have evolved. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of TLR activation is important for the development of novel synthetic TLR activators or pharmacological inhibitors of TLRs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with GFP technology allows the direct visualization of TLR expression in living cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements between two differentially tagged proteins permit the study of TLR interaction, and distances between receptors in the range of molecular interactions can be measured and visualized. Additionally, FRET measurements combined with confocal microscopy provide detailed information about molecular interactions in different subcellular localizations. These techniques permit the dynamic visualization of early signaling events in living cells and can be utilized in pharmacological or genetic screens. PMID:26803621

  9. Laquinimod prevents cuprizone-induced demyelination independent of Toll-like receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Menken, Lena; Hayardeny, Liat; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Brück, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays a key role for reduced nuclear factor B (NF-κB) activation after laquinimod treatment in the model of cuprizone-induced demyelination, oligodendrocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and axonal damage. Methods: Ten-week-old C57BL/6J, TLR4−/−, and MyD88−/− mice received 0.25% cuprizone for 6 weeks and were treated daily with 25 mg/kg laquinimod or vehicle. After 6 weeks of demyelination, extent of demyelination, oligodendrocyte density, microglia infiltration, and axonal damage were analyzed in the corpus callosum. Additionally, we analyzed primary mouse astrocytes from C57BL/6J, TLR4−/−, MyD88−/−, and TRIF−/− mice for alteration in NF-κB signaling. Results: Vehicle-treated controls from C57BL/6J, TLR4−/−, and MyD88−/− mice displayed extensive callosal demyelination as well as microglial activation. In contrast, mice treated with 25 mg/kg laquinimod showed mainly intact callosal myelin. The demyelination score was significantly higher in all untreated mice compared to mice treated with laquinimod. There were significantly fewer APP-positive axonal spheroids, Mac3-positive macrophages/microglia, and less oligodendrocyte apoptosis in the corpus callosum of laquinimod-treated mice in comparison to untreated controls. Stimulated primary mouse astrocytes from laquinimod-treated groups show reduced NF-κB activation compared to vehicle-treated controls. Conclusions: Our results confirm that laquinimod prevents demyelination in the cuprizone mouse model for multiple sclerosis via downregulation of NF-κB activation. This laquinimod effect, however, does not involve upstream Toll-like receptor signaling. PMID:27231712

  10. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 3 EXPRESSION AND SIGNALING IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous studies have shown that prior exposure of respiratory epithelial cells to an aqueous-trapped solution of DE (DEas) enhances the susceptibility to Influenza infections. Here we examined the effect of DEas on the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway, which is responsib...

  11. Hepatocyte Toll-like receptor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammat...

  12. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands regulate monocyte Fcγ receptor expression and function.

    PubMed

    Shah, Prexy; Fatehchand, Kavin; Patel, Hemal; Fang, Huiqing; Justiniano, Steven E; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Tridandapani, Susheela; Butchar, Jonathan P

    2013-04-26

    Fcγ receptor (FcγR) clustering on monocytes/macrophages results in phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine production, which serve to eliminate antibody-opsonized targets and activate neighboring immune cells. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which recognizes a range of both bacterial and fungal components, elicits strong proinflammatory responses in these cells when stimulated by ligands, either natural or synthetic. Thus, we explored the possibility that TLR2 agonists could strengthen FcγR activity within the context of antibody therapy. Human peripheral blood monocytes treated with the TLR2 agonist Pam2CSK4 showed significantly enhanced FcγR-mediated cytokine production as well as phagocytic ability. An examination of the molecular mechanism behind this enhancement revealed increased expression of both FcγRIIa and the common γ subunit following Pam2CSK4 treatment. Interestingly however, expression of the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIb was also modestly increased. Further investigation revealed that Pam2CSK4 also dramatically decreased the expression of SHIP, the major mediator of FcγRIIb inhibitory activity. Using a murine Her2/neu solid tumor model of antibody therapy, we found that Pam2CSK4 significantly enhanced the ability of anti-Her2 antibody to reduce the rate of tumor growth. To verify that the FcγR enhancement was not unique to the diacylated Pam2CSK4, we also tested Pam3CSK4, a related triacylated TLR2 agonist. Results showed significant enhancement in FcγR function and expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that TLR2 activation can positively modulate FcγR and suggest that TLR2 agonists should be considered for testing as adjuvants for antitumor antibody therapy. PMID:23504312

  13. Toll-like receptor signaling is functional in immune cells of the endangered Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Amanda L; Latham, Roger; Brettingham-Moore, Kate H; Tovar, Cesar; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a fatally transmissible cancer that threatens the Tasmanian devil population. As Tasmanian devils do not produce an immune response against DFTD cells, an effective vaccine will require a strong adjuvant. Activation of innate immune system cells through toll-like receptors (TLRs) could provide this stimulation. It is unknown whether marsupials, including Tasmanian devils, express functional TLRs. We isolated RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and, with PCR, detected transcripts for TLRs 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 13. Stimulation of the mononuclear cells with agonists to these TLRs increased the expression of downstream TLR signaling products (IL1α, IL6, IL12A and IFNβ). Our data provide the first evidence that TLR signaling is functional in the mononuclear cells of the Tasmanian devil. Future DFTD vaccination trials will incorporate TLR agonists to enhance the immune response against DFTD. PMID:26182986

  14. Toll-like receptors in autoimmunity with special reference to systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Vandana D; Das, Swaptagni; Surve, Prathamesh; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2012-05-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family plays a fundamental role in host innate immunity by mounting a rapid and potent inflammatory response to pathogen infection. TLRs recognize distinct microbial components and activate intracellular signaling pathways that induce expression of host inflammatory genes. Several studies have indicated that TLRs are implicated in many inflammatory and immune disorders. Extensive research in the past decade to understand TLR-mediated mechanisms of innate immunity has enabled pharmaceutical companies to begin to develop novel therapeutics for the purpose of controlling an inflammatory disease. The roles of TLRs in the development of autoimmune diseases have been studied. TLR7 and TLR9 have key roles in production of autoantibodies and/or in development of systemic autoimmune disease. It remains to be determined their role in apoptosis, in the pathogenesis of RNA containing immune complexes, differential expression of TLRs by T regulatory cells. PMID:23162288

  15. The pharmacokinetics of Toll-like receptor agonists and the impact on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Engel, Abbi L; Holt, Gregory E; Lu, Hailing

    2011-03-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation activates both the innate and adaptive immune systems, and plays an important role in antiviral and anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, a significant amount of effort has been devoted to exploit the therapeutic potential of TLR agonists. Depending on the therapeutic purpose, either as adjuvants to vaccine, chemotherapy or standalone therapy, TLR agonists have been administered via different routes. Both preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that the route of administration has significant effects on pharmacokinetics, and that understanding these effects is critical to the success of TLR agonist drug development. This article will summarize the pharmacokinetics of TLR agonists with different administration routes, with an emphasis on clinical studies of TLR ligands in oncologic applications. PMID:21643519

  16. CPG-7909 (PF-3512676, ProMune): toll-like receptor-9 agonist in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Murad, Yanal M; Clay, Timothy M; Lyerly, H Kim; Morse, Michael A

    2007-08-01

    Stimulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)9 activates human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, and induces potent innate immune responses in preclinical tumor models and in patients. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are TLR9 agonists that show promising results as vaccine adjuvants and in the treatment of cancers, infections, asthma and allergy. PF-3512676 (ProMune) was developed as a TLR9 agonist for the treatment of cancer as monotherapy and as an adjuvant in combination with chemo- and immunotherapy. Phase I and II trials have tested this drug in several hematopoietic and solid tumors. Pfizer has initiated Phase III trials to test PF-3512676 in combination with standard chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:17696823

  17. The pharmacokinetics of Toll-like receptor agonists and the impact on the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Abbi L; Holt, Gregory E; Lu, Hailing

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation activates both the innate and adaptive immune systems, and plays an important role in antiviral and anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, a significant amount of effort has been devoted to exploit the therapeutic potential of TLR agonists. Depending on the therapeutic purpose, either as adjuvants to vaccine, chemotherapy or standalone therapy, TLR agonists have been administered via different routes. Both preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that the route of administration has significant effects on pharmacokinetics, and that understanding these effects is critical to the success of TLR agonist drug development. This article will summarize the pharmacokinetics of TLR agonists with different administration routes, with an emphasis on clinical studies of TLR ligands in oncologic applications. PMID:21643519

  18. Role of Toll-like receptors in lung innate defense against invasive aspergillosis. Distinct impact in immunocompetent and immunocompromized hosts.

    PubMed

    Chignard, Michel; Balloy, Viviane; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Si-Tahar, Mustapha

    2007-09-01

    Toll-like receptors are key to pathogen recognition by a host and to the subsequent triggering of an innate immune response. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that defects in Toll-like receptors or in signaling pathways downstream from these receptors render hosts susceptible to various types of infection, including aspergillosis. Patients receiving an immunosuppressive regimen, including corticosteroid therapy or cytotoxic chemotherapy, are also susceptible to infections. Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen that infects the lungs of immunosuppressed hosts. Here, we review the evidence that experimental inactivation of various Toll-like receptors and of their signaling pathways may worsen cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Moreover, the literature clearly indicates that the type of immunosuppression is very important, as it influences whether or not Toll-like receptors contribute to infection. The involvement of Toll-like receptors, based on the immunological status of the patient, should be considered if an immunosuppressive treatment must be administered. PMID:17604224

  19. Roles of lipoxin A4 receptor activation and anti-interleukin-1β antibody on the toll-like receptor 2/mycloid differentiation factor 88/nuclear factor-κB pathway in airway inflammation induced by ovalbumin

    PubMed Central

    KONG, XIA; WU, SHENG-HUA; ZHANG, LI; CHEN, XIAO-QING

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in asthma have been inconclusive. It has remained elusive whether the toll-like receptors (TLR2)/mycloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway is involved in lipoxin A4 (LXA4)-induced protection against asthma. Therefore, the present study investigated whether ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation is mediated by upregulation of the TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, and whether it proceeds via the inhibition of the activation of the LXA4 receptor and anti-interleukin (IL)-1β antibodies. Mice with airway inflammation induced by OVA administration were treated with or without a LXA4 receptor agonist, BML-111 and anti-IL-1β antibody. Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were assessed, and levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8 and OVA-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, as well as leukocyte counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Pathological features and expression of TLR2, MyD88 and NF-κB in the lungs were analyzed. Expression of TLR2 and MyD88, and activation of NF-κB in leukocytes as well as levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-8 released from leukocytes exposed to IL-1β were assessed. OVA treatment increased the levels of IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-8 in the serum and BLAF, the number of leukocytes and the levels of OVA-IgE in the BALF, the expression of TLR2 and MyD88, and the activation of NF-κB in the lung. These increments induced by OVA were inhibited by treatment with BML-111 and anti-IL-1β antibodies. Treatment of the leukocytes with BML-111 or TLR2 antibody, or MyD88 or NF-κB inhibitor, all blocked the IL-1β-triggered production of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-8 and activation of NF-κB. Treatment of the leukocytes with BML-111 or TLR2 antibody suppressed IL-1β-induced TLR2 and MyD88 expression. The present study therefore suggested that OVA-induced airway inflammation is mediated by the TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. IL-1β has a

  20. Heat shock up-regulates expression of Toll-like receptor-2 and Toll-like receptor-4 in human monocytes via p38 kinase signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; An, Huazhang; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Shuxun; Cao, Xuetao

    2005-01-01

    Heat stress can alert innate immunity by inducing stress proteins such as heat-shock proteins (HSPs). However, it remains unclear whether heat stress affects the activation of antigen-presenting cell (APC) in response to pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) by directly regulating pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). As an important kind of PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in the activation of immune system. In this study, we demonstrated that heat shock up-regulated the expression of HSP70 as well as TLR2 and TLR4 in monocytes. The induction of TLRs was prior to that of HSP70, which suggesting the up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 might be independent of the induction of HSP70. Heat shock activated p38 kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathways in monocytes. Pretreatment with specific inhibitor of p38 kinase, but not those of ERK and NF-κB, inhibited heat shock-induced up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4. This indicates that p38 pathway takes part in heat shock-induced up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4. Heat shock also increased lipoteichoic acid- or lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 production by monocytes. These results suggest that the p38 kinase-mediated up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 might be involved in the enhanced response to PAMP in human monocytes induced by heat shock. PMID:15804289

  1. Neu1 sialidase and matrix metalloproteinase-9 cross-talk regulates nucleic acid-induced endosomal TOLL-like receptor-7 and -9 activation, cellular signaling and pro-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Abdulkhalek, Samar; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2013-11-01

    The precise mechanism(s) by which intracellular TOLL-like receptors (TLRs) become activated by their ligands remains unclear. Here, we report a molecular organizational G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling platform to potentiate a novel mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cross-talk in alliance with neuromedin B GPCR, all of which form a tripartite complex with TLR-7 and -9. siRNA silencing Neu1, MMP-9 and neuromedin-B GPCR in RAW-blue macrophage cells significantly reduced TLR7 imiquimod- and TLR9 ODN1826-induced NF-κB (NF-κB-pSer(536)) activity. Tamiflu, specific MMP-9 inhibitor, neuromedin B receptor specific antagonist BIM23127, and the selective inhibitor of whole heterotrimeric G-protein complex BIM-46174 significantly block nucleic acid-induced TLR-7 and -9 MyD88 recruitment, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory TNFα and MCP-1 cytokine responses. For the first time, Neu1 clearly plays a central role in mediating nucleic acid-induced intracellular TLR activation, and the interactions involving NMBR-MMP9-Neu1 cross-talk constitute a novel intracellular TLR signaling platform that is essential for NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:23827939

  2. Upregulation of HMGB1, toll-like receptor and RAGE in human Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Luan, Guoming; Gao, Qing; Zhai, Feng; Chen, Yin; Li, Tianfu

    2016-07-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare neurological disorder of childhood characterized by uni-hemispheric inflammation, progressive neurological deficits and intractable focal epilepsy. The pathogenesis of RE is still enigmatic. Activation of endogenous high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) has been proved to be with pro-inflammatory as well as pro-convulsant effects. We hypothesized that the epileptogenic mechanisms underlying RE are related to activation of HMGB1/TLR signaling. Immunnohistochemistry approach was used to examine the expression of HMGB1, TLR2, TLR4, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in surgically resected human epileptic cortical specimens from RE (n=12), and compared that with control cortical issue (n=6). HMGB1 was ubiquitously detected in nuclei of astrocytes while its receptors were not detected in control cortex specimens. Marked expression of the receptors were observed in the lesions of RE. In particular, HMGB1 was in stead detected in cytoplasm of reactive astrocytes in RE cortex, predictive its release from glial cells. Significant greater HMGB1 and its receptors expression in RE vs. control was demonstrated by western blot. These results provide the novel evidence of intrinsic activation of these pro-inflammation pathways in RE, which suggest the specific targets in the treatment of epilepsy associated with RE. PMID:27108105

  3. Posttranslational Modification of HOIP Blocks Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Linear-Ubiquitin-Chain Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, James; Rodgers, Mary A.; Shi, Mude; Amatya, Rina; Hostager, Bruce; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Linear ubiquitination is an atypical posttranslational modification catalyzed by the linear-ubiquitin-chain assembly complex (LUBAC), containing HOIP, HOIL-1L, and Sharpin. LUBAC facilitates NF-κB activation and inflammation upon receptor stimulation by ligating linear ubiquitin chains to critical signaling molecules. Indeed, linear-ubiquitination-dependent signaling is essential to prevent pyogenic bacterial infections that can lead to death. While linear ubiquitination is essential for intracellular receptor signaling upon microbial infection, this response must be measured and stopped to avoid tissue damage and autoimmunity. While LUBAC is activated upon bacterial stimulation, the mechanisms regulating LUBAC activity in response to bacterial stimuli have remained elusive. We demonstrate that LUBAC activity itself is downregulated through ubiquitination, specifically, ubiquitination of the catalytic subunit HOIP at the carboxyl-terminal lysine 1056. Ubiquitination of Lys1056 dynamically altered HOIP conformation, resulting in the suppression of its catalytic activity. Consequently, HOIP Lys1056-to-Arg mutation led not only to persistent LUBAC activity but also to prolonged NF-κB activation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide-mediated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation, whereas it showed no effect on NF-κB activation induced by CD40 stimulation. This study describes a novel posttranslational regulation of LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitination that is critical for specifically directing TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation. PMID:26578682

  4. Toll-like receptors: the swiss army knife of immunity and vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Jennifer K; Mansell, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Innate immune cells have a critical role in defense against infection and disease. Central to this is the broad specificity with which they can detect pathogen-associated patterns and danger-associated patterns via the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) they express. Several families of PRRs have been identified including: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors. TLRs are one of the most largely studied families of PRRs. The binding of ligands to TLRs on antigen presenting cells (APCs), mainly dendritic cells, leads to APC maturation, induction of inflammatory cytokines and the priming of naive T cells to drive acquired immunity. Therefore, activation of TLRs promotes both innate inflammatory responses and the induction of adaptive immunity. Consequently, in the last two decades mounting evidence has inextricably linked TLR activation with the pathogenesis of immune diseases and cancer. It has become advantageous to harness these aspects of TLR signaling therapeutically to accelerate and enhance the induction of vaccine-specific responses and also target TLRs with the use of biologics and small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of disease. In these respects, TLRs may be considered a ‘Swiss Army' knife of the immune system, ready to respond in a multitude of infectious and disease states. Here we describe the latest advances in TLR-targeted therapeutics and the use of TLR ligands as vaccine adjuvants. PMID:27350884

  5. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 licenses Toll-like receptor 4-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production via IL-6 receptor-positive feedback in endometrial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, J G; Kanamarlapudi, V; Thornton, C A; Sheldon, I M

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6), acting via the IL-6 receptor (IL6R) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), limits neutrophil recruitment once bacterial infections are resolved. Bovine endometritis is an exemplar mucosal disease, characterized by sustained neutrophil infiltration and elevated IL-6 and IL-8, a neutrophil chemoattractant, following postpartum Gram-negative bacterial infection. The present study examined the impact of the IL6R/STAT3 signaling pathway on IL-8 production by primary endometrial cells in response to short- or long-term exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria. Tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is required for DNA binding and expression of specific targets genes. Immunoblotting indicated constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 in endometrial cells was impeded by acute exposure to LPS. After 24 h exposure to LPS, STAT3 returned to a tyrosine phosphorylated state, indicating cross-talk between the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the IL6R/STAT3 signaling pathways. This was confirmed by short interfering RNA targeting the IL6R, which abrogated the accumulation of IL-6 and IL-8, induced by LPS. Furthermore, there was a differential endometrial cell response, as the accumulation of IL-6 and IL-8 was dependent on STAT3, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, and Src kinase signaling in stromal cells, but not epithelial cells. In conclusion, positive feedback through the IL6R amplifies LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in the endometrium. These findings provide a mechanistic insight into how elevated IL-6 concentrations in the postpartum endometrium during bacterial infection leads to marked and sustained neutrophil infiltration. PMID:26813342

  6. Toll-like receptor 8 deletion accelerates autoimmunity in a mouse model of lupus through a Toll-like receptor 7-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ngoc Lan; Manzin-Lorenzi, Céline; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder characterized by increased levels of lymphocyte activation, antigen presentation by dendritic cells, and the formation of autoantibodies. This leads to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Toll-like receptor 7 (T7) and TLR9 localize to the endosomal compartment and play important roles in the generation of autoantibodies against nuclear components, as they recognize RNA and DNA, respectively. In contrast, very little is known about endogenous TLR8 activation in mice. We therefore tested whether TLR8 could affect autoimmune responses in a murine model of lupus. We introduced a Tlr8 null mutation into C57BL/6 mice congenic for the Nba2 (NZB autoimmunity 2) locus and bearing the Yaa (Y-linked autoimmune acceleration) mutation containing a tlr8 duplicated gene, and monitored disease development, autoantibody production, and glomerulonephritis-associated mortality. Cellular responses were investigated in female Nba2.TLR8−/− mice bearing no copy of tlr8. The TLR8 deficiency accelerated disease progression and mortality, increased the number of circulating antibodies and activated monocytes, and heightened cellular responses to TLR7 ligation. TLR8-deficient antigen-presenting cells exhibited increased levels of MHC class II expression. The ability of dendritic cells to present antigens to allogeneic T cells after TLR7 ligation was also improved by TLR8 deficiency. TLR8 deletion accelerated autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice in response to TLR7 activation. Antigen-presenting cell function seemed to play a key role in mediating the effects of TLR8 deficiency. PMID:25424423

  7. Immunomodulatory parasites and toll-like receptor-mediated tumour necrosis factor alpha responsiveness in wild mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joseph A; Friberg, Ida M; Bolch, Luke; Lowe, Ann; Ralli, Catriona; Harris, Philip D; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bradley, Janette E

    2009-01-01

    Background Immunological analyses of wild populations can increase our understanding of how vertebrate immune systems respond to 'natural' levels of exposure to diverse infections. A major recent advance in immunology has been the recognition of the central role of phylogenetically conserved toll-like receptors in triggering innate immunity and the subsequent recruitment of adaptive response programmes. We studied the cross-sectional associations between individual levels of systemic toll-like receptor-mediated tumour necrosis factor alpha responsiveness and macro- and microparasite infections in a natural wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) population. Results Amongst a diverse group of macroparasites, only levels of the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and the louse Polyplax serrata were correlated (negatively) with innate immune responsiveness (measured by splenocyte tumour necrosis factor alpha responses to a panel of toll-like receptor agonists). Polyplax serrata infection explained a strikingly high proportion of the total variation in innate responses. Contrastingly, faecal oocyst count in microparasitic Eimeria spp. was positively associated with innate immune responsiveness, most significantly for the endosomal receptors TLR7 and TLR9. Conclusion Analogy with relevant laboratory models suggests the underlying causality for the observed patterns may be parasite-driven immunomodulatory effects on the host. A subset of immunomodulatory parasite species could thus have a key role in structuring other infections in natural vertebrate populations by affecting the 'upstream' innate mediators, like toll-like receptors, that are important in initiating immunity. Furthermore, the magnitude of the present result suggests that populations free from immunosuppressive parasites may exist at 'unnaturally' elevated levels of innate immune activation, perhaps leading to an increased risk of immunopathology. PMID:19386086

  8. Interaction between Cannabinoid System and Toll-Like Receptors Controls Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system consisting of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands, and biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, interest has been renewed in investigating the promise of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Abundant evidence indicates that cannabinoids modulate immune responses. An inflammatory response is triggered when innate immune cells receive a danger signal provided by pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns engaging pattern-recognition receptors. Toll-like receptor family members are prominent pattern-recognition receptors expressed on innate immune cells. Cannabinoids suppress Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory responses. However, the relationship between the endocannabinoid system and innate immune system may not be one-sided. Innate immune cells express cannabinoid receptors and produce endogenous cannabinoids. Hence, innate immune cells may play a role in regulating endocannabinoid homeostasis, and, in turn, the endocannabinoid system modulates local inflammatory responses. Studies designed to probe the interaction between the innate immune system and the endocannabinoid system may identify new potential molecular targets in developing therapeutic strategies for chronic inflammatory diseases. This review discusses the endocannabinoid system and Toll-like receptor family and evaluates the interaction between them. PMID:27597805

  9. Interaction between Cannabinoid System and Toll-Like Receptors Controls Inflammation.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Kathleen L

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system consisting of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands, and biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, interest has been renewed in investigating the promise of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Abundant evidence indicates that cannabinoids modulate immune responses. An inflammatory response is triggered when innate immune cells receive a danger signal provided by pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns engaging pattern-recognition receptors. Toll-like receptor family members are prominent pattern-recognition receptors expressed on innate immune cells. Cannabinoids suppress Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory responses. However, the relationship between the endocannabinoid system and innate immune system may not be one-sided. Innate immune cells express cannabinoid receptors and produce endogenous cannabinoids. Hence, innate immune cells may play a role in regulating endocannabinoid homeostasis, and, in turn, the endocannabinoid system modulates local inflammatory responses. Studies designed to probe the interaction between the innate immune system and the endocannabinoid system may identify new potential molecular targets in developing therapeutic strategies for chronic inflammatory diseases. This review discusses the endocannabinoid system and Toll-like receptor family and evaluates the interaction between them. PMID:27597805

  10. CD14+ cells are required for IL-12 response in bovine blood mononuclear cells activated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8 ligands.

    PubMed

    Buza, Joram; Benjamin, Ponn; Zhu, Jianzhung; Wilson, Heather L; Lipford, Grayson; Krieg, Arthur M; Babiuk, Lorne A; Mutwiri, George K

    2008-12-15

    Single-stranded viral RNA (ssRNA) was recently identified as the natural ligand for TLR7 and TLR8. ssRNA sequences from viruses, as well as their synthetic analogues stimulate innate immune responses in immune cells from humans and mice, but their immunostimulatory activity has not been investigated in ruminants. In the present investigations, we tested whether synthetic RNA oligoribonucleotides (ORN) can activate immune cells from cattle. In vitro incubation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with ORN-induced production of IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. No significant induction of IFN-alpha was observed. Depletion of CD14+ cells from PBMC abrogated the IL-12 response and consequently the IFN-gamma response, suggesting that CD14+ cells are required for PBMC immune activation with ORN. Consistent with these findings, the putative receptors for ORN (TLR7 and TLR8) were expressed at higher levels in the CD14+ fraction than the CD14- PBMC fraction. Pre-treatment of PBMC with bafilomycin (an inhibitor of phagosomal acidification) prior to stimulation with ORN abolished the cytokine responses, confirming that the receptor(s) which mediate the ORN-induced responses are intracellular. These results demonstrate for the first time that the TLR7/8 agonist ORN's have strong immune stimulatory effects in cattle, and suggest that further investigation on the potential of TLR7/8 ligands to activate innate and adaptive immune responses in domestic animals are warranted. PMID:18789542

  11. Acute kidney injury: what part do toll-like receptors play?

    PubMed Central

    Vallés, Patricia G; Lorenzo, Andrea Gil; Bocanegra, Victoria; Vallés, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system plays an important role as a first response to tissue injury. This first response is carried out via germline-encoded receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first identified and best studied family of pattern recognition receptors. TLRs are expressed on a variety of cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelia, dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, and B- and T-cells. TLRs initiate innate immune responses and concurrently shape the subsequent adaptive immune response. They are sensors of both pathogens, through the exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and tissue injury, through the endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). TLR signaling is critical in defending against invading microorganisms; however, sustained receptor activation is also implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Ischemic kidney injury involves early TLR-driven immunopathology, and the resolution of inflammation is needed for rapid regeneration of injured tubule cells. Notably, the activation of TLRs also has been implicated in epithelial repair. This review focuses on the role of TLRs and their endogenous ligands within the inflammatory response of acute kidney injury. PMID:24971030

  12. Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917 Ameliorates Experimental Colitis via Toll-Like Receptor 2- and Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Grabig, A.; Paclik, D.; Guzy, C.; Dankof, A.; Baumgart, D. C.; Erckenbrecht, J.; Raupach, B.; Sonnenborn, U.; Eckert, J.; Schumann, R. R.; Wiedenmann, B.; Dignass, A. U.; Sturm, A.

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system that trigger antimicrobial host defense responses. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle strain 1917 in experimental colitis induced in TLR-2 and TLR-4 knockout mice. Colitis was induced in wild-type (wt), TLR-2 knockout, and TLR-4 knockout mice via administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Mice were treated with either 0.9% NaCl or 107 E. coli Nissle 1917 twice daily, followed by the determination of disease activity, mucosal damage, and cytokine secretion. wt and TLR-2 knockout mice exposed to DSS developed acute colitis, whereas TLR-4 knockout mice developed significantly less inflammation. In wt mice, but not TLR-2 or TLR-4 knockout mice, E. coli Nissle 1917 ameliorated colitis and decreased proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In TLR-2 knockout mice a selective reduction of gamma interferon secretion was observed after E. coli Nissle 1917 treatment. In TLR-4 knockout mice, cytokine secretion was almost undetectable and not modulated by E. coli Nissle 1917, indicating that TLR-4 knockout mice do not develop colitis similar to the wt mice. Coculture of E. coli Nissle 1917 and human T cells increased TLR-2 and TLR-4 protein expression in T cells and increased NF-κB activity via TLR-2 and TLR-4. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that E. coli Nissle 1917 ameliorates experimental induced colitis in mice via TLR-2- and TLR-4-dependent pathways. PMID:16790781

  13. Bioinformatic Analysis of Toll-Like Receptor Sequences and Structures.

    PubMed

    Monie, Tom P; Gay, Nicholas J; Gangloff, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Continual advancements in computing power and sophistication, coupled with rapid increases in protein sequence and structural information, have made bioinformatic tools an invaluable resource for the molecular and structural biologist. With the degree of sequence information continuing to expand at an almost exponential rate, it is essential that scientists today have a basic understanding of how to utilise, manipulate and analyse this information for the benefit of their own experiments. In the context of Toll-Interleukin I Receptor domain containing proteins, we describe here a series of the more common and user-friendly bioinformatic tools available as Internet-based resources. These will enable the identification and alignment of protein sequences; the identification of functional motifs; the characterisation of protein secondary structure; the identification of protein structural folds and distantly homologous proteins; and the validation of the structural geometry of modelled protein structures. PMID:26803620

  14. Orphan receptor IL-17RD regulates Toll-like receptor signalling via SEFIR/TIR interactions.

    PubMed

    Mellett, Mark; Atzei, Paola; Bergin, Ronan; Horgan, Alan; Floss, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Callanan, John J; Moynagh, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Receptor families of the innate immune response engage in 'cross-talk' to tailor optimal immune responses against invading pathogens. However, these responses are subject to multiple levels of regulation to keep in check aberrant inflammatory signals. Here, we describe a role for the orphan receptor interleukin-17 receptor D (IL-17RD) in negatively regulating Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced responses. Deficiency of IL-17RD expression in cells leads to enhanced pro-inflammatory signalling and gene expression in response to TLR stimulation, and Il17rd(-/-) mice are more susceptible to TLR-induced septic shock. We demonstrate that the intracellular Sef/IL-17R (SEFIR) domain of IL-17RD targets TIR adaptor proteins to inhibit TLR downstream signalling thus revealing a paradigm involving cross-regulation of members of the IL-17R and TLR families. PMID:25808990

  15. A Role for the Adaptor Proteins TRAM and TRIF in Toll-like Receptor 2 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Nadra J.; Vladimer, Gregory I.; Stenvik, Jørgen; Orning, M. Pontus A.; Zeid-Kilani, Maria V.; Bugge, Marit; Bergstroem, Bjarte; Conlon, Joseph; Husebye, Harald; Hise, Amy G.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Espevik, Terje; Lien, Egil

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in sensing invading microbes by host innate immunity. TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides, and lipopolysaccharide activates TLR4. TLR2 and TLR4 signal via the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptors MyD88 and MAL, leading to NF-κB activation. TLR4 also utilizes the adaptors TRAM and TRIF, resulting in activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3. Here, we report a new role for TRAM and TRIF in TLR2 regulation and signaling. Interestingly, we observed that TLR2-mediated induction of the chemokine Ccl5 was impaired in TRAM or TRIF deficient macrophages. Inhibition of endocytosis reduced Ccl5 release, and the data also suggested that TRAM and TLR2 co-localize in early endosomes, supporting the hypothesis that signaling may occur from an intracellular compartment. Ccl5 release following lipoprotein challenge additionally involved the kinase Tbk-1 and Irf3, as well as MyD88 and Irf1. Induction of Interferon-β and Ccl4 by lipoproteins was also partially impaired in cells lacking TRIF cells. Our results show a novel function of TRAM and TRIF in TLR2-mediated signal transduction, and the findings broaden our understanding of how Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptor proteins may participate in signaling downstream from TLR2. PMID:25505250

  16. The innate immune system, toll-like receptors and dermal wound healing: A review.

    PubMed

    Portou, M J; Baker, D; Abraham, D; Tsui, J

    2015-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex physiological process comprised of discrete but inter-related and overlapping stages, requiring exact timing and regulation to successfully progress, yet occurs spontaneously in response to injury. It is characterised by four phases, coagulation, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Each phase is predominated by particular cell types, cytokines and chemokines. The innate immune system represents the first line of defence against invading microorganisms. It is entirely encoded with the genome, and comprised of a cellular response with specificity provided by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs are activated by exogenous microbial pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), initiating an immune response through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and further specialist immune cell recruitment. TLRs are also activated by endogenous molecular patterns termed damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These ligands, usually shielded from the immune system, act as alarm signals alerting the immune system to damage and facilitate the normal wound healing process. TLRs are expressed by cells essential to wound healing such as keratinocytes and fibroblasts, however the specific role of TLRs in this process remains controversial. This article reviews the current knowledge on the potential role of TLRs in dermal wound healing where inflammation arising from pathogenic activation of these receptors appears to play a role in chronic ulceration associated with diabetes, scar hypertrophy and skin fibrosis. PMID:25869514

  17. Toll-like receptors; their physiological role and signal transduction system.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, O; Akira, S

    2001-04-01

    Drosophila Toll protein is a transmembrane receptor whose function is to recognize the invasion of microorganisms as well as to establish dorso-ventral polarity. Recently, mammalian homologues of Toll, designated as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been discovered. So far, six members (TLR1-6) have been reported and two of these, TLR2 and TLR4, have been shown to be essential for the recognition of distinct bacterial cell wall components. TLR2 discriminates peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoprotein, lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and zymosan, whereas TLR4 recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and Taxol. Bacterial components elicit the activation of an intracellular signaling cascade via TLR in a similar way to that occurs upon ligand binding to IL-1 receptor (IL-1R). This signaling pathway leads to the activation of a transcription factor NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which initiate the transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes. Particularly, analysis of knockout mice revealed a pivotal role for MyD88 in the signaling of the TLR/IL-1R family. Taken together, TLRs and the downstream signaling pathway play a key role in innate immune recognition and in subsequent activation of adaptive immunity. PMID:11357875

  18. Structure–activity correlations of variant forms of the B pentamer of Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb with Toll-like receptor 2 binding

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nawar, Hesham F.; King-Lyons, Natalie; Liang, Shuang; Connell, Terry D.; Hajishengallis, George

    2012-12-01

    Structural data for the S74D variant of the pentameric B subunit of type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli reveal a smaller pore opening that may explain its reduced Toll-like receptor binding affinity compared to that of the wild type enterotoxin. The explanation for the enhanced Toll-like receptor binding affinity of the S74A variant is more complex than simply being attributed to the pore opening. The pentameric B subunit of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb-B{sub 5}) is a potent signaling molecule capable of modulating innate immune responses. It has previously been shown that LT-IIb-B{sub 5}, but not the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Asp variant [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D)], activates Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling in macrophages. Consistent with this, the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant failed to bind TLR2, in contrast to LT-IIb-B{sub 5} and the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Thr13Ile [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I)] and LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Ala [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A)] variants, which displayed the highest binding activity to TLR2. Crystal structures of the Ser74Asp, Ser74Ala and Thr13Ile variants of LT-IIb-B{sub 5} have been determined to 1.90, 1.40 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. The structural data for the Ser74Asp variant reveal that the carboxylate side chain points into the pore, thereby reducing the pore size compared with that of the wild-type or the Ser74Ala variant B pentamer. On the basis of these crystallographic data, the reduced TLR2-binding affinity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant may be the result of the pore of the pentamer being closed. On the other hand, the explanation for the enhanced TLR2-binding activity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A) variant is more complex as its activity is greater than that of the wild-type B pentamer, which also has an open pore as the Ser74 side chain points away from the pore opening. Data for the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I) variant show that four of the five variant side chains point to the outside

  19. Structural Relationship of the Lipid A Acyl Groups to Activation of Murine Toll-Like Receptor 4 by Lipopolysaccharides from Pathogenic Strains of Burkholderia mallei, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Korneev, Kirill V.; Arbatsky, Nikolay P.; Molinaro, Antonio; Palmigiano, Angelo; Shaikhutdinova, Rima Z.; Shneider, Mikhail M.; Pier, Gerald B.; Kondakova, Anna N.; Sviriaeva, Ekaterina N.; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico; Kruglov, Andrey A.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Drutskaya, Marina S.; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Kuprash, Dmitry V.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is required for activation of innate immunity upon recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The ability of TLR4 to respond to a particular LPS species is important since insufficient activation may not prevent bacterial growth while excessive immune reaction may lead to immunopathology associated with sepsis. Here, we investigated the biological activity of LPS from Burkholderia mallei that causes glanders, and from the two well-known opportunistic pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (causative agents of nosocomial infections). For each bacterial strain, R-form LPS preparations were purified by hydrophobic chromatography and the chemical structure of lipid A, an LPS structural component, was elucidated by HR-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The biological activity of LPS samples was evaluated by their ability to induce production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF, by bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our results demonstrate direct correlation between the biological activity of LPS from these pathogenic bacteria and the extent of their lipid A acylation. PMID:26635809

  20. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces increased expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and downstream TLR signaling molecules in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine mammary epithelial cells contribute to the innate immune response to intramammary infections by recognizing pathogens through specialized pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one such receptor that binds and is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the...

  1. RNA mediated toll-like receptor stimulation in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Dalpke, Alexander H.; Helm, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Besides their well known functions in storage and translation of information nucleic acids have emerged as a target of pattern recognition receptors that drive activation of innate immunity. Due to the paucity of building block monomers used in nucleic acids, discrimination of host and microbial nucleic acids as a means of self/foreign discrimination is a complicated task. Pattern recognition receptors rely on discrimination by sequence, structural features and spatial compartmentalization to differentiate microbial derived nucleic acids from host ones. Microbial nucleic acid detection is important for the sensing of infectious danger and initiating an immune response to microbial attack. Failures in the underlying recognitions systems can have severe consequences: thus, inefficient recognition of microbial nucleic acids may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the other hand, excessive immune responses as a result of failed self/foreign discrimination are associated with autoimmune diseases. This review gives a general overview over the underlying concepts of nucleic acid sensing by Toll-like receptors. Within this general framework, we focus on bacterial RNA and synthetic RNA oligomers. PMID:22617878

  2. Targeting Toll-like receptor 2 inhibits growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Farnebo, Lovisa; Shahangian, Arash; Lee, Yunqin; Shin, June Ho; Scheeren, Ferenc A.; Sunwoo, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Infection-driven inflammation has been proposed to be involved in the tumorigenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Oral HNSCC is often colonized with microbes such as gram-positive bacteria and yeast, where ligands derived from their wall components have been shown to specifically bind to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Although TLR2 has been described to be expressed in oral HNSCC, its function has not been well characterized. Here, we show the expression of TLR2 in both HNSCC cell lines and primary patient-derived HNSCC xenograft tumors. Activation of TLR2 with a yeast-derived ligand of TLR2, zymosan, promoted organoid formation in an ex vivo model of tumor growth, while blockade with anti-TLR2 antibodies inhibited organoid formation. Zymosan also induced phosphorylation of ERK and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, which was inhibited in the presence of anti-TLR2 antibodies, indicating that this receptor is functional in HNSCC and that the signaling through these pathways is intact. TLR2 blockade also inhibited growth of human xenografted tumors in immunodeficient mice. In summary, our data show that TLR2 is a functional receptor expressed in human HNSCC that plays a direct pro-tumorigenic role, and that it can be therapeutically targeted with blocking antibodies to reduce tumor growth. PMID:25846753

  3. The Architecture of the TIR Domain Signalosome in the Toll-like Receptor-4 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; VanWaes, Carter; Chen, Zhong; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) cluster in lipid rafts and induce pro- and anti-tumor responses. The organization of the assembly is critical to the understanding of how these key receptors control major signaling pathways in the cell. Although several models for individual interactions were proposed, the entire TIR-domain signalosome architecture has not been worked out, possibly due to its complexity. We employ a powerful algorithm, crystal structures and experimental data to model the TLR4 and its cluster. The architecture that we obtain with 8 MyD88 molecules provides the structural basis for the MyD88-templated myddosome helical assembly and receptor clustering; it also provides clues to pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways branching at the signalosome level to Mal/MyD88 and TRAM/TRIF pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. The assembly of MyD88 death domain (DD) with TRAF3 (anti-viral/anti-inflammatory) and TRAF6 (pro-inflammatory) suggest that TRAF3/TRAF6 binding sites on MyD88 DD partially overlap, as do IRAK4 and FADD. Significantly, the organization illuminates mechanisms of oncogenic mutations, demonstrates that almost all TLR4 parallel pathways are competitive and clarifies decisions at pathway branching points. The architectures are compatible with the currently-available experimental data and provide compelling insights into signaling in cancer and inflammation pathways. PMID:26293885

  4. The Architecture of the TIR Domain Signalosome in the Toll-like Receptor-4 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; VanWaes, Carter; Chen, Zhong; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) cluster in lipid rafts and induce pro- and anti-tumor responses. The organization of the assembly is critical to the understanding of how these key receptors control major signaling pathways in the cell. Although several models for individual interactions were proposed, the entire TIR-domain signalosome architecture has not been worked out, possibly due to its complexity. We employ a powerful algorithm, crystal structures and experimental data to model the TLR4 and its cluster. The architecture that we obtain with 8 MyD88 molecules provides the structural basis for the MyD88-templated myddosome helical assembly and receptor clustering; it also provides clues to pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways branching at the signalosome level to Mal/MyD88 and TRAM/TRIF pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. The assembly of MyD88 death domain (DD) with TRAF3 (anti-viral/anti-inflammatory) and TRAF6 (pro-inflammatory) suggest that TRAF3/TRAF6 binding sites on MyD88 DD partially overlap, as do IRAK4 and FADD. Significantly, the organization illuminates mechanisms of oncogenic mutations, demonstrates that almost all TLR4 parallel pathways are competitive and clarifies decisions at pathway branching points. The architectures are compatible with the currently-available experimental data and provide compelling insights into signaling in cancer and inflammation pathways. PMID:26293885

  5. The Therapeutic Potential of Toll-like Receptor 7 Stimulation in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Matthew G.; Kaufman, Elad H.; Fryer, Allison D.; Jacoby, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways frequently characterized by an excessive Th2 adaptive immune response. Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7, a single-stranded viral RNA receptor that is highly expressed in the airways, triggers a rapid innate immune response and favors a subsequent Th1 response. Because of this role in pulmonary immunoregulation, TLR7 has gained considerable interest as a therapeutic target in asthma. Synthetic TLR7 ligands, including the imidazoquinolines imiquimod (R837) and resiquimod (R848), and 8-hydroxyadenine derivatives have been developed for other clinical indications. TLR7 activation prevents ovalbumin-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia and airway remodeling in murine models of asthma. TLR7 activation also inhibits viral replication in the lung and prevents virus-induced airway hyperreactivity. Furthermore, it has recently been shown that stimulating TLR7 rapidly relaxes airway smooth muscle, dilating the airways. This bronchodilating effect, which occurs in seconds to minutes and depends on rapid production of nitric oxide, indicates that TLR7 can signal via previously unrecognized pathways. The effects of decreasing the allergic Th2 response, acting as an immediate bronchodilator, and promoting an antiviral immune environment, make TLR7 an attractive drug target. We examine the current understanding of TLR7 as a therapeutic target and its translation to asthma treatment in humans. PMID:23078048

  6. Association of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4 genes polymorphisms with periapical pathosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Ülkü; Ocak, Zeynep; Özan, Fatih; Oktay, Elif-Aybala; Şahman, Halil; Yikilgan, İhsan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Er, Kürşat

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gene variations of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 3, and 4 on genetic susceptibility to periapical pathosis. Material and Methods One hundred patients were included in the study and divided into two groups as follows; Control Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and no periapical lesion, Patient Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and periapical lesion. TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 (c.1377C/T) and TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP. Genotypical analysis of control and patient groups were investigated to disclose whether there is any association between periapical lesions and gene variations. Results There are no significant statistical differences between control and patient groups according to TLR 2 and 4 gene sequence. On the contrary, CC allele detected 74% for TLR 3 in patient group, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.005). Conclusions According to these results, it can be suggested that patients with Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms could be susceptible to periapical pathosis. Key words:Toll-like receptors, periapical pathosis, endodontics. PMID:27031066

  7. Toll-Like Receptor 2 and NLRP3 Cooperate To Recognize a Functional Bacterial Amyloid, Curli

    PubMed Central

    Rapsinski, Glenn J.; Wynosky-Dolfi, Meghan A.; Oppong, Gertrude O.; Tursi, Sarah A.; Wilson, R. Paul; Brodsky, Igor E.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloids are proteins with cross-β-sheet structure that contribute to pathology and inflammation in complex human diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type II diabetes, and secondary amyloidosis. Bacteria also produce amyloids as a component of their extracellular matrix during biofilm formation. Recently, several human amyloids were shown to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to the activation of caspase 1 and production of interleukin 1β (IL-1β). In this study, we investigated the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by bacterial amyloids using curli fibers, produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Here, we show that curli fibers activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to the production of IL-1β via caspase 1 activation. Investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) by curli fibers is critical in the generation of IL-1β. Interestingly, activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by curli fibers or by amyloid β of Alzheimer's disease does not cause cell death in macrophages. Overall, these data identify a cross talk between TLR2 and NLRP3 in response to the bacterial amyloid curli and generation of IL-1β as a product of this interaction. PMID:25422268

  8. Mycoplasma bovis-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins activate IL-1β production through the NF-κB pathway via toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Suli; Li, Yuan; Wang, Qi; Shao, Jiari; Chen, Ying; Xin, Jiuqing

    2016-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes pneumonia, otitis media, and arthritis in young calves, resulting in economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide. M. bovis pathogenesis results in part from excessive immune responses. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) can potently induce host innate immunity. However, interactions between M. bovis-derived LAMPs and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), or signaling pathways eliciting active inflammation and NF-κB activation, are incompletely understood. Here, we found that IL-1β expression was induced in embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells stimulated with M. bovis-derived LAMPs. Subcellular-localization analysis revealed nuclear p65 translocation following EBL cell stimulation with M. bovis-derived LAMPs. An NF-κB inhibitor reversed M. bovis-derived LAMP-induced IL-1β expression. TLR2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) overexpression increased LAMP-dependent IL-1β induction. TLR2-neutralizing antibodies reduced IL-1β expression during LAMP stimulation. LAMPs also inhibited IL-1β expression following overexpression of a dominant-negative MyD88 protein. These results suggested that M. bovis-derived LAMPs activate IL-1β production through the NF-κB pathway via TLR2 and MyD88. PMID:26499291

  9. Toll-like receptor cascade and gene polymorphism in host–pathogen interaction in Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shusmita; Shering, Maria; Ogden, Nicholas H; Lindsay, Robbin; Badawi, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) risk occurs in North America and Europe where the tick vectors of the causal agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are found. It is associated with local and systemic manifestations, and has persistent posttreatment health complications in some individuals. The innate immune system likely plays a critical role in both host defense against B. burgdorferi and disease severity. Recognition of B. burgdorferi, activation of the innate immune system, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and modulation of the host adaptive responses are all initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). A number of Borrelia outer-surface proteins (eg, OspA and OspB) are recognized by TLRs. Specifically, TLR1 and TLR2 were identified as the receptors most relevant to LD. Several functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in TLR genes, and are associated with varying cytokines types and synthesis levels, altered pathogen recognition, and disruption of the downstream signaling cascade. These single-nucleotide polymorphism-related functional alterations are postulated to be linked to disease development and posttreatment persistent illness. Elucidating the role of TLRs in LD may facilitate a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and can provide an insight into novel therapeutic targets during active disease or postinfection and posttreatment stages. PMID:27330321

  10. Role of Toll-like receptors in photodynamic-therapy-elicited host response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen

    2004-07-01

    Treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces a host reaction, coordinated through a network of inflammatory and immune responses, that plays an important role in the therapy outcome. It is suggested that this host response is initiated by altered self-associated endogenous danger signals massively released from PDT-treated tumors. Toll-like receptors, localized predominantly in the membrane of immune cells, are the major sensors of the recognition arm of the innate immune system. The engagement of these receptors by PDT-generated danger signals prompts the activation of the networks of innate immunity signaling pathways leading to the downstream activation of nuclear transcription factors responsible for the transcription of inflammatory/immune response-associated genes. The contribution of PDT-induced host response to the therapeutic outcome depends on the balance between the tissue-destructive action of inflammatory/immune effectors and the impact of concomitantly mobilized negative regulatory mechanisms evolved for controlling the intensity and duration of inflammatory and immune responses.

  11. Energetics of Endotoxin Recognition in the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Paramo, Teresa; Tomasio, Susana M.; Irvine, Kate L.; Bryant, Clare E.; Bond, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently stimulates the mammalian innate immune system, and can lead to sepsis, the primary cause of death from infections. LPS is sensed by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in complex with its lipid-binding coreceptor MD-2, but subtle structural variations in LPS can profoundly modulate the response. To better understand the mechanism of LPS-induced stimulation and bacterial evasion, we have calculated the binding affinity to MD-2 of agonistic and antagonistic LPS variants including lipid A, lipid IVa, and synthetic antagonist Eritoran, and provide evidence that the coreceptor is a molecular switch that undergoes ligand-induced conformational changes to appropriately activate or inhibit the receptor complex. The plasticity of the coreceptor binding cavity is shown to be essential for distinguishing between ligands, whilst similar calculations for a model bacterial LPS bilayer reveal the “membrane-like” nature of the protein cavity. The ability to predict the activity of LPS variants should facilitate the rational design of TLR4 therapeutics. PMID:26647780

  12. Toll-like receptor cascade and gene polymorphism in host-pathogen interaction in Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shusmita; Shering, Maria; Ogden, Nicholas H; Lindsay, Robbin; Badawi, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) risk occurs in North America and Europe where the tick vectors of the causal agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are found. It is associated with local and systemic manifestations, and has persistent posttreatment health complications in some individuals. The innate immune system likely plays a critical role in both host defense against B. burgdorferi and disease severity. Recognition of B. burgdorferi, activation of the innate immune system, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and modulation of the host adaptive responses are all initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). A number of Borrelia outer-surface proteins (eg, OspA and OspB) are recognized by TLRs. Specifically, TLR1 and TLR2 were identified as the receptors most relevant to LD. Several functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in TLR genes, and are associated with varying cytokines types and synthesis levels, altered pathogen recognition, and disruption of the downstream signaling cascade. These single-nucleotide polymorphism-related functional alterations are postulated to be linked to disease development and posttreatment persistent illness. Elucidating the role of TLRs in LD may facilitate a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and can provide an insight into novel therapeutic targets during active disease or postinfection and posttreatment stages. PMID:27330321

  13. Discovery of toll-like receptor 13 exists in the teleost fish: Miiuy croaker (Perciformes, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjin; Bi, Xueyi; Chu, Qing; Xu, Tianjun

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an indispensable role in the immune response for pathogen recognition and triggering not only innate immunity but also adaptive immunity. Here we report the TLR13 homologue, one member of TLRs, in Perciformes (especially Sciaenidae). And we used the miiuy croaker as represented species for further functional experiments. Former study reported the TLR13 only expressed in murine, and we are the first to report the teleost TLR13 (mmiTLR13). MmiTLR13 expressed highly in immune defense related tissues, such as the liver, spleen, and kidney, and Vibrio anguillarum or poly(I:C) infection showed the immune response of mmiTLR13. Further luciferase reporter assays showed the ability for activation of ISRE luciferase reporter, but it failed to active NF-κB. And further gene silence by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) confirmed the results. Immunofluorescence of mmiTLR13 presents the cytoplasmic distribution in Hela cell. In addition, the Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain of mammal TLR5 exhibits high identity with TLR13, which indicated the high homology between TLR5 and TLR13. These findings will lay the fundamental cornerstone for further research of teleost TLR13 and expand the horizon for better understand the teleost TLRs system. PMID:26952767

  14. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in aquatic animals: signaling pathways, expressions and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Rauta, Pradipta R; Samanta, Mrinal; Dash, Hirak R; Nayak, Bismita; Das, Surajit

    2014-01-01

    The innate system's recognition of non-self and danger signals is mediated by a limited number of germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single, non-catalytic, membrane-spanning PRRs present in invertebrates and vertebrates. They act by specifically recognizing PAMPs of a variety of microbes and activate signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. A large number of TLRs have been identified in various aquatic animals of phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Chordata. TLRs of aquatic and warm-blooded higher animals exhibit some distinctive features due to their diverse evolutionary lineages. However, majority of them share conserve signaling pathways in pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Functional analysis of novel TLRs in aquatic animals is very important in understanding the comparative immunology between warm-blooded and aquatic animals. In additions to innate immunity, recent reports have highlighted the additional roles of TLRs in adaptive immunity. Therefore, vaccines against many critical diseases of aquatic animals may be made more effective by supplementing TLR activators which will stimulate dendritic cells. This article describes updated information of TLRs in aquatic animals and their structural and functional relationship with warm-blooded animals. PMID:24291116

  15. Toll-like receptors in prostate infection and cancer between bench and bedside

    PubMed Central

    Gambara, Guido; Cesaris, Paola; Nunzio, Cosimo; Ziparo, Elio; Tubaro, Andrea; Filippini, Antonio; Riccioli, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) are a family of evolutionary conserved transmembrane proteins that recognize highly conserved molecules in pathogens. TLR-expressing cells represent the first line of defence sensing pathogen invasion, triggering innate immune responses and subsequently priming antigen-specific adaptive immunity. In vitro and in vivo studies on experimental cancer models have shown both anti- and pro-tumoural activity of different TLRs in prostate cancer, indicating these receptors as potential targets for cancer therapy. In this review, we highlight the intriguing duplicity of TLR stimulation by pathogens: their protective role in cases of acute infections, and conversely their negative role in favouring hyperplasia and/or cancer onset, in cases of chronic infections. This review focuses on the role of TLRs in the pathophysiology of prostate infection and cancer by exploring the biological bases of the strict relation between TLRs and prostate cancer. In particular, we highlight the debated question of how reliable mutations or deregulated expression of TLRs are as novel diagnostic or prognostic tools for prostate cancer. So far, the anticancer activity of numerous TLR ligands has been evaluated in clinical trials only in organs other than the prostate. Here we review recent clinical trials based on the most promising TLR agonists in oncology, envisaging a potential application also in prostate cancer therapy. PMID:23551576

  16. Activation of adult rat CNS endothelial cells by opioid-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling induces proinflammatory, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Peter M.; Ramos, Khara M.; Rodgers, Krista M.; Wang, Xiaohui; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Lewis, Makenzie T.; Morgan, Kelly N.; Kroll, Juliet L.; Taylor, Frederick R.; Strand, Keith A.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra; Huey, Madeline G.; Greene, Lisa I.; Cochran, Thomas A.; Yin, Hang; Barth, Daniel S.; Johnson, Kirk W.; Rice, Kenner; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    CNS immune signaling contributes to deleterious opioid effects including hyperalgesia, tolerance, reward, and dependence/withdrawal. Such effects are mediated by opioid signaling at TLR4, presumptively of glial origin. Whether CNS endothelial cells express TLR4 is controversial. If so, they would be well positioned for activation by blood-borne opioids, contributing to opioid-induced pro-inflammatory responses. These studies examined adult primary rat CNS endothelial cell responses to (-)-morphine or its mu-opioid receptor (MOR) inactive metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), both known TLR4 agonists. We demonstrate that adult rat CNS endothelial cells express functional TLR4. M3G activated NFκB, increased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNAs, and released prostaglandin E2 from these cells. (-)-Morphine-induced upregulation of TNFα mRNA and prostaglandin E2 release were unmasked by pre-treatment with nalmefene, a MOR antagonist without TLR4 activity (unlike CTAP, shown to have both MOR- and TLR4-activity), suggestive of an interplay between MOR and TLR4 co-activation by (-)-morphine. In support, MOR-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) opposed TLR4 signaling, as PKA inhibition (H-89) also unmasked (-)-morphine-induced TNFα and COX2 mRNA upregulation. Intrathecal injection of CNS endothelial cells, stimulated in vitro with M3G, produced TLR4-dependent tactile allodynia. Further, cortical suffusion with M3G in vivo induced TLR4-dependent vasodilation. Finally, endothelial cell TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide and/or M3G was blocked by the glial inhibitors AV1013 and propentofylline, demonstrating endothelial cells as a new target of such drugs. These data indicate that (-)-morphine and M3G can activate CNS endothelial cells via TLR4, inducing proinflammatory, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral sequalae. CNS endothelial cells may have previously unanticipated roles in opioid-induced effects, in phenomena blocked by

  17. Reconstitution of a Functional Toll-like Receptor 5 Binding Site in Campylobacter jejuni Flagellin*

    PubMed Central

    de Zoete, Marcel R.; Keestra, A. Marijke; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin is important for intestinal immune homeostasis. Flagellins from most species activate Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). The principal bacterial food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni escapes TLR5 recognition, probably due to an alternate flagellin subunit structure. We investigated the molecular basis of TLR5 evasion by aiming to reconstitute TLR5 stimulating activity in live C. jejuni. Both native glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) and recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli failed to activate NF-κB in HEK293 cells expressing TLR5. Introduction of multiple defined regions from Salmonella flagellin into C. jejuni FlaA via a recombinatorial approach revealed three regions critical for the activation of human and mouse TLR5, including a β-hairpin structure not previously implicated in TLR5 recognition. Surprisingly, this domain was not required for the activation of chicken TLR5, indicating a selective requirement for the β-hairpin in the recognition of mammalian TLR5. Expression of the active chimeric protein in C. jejuni resulted in secreted glycosylated flagellin that induced a potent TLR5 response. Overall, our results reveal a novel structural requirement for TLR5 recognition of bacterial flagellin and exclude flagellin glycosylation as an additional mechanism of bacterial evasion of the TLR5 response. PMID:20164175

  18. Reconstitution of a functional Toll-like receptor 5 binding site in Campylobacter jejuni flagellin.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Marcel R; Keestra, A Marijke; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2010-04-16

    Bacterial flagellin is important for intestinal immune homeostasis. Flagellins from most species activate Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). The principal bacterial food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni escapes TLR5 recognition, probably due to an alternate flagellin subunit structure. We investigated the molecular basis of TLR5 evasion by aiming to reconstitute TLR5 stimulating activity in live C. jejuni. Both native glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) and recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli failed to activate NF-kappaB in HEK293 cells expressing TLR5. Introduction of multiple defined regions from Salmonella flagellin into C. jejuni FlaA via a recombinatorial approach revealed three regions critical for the activation of human and mouse TLR5, including a beta-hairpin structure not previously implicated in TLR5 recognition. Surprisingly, this domain was not required for the activation of chicken TLR5, indicating a selective requirement for the beta-hairpin in the recognition of mammalian TLR5. Expression of the active chimeric protein in C. jejuni resulted in secreted glycosylated flagellin that induced a potent TLR5 response. Overall, our results reveal a novel structural requirement for TLR5 recognition of bacterial flagellin and exclude flagellin glycosylation as an additional mechanism of bacterial evasion of the TLR5 response. PMID:20164175

  19. Microglia Activated with the Toll-Like Receptor 9 Ligand CpG Attenuate Oligomeric Amyloid β Neurotoxicity in in Vitro and in Vivo Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yukiko; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Maki, Yuki; Jin, Shijie; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Ikeyama, Masayoshi; Doi, Minoru; Michikawa, Makoto; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Suzumura, Akio

    2009-01-01

    Soluble oligomeric amyloid β (oAβ) 1-42 causes synaptic dysfunction and neuronal injury in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although accumulation of microglia around senile plaques is a hallmark of AD pathology, the role of microglia in oAβ1-42 neurotoxicity is not fully understood. Here, we showed that oAβ but not fibrillar Aβ was neurotoxic, and microglia activated with unmethylated DNA CpG motif (CpG), a ligand for Toll-like receptor 9, attenuated oAβ1-42 neurotoxicity in primary neuron-microglia co-cultures. CpG enhanced microglial clearance of oAβ1-42 and induced higher levels of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in microglia without producing neurotoxic molecules such as nitric oxide and glutamate. Among subclasses of CpGs, class B and class C activated microglia to promote neuroprotection. Moreover, intracerebroventricular administration of CpG ameliorated both the cognitive impairments induced by oAβ1-42 and the impairment of associative learning in Tg2576 mouse model of AD. We propose that CpG may be an effective therapeutic strategy for limiting oAβ1-42 neurotoxicity in AD. PMID:19834064

  20. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Reyes, Karina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Díaz, José Manuel; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Gómez-Lomelí, Paulina; de Celis, Ruth; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Ramiro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages. PMID:25309919

  1. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse. PMID:26022268

  2. Resistin-induced stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression through Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of p38 MAPK/ NFκB signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) (CXC chemokine ligand-12)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in the carcinogenesis of human gastric cancer, where it stimulates angiogenesis and favors metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs. In addition, resistin is suggested to be an important link between obesity and the development of gastric cancer. Resistin has identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. A limited number of studies have investigated the association of resistin and SDF-1 with gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which resistin influences the expression of SDF-1 in gastric carcinoma cells. Results Human gastric cancer cell lines were exposed to doses of resistin; SDF-1 expression and secretion levels were then determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to clarify molecular changes. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by a competitive antagonist inhibited resistin-induced SDF-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA) demonstrated that activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is critical for resistin-induced SDF-1 expression mediated by TLR4. The promoter activity and transcription factor enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that resistin induced expression of SDF-1 mediated by NF-κB in gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of p38 MARK activation blocked the SDF-1-induced expression and the SDF-1 promoter activity in the cancer gastric cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that inhibition of p38 MARK activation also blocked the resistin-increased NF-κB-DNA-binding activity. Conclusions Resistin-induced SDF-1 upregulation by activation of TLR4, p38 MARK and NF-κB may explain a new role of resistin in the link of obesity and gastric cancer. PMID:24929539

  3. Toll-Like Receptor Polymorphisms, Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases, Allergies, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germ-line-encoded innate immune sensors that recognize conserved microbial structures and host alarmins and signal expression of MHC proteins, costimulatory molecules, and inflammatory mediators by macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and other cell types. These processes activate immediate and early mechanisms of innate host defense, as well as initiate and orchestrate adaptive immune responses. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the TLR genes have been associated with altered susceptibility to infectious, inflammatory, and allergic diseases, and have been found to play a role in tumorigenesis. Critical advances in our understanding of innate immune functions and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered complex interactions of genetic polymorphisms within TLRs and environmental factors. However, conclusions obtained in the course of such analyses are restricted by limited power of many studies that is likely to explain controversial findings. Further, linkages to certain ethnic backgrounds, gender, and the presence of multigenic effects further complicate the interpretations of how the TLR SNPs affect immune responses. For many TLRs, the molecular mechanisms by which SNPs impact receptor functions remain unknown. In this review, I have summarized current knowledge about the TLR polymorphisms, their impact on TLR signaling, and associations with various inflammatory, infectious, allergic diseases and cancers, and discussed the directions of future scientific research. PMID:23675778

  4. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review discusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic identification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25133016

  5. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sinéad M

    2014-08-15

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world's population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review discusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic identification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25133016

  6. Toll-Like Receptors: New Players in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tuanzhu; Liu, Li; Kelley, Jim; Kao, Race; Williams, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Innate immune and inflammatory responses have been implicated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanisms by which innate immunity and inflammatory response are involved in myocardial I/R have not been elucidated completely. Recent studies highlight the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the induction of innate immune and inflammatory responses. Growing evidence has demonstrated that TLRs play a critical role in myocardial I/R injury. Specifically, deficiency of TLR4 protects the myocardium from ischemic injury, whereas modulation of TLR2 induces cardioprotection against ischemic insult. Importantly, cardioprotection induced by modulation of TLRs involves activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, suggesting that there is a crosstalk between TLRs and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. In addition, TLRs also associate with other coreceptors, such as macrophage scavenger receptors in the recognition of their ligands. TLRs are also involved in the induction of angiogenesis, modulation of stem cell function, and expression of microRNA, which are currently important topic areas in myocardial I/R. Understanding how TLRs contribute to myocardial I/R injury could provide basic scientific knowledge for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment and management of patients with heart attack. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1875–1893. PMID:21091074

  7. A Comparative Review of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression and Functionality in Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Vaure, Céline; Liu, Yuanqing

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family, a key component of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens and initiate an immediate immune response to them, followed by a long-lasting adaptive immune response. Activation of TLRs leads to the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. TLR4 specifically recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide, along with several other components of pathogens and endogenous molecules produced during abnormal situations, such as tissue damage. Evolution across species can lead to substantial diversity in the TLR4’s affinity and specificity to its ligands, the TLR4 gene and cellular expression patterns and tissue distribution. Consequently, TLR4 functions vary across different species. In recent years, the use of synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants has emerged as a realistic therapeutic goal, notably for the development of vaccines against poorly immunogenic targets. Given that an adjuvanted vaccine must be assessed in pre-clinical animal models before being tested in humans, the extent to which an animal model represents and predicts the human condition is of particular importance. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the critical points of divergence between human and the mammalian species commonly used in vaccine research and development (non-human primate, mouse, rat, rabbit, swine, and dog), in terms of molecular, cellular, and functional properties of TLR4. PMID:25071777

  8. Role of Toll-like receptors in systemic Candida albicans infections.

    PubMed

    Luisa Gil, Maria; Murciano, Celia; Yáñez, Alberto; Gozalbo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize molecular signatures of microbial pathogens and function as sensors for infection. Recognition of Candida albicans by TLRs on mature immune cells, such as phagocytic cells, activates intracellular signalling pathways that trigger production of proinflammatory cytokines which are critical for innate host defence and orchestrate the adaptive response. TLR2, and TLR4 in a minor extent, recognize cell wall-associated ligands; endosomal TLR9 and TLR7 recognize DNA and RNA respectively. Interaction of C. albicans with TLRs is a complex process, as TLRs may collaborate with other PRRs and expression of surface-associated fungal ligands depends on the strain and the morphotype (yeasts or hyphae), thus defining the final induced adaptive response (Th1/Th2/Th17). TLRs are also expressed on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) where they may play a role in modulating hematopoiesis; engagement of TLR2 induces, upon recognition of C. albicans, the differentiation of HSPCs towards specific subsets of mature myeloid cells. This has opened a new perspective for anti-Candida immunointervention. PMID:26709773

  9. Non-cell-autonomous Neurotoxicity of α-synuclein Through Microglial Toll-like Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changyoun; Lee, He-Jin; Masliah, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    Synucleinopathies are a collection of neurological diseases that are characterized by deposition of α-synuclein aggregates in neurons and glia. These diseases include Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Although it has been increasingly clear that α-synuclein is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and other synucleinopathies, the precise mechanism underlying the disease process remains to be unraveled. The past studies on how α-synuclein exerts pathogenic actions have focused on its direct, cell-autonomous neurotoxic effects. However, recent findings suggested that there might be indirect, non-cell-autonomous pathways, perhaps through the changes in glial cells, for the pathogenic actions of this protein. Here, we present evidence that α-synuclein can cause neurodegeneration through a non-cell-autonomous manner. We show that α-synuclein can be secreted from neurons and induces inflammatory responses in microglia, which in turn secreted neurotoxic agents into the media causing neurodegeneration. The neurotoxic response of microglia was mediated by activation of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a receptor for neuron-derived α-synuclein. This work suggests that TLR2 is the key molecule that mediates non-cell-autonomous neurotoxic effects of α-synuclein, hence a candidate for the therapeutic target. PMID:27358579

  10. Intracellular Toll-like receptor recruitment and cleavage in endosomal/lysosomal organelles.

    PubMed

    Tohmé, Mira; Manoury, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Microbial pathogens are recognized through multiple, distinct receptors such as intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs 3, 7, 8, 9, and 13) which reside in the endosomes and lysosomes. TLRs are sensitive to chloroquine, a lysomotropic agent that neutralizes acidic compartments indicating a role for endo/lysosomal proteases for their signaling. Indeed, upon stimulation, full-length TLR7 and 9 are cleaved into a C-terminal fragment and this processing is highly dependent on a cysteine protease named asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) in dendritic cells. A recruitment and a boost in AEP activity, which was induced shortly after TLR7 and 9 stimulation, are shown to promote TLR7 and 9 cleavage and correlate with an increased acidification in endosomes and lysosomes. Moreover, mutating a putative AEP cleavage site in TLR7 or 9 strongly decreases their signaling in DCs, suggesting perhaps a direct cleavage of TLR7 and 9 by AEP. These results demonstrate that TLR7 and 9 require a proteolytic cleavage for their signaling and identified a key endocytic protease playing a critical role in this process. PMID:24377922

  11. Role of Toll-like receptors in health and diseases of gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Harris, Greg; KuoLee, Rhonda; Chen, Wangxue

    2006-04-14

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by non-pathogenic commensal microflora and frequently exposed to many pathogenic organisms. For the maintenance of GI homeostasis, the host must discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms and initiate effective and appropriate immune and inflammatory responses. Mammalian toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of the pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family that plays a central role in the initiation of innate cellular immune responses and the subsequent adaptive immune responses to microbial pathogens. Recent studies have shown that gastrointestinal epithelial cells express almost all TLR subtypes characterized to date and that the expression and activation of TLRs in the GI tract are tightly and coordinately regulated. This review summarizes the current understanding of the crucial dual roles of TLRs in the development of host innate and adaptive immune responses to GI infections and the maintenance of the immune tolerance to commensal bacteria through down-regulation of surface expression of TLRs in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:16610014

  12. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is a Regulator of Monocyte and Electroencephalographic Responses to Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wisor, Jonathan P.; Clegern, William C.; Schmidt, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep loss triggers changes in inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain and periphery. The mechanisms that underlie these changes are ill-defined. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activates inflammatory signaling cascades in response to endogenous and pathogen-associated ligands known to be elevated in association with sleep loss. TLR4 is therefore a possible mediator of some of the inflammation-related effects of sleep loss. Here we describe the baseline electroencephalographic sleep phenotype and the biochemical and electroencephalographic responses to sleep loss in TLR4-deficient mice. Design, Measurements and Results: TLR4-deficient mice and wild type controls were subjected to electroencephalographic and electromyographic recordings during spontaneous sleep/wake cycles and during and after sleep restriction sessions of 3, 6, and 24-h duration, during which sleep was disrupted by an automated sleep restriction system. Relative to wild type control mice, TLR4-deficient mice exhibited an increase in the duration of the primary daily waking bout occurring at dark onset in a light/dark cycle. The amount of time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep by TLR4-deficient mice was reduced in proportion to increased wakefulness in the hours immediately after dark onset. Subsequent to sleep restriction, EEG measures of increased sleep drive were attenuated in TLR4-deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. TLR4 was enriched 10-fold in brain cells positive for the cell surface marker CD11b (cells of the monocyte lineage) relative to CD11b-negative cells in wild type mouse brains. To assess whether this population was affected selectively by TLR4 knockout, flow cytometry was used to count F4/80- and CD45-positive cells in the brains of sleep deprived and time of day control mice. While wild-type mice exhibited a significant reduction in the number of CD11b-positive cells in the brain after 24-h sleep restriction, TLR4-deficient mice did not. Conclusion

  13. Elevated Toll-Like Receptor-Induced CXCL8 Secretion in Human Blood Basophils from Allergic Donors Is Independent of Toll-Like Receptor Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Markus; Hawranek, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Harrer, Andrea; Himly, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Human blood basophils have recently gained interest in addition to their function as allergic effector cells. Previous work suggests the involvement of innate immune mechanisms in the development and exacerbation of allergic responses, which might be mediated by basophils. We assayed the expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, 2, 4 and 6 on purified basophils from birch pollen-, house dust mite-, and non-allergic individuals. Additionally, we compared cytokine and chemokine secretion upon TLR stimulation in these basophil donor groups. Expression of TLR4 on the basophils of the allergic donor groups was decreased and CXCL8 secretion was elevated upon stimulation of TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 compared to the non-allergic donors. Decreased TLR expression and elevated CXCL8 secretion may represent possible mechanisms for aggravation of allergic symptoms in case of parasitic infection. PMID:26870962

  14. Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo

    2007-11-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. A family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) acts as primary sensors that detect a wide variety of microbial components and elicit innate immune responses. All TLR signaling pathways culminate in activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which controls the expression of an array of inflammatory cytokine genes. NF-kappaB activation requires the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) proteins, which is triggered by two kinases, IkappaB kinase alpha (IKKalpha) and IKKbeta. In addition, several TLRs activate alternative pathways involving the IKK-related kinases TBK1 [TRAF family member-associated NF-kappaB activator (TANK) binding kinase-1] and IKKi, which elicit antiviral innate immune responses. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of the role of NF-kappaB in TLR signaling pathways and discuss potential implications for molecular medicine. PMID:18029230

  15. [Nle4, D-Phe7]-α-MSH Inhibits Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)2- and TLR4-Induced Microglial Activation and Promotes a M2-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Carniglia, Lila; Ramírez, Delia; Durand, Daniela; Saba, Julieta; Caruso, Carla; Lasaga, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is an anti-inflammatory peptide, proved to be beneficial in many neuroinflammatory disorders acting through melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R). We previously determined that rat microglial cells express MC4R and that NDP-MSH, an analog of α-MSH, induces PPAR-γ expression and IL-10 release in these cells. Given the great importance of modulation of glial activation in neuroinflammatory disorders, we tested the ability of NDP-MSH to shape microglial phenotype and to modulate Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses. Primary rat cultured microglia were stimulated with NDP-MSH followed by the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 or the TLR4 agonist LPS. NDP-MSH alone induced expression of the M2a/M2c marker Ag1 and reduced expression of the M2b marker Il-4rα and of the LPS receptor Tlr4. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunits p65 and c-Rel was induced by LPS and these effects were partially prevented by NDP-MSH. NDP-MSH reduced LPS- and Pam3CSK4-induced TNF-α release but did not affect TLR-induced IL-10 release. Also, NDP-MSH inhibited TLR2-induced HMGB1 translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm and TLR2-induced phagocytic activity. Our data show that NDP-MSH inhibits TLR2- and TLR4-mediated proinflammatory mechanisms and promotes microglial M2-like polarization, supporting melanocortins as useful tools for shaping microglial activation towards an alternative immunomodulatory phenotype. PMID:27359332

  16. Toll-Like Receptor- and Filarial Antigen-Mediated, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase- and NF-κB-Dependent Regulation of Angiogenic Growth Factors in Filarial Lymphatic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, R.; Kumar, N. Pavan; George, P. Jovvian; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Filarial lymphatic pathology is of multifactorial origin, with inflammation, lymphangiogenesis, and innate immune responses all playing important roles. The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the development of filarial pathology is well characterized. Similarly, the association of pathology with elevated levels of plasma angiogenic factors has also been documented. To examine the association between TLR function and the development of lymphangiogenesis in filarial infections, we examined TLR- and filarial antigen-induced expression and production of various angiogenic growth factors. We demonstrate that TLR ligands (specifically TLR2, -3, and -5 ligands) induce significantly increased expression/production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with lymphatic pathology (CP individuals) compared to that in cells of asymptomatic infected (INF) individuals. Similarly, filarial antigens induce significantly enhanced production of VEGF-C in CP compared with INF individuals. TLR2-mediated enhancement of angiogenic growth factor production in CP individuals was shown to be dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling, as pharmacologic inhibition of either extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, or NF-κB signaling resulted in significantly diminished production of VEGF-A and Ang-1. Our data therefore strongly suggest an important association between TLR signaling and lymphangiogenesis in the development of pathology in human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:22508858

  17. Podocyte apoptosis is prevented by blocking the Toll-like receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Saurus, P; Kuusela, S; Lehtonen, E; Hyvönen, M E; Ristola, M; Fogarty, C L; Tienari, J; Lassenius, M I; Forsblom, C; Lehto, M; Saleem, M A; Groop, P-H; Holthöfer, H; Lehtonen, S

    2015-01-01

    High serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity in normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) predicts the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the mechanisms behind this remain unclear. We observed that treatment of cultured human podocytes with sera from normoalbuminuric T1D patients with high LPS activity downregulated 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1), an activator of the Akt cell survival pathway, and induced apoptosis. Knockdown of PDK1 in cultured human podocytes inhibited antiapoptotic Akt pathway, stimulated proapoptotic p38 MAPK pathway, and increased apoptosis demonstrating an antiapoptotic role for PDK1 in podocytes. Interestingly, PDK1 was downregulated in the glomeruli of diabetic rats and patients with type 2 diabetes before the onset of proteinuria, further suggesting that reduced expression of PDK1 associates with podocyte injury and development of DN. Treatment of podocytes in vitro and mice in vivo with LPS reduced PDK1 expression and induced apoptosis, which were prevented by inhibiting the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway with the immunomodulatory agent GIT27. Our data show that LPS downregulates the cell survival factor PDK1 and induces podocyte apoptosis, and that blocking the TLR pathway with GIT27 may provide a non-nephrotoxic means to prevent the progression of DN. PMID:25950482

  18. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of the duck Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuqiang; Sun, Yingjie; Wang, Hengan; Shi, Shuduan; Yan, Yaxian; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In the present study, the first TLR5 gene in duck was cloned. The open reading frame (ORF) of duck TLR5 (dTLR5) cDNA is 2580 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 859 amino acids. We also cloned partial sequences of myeloid differentiation factor 88, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and myxovirus resistance (Mx) genes from duck. dTLR5 mRNA was highly expressed in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, trachea, lung, jejunum, rectum, and skin; moderately expressed in the muscular and glandular tissues, duodenum, ileum, caecum, and pancreas; and minimally expressed in the heart, liver, kidney, and muscle. DF-1 or HeLa cells transfected with DNA constructs encoding dTLR5 can activate NF-κB leading to the activation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter. When we challenged ducks with a Herts33 Newcastle disease virus (NDV), mRNA transcription of the antiviral molecules Mx, Double stranded RNA activated protein kinase (PKR), and OAS was up-regulated in the liver, lung, and spleen 1 and 2 days post-inoculation. PMID:25269719

  19. Toll-like receptor 7 affects the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sokho; Park, Surim; Kim, Bumseok; Kwon, Jungkee

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a possible link between toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and liver disease was suggested, although it was limited to fibrosis. Based on this report, we investigated whether TLR7 has a pivotal role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The TLR7 signaling pathway, which is activated by imiquimod (TLR7 ligand) naturally, induced autophagy and released insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) into medium from hepatocytes. Lipid accumulation induced by unsaturated fatty acid (UFA; arachidonic acid:oleic acid = 1:1) in hepatocytes, was attenuated in TLR7 and autophagy activation. Interestingly, TLR7 activation attenuated UFA-induced lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal (4-HNE). To clarify a possible pathway between TLR7 and lipid peroxidation, we treated hepatocytes with MDA and 4-HNE. MDA and 4-HNE induced 2-folds lipid accumulation in UFA-treated hepatocytes via blockade of the TLR7 signaling pathway’s IGF-1 release compared to only UFA-treated hepatocytes. In vivo experiments carried out with TLR7 knockout mice produced results consistent with in vitro experiments. In conclusion, TLR7 prevents progression of NAFLD via induced autophagy and released IGF-1 from liver. These findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27279075

  20. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Augments Transforming Growth Factor-β Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Swati; Kelley, Kathleen; Melichian, Denisa S.; Tamaki, Zenshiro; Fang, Feng; Su, Yunyun; Feng, Gilbert; Pope, Richard M.; Budinger, G.R. Scott; Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Lafyatis, Robert; Radstake, Timothy; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Varga, John

    2014-01-01

    Because recent studies implicate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, we sought to investigate the in vitro and in vivo role and mechanism of TLR4-mediated fibroblast responses in fibrogenesis. We found that TLR4 was constitutively expressed, and accumulation of endogenous TLR4 ligands significantly elevated, in lesional skin and lung tissues from patients with scleroderma. Activation of TLR4 signaling in explanted fibroblasts resulted in enhanced collagen synthesis and increased expression of multiple genes involved in tissue remodeling and extracellular matrix homeostasis. Moreover, TLR4 dramatically enhanced the sensitivity of fibroblasts to the stimulatory effect of transforming growth factor-β1. These profibrotic responses were abrogated by both genetic and pharmacological disruption of TLR4 signaling in vitro, and skin fibrosis induced by bleomycin in vivo was attenuated in mice harboring a mutated TLR4. Activation of TLR4 in fibroblasts augmented the intensity of canonical Smad signaling, and was accompanied by suppression of anti-fibrotic microRNA expression. Together, these results suggest a novel model to account for persistent fibrogenesis in scleroderma, in which activation of fibroblast TLR4 signaling, triggered by damage-associated endogenous TLR4 ligands, results in augmented transforming growth factor-β1 sensitivity with increased matrix production and progressive connective tissue remodeling. Under these conditions, fibroblast TLR4 serves as the switch for converting self-limited tissue repair into intractable fibrosis. PMID:23141927

  1. MicroRNA-146a-5p Negatively Regulates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion and Cell Activation in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Human Hepatic Stellate Cells through Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhan; Zeng, Zhaochong; Shen, Xiaoyun; Wu, Zhifeng; Dong, Yinying; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is demonstrated to be involved in the hepatic fibrosis. MicroRNA (miR)-146a-5p is a key regulator of the innate immune response. The functional significance of miR-146a-5p during the LPS/TLR4 mediated hepatic fibrosis process remains unclear. In this study, we found that TLR4 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were up-regulated and miR-146a-5p was down-regulated in human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line LX2 after LPS stimulation. Overexpression of miR-146a-5p inhibited LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion through down-regulating the expression levels of TLR-4, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), TNF receptor associated factor-6 (TRAF6) and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Knockdown of IRAK1 and TRAF6 also suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production by inhibiting NF-κB phosphorylation. In addition, miR-146a-5p mimic blocked LPS induced TRAF6 dependent c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Smad2 activation as well as α-SMA production. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-146a-5p suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and cell activation of HSC through inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB and TLR4/TRAF6/JNK pathway. PMID:27399683

  2. MicroRNA-146a-5p Negatively Regulates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion and Cell Activation in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Human Hepatic Stellate Cells through Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhan; Zeng, Zhaochong; Shen, Xiaoyun; Wu, Zhifeng; Dong, Yinying; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is demonstrated to be involved in the hepatic fibrosis. MicroRNA (miR)-146a-5p is a key regulator of the innate immune response. The functional significance of miR-146a-5p during the LPS/TLR4 mediated hepatic fibrosis process remains unclear. In this study, we found that TLR4 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were up-regulated and miR-146a-5p was down-regulated in human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line LX2 after LPS stimulation. Overexpression of miR-146a-5p inhibited LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion through down-regulating the expression levels of TLR-4, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), TNF receptor associated factor-6 (TRAF6) and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Knockdown of IRAK1 and TRAF6 also suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production by inhibiting NF-κB phosphorylation. In addition, miR-146a-5p mimic blocked LPS induced TRAF6 dependent c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Smad2 activation as well as α-SMA production. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-146a-5p suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and cell activation of HSC through inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB and TLR4/TRAF6/JNK pathway. PMID:27399683

  3. Dynamic evolution of toll-like receptor multigene families in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Katherine M; Rast, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a large and long-lived invertebrate, provides a new perspective on animal immunity. Analysis of this genome uncovered a highly complex immune system in which the gene families that encode homologs of the pattern recognition receptors that form the core of vertebrate innate immunity are encoded in large multigene families. The sea urchin genome contains 253 Toll-like receptor (TLR) sequences, more than 200 Nod-like receptors and 1095 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains, a 10-fold expansion relative to vertebrates. Given their stereotypic protein structure and simple intron-exon architecture, the TLRs are the most tractable of these families for more detailed analysis. A role for these receptors in immune defense is suggested by their similarity to TLRs in other organisms, sequence diversity, and expression in immunologically active tissues, including phagocytes. The complexity of the sea urchin TLR multigene families is largely derived from expansions independent of those in vertebrates and protostomes, although a small family of TLRs with structure similar to that of Drosophila Toll can be traced to an ancient eumetazoan ancestor. Several other echinoderm sequences are now available, including Lytechinus variegatus, as well as partial sequences from two other sea urchin species. Here, we present an analysis of the invertebrate deuterostome TLRs with emphasis on the echinoderms. Representatives of most of the S. purpuratus TLR subfamilies and homologs of the mccTLR sequences are found in L. variegatus, although the L. variegatus TLR gene family is notably smaller (68 TLR sequences). The phylogeny of these genes within sea urchins highlights lineage-specific expansions at higher resolution than is evident at the phylum level. These analyses identify quickly evolving TLR subfamilies that are likely to have novel immune recognition functions and other, more stable, subfamilies that may

  4. Role of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Graft-versus-Host Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Sanfang; Zhong, Danli; Xie, Weixin; Huang, Wenfa; Jiang, Yangyang; Li, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in HSCT patients. Recent work has demonstrated that the two complications are interdependent. GVHD occurs when allo-reactive donor T lymphocytes are activated by major histocompatibility antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens on host antigen-presenting cells (APCs), with the eventual attack of recipient tissues or organs. Activation of APCs is important for the priming of GVHD and is mediated by innate immune signaling pathways. Current evidence indicates that intestinal microbes and innate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) on host APCs, including both Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), are involved in the pathogenesis of GVHD. Patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation before allo-HSCT are susceptible to aggravated gastrointestinal epithelial cell damage and the subsequent translocation of bacterial components, followed by the release of endogenous dangerous molecules, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which then activate the PRRs on host APCs to trigger local or systemic inflammatory responses that modulate T cell allo-reactivity against host tissues, which is equivalent to GVHD. In other words, infection can, to some extent, accelerate the progression of GVHD. Therefore, the intestinal flora’s PAMPs can interact with TLRs to activate and mature APCs, subsequently activate donor T cells with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and eventually, induce GVHD. In the present article, we summarize the current perspectives on the understanding of different TLR signaling pathways and their involvement in the occurrence of GVHD. PMID:27529218

  5. Contribution of Ninjurin1 to Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jennewein, Carla; Sowa, Ralf; Faber, Anne C; Dildey, Madlen; von Knethen, Andreas; Meybohm, Patrick; Scheller, Bertram; Dröse, Stefan; Zacharowski, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Nerve injury-induced protein (Ninjurin [Ninj]) 1 is an adhesion molecule originally identified in Schwann cells after nerve injury, whereas it is also expressed in leukocytes, epithelium, endothelium, and various organs, and is induced under inflammatory conditions. Its contribution to inflammation was so far restricted to the nervous system and exclusively attributed to its role during leukocyte migration. We hypothesized a proinflammatory role for Ninj1 also outside the nervous system. To elucidate its impact during inflammation, we analyzed expression levels and its contribution to inflammation in septic mice and studied its effect on inflammatory signaling in vitro. The effect on inflammation was analyzed by genetic (only in vitro) and pharmacologic repression in septic mice (cecal ligation and puncture) and cell culture, respectively. Repression of Ninj1 by an inhibitory peptide or small interfering RNA attenuated LPS-triggered inflammation in macrophages and endothelial cells by modulating p38 phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation. Inhibition of Ninj1 in septic mice reduced systemic and pulmonary inflammation as well as organ damage, and ameliorated survival after 24 hours. Ninj1 is elevated under inflammatory conditions and contributes to inflammation not only by mediating leukocyte migration, but also by modulating Toll-like receptor 4-dependent expression of inflammatory mediators. We assume that, owing to both mechanisms, inhibition reduces systemic inflammation and organ damage in septic mice. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the complex inflammatory mechanisms and add a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory conditions such as sepsis. PMID:25860173

  6. Toll-like receptor 7 agonists: chemical feature based pharmacophore identification and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Jin, Hongwei; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Liangren; Sun, Gang; Wang, Zhanli; Yu, Yongchun

    2013-01-01

    Chemical feature based pharmacophore models were generated for Toll-like receptors 7 (TLR7) agonists using HypoGen algorithm, which is implemented in the Discovery Studio software. Several methods tools used in validation of pharmacophore model were presented. The first hypothesis Hypo1 was considered to be the best pharmacophore model, which consists of four features: one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor, and two hydrophobic features. In addition, homology modeling and molecular docking studies were employed to probe the intermolecular interactions between TLR7 and its agonists. The results further confirmed the reliability of the pharmacophore model. The obtained pharmacophore model (Hypo1) was then employed as a query to screen the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD) for other potential lead compounds. One hit was identified as a potent TLR7 agonist, which has antiviral activity against hepatitis virus in vitro. Therefore, our current work provides confidence for the utility of the selected chemical feature based pharmacophore model to design novel TLR7 agonists with desired biological activity. PMID:23526932

  7. DNA-Polymer Conjugates for Immune Stimulation through Toll-like Receptor 9 Mediated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Eric A.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2014-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide motifs are agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 and are currently being investigated for use as vaccine adjuvants through promotion of type I immunity. Several classes of ODN have been developed which differ in their propensity to aggregate, which in turn, alter cytokine profiles and cellular subsets activated. Although aggregation state is correlated with the change in cytokine response, it is unknown if this results from a change in the number of ODN available for binding and/or the possible engagement of multiple TLR9 molecules. Here, we examined the role of ligand valency on the activation of TLR9 through the synthesis of ODN-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) conjugates. The compositions and size of the conjugates were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, and dynamic light scattering. ELISA-based assays of cytokine secretion by murine-like macrophages indicate that these ODN-PAA polymer conjugates show enhanced immunostimulation at 100-fold lower concentrations than those required for ODN alone, for both TNF-α and IL-6 release, and are more potent than any other previously reported multivalent ODN constructs. Increasing valency was shown to significantly enhance cytokine expression, particularly for IL-6. Knockdown by siRNA demonstrates that these polymer conjugates are specific to TLR9. Our results define valency as a critical design parameter and polymer conjugation as an advantageous strategy for producing ODN immunomodulatory agents. PMID:24316364

  8. DNA-polymer conjugates for immune stimulation through Toll-like receptor 9 mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Eric A; Kiick, Kristi L

    2014-03-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide motifs are agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 and are currently being investigated for use as vaccine adjuvants through the promotion of type I immunity. Several classes of ODN have been developed which differ in their propensity to aggregate, which in turn alters cytokine profiles and cellular subsets activated. Although aggregation state is correlated with the change in cytokine response, it is unknown if this results from a change in the number of ODNs available for binding and/or the possible engagement of multiple TLR9 molecules. Here, we examined the role of ligand valency on the activation of TLR9 through the synthesis of ODN-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) conjugates. The compositions and size of the conjugates were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography and dynamic light scattering. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of cytokine secretion by murine-like macrophages indicate that these ODN-PAA polymer conjugates show enhanced immunostimulation at 100-fold lower concentrations than those required for ODN alone, for both TNF-α and IL-6 release, and are more potent than any other previously reported multivalent ODN constructs. Increasing valency was shown to significantly enhance cytokine expression, particularly for IL-6. Knockdown by siRNA demonstrates that these polymer conjugates are specific to TLR9. Our results define valency as a critical design parameter and polymer conjugation as an advantageous strategy for producing ODN immunomodulatory agents. PMID:24316364

  9. MAP1S Protein Regulates the Phagocytosis of Bacteria and Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Leyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Fang; Cleveland, Joseph; Wang, Fen; McKeehan, Wallace L; Li, Yu; Zhang, Dekai

    2016-01-15

    Phagocytosis is a critical cellular process for innate immune defense against microbial infection. The regulation of phagocytosis process is complex and has not been well defined. An intracellular molecule might regulate cell surface-initiated phagocytosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood (1). In this study, we found that microtubule-associated protein 1S (MAP1S), a protein identified recently that is involved in autophagy (2), is expressed primarily in macrophages. MAP1S-deficient macrophages are impaired in the phagocytosis of bacteria. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MAP1S interacts directly with MyD88, a key adaptor of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), upon TLR activation and affects the TLR signaling pathway. Intriguingly, we also observe that, upon TLR activation, MyD88 participates in autophagy processing in a MAP1S-dependent manner by co-localizing with MAP1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3 or LC3). Therefore, we reveal that an intracellular autophagy-related molecule of MAP1S controls bacterial phagocytosis through TLR signaling. PMID:26565030

  10. Antagonistic antibody prevents toll-like receptor 2–driven lethal shock-like syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Guangxun; Rutz, Mark; Schiemann, Matthias; Metzger, Jochen; Grabiec, Alina; Schwandner, Ralf; Luppa, Peter B.; Ebel, Frank; Busch, Dirk H.; Bauer, Stefan; Wagner, Hermann; Kirschning, Carsten J.

    2004-01-01

    Hyperactivation of immune cells by bacterial products through toll-like receptors (TLRs) is thought of as a causative mechanism of septic shock pathology. Infections with Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria provide TLR2-specific agonists and are the major cause of severe sepsis. In order to intervene in TLR2-driven toxemia, we raised mAb’s against the extracellular domain of TLR2. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed direct and specific interaction of TLR2 and immunostimulatory lipopeptide, which was blocked by T2.5 in a dose-dependent manner. Application of mAb T2.5 inhibited cell activation in experimental murine models of infection. T2.5 also antagonized TLR2-specific activation of primary human macrophages. TLR2 surface expression by murine macrophages was surprisingly weak, while both intra- and extracellular expression increased upon systemic microbial challenge. Systemic application of T2.5 upon lipopeptide challenge inhibited release of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and prevented lethal shock-like syndrome in mice. Twenty milligrams per kilogram of T2.5 was sufficient to protect mice, and administration of 40 mg/kg of T2.5 was protective even 3 hours after the start of otherwise lethal challenge with Bacillus subtilis. These results indicate that epitope-specific binding of exogenous ligands precedes specific TLR signaling and suggest therapeutic application of a neutralizing anti-TLR2 antibody in acute infection. PMID:15146245

  11. Nerve Growth Factor Is Regulated by Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Human Intervertebral Discs.

    PubMed

    Krock, Emerson; Currie, J Brooke; Weber, Michael H; Ouellet, Jean A; Stone, Laura S; Rosenzweig, Derek H; Haglund, Lisbet

    2016-02-12

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) contributes to the development of chronic pain associated with degenerative connective tissue pathologies, such as intervertebral disc degeneration and osteoarthritis. However, surprisingly little is known about the regulation of NGF in these conditions. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors classically associated with innate immunity but more recently were found to be activated by endogenous alarmins such as fragmented extracellular matrix proteins found in degenerating discs or cartilage. In this study we investigated if TLR activation regulates NGF and which signaling mechanisms control this response in intervertebral discs. TLR2 agonists, TLR4 agonists, or IL-1β (control) treatment increased NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and IL-1β gene expression in human disc cells isolated from healthy, pain-free organ donors. However, only TLR2 activation or IL-1β treatment increased NGF protein secretion. TLR2 activation increased p38, ERK1/2, and p65 activity and increased p65 translocation to the cell nucleus. JNK activity was not affected by TLR2 activation. Inhibition of NF-κB, and to a lesser extent p38, but not ERK1/2 activity, blocked TLR2-driven NGF up-regulation at both the transcript and protein levels. These results provide a novel mechanism of NGF regulation in the intervertebral disc and potentially other pathogenic connective tissues. TLR2 and NF-κB signaling are known to increase cytokines and proteases, which accelerate matrix degradation. Therefore, TLR2 or NF-κB inhibition may both attenuate chronic pain and slow the degenerative progress in vivo. PMID:26668319

  12. Suppression of Mitochondrial Biogenesis through Toll-Like Receptor 4–Dependent Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Collier, Justin B.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Although disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and biogenesis (MB) is a widely accepted pathophysiologic feature of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways responsible for the suppression of MB in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of MB, was noted at the mRNA level at 3 hours and protein level at 18 hours in the renal cortex, and was associated with loss of renal function after LPS treatment. LPS-mediated suppression of PGC-1α led to reduced expression of downstream regulators of MB and electron transport chain proteins along with a reduction in renal cortical mitochondrial DNA content. Mechanistically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice were protected from renal injury and disruption of MB after LPS exposure. Immunoblot analysis revealed activation of tumor progression locus 2/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (TPL-2/MEK/ERK) signaling in the renal cortex by LPS. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling attenuated renal dysfunction and loss of PGC-1α, and was associated with a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β) expression at 3 hours after LPS exposure. Neutralization of TNF-α also blocked PGC-1α suppression, but not renal dysfunction, after LPS-induced AKI. Finally, systemic administration of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α alone was sufficient to produce AKI and disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis. These findings indicate an important role for the TLR4/MEK/ERK pathway in both LPS-induced renal dysfunction and suppression of MB. TLR4/MEK/ERK/TNF-α signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and AKI produced by sepsis. PMID:25503387

  13. Toll-like receptor activation and mechanical force stimulation promote the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 3 and 10 of human periodontal fibroblasts via p38, JNK and NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Rodolfo Assis; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius; Cunha-Melo, José Renan

    2013-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to play a key role during orthodontic treatment leading to periodontal remodelling and tooth movement. MMPs may be induced by mechanical forces. However, the role played by toll-like receptors (TLRs) in modulating the effects of the mechanical force on periodontal fibroblasts is not known. To investigate the interaction between mechanical force and TLR stimulation, primary cultures of human periodontal fibroblasts were submitted to centrifugation in the presence of LPS and Pam3Cys, which are known TLR-4 and TLR-2 ligands, respectively. The expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -10 and -13; TIMP (Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases) -1, -2 and -4; TNF-α (Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha); IL-1β (Interleukin 1 beta); ERK 1/2 (Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2); p38; JNK (c-jun N-terminal Kinase); IRAK1 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase); and NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa B) were measured by antibody array, ELISA and immunoblotting methods. The activation of TLRs associated with centrifugation induced an increase in the secretion of MMPs 1, 3 and 10, with no increase in TNF-α or IL-1β. An increase in the phosphorylation of the MAP kinases p38 and JNK and the transcription factor NF-κB, without an increase in TIMPs was also observed. These findings suggest that the secretion of MMPs by cultured periodontal fibroblasts that is induced by combined TLR activation and mechanical force stimulation is regulated via the p38, JNK and NF-κB pathways. The increased secretion of MMPs by TLR activation may be an important factor that should be considered during orthodontic treatment. PMID:23332208

  14. Allergens as Immuno-Modulatory Proteins: the cat dander protein Fel d 1 enhances Toll-like receptor activation by lipid ligands

    PubMed Central

    Herre, Jurgen; Grönlund, Hans; Brooks, Heather; Hopkins, Lee; Waggoner, Lisa; Murton, Ben; Gangloff, Monique; Opaleye, Olaniyi; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Fitzgerald, Kate; Gay, Nick; Monie, Tom; Bryant, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Allergic responses can be triggered by structurally diverse allergens. Most allergens are proteins yet extensive research has not revealed how they initiate the allergic response and why the myriad of other inhaled proteins do not. Amongst these allergens, the cat secretoglobulin protein Fel d 1, is the major allergen and responsible for severe allergic responses. In this study we show that like the mite dust allergen Der p 2, Fel d 1 substantially enhances signalling through the innate receptors TLR4 and TLR2. In contrast to Der p 2 however, Fel d 1 does not act by mimicking the TLR4 co-receptor MD2 and is not able to bind stably to the TLR4/MD2 complex in vitro. Fel d 1 does however, bind to the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide, suggesting that a lipid transfer mechanism may be involved in the Fel d 1 enhancement of TLR signalling. We also show that the dog allergen Can f 6, a member of a distinct class of lipocalin allergens, has very similar properties to Fel d 1. We propose that Fel d 1 and Can f 6 belong to a group of allergen immunomodulatory proteins (IMPs) that enhance innate immune signalling and promote airway hypersensitivity reactions in diseases such as asthma. PMID:23878318

  15. The adenosine system modulates Toll-like receptor function: basic mechanisms, clinical correlates and translational opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Melanie R. Power; Belderbos, Mirjam E.; Gallington, Leighanne C.; Bont, Louis; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine metabolite whose concentration in human blood plasma rises from nanomolar to micromolar during stress or hypoxia. Leukocytes express seven-transmembrane adenosine receptors whose engagement modulates Toll-like receptor-mediated cytokine responses, in part via modulation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Adenosine congeners are used clinically to treat arrhythmias and apnea of prematurity. Herein we consider the potential of adenosine congeners as innate immune response modifiers to prevent and/or treat infection. PMID:21342073

  16. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.-J.; Chen, T.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2008-04-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 {mu}M of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 {mu}M) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive mechanisms

  17. Role of Toll-Like Receptor 13 in Innate Immune Recognition of Group B Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Signorino, Giacomo; Mohammadi, Nastaran; Patanè, Francesco; Buscetta, Marco; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Midiri, Angelina; Alexopoulou, Lena; Teti, Giuseppe; Beninati, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    Murine Toll-like receptor 13 (TLR13), an endosomal receptor that is not present in humans, is activated by an unmethylated motif present in the large ribosomal subunit of bacterial RNA (23S rRNA). Little is known, however, of the impact of TLR13 on antibacterial host defenses. Here we examined the role of this receptor in the context of infection induced by the model pathogen group B streptococcus (GBS). To this end, we used bacterial strains masked from TLR13 recognition by virtue of constitutive expression of the ErmC methyltransferase, which results in dimethylation of the 23S rRNA motif at a critical adenine residue. We found that TLR13-mediated rRNA recognition was required for optimal induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitrous oxide in dendritic cell and macrophage cultures stimulated with heat-killed bacteria or purified bacterial RNA. However, TLR13-dependent recognition was redundant when live bacteria were used as a stimulus. Moreover, masking bacterial rRNA from TLR13 recognition did not increase the ability of GBS to avoid host defenses and replicate in vivo. In contrast, increased susceptibility to infection was observed under conditions in which signaling by all endosomal TLRs was abolished, i.e., in mice with a loss-of-function mutation in the chaperone protein UNC93B1. Our data lend support to the conclusion that TLR13 participates in GBS recognition, although blockade of the function of this receptor can be compensated for by other endosomal TLRs. Lack of selective pressure by bacterial infections might explain the evolutionary loss of TLR13 in humans. However, further studies using different bacterial species are needed to prove this hypothesis. PMID:25225249

  18. Regulation of toll like receptors in intestinal epithelial cells by stress and Toxoplasma gondii infection

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, R.; Birdsell, D.; Monroy, F. P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a barrier between invading microorganisms and the underlying host tissues. IECs express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize specific molecular signatures on microbes which activate intracellular signaling pathways leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Stress hormones play an important role in modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and downregulation of immune responses. Here we demonstrated that expression levels of TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-9 and TLR-11 were significantly increased in mouse IECs following infection with Toxoplasma gondii on day 8 post infection. In contrast, expression of TLRs was significantly decreased in infected mice subjected to cold water stress (CWS+INF). Expression of TLR-9 and TLR-11 in the mouse MODE-K cell line was significantly increased after infection. Expression of TLR-9 and TLR-11 in cells exposed to norepinephrine (NE) and parasites was significantly decreased when compared to cells exposed to parasites only. A significant increase was observed in SIGIRR, a negative regulator of TLRs in the CWS+INF group when compared to the INF group. Stress components were able to decrease expression levels of TLRs in IECs, decrease parasite load, and increase expression of a negative regulator thereby ameliorating intestinal inflammatory responses commonly observed during per oral T. gondii infection in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:19067837

  19. In Vitro Inflammation Inhibition Model Based on Semi-Continuous Toll-Like Receptor Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin-Woo; Ha, Un-Hwan; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A chemical inhibition model of inflammation is proposed by semi-continuous monitoring the density of toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) expressed on mammalian cells following bacterial infection to investigate an in vivo-mimicked drug screening system. The inflammation was induced by adding bacterial lysate (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa) to a mammalian cell culture (e.g., A549 cell line). The TLR1 density on the same cells was immunochemically monitored up to three cycles under optimized cyclic bacterial stimulation-and-restoration conditions. The assay was carried out by adopting a cell-compatible immunoanalytical procedure and signal generation method. Signal intensity relative to the background control obtained without stimulation was employed to plot the standard curve for inflammation. To suppress the inflammatory response, sodium salicylate, which inhibits nuclear factor-κB activity, was used to prepare the standard curve for anti-inflammation. Such measurement of differential TLR densities was used as a biosensing approach discriminating the anti-inflammatory substance from the non-effector, which was simulated by using caffeic acid phenethyl ester and acetaminophen as the two components, respectively. As the same cells exposed to repetitive bacterial stimulation were semi-continuously monitored, the efficacy and toxicity of the inhibitors may further be determined regarding persistency against time. Therefore, this semi-continuous biosensing model could be appropriate as a substitute for animal-based experimentation during drug screening prior to pre-clinical tests. PMID:25136864

  20. Bioinformatics analysis of the structural and evolutionary characteristics for toll-like receptor 15

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinlan; Chang, Fen

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important role in the innate immune system. TLR15 is reported to have a unique role in defense against pathogens, but its structural and evolution characterizations are still poorly understood. In this study, we identified 57 completed TLR15 genes from avian and reptilian genomes. TLR15 clustered into an individual clade and was closely related to family 1 on the phylogenetic tree. Unlike the TLRs in family 1 with the broken asparagine ladders in the middle, TLR15 ectodomain had an intact asparagine ladder that is critical to maintain the overall shape of ectodomain. The conservation analysis found that TLR15 ectodomain had a highly evolutionarily conserved region on the convex surface of LRR11 module, which is probably involved in TLR15 activation process. Furthermore, the protein–protein docking analysis indicated that TLR15 TIR domains have the potential to form homodimers, the predicted interaction interface of TIR dimer was formed mainly by residues from the BB-loops and αC-helixes. Although TLR15 mainly underwent purifying selection, we detected 27 sites under positive selection for TLR15, 24 of which are located on its ectodomain. Our observations suggest the structural features of TLR15 which may be relevant to its function, but which requires further experimental validation. PMID:27257554

  1. Dietary Saturated Fat Promotes Development of Hepatic Inflammation Through Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Alton G; Palanisamy, Arun P; Lench, Julie H; Esckilsen, Scott; Geng, Tuoyu; Lewin, David N B; Cowart, Lauren A; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is currently the third most common cause of end stage liver disease necessitating transplantation. The question remains how inflammation and NASH develop in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatosis. Understand the roles of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and dietary fats in the development of hepatic inflammation. Wild-type and TLR4 KO mice were fed a standard high fat diet (LD), a high saturated fat diet (MD), or an isocaloric control diet (CD). Sera and tissue were analyzed for development of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and injury. MD induced features of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in wild-type, but not in TLR4 KO, mice. TLR4 KO prevented MD induced increases in NAFLD activity scores, serum alanine aminotransferase levels, and inflammatory cytokine expression. Inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine expression were also lower in the TLR4 KO mice livers than wild-type mice fed MD. Hepatic expression of Collagen I transcripts and collagen deposition were also decreased in the TLR4 KO MD animals. Results show that TLR4 plays a critical role in the effects of dietary fat composition on the development of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and injury consistent with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1613-1621, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26600310

  2. Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide stimulates the expression of toll-like receptor 2 and cytokines in pig fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yijie; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Donai, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Kengo; Masuda, Mizuki; Nakamura, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko

    2015-02-01

    Pigs throughout the world are afflicted with leptospirosis, causing serious economic losses and potential hazards to human health. Although it has been known that leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) is involved in an immunological reaction between an antigen and a host cell, little is known about how the immune system of pigs can respond to L-LPS. Here, we stimulated pig fibroblasts by L-LPS and then quantitatively measured gene and protein expression levels of two toll-like receptors (TLRs), TLR2 and TLR4, by real-time PCR and Western blotting. As a result, expression of TLR2 was found to be significantly up-regulated within 24 h after L-LPS stimulation whereas induction of TLR4 expression was relatively weak. We also revealed that of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 gene expressions were markedly up-regulated by L-LPS stimulation. These results may suggest that the pig cell can activate TLR2 rather than TLR4 by L-LPS stimulation, thereby inducing expression of cytokines. PMID:25039909

  3. Immune Adjuvant Effect of Molecularly-defined Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Toussi, Deana N.; Massari, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine efficacy is optimized by addition of immune adjuvants. However, although adjuvants have been used for over a century, to date, only few adjuvants are approved for human use, mostly aimed at improving vaccine efficacy and antigen-specific protective antibody production. The mechanism of action of immune adjuvants is diverse, depending on their chemical and molecular nature, ranging from non-specific effects (i.e., antigen depot at the immunization site) to specific activation of immune cells leading to improved host innate and adaptive responses. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of action of many adjuvants is still elusive, the discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has provided new critical information on immunostimulatory effect of numerous bacterial components that engage TLRs. These ligands have been shown to improve both the quality and the quantity of host adaptive immune responses when used in vaccine formulations targeted to infectious diseases and cancer that require both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The potential of such TLR adjuvants in improving the design and the outcomes of several vaccines is continuously evolving, as new agonists are discovered and tested in experimental and clinical models of vaccination. In this review, a summary of the recent progress in development of TLR adjuvants is presented. PMID:26344622

  4. C5a and toll-like receptor 4 crosstalk in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Dai, Bingling; Li, Yongguo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of the complement activation product C5a on toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-induced responses in RPE cells. Methods Confluent cultures of human RPE cells (ARPE-19) were stimulated with C5a, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or a combination of the two. The expression of TLR4 was determined by real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Cytokine profiles were determined by real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The phosphorylation of p38, ERK 1/2, and JNK was measured by flow cytometry. Results C5a stimulation enhanced the expression of TLR4 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. C5a was able to stimulate the production of TLR4-induced IL-6 and IL-8 by ARPE-19 cells. Blocking experiments showed that the effect of C5a on cytokine production was mediated via C5aR. ERK1/2, but not JNK or p38, were involved in the production of IL-6 and IL-8. Conclusions The results indicate that C5a can induce the TLR4 expression and enhance the production of TLR4-induced IL-6 and IL-8 by ARPE-19. The effect of C5a on cytokine production was mediated by C5aR and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. PMID:26487798

  5. Toll-Like Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muccioli, Maria; Sprague, Leslee; Nandigam, Harika; Pate, Michelle; Benencia, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is an aggressive disease that affects approximately 1 in 70 women and has a poor prognosis (<50%, 5-year survival rate), in part because it is often diagnosed at a late stage. There are three main types of OC: neoplasms of surface epithelial, germ cell, or stromal origin, with surface epithelial tumors comprising about 80% of all OCs. In addition to improving diagnostics, it is necessary to develop more effective treatments for epithelial-origin OC. Here, we describe the paradoxical roles of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in the progression of cancer and discuss how its modulation may result in decreased tumor growth and metastasis via the attenuation of proangiogenic cytokines and potentiation of proapoptotic factors. In particular, it has been found that TLR activity can behave like a “double-edged sword”, as its signaling pathways have been implicated as having both tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effects. With particular emphasis on OC, we discuss the need to consider the signaling details of TLRs and associated proteins in the multiple cell types present in the tumor milieu to achieve safe and effective design of TLR-based cancer therapies. PMID:22530148

  6. Bioinformatics analysis of the structural and evolutionary characteristics for toll-like receptor 15.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinlan; Zhang, Zheng; Chang, Fen; Yin, Deling

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important role in the innate immune system. TLR15 is reported to have a unique role in defense against pathogens, but its structural and evolution characterizations are still poorly understood. In this study, we identified 57 completed TLR15 genes from avian and reptilian genomes. TLR15 clustered into an individual clade and was closely related to family 1 on the phylogenetic tree. Unlike the TLRs in family 1 with the broken asparagine ladders in the middle, TLR15 ectodomain had an intact asparagine ladder that is critical to maintain the overall shape of ectodomain. The conservation analysis found that TLR15 ectodomain had a highly evolutionarily conserved region on the convex surface of LRR11 module, which is probably involved in TLR15 activation process. Furthermore, the protein-protein docking analysis indicated that TLR15 TIR domains have the potential to form homodimers, the predicted interaction interface of TIR dimer was formed mainly by residues from the BB-loops and αC-helixes. Although TLR15 mainly underwent purifying selection, we detected 27 sites under positive selection for TLR15, 24 of which are located on its ectodomain. Our observations suggest the structural features of TLR15 which may be relevant to its function, but which requires further experimental validation. PMID:27257554

  7. Toll-like receptor-mediated immune response inhibits prion propagation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Gyun; Kim, Chiye; Cortez, Leonardo M; Carmen Garza, María; Yang, Jing; Wille, Holger; Sim, Valerie L; Westaway, David; McKenzie, Debbie; Aiken, Judd

    2016-06-01

    Prion diseases are progressive neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and various mammals. The prominent neuropathological change in prion diseases is neuroinflammation characterized by activation of neuroglia surrounding prion deposition. The cause and effect of this cellular response, however, is unclear. We investigated innate immune defenses against prion infection using primary mixed neuronal and glial cultures. Conditional prion propagation occurred in glial cultures depending on their immune status. Preconditioning of the cells with the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand, lipopolysaccharide, resulted in a reduction in prion propagation, whereas suppression of the immune responses with the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, increased prion propagation. In response to recombinant prion fibrils, glial cells up-regulated TLRs (TLR1 and TLR2) expression and secreted cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interferon-β). Preconditioning of neuronal and glial cultures with recombinant prion fibrils inhibited prion replication and altered microglial and astrocytic populations. Our results provide evidence that, in early stages of prion infection, glial cells respond to prion infection through TLR-mediated innate immunity. PMID:26880394

  8. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Engagement Mediates Prolyl Endopeptidase Release from Airway Epithelia via Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Szul, Tomasz; Bratcher, Preston E; Fraser, Kyle B; Kong, Michele; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Ingersoll, Sarah; Sztul, Elizabeth; Rangarajan, Sunil; Blalock, J Edwin; Xu, Xin; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Proteases are important regulators of pulmonary remodeling and airway inflammation. Recently, we have characterized the enzyme prolyl endopeptidase (PE), a serine peptidase, as a critical protease in the generation of the neutrophil chemoattractant tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) from collagen. However, PE has been characterized as a cytosolic enzyme, and the mechanism mediating PE release extracellularly remains unknown. We examined the role of exosomes derived from airway epithelia as a mechanism for PE release and the potential extracellular signals that regulate the release of these exosomes. We demonstrate a specific regulatory pathway of exosome release from airway epithelia and identify PE as novel exosome cargo. LPS stimulation of airway epithelial cells induces release of PE-containing exosomes, which is significantly attenuated by small interfering RNA depletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These differences were recapitulated upon intratracheal LPS administration in mice competent versus deficient for TLR4 signaling. Finally, sputum samples from subjects with cystic fibrosis colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrate elevated exosome content and increased PE levels. This TLR4-based mechanism highlights the first report of nonstochastic release of exosomes in the lung and couples TLR4 activation with matrikine generation. The increased quantity of these proteolytic exosomes in the airways of subjects with chronic lung disease highlights a new mechanism of injury and inflammation in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders. PMID:26222144

  9. Kidney Expression of Toll Like Receptors in Lupus Nephritis: Quantification and Clinicopathological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Francesca; Bombardieri, Michele; Valesini, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The study aimed at locating and quantifying Toll Like Receptor (TLR) 3, 7, 8, and 9 expression in kidney of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and correlating them with clinicopathological features. Methods. Kidney sections from 26 LN patients and 4 controls were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-human TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 polyclonal antibodies; the number of TLR-positive nuclei/mm2 was evaluated on digitalized images. Results. Compared to controls, LN showed a significantly higher amount of glomerular and tubulointerstitial TLR9 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007), whole and tubulointerstitial TLR3 (p = 0.026 and p = 0.031), and a higher tubulointerstitial TLR7 (p = 0.022). TLR9 positively correlated with activity index (p = 0.0063) and tubular TLR7 with chronicity index (p = 0.026). TLR9 positively correlated with Renal-SLEDAI (p = 0.01). Conclusions. This is the first study quantifying kidney expressions of TLRs in LN patients; the results show an overexpression of TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and demonstrate a correlation with clinicopathological indices supporting a role of these mediators in the pathogenesis of LN.

  10. Differential Toll-Like Receptor-Signalling of Burkholderia pseudomallei Lipopolysaccharide in Murine and Human Models

    PubMed Central

    Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Prior, Joann L.; van der Vaart, Thomas W.; Ngugi, Sarah A.; Nepogodiev, Sergey A.; Field, Robert A.; Kager, Liesbeth M.; van ‘t Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F.; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis and is a CDC category B bioterrorism agent. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 impairs host defense during pulmonary B.pseudomallei infection while TLR4 only has limited impact. We investigated the role of TLRs in B.pseudomallei-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation. Purified B.pseudomallei-LPS activated only TLR2-transfected-HEK-cells during short stimulation but both HEK-TLR2 and HEK-TLR4-cells after 24 h. In human blood, an additive effect of TLR2 on TLR4-mediated signalling induced by B.pseudomallei-LPS was observed. In contrast, murine peritoneal macrophages recognized B.pseudomallei-LPS solely through TLR4. Intranasal inoculation of B.pseudomallei-LPS showed that both TLR4-knockout(-/-) and TLR2x4-/-, but not TLR2-/- mice, displayed diminished cytokine responses and neutrophil influx compared to wild-type controls. These data suggest that B.pseudomallei-LPS signalling occurs solely through murine TLR4, while in human models TLR2 plays an additional role, highlighting important differences between specificity of human and murine models that may have important consequences for B.pseudomallei-LPS sensing by TLRs and subsequent susceptibility to melioidosis. PMID:26689559

  11. The complement system and toll-like receptors as integrated players in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Anders; Jonasson, Lena; Garred, Peter; Yndestad, Arne; Aukrust, Pål; Lappegård, Knut T; Espevik, Terje; Mollnes, Tom E

    2015-08-01

    Despite recent medical advances, atherosclerosis is a global burden accounting for numerous deaths and hospital admissions. Immune-mediated inflammation is a major component of the atherosclerotic process, but earlier research focus on adaptive immunity has gradually switched towards the role of innate immunity. The complement system and toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the crosstalk between them, may be of particular interest both with respect to pathogenesis and as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis. Animal studies indicate that inhibition of C3a and C5a reduces atherosclerosis. In humans modified LDL-cholesterol activate complement and TLRs leading to downstream inflammation, and histopathological studies indicate that the innate immune system is present in atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, clinical studies have demonstrated that both complement and TLRs are upregulated in atherosclerotic diseases, although interventional trials have this far been disappointing. However, based on recent research showing an intimate interplay between complement and TLRs we propose a model in which combined inhibition of both complement and TLRs may represent a potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic approach to reduce atherosclerosis. PMID:26086357

  12. Interplay between HIV-1 and Toll-like receptors in human myeloid cells: friend or foe in HIV-1 pathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Donninelli, Gloria; Gessani, Sandra; Del Cornò, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The Toll-like receptors are the first line of the host response to pathogens, representing an essential component of the innate and adaptive immune response. They recognize different pathogens and trigger responses directed at eliminating the invader and at developing immunologic long-term memory, ultimately affecting viral pathogenesis. In viral infections, sensing of nucleic acids and/or viral structural proteins generally induces a protective immune response. Thus, it is not surprising that many viruses have developed strategies to evade or counteract signaling through the Toll-like receptor pathways, to survive the host defense machinery and ensure propagation. Thus, Toll-like receptor engagement can also be part of viral pathogenic mechanisms. Evidence for a direct interaction of Toll-like receptors with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) structures has started to be achieved, and alterations of their expression and function have been described in HIV-1-positive subjects. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor triggering by bacterial and viral ligands have been described to modulate HIV-1 replication and host response, leading to protective or detrimental effects. This review covers major advances in the field of HIV-1 interplay with Toll-like receptors, focusing on human myeloid cells (e.g., monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells). The role of this interaction in the dysregulation of myeloid cell function and in dictating aspects of the multifaceted pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome will be discussed. PMID:26307548

  13. Toll-like receptor expression and function in type I bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Wieck, Andrea; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; do Prado, Carine Hartmann; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Petersen, Laura Esteves; Porto, Bárbara; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Bauer, Moisés Evandro

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with immune imbalance and low-grade inflammation. The underlying mechanisms remain largely obscure but may involve changes in cell signaling. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are widely expressed by immune cells. Specific binding of TLRs to pathogen- or danger-associated signals leads to inflammatory responses. Here, we analyzed the frequencies of TLR-1, TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-5 and TLR-6 in monocytes, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and activated T cells from type I BD euthymic patients and healthy controls (HCs). Monocytes were stimulated in vitro with specific TLR agonists (flagellin, LPS, LTA, BLP and PGN) and immunophenotyped. Cytokines (IL-8, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-12p70) were assessed with cytometric bead arrays. At baseline, increased percentages of TLR-1+ and TLR-2+ monocytes and reduced expression of TLR-5 were observed in BD. Following stimulation, the percentage of TLR-1+, TLR-2+, and TLR-6+ monocytes was higher in BD subjects than in HCs. Increased levels of IL-8, IL-12p70 and TNF were observed following stimulation with TLR-1, TLR-2 and TLR-6 agonists, suggesting increased signaling via these receptors in BD. In contrast to HCs, BD patients exhibited no changes in TLR-5 expression following stimulation. The percentage of TLR-2+ Treg cells as well as activated T cells expressing both TLR-2 and TLR-5 increased in BD patients. Given the importance of TLRs in triggering immune responses, our data indicate a role for these receptors in the low-grade inflammatory profile documented in BD. PMID:26795430

  14. Snake Venom Disintegrin Inhibits the Activation of Toll-Like Receptors and Alleviates Sepsis through Integrin alphaVbeta3 Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Chieh; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Chung, Ching-Hu; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Peng, Hui-Chin; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection-induced sepsis is the leading cause of septic inflammatory disease. Rhodostomin (Rn), a snake venom disintegrin, was previously reported to interact with the αVβ3 integrin and the TLR4 on phagocyte in attenuating LPS-induced endotoxemia. In this report, we further evaluated the effects of Rn on TLR2-activated monocytes and its in vivo efficacy. Rn effectively suppressed the adhesion, migration, and cytokine release of Pam3CSK4-activated THP-1 cells. Rn specifically bound to integrin αVβ3 of TLR2-activated THP-1. Integrin αV and Akt siRNA transfection both restrained Pam3CSK4-elicited cytokine release. Rn decreased the Pam3CSK4-induced phosporylation of MAPKs, degradation of IκB and activation of FAK, Akt, c-Src and Syk. The Pam3CSK4-induced translocation of MyD88, a central adaptor of TLR2, to the cell membrane was also inhibited by Rn treatment. In the polymicrobial inflammatory caecal ligation and puncture model, Rn significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release, alleviated tissue injury and elevated survival rate in vivo. Taken together, in addition to inhibiting the activation of TLR4, Rn exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through antagonizing the activation of phagocytes and interrupting the crosstalk between αVβ3 and TLR2-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26987407

  15. Modulation of Female Genital Tract-Derived Dendritic Cell Migration and Activation in Response to Inflammatory Cytokines and Toll-Like Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Shey, Muki S.; Maharaj, Niren; Archary, Derseree; Ngcapu, Sinaye; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Salim; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    HIV transmission across the genital mucosa is a major mode of new HIV infections in women. The probability of infection may be influenced by several factors including recruitment and activation of HIV target cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs) and cytokine production, associated with genital inflammation. We evaluated the role of inflammatory cytokines and TLR signaling in migration and activation of genital tract DCs in the human cervical explant model. Hysterectomy tissues from 10 HIV-negative and 7 HIV-positive donor women were separated into ecto- and endocervical explants, and incubated with inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, MIP-1β) or agonists for TLR4 (LPS), TLR2/1 (PAM3) and TLR7/8 (R848). Migration (frequency) and activation (HLA-DR expression) of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs and Langerhans cells were measured by flow cytometry. We observed that cytokines, LPS and PAM3 induced activation of migrating myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs. LPS induced a 3.6 fold lower levels of migration of plasmacytoid DCs from HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women (median activation indices of 2.932 vs 0.833). There was however a 4.5 fold increase in migration of Langerhans cells in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected women in response to cytokines (median activation indices of 3.539 vs 0.77). Only TLR agonists induced migration and activation of DCs from endocervical explants. Hormonal contraception use was associated with an increase in activation of DC subsets in the endo and ectocervical explants. We conclude that inflammatory signals in the female genital tract induced DC migration and activation, with possible important implications for HIV susceptibility of cervical tissues. PMID:27171482

  16. Extracellular mtDNA activates NF-κB via toll-like receptor 9 and induces cell death in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Bliksøen, Marte; Mariero, Lars Henrik; Torp, May Kristin; Baysa, Anton; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Haugen, Fred; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Vaage, Jarle; Valen, Guro; Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav

    2016-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causes sterile inflammation, which exacerbates tissue injury. Elevated levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with AMI. We hypothesized that mtDNA triggers an innate immune response via TLR9 and NF-κB activation, causing cardiomyocyte injury. Murine cardiomyocytes express TLR9 mRNA and protein and were able to internalize fluorescently labeled mouse mtDNA. Incubation of human embryonic kidney cells with serum from AMI patients containing naturally elevated levels of mtDNA induced TLR9-dependent NF-κB activity. This effect was mimicked by isolated mtDNA. mtDNA activated NF-κB in reporter mice both in vivo and in isolated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, incubation of isolated cardiomyocytes with mtDNA induced cell death after 4 and 24 h. Laser confocal microscopy showed that incubation of cardiomyocytes with mtDNA accelerated mitochondrial depolarization induced by reactive oxygen species. In contrast to mtDNA, isolated total DNA did not activate NF-κB nor induce cell death. In conclusion, mtDNA can induce TLR9-dependent NF-κB activation in reporter cells and activate NF-κB in cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, mtDNA causes mitochondrial dysfunction and death. Endogenous mtDNA in the extracellular space is a danger signal with direct detrimental effects on cardiomyocytes. PMID:27164906

  17. Heat shock protein 60 stimulates the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via Toll-like receptor 4 and ERK MAPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Chenxu; Wei, Xuge; Li, Pei; Cui, Ying; Qin, Yuanhua; Wei, Xiaoqing; Jin, Minli; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Gao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that heat shock protein (HSP) 60 is strongly associated with the pathology of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the precise mechanisms by which HSP60 promotes atherosclerosis remain unclear. In the present study, we found that HSP60 mRNA and protein expression levels in the thoracic aorta are enhanced not only in a mouse model of AS but also in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. HSP60 expression and secretion was activated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and interleukin (IL)-8 in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HSP60 was found to induce VSMC migration, and exposure to HSP60 activated ERK MAPK signaling. U0126, an inhibitor of ERK, reduced VSMC migration. The HSP60-stimulated VSMCs were found to express TLR4 mRNA but not TLR2 mRNA. Knockdown of TLR4 by siRNA reduced HSP60-induced VSMC migration and HSP60-induced ERK activation. Finally, HSP60 induced IL-8 secretion in VSMCs. Together these results suggest that HSP60 is involved in the stimulation of VSMC migration, via TLR4 and ERK MAPK activation. Meanwhile, activation of HSP60 is one of the most powerful methods of sending a ‘danger signal’ to the immune system to generate IL-8, which assists in the management of an infection or disease. PMID:26477505

  18. Lignin-rich Enzyme Lignin (LREL), a Cellulase-treated Lignin-Carbohydrate Derived from Plants, Activates Myeloid Dendritic Cells via Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Ryohei; Koizumi, Hideki; Aoki, Dan; Watanabe, Yuta; Sugihara, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Lignin-carbohydrates, one of the major cell wall components, are believed to be the structures that form chemical linkage between lignin and cell wall polysaccharides. Due to the molecular complexity of lignin-containing substances, their isolation and the assignment of their biological activities have so far remained a difficult task. Here, we extracted two lignin-containing carbohydrates, lignin-rich enzyme lignin (LREL) and pure enzyme lignin (PEL), from barley husk and demonstrated that they act as immune stimulators of dendritic cells (DCs), which are particularly important in linking innate and adaptive immunity. Thioacidolysis, acid hydrolysis, and mild alkali hydrolysis of both LREL and PEL revealed that their immunostimulatory activities depended on the lignin structure and/or content, neutral sugar content (especially the characteristic distribution of galactose and mannose), and presence of an ester bond. Furthermore, we showed that the immunostimulatory potency of the lignin-carbohydrate depended on its molecular weight and degree of polymerization. We also demonstrated that the LREL-induced activation of DCs was mediated via TLR4. Thus, LREL-induced increases in the expression levels of several cell surface marker proteins, production of inflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and TNF-α, and activation and nuclear translocation of transcription factors, as was observed in the WT DCs, were completely abrogated in DCs derived from the TLR4−/− mice but not in DCs derived from the TLR2−/−, TLR7−/−, and TLR9−/− mice. We further demonstrated that LRELs isolated from other plant tissues also activated DCs. These immunostimulatory activities of lignin-carbohydrates, extracted from edible plant tissues, could have potential relevance in anti-infectious immunity and vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25548274

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 9-Mediated Inflammation Triggers Alveolar Bone Loss in Experimental Murine Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul D.; Xia-Juan, Xia; Crump, Katie E.; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a local inflammatory disease induced by a dysbiotic microbiota and leading to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures. Microbial nucleic acids are abundantly present in the periodontium, derived through release after phagocytic uptake of microbes and/or from biofilm-associated extracellular DNA. Binding of microbial DNA to its cognate receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), can trigger inflammation. In this study, we utilized TLR9 knockout (TLR9−/−) mice and wild-type (WT) controls in a murine model of Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis and report the first in vivo evidence that TLR9 signaling mediates the induction of periodontal bone loss. P. gingivalis-infected WT mice exhibited significantly increased bone loss compared to that in sham-infected WT mice or P. gingivalis-infected TLR9−/− mice, which were resistant to bone loss. Consistent with this, the expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and receptor-activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were significantly elevated in the gingival tissues of the infected WT mice but not in infected TLR9−/− mice compared to their levels in controls. Ex vivo studies using splenocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages revealed significantly diminished cytokine production in TLR9−/− cells relative to the cytokine production in WT cells in response to P. gingivalis, thereby implicating TLR9 in inflammatory responses to this organism. Intriguingly, compared to the cytokine production in WT cells, TLR9−/− cells exhibited significantly decreased proinflammatory cytokine production upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR4 agonist) or Pam3Cys (TLR2 agonist), suggesting possible cross talk between TLR9, TLR4, and TLR2. Collectively, our results provide the first proof-of-concept evidence implicating TLR9-triggered inflammation in periodontal disease pathogenesis, thereby identifying a new potential

  20. Toll-Like Receptor 9-Mediated Inflammation Triggers Alveolar Bone Loss in Experimental Murine Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul D; Xia-Juan, Xia; Crump, Katie E; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, George; Sahingur, Sinem E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a local inflammatory disease induced by a dysbiotic microbiota and leading to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures. Microbial nucleic acids are abundantly present in the periodontium, derived through release after phagocytic uptake of microbes and/or from biofilm-associated extracellular DNA. Binding of microbial DNA to its cognate receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), can trigger inflammation. In this study, we utilized TLR9 knockout (TLR9(-/-)) mice and wild-type (WT) controls in a murine model of Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis and report the first in vivo evidence that TLR9 signaling mediates the induction of periodontal bone loss. P. gingivalis-infected WT mice exhibited significantly increased bone loss compared to that in sham-infected WT mice or P. gingivalis-infected TLR9(-/-) mice, which were resistant to bone loss. Consistent with this, the expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and receptor-activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were significantly elevated in the gingival tissues of the infected WT mice but not in infected TLR9(-/-) mice compared to their levels in controls. Ex vivo studies using splenocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages revealed significantly diminished cytokine production in TLR9(-/-) cells relative to the cytokine production in WT cells in response to P. gingivalis, thereby implicating TLR9 in inflammatory responses to this organism. Intriguingly, compared to the cytokine production in WT cells, TLR9(-/-) cells exhibited significantly decreased proinflammatory cytokine production upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR4 agonist) or Pam3Cys (TLR2 agonist), suggesting possible cross talk between TLR9, TLR4, and TLR2. Collectively, our results provide the first proof-of-concept evidence implicating TLR9-triggered inflammation in periodontal disease pathogenesis, thereby identifying a new potential therapeutic target

  1. Extracts of Feijoa Inhibit Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling and Activate Autophagy Implicating a Role in Dietary Control of IBD

    PubMed Central

    Nasef, Noha Ahmed; Mehta, Sunali; Powell, Penny; Marlow, Gareth; Wileman, Tom; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease affecting the gut with limited treatment success for its sufferers. This suggests the need for better understanding of the different subtypes of the disease as well as nutritional interventions to compliment current treatments. In this study we assess the ability of a hydrophilic feijoa fraction (F3) to modulate autophagy a process known to regulate inflammation, via TLR2 using IBD cell lines. Method Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) deleted for ATG5, and two intestinal epithelial cells HCT15 and HCT116, were used to test the anti-inflammatory effect of F3 after stimulating the cells with a TLR2 specific ligand PAM3CSK4. Results F3 was able to reduce TLR2 specific inflammation and stimulate autophagy in MEFs and HCT15 cells but not in HCT116 cells. The anti-inflammatory effect was reduced in the MEF cells deleted for ATG5. In addition, the activation of autophagy by F3 was enhanced by PAM3CSK4. Conclusion F3 of feijoa can interact with cells via a TLR2 specific mechanism and reduce Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in part due to stimulation of autophagy. These results suggest that there is potential benefit in using feijoa extracts as part of dietary interventions to manage IBD in patients. PMID:26110654

  2. Toll-like receptor 4 modulates the cochlear immune response to acoustic injury.

    PubMed

    Vethanayagam, R R; Yang, W; Dong, Y; Hu, B H

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic overstimulation traumatizes the cochlea, resulting in auditory dysfunction. As a consequence of acoustic injury, the immune system in the cochlea is activated, leading to the production of inflammatory mediators and the infiltration of immune cells. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for initiating these immune responses remain unclear. Here, we investigate the functional role of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), a cellular receptor that activates the innate immune system, in the regulation of cochlear responses to acoustic overstimulation. Using a Tlr4 knockout mouse model, we examined how Tlr4 deficiency affects sensory cell pathogenesis, auditory dysfunction and cochlear immune activity. We demonstrate that Tlr4 knockout does not affect sensory cell viability under physiological conditions, but reduces the level of sensory cell damage and cochlear dysfunction after acoustic injury. Together, these findings suggest that Tlr4 promotes sensory cell degeneration and cochlear dysfunction after acoustic injury. Acoustic injury provokes a site-dependent inflammatory response in both the organ of Corti and the tissues of the lateral wall and basilar membrane. Tlr4 deficiency affects these inflammatory responses in a site-dependent manner. In the organ of Corti, loss of Tlr4 function suppresses the production of interleukin 6 (Il6), a pro-inflammatory molecule, after acoustic injury. By contrast, the production of inflammatory mediators, including Il6, persists in the lateral wall and basilar membrane. In addition to immune molecules, Tlr4 knockout inhibits the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, an antigen-presenting molecule, in macrophages, suggesting that Tlr4 participates in the antigen-presenting function of macrophages after acoustic trauma. Together, these results suggest that Tlr4 regulates multiple aspects of the immune response in the cochlea and contributes to cochlear pathogenesis after acoustic injury. PMID:27253409

  3. Adsorption of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Agonist to Alum-Based Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Dampens Pro-T Helper 2 Activities and Enhances Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Bortolatto, Juliana; Mirotti, Luciana; Rodriguez, Dunia; Gomes, Eliane; Russo, Momtchilo

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum salts gels (alum) are TLR-independent adjuvants and have been used to boost antibody responses in alum-based vaccines such as diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus toxoid (DPT) triple vaccine. However, the pro-Th2 activity of alum-based vaccine formulations has not been fully appreciated. Here we found that alum-based tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine was biased toward a Th-2 profile as shown by TT-induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production, and high levels of IgE anaphylactic antibodies. The adsorption into alum of prototypic TLR4 agonists such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli consistently dampened TT-induced Th2 activities without inducing IFNγ or Th1-like responses in the lung. Conversely, adsorption of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) extracted from Salmonella minnesota, which is a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β- (TRIF-) biased TLR4 agonist, was less effective in decreasing Th-2 responses. Importantly, in a situation with antigenic competition (OVA plus TT), TT-specific IgG1 or IgG2a was decreased compared with TT sensitization. Notably, LPS increased the production of IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibodies. In conclusion, the addition of LPS induces a more robust IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibody production and concomitantly decreases Th2-cellular and humoral responses, indicating a potential use of alum/TLR-based vaccines. PMID:26380316

  4. Adsorption of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Agonist to Alum-Based Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Dampens Pro-T Helper 2 Activities and Enhances Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bortolatto, Juliana; Mirotti, Luciana; Rodriguez, Dunia; Gomes, Eliane; Russo, Momtchilo

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum salts gels (alum) are TLR-independent adjuvants and have been used to boost antibody responses in alum-based vaccines such as diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus toxoid (DPT) triple vaccine. However, the pro-Th2 activity of alum-based vaccine formulations has not been fully appreciated. Here we found that alum-based tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine was biased toward a Th-2 profile as shown by TT-induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production, and high levels of IgE anaphylactic antibodies. The adsorption into alum of prototypic TLR4 agonists such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli consistently dampened TT-induced Th2 activities without inducing IFNγ or Th1-like responses in the lung. Conversely, adsorption of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) extracted from Salmonella minnesota, which is a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β- (TRIF-) biased TLR4 agonist, was less effective in decreasing Th-2 responses. Importantly, in a situation with antigenic competition (OVA plus TT), TT-specific IgG1 or IgG2a was decreased compared with TT sensitization. Notably, LPS increased the production of IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibodies. In conclusion, the addition of LPS induces a more robust IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibody production and concomitantly decreases Th2-cellular and humoral responses, indicating a potential use of alum/TLR-based vaccines. PMID:26380316

  5. A novel pro-inflammatory protein of Streptococcus suis 2 induces the Toll-like receptor 2-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages via activation of ERK1/2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Yujie; Yan, Shuxian; Liu, Jiantao; Xu, Zhongmin; Yu, Junping; Song, Yajing; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis 2 is an important swine pathogen and an emergent zoonotic pathogen. Excessive inflammation caused by S. suis is responsible for the high levels of early mortality observed in septic shock-like syndrome cases. However, the mechanisms through which S. suis 2 (SS2) causes excessive inflammation remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to identify novel pro-inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the development of therapies against SS2 infection. In this study, the novel pro-inflammatory protein HP0459, which was encoded by the SSUSC84_0459 gene, was discovered. The stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with recombinant HP0459 protein induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α). Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the isogenic knockout of HP0459 in SS2 led to reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages and in vivo. The pro-inflammatory activity of HP0459 was significantly reduced by an antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in RAW264.7 macrophages and was lower in TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) macrophages than in WT macrophages. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways significantly decreased the HP0459-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and a western blot assay showed that HP0459 stimulation induced the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that HP0459 is a novel pro-inflammatory mediator of SS2 and induces TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in RAW264.7 macrophages through the ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:25806027

  6. VGX-1027 modulates genes involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptor 4 activation and in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Fagone, Paolo; Muthumani, Karuppiah; Mangano, Katia; Magro, Gaetano; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Kim, Joseph J; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Weiner, David B; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    VGX-1027 [(S,R)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxasole acetic acid] is a small molecule compound with immunomodulatory properties, which favourably influences the development of immuno-inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in different animal models such as type 1 diabetes mellitus, pleurisy, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the precise mechanism of action of VGX-1027 remains to be ascertained. With this aim, we have studied the immunomodulatory effects of VGX-1027 in vitro, using a genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray approach, and in vivo, using the NZB/NZW F1 model of systemic lupus erythematosus. Microarray data revealed that the administration of VGX-1027 profoundly affected the immune response to exogenous antigens, by modulating the expression of genes that are primarily involved in antigen processing and presentation as well as genes that regulate immune activation. When administered in vivo VGX-1027 ameliorated the course of the disease in the NZB/NZW F1 mice, which correlated with higher per cent survival and improved clinical and histopathological signs. The data presented herein support the theory that VGX-1027 modulates immunity, probably by inhibiting inflammatory antigen presentation and so limiting immune cell expansion. PMID:24527796

  7. Development of immune memory to glial brain tumors after tumor regression induced by immunotherapeutic Toll-like receptor 7/8 activation.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Apostolis; Pretto, Chrystel; Devillers, Laurent; Pierre, Denis; Hofman, Florence M; Kruse, Carol; Jadus, Martin; Chen, Thomas C; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of immunotherapeutic TLR7/8 activation by resiquimod (R848) was evaluated in vivo, in the CNS-1 rat glioma model syngeneic to Lewis rats. The immune treatment was compared with cytotoxic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, and as well, was compared with the combination cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic treatments. We found that parenteral treatment with the TLR7/8 agonist, resiquimod, eventually induced complete tumor regression of CNS-1 glioblastoma tumors in Lewis rats. Cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment also resulted in dramatic CNS-1 remission, while the combined treatment showed similar antitumor effects. The resiquimod efficacy appeared not to be associated with direct injury to CNS-1 growth, while CY proved to exert tumoricidal cytotoxicity to the tumor cells. Rats that were cured by treatment with the innate immune response modifier resiquimod proved to be fully immune to secondary CNS-1 tumor rechallenge. They all remained tumor-free and survived. In contrast, rats that controlled CNS-1 tumor growth as a result of CY treatment did not develop immune memory, as demonstrated by their failure to reject a secondary CNS-1 tumor challenge; they showed a concomittant outgrowth of the primary tumor upon secondary tumor exposure. Rechallenge of rats that initially contained tumor growth by combination chemo-immunotherapy also failed to reject secondary tumor challenge, indicating that the cytotoxic effect of the CY likely extended to the endogenous memory immune cells as well as to the tumor. These data demonstrate strong therapeutic antitumor efficacy for the immune response modifier resiquimod leading to immunological memory, and suggest that CY treatment, although effective as chemotherapeutic agent, may be deleterious to maintenance of long-term antitumor immune memory. These data also highlight the importance of the sequence in which a multi-modal therapy is administered. PMID:22737605

  8. Toll-Like Receptors and Dectin-1, a C-Type Lectin Receptor, Trigger Divergent Functions in CNS Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Guan, Zhen; Beckwith, Kyle A.; Braun, Kaitlyn J.; Wei, Ping; McTigue, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) activates macrophages, endowing them with both reparative and pathological functions. The mechanisms responsible for these divergent functions are unknown but are likely controlled through stochastic activation of different macrophage receptor subtypes. Various danger-associated molecular patterns released from dying cells in the injured spinal cord likely activate distinct subtypes of macrophage pattern recognition receptors, including bacterial toll-like receptors (TLRs) and fungal C-type lectin receptors (e.g., dectin-1). To determine the in vivo consequences of activating these receptors, ligands specific for TLR2 or dectin-1 were microinjected, alone or in combination, into intact spinal cord. Both ligands elicit a florid macrophage reaction; however, only dectin-1 activation causes macrophage-mediated demyelination and axonal injury. Coactivating TLR2 reduced the injurious effects of dectin-1 activation. When injected into traumatically injured spinal cord, TLR2 agonists enhance the endogenous macrophage reaction while conferring neuroprotection. Indeed, dieback of axons was reduced, leading to smaller lesion volumes at the peak of the macrophage response. Moreover, the density of NG2+ cells expressing vimentin increased in and near lesions that were enriched with TLR2-activated macrophages. In dectin-1-null mutant (knock-out) mice, dieback of corticospinal tract axons also is reduced after SCI. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that the ability of macrophages to create an axon growth-permissive microenvironment or cause neurotoxicity is receptor dependent and it may be possible to exploit this functional dichotomy to enhance CNS repair. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is a growing appreciation that macrophages exert diverse functions in the injured and diseased CNS. Indeed, both macrophage-mediated repair and macrophage-mediated injury occur, and often these effector functions are elicited simultaneously. Understanding the

  9. Toll-Like Receptors on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Drive their Migration and Immunomodulating Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tomchuck, Suzanne L.; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J.; Coffelt, Seth B.; Waterman, Ruth S.; Danka, Elizabeth S.; Scandurro, Aline B.

    2009-01-01

    Adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under study as therapeutic delivery agents that assist in the repair of damaged tissues. To achieve the desired clinical outcomes for this strategy requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive the recruitment, migration and engraftment of hMSCs to the targeted tissues. It is known that hMSCs are recruited to sites of stress or inflammation to fulfill their repair function. It is recognized that toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate stress responses of other bone marrow-derived cells. This study explored the role of TLRs in mediating stress responses of hMSCs. Accordingly, the presence of TLRs in hMSCs was established initially by RT-PCR assays. Flow cytometry and fluorescence immunocytochemical analyses confirmed these findings. The stimulation of hMSCs with TLR agonists led to the activation of downstream signaling pathways, including NF-κB, AKT and MAPK. Consequently, activation of these pathways triggered the induction and secretion of cytokines, chemokines and related TLR gene products as established from cDNA array, immunoassay and cytokine antibody array analyses. Interestingly, the unique patterns of affected genes, cytokines and chemokines measured, identify these receptors as critical players in the clinically established immunomodulation, observed for hMSCs. Lastly, hMSCs migration was promoted by TLR ligand exposure as demonstrated by transwell migration assays. Conversely, disruption of TLRs by neutralizing TLR antibodies compromised hMSCs migration. This study defines a novel TLR-driven stress and immune modulating response for hMSCs that is critical to consider in the design of stem cell-based therapies. PMID:17916800

  10. Toll-like receptors on human mesenchymal stem cells drive their migration and immunomodulating responses.

    PubMed

    Tomchuck, Suzanne L; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Coffelt, Seth B; Waterman, Ruth S; Danka, Elizabeth S; Scandurro, Aline B

    2008-01-01

    Adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under study as therapeutic delivery agents that assist in the repair of damaged tissues. To achieve the desired clinical outcomes for this strategy requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive the recruitment, migration, and engraftment of hMSCs to the targeted tissues. It is known that hMSCs are recruited to sites of stress or inflammation to fulfill their repair function. It is recognized that toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate stress responses of other bone marrow-derived cells. This study explored the role of TLRs in mediating stress responses of hMSCs. Accordingly, the presence of TLRs in hMSCs was initially established by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Flow cytometry and fluorescence immunocytochemical analyses confirmed these findings. The stimulation of hMSCs with TLR agonists led to the activation of downstream signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappaB, AKT, and MAPK. Consequently, activation of these pathways triggered the induction and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and related TLR gene products as established from cDNA array, immunoassay, and cytokine antibody array analyses. Interestingly, the unique patterns of affected genes, cytokines, and chemokines measured identify these receptors as critical players in the clinically established immunomodulation observed for hMSCs. Lastly, hMSC migration was promoted by TLR ligand exposure as demonstrated by transwell migration assays. Conversely, disruption of TLRs by neutralizing TLR antibodies compromised hMSC migration. This study defines a novel TLR-driven stress and immune modulating response for hMSCs that is critical to consider in the design of stem cell-based therapies. PMID:17916800

  11. Toll-like receptor-4 pathway is required for the pathogenesis of human chronic endometritis

    PubMed Central

    JU, JINFEN; LI, LIANGPENG; XIE, JINGYAN; WU, YAN; WU, XI; LI, WEIHON

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction is a central component of the primary innate immune response to pathogenic challenge. TLR4, a member of the TLR family, is highly expressed in the endometrial cells of the uterus and could thus be a key link between human chronic endometritis (CE) and the immune system. However, the exact biological function of TLR4 in human CE remains largely unexplored. The present study aimed to examine the role of TLR4 in human CE. A comprehensive expression and activation analysis of TLR4 in the endometrial cells of the uterus from patients with human CE (n=25) and normal endometrial (NE) tissue (n=15) was performed. Western blot analyses demonstrated that compared with NE, the protein expression TLR4 markedly increased in human CE. Endometrial tissue scrapings were also used for total RNA extraction and were transcribed and amplified by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that significant upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and downregulation of IL-10 mRNA was observed in CE compared with the NE group. Furthermore, the protein of the signaling adapter myeloid differentiation factor-88 and the accessory molecules (TNF receptor associated factor 6 and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1) were also detected in all the assayed tissues. Of note, differential expression (CE versus NE) was observed by immunoblotting at each level of the nuclear factor-κB signaling cascade, including inhibitor κBα and P65 (all P<0.05). The altered TLR4 and its corresponding downstream signaling molecules in CE cells may be of relevance for the progression of the human CE. These findings indicate that the evaluation of expression patterns of TLR4 holds promise for the treatment of human CE. PMID:25371751

  12. Trial Watch: Immunostimulation with Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Kristina; Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Cremer, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Špíšek, Radek; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating preclinical evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists efficiently boost tumor-targeting immune responses (re)initiated by most, if not all, paradigms of anticancer immunotherapy. Moreover, TLR agonists have been successfully employed to ameliorate the efficacy of various chemotherapeutics and targeted anticancer agents, at least in rodent tumor models. So far, only three TLR agonists have been approved by regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients. Moreover, over the past decade, the interest of scientists and clinicians in these immunostimulatory agents has been fluctuating. Here, we summarize recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of TLR agonists for cancer therapy. PMID:27141345

  13. Virtual Screening Approaches towards the Discovery of Toll-Like Receptor Modulators.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Regidor, Lucía; Zarioh, Malik; Ortega, Laura; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the latest efforts performed in the search for novel chemical entities such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) modulators by means of virtual screening techniques. This is an emergent research field with only very recent (and successful) contributions. Identification of drug-like molecules with potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of a variety of TLR-regulated diseases has attracted considerable interest due to the clinical potential. Additionally, the virtual screening databases and computational tools employed have been overviewed in a descriptive way, widening the scope for researchers interested in the field. PMID:27618029

  14. Insights into the Relationship between Toll Like Receptors and Gamma Delta T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Asif Amin; Patil, Rushikesh Sudam; Chiplunkar, Shubhada Vivek

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is an important aspect of cancer biology that contributes to tumor initiation, tumor progression and responses to therapy. The composition and characteristics of the tumor microenvironment vary widely and are important in determining the anti-tumor immune response. Successful immunization requires activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Generally, immune system is compromised in patients with cancer due to immune suppression, loss of tumor antigen expression and dysfunction of antigen presenting cells (APC). Thus, therapeutic immunization leading to cancer regression remains a significant challenge. Certain cells of the immune system, including dendritic cells (DCs) and gamma delta (γδ) T cells are capable of driving potent anti-tumor responses. The property of MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity, high potential of cytokine release, tissue tropism and early activation in infections and malignant disease makes γδ T cells as an emerging candidate for immunotherapy. Various strategies are being developed to enhance anti-tumor immune responses of γδ T cells and DCs one of them is the use of novel adjuvants like toll like receptors (TLR) agonists, which enhance γδ T cell function directly or through DC activation, which has ability to prime γδ T cells. TLR agonists are being used clinically either alone or in combination with tumor antigens and has shown initial success in both enhancing immune responses and eliciting anti-tumor activity. TLR activated γδ T cells and DCs nurture each other’s activation. This provides a potent base for first line of defense and manipulation of the adaptive response against pathogens and cancer. The available data provides a strong rationale for initiating combinatorial therapy for the treatment of diseases and this review will summarize the application of adjuvants (TLRs) for boosting immune response of γδ T cells to treat cancer and infectious diseases and their use in combinatorial therapy

  15. Suppression of the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway of Toll-like receptors by luteolin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Kyung; Kim, So Young; Kim, Yoon Sun; Lee, Won-Ha; Hwang, Daniel H; Lee, Joo Young

    2009-04-15

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in induction of innate immune responses for both host defense against invading pathogens and wound healing after tissue injury. Since dysregulation of TLR-mediated immune responses is closely linked to many chronic diseases, modulation of TLR activation by small molecules may have therapeutic potential against such diseases. Expression of the majority of lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 target genes is mediated through a MyD88-independent (TRIF-dependent) signaling pathway. In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the flavonoid luteolin we examined its effect on TLR-stimulated signal transduction via the TRIF-dependent pathway. Luteolin suppressed activation of Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NFkappaB induced by TLR3 and TLR4 agonists resulting in the decreased expression of target genes such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12, IP-10, IFNbeta, CXCL9, and IL-27 in macrophages. Luteolin attenuated ligand-independent activation of IRF3 or NFkappaB induced by TLR4, TRIF, or TBK1, while it did not inhibit TLR oligomerization. Luteolin inhibited TBK1-kinase activity and IRF3 dimerization and phosphorylation, leading to the reduction of TBK1-dependent gene expression. Structural analogs of luteolin such as quercetin, chrysin, and eriodictyol also inhibited TBK1-kinase activity and TBK1-target gene expression. These results demonstrate that TBK1 is a novel target of anti-inflammatory flavonoids resulting in the down-regulation of the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway. These results suggest that the beneficial activities of these flavonoids against inflammatory diseases may be attributed to the modulation of TLR-mediated inflammatory responses. PMID:19426678

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 2- and 6-Mediated Stimulation by Macrophage-Activating Lipopeptide 2 Induces Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Cross Tolerance in Mice, Which Results in Protection from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha but in Only Partial Protection from Lethal LPS Doses

    PubMed Central

    Deiters, Ursula; Gumenscheimer, Marina; Galanos, Chris; Mühlradt, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Patients or experimental animals previously exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) become tolerant to further LPS challenge. We investigated the potential of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) to induce in vivo cross tolerance to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and LPS. MALP-2-induced tolerance could be of practical interest, as MALP-2 proved much less pyrogenic in rabbits than LPS. Whereas LPS signals via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MALP-2 uses TLR2 and TLR6. LPS-mediated cytokine release was studied in mice pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of MALP-2. No biologically active TNF-α could be detected in the serum of MALP-2-treated animals when challenged with LPS 24 or 72 h later, whereas suppression of LPS-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 lasted for only 24 h. Protection from lethal TNF-α shock was studied in galactosamine-treated mice. Dose dependently, MALP-2 prevented death from lethal TNF-α doses in TLR4−/− but not in TLR2−/− mice, with protection lasting from 5 to 24 h. To assay protection from LPS, mice were pretreated with MALP-2 doses of up to 10 μg. Five and 24 h later, the animals were simultaneously sensitized and challenged by intravenous coinjection of galactosamine and a lethal dose of 50 ng of LPS. There was only limited protection (four of seven mice survived) when mice were challenged 5 h after MALP-2 pretreatment, and no protection when mice were challenged at later times. The high effectiveness of MALP-2 in suppressing TNF-α, the known ways of biological inactivation, and low pyrogenicity make MALP-2 a potential candidate for clinical use. PMID:12874325

  17. Toll-like receptor 2 activation by β2→1-fructans protects barrier function of T84 human intestinal epithelial cells in a chain length-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Leonie M; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke M; Venema, Koen; Ramasamy, Uttara; Schols, Henk A; de Vos, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower incidence and mortality from disease, but the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects are unclear. We hypothesized that β2→1-fructan dietary fibers confer protection on intestinal epithelial cell barrier function via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and we studied whether β2→1-fructan chain-length differences affect this process. T84 human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated with 4 β2→1-fructan formulations of different chain-length compositions and were stimulated with the proinflammatory phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was analyzed by electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) as a measure for tight junction-mediated barrier function. To confirm TLR2 involvement in barrier modulation by β2→1-fructans, ECIS experiments were repeated using TLR2 blocking antibody. After preincubation of T84 cells with short-chain β2→1-fructans, the decrease in TEER as induced by PMA (62.3 ± 5.2%, P < 0.001) was strongly attenuated (15.2 ± 8.8%, P < 0.01). However, when PMA was applied first, no effect on recovery was observed during addition of the fructans. By blocking TLR2 on the T84 cells, the protective effect of short-chain β2→1-fructans was substantially inhibited. Stimulation of human embryonic kidney human TLR2 reporter cells with β2→1-fructans induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, confirming that β2→1-fructans are specific ligands for TLR2. To conclude, β2→1-fructans exert time-dependent and chain length-dependent protective effects on the T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier mediated via TLR2. These results suggest that TLR2 located on intestinal epithelial cells could be a target of β2→1-fructan-mediated health effects. PMID:24790027

  18. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation by Chlamydia trachomatis Is Plasmid Dependent, and Plasmid-Responsive Chromosomal Loci Are Coordinately Regulated in Response to Glucose Limitation by C. trachomatis but Not by C. muridarum▿

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Catherine M.; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Green, Erin; Darville, Hillary K.; Saira, Kazima; Smith, Bennett; Darville, Toni; Scurlock, Amy M.; Meyer, Christopher R.; Belland, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that plasmid-deficient Chlamydia muridarum retains the ability to infect the murine genital tract but does not elicit oviduct pathology because it fails to activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). We derived a plasmid-cured derivative of the human genital isolate Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-3/Cx, strain CTD153, which also fails to activate TLR2, indicating this virulence phenotype is associated with plasmid loss in both C. trachomatis and C. muridarum. As observed with plasmid-deficient C. muridarum, CTD153 displayed impaired accumulation of glycogen within inclusions. Transcriptional profiling of the plasmid-deficient strains by using custom microarrays identified a conserved group of chromosomal loci, the expression of which was similarly controlled in plasmid-deficient C. muridarum strains CM972 and CM3.1 and plasmid-deficient C. trachomatis CTD153. However, although expression of glycogen synthase, encoded by glgA, was greatly reduced in CTD153, it was unaltered in plasmid-deficient C. muridarum strains. Thus, additional plasmid-associated factors are required for glycogen accumulation by this chlamydial species. Furthermore, in C. trachomatis, glgA and other plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCLs) were transcriptionally responsive to glucose limitation, indicating that additional regulatory elements may be involved in the coordinated expression of these candidate virulence effectors. Glucose-limited C. trachomatis displayed reduced TLR2 stimulation in an in vitro assay. During human chlamydial infection, glucose limitation may decrease chlamydial virulence through its effects on plasmid-responsive chromosomal genes. PMID:21199910

  19. Toll-like receptor 2 activation by Chlamydia trachomatis is plasmid dependent, and plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci are coordinately regulated in response to glucose limitation by C. trachomatis but not by C. muridarum.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Catherine M; AbdelRahman, Yasser M; Green, Erin; Darville, Hillary K; Saira, Kazima; Smith, Bennett; Darville, Toni; Scurlock, Amy M; Meyer, Christopher R; Belland, Robert J

    2011-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that plasmid-deficient Chlamydia muridarum retains the ability to infect the murine genital tract but does not elicit oviduct pathology because it fails to activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). We derived a plasmid-cured derivative of the human genital isolate Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-3/Cx, strain CTD153, which also fails to activate TLR2, indicating this virulence phenotype is associated with plasmid loss in both C. trachomatis and C. muridarum. As observed with plasmid-deficient C. muridarum, CTD153 displayed impaired accumulation of glycogen within inclusions. Transcriptional profiling of the plasmid-deficient strains by using custom microarrays identified a conserved group of chromosomal loci, the expression of which was similarly controlled in plasmid-deficient C. muridarum strains CM972 and CM3.1 and plasmid-deficient C. trachomatis CTD153. However, although expression of glycogen synthase, encoded by glgA, was greatly reduced in CTD153, it was unaltered in plasmid-deficient C. muridarum strains. Thus, additional plasmid-associated factors are required for glycogen accumulation by this chlamydial species. Furthermore, in C. trachomatis, glgA and other plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCLs) were transcriptionally responsive to glucose limitation, indicating that additional regulatory elements may be involved in the coordinated expression of these candidate virulence effectors. Glucose-limited C. trachomatis displayed reduced TLR2 stimulation in an in vitro assay. During human chlamydial infection, glucose limitation may decrease chlamydial virulence through its effects on plasmid-responsive chromosomal genes. PMID:21199910

  20. Structural characterisation of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) in elephant and harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Sally; Gibson, Amanda J; García, Ana Rubio; Contreras, Guillermo Sanchez; Rossen, John W; Werling, Dirk; Offord, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Pinnipeds are a diverse clade of semi-aquatic mammals, which act as key indicators of ecosystem health. Their transition from land to marine environments provides a complex microbial milieu, making them vulnerable to both aquatic and terrestrial pathogens, thereby contributing to pinniped population decline. Indeed, viral pathogens such as influenza A virus and phocine distemper virus (PDV) have been identified as the cause of several of these mass mortality events. Furthermore, bacterial infection with mammalian Brucella sp. and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains have also been observed in marine mammals, posing further risk to both co-habiting endangered species and public health. During these disease outbreaks, mortality rates have varied amongst different pinniped species. Analyses of innate immune receptors at the host-pathogen interface have previously identified variants which may drive these species-specific responses. Through a combination of both sequence- and structure-based methods, this study characterises members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1 superfamily from both harbour and elephant seals, identifying variations which will help us to understand these species-specific innate immune responses, potentially aiding the development of specific vaccine-adjuvants for these species. PMID:26827833

  1. Delineating the Role of Toll-Like Receptors in the Neuro-inflammation Model EAE.

    PubMed

    Fallarino, Francesca; Gargaro, Marco; Mondanell, Giada; Downer, Eric J; Hossain, Md Jakir; Gran, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most relevant and commonly used animal model to study autoimmune demyelinating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In EAE, the activation of CD4+ T-cells is considered to be the main trigger leading to inflammation and central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the most important and first class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immune system and play critical roles in initiating inflammatory responses and promoting adaptive immune responses due to their ability to recognize a wide range of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and being expressed in a wide range of cell types both in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Upon TLR stimulation by appropriate ligand, innate immune cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and can serve as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to prime naïve T cells to recognize antigens. Thus, TLRs play an important role in linking the innate to the adaptive immune response. To date, large numbers of studies have been done to investigate the role of adaptive immunity in both EAE and MS but delineating the role of innate immunity in EAE received very little focus and appreciation taking into account that it might contribute to both the initiation and progression of the disease. Moreover, EAE is not only a model to study inflammatory demyelination in the CNS; it is in general a model to study cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune conditions. Roles of different TLRs were studied in relation to EAE and MS. More recently, some studies demonstrated the immune adjuvant properties of certain TLR ligands including TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 in EAE. This chapter outlines different methods employed in our labs to investigate the role of TLRs in EAE model. PMID:26803641

  2. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophagecell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved. PMID:26840091

  3. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-02-16

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophage cell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved. PMID:26840091

  4. Role of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 in Experimental Bacillus cereus Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Novosad, Billy D.; Astley, Roger A.; Callegan, Michelle C.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus cereus causes a uniquely rapid and blinding intraocular infection, endophthalmitis. B. cereus replicates in the eye, synthesizes numerous toxins, and incites explosive intraocular inflammation. The mechanisms involved in the rapid and explosive intraocular immune response have not been addressed. Because Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are integral to the initial recognition of organisms during infection, we hypothesized that the uniquely explosive immune response observed during B. cereus endophthalmitis is directly influenced by the presence of TLR2, a known Gram-positive pathogen recognition receptor. To address this hypothesis, we compared the courses of experimental B. cereus endophthalmitis in wild type C57BL/6J mice to that of age-matched homozygous TLR2-/- mice. Output parameters included analysis of bacterial growth, inflammatory cell (PMN) infiltration, cytokine/chemokine kinetics, retinal function testing, and histology, with N≥4 eyes/assay/time point/mouse strain. B. cereus grew at similar rates to108 CFU/eye by 12 h, regardless of the mouse strain. Retinal function was preserved to a greater degree in infected TLR2-/- eyes compared to that of infected wild type eyes, but infected eyes of both mouse strains lost significant function. Retinal architecture was preserved in infected TLR2-/- eyes, with limited retinal and vitreal cellular infiltration compared to that of infected wild type eyes. Ocular myeloperoxidase activities corroborated these results. In general, TNFα, IFNγ, IL6, and KC were detected in greater concentrations in infected wild type eyes than in infected TLR2-/- eyes. The absence of TLR2 resulted in decreased intraocular proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels and altered recruitment of inflammatory cells into the eye, resulting in less intraocular inflammation and preservation of retinal architecture, and a slightly greater degree of retinal function. These results demonstrate TLR2 is an important component of the initial

  5. Expression of toll-like receptors in hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Dai, J J; Hu, W F; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can specifically identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by recognizing structural patterns in diverse microbial molecules, and can provide an effective defense against multiple microbial infectious. A variety of TLRs can be expressed on the surface of liver parenchymal as well as nonparenchymal cells. Kupffer cells are a type of hepatic nonparenchymal macrophage, and are positively associated with the severity of liver fibrosis. They play an important role in the synthesis and deposition of the extracellular matrix by upregulating the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and downregulating the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Cirrhosis, a chronic diffuse lesion usually accompanying extensive liver fibrosis and nodular regeneration, is caused by liver parenchymal cells repeating injury-repair following reconstruction of organizational structure in the hepatic lobules. Hepatocellular carcinoma is caused by repeated and persistent chronic severe liver injury, and partial hepatocytes can eventually transform into hepatoma cells. Multiple TLRs such as TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9, as well as other receptors, can be expressed in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. About 53 and 85% of hepatocellular carcinoma patients frequently express TLR3 and TLR9, respectively. The chronic and repeated liver injury caused by alcohol, and HBV, HCV, or other pathogens can be recognized by TLRs through the PAMP pathway, which directly increases the risk for hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we briefly present evidence that the novel cellular molecular mechanisms of TLRs may provide more information about new therapeutics targets of the anti-inflammatory immune response. PMID:27420991

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 plays a central role in cardiac dysfunction during trauma hemorrhage shock

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Lu, Chen; Gao, Ming; Cao, Xinyun; Ha, Tuanzhu; Kalbfleisch, John H.; Williams, David L.; Li, Chuanfu; Kao, Race L.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major consequence that contributes to the high mortality of trauma-hemorrhage (TH) patients. Recent evidence suggests that innate immune and inflammatory responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of acute organ dysfunction during TH. This study investigated the role of TLR4 in cardiac dysfunction following TH. TLR4 deficient (TLR4−/−, n=7/group) and age-matched wild type (WT, n=8/group) mice were subjected to TH that was induced by soft tissue injury and blood withdrawal from the jugular vein to a mean arterial pressure of 35 ± 5 mm Hg. Cardiac function and mean arterial pressure were measured with a Millar system before, during and after blood withdrawal. Sham surgical operated mice served as control (WT, n=9/group; TLR4−/−, n=10/group). Cardiac function in WT mice was significantly reduced following TH. However cardiac function was well preserved in TLR4−/− mice. Administration of a TLR4 antagonist (3mg/kg) to WT mice also significantly attenuated TH-induced cardiac dysfunction. Western blot showed that either TLR4−/− or TLR4 antagonist markedly attenuated TH-induced decreases in the levels of phosphorylated-Akt in myocardium. In addition, inhibition of TLR4 attenuated TH-induced myocardial NF-κB binding activity as well as lung MPO activity and TNFα production. The data indicate that TLR4 plays a central role in TH-induced cardiac dysfunction. TLR4 deficiency or TLR4 inhibition attenuated cardiac dysfunction following TH which may involve activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling and decrease of NF-κB binding activity. TLR4 antagonism may be a new and novel approach for the treatment and management of cardiac dysfunction in TH patients. PMID:24569510

  7. Safety, tolerability, and biomarkers of the treatment of mice with aerosolized Toll-like receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Victoria Y.; Goldblatt, David L.; Valverde, Gabriella R.; Munsell, Mark F.; Quinton, Lee J.; Walker, Adam K.; Dantzer, Robert; Varadhachary, Atul; Scott, Brenton L.; Evans, Scott E.; Tuvim, Michael J.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously discovered a synergistically therapeutic combination of two Toll-like receptor ligands, an oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and Pam2CSK4. Aerosolization of these ligands stimulates innate immunity within the lungs to prevent pneumonia from bacterial and viral pathogens. Here we examined the safety and tolerability of this treatment in mice, and characterized the expression of biomarkers of innate immune activation. We found that neutrophils appeared in lung lavage fluid 4 h after treatment, reached a peak at 48 h, and resolved by 7 days. The peak of neutrophil influx was accompanied by a small increase in lung permeability. Despite the abundance of neutrophils in lung lavage fluid, only rare neutrophils were visible histopathologically in the interstitium surrounding bronchi and veins and none were visible in alveolar airspaces. The cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor, and Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 rose several hundred-fold in lung lavage fluid 4 h after treatment in a dose-dependent and synergistic manner, providing useful biomarkers of lung activation. IL-6 rose fivefold in serum with delayed kinetics compared to its rise in lavage fluid, and might serve as a systemic biomarker of immune activation of the lungs. The dose–response relationship of lavage fluid cytokines was preserved in mice that underwent myeloablative treatment with cytosine arabinoside to model the treatment of hematologic malignancy. There were no overt signs of distress in mice treated with ODN/Pam2CSK4 in doses up to eightfold the therapeutic dose, and no changes in temperature, respiratory rate, or behavioral signs of sickness including sugar water preference, food disappearance, cage exploration or social interaction, though there was a small degree of transient weight loss. We conclude that treatment with aerosolized ODN/Pam2CSK4 is well tolerated in mice, and that innate immune activation of the lungs can be monitored by the measurement of

  8. Insights into Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 2 as a Downregulator of Virally Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Henrick, Bethany M.; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Taha, Ameer Y.; German, J. Bruce; Rosenthal, Kenneth Lee

    2016-01-01

    The ability to distinguish pathogens from self-antigens is one of the most important functions of the immune system. However, this simple self versus non-self assignment belies the complexity of the immune response to threats. Immune responses vary widely and appropriately according to a spectrum of threats and only recently have the mechanisms for controlling this highly textured process emerged. A primary mechanism by which this controlled decision-making process is achieved is via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and the subsequent activation of the immune response coincident with the presence of pathogenic organisms or antigens, including lipid mediators. While immune activation is important, the appropriate regulation of such responses is also critical. Recent findings indicate a parallel pathway by which responses to both viral and bacterial infections is controlled via the secretion of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2). sTLR2 is able to bind a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). sTLR2 has been detected in many bodily fluids and is thus ubiquitous in sites of pathogen appearance. Interestingly, growing evidence suggests that sTLR2 functions to sequester PAMPs and DAMPs to avoid immune activation via detection of cellular-expressed TLRs. This immune regulatory function would serve to reduce the expression of the molecules required for cellular entry, and the recruitment of target cells following infection with bacteria and viruses. This review provides an overview of sTLR2 and the research regarding the mechanisms of its immune regulatory properties. Furthermore, the role of this molecule in regulating immune activation in the context of HIV infection via sTLR2 in breast milk provides actionable insights into therapeutic targets across a variety of infectious and inflammatory states. PMID:27531999

  9. Toll-like Receptors as a Target of Food-derived Anti-inflammatory Compounds*

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Takahiro; Nakashima, Fumie; Honda, Kazuya; Lu, Yu-Jhang; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Ushida, Yusuke; Aizawa, Koichi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Oe, Sho; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takashi; Uchida, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in linking pathogen recognition with the induction of innate immunity. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, representing potential targets for prevention/treatment. Vegetable-rich diets are associated with the reduced risk of several inflammatory disorders. In the present study, based on an extensive screening of vegetable extracts for TLR-inhibiting activity in HEK293 cells co-expressing TLR with the NF-κB reporter gene, we found cabbage and onion extracts to be the richest sources of a TLR signaling inhibitor. To identify the active substances, we performed activity-guiding separation of the principal inhibitors and identified 3-methylsulfinylpropyl isothiocyanate (iberin) from the cabbage and quercetin and quercetin 4′-O-β-glucoside from the onion, among which iberin showed the most potent inhibitory effect. It was revealed that iberin specifically acted on the dimerization step of TLRs in the TLR signaling pathway. To gain insight into the inhibitory mechanism of TLR dimerization, we developed a novel probe combining an isothiocyanate-reactive group and an alkyne functionality for click chemistry and detected the probe bound to the TLRs in living cells, suggesting that iberin disrupts dimerization of the TLRs via covalent binding. Furthermore, we designed a variety of iberin analogues and found that the inhibition potency was influenced by the oxidation state of the sulfur. Modeling studies of the iberin analogues showed that the oxidation state of sulfur might influence the global shape of the isothiocyanates. These findings establish the TLR dimerization step as a target of food-derived anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25294874

  10. Bacterial toll-like receptor agonists induce sequential NF-kB-mediated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 production in chicken heterophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the response of the primary avian polymorphonuclear leukocyte, the heterophil, to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through toll-like receptors (TLR) have concentrated on the activation of the respiratory burst, release of intracellular granules, and the induction of cytokine ...

  11. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection of porcine alveolar macrophages on Toll-like receptors elicitation of type I interferon responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of virus replication initially depends on rapid activation of the innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are potent inducers of innate immunity against viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) initiates infection in pulmonary alveolar m...

  12. Lack of Association between Toll Like Receptor-2 and Toll Like Receptor-4 Gene Polymorphisms and Other Feature in Iranian Asthmatics Patients.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Hamid; Daneshmandi, Saeed; Heidarnazhad, Hasan; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Asthma as a chronic inflammatory airway disease is considered to be the most common chronic disease that is involving genetic and environmental factors. Toll like receptors (TLRs) and other inflammatory mediators are important in modulation of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the role of TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms in the asthma susceptibility, progress, control levels and lung functions in Iranian patients. On 99 asthmatic patients and 120 normal subjects, TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR-RFLP method recruiting Msp1 and Nco1 restriction enzymes, respectively. IgE serum levels by ELISA technique were determined and asthma diagnosis, treatment and control levels were considered using standard schemes and criteria. Our results indicated that the genotype and allele frequencies of the TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms were not significantly different between control subjects and asthmatics and were not related to in asthma features such as IgE levels, asthma history and pulmonary factors. Wherease some previous studies indicated TLRs and their polymorphisms might have some role in asthma incidence and features, our data demonstrated that TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly gene variants were not risk factors for asthma or its features in Iranian patients. Genetic complexity, ethnicity, influence of other genes or polymorphisms may overcome these polymorphisms in our asthmatics. PMID:25530138

  13. FibronectinEDA Promotes Chronic Cutaneous Fibrosis Through Toll-like Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Swati; Tamaki, Zenshiro; Wang, Wenxia; Hinchcliff, Monique; Hoover, Paul; Getsios, Spiro; White, Eric S.; Varga, John

    2015-01-01

    Scleroderma is a progressive autoimmune disease affecting multiple organs. Fibrosis, the hallmark of scleroderma, represents transformation of self-limited wound healing into a deregulated self-sustaining process. The factors responsible for maintaining persistent fibroblast activation in scleroderma and other conditions with chronic fibrosis are not well understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its damage-associated endogenous ligands are implicated in immune and fibrotic responses. We now show that fibronectin extra domain A (FnEDA) is an endogenous TLR4 ligand markedly elevated in the circulation and lesional skin biopsies from patients with scleroderma, as well as in mice with experimentally induced cutaneous fibrosis. Synthesis of FnEDA was preferentially stimulated by transforming growth factor–β in normal fibroblasts and was constitutively up-regulated in scleroderma fibroblasts. Exogenous FnEDA was a potent stimulus for collagen production, myofibroblast differentiation, and wound healing in vitro and increased the mechanical stiffness of human organotypic skin equivalents. Each of these profibrotic FnEDA responses was abrogated by genetic, RNA interference, or pharmacological disruption of TLR4 signaling. Moreover, either genetic loss of FnEDA or TLR4 blockade using a small molecule mitigated experimentally induced cutaneous fibrosis in mice. These observations implicate the FnEDA-TLR4 axis in cutaneous fibrosis and suggest a paradigm in which aberrant FnEDA accumulation in the fibrotic milieu drives sustained fibroblast activation via TLR4. This model explains how a damage-associated endogenous TLR4 ligand might contribute to converting self-limited tissue repair responses into intractable fibrogenesis in chronic conditions such as scleroderma. Disrupting sustained TLR4 signaling therefore represents a potential strategy for the treatment of fibrosis in scleroderma. PMID:24739758

  14. Role of Mitochondrial DNA in Septic AKI via Toll-Like Receptor 9.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Naoko; Tsuji, Takayuki; Ohashi, Naro; Kato, Akihiko; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Yasuda, Hideo

    2016-07-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) contributes to the development of polymicrobial septic AKI. However, the mechanisms that activate the TLR9 pathway and cause kidney injury during sepsis remain unknown. To determine the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in TLR9-associated septic AKI, we established a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in wild-type (WT) and Tlr9-knockout (Tlr9KO) mice. We evaluated systemic circulation and peritoneal cavity dynamics and immune response and tubular mitochondrial dysfunction to determine upstream and downstream effects on the TLR9 pathway, respectively. CLP increased mtDNA levels in the plasma and peritoneal cavity of WT and Tlr9KO mice in the early phase, but the increase in the peritoneal cavity was significantly higher in Tlr9KO mice than in WT mice. Concomitantly, leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity increased, and plasma cytokine production and splenic apoptosis decreased in Tlr9KO mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, CLP-generated renal mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial vacuolization in the proximal tubules in the early phase were reversed in Tlr9KO mice. To elucidate the effects of mtDNA on immune response and kidney injury, we intravenously injected mice with mitochondrial debris (MTD), including substantial amounts of mtDNA. MTD caused an immune response similar to that induced by CLP, including upregulated levels of plasma IL-12, splenic apoptosis, and mitochondrial injury, but this effect was attenuated by Tlr9KO. Moreover, MTD-induced renal mitochondrial injury was abolished by DNase pretreatment. These findings suggest that mtDNA activates TLR9 and contributes to cytokine production, splenic apoptosis, and kidney injury during polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:26574043

  15. Toll-like receptors and chronic inflammation in rheumatic diseases: new developments.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Leo A B; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Dinarello, Charles A; O'Neill, Luke; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-06-01

    In the past few years, new developments have been reported on the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in chronic inflammation in rheumatic diseases. The inhibitory function of TLR10 has been demonstrated. Receptors that enhance the function of TLRs, and several TLR inhibitors, have been identified. In addition, the role of the microbiome and TLRs in the onset of rheumatic diseases has been reported. We review novel insights on the role of TLRs in several inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, gout and Lyme arthritis, with a focus on the signalling mechanisms mediated by the Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain, the exogenous and endogenous ligands of TLRs, and the current and future therapeutic strategies to target TLR signalling in rheumatic diseases. PMID:27170508

  16. Novel Role of Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Hepatitis C-Associated Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Wörnle, Markus; Schmid, Holger; Banas, Bernhard; Merkle, Monika; Henger, Anna; Roeder, Maximilian; Blattner, Simone; Bock, Elisabeth; Kretzler, Matthias; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Schlöndorff, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently complicated by glomerulonephritis with immune complexes containing viral RNA. We examined the potential influence of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), specifically TLR3 recognition of viral dsRNA exemplified by polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C) RNA]. Normal human kidney stained positive for TLR3 on mesangial cells (MCs), vascular smooth muscle cells, and collecting duct epithelium. Cultured MCs have low TLR3 mRNA levels with predominant intracellular protein localization, which was increased by tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ, and the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) RNA. Poly(I:C) RNA stimulation of MCs increased mRNA and protein synthesis of IL-6, IL-1β, M-CSF, IL-8/CXCL8, RANTES/CCL5, MCP-1/CCL2, and ICAM-I; it also increased anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects, the latter of which was decreased by inhibiting caspase-8. In microdissected glomeruli of normal and non-HCV membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis biopsies, TLR3 mRNA expression was low. In contrast TLR3 mRNA expression was significantly increased in hepatitis C-positive glomerulonephritis and was associated with enhanced mRNA for RANTES/CCL5 and MCP-1/CCL2. We hypothesize that immune complexes containing viral RNA activate mesangial TLR3 during HCV infection, thereby contributing to chemokine/cytokine release and effecting proliferation and apoptosis. Thus, TLR3 expression on renal cells, and especially MCs, may establish a link between viral infections and glomerular diseases. PMID:16436653

  17. Toll-like Receptor Regulation of Intestinal Development and Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peng; Hackam, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a structurally related family of molecules that respond to a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands, and which serve as important components of the innate immune system. While TLRs have established roles in host defense, these molecules have also been shown to play important roles in the development of various disease states. A particularly important example of the role of TLRs in disease induction includes necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which is the most common gastrointestinal disease in preterm infants, and which is associated with extremely high morbidity and mortality rates. The development of NEC is thought to reflect an abnormal interaction between microorganisms and the immature intestinal epithelium, and emerging evidence has clearly placed the spotlight on an important and exciting role for TLRs, particularly TLR4, in NEC pathogenesis. In premature infants, TLR4 signaling within the small intestinal epithelium regulates apoptosis, proliferation and migration of enterocytes, affects the differentiation of goblet cells, and reduces microcirculatory perfusion, which in combination result in the development of NEC. This review will explore the signaling properties of TLRs on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, and will examine the role of TLR4 signaling in the development of NEC. In addition, the effects of dampening TLR4 signaling using synthetic and endogenous TLR4 inhibitors and active components from amniotic fluid and human milk on NEC severity will be reviewed. In so doing, we hope to present a balanced approach to the understanding of the role of TLRs in both immunity and disease pathogenesis, and to dissect the precise roles for TLR4 in both the cause and therapeutic intervention of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:24365655

  18. Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Contributes to Corneal Inflammation in Experimental Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Hattori, Takaaki; Park, Eun Young; Stevenson, William; Chauhan, Sunil K.; Dana, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the corneal expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and determine its contribution to the immunopathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). Methods. Seven to 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were housed in a controlled environment chamber and administered scopolamine to induce experimental DED. Mice received intravenous TLR4 inhibitor (Eritoran) to block systemic TLR4-mediated activity. The expression of TLR4 by the corneal epithelium and stroma was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) was performed to evaluate clinical disease severity. The corneal expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, and CCL2), corneal infiltration of CD11b+ antigen-presenting cells, and lymph node frequency of mature MHC-IIhi CD11b+ cells were assessed. Results. The epithelial cells of normal corneas expressed TLR4 intracellularly; however, DED significantly increased the cell surface expression of TLR4. Similarly, flow cytometric analysis of stromal cells revealed a significant increase in the expression of TLR4 proteins by DED-induced corneas as compared with normal corneas. DED increased the mRNA expression of TLR4 in corneal stromal cells, but not epithelial cells. TLR4 inhibition decreased the severity of CFS and significantly reduced the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF. Furthermore, TLR4 inhibition significantly reduced the corneal infiltration of CD11b+ cells and the lymph node frequency of MHC-IIhi CD11b+ cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that DED increases the corneal expression of TLR4 and that TLR4 participates in the inflammatory response to ocular surface desiccating stress. PMID:22789921

  19. Role of gut microbiota and Toll-like receptors in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kouichi; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2014-01-01

    Emerging data have shown a close association between compositional changes in gut microbiota and the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The change in gut microbiota may alter nutritional absorption and storage. In addition, gut microbiota are a source of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, and their compositional change can also increase the amount of TLR ligands delivered to the liver. TLR ligands can stimulate liver cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, the gut-liver axis has attracted much interest, particularly regarding the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The abundance of the major gut microbiota, including Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, has been considered a potential underlying mechanism of obesity and NAFLD, but the role of these microbiota in NAFLD remains unknown. Several reports have demonstrated that certain gut microbiota are associated with the development of obesity and NAFLD. For instance, a decrease in Akkermansia muciniphila causes a thinner intestinal mucus layer and promotes gut permeability, which allows the leakage of bacterial components. Interventions to increase Akkermansia muciniphila improve the metabolic parameters in obesity and NAFLD. In children, the levels of Escherichia were significantly increased in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) compared with those in obese control. Escherichia can produce ethanol, which promotes gut permeability. Thus, normalization of gut microbiota using probiotics or prebiotics is a promising treatment option for NAFLD. In addition, TLR signaling in the liver is activated, and its downstream molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines, are increased in NAFLD. To data, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 have been shown to be associated with the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Therefore, gut microbiota and TLRs are targets for NAFLD treatment. PMID:24966608

  20. Association of bovine Toll-like receptor 4 with tick infestation rates and blood histamine concentration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G; Yu, M; Cui, Q-W; Zhou, X; Zhang, J-C; Li, H-X; Qu, K-X; Wang, G-L; Huang, B-Z

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu→Gln and Gln→His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs. PMID:23479166

  1. Age-related changes in expression and function of Toll-like receptors in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Nousheen; Mildner, Michael; Prior, Marion; Petzelbauer, Peter; Fiala, Christian; Hacker, Stefan; Schöppl, Alice; Tschachler, Erwin; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate innate immune responses and direct subsequent adaptive immunity. They play a major role in cutaneous host defense against micro-organisms and in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory skin diseases. To understand the role of TLRs in the acquisition of immunological competence, we conducted a comprehensive study to evaluate TLR expression and function in the developing human skin before and after birth and compared it with adults. We found that prenatal skin already expresses the same spectrum of TLRs as adult skin. Strikingly, many TLRs were significantly higher expressed in prenatal (TLRs 1-5) and infant and child (TLRs 1 and 3) skin than in adult skin. Surprisingly, neither dendritic cell precursors in prenatal skin nor epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells in adult skin expressed TLRs 3 and 6, whereas the staining pattern and intensity of both TLRs in fetal basal keratinocytes was almost comparable to those of adults. Stimulation of primary human keratinocytes from fetal, neonatal and adult donors with selected TLR agonists revealed that the synthetic TLR3 ligand poly (I:C) specifically, mimicking viral double-stranded RNA, induced a significantly enhanced secretion of CXCL8/IL8, CXCL10/IP-10 and TNFα in fetal and neonatal keratinocytes compared with adult keratinocytes. This study demonstrates quantitative age-specific modifications in TLR expression and innate skin immune reactivity in response to TLR activation. Thus, antiviral innate immunity already in prenatal skin may contribute to protect the developing human body from viral infections in utero in a scenario where the adaptive immune system is not yet fully functional. PMID:23034637

  2. Signaling through Toll-like receptors triggers HIV-1 replication in latently infected mast cells.

    PubMed

    Sundstrom, J Bruce; Little, Dawn M; Villinger, Francois; Ellis, Jane E; Ansari, Aftab A

    2004-04-01

    Evidence that human progenitor mast cells are susceptible to infection with CCR5-tropic strains of HIV-1 and that circulating HIV-1-infected FcepsilonRIalpha(+) cells with a similar progenitor phenotype have been isolated from AIDS patients has led to speculation that mast cells may serve as a potential reservoir for infectious HIV-1. In this study, progenitor mast cells, developed in vitro from CD34(+) cord blood stem cells, were experimentally infected with the CCR5-tropic strain HIV-1Bal after 28 days in culture as they reached their HIV-1-susceptible progenitor stage. HIV-1 p24 Ag levels were readily detectable by day 7 postinfection (PI), peaked at 2-3 wk PI as mature (tryptase/chymase-positive) HIV-1 infection-resistant mast cells emerged, and then steadily declined to below detectable limits by 10 wk PI, at which point integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA was confirmed by PCR quantitation in ( approximately 34% of) latently infected mast cells. Stimulation by ligands for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, or TLR9 significantly enhanced viral replication in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both HIV-1-infected progenitor and latently infected mature mast cells, without promoting degranulation, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, or dysregulation of TLR agonist-induced cytokine production in infected mast cells. Limiting dilution analysis of TLR activated, latently infected mature mast cells indicated that one in four was capable of establishing productive infections in A301 sentinel cells. Taken together, these results indicate that mast cells may serve both as a viral reservoir and as a model for studying mechanisms of postintegration latency in HIV infection. PMID:15034054

  3. Screening of Toll-like receptors expression in multiple system atrophy brains.

    PubMed

    Brudek, Tomasz; Winge, Kristian; Agander, Tina Klitmøller; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2013-06-01

    The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays a key role in controlling innate immune responses to a wide variety of pathogen-associated molecules. It was recently suggested that TLRs have an important role in the crosstalk between neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system, thus their deregulation may play a role in neurodegeneration. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) together with Parkinson's disease belongs to a diverse group of neurodegenerative conditions termed α-synucleinopathies. MSA is a fatal late onset disease characterized by the presence of α-synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in oligodendrocytes. α-Synuclein can act as a danger-associated molecular pattern and alter TLR expression thereby activating inflammatory responses in the brain. In this study, using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of TLRs (TLR1-10) in selected areas of MSA brains (substantia nigra, striatum, cerebral cortex, and nucleus dentatus) in comparison with normal controls. We show evidence for increased levels of mRNA-encoding hTLR-3, hTLR-4, and hTLR-5 in substantia nigra, striatum, cerebral cortex, and nucleus dentatus from MSA brains versus normal controls. The levels of expression of hTLR-1 mRNA were elevated in substantia nigra and striatum whereas levels of hTLR-8 and hTLR-9 mRNAs were significantly higher in cerebella from MSA patients. The concerted alteration of expression of multiple TLRs in MSA brains can be of relevance for understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:23525968

  4. Toll-like receptor 3 regulates NK cell responses to cytokines and controls experimental metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Guillerey, Camille; Chow, Melvyn T; Miles, Kim; Olver, Stuart; Sceneay, Jaclyn; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Möller, Andreas; Smyth, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist poly(I:C) is a promising adjuvant for cancer vaccines due to its induction of potent antitumor responses occurring primarily through the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NK) cells. However, little is known about the role of TLR3 sensing of endogenous ligands in innate tumor immunosurveillance. Here, we investigated whether TLR3 could modulate immune responses and facilitate tumor control without administration of an agonist. We observed only limited impact of TLR3 deficiency on spontaneous carcinogenesis and primary growth of B16F10, E0771 or MC38 tumors when injected subcutaneously to mice. Nevertheless, TLR3 was observed to limit experimental B16F10 lung metastasis, an immunologic constraint dependent on both IFNγ secretion and NK cells. Interestingly, we observed that NK cells derived from Tlr3 null (Tlr3−/−) mice were hyporesponsive to cytokine stimulation. Indeed, compared with NK cells with intact TLR3, Tlr3−/− NK cells produced significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IFNγ, when incubated in the presence of different combinations of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-15. Bone-marrow chimera experiments established that competent NK cell responses required TLR3 sensing on radio-sensitive immune cells. Intriguingly, although CD8α DCs robustly express high levels of TLR3, we found that those cells were not necessary for efficient IFNγ production by NK cells. Moreover, the defective NK cell phenotype of Tlr3−/− mice appeared to be independent of the gut microbiota. Altogether, our data demonstrate a pivotal role of endogenous TLR3 stimulation for the acquisition of full NK cell functions and immune protection against experimental metastasis. PMID:26405596

  5. Toll-like receptor signaling in colorectal cancer: Carcinogenesis to cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting-Ting; Ogino, Shuji; Qian, Zhi Rong

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germ line encoded innate immune sensors that recognize conserved microbial structures and host alarmins, and signal expression of major histocompatibility complex proteins, costimulatory molecules, and inflammatory mediators by macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and other cell types. These protein receptors are characterized by their ability to respond to invading pathogens promptly by recognizing particular TLR ligands, including flagellin and lipopolysaccharide of bacteria, nucleic acids derived from viruses, and zymosan of fungi. There are 2 major TLR pathways; one is mediated by myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88) adaptor proteins, and the other is independent of MYD88. The MYD88-dependent pathway involves early-phase activation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF-κB1) and all the TLRs, except TLR3, have been shown to activate this pathway. TLR3 and TLR4 act via MYD88-independent pathways with delayed activation of NF-κB signaling. TLRs play a vital role in activating immune responses. TLRs have been shown to mediate inflammatory responses and maintain epithelial barrier homeostasis, and are highly likely to be involved in the activation of a number of pathways following cancer therapy. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers, and accounts for almost half a million deaths annually worldwide. Inflammation is considered a risk factor for many common malignancies including cancers of the colorectum. The key molecules involved in inflammation-driven carcinogenesis include TLRs. As sensors of cell death and tissue remodeling, TLRs may have a universal role in cancer; stimulation of TLRs to activate the innate immune system has been a legitimate therapeutic strategy for some years. TLRs 3/4/7/8/9 are all validated targets for cancer therapy, and a number of companies are developing agonists and vaccine adjuvants. On the other hand, antagonists may favor inhibition

  6. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert G; Ridpath, Julia F; Sacco, Randy E

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs). Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp), noncytopathic (ncp), high (hv) or low virulence (lv) BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections. PMID:27420479

  7. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    Schaut, Robert G.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs). Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp), noncytopathic (ncp), high (hv) or low virulence (lv) BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections. PMID:27420479

  8. Role of Toll-like receptors in diabetic renal lesions in a miniature pig model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shulin; Ma, Yuxiang; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms of diabetic renal injury remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that immunological and inflammatory elements play important roles in the initiation and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a superfamily of innate immune system receptors. The roles and mechanisms of TLRs in the pathogenesis of diabetic renal lesions are mostly unknown. Compared with rodents, miniature pigs are more similar to humans with respect to metabolism, kidney structure, and immune system, and therefore represent an ideal large-animal model for DN mechanistic studies. A diabetes model was established by feeding miniature pigs with high-sugar and high-fat diets. Functional and pathological markers, expression and activation of endogenous TLR ligands [HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) and HMGB1], TLR1 to TLR11 and their downstream signaling pathway molecules (MyD88, IRAK-1, and IRF-3), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway molecules (IKKβ, IκBα, and NF-κBp65), inflammatory cytokines [IL-6 (interleukin-6), MIP-2, MCP-1, CCL5, and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1)], and infiltration of inflammatory cells were systematically evaluated. The expression of HSP70 was significantly increased in diabetic pig kidneys. The expression of MyD88-dependent TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR11 and their downstream signaling molecules MyD88 and phospho-IRAK-1 (activated IRAK-1), as well as that of MyD88-independent TLR3 and TLR4 and their downstream signaling molecule phospho-IRF-3 (activated IRF-3), was significantly up-regulated. The expression and activation of NF-κB pathway molecules phospho-IKKβ, phospho-IκBα, NF-κBp65, and phospho-NF-κBp65 were significantly increased. Levels of IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1, CCL5, VCAM-1, and macrophage marker CD68 were significantly increased in diabetic pig kidneys. These results suggested that the metabolic inflammation activated by TLRs might play an important role in diabetic renal injuries

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors and susceptibility to infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Skevaki, C; Pararas, M; Kostelidou, K; Tsakris, A; Routsias, J G

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best-studied family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), whose task is to rapidly recognize evolutionarily conserved structures on the invading microorganisms. Through binding to these patterns, TLRs trigger a number of proinflammatory and anti-microbial responses, playing a key role in the first line of defence against the pathogens also promoting adaptive immunity responses. Growing amounts of data suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the various human TLR proteins are associated with altered susceptibility to infection. This review summarizes the role of TLRs in innate immunity, their ligands and signalling and focuses on the TLR SNPs which have been linked to infectious disease susceptibility. PMID:25560985

  10. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced inflammation and injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common type of fatal stroke, accounting for about 15% to 20% of all strokes. Hemorrhagic strokes are associated with high mortality and morbidity, and increasing evidence shows that innate immune responses and inflammatory injury play a critical role in ICH-induced neurological deficits. However, the signaling pathways involved in ICH-induced inflammatory responses remain elusive. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to a large family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in innate immunity and inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the involvement of TLR4 signaling in ICH-induced inflammation and brain injury. We discuss the key mechanisms associated with TLR4 signaling in ICH and explore the potential for therapeutic intervention by targeting TLR4 signaling. PMID:23414417

  11. MicroRNAs: New Regulators of Toll-Like Receptor Signalling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaobing; Jing, Zhizhong; Cheng, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a critical family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are responsible for the innate immune responses via signalling pathways to provide effective host defence against pathogen infections. However, TLR-signalling pathways are also likely to stringently regulate tissue maintenance and homeostasis by elaborate modulatory mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators and as an essential part of the networks involved in regulating TLR-signalling pathways. In this review, we highlight our understanding of the regulation of miRNA expression profiles by TLR-signalling pathways and the regulation of TLR-signalling pathways by miRNAs. We focus on the roles of miRNAs in regulating TLR-signalling pathways by targeting multiple molecules, including TLRs themselves, their associated signalling proteins and regulatory molecules, and transcription factors and functional cytokines induced by them, at multiple levels. PMID:24772440

  12. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Contributes to Defense against Acinetobacter baumannii Infection

    PubMed Central

    Noto, Michael J.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Burns, William J.; Varga, Matthew G.; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a common nosocomial pathogen capable of causing severe diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality in impaired hosts. Pattern recognition receptors, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), play a key role in pathogen detection and function to alert the immune system to infection. Here, we examine the role for TLR9 signaling in response to A. baumannii infection. In a murine model of A. baumannii pneumonia, TLR9−/− mice exhibit significantly increased bacterial burdens in the lungs, increased extrapulmonary bacterial dissemination, and more severe lung pathology compared with those in wild-type mice. Following systemic A. baumannii infection, TLR9−/− mice have significantly increased bacterial burdens in the lungs, as well as decreased proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. These results demonstrate that TLR9-mediated pathogen detection is important for host defense against the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:26238713

  13. Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Mariagrazia; Piermattei, Alessia; Di Sante, Gabriele; Delogu, Giovanni; Ria, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    A close relationship exists between gut microbiota and immune responses. An imbalance of this relationship can determine local and systemic immune diseases. In fact the immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis with the microbiota that normally resides in the gut, while, at the same time, the gut microbiota influences the immune system, modulating number and function of effector and regulatory T cells. To achieve this aim, mutual regulation between immune system and microbiota is achieved through several mechanisms, including the engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pathogen-specific receptors expressed on numerous cell types. TLRs are able to recognize ligands from commensal or pathogen microbiota to maintain the tolerance or trigger the immune response. In this review, we summarize the latest evidences about the role of TLRs expressed in adaptive T cells, to understand how the immune system promotes intestinal homeostasis, fights invasion by pathogens, and is modulated by the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25147831

  14. IFN-alpha/beta-dependent cross-priming induced by specific toll-like receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Durand, Vanessa; Wong, Simon Y C; Tough, David F; Le Bon, Agnes

    2006-04-12

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors that have been identified as crucial in the initiation of innate immune responses against pathogens. They are thought to be involved in shaping appropriate adaptive immune responses, although their precise contribution has not yet been fully characterised. Our aim was to investigate in vivo the effect of different TLR stimuli on cellular immune responses. We examined the ability of a range of TLR stimuli to induce CD8+ T cell responses against a model soluble protein antigen, ovalbumin (OVA). We found that TLR 3, TLR 4, and TLR 9 agonists induced functional cross-priming, and that this process was dependent on IFN-alpha/beta signalling pathway. PMID:16823911

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi and its components as exogenous mediators of inflammation recognized through Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marco A; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2004-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease, a parasitic disease of enormous importance in Latin America. Herein we review the studies that revealed the receptors from innate immunity that are involved in the recognition of this protozoan parasite. We showed that the recognition of T. cruzi and its components occurs through Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2/CD14. Further, we showed in vivo the importance of the myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88), an adapter protein essential for the function of TLRs, in determining the parasitemia and mortality rate of mice infected with T. cruzi. We also discuss the implications of these findings in the pathophysiology of Chagas' disease. PMID:15223603

  16. Adaptors in toll-like receptor signaling and their potential as therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Ve, Thomas; Gay, Nicholas J; Mansell, Ashley; Kobe, Bostjan; Kellie, Stuart

    2012-10-01

    To initiate the innate immune response, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) associate with cytoplasmic adaptor proteins through TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain interactions. The four principal signaling adaptor proteins include MyD88, MAL, TRIF and TRAM, and the fifth protein SARM, involved in negative regulation of TLR pathways, is usually considered a part of the TIR domain-containing adaptor protein group. Other TIR domain-containing proteins have also been shown to regulate these signaling pathways, including ST2 and SIGIRR, as well as several bacterial and viral TIR domain-containing proteins that modulate these pathways as virulence factors. TLR pathways and the adaptor proteins are associated with a number of diseases, including infection, sepsis, inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune diseases and cancer. We review our current understanding of the structure and function of adaptor proteins and their regulatory proteins, their association with disease and their potential as therapeutic targets in human disease. PMID:22664090

  17. Application potential of toll-like receptors in cancer immunotherapy: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Chen, Xi; Ye, Kangruo; Yao, Yuanfei; Li, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as the most important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity, play a pivotal role in inducing immune response through recognition of microbial invaders or specific agonists. Recent studies have suggested that TLRs could serve as important regulators in the development of a variety of cancer. However, increasing evidences have shown that TLRs may display quite opposite outcomes in cancer development. Although several potential therapeutic Toll-like receptor ligands have been found, the mechanism and therapy prospect of TLRs in cancer development has to be further elucidated to accelerate the clinical application. By performing a systematic review of the present findings on TLRs in cancer immunology, we attempted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of TLRs in cancer therapy and elucidate the potential mechanism of cancer progress regulated by TLR signaling and the reported targets on TLRs for clinical application. An electronic databases search was conducted in PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database from their inception to February 1, 2016. The following keywords were used to search the databases: Toll-like receptors, cancer therapy, therapeutic target, innate immunity. Of 244 studies that were identified, 97 nonrelevant studies were excluded. In total, 147 full-text articles were assessed, and from these, 54 were excluded as they did not provide complete key information. Thus, 93 studies were considered eligible and included in the analysis. According to the data from the included trials, 14 TLR ligands (77.8%) from 82 studies have been demonstrated to display antitumor property in various cancers, whereas 4 ligands (22.2%) from 11 studies promote tumors. Among them, only 3 TLR ligands have been approved for cancer therapy, and 9 ligands were in clinical trials. In addition, the potential mechanism of recently reported targets on TLRs for clinical application was also evaluated

  18. Alveolar Macrophages and Toll-like Receptor 4 Mediate Ventilated Lung Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Arun; Mesa, Kailin R.; Wilhelmsen, Kevin; Xu, Fengyun; Dodd-o, Jeffrey M.; Hellman, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury involves sterile inflammation and is commonly associated with diverse clinical situations such as hemorrhage followed by resuscitation, transient embolic events, and organ transplantation. I/R injury can induce lung dysfunction whether the I/R occurs in the lung itself or in a remote organ. Recently, evidence has emerged that receptors and pathways of the innate immune system are involved in recognizing sterile inflammation and overlap considerably with those involved in recognition and response to pathogens. Methods We used a mouse surgical model of transient unilateral left pulmonary artery occlusion without bronchial involvement to create ventilated lung I/R injury. Additionally, we mimicked nutritional I/R injury in vitro by transiently depriving cells of all nutrients. Results Compared with sham-operated mice, mice subjected to ventilated lung I/R injury had upregulated lung expression of inflammatory mediator messenger RNA for IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL1 and 2, paralleled by histologic evidence of lung neutrophil recruitment, and increased plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and HMGB1 proteins. This inflammatory response to I/R required toll-like receptor-4. Furthermore, we demonstrated in vitro cooperativity and cross-talk between macrophages and endothelial cells, resulting in augmented inflammatory responses to I/R. Remarkably, we found that selective depletion of alveolar macrophages rendered mice resistant to ventilated lung I/R injury. Conclusions Our data reveal that alveolar macrophages and the pattern recognition receptor, toll-like receptor-4 are required for the generation of the early inflammatory response to lung I/R injury. PMID:22890118

  19. Oxygen-glucose deprivation of neurons transfected with toll-like receptor 3-siRNA: Determination of an optimal transfection sequence

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guiyun; Wang, Xiaopeng; Ye, Xinchun; Zu, Jie; Zan, Kun; Hua, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 3 protein expression has been shown to be upregulated during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. In this study, rat primary cortical neurons were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation to simulate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Chemically synthesized small interfering RNA (siRNA)-1280, -1724 and -418 specific to toll-like receptor 3 were transfected into oxygen-glucose deprived cortical neurons to suppress the upregulation of toll-like receptor 3 protein expression. Western blotting demonstrated that after transfection with siRNA, toll-like receptor 3 protein expression reduced, especially in the toll-like receptor 3-1724 group. These results suggested that siRNA-1724 is an optimal sequence for inhibiting toll-like receptor 3 expression in cortical neurons following oxygen-glucose deprivation. PMID:25206644

  20. Cellular Specific Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nace, Gary W; Huang, Hai; Klune, John R; Eid, Raymond E; Rosborough, Brian R; Korff, Sebastian; Li, Shen; Shapiro, Richard A; Stolz, Donna B; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Hackam, David J; Geller, David A; Billiar, Timothy R; Tsung, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a process whereby an initial hypoxic insult and subsequent return of blood flow leads to the propagation of innate immune responses and organ injury. The necessity of the pattern recognition receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, for this innate immune response has been previously shown. However, TLR4 is present on various cell types of the liver, both immune and non-immune cells. Therefore, we sought to determine the role of TLR4 in individual cell populations, specifically parenchymal hepatocytes, myeloid cells including Kupffer cells, and dendritic cells following hepatic I/R. When hepatocyte specific (Alb-TLR4-/-) and myeloid cell specific (Lyz-TLR4-/-) TLR4 knockout mice were subjected to warm hepatic ischemia there was significant protection in these mice compared to wild-type (WT). However, the protection afforded in these two strains was significantly less than global TLR4 specific TLR4 knockout (TLR4-/-) mice. Dendritic cell specific TLR4-/- (CD11c-TLR4-/-) mice had significantly increased hepatocellular damage compared to WT mice. Circulating levels of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) were significantly reduced in the Alb-TLR4-/- mice compared to WT, Lyz-TLR4-/-, CD11c-TLR4-/- mice and equivalent to global TLR4-/- mice, suggesting that TLR4 mediated HMGB1 release from hepatocytes may be a source of HMGB1 after I/R. Hepatocytes exposed to hypoxia responded by rapidly phosphorylating the mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK and p38 in a TLR4-dependent manner; inhibition of JNK decreased the release of HMGB1 after both hypoxia in vitro and I/R in vivo. Conclusion These results provide insight into the individual cellular response of TLR4. It was found that the parenchymal hepatocyte is an active participant in the sterile inflammatory response after I/R through TLR4-mediated activation of pro-inflammatory signaling and release of danger signals such as HMGB1. PMID:23460269

  1. Regulation of migration and invasion by Toll-like receptor-9 signaling network in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Mei, Xiao-Long; Shi, Zhi; Di, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in tumorigenesis and progress of prostate cancer. However, the function and mechanism of Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) in prostate cancer is not totally understood. Here, we found that high expression of TLR9 was associated with a higher probability of lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Further in vitro functional study verified that silence of TLR9 inhibited migration and invasion of PC-3 cells, indicating expression of TLR9 involving in the migration and invasion of cancer cells. The data of microarray exhibited silence of TLR9 induced 205 genes with larger than 2-fold changes in expression levels, including 164 genes down-regulated and 41 genes up-regulated. Functional Gene Ontology (GO) processes annotation demonstrated that the top three scores of molecular and cellular functions were regulation of programmed cell death, regulation of locomotion and response to calcium ion. TLR9 signaling network analysis of the migration and invasion related genes identified several genes, like matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and interleukin 8 (IL8), formed the core interaction network based on their known biological relationships. A few genes, such as odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM), claudin 2 (CLDN2), gap junction protein beta 1 (GJB1) and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 pseudogene 1 (ROCK1P1), so far have not been found to interact with the other genes. This study provided the foundation to discover the new molecular mechanism in signaling networks of invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer. PMID:26087186

  2. A peptide tetramer Tk-tPN induces tolerance of cardiac allografting by conversion of type 1 to type 2 immune responses via the Toll-like receptor 2 signal-promoted activation of the MCP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuoqing; Yang, Neng; Zhou, Ling; Gu, Peng; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Zhou, Peijun; Lu, Liming; Chou, Kuang-Yen

    2016-03-01

    The plant protein trichosanthin (Tk) and its derived peptide tetramer Tk-tPN have been shown to stimulate the type 2 immune responses for treating autoimmune disease. This work explores the possibility of using Tk-tPN as a non-toxic immunosuppressant to induce transplantation tolerance using the mechanisms by which T-cell-mediated immune responses are transferred from type 1 to type 2 through innate immunity-related pathways. Immunocytes and cytokine secretions involved in the mouse cardiac allografting model with Tk-tPN treatment were characterized. Identification of critical genes and analysis of their functions through Toll-like receptor (TLR) -initiated signalling and the possible epigenetic changes were performed. Mean survival times of the cardiac allografts were delayed from 7.7 ± 0.3 days (control) to 22.7 ± 3.9 days (P < 0.01) or 79.1 ± 19.2 days (P < 0.0001) when Tk-tPN was introduced into the recipients alone or together with rapamycin, respectively. The grafting tolerance was donor-specific. The secretion pattern of the type 1 cytokine/transcription factor (IL-2(+) IFN-γ(+) T-bet(+)), which is responsible for the acute graft rejection, was shifted to the type 2 factor (IL-4(+) IL-10(+) Gata3+), together with a selective expansion of the IL-4/IL-10-producing CD8+ CD28- regulatory T-cell subset. A TLR2-initiated high expression of chemokine gene MCP1 was detectable simultaneously. Epigenetically Tk/Tk-tPN could also acetylate the histone H3K9 of MCP1 promoter to skew the immunity towards T helper type 2 responses. Tk/Tk-tPN is therefore capable of down-regulating the type 1 response-dominant rejection of cardiac allografts by evoking type 2 immunity through the activation of a TLR2-initiated signalling pathway and MCP1 gene to expand the IL-4/IL-10-secreting CD8+ CD28- regulatory T cells. Tk-tPN could be a promising novel immunosuppressant to induce tolerance in allotransplantation. PMID:26694804

  3. Modulation of Toll-like receptor signaling in innate immunity by natural products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luxi; Yu, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    For centuries, natural products and their derivatives have provided a rich source of compounds for the development of new immunotherapies in the treatment of human disease. Many of these compounds are currently undergoing clinical trials, particularly as anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer agents. However, the function and mechanism of natural products in how they interact with our immune system has yet to be extensively explored. Natural immune modulators may provide the key to control and ultimately defeat disorders affecting the immune system. They can either up- or down-regulate the immune response with few undesired adverse effects. In this review, we summarize the recent advancements made in utilizing natural products for immunomodulation and their important molecular targets, members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, in the innate immune system. PMID:26899347

  4. Mapping toll-like receptor signaling pathway genes of Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) with FISH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bosong; Zhao, Liang; Liao, Huan; Cheng, Jie; Lian, Shanshan; Li, Xuan; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the innate immune system. Studies on TLR signaling pathway genes in Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) have mainly focused on sequence analysis and expression profiling, no research has been carried out on their localization. The chromosomal position of TLR signaling pathway genes can be valuable for assemblying scallop genome and analysizing gene regulatory networks. In the present study, five key TLR signaling pathway genes ( CfTLR, CfMyd88, CfTRAF6, CfNFκB, and CfIκB) containing bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were isolated and physically mapped through fluorescence in situ hybridization on five non-homologous chromosome pairs, showing a similar distribution to another five model species. The isolation and mapping of these key immune genes of C. farreri will aid to the research on innate immunity, assignment of interested genes to chromosomes, and integration of physical, linkage and cytogenetic maps of this species.

  5. Diversity in the Toll-like receptor genes of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    The Tasmanian devil is an endangered marsupial species that has survived several historical bottlenecks and now has low genetic diversity. Here we characterize the Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes and their diversity in the Tasmanian devil. TLRs are a key innate immune gene family found in all animals. Ten TLR genes were identified in the Tasmanian devil genome. Unusually low levels of diversity were found in 25 devils from across Tasmania. We found two alleles at TLR2, TLR3 and TLR6. The other seven genes were monomorphic. The insurance population, which safeguards the species from extinction, has successfully managed to capture all of these TLR alleles, but concerns remain for the long-term survival of this species. PMID:25563844

  6. Toll-like receptors in inflammatory bowel diseases: A decade later

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Differential alteration of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was first described 10 years ago. Since then, studies from many groups have led to the current concept that TLRs represent key mediators of innate host defense in the intestine, involved in maintaining mucosal as well as commensal homeostasis. Recent findings in diverse murine models of colitis have helped to reveal the mechanistic importance of TLR dysfunction in IBD pathogenesis. It has become evident that environment, genetics, and host immunity form a multidimensional and highly interactive regulatory triad that controls TLR function in the intestinal mucosa. Imbalanced relationships within this triad may promote aberrant TLR signaling, critically contributing to acute and chronic intestinal inflammatory processes in IBD colitis and associated cancer. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010) PMID:20803699

  7. Regulation of antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a role for Toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Clifford V.; Boom, W. Henry

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells. APCs present antigens in association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to stimulate CD4+ T cells, and this process is essential to contain M. tuberculosis infection. Immune evasion allows M. tuberculosis to establish persistent or latent infection in macrophages and results in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent inhibition of MHC class II transactivator expression, MHC class II molecule expression and antigen presentation. This reduction of antigen presentation might reflect a general mechanism of negative-feedback regulation that prevents excessive T cell-mediated inflammation and that M. tuberculosis has subverted to create a niche for survival in infected macrophages and evasion of recognition by CD4+ T cells. PMID:20234378

  8. Innate Immune Sensing by Toll-like Receptors in Newborns and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kollmann, Tobias R.; Levy, Ofer; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Goriely, Stanislas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Given the "inborn" nature of the innate immune system, it is surprising to find that innate immune function does in fact change with age. Similar patterns of distinct Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune responses come to light when one contrasts innate immune development at the beginning of life with that toward the end of life. Importantly, these developmental patterns of innate cytokine responses correlate with clinical patterns of susceptibility to disease: A heightened risk of suffering from excessive inflammation is often detected in prematurely born infants, disappears over the first few months of life, and reappears toward the end of life. In addition, risk periods for particular infections in early life reemerge in older adults. The near-mirror-image patterns that emerge in contrasts of early versus late innate immune ontogeny emphasize changes in host-environment interactions as the underlying molecular and teleologic drivers. PMID:23159225

  9. Toll-like receptor-mediated anti-inflammatory action of glaucine and oxoglaucine.

    PubMed

    Remichkova, Mimi; Dimitrova, Petya; Philipov, Stefan; Ivanovska, Nina

    2009-10-01

    Two isochinoline alkaloids, glaucine and oxoglaucine were investigated for their suggested anti-inflammatory influence concerning nitric oxide and cytokine production. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as LPS for TLR4, zymosan for TLR2 and CpG for TLR9. The alkaloids inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-6 production induced by these ligands. In regard to IL-12 suppressive effect was registered in the case of CpG stimulation. Glaucine succeeded to enhance LPS and zymosan-induced IL-10 production. The reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase of anti-inflammatory IL-10 are indicative for their use in different acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:19481591

  10. Toll-like receptors as developmental tools that regulate neurogenesis during development: an update.

    PubMed

    Barak, Boaz; Feldman, Noa; Okun, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons in the brain, fascinates researchers for its promise to affect multiple cognitive and functional processes in both health and disease. Many cellular pathways are involved in the regulation of neurogenesis, a complexity exemplified by the extensive regulation of this process during brain development. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), hallmarks of innate immunity, are increasingly implemented in various central nervous system plasticity-related processes including neurogenesis. As TLRs are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, understanding the involvement of TLRs in neurogenesis may hold keys for future therapeutic interventions. Herein, we describe the current knowledge on the involvement of TLRs in neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity and point to current knowledge gaps in the field. PMID:25221470

  11. Toll-like receptors as developmental tools that regulate neurogenesis during development: an update

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Boaz; Feldman, Noa; Okun, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons in the brain, fascinates researchers for its promise to affect multiple cognitive and functional processes in both health and disease. Many cellular pathways are involved in the regulation of neurogenesis, a complexity exemplified by the extensive regulation of this process during brain development. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), hallmarks of innate immunity, are increasingly implemented in various central nervous system plasticity-related processes including neurogenesis. As TLRs are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, understanding the involvement of TLRs in neurogenesis may hold keys for future therapeutic interventions. Herein, we describe the current knowledge on the involvement of TLRs in neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity and point to current knowledge gaps in the field. PMID:25221470

  12. Toll-like receptor ligands sensitize B-cell receptor signalling by reducing actin-dependent spatial confinement of the receptor

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Spencer A.; Jaumouillé, Valentin; Choi, Kate; Hsu, Brian E.; Wong, Harikesh S.; Abraham, Libin; Graves, Marcia L.; Coombs, Daniel; Roskelley, Calvin D.; Das, Raibatak; Grinstein, Sergio; Gold, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating signals from multiple receptors allows cells to interpret the physiological context in which a signal is received. Here we describe a mechanism for receptor crosstalk in which receptor-induced increases in actin dynamics lower the threshold for signalling by another receptor. We show that the Toll-like receptor ligands lipopolysaccharide and CpG DNA, which are conserved microbial molecules, enhance signalling by the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) by activating the actin-severing protein cofilin. Single-particle tracking reveals that increased severing of actin filaments reduces the spatial confinement of the BCR within the plasma membrane and increases BCR mobility. This allows more frequent collisions between BCRs and greater signalling in response to low densities of membrane-bound antigen. These findings implicate actin dynamics as a means of tuning receptor signalling and as a mechanism by which B cells distinguish inert antigens from those that are accompanied by indicators of microbial infection. PMID:25644899

  13. Distinctive Recognition of Flagellin by Human and Mouse Toll-Like Receptor 5

    PubMed Central

    Forstnerič, Vida; Ivičak-Kocjan, Karolina; Ljubetič, Ajasja; Jerala, Roman; Benčina, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a receptor of the innate immune system that recognizes flagellin from certain bacterial species and triggers an inflammatory response. The Salmonella dublin flagellin in complex with zebrafish TLR5 has been crystallized previously. In the present study, we extrapolate the structure of this complex using structure-guided mutagenesis to determine the recognition modes of human and mouse TLR5 receptors and demonstrate species-specific differences in flagellin recognition. In general, the recognition mode of the mouse receptor can be said to be more robust in comparison to that of the human receptor. All-atom molecular dynamics simulation showed differences between the two receptors within the primary binding region. Using a functional motility assay, we show that although the highly conserved area of the flagellin analyzed in this study encompasses key structural requirements for flagella formation, a direct correlation between immune recognition and structure on the level of amino acid residues is not observed. PMID:27391968

  14. Regulation of chemokine receptor by Toll-like receptor 2 is critical to neutrophil migration and resistance to polymicrobial sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Filho, Jose C.; Freitas, Andressa; Souto, Fabricio O.; Spiller, Fernando; Paula-Neto, Heitor; Silva, Joao S.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Sergio H.; Cunha, Fernando Q.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with sepsis have a marked defect in neutrophil migration. Here we identify a key role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the regulation of neutrophil migration and resistance during polymicrobial sepsis. We found that the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR2 was dramatically down-regulated in circulating neutrophils from WT mice with severe sepsis, which correlates with reduced chemotaxis to CXCL2 in vitro and impaired migration into an infectious focus in vivo. TLR2 deficiency prevented the down-regulation of CXCR2 and failure of neutrophil migration. Moreover, TLR2−/− mice exhibited higher bacterial clearance, lower serum inflammatory cytokines, and improved survival rate during severe sepsis compared with WT mice. In vitro, the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) down-regulated CXCR2 expression and markedly inhibited the neutrophil chemotaxis and actin polymerization induced by CXCL2. Moreover, neutrophils activated ex vivo by LTA and adoptively transferred into naïve WT recipient mice displayed a significantly reduced competence to migrate toward thioglycolate-induced peritonitis. Finally, LTA enhanced the expression of G protein–coupled receptor kinases 2 (GRK2) in neutrophils; increased expression of GRK2 was seen in blood neutrophils from WT mice, but not TLR2−/− mice, with severe sepsis. Our findings identify an unexpected detrimental role of TLR2 in polymicrobial sepsis and suggest that inhibition of TLR2 signaling may improve survival from sepsis. PMID:19234125

  15. A sustained increase in plasma NEFA upregulates the Toll-like receptor network in human muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Sophie E.; Lum, Helen; Alvarez, Andrea; Cipriani, Yolanda; Garduño-Garcia, José de Jesús; Anaya, Luis; Dube, John; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Insulin-sensitive tissues (muscle, liver) of individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are in a state of low-grade inflammation, characterised by increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and TLR-driven signalling. However, the cause of this mild inflammatory state is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that a prolonged mild increase in plasma NEFA will increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (nuclear factor κB [NFκB] and mitogen-activated kinase [MAPK]) and impair insulin action in muscle of lean healthy individuals. Methods Twelve lean, normal-glucose-tolerant participants were randomised to receive a 48 h infusion (30 ml/h) of saline or Intralipid followed by a euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and during the clamp. Results Lipid infusion impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01). The elevation in circulating NEFA increased expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR5, and several MAPK (MAPK8, MAP4K4, MAP2K3) and inhibitor of κB kinase-NFκB (CHUK [IKKA], c-REL [REL] and p65 [RELA, NFKB3,p65]) signalling genes (p < 0.05). The lipid infusion also increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation (p < 0.05) and tended to reduce the content of nuclear factor of light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor α (p = 0.09). The muscle content of most diacyglycerol, ceramide and acylcarnitine species was unaffected. In summary, insulin resistance induced by prolonged low-dose lipid infusion occurs together with increased TLR-driven inflammatory signalling and impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Conclusions/interpretation A sustained, mild elevation in plasma NEFA is sufficient to increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (NFκB and MAPK) in lean individuals. The activation of this pathway by NEFA may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin

  16. Serine dipeptide lipids of Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibit osteoblast differentiation: Relationship to Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Nemati, Reza; Anstadt, Emily; Liu, Yaling; Son, Young; Zhu, Qiang; Yao, Xudong; Clark, Robert B; Rowe, David W; Nichols, Frank C

    2015-12-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen strongly associated with loss of attachment and supporting bone for teeth. We have previously shown that the total lipid extract of P. gingivalis inhibits osteoblast differentiation through engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and that serine dipeptide lipids of P. gingivalis engage both mouse and human TLR2. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether these serine lipids inhibit osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo and whether TLR2 engagement is involved. Osteoblasts were obtained from calvaria of wild type or TLR2 knockout mouse pups that also express the Col2.3GFP transgene. Two classes of serine dipeptide lipids, termed Lipid 654 and Lipid 430, were tested. Osteoblast differentiation was monitored by cell GFP fluorescence and osteoblast gene expression and osteoblast function was monitored as von Kossa stained mineral deposits. Osteoblast differentiation and function were evaluated in calvarial cell cultures maintained for 21 days. Lipid 654 significantly inhibited GFP expression, osteoblast gene expression and mineral nodule formation and this inhibition was dependent on TLR2 engagement. Lipid 430 also significantly inhibited GFP expression, osteoblast gene expression and mineral nodule formation but these effects were only partially attributed to engagement of TLR2. More importantly, Lipid 430 stimulated TNF-α and RANKL gene expression in wild type cells but not in TLR2 knockout cells. Finally, osteoblast cultures were observed to hydrolyze Lipid 654 to Lipid 430 and this likely occurs through elevated PLA2 activity in the cultured cells. In conclusion, our results show that serine dipeptide lipids of P. gingivalis inhibit osteoblast differentiation and function at least in part through engagement of TLR2. The Lipid 430 serine class also increased the expression of genes that could increase osteoclast activity. We conclude that Lipid 654 and Lipid 430 have the potential

  17. Type III secretion needle proteins induce cell signaling and cytokine secretion via Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Danielle L; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S; Nilles, Matthew L

    2014-06-01

    Pathogens are recognized by hosts by use of various receptors, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) families. Ligands for these varied receptors, including bacterial products, are identified by the immune system, resulting in development of innate immune responses. Only a couple of components from type III secretion (T3S) systems are known to be recognized by TLR or NLR family members. Known T3S components that are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are (i) flagellin, detected by TLR5 and NLRC4 (Ipaf); and (ii) T3S rod proteins (PrgJ and homologs) and needle proteins (PrgI and homologs), detected by NAIP and the NLRC4 inflammasome. In this report, we characterize the induction of proinflammatory responses through TLRs by the Yersinia pestis T3S needle protein, YscF, the Salmonella enterica needle proteins PrgI and SsaG, and the Shigella needle protein, MxiH. More specifically, we determine that the proinflammatory responses occur through TLR2 and -4. These data support the hypothesis that T3S needles have an unrecognized role in bacterial pathogenesis by modulating immune responses. PMID:24643544

  18. MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 signal pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chuqiang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Le; Tang, Long; Li, Shuangqing; Yang, Yixi; Yang, Fuguo; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Lower back pain (LBP) is a common and remitting problem. One of the primary causes of LBP is thought to be degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88)-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal pathway in the mechanism of IVD degeneration. IVD nucleus pulposus cells isolated and cultured from the lumbar vertebrae of Wistar rats were stimulated by various doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml) to simulate IVD degeneration. Cells were rinsed and cultured in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the levels of TLR4, MyD88, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h of incubation. Additionally, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses were used to determine the levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα, and IL-1β protein expression after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. The levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β mRNA all increased in the cells stimulated by 10 µg/ml LPS at 3, 6 and 9 h (all P<0.001). Furthermore, the levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β protein all increased at 24, 48 and 72 h (all P<0.001). Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β increased significantly in the cells stimulated by 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml LPS compared with the control group, and reached a peak in the 10 µg/ml LPS group (all P<0.001). These results suggest that the MyD88-dependent TLR4 signal pathway is a target pathway in IVD degeneration. This pathway is time phase- and dose-dependent, and when activated can lead to the release of inflammatory factors that participate in IVD degeneration. PMID:27446251

  19. Aeromonas salmonicida Infection Only Moderately Regulates Expression of Factors Contributing to Toll-Like Receptor Signaling but Massively Activates the Cellular and Humoral Branches of Innate Immunity in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Brietzke, Andreas; Korytář, Tomáš; Jaros, Joanna; Köllner, Bernd; Goldammer, Tom; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Rebl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to detect a defined spectrum of microbial structures. However, the knowledge about the specificity of teleost Tlr factors for distinct pathogens is limited so far. We measured baseline expression profiles of 18 tlr genes and associated signaling factors in four immune-relevant tissues of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Intraperitoneal injection of a lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida induced highly increased levels of cytokine mRNAs during a 72-hour postinfection (hpi) period. In contrast, only the fish-specific tlr22a2 and the downstream factor irak1 featured clearly increased transcript levels, while the mRNA concentrations of many other tlr genes decreased. Flow cytometry quantified cell trafficking after infection indicating a dramatic influx of myeloid cells into the peritoneum and a belated low level immigration of lymphoid cells. T and B lymphocytes were differentiated with RT-qPCR revealing that B lymphocytes emigrated from and T lymphocytes immigrated into head kidney. In conclusion, no specific TLR can be singled out as a dominant receptor for A. salmonicida. The recruitment of cellular factors of innate immunity rather than induced expression of pathogen receptors is hence of key importance for mounting a first immune defense against invading A. salmonicida. PMID:26266270

  20. Collaborative action of Toll-like and NOD-like receptors as modulators of the inflammatory response to pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Boyso, Javier; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M

    2014-01-01

    Early sensing of pathogenic bacteria by the host immune system is important to develop effective mechanisms to kill the invader. Microbial recognition, activation of signaling pathways, and effector mechanisms are sequential events that must be highly controlled to successfully eliminate the pathogen. Host recognizes pathogens through pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Some of these PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). TLRs and NLRs are PRRs that play a key role in recognition of extracellular and intracellular bacteria and control the inflammatory response. The activation of TLRs and NLRs by their respective ligands activates downstream signaling pathways that converge on activation of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) or interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), leading to expression of inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial molecules. The goal of this review is to discuss how the TLRs and NRLs signaling pathways collaborate in a cooperative or synergistic manner to counteract the infectious agents. A deep knowledge of the biochemical events initiated by each of these receptors will undoubtedly have a high impact in the design of more effective strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25525300

  1. Collaborative Action of Toll-Like and Nod-Like Receptors as Modulators of the Inflammatory Response to Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M.

    2014-01-01

    Early sensing of pathogenic bacteria by the host immune system is important to develop effective mechanisms to kill the invader. Microbial recognition, activation of signaling pathways, and effector mechanisms are sequential events that must be highly controlled to successfully eliminate the pathogen. Host recognizes pathogens through pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Some of these PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). TLRs and NLRs are PRRs that play a key role in recognition of extracellular and intracellular bacteria and control the inflammatory response. The activation of TLRs and NLRs by their respective ligands activates downstream signaling pathways that converge on activation of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) or interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), leading to expression of inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial molecules. The goal of this review is to discuss how the TLRs and NRLs signaling pathways collaborate in a cooperative or synergistic manner to counteract the infectious agents. A deep knowledge of the biochemical events initiated by each of these receptors will undoubtedly have a high impact in the design of more effective strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25525300

  2. Reptile Toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition.

    PubMed

    Voogdt, Carlos G P; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Kik, Marja J L; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. TLRs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vertebrate evolution. Here we report the cloning, characterization, and function of TLR5 of the reptile Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole lizard). The receptor (acTLR5) displays the typical TLR protein architecture with 22 extracellular leucine rich repeats flanked by a N- and C-terminal leucine rich repeat domain, a membrane-spanning region, and an intracellular TIR domain. The receptor is phylogenetically most similar to TLR5 of birds and most distant to fish TLR5. Transcript analysis revealed acTLR5 expression in multiple lizard tissues. Stimulation of acTLR5 with TLR ligands demonstrated unique responsiveness towards bacterial flagellin in both reptile and human cells. Comparison of acTLR5 and human TLR5 using purified flagellins revealed differential sensitivity to Pseudomonas but not Salmonella flagellin, indicating development of species-specific flagellin recognition during the divergent evolution of mammals and reptiles. Our discovery of reptile TLR5 fills the evolutionary gap regarding TLR conservation across vertebrates and provides novel insights in functional evolution of host-microbe interactions. PMID:26738735

  3. Reptile Toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition

    PubMed Central

    Voogdt, Carlos G. P.; Bouwman, Lieneke I.; Kik, Marja J. L.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. TLRs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vertebrate evolution. Here we report the cloning, characterization, and function of TLR5 of the reptile Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole lizard). The receptor (acTLR5) displays the typical TLR protein architecture with 22 extracellular leucine rich repeats flanked by a N- and C-terminal leucine rich repeat domain, a membrane-spanning region, and an intracellular TIR domain. The receptor is phylogenetically most similar to TLR5 of birds and most distant to fish TLR5. Transcript analysis revealed acTLR5 expression in multiple lizard tissues. Stimulation of acTLR5 with TLR ligands demonstrated unique responsiveness towards bacterial flagellin in both reptile and human cells. Comparison of acTLR5 and human TLR5 using purified flagellins revealed differential sensitivity to Pseudomonas but not Salmonella flagellin, indicating development of species-specific flagellin recognition during the divergent evolution of mammals and reptiles. Our discovery of reptile TLR5 fills the evolutionary gap regarding TLR conservation across vertebrates and provides novel insights in functional evolution of host-microbe interactions. PMID:26738735

  4. Dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines: Selective Toll-Like Receptor 9 Antagonists from Scaffold Morphing Efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in the innate immune system. In fact, recognition of endogenous immune complexes containing self-nucleic acids as pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns contributes to certain autoimmune diseases, and inhibition of these recognition signals is expected to have therapeutic value. We identified dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as novel selective TLR9 antagonists with high aqueous solubility. A structure–activity relationship study of a known TLR9 antagonist led to the promising compound 18, which showed potent TLR9 antagonistic activity, sufficient aqueous solubility for parenteral formulation, and druggable properties. Compound 18 suppressed the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in CpG-induced mouse model. It is therefore believed that compound 18 has great potential in the treatment of TLR9-mediated systemic uncontrollable inflammatory response like sepsis. PMID:25408837

  5. Vaccinia virus protein A46R targets multiple Toll-like-interleukin-1 receptor adaptors and contributes to virulence.

    PubMed

    Stack, Julianne; Haga, Ismar R; Schröder, Martina; Bartlett, Nathan W; Maloney, Geraldine; Reading, Patrick C; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Smith, Geoffrey L; Bowie, Andrew G

    2005-03-21

    Viral immune evasion strategies target key aspects of the host antiviral response. Recently, it has been recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a role in innate defense against viruses. Here, we define the function of the vaccinia virus (VV) protein A46R and show it inhibits intracellular signalling by a range of TLRs. TLR signalling is triggered by homotypic interactions between the Toll-like-interleukin-1 resistance (TIR) domains of the receptors and adaptor molecules. A46R contains a TIR domain and is the only viral TIR domain-containing protein identified to date. We demonstrate that A46R targets the host TIR adaptors myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88 adaptor-like, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), and the TRIF-related adaptor molecule and thereby interferes with downstream activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kappaB. TRIF mediates activation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and induction of IFN-beta by TLR3 and TLR4 and suppresses VV replication in macrophages. Here, A46R disrupted TRIF-induced IRF3 activation and induction of the TRIF-dependent gene regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Furthermore, we show that A46R is functionally distinct from another described VV TLR inhibitor, A52R. Importantly, VV lacking the A46R gene was attenuated in a murine intranasal model, demonstrating the importance of A46R for VV virulence. PMID:15767367

  6. The role of MAPK in CD4{sup +} T cells toll-like receptor 9-mediated signaling following HHV-6 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Jing; Wang, Fang; Li, Lingyun; Feng, Dongju; Qin, Jian; Xie, Fangyi; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Yun; Wang, Jinfeng; Yao, Kun

    2012-01-05

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is an important immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory virus that primarily infects immune cells (mainly CD4{sup +} T cells) and strongly suppresses the proliferation of infected cells. Toll-like receptors are pattern-recognition receptors essential for the development of an appropriate innate immune defense against infection. To understand the role of CD4{sup +} T cells in the innate response to HHV-6 infection and the involvement of TLRs, we used an in vitro infection model and observed that the infection of CD4{sup +} T cells resulted in the activation of JNK/SAPK via up-regulation of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Associated with JNK activation, annexin V-PI staining indicated that HHV-6A was a strong inducer of apoptosis. Apoptotic response associated cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-{alpha} also induced by HHV-6A infection.

  7. Comprehensive survey and genomic characterization of toll-like receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: identification of novel fish TLRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive survey of channel catfish Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) was undertaken following a genomic PCR approach based on degenerate primers. Twenty different TLRs were identified in channel catfish. Channel catfish TLR sequences were characterized by phylogenetic analysis based on their conserv...

  8. Dynamics of the avian inflammatory response to Salmonella following administration of the toll-like receptor 5 agonist flagellin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flagellin is a highly evolutionarily conserved bacterial component that is recognized by the innate immune system through toll-like receptor (TLR) 5. Previous work has shown that flagellin is a potent stimulator in vitro of phagocytic cell functions of chickens. The purpose of the present study wa...

  9. GENES, IN ADDITION TO TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 2, PLAY A ROLE IN ANTIBACTERIAL DEFENSE TO STREPTOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streptococcus infection in human populations continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the effect of genetic background and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on antibacterial defense to streptococcal infection, eight genetically diverse strains of mic...

  10. Colonic mucosal DNA methylation, immune response, and microbiome patterns in Toll-like receptor 2-knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stunning complexity of the resident microbiota and the intricate pathways of microbial and host interactions provide a massive adaptive capacity for mammals. In this addendum we reflect on our recent publication on Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency related colonic mucosal epigenetic, immunologic a...

  11. Association of Toll-like receptor 2 Arg753Gln and Toll-like receptor 1 Ile602Ser single-nucleotide polymorphisms with leptospirosis in an Argentine population.

    PubMed

    Cédola, Maia; Chiani, Yosena; Pretre, Gabriela; Alberdi, Lucrecia; Vanasco, Bibiana; Gómez, Ricardo M

    2015-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a member of the Toll-like receptor family, plays an important role in the recognition of and subsequent immune response activation against leptospirosis in humans. The genetic polymorphism in TLR2 of an arginine to glutamine substitution at residue 753 (Arg753Gln) has been associated with a negative influence on TLR2 function, which may, in turn, determine the innate host response to Leptospira spp. This bacterium signals through TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers in human cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the Arg753Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TLR2 gene, and the isoleucine to serine transversion at position 602 (Ile602Ser) of the TLR1 gene (previously associated with Lyme disease), in leptospirosis patients compared to healthy controls, carrying out a retrospective case/control study. The TLR2 polymorphism adenine (A) allele was observed in 7.3% of leptospirosis patients but was not found in the control group, whereas the guanine (G) allele of the TLR1 polymorphism was found in 63.6% of patients and 41.6% of controls. Susceptibility to leptospirosis disease was increased 10.57-fold for carriers of the TLR2 G/A genotype (P=0.0493) and 3.85-fold for carriers of the TLR1 G/G genotype (P=0.0428). Furthermore, the risk of developing hepatic insufficiency and jaundice was increased 18.86- and 27.60-fold for TLR2 G/A carriers, respectively. Similarly, the risk of developing jaundice was increased 12.67-fold for TLR1 G allele carriers (G/G and T/G genotypes). In conclusion, the present data suggest that the TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR1 Ile602Ser SNPs influence the risk of developing leptospirosis and its severity. PMID:25784560

  12. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Mediates Fatal Immunopathology in Mice During Treatment of Secondary Pneumococcal Pneumonia Following Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Karlström, Åsa; Heston, Sarah M.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Tuomanen, Elaine I.

    2011-01-01

    Host inflammatory responses contribute to the significant immunopathology that occurs during treatment of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza. We undertook the present study to determine the mechanisms underlying disparate outcomes in a mouse model with β-lactam and macrolide antibiotics. Lysis of superinfecting bacteria by ampicillin caused an extensive influx of neutrophils into the lungs resulting in a consolidative pneumonia, necrotic lung damage, and significant mortality. This was mediated through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and was independent of TLR4 and the Streptococcus pneumoniae cytotoxin pneumolysin. Treatment with azithromycin prevented neutrophil accumulation and rescued mice from subsequent mortality. This effect was independent of the antibacterial activity of this macrolide since dual therapy with ampicillin and azithromycin against an azithromycin-resistant strain also was able to cure secondary pneumonia. These data suggest that strategies for eliminating bacteria without lysis coupled with immunomodulation of inflammation should be pursued clinically. PMID:21900488

  13. Development of β-Amino Alcohol Derivatives that Inhibit Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediated Inflammatory Response as Potential Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Sherry A.; Martinko, Alexander J.; Lau, Corinna; Pham, Michael N.; Cheng, Kui; Bevan, Douglas E.; Mollnes, Tom E.; Yin, Hang

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) induced pro-inflammatory signaling has been directly implicated in severe sepsis and represents an attractive therapeutic target. Herein, we report our investigations into the structure-activity relationship and preliminary drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics study of β-amino alcohol derivatives that inhibit the TLR4 signaling pathway. Lead compounds were identified from in vitro cellular examination with µM potency for their inhibitory effects on TLR4 signaling and subsequently assessed for their ability to suppress the TLR4-induced inflammatory response in an ex vivo whole blood model. In addition the toxicology, specificity, solubility, brain-blood barrier permeability, and drug metabolism of several compounds were evaluated. Although further optimizations are needed, our findings lay the groundwork for the future drug development of this class of small molecule agents for the treatment of severe sepsis. PMID:21591694

  14. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 9 attenuates sepsis-induced mortality through suppressing excessive inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dan; Yang, Xiaohua; Xiang, Yianxiao; Li, Hui; Yan, Hui; Zhou, Jun; Caudle, Yi; Zhang, Xiumei; Yin, Deling

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, a major clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality, is caused by overwhelming systemic host-inflammatory response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a fundamental role in induction of hyperinflammation and tissue damage in sepsis. In this study, we demonstrate a protective role of TLR9 inhibition against the dysregulated inflammatory response and tissue injury in sepsis. TLR9 deficiency decreased the mortality of mice following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) -induced sepsis. TLR9 knockout mice showed dampened p38 activation and augmented Akt phosphorylation in the spleen, lung and liver. In addition, TLR9 deficiency decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines and attenuated splenic apoptosis after CLP. These results indicate that TLR9 inhibition might offer a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of sepsis. PMID:25880099

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Wild Type Homozygozity of Polymorphisms +896 and +1196 Is Associated with High Gastrin Serum Levels and Peptic Ulcer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pohjanen, Vesa-Matti; Koivurova, Olli-Pekka; Huhta, Heikki; Helminen, Olli; Mäkinen, Johanna M.; Karhukorpi, Jari M.; Joensuu, Tapio; Koistinen, Pentti O.; Valtonen, Jarno M.; Niemelä, Seppo E.; Karttunen, Riitta A.; Karttunen, Tuomo J.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 is a part of the innate immune system and recognizes Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms +896 (rs4986790) and +1196 (rs4986791) in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori related gastroduodenal diseases in relation to gastric secretion and inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms, serum gastrin-17 and pepsinogen I and II concentrations were determined, and gastroscopies with histopathological analyses were performed to 216 dyspeptic patients. As genotype controls, 179 controls and 61 gastric cancer patients were studied. In our study, the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 polymorphisms were in total linkage disequilibrium. The homozygous wild types displayed higher gastrin-17 serum concentrations than the mutants (p = 0.001) and this effect was independent of Helicobacter pylori. The homozygous wild types also displayed an increased risk for peptic ulcers (OR: 4.390). Toll-like receptor 4 genotypes did not show any association with Helicobacter pylori positivity or the features of gastric inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 expression was seen in gastrin and somatostatin expressing cells of antral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Our results suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in gastric acid regulation and that the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 wild type homozygozity increases peptic ulcer risk via gastrin secretion. PMID:26161647

  16. In silico analysis of human Toll-like receptor 7 ligand binding domain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chhedi Lal; Akhtar, Salman; Sayyed, Uzma; Pathak, Neelam; Bajpai, Preeti

    2016-05-01

    Toll-like receptors recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns are preface actors for innate immunity. Among them TLR7 is a transmembrane protein playing very crucial role in the signaling pathways involved in innate immunity by recognizing viral ssRNA and specific small molecule agonists. The unavailability of experimental 3D structure of this receptor till date hampers the focused exploration of TLR7 interaction with its ligands. However, several proteins possessing high homology domain enabled us to construct a reliable 3D model of hTLR7 ECD, which was employed to generate the homodimer model using protein-protein docking strategy. Further molecular docking studies between developed homodimer model and ligands were performed to explore the most preferred site of hTLR7 ECD interacting with ligands. The comparative analysis of docking energies and protein-ligand interactions of all the ligands revealed resiquimod as the prominent agonist. Furthermore, molecular interactions between protein-ligand complexes suggested LRR15 and LRR16 region of hTLR7 ECD as the most preferential site for ligand binding. The Ser434 and Gly437 of LRR15 region of hTLR7 were found to be conserved with Drosophila Toll protein. The obtained complex model may lead to a better understanding of TLR7 functioning along with its inheritance from invertebrates to mammals. PMID:25817271

  17. The evolution of bat nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Zepeda-Mendoza, M Lisandra; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Rojas-Anaya, Edith; Méndez-Ojeda, Maria L; Arias, Carlos F; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-12-01

    We characterized the nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) of a New World bat species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), and through a comparative molecular evolutionary approach searched for general adaptation patterns among the nucleic acid-sensing TLRs of eight different bats species belonging to three families (Pteropodidae, Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae). We found that the bat TLRs are evolving slowly and mostly under purifying selection and that the divergence pattern of such receptors is overall congruent with the species tree, consistent with the evolution of many other mammalian nuclear genes. However, the chiropteran TLRs exhibited unique mutations fixed in ligand-binding sites, some of which involved nonconservative amino acid changes and/or targets of positive selection. Such changes could potentially modify protein function and ligand-binding properties, as some changes were predicted to alter nucleic acid binding motifs in TLR 9. Moreover, evidence for episodic diversifying selection acting specifically upon the bat lineage and sublineages was detected. Thus, the long-term adaptation of chiropterans to a wide variety of environments and ecological niches with different pathogen profiles is likely to have shaped the evolution of the bat TLRs in an order-specific manner. The observed evolutionary patterns provide evidence for potential functional differences between bat and other mammalian TLRs in terms of resistance to specific pathogens or recognition of nucleic acids in general. PMID:26503258

  18. Toll-like receptor-2 deficiency induces schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Jin; Lee, Jee Youn; Kim, Sang Jeong; Choi, Se-Young; Yune, Tae Young; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Here, we demonstrated that toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, a family of pattern-recognition receptors, is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia-like symptoms. Psychotic symptoms such as hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic-like behaviors, prepulse inhibition deficits, social withdrawal, and cognitive impairments were observed in TLR-2 knock-out (KO) mice. Ventricle enlargement, a hallmark of schizophrenia, was also observed in TLR-2 KO mouse brains. Levels of p-Akt and p-GSK-3α/β were markedly higher in the brain of TLR-2 KO than wild-type (WT) mice. Antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol or clozapine reversed behavioral and biochemical alterations in TLR-2 KO mice. Furthermore, p-Akt and p-GSK-3α/β were decreased by treatment with a TLR-2 ligand, lipoteichoic acid, in WT mice. Thus, our data suggest that the dysregulation of the innate immune system by a TLR-2 deficiency may contribute to the development and/or pathophysiology of schizophrenia-like behaviors via Akt-GSK-3α/β signaling. PMID:25687169

  19. Altered adherent leukocyte profile on biomaterials in Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Todd H.; Babensee, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    The host response to a biomaterial is characterized by both acute recruitment and attachment of cells as well as chronic encapsulating tissue reaction. The implantation procedure induces production of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which may contribute to host recognition of the material. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that bind not only pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) but also DAMPs. We sought to investigate whether TLR4/DAMP interactions were involved in the acute and chronic inflammatory response to an implanted biomaterial. When PET discs were implanted intraperitoneally for 16 h, no differences were found in the number of leukocytes recruited between TLR4+ (C57BL/10J) and TLR4− (C57BL/10ScNJ) mice. However, a significant shift in the leukocyte profile on the biomaterial surface was observed for TLR4− mice. While the total number of adherent cells was the same in both strains, TLR4+ mice had a profile with equivalent neutrophil and monocyte/macrophage presence on the material surface, and TLR4− mice had a profile of predominantly neutrophils with fewer monocyte/macrophages. When implants were placed subcutaneously for 2 weeks, the fibrous capsule thicknesses were not different between TLR4+ and TLR4− mouse strains. These findings illustrate that TLR4 may play a role in the initial recognition of a biomaterial by directing the adhesive cellular profile. PMID:19818491

  20. Toll-Like Receptor-4 Dependent Small Intestinal Immune Responses Following Murine Arcobacter Butzleri Infection

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Karadas, Gül; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B.; Alter, Thomas; Bereswill, Stefan; Gölz, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic cases of gastroenteritis have been attributed to Arcobacter butzleri infection, but information about the underlying immunopathological mechanisms is scarce. We have recently shown that experimental A. butzleri infection induces intestinal, extraintestinal and systemic immune responses in gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunopathological role of Toll-like Receptor-4, the receptor for lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, during murine A. butzleri infection. To address this, gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice lacking TLR-4 were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with two different A. butzleri strains isolated from a patient (CCUG 30485) or fresh chicken meat (C1), respectively. Bacteria of either strain stably colonized the ilea of mice irrespective of their genotype at days 6 and 16 postinfection. As compared to IL-10–/– control animals, TLR-4–/– IL-10–/– mice were protected from A. butzleri-induced ileal apoptosis, from ileal influx of adaptive immune cells including T lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells and B lymphocytes, and from increased ileal IFN-γ secretion. Given that TLR-4-signaling is essential for A. butzleri-induced intestinal inflammation, we conclude that bacterial lipooligosaccharide or lipopolysaccharide compounds aggravate intestinal inflammation and may thus represent major virulence factors of Arcobacter. Future studies need to further unravel the molecular mechanisms of TLR-4-mediated A. butzleri-host interactions. PMID:26716022

  1. Use of Toll-Like Receptor 3 Agonists Against Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, ME; Wong, JP

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory RNA viruses are constantly evolving, thus requiring development of additional prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. Harnessing the innate immune system to non-specifically respond to viral infection has the advantage of being able to circumvent viral mutations that render the virus resistant to a particular therapeutic agent. Viruses are recognized by various cellular receptors, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 which recognizes double-stranded (ds)RNA produced during the viral replication cycle. TLR3 agonists include synthetic dsRNA such as poly (IC), poly (ICLC) and poly (AU). These agents have been evaluated and found to be effective against a number of viral agents. One major limitation has been the toxicity associated with administration of these drugs. Significant time and effort have been spent to develop alternatives/modifications that will minimize these adverse effects. This review will focus on the TLR3 agonist, poly (IC)/(ICLC) with respect to its use in treatment/prevention of respiratory viral infections.

  2. Characterization of host responses induced by Toll-like receptor ligands in chicken cecal tonsil cells.

    PubMed

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    The innate responses of cecal tonsils against invading microorganisms are mediated by conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs expressed by mammalian and avian immune system cells have the capability to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although, the role of TLR ligands in innate and adaptive responses in chickens has been characterized in spleen and bursa of Fabricius, considerably less is known about responses in cecal tonsils. The aim of the current study was to assess responses of mononuclear cells from cecal tonsils to treatment with the TLR2, TLR4 and TLR21 ligands, Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), respectively. All three ligands induced significant up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2/IL-8, whereas no significant changes were observed in expression of IL-13 or the antimicrobial peptides, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). In general, CpG ODN elicited the highest cytokine responses by cecal tonsil mononuclear cells, inducing significantly higher expression compared to LPS and Pam3CSK4, for IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2 at various time points. These findings suggest the potential use of TLR21 ligands as mucosal vaccine adjuvants, especially in the context of pathogens of the intestinal tract. PMID:27185259

  3. Flagellin A Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist as an Adjuvant in Chicken Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Preety; Deb, Rajib; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Dey, Sohini

    2014-01-01

    Chicken raised under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to a number of pathogens. Therefore, regular vaccination of the flock is an absolute requirement to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. To combat infectious diseases, vaccines require inclusion of effective adjuvants that promote enhanced protection and do not cause any undesired adverse reaction when administered to birds along with the vaccine. With this perspective in mind, there is an increased need for effective better vaccine adjuvants. Efforts are being made to enhance vaccine efficacy by the use of suitable adjuvants, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants. TLRs are among the types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved pathogen molecules. A number of studies have documented the effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant as well as its ability to promote cytokine production by a range of innate immune cells. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of flagellin action, its role in inducing cytokine response in chicken cells, and the potential use of flagellin as well as its combination with other TLR ligands as an adjuvant in chicken vaccines. PMID:24451328

  4. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Influences Glucose Homeostasis and β-Cell Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Strodthoff, Daniela; Ma, Zuheng; Wirström, Tina; Strawbridge, Rona J; Ketelhuth, Daniel F J; Engel, David; Clarke, Robert; Falkmer, Sture; Hamsten, Anders; Hansson, Göran K; Björklund, Anneli; Lundberg, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We examined the function of TLR3 in glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes-related phenotypes in animals and humans. TLR3 is highly expressed in the pancreas, suggesting that it can influence metabolism. Using a diet-induced obesity model, we show that TLR3-deficient mice had enhanced glycemic control, facilitated by elevated insulin secretion. Despite having high insulin levels, Tlr3(-/-) mice did not experience disturbances in whole-body insulin sensitivity, suggesting that they have a robust metabolic system that manages increased insulin secretion. Increase in insulin secretion was associated with upregulation of islet glucose phosphorylation as well as exocytotic protein VAMP-2 in Tlr3(-/-) islets. TLR3 deficiency also modified the plasma lipid profile, decreasing VLDL levels due to decreased triglyceride biosynthesis. Moreover, a meta-analysis of two healthy human populations showed that a missense single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR3 (encoding L412F) was linked to elevated insulin levels, consistent with our experimental findings. In conclusion, our results increase the understanding of the function of innate receptors in metabolic disorders and implicate TLR3 as a key control system in metabolic regulation. PMID:25918231

  5. Identification and expression analysis of two Toll-like receptor genes from sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongjuan; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Yang, Aifu; Jiang, Bei; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Wang, Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of type I integral membrane glycoproteins which play pivotal roles in innate immunity. In this study, two TLRs named AjTLR3 and AjToll were cloned from sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). The full-length cDNA sequences of AjTLR3 and AjToll are 3484 bp and 4211 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2679 bp and 2853 bp, encoding 892 and 950 amino acids, respectively. Both AjTLR3 and AjToll are composed of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, a transmembrane (TM) domain and an intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Evolution analysis revealed that AjTLR3 and AjToll were clustered with the vertebrate-like TLRs (V-TLRs) and the protostome-like TLRs (P-TLRs), respectively. These two genes were widely expressed in all five tested tissues (body wall, coelomocytes, tube feet, intestine and respiratory tree), but showed different expression patterns. The significantly up-regulated expressions of AjTLR3 and AjToll after peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Zymosan A and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) challenges suggested that they were functionally involved in the immune responses to the Cram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses, respectively. PMID:23103635

  6. Regulation of Wound Healing and Organ Fibrosis by Toll-like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Huebener, Peter; Schwabe, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic injury often triggers maladaptive wound healing responses leading to the development of tissue fibrosis and subsequent organ malfunction. Inflammation is a key component of the wound healing process and promotes the development of organ fibrosis. Here, we review the contribution of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to wound healing with a particular focus on their role in liver, lung, kidney, skin and myocardial fibrosis. We discuss the role of TLRs on distinct cell populations that participate in the repair process following tissue injury, and the contribution of exogenous and endogenous TLR ligands to the wound healing response. Systemic review of the literature shows that TLRs promote tissue repair and fibrosis in many settings, albeit with profound differences between organs. In particular, TLRs exert a pronounced effect on fibrosis in organs with higher exposure to bacterial TLR ligands, such as the liver. Targeting TLR signaling at the ligand or receptor level may represent a novel strategy for the prevention of maladaptive wound healing and fibrosis in chronically injured organs. PMID:23220258

  7. The Toll-like receptor-3 agonist poly(I:C) triggers nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Deleidi, Michela; Hallett, Penelope J.; Koprich, James B.; Chung, Chee-Yeun; Isacson, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD), loss of striatal dopaminergic (DA) terminals and degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are associated with glial reactions. Such inflammatory processes are commonly considered an epiphenomenon of neuronal degeneration. However, there is increasing recognition of the role of neuroinflammation as an initiation factor of DA neuron degeneration. To investigate this issue, we established a new model of brain inflammation by injecting the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3) agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] in the SN of adult rats. Poly(I:C) injection induced a sustained inflammatory reaction in the SN and in the dorsolateral striatum. Significant changes were detected in proteins relevant to synaptic transmission and axonal transport. In addition, cytoplasmic mislocalization of neuronal TDP-43 was observed. Poly(I:C) injection increased the susceptibility of midbrain DA neurons to a subsequent neurotoxic trigger (low dose 6-hydroxydopamine). Systemic delivery of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-ra) protected SN DA neurons exposed to combined poly(I:C) induced inflammatory and neurotoxic oxidative stress. These data indicate that viral-like neuroinflammation induces predegenerative changes in the DA system, which lowers the set point toward neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. New powerful neuroprotective therapies for PD might be considered by targeting critical inflammatory mechanisms, including cytokine-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:21123556

  8. Effects of Toll-like receptor ligands on RAW 264.7 macrophage morphology and zymosan phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sigola, Lynette B; Fuentes, Ana-Lucía; Millis, Leonard M; Vapenik, Jacqueline; Murira, Armstrong

    2016-08-01

    In this study we compared the effects of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, the synthetic bacterial triacylated lipopeptide Pam3-Cys-Ser-Lys4 (Pam3CSK4), Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), and macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP-2), which are TLR4, TLR5, TLR1/2, TLR3, and TLR2/6 agonists, respectively, on cell morphology and phagocytosis of zymosan particles, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and rich in fungal PAMPs including beta-glucan, mannose, and chitin. LPS, Pam3CSK4, and MALP-2 induced an activated macrophage phenotype and enhanced zymosan phagocytosis. In contrast, flagellin and Poly I:C, respectively, had little effect on cell morphology and phagocytosis. We examined the role of scavenger receptor A (SR-A) on zymosan phagocytosis. Cells cultured in medium alone expressed SR-A, and LPS induced further expression of the receptor. We also observed inhibitory effects of scavenger receptor antagonists fucoidan, dextran sulphate, and Polyinosinic (Poly I), respectively, on zymosan phagocytosis of cells in medium alone and those pre-treated with LPS. We conclude that exposure to specific TLR ligands impacts both cellular morphology and phagocytic capacity, and that scavenger receptors contribute to zymosan ingestion as well as LPS-induced augmentation of phagocytosis. PMID:27157550

  9. Characterization of toll-like receptors 1-10 in spotted hyenas

    PubMed Central

    Flies, Andrew S.; Maksimoski, Matthew; Mansfield, Linda S.; Weldele, Mary L.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) regularly survive exposure to deadly pathogens such as rabies, canine distemper virus, and anthrax, suggesting that they have robust immune defenses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR genes are evolutionarily conserved, and assessing TLR expression in various tissues can provide insight into overall immunological organization and function. Studies of the hyena immune system have been minimal thus far due to the logistical and ethical challenges of sampling and preserving the immunological tissues of this and other long-lived, wild species. Tissue samples were opportunistically collected from captive hyenas humanely euthanized for a separate study. We developed primers to amplify partial sequences for TLRs 1-10, sequenced the amplicons, compared sequence identity to those in other mammals, and quantified TLR expression in lymph nodes, spleens, lungs, and pancreases. Results show that hyena TLR DNA and protein sequences are similar to TLRs in other mammals, and that TLRs 1-10 were expressed in all tissues tested. This information will be useful in the development of new assays to understand the interactions among the hyena immune system, pathogens, and the microbial communities that inhabit hyenas. PMID:24488231

  10. New Insights into the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Toll-like Receptors and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Afrazi, Amin; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Richardson, Ward; Neal, Matthew; Good, Misty; Siggers, Richard; Hackam, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death from gastrointestinal disease in the preterm infant. The dismal results of current treatment for NEC highlight the urgent need for greater understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, and the importance of discovering novel, molecular-specific therapies for it. Current dogma indicates that NEC development reflects an abnormal response by the premature infant to the microbial flora that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract, although the mechanisms that mediate these abnormal bacterial-enterocyte interactions, and the reasons for the particularly increased susceptibility of the premature infant to the development of NEC remain incompletely explained. Recent evidence has shed light on an emerging role for the Toll like receptors (TLR's) of the innate immune system as central players in the pathways that signal in response to enteric bacteria resulting in the development of NEC. We now review recent advances in the field of NEC and identify several exciting potential avenues for novel treatments by focusing on abnormal TLR4 signaling in the premature intestine in the pathogenesis of NEC. In so doing, we seek to offer new hope to the patients and their families that are affected by this devastating disorder. PMID:21135755

  11. Drift, not selection, shapes toll-like receptor variation among oceanic island populations.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Quevedo, Catalina; Spurgin, Lewis G; Illera, Juan Carlos; Richardson, David S

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relative role of different evolutionary forces in shaping the level and distribution of functional genetic diversity among natural populations is a key issue in evolutionary and conservation biology. To do so accurately genetic data must be analysed in conjunction with an unambiguous understanding of the historical processes that have acted upon the populations. Here, we focused on diversity at toll-like receptor (TLR) loci, which play a key role in the vertebrate innate immune system and, therefore, are expected to be under pathogen-mediated selection. We assessed TLR variation within and among 13 island populations (grouped into three archipelagos) of Berthelot's pipit, Anthus berthelotii, for which detailed population history has previously been ascertained. We also compared the variation observed with that found in its widespread sister species, the tawny pipit, Anthus campestris. We found strong evidence for positive selection at specific codons in TLR1LA, TLR3 and TLR4. Despite this, we found that at the allele frequency level, demographic history has played the major role in shaping patterns of TLR variation in Berthelot's pipit. Levels of diversity and differentiation within and across archipelagos at all TLR loci corresponded very closely with neutral microsatellite variation and with the severity of the bottlenecks that occurred during colonization. Our study shows that despite the importance of TLRs in combating pathogens, demography can be the main driver of immune gene variation within and across populations, resulting in patterns of functional variation that can persist over evolutionary timescales. PMID:26509790

  12. No evidence of major effects in several Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jaen, Olivier; Petit-Teixeira, Elisabeth; Kirsten, Holger; Ahnert, Peter; Semerano, Luca; Pierlot, Céline; Cornelis, Francois; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Falgarone, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to study the potential genetic contribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TLRs bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and TLR genes influence both proinflammatory cytokine production and autoimmune responses. Host–pathogen interactions are involved in RA physiopathology. Methods We tested SNPs of five TLR genes (TLR9, TLR2, TLR6, TLR1, and TLR4) in a cohort of 100 French families with RA. Genotypes were analyzed using the transmission disequilibrium test. As TLR2, TLR6, and TLR1 are located on chromosome 4, we determined the haplotype relative risk. Analyses were performed in subgroups defined by status for rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies, and erosions. Results We found no disequilibrium in allele transmission for any of the SNPs of the five TLR genes. In subgroup analyses, no associations were detected linking TLR9, TLR2, or TLR9/TLR2 to rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies, or erosions. Haplotype analysis of the polymorphisms showed no haplotype associations in any of the subgroups. Conclusions We found no evidence of major effects of TLR gene polymorphisms in RA, although we tested different TLR phenotypes. Moreover, no associations were noted with autoantibody production or erosions. PMID:19134200

  13. Reduced cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Canxiang; Yang Qingwu . E-mail: yangqwmlys@hotmail.com; Lv Fenglin; Cui Jie; Fu Huabin; Wang Jingzhou

    2007-02-09

    Inflammatory reaction plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, its mechanism is still unclear. Our study aims to explore the function of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We made middle cerebral artery ischemia-reperfusion model in mice with line embolism method. Compared with C3H/OuJ mice, scores of cerebral water content, cerebral infarct size and neurologic impairment in C3H/Hej mice were obviously lower after 6 h ischemia and 24 h reperfusion. Light microscopic and electron microscopic results showed that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in C3H/Hej mice was less serious than that in C3H/OuJ mice. TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 contents in C3H/HeJ mice were obviously lower than that in C3H/OuJ mice with ELISA. The results showed that TLR4 participates in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury probably through decrease of inflammatory cytokines. TLR4 may become a new target for prevention of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our study suggests that TLR4 is one of the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury besides its important role in innate immunity.

  14. Intracellular Osteopontin inhibits toll-like receptor signaling and impedes liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoyu; He, Chunyan; Jing, Wei; Zhou, Xuyu; Chen, Rui; Cao, Lei; Zhu, Minhui; Jia, Rongjie; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun; Zhao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated widely in tumor growth and metastasis, but the range of its contributions is not yet fully understood. In this study, we show that genetic ablation of Opn in mice sensitizes them to diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Opn-deficient mice (Opn(-/-) mice) exhibited enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines and compensatory proliferation. Administering OPN antibody or recombinant OPN protein to wild-type or Opn(-/-) mice-derived macrophages, respectively, had little effect on cytokine production. In contrast, overexpression of intracellular OPN (iOPN) in Opn-deficient macrophages strongly suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we found that iOPN was able to interact with the pivotal Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling protein MyD88 in macrophages after stimulation with cellular debris, thereby disrupting TLR signaling in macrophages. Our results indicated that iOPN was capable of functioning as an endogenous negative regulator of TLR-mediated immune responses, acting to ameliorate production of proinflammatory cytokines and curtail DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Together, our results expand the important role of OPN in inflammation-associated cancers and deepen its relevance for novel treatment strategies in liver cancer. PMID:25398438

  15. Toll-like receptor genetic variants are associated with Gram-negative infections in VLBW infants

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Venkatesh; Mulrooney, Neil P.; Garland, Jeffery S.; He, Jie; Patel, Aloka L.; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hines, Ronald N.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes alter susceptibility to bacterial infections and modulate WBC counts during infections in very low birth-weight infants (birth weight <1500g, VLBW). STUDY DESIGN VLBW infants recruited in a multi-center study were genotyped for 9 functional TLR SNPs and associations between SNPs and infection rates examined. WBC counts obtained during infections were compared among infants with and without SNPs. RESULTS In our cohort (n=408), 90 infants developed bacterial infections. Presence of TLR4 (rs4986790 & 4986791) variants were associated with Gram-negative infections. Female infants heterozygous for the X-linked IRAK1 (rs1059703) SNP had less Gram-negative infections. In regression models controlling for confounders, the TLR4 (rs4986790) SNP was associated with increased Gram-negative infections. The TLR5 (rs5744105) variant was associated with elevated WBC counts during infections. CONCLUSION TLR genetic variants can contribute to increased risk of bacterial infections and altered immune responses in VLBW infants. PMID:23867959