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Sample records for activation analysis applications

  1. Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, Ryan

    2011-04-27

    The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

  2. Applications of activation analysis to geochemical, meteoritic and lunar studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, D. L.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of activation analysis techniques to the analysis of cosmological materials, i.e., terrestrial, tektitic, meteoritic, and lunar matter, is reviewed. Elemental determinations can be made by instrumental fast-neutron and thermal-neutron activation analysis, photonuclear and charged-particle activation analysis, and by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Partition-coefficient methods, autoradiography studies, gamma-gamma coincidence counting, and age determination by neutron activation are discussed. Attention is given to K-Ar and I-Xe dating of meteorites.

  3. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  4. Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

  5. Activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 16 chapters on the application of activation analysis in the fields of life sciences, biological materials, coal and its effluents, environmental samples, archaeology, material science, and forensics. Each chapter is processed separately for the data base.

  6. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  7. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  8. Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.

  9. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  10. Application of Avco data analysis and prediction techniques (ADAPT) to prediction of sunspot activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, H. E.; Amato, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the application of Avco Data Analysis and Prediction Techniques (ADAPT) to derivation of new algorithms for the prediction of future sunspot activity. The ADAPT derived algorithms show a factor of 2 to 3 reduction in the expected 2-sigma errors in the estimates of the 81-day running average of the Zurich sunspot numbers. The report presents: (1) the best estimates for sunspot cycles 20 and 21, (2) a comparison of the ADAPT performance with conventional techniques, and (3) specific approaches to further reduction in the errors of estimated sunspot activity and to recovery of earlier sunspot historical data. The ADAPT programs are used both to derive regression algorithm for prediction of the entire 11-year sunspot cycle from the preceding two cycles and to derive extrapolation algorithms for extrapolating a given sunspot cycle based on any available portion of the cycle.

  11. Introducing Spectral Structure Activity Relationship (S-SAR) Analysis. Application to Ecotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Mihai V.; Lacrămă, Ana-Maria

    2007-01-01

    A novel quantitative structure-activity (property) relationship model, namely Spectral-SAR, is presented in an exclusive algebraic way replacing the old-fashioned multi-regression one. The actual S-SAR method interprets structural descriptors as vectors in a generic data space that is further mapped into a full orthogonal space by means of the Gram-Schmidt algorithm. Then, by coordinated transformation between the data and orthogonal spaces, the S-SAR equation is given under simple determinant form for any chemical-biological interactions under study. While proving to give the same analytical equation and correlation results with standard multivariate statistics, the actual S-SAR frame allows the introduction of the spectral norm as a valid substitute for the correlation factor, while also having the advantage to design the various related SAR models through the introduced “minimal spectral path” rule. An application is given performing a complete S-SAR analysis upon the Tetrahymena pyriformis ciliate species employing its reported eco-toxicity activities among relevant classes of xenobiotics. By representing the spectral norm of the endpoint models against the concerned structural coordinates, the obtained S-SAR endpoints hierarchy scheme opens the perspective to further design the ecotoxicological test batteries with organisms from different species.

  12. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L.; Marra, F.

    2015-12-01

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  13. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L. Marra, F.

    2015-12-17

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  14. Application of a hemolysis assay for analysis of complement activation by perfluorocarbon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christine T.N.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Beiser, Julia; Mitchell, Lynne M.; Huang, Jennifer L.; Senpan, Angana; Hu, Grace; Gordon, Mae; Baker, Nathan A.; Pan, Dipanjan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Hourcade, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles offer new options for medical diagnosis and therapeutics with their capacity to specifically target cells and tissues with imaging agents and/or drug payloads. The unique physical aspects of nanoparticles present new challenges for this promising technology. Studies indicate that nanoparticles often elicit moderate to severe complement activation. Using human in vitro assays that corroborated the mouse in vivo results we previously presented mechanistic studies that define the pathway and key components involved in modulating complement interactions with several gadolinium-functionalized perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFOB). Here we employ a modified in vitro hemolysis-based assay developed in conjunction with the mouse in vivo model to broaden our analysis to include PFOBs of varying size, charge and surface chemistry and examine the variations in nanoparticle-mediated complement activity between individuals. This approach may provide the tools for an in-depth structure-activity relationship study that will guide the eventual development of biocompatible nanoparticles. PMID:24211337

  15. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake; Christian, James F.

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As 6Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for 6Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery was observed

  16. Analysis of improved neutron activation technique using thick foils for application on medical LINAC environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagena, E.; Stoulos, S.; Manolopoulou, M.

    2016-01-01

    An improved neutron activation technique is analyzed that can be used for the characterization of the neutron field in low neutron flux environments, such as medical Linacs. Due to the much lower neutron fluence rates, thick materials instead of thin have been used. The study is focused on the calculations of basic components of the neutron activation analysis that are required for accurate results, such as the efficiency of the gamma detector used for γ-spectrometry as well as crucial correction factors that are required when dealing with thick samples in different geometries and forms. A Monte Carlo detector model, implemented by Geant4 MC Code was adjusted in accordance to results from various measurements performed. Moreover, regarding to estimate the self-shielding correction factors a new approach using both Monte Carlo and analytical approach was presented. This improvement gives more accurate results, which are important for both activation and shielding studies that take place in many facilities. A quite good agreement between the neutron fluxes is achieved; according to the data obtained a mean value of (2.13±0.34)×105 ncm-2 s-1 is representative for the isocenter of the specific Linac that corresponds to fluence of (5.53±0.94)×106 ncm-2 Gy-1. Comparable fluencies reported in the literature for similar Linacs operating with photon beams at 15 MeV.

  17. Applications of active microwave imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. P.; Childs, L. F.; Gilbert, R.; Harlan, J. C.; Hoffer, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Parsons, J.; Polcyn, F.; Schardt, B. B.; Smith, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics were discussed in reference to active microwave applications: (1) Use of imaging radar to improve the data collection/analysis process; (2) Data collection tasks for radar that other systems will not perform; (3) Data reduction concepts; and (4) System and vehicle parameters: aircraft and spacecraft.

  18. Application of the Linac of the Iren Facility for Production Some Radionuclides and Multielemental Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shovoodoi, G.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Ganbold, G.; Nyamsuren, B.; Belov, A. G.

    2009-03-01

    The possibility to develop multielemental activation analysis and production of some radionuclides widely used for the nuclear medicine, radiobiology and ecology monitoring at the linear electron accelerator (Ee- = 75 MeV) of the facility IREN (FLNP, JINR) are considered. Based on the experimental data obtained at low energy (Ee-<30 MeV) electron accelerators as well as the microtron MT-25 (FLNR, JINR) with the power 0.57 kW, are estimated photonuclear reaction yields for some radionuclides for the linear electron accelerator (Ee- = 75 MeV). Technical parameter of the linac will be as follow as: the electron beam current 2.8 A in 100 microsecond impulse and frequency 50 Hz, that means the electron beam power -1.1 kW in the target.

  19. Test/analysis comparison of piezoelectric patch local behavior for vibroacoustic active control application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florens, Corine; Balmes, Etienne; Clero, Franck

    2007-04-01

    To predict the effect of active control on aircraft or helicopter trim panels, made with honeycomb sandwich composite, one approach consists in modeling the panel by Finite Element Method. FEM with shell elements for the laminate and volume elements for the core is classically used in industry; in a previous study the homogenized modeling approach has been validated. The aim of the present paper is to make a test/analysis comparison of the dynamic behavior of a honeycomb core sandwich beam actuated by a piezoelectric patch. More precisely, the behavior in the vicinity of the piezoelectric actuator is characterized, in order to validate the modeling approach of honeycomb sandwich composite equipped with piezoelectric patches.

  20. Application for the wearable heart activity monitoring system: analysis of the autonomic function of HRV.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heui-Kyung; Lee, Jeong-Whan; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Lee, Young-Jae; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Choi, Hee-Jung; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The wearable patch-style heart activity monitoring system (HAMS) which was used for recording ECG signal in this study is self-developed. This electrode design helps the non-restricted, non-aware and non-invasive ECG measurement. The modified bipolar electrode is convenient in use because it is designed for easy attachment and detachment with ECG measuring module by snap button. Besides, it minimizes EMI by removing the cables. In the same subjects who were exposed under stress and non-stress, the questionnaire was given out, the amount of the stress hormone was measured by blood test and the ECG signal was recorded. Through the analysis of ECG signal which is measured with wearable patch-style HAMS, the parameter highly related with mental stress were extracted from frequency and time domain. These parameters were certified as the meaningful factor after correlation analysis on the results from questionnaire and stress hormone test. Also, it is proved that the availability of wearable patch-style heart monitoring system is efficient as health monitoring system in any places and occasion. PMID:19162895

  1. Application of slip-line analysis to the mechanical model of active accretionary wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, I.; Lee, H.; Kim, J.

    2012-04-01

    shows that the solution for the simple geometry of accretionary wedge is equivalent to the critical taper solution given by Davis et al. (1983). If a sedimentary formation covers the critical wedge, the stress underneath the formation is reduced to maintain the equilibrium with the basal friction strength. Thus the formation of sediment basin on top of the active accretionary wedge leads to the stress relaxation in the region below the basin. The topography of seafloor plays a crucial role in changing the basal friction along the base fault so that the geometry of the fault might be changed. Our numerical analysis also reveals that the pore pressure within the wedge and the décollement fault has no effect on the accretionary wedge angle.

  2. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  3. Application of active-phase plot to the kinetic analysis of lipoxygenase in reverse micelles.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gilabert, M; Sanchez-Ferrer, A; Garcia-Carmona, F

    1992-01-01

    A new plot for explaining the complex expression of the enzymic activity in reverse micelles has been developed as an extension of the theoretical model described by our group [Bru, Sánchez-Ferrer & García-Carmona (1990) Biochem. J. 268, 679-684]. The plot describes the changes in the relative volume, amount of enzyme (mumoles), enzyme concentration (microM) and substrate concentration (microM) in the phase where the enzyme is active. To illustrate the usefulness of this plot, the complex activity of soya bean lipoxygenase in reverse micelles acting on its interfacial substrate, octadecadienoic acid, was studied. It showed the key parameters ruling the activity profiles of lipoxygenase with respect to micelle size (omega 0), micelle concentration (theta) and the substrate/surfactant molar ratio (rho), which have never been described before. PMID:1281978

  4. Applications of genetic algorithms on the structure-activity relationship analysis of some cinnamamides.

    PubMed

    Hou, T J; Wang, J M; Liao, N; Xu, X J

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for 35 cinnamamides were studied. By using a genetic algorithm (GA), a group of multiple regression models with high fitness scores was generated. From the statistical analyses of the descriptors used in the evolution procedure, the principal features affecting the anticonvulsant activity were found. The significant descriptors include the partition coefficient, the molar refraction, the Hammet sigma constant of the substituents on the benzene ring, and the formation energy of the molecules. It could be found that the steric complementarity and the hydrophobic interaction between the inhibitors and the receptor were very important to the biological activity, while the contribution of the electronic effect was not so obvious. Moreover, by construction of the spline models for these four principal descriptors, the effective range for each descriptor was identified. PMID:10529984

  5. Analysis methods for solar heating and cooling applications: passive and active systems. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of analysis methods and design tools which are valuable in performing parametric studies of candidate designs are presented in this brochure. The methods included range from rules-of-thumb for builders to the simulation packages used by researchers. (MHR)

  6. Application of artificial neural network in precise prediction of cement elements percentages based on the neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari Zadeh, E.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Roshani, G. H.; Rezaei, A.

    2016-05-01

    Due to variation of neutron energy spectrum in the target sample during the activation process and to peak overlapping caused by the Compton effect with gamma radiations emitted from activated elements, which results in background changes and consequently complex gamma spectrum during the measurement process, quantitative analysis will ultimately be problematic. Since there is no simple analytical correlation between peaks' counts with elements' concentrations, an artificial neural network for analyzing spectra can be a helpful tool. This work describes a study on the application of a neural network to determine the percentages of cement elements (mainly Ca, Si, Al, and Fe) using the neutron capture delayed gamma-ray spectra of the substance emitted by the activated nuclei as patterns which were simulated via the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, version 2.7. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is developed with four specific peaks related to Ca, Si, Al and Fe, which were extracted as inputs. The proposed RBF model is developed and trained with MATLAB 7.8 software. To obtain the optimal RBF model, several structures have been constructed and tested. The comparison between simulated and predicted values using the proposed RBF model shows that there is a good agreement between them.

  7. Application of on-line laboratory computer analysis to fast neutron activation oxygen determinations

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.D.; Akanni, M.S.

    1983-04-01

    The development of an on-line laboratory computer analysis system designed for routine high volume oxygen determinations is discussed. The system is based on the detection of /sup 16/N photopeaks from the /sup 16/O(n,p) /sup 16/N reaction occurring during fast neutron irradiation. A system interface has been designed and constructed which is capable of controlling the Kaman 710 neutron generator, the sample transfer system, switching the BF/sub 3/ beam monitor detector or NaI(T1) detector outputs as required to a multichannel scaling MCA, and proper sequencing of the procedure. In addition, specific software has been developed for the control of the system during acquisition as well as evaluation of the MCS spectra generated.

  8. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bayati, Mohsen; Mahboub Ahari, Alireza; Badakhshan, Abbas; Gholipour, Mahin; Joulaei, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. Objectives: The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs). Materials and Methods: We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Results: Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC) was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. Conclusion: As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI

  9. Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, J. J.

    2001-07-01

    Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a "signature" of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min—compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives—but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly.

  10. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Tim Z.

    1994-07-01

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  11. Extracurricular activities of medical school applicants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants’ involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Methods: Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females) who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. Results: The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%), nonmedical community services (39.8%), club activities (22.9%), club officials (10%), and research (13.4%). On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Conclusion: Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds. PMID:26996435

  12. Integrated analysis and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of current research activities which, in a broad context, are focused on the development and verification of integrated structural analysis and optimal design capabilities for advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. The overview encompasses a variety of subject areas including: (1) composite materials; (2) advanced structural analysis; (3) constitutive modeling; (4) computational simulation; (5) probabilistic analysis; and (6) multidisciplinary optimization. Typical results are presented which illustrate the benefit and utility of the emerging technologies as applied to propulsion and power system structures.

  13. Application of the Huang-Hilbert transform and natural time to the analysis of seismic electric signal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulou, K. A.; Skordas, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Huang method is applied to Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activities in order to decompose them into their components, named Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). We study which of these components contribute to the basic characteristics of the signal. The Hilbert transform is then applied to the IMFs in order to determine their instantaneous amplitudes. The results are compared with those obtained from the analysis in a new time domain termed natural time, after having subtracted the magnetotelluric background from the original signal. It is shown that these instantaneous amplitudes, when combined with the natural time analysis, can be used for the distinction of SES from artificial noises.

  14. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

  15. The development and application of k0-standardization method of neutron activation analysis at Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghem, L.; Ramdhane, M.; Khaled, S.; Akhal, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the k0-NAA method has been applied and developed at the 15 MW Es-Salam research reactor, which includes: (1) the detection efficiency calibration of γ-spectrometer used in k0-NAA, (2) the determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f factors in the irradiation channel, and (3) the validation of the developed k0-NAA procedure by analysing SRM, namely AIEA-Soil7 and CRM, namely IGGE-GSV4. The analysis results obtained by k0-NAA with 27 elements of Soil-7 standard and 14 elements of GSV-4 standard were compared with certified values. The analysis results showed that the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10%. The k0-NAA procedure established at Es-Salam research reactor has been regarded as a reliable standardization method of NAA and as available for practical applications.

  16. Application of statistical process control and process capability analysis procedures in orbiter processing activities at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safford, Robert R.; Jackson, Andrew E.; Swart, William W.; Barth, Timothy S.

    1994-01-01

    Successful ground processing at KSC requires that flight hardware and ground support equipment conform to specifications at tens of thousands of checkpoints. Knowledge of conformance is an essential requirement for launch. That knowledge of conformance at every requisite point does not, however, enable identification of past problems with equipment, or potential problem areas. This paper describes how the introduction of Statistical Process Control and Process Capability Analysis identification procedures into existing shuttle processing procedures can enable identification of potential problem areas and candidates for improvements to increase processing performance measures. Results of a case study describing application of the analysis procedures to Thermal Protection System processing are used to illustrate the benefits of the approaches described in the paper.

  17. Tribological applications of surface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    For some years, surface analysis was used in fundamental studies of solid-solid contacts existing in tribological systems. Analysis was used to detect material transfer in sliding contacts. The effects of surface films on the adhesion of contacts was monitored. Finally electron spectroscopic analysis of interfaces has shed some light on the fundamental electronic nature of the interfacial bond. More recently, surface analysis was applied to many tribological engineering problems. In particular, identification of chemical films formed during the sliding contact of lubricated systems and study of the surface chemistry of lubricant additives were active areas of research. One or more of four properties of the analytical technique will be important in determining its utility. The four are: lateral resolution, specimen damage, depth resolution and the availability of chemical information. In each of the applications discussed here, the important factors are brought out.

  18. Neutron Activation Analysis of Water - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, John D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent developments in this field are emphasized. After a brief review of basic principles, topics discussed include sources of neutrons, pre-irradiation physical and chemical treatment of samples, neutron capture and gamma-ray analysis, and selected applications. Applications of neutron activation analysis of water have increased rapidly within the last few years and may be expected to increase in the future.

  19. The Applications of GIS in the Analysis of the Impacts of Human Activities on South Texas Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Merem, Edmund C.; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A.; Wesley, Joan M.; Robinson, Bennetta; Richardson, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    With water resource planning assuming greater importance in environmental protection efforts, analyzing the health of agricultural watersheds using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) becomes essential for decision-makers in Southern Texas. Within the area, there exist numerous threats from conflicting land uses. These include the conversion of land formerly designated for agricultural purposes to other uses. Despite current efforts, anthropogenic factors are greatly contributing to the degradation of watersheds. Additionally, the activities of waste water facilities located in some of the counties, rising populations, and other socioeconomic variables are negatively impacting the quality of water in the agricultural watersheds. To map the location of these stressors spatially and the extent of their impacts across time, the paper adopts a mix scale method of temporal spatial analysis consisting of simple descriptive statistics. In terms of objectives, this research provides geo-spatial analysis of the effects of human activities on agricultural watersheds in Southern Texas and the factors fuelling the concerns under the purview of watershed management. The results point to growing ecosystem decline across time and a geographic cluster of counties experiencing environmental stress. Accordingly, the emergence of stressors such as rising population, increased use of fertilizer treatments on farm land, discharges of atmospheric pollutants and the large presence of municipal and industrial waste treatment facilities emitting pathogens and pesticides directly into the agricultural watersheds pose a growing threat to the quality of the watershed ecosystem. PMID:21776238

  20. The applications of GIS in the analysis of the impacts of human activities on south Texas watersheds.

    PubMed

    Merem, Edmund C; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A; Wesley, Joan M; Robinson, Bennetta; Richardson, Chandra

    2011-06-01

    With water resource planning assuming greater importance in environmental protection efforts, analyzing the health of agricultural watersheds using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) becomes essential for decision-makers in Southern Texas. Within the area, there exist numerous threats from conflicting land uses. These include the conversion of land formerly designated for agricultural purposes to other uses. Despite current efforts, anthropogenic factors are greatly contributing to the degradation of watersheds. Additionally, the activities of waste water facilities located in some of the counties, rising populations, and other socioeconomic variables are negatively impacting the quality of water in the agricultural watersheds. To map the location of these stressors spatially and the extent of their impacts across time, the paper adopts a mix scale method of temporal spatial analysis consisting of simple descriptive statistics. In terms of objectives, this research provides geo-spatial analysis of the effects of human activities on agricultural watersheds in Southern Texas and the factors fuelling the concerns under the purview of watershed management. The results point to growing ecosystem decline across time and a geographic cluster of counties experiencing environmental stress. Accordingly, the emergence of stressors such as rising population, increased use of fertilizer treatments on farm land, discharges of atmospheric pollutants and the large presence of municipal and industrial waste treatment facilities emitting pathogens and pesticides directly into the agricultural watersheds pose a growing threat to the quality of the watershed ecosystem. PMID:21776238

  1. An Application of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  2. Application of stable isotope measurements and microbiological analysis for detecting methanogenic activity in a temperate forest wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, M.; Katsuyama, C.; Kondo, N.; Ohte, N.; Kato, K.

    2009-12-01

    Generally, forest soils act as a sink for methane (CH4). However, wetlands in riparian zones are recently reported to be “hot spots” of CH4 emissions, especially in forests under a humid climate. To understand how environmental conditions (i.e. hydrological and/or geomorphic condition) control on CH4 production, we investigated both methanogenic pathways (CO2/H2 reduction and acetate fermentation) and metahanogenic microbial communities in a wetland in a temperate forest catchment, central Japan. We used stable carbon isotopic analysis for detecting change in methanogenic pathways, and applied microbiological analysis for understanding the structure of methanogenic community. CH4 emission rates in wetland were strongly dependent on soil temperatures, and were highest in summer and lowest in winter. δ13CO2 increased with CH4 production in every summer, suggesting preferential use of 12CO2 as substrate for CO2/H2 reduction methanogenesis during high CH4 production period. δ13CH4 also increased in summer with δ13CO2. δ13CH4 changed more wildly than δ13CO2 did in summer with normal precipitation when CH4 production was strongly activated under high temperature and high groundwater table condition. This indicates increase in acetoclastic methanogenesis under hot and wet condition, considering that acetclastic methnogens produce heavier CH4 than that from CO2/H2 reducing pathway. Methanogen community composition estimated by cloning and sequence analyses implied that both acetoclastic and CO2/H2 reducing methanogens prevailed in wetland soil sampled in summer. This was consistent with the results of isotope measuremaents. Our results contribute to understand fully how the CH4 production changes with environmental conditions, with considering the activities of both main methanogenic pathway (from CO2 and acetate).

  3. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  4. Analysis of helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise with application to adaptive-passive and active alleviation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauszig, Lionel Christian

    This study focuses on detection and analysis methods of helicopter blade-vortex interactions (BVI) and applies these methods to two different BVI noise alleviation schemes---an adaptive-passive and an active scheme. A standard free-wake analysis based on relaxation methods is extended in this study to compute high-resolution blade loading, to account for blade-to-blade dissimilarities, and dual vortices when there is negative loading at the blade tips. The free-wake geometry is still calculated on a coarse azimuthal grid and then interpolated to a high-resolution grid to calculate the BVI induced impulsive loading. Blade-to-blade dissimilarities are accounted by allowing the different blades to release their own vortices. A number of BVI detection criteria, including the spherical method (a geometric criterion developed in this thesis) are critically examined. It was determined that high-resolution azimuthal discretization is required in virtually all detection methods except the spherical method which detected the occurrence of parallel BVI even while using a low-resolution azimuthal mesh. Detection methods based on inflow and blade loads were, in addition, found to be sensitive to vortex core size. While most BVI studies use the high-resolution airloads to compute BVI noise, the total noise can often be due to multiple dominant interactions on the advancing and retreating sides. A methodology is developed to evaluate the contribution of an individual interaction to the total BVI noise, based on using the loading due to an individual vortex as an input to the acoustic code WOPWOP. The adaptive-passive BVI alleviation method considered in this study comprises of reducing the length of one set of opposite blades (of a 4-bladed rotor) in low-speed descent. Results showed that differential coning resulting from the blade dissimilarity increases the blade-vortex miss-distances and reduces the BVI noise by 4 dB. The Higher Harmonic Control Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART

  5. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  6. Examination of the Early Diagnostic Applicability of Active Dynamic Thermography for Burn Wound Depth Assessment and Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Prindeze, Nicholas J; Fathi, Payam; Mino, Matthew J; Mauskar, Neil A; Travis, Taryn E; Paul, Dereck W; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in perfusion imaging, burn wound imaging technology continues to lag behind that of other fields. Quantification of blood flow is able to predict time for healing, but clear assessment of burn depth is still questionable. Active dynamic thermography (ADT) is a noncontact imaging modality capable of distinguishing tissue of different thermal conductivities. Utilizing the abnormal heat transfer properties of the burn zones, we examined whether ADT was useful in the determination of burn depth in a model of early burn wound evaluation. Duroc pigs (castrated male; n = 3) were anesthetized, and two burns were created with an aluminum billet at 3 and 12 seconds. These contact times resulted in superficial partial and deep partial thickness burn wounds, respectively. ADT and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) imaging were performed every 30 minutes postburn for a total of five imaging sessions ending 150 minutes postburn. For ADT, imaging excitation was performed for 42-120 seconds with dual quartz-infrared lamps, and subsequent infrared image capture was performed for 300 seconds. MATLAB-assisted image analysis was performed to determine burn zone region of interest thermal relaxation and characteristic patterns. LDI was performed with a moorLDI system, and biopsies were captured for histology following the 150-minute imaging session. Both ADT and LDI imaging modalities are able to detect different physical properties at 30, 60, 90 120, and 150 minutes postburn with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Resultant ADT cooling curves characterize greater differences with greater stimulation and a potentially more identifiable differential cooling characteristic. Histological analysis confirmed burn depth. This preliminary work confirms that ADT can measure burn depth and is deserving of further research either as a stand-alone imaging technology or in combination with a device to assess perfusion. PMID:25412050

  7. Application Power Signature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Combs, Jacob; Nazor, Jolie; Santiago, Fabian; Thysell, Rachelle; Rivoire, Suzanne; Poole, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community has been greatly concerned about energy efficiency. To address this concern, it is essential to understand and characterize the electrical loads of HPC applications. In this work, we study whether HPC applications can be distinguished by their power-consumption patterns using quantitative measures in an automatic manner. Using a collection of 88 power traces from 4 different systems, we find that basic statistical measures do a surprisingly good job of summarizing applications' distinctive power behavior. Moreover, this study opens up a new area of research in power-aware HPC that has a multitude of potential applications.

  8. Analysis of enzyme activity regulation by non-denaturing electrophoresis and application of this regulation for enzyme reactor production.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Youji; Miki, Shizuka

    2013-10-01

    Non-denaturing electrophoresis can be used to screen enzymes that self-regulate their activities by using a combination of enzymes and their inhibitors. Furthermore, this technique can be applied to develop enzyme reactors that self-regulate their activities. After separation of proteins from mouse liver cytosol by non-denaturing isoelectric focusing, lactate dehydrogense (LDH) and esterase activities were qualitatively and quantitatively examined using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and non-denaturing stacking gel electrophoresis. Activities of mouse liver-derived LDH and carboxylesterase were reversibly inhibited by oxamate and 6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine (acrinol), respectively, in the stacking gels and recovered when the enzymes migrated towards the separation gels. After separation and immobilization of the enzymes, their activities were inhibited by inhibitors and recovered after inhibitor removal. These results indicate that non-denaturing electrophoresis can be applied to select enzymes that self-regulate their activities and subsequently aid in the development of enzyme reactors that can control the enzyme activities. PMID:22803677

  9. [Application of the rough sets theory to the analysis of structure-activity relationships of pyridinium antifungal compounds].

    PubMed

    Krysiński, J

    1994-04-01

    Relationships between chemical structure and antifungal activity of 72 quaternary pyridinium chlorides were analysed using the method of rough sets. In the information system the compounds are described by eight condition attributes and divided into three classes of activity. Using the rough sets approach a smallest set of four condition attributes significant for a high quality of classification and accuracy of classes has been found. The resulting decision algorithm describes relations between structure and antifungal activity in terms of significant condition attributes. It may be helpful in predicting structures of new antifungal compounds to be synthesized. PMID:8204024

  10. Synthesis of Eu³⁺-activated BaMoO₄ phosphors and their Judd-Ofelt analysis: Applications in lasers and white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Shivakumara, C; Saraf, Rohit; Behera, Sukanti; Dhananjaya, N; Nagabhushana, H

    2015-12-01

    Eu(3+)-activated BaMoO4 phosphors were synthesized by the nitrate-citrate gel combustion method. The Rietveld refinement analysis confirmed that all the compounds were crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with I41/a (No. 88) space group. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of BaMoO4 phosphor reveals broad emission peaks at 465 and 605 nm, whereas the Eu(3+)-activated BaMoO4 phosphors show intense 615 nm ((5)D0→(7)F2) emission peak. Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to evaluate the intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4) of Eu(3+)-activated BaMoO4 phosphors. The transition probabilities (AT), radiative lifetime (τrad), branching ratio (β), stimulated emission cross-section (σe), gain bandwidth (σe×Δλeff) and optical gain (σe×τrad) were investigated by using the intensity parameters. CIE color coordinates confirmed that the BaMoO4 and Eu(3+)-activated BaMoO4 phosphors exhibit white and red luminescence, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the present phosphors can be a potential candidate for red lasers and white LEDs applications. PMID:26135534

  11. Interactive analysis program activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. P.; Frisch, H. P.; Jones, G. K.; Walker, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an analysis software system capable of performing interdisciplinary preliminary design analyses of large space structure configurations is discussed. Disciplines such as thermal, structures, and controls are to be integrated into a highly user oriented analysis capability. The key feature of the integrated analysis capability, a rapid and efficient system that will minimize solution turnaround time, is discussed.

  12. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Deraman, M. Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R.; Kanwal, S.

    2015-04-16

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g{sup −1} respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g{sup −1}, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  13. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Awitdrus, Farma, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R.; Kanwal, S.

    2015-04-01

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H2SO4 electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g-1 respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g-1, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  14. IMS applications analysis

    SciTech Connect

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  15. A signal processing approach for enhanced Acoustic Emission data analysis in high activity systems: Application to organic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharrat, M.; Ramasso, E.; Placet, V.; Boubakar, M. L.

    2016-03-01

    Structural elements made of Organic Matrix Composites (OMC) under complex loading may suffer from high Acoustic Emission (AE) activity caused by the emergence of different emission sources at high rates with high noise level, which finally engender continuous emissions. The detection of hits in this situation becomes a challenge particularly during fatigue tests. This work suggests an approach based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) denoising applied on signal segments. A particular attention is paid to the adjustment of the denoising parameters based on pencil lead breaks and their influence on the quality of the denoised AE signals. The validation of the proposed approach is performed on a ring-shaped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) under in-service-like conditions involving continuous emissions with superimposed damage-related transients. It is demonstrated that errors in hit detection are greatly reduced leading to a better identification of the natural damage scenario based on AE signals.

  16. Neutron activation analysis in the life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    Development of methods for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and their applications in the life sciences are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on epithermal activation with reactor neutrons (ENAA), and the advantages of this technique in analysis of environmental objects are shown. The results of applied INAA studies in the field of the life sciences carried out at the world's leading nuclear centers are reported. Experience in employing a radioanalytical complex at the IBR-2 reactor (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna) for such studies is summarized.

  17. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Green, J.; Segebade, C.

    2011-06-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  18. Military housing foam application and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

  19. An Innovative Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures and Studies on Change of Activation Energies of the Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz Dikko, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient changes with addition of contaminants to the original liquid. This forms the basis of a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer designed and constructed for this purpose. We find that the viscosity coefficient μ of alcohol increased almost linearly with water concentration at a rate that depends on the type of alcohol and water concentration. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration. This increase also depends on type of alcohol. Our detailed investigation on alcohol-water mixtures for both ethyl and methyl alcohol along with discussion on possible future potential application of such a simple, yet very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. A comparison is made of our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. A part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage in order to explain some of the observed properties is presented.

  20. Planning applications in image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

  1. Analysis methods for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Because photovoltaic power systems are being considered for an ever-widening range of applications, it is appropriate for system designers to have knowledge of and access to photovoltaic power systems simulation models and design tools. This brochure gives brief descriptions of a variety of such aids and was compiled after surveying both manufacturers and researchers. Services available through photovoltaic module manufacturers are outlined, and computer codes for systems analysis are briefly described. (WHK)

  2. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Robin P. Gardner

    2006-04-11

    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  3. Active IR-applications in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggenhauser, H.

    2002-06-01

    Applications of IR-thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. As it is well known from other areas of non-destructive testing, active IR-thermographic methods such as cooling down or lock-in thermography improves the results in many investigations. In civil engineering these techniques have not been used widely. Mostly thermography is used in a quasi-static manner. The interpretation of moisture measurements with thermography on surfaces can be very difficult due to several overlapping effects: emissivity changes due to composition, heat transfer through wet sections of the specimen, cooling through air flow or reflected spurious radiation sources. These effects can be reduced by selectively measuring the reflection in two wavelength windows, one on an absorption band of water and another in a reference band and then combining the results in a moisture index image. Cooling down thermography can be used to identify subsurface structural deficiencies. For building materials like concrete these measurements are performed on a much longer time scale than in flash lamp experiments. A quantitative analysis of the full cooling down process over several minutes can reliably identify defects at different depths. Experiments at BAM have shown, that active thermography is capabale of identifying structural deficiencies or moist areas in building materials much more reliable than quasi-static thermography.

  4. Fringe analysis for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gordon M.

    The capabilities of Ford USA's Computer Aided Holometry (CAH) system for stepped phase interferometry are presented. Holographic test equipment and facilities are briefly reviewed. Fringe analysis algorithms and procedures for practical semi-automated processing of stepped phase interferograms of complex real life structures for quantitative measurement of deformation and shape are discussed. Several automative applications illustrating the fringe analysis technique are presented, including: (1) the use of CAH combined with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) methods to study frictional effects of the thermal insertion of a wrist pin into a connecting rod; (2) a study of engine deformation due to hydraulic loading of the cylinders; and (3) the computation of sound pressure from CAH measured vibration amplitude/phase and shape using the Rayleigh integral and SYSNOISE TM methods. In the past, holometry methods have been used primarily for problem solving in structures that were already in production, often where limited opportunities existed to make expensive modifications to existing tooling. Infrequently holometry was used by knowledgeable engineers to develop optimized components in the prototype stage even without the current CAE methods. The opportunity and challenge of our day is to closely couple CAE (FEM, EFA) methods and experimental methods (CAH, modal, etc.) to optimize structural performance in the upstream product development process where necessary tooling modifications can and will be made.

  5. Film analysis systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekura, Y.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    The different components that can be used in modern film analysis systems are reviewed. TV camera and charge-coupled device sensors coupled to computers provide low cost systems for applications such as those described. The autoradiography (ARG) method provides an important tool for medical research and is especially useful for the development of new radiopharmaceutical compounds. Biodistribution information is needed for estimation of radiation dose, and for interpretation of the significance of observed patterns. The need for such precise information is heightened when one seeks to elucidate physiological principles/factors in normal and experimental models of disease. The poor spatial resolution achieved with current PET-imaging systems limits the information on radioreceptor mapping, neutrotransmitter, and neuroleptic drug distribution that can be achieved from patient studies. The artful use of ARG in carefully-controlled animal studies will be required to provide the additional information needed to fully understand results obtained with this new important research tool. (ERB)

  6. Development of Novel Rifampicin-Derived P-Glycoprotein Activators/Inducers. Synthesis, In Silico Analysis and Application in the RBE4 Cell Model, Using Paraquat as Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Sousa, Emília; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remião, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa transmembrane protein involved in the outward transport of many structurally unrelated substrates. P-gp activation/induction may function as an antidotal pathway to prevent the cytotoxicity of these substrates. In the present study we aimed at testing rifampicin (Rif) and three newly synthesized Rif derivatives (a mono-methoxylated derivative, MeORif, a peracetylated derivative, PerAcRif, and a reduced derivative, RedRif) to establish their ability to modulate P-gp expression and activity in a cellular model of the rat’s blood–brain barrier, the RBE4 cell line P-gp expression was assessed by western blot using C219 anti-P-gp antibody. P-gp function was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the accumulation of rhodamine123. Whenever P-gp activation/induction ability was detected in a tested compound, its antidotal effect was further tested using paraquat as cytotoxicity model. Interactions between Rif or its derivatives and P-gp were also investigated by computational analysis. Rif led to a significant increase in P-gp expression at 72 h and RedRif significantly increased both P-gp expression and activity. No significant differences were observed for the other derivatives. Pre- or simultaneous treatment with RedRif protected cells against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity, an effect reverted by GF120918, a P-gp inhibitor, corroborating the observed P-gp activation ability. Interaction of RedRif with P-gp drug-binding pocket was consistent with an activation mechanism of action, which was confirmed with docking studies. Therefore, RedRif protection against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in RBE4 cells, through P-gp activation/induction, suggests that it may be useful as an antidote for cytotoxic substrates of P-gp. PMID:23991219

  7. Application of epithermal neutron activation in multielement analysis of silicate rocks employing both coaxial Ge(Li) and low energy photon detector systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Rowe, J.J.; Steinnes, E.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental activation analysis of silicate rocks using epithermal neutrons has been studied using both high resolution coaxial Ge(Li) detectors and low energy photon detectors, and applied to the determination of 23 elements in eight new U.S.G.S. standard rocks. The analytical use X-ray peaks associated with electron capture or internal conversion processes has been evaluated. Of 28 elements which can be considered to be determinable by instrumental means, the epithermal activation approach is capable of giving improved sensitivity and precision in 16 cases, over the normal INAA procedure. In eleven cases the use of the low energy photon detector is thought to show advantages over convertional coaxial Ge(Li) spectroscopy. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  8. [Establishment of hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC(HE-HPLC) and application in analysis of active components in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides extract].

    PubMed

    Hong, Min; Ma, Hongyu; Zhu, Quan

    2009-02-01

    To screen effective principles from traditional Chinese medicine, a method named hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC (HE-HPLC) was establish in this study. The active principles in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis extract were combined with the hepatocytes under imitated physiological environments. Then the unattached substances were washed off by PBS with pH 7.4. After that the conjugated compounds were eluted by PBS with pH 4.0. These compounds released from target sites were collected and handled through SPE to be condensed, and analyzed by HPLC. The results indicated that two characteristic active compounds in the fruits of G. jasminoides extract binded to the hepatocytes. One of them is geniposide. The other is continued to be identified. It is showed that active principles which could bind to hepotocyte (through receptors, Channels, enzymes, etc.) could be detected, at least partly, by HE-HPLC analysis. There was a significant correlation between the retention properties of the active compounds which was obtained by HE-HPLC and their pharmacological effects on hepotocytes. PMID:19459310

  9. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a “naturally” energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted. PMID:22973502

  10. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a "naturally" energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted. PMID:22973502

  11. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-09-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a ``naturally'' energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted.

  12. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) applications activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP mea...

  13. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD. PMID:26471181

  14. Integrated FDIR Analysis Tool for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Annamaria; Malucchi, Giovanni; Di Tommaso, Umberto

    2013-08-01

    The crucial role of health management in space applications has been the subject of many studies carried out by NASA and ESA and is held in high regard by Thales Alenia Space. The common objective is to improve reliability and availability of space systems. This paper will briefly illustrate the evolution of IDEHAS (IntegrateD Engineering Harness Avionics and Software), an advanced tool currently used in Thales Alenia Space - Italy in several space programs and recently enhanced to fully support FDIR (Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery) analysis. The FDIR analysis logic flow will be presented, emphasizing the improvements offered to Mission Support & Operations activities. Finally the benefits provided to the Company and a list of possible future enhancements will be given.

  15. Transitioning Active Flow Control to Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Horta, Lucas G.; Chen, Fang-Jenq

    1999-01-01

    Active Flow Control Programs at NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and DARPA have been initiated with the goals of obtaining revolutionary advances in aerodynamic performance and maneuvering compared to conventional approaches. These programs envision the use of actuators, sensors, and controllers on applications such as aircraft wings/tails, engine nacelles, internal ducts, nozzles, projectiles, weapons bays, and hydrodynamic vehicles. Anticipated benefits of flow control include reduced weight, part count, and operating cost and reduced fuel burn (and emissions), noise and enhanced safety if the sensors serve a dual role of flow control and health monitoring. To get from the bench-top or laboratory test to adaptive distributed control systems on realistic applications, reliable validated design tools are needed in addition to sub- and large-scale wind-tunnel and flight experiments. This paper will focus on the development of tools for active flow control applications.

  16. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  17. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  18. Application of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in detecting and quantifying forest loss caused by artisanal gold mining activities in Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengisteab, B. S.; Blesius, L.; Hennessy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal gold mining in Guyana is mostly done in forest covered areas, causing forest loss and land degradation. Data from the Guyana Geology and Mining commission show there has been an increase of 2074% between 1986 and 2009. Our analysis of Landsat data between 1986 and 2013 for a part of the Upper Mazaruni area shows an increase from 34.2 to 278.4 hectares, which amounts to more than 800%. While the frequent coverage of Landsat data is useful for multitemporal studies, the lower resolution may not be adequate for accurate detection of mining sites. Therefore, RapidEye imagery from 2011 at a resolution of 5m was used to detect gold mining activity and to compare the results with the Landsat study. Processing was conducted in eCognition, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) software. OBIA is an image processing technique that has proven to be advantageous over traditional pixel based image processing techniques, with the primary advantage being the ability of the approach in combining both the spatial and spectral information. The satellite image was subjected to segmentation at multiple scales and classified using fuzzy sets of membership functions. Classification explicitly incorporated the different scales in order to accommodate different sizes of real-world objects and spatial relationships were utilized to establish connections between related objects. For example the presence or absence of water in pits, or the existence of sediments in the river may serve as additional indicators of mining sites besides the spectral components. Preliminary results show that OBIA approach was able to successfully detect and quantify small scale mining activities in the basin, and that the Landsat data were giving an acceptable estimate of mining sites over time. Keywords:Object Based Image Analysis, Gold Mining, Remote Sensing, Guyana

  19. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Moran, Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP measurements will allow global and high-resolution mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state at resolutions from 3-40 km. These measurements will have high value for a wide range of environmental applications that underpin many weather-related decisions including drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate predictions, and human health risk. In 2007, NASA was tasked by The National Academies to ensure that emerging scientific knowledge is actively applied to obtain societal benefits by broadening community participation and improving means for use of information. SMAP is one of the first missions to come out of this new charge, and its Applications Plan forms the basis for ensuring its commitment to its users. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methods and approaches of the SMAP applications activity, which is designed to increase and sustain the interaction between users and scientists involved in mission development.

  20. Patterns of Treatment Switching in Multiple Sclerosis Therapies in US Patients Active on Social Media: Application of Social Media Content Analysis to Health Outcomes Research

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Deepanshu; Bonzani, Ian; Huisman, Alice; Olson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media analysis has rarely been applied to the study of specific questions in outcomes research. Objective The aim was to test the applicability of social media analysis to outcomes research using automated listening combined with filtering and analysis of data by specialists. After validation, the process was applied to the study of patterns of treatment switching in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods A comprehensive listening and analysis process was developed that blended automated listening with filtering and analysis of data by life sciences-qualified analysts and physicians. The population was patients with MS from the United States. Data sources were Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and online forums. Sources were searched for mention of specific oral, injectable, and intravenous (IV) infusion treatments. The representativeness of the social media population was validated by comparison with community survey data and with data from three large US administrative claims databases: MarketScan, PharMetrics Plus, and Department of Defense. Results A total of 10,260 data points were sampled for manual review: 3025 from Twitter, 3771 from Facebook, 2773 from Internet forums, and 691 from blogs. The demographics of the social media population were similar to those reported from community surveys and claims databases. Mean age was 39 (SD 11) years and 14.56% (326/2239) of the population was older than 50 years. Women, patients aged 30 to 49 years, and those diagnosed for more than 10 years were represented by more data points than other patients were. Women also accounted for a large majority (82.6%, 819/991) of reported switches. Two-fifths of switching patients had lived with their disease for more than 10 years since diagnosis. Most reported switches (55.05%, 927/1684) were from injectable to oral drugs with switches from IV therapies to orals the second largest switch (15.38%, 259/1684). Switches to oral drugs accounted for more than 80% (927/1114) of the

  1. Bioaccessibility of AhR-active PAHs in sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill: Application of Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Shim, Won Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bioaccessibility of toxic substances in sedimentary residual oil is a crucial factor that needs to be considered for accurate risk assessments posed by oil spills. However, information on oil weathering processes and bioaccessibility of residual oil is often not sufficient and clear. In the present study, bioaccessibility of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments near the site of the Hebei Spirit oil spill (Korea, 2007) was assessed by Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis (EDA). Sediment samples collected 6 years after the oil spill were extracted using Soxhlet or Tenax, and EDA was performed using a battery of H4IIE-luc bioassay and GC/MSD analysis. Concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Soxhlet extracts ranged from 210 to 53,000 μg kg(-1) dry mass. However, concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Tenax extracts were approximately 20-fold less compared to those in Soxhlet extracts. In Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, the major AhR-active PAHs were identified as C1-chrysene, C3-chrysene, and C4-phenanthrene. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQ(PAHs)) explained 31% and 60% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQ concentrations in Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, respectively. Overall, bioaccessibility of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in sedimentary residual oils depended on hydrophobicity (log K(ow)) and degree of weathering of crude oil. The results of the present study provide further evidence in support of the biological and ecological recoveries of oil spill sites. PMID:26408977

  2. Thermal-Infrared Image Analysis Application to the Real-Time Monitoring of the Explosive Activity of Etna and Stromboli Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, M.; Biale, E.; Cristaldi, A.; Mangiagli, S.; Pecora, E.

    2005-12-01

    Starting from 1993 video-cameras were used for the monitoring of the explosive activity at Etna and Stromboli volcanoes. Using image analysis we were seeking to identify, classify and quantify the explosive events and any change of the activity trend that could precede a strong eruptive event, like paroxysmal explosion, fire fountain, lava flow. The visible-band cameras suffered of a low sensitivity that limited the early warning capability of the system at night and during poor weather. Taking into account the high-temperature of the erupted material, infrared cameras appeared the best choice to overcome this observational limitation, unfortunately at that time commercial infrared devises were still too much expensive and fragile to put in operation in such unsafe and extreme environment. In very recent time the availability of solid-state uncooled sensors made possible the use of these devices for volcano monitoring at Etna and Stromboli since their 2002 and 2003 eruptions. Presently three types of Thermal-Infrared image based surveillance systems are in operation at Etna and Stromboli. They are focused to identify, classify and quantify different types of explosive events from small strombolian explosions to large volcanic-cloud forming eruptions. VAMOS on-line image analyzer that operates detection and classification of the strombolian explosive events in real-time. The analysis include the counting of the explosions occurred at the different craters of Stromboli and the parameterization in classes of intensity for each explosion on the base of clast dispersion and kinetics energy. A week report of the trend of the volcanic activity is available at INGV web. SARATERM on-line analyzer of thermal images for recognizing, in function of the temperature, the emission of spatter, ashes or gas from the summit craters of Etna and Stromboli. This system is presently used to alert in real-time the on-duty volcanologists. Finally a network of IR cameras working in

  3. APPLICATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN FOOD ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gas chromatography (GC) is used widely in applications involving food analysis. Typical applications pertain to the quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of food composition, natural products, food additives, flavor and aroma components, a variety of transformation products, and contaminants suc...

  4. Applications analysis of high energy lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.; Mackay, J. S.; Nishioka, K.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and comparison of laser technology with competing technologies were made to determine possible laser applications. The analysis was undertaken as follows: (1) possible applications were listed and categorized; (2) required components were enumerated and the characteristics of these components were extrapolated; (3) complete system characteristics were calculated parametrically for selected applications using the postulated component characteristics; and (4) where possible and appropriate, comparisons were made with competing systems. It was found that any large scale replacement of existing systems and methods by lasers requires many technological advances in laser and associated systems. However, several applications appear feasible, such as low orbit drag make-up, orbit changing, communications, and illumination applications.

  5. Dielectric elastomers for active vibration control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, S.; Kaal, W.; Melz, T.

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DE) have proved to have high potential for smart actuator applications in many laboratory setups and also in first commercially available components. Because of their large deformation capability and the inherent fast response to external stimulation they proffer themselves to applications in the field of active vibration control, especially for lightweight structures. These structures typically tend to vibrate with large amplitudes even at low excitation forces. Here, DE actuators seem to be ideal components for setting up control loops to suppress unwanted vibrations. Due to the underlying physical effect DE actuators are generally non-linear elements with an approximately quadratic relationship between in- and output. Consequently, they automatically produce higher-order frequencies. This can cause harmful effects for vibration control on structures with high modal density. Therefore, a linearization technique is required to minimize parasitic effects. This paper shows and quantifies the nonlinearity of a commercial DE actuator and demonstrates the negative effects it can have in technical applications. For this purpose, two linearization methods are developed. Subsequently, the actuator is used to implement active vibration control for two different mechanical systems. In the first case a concentrated mass is driven with the controlled actuator resulting in a tunable oscillator. In the second case a more complex mechanical structure with multiple resonances is used. Different control approaches are applied likewise and their impact on the whole system is demonstrated. Thus, the potential of DE actuators for vibration control applications is highlighted.

  6. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  7. Thermal and tectonic history in the steamboat hills geothermal field: Determination of the age of active hydrothermal activity by application of AFTA{sup {trademark}} (apatite fission track analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Kamp, P.C. van de

    1995-12-31

    This study, in the Steamboat Hills area of the Carson segment of the northern Walker Lane Belt, was initiated to provide a regional thermal history framework and to investigate the age of the active local hydrothermal system. Seven outcrop samples, representing ?Cretaceous granodiorite and ?Triassic Peavine sequence metamorphosed volcanic flow and volcaniclastic rocks plus six samples of Peavine rocks in vertical sequence from an 0.8 km deep geothermal corehole have been analyzed using AFTA (apatite fission track analysis) and zircon fission track analysis.

  8. [Clinical application of skin sympathetic nerve activity].

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi

    2009-03-01

    Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is microneurographically recorded from the skin nerve fascicle in the peripheral nerves. It is characterized by the following features: 1) irregular, pulse asynchronous, burst activity with respiratory variation, 2) burst activity followed by vasoconstriction and/or sweating, 3) elicited by mental stress and arousal stimuli, e.g., sound, pain, electric stimulation, 4) burst with longer duration as compared with sympathetic outflow to muscles, and 5) burst activity following sudden inspiratory action. It comprises vasoconstrictor (VC) and sudomotor(SM) activity, as well as vasodilator (VD) activity. VC and SM discharge independently, whereas VD is the same activity with different neurotransmission. The VC and SM are differentiated by effector response, e.g., laser Doppler flowmetry and skin potential changes. SSNA function in thermoregulation in the human body; however it is also elicited by mental stress. SSNA is the lowest at thermoneutral ambient temperature (approximately 27 degrees C), and is enhanced in the pressence of ambient warm and cool air. The burst amplitude is well-correlated to both skin blood flow reduction rate or sweat rate change. The clinical application of SSNA comprises the following: 1) clarification of sweating phenomenon, 2) clarification and diagnosis of anhidrosis, 3) clarification and diagnosis of hyperhidrosis, 4) clarification of thermoregulatory function and diagnosis of thermoregulatory disorder, 5) clarification of pathophysiology and diagnosis of vascular diseases, e.g., Raynaud and Buerger diseases. 6) clarification of the relation between cognitive function and SSNA and 7) determination of pharmacological effect attributable to change in neuroeffector responses. PMID:19301594

  9. Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi; Popov, Vyacheslav; Ryzhii, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene active plasmonics for terahertz (THz) device applications. Two-dimensional plasmons in graphene exhibit unique optoelectronic properties and mediate extraordinary light-matter interactions. It has been discovered theoretically that when the population of Dirac fermionic carriers in graphene are inverted by optical or electrical pumping, the excitation of graphene plasmons by the THz photons results in propagating surface plasmon polaritons with giant gain in a wide THz range. Furthermore, when graphene is patterned into a micro- or nanoribbon array by grating metallization, the structure acts as an active THz plasmonic amplifier, providing a superradiant plasmonic lasing with a giant gain at the plasmon modes in a wide THz frequency range. These new findings can lead to the creation of new types of plasmonic THz emitters and lasers operating even at room temperature.

  10. Large active retrodirective arrays for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    An active retrodirective array (ARA) transmits a beam toward the apparent source of an illuminating signal called the pilot. The term active implies that the array produces, not merely reflects, RF power. Retrodirectivity is achieved by retransmitting from each element of the array a signal whose phase is the conjugate of that received by the element. The problem of supplying the correct phase reference to the phase conjugation circuit (PCC) is solved by central phasing. A new form of central phasing suitable for very large arrays is outlined. ARAs may serve simultaneously as transmitting and receiving satellite antennas for space applications. Precision pointing and input-output isolation is provided by exact frequency-translating PCCs. A two-element ARA breadboard has been built and tested.

  11. Active structural waveguide for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Karol; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Zmojda, Jacek; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    In the article a microstructural active optical fiber for sensing application was presented. Construction consists of three hexagonal rings and a core made of SiO2 - Al2O3 - Sb2O3 glass co-doped with 1Yb2O3/0.1Tm2O3 [mol%]. Developed optical fiber is characterized by upconversion luminescence (λp=980nm) at 480nm (Tm3+: 1G4→3H6) and 650 nm (Tm3+ : 1G4→3F4). Population of thulium levels was attained in result of the Yb 3+→Tm3+ upconversion energy transfer. Sensing application of elaborated active photonic structure was presented on the example of aqueous fluorescein solution. Fabricated microstructural optical fiber enables to measure of the fluorescein solutions with the concentration of (0.25 - 5.42)·10-4 [mol%]. Sensitivity of the elaborated measurement setup is 1.51·104 [1/mol%].

  12. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  13. Instrumented Shoes for Real-Time Activity Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Moufawad El Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Major, Kristof; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Activity monitoring in daily life is gaining momentum as a health assessment tool, especially in older adults and at-risk populations. Several research-based and commercial systems have been proposed with varying performances in classification accuracy. Configurations with many sensors are generally accurate but cumbersome, whereas single sensors tend to have lower accuracies. To this end, we propose an instrumented shoes system capable of accurate activity classification and gait analysis that contains sensors located entirely at the level of the shoes. One challenge in daily activity monitoring is providing punctual and subject-tailored feedback to improve mobility. Therefore, the instrumented shoe system was equipped with a Bluetooth® module to transmit data to a smartphone and perform detailed activity profiling of the monitored subjects. The potential applications of such a system are numerous in mobility and fall risk-assessment as well as in fall prevention. PMID:27332298

  14. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are…

  15. Small wind systems application analysis. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The potential market for SWECS, or wind machines smaller than 100 kW for five selected applications was estimated. The goals of the study were to aid manufacturers in attaining financing by convincing venture capital investors of the potential of SWECS and to aid government planners in allocating R and D expenditures that will effectively advance SWECS commercialization. The five applications were selected through an initial screening and priority-ranking analysis. The year of analysis was 1985, but all dollar amounts, such as fuel costs, are expressed in 1980 dollars. The five SWECS applications investigated were farm residences, non-farm residences rural electric cooperatives, feed grinders, and remote communities.

  16. Human activity discrimination for maritime application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Evelyn; Deaver, Dawne M.; Krapels, Keith

    2008-04-01

    The US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is investigating how motion affects the target acquisition model (NVThermIP) sensor performance estimates. This paper looks specifically at estimating sensor performance for the task of discriminating human activities on watercraft, and was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Traditionally, sensor models were calibrated using still images. While that approach is sufficient for static targets, video allows one to use motion cues to aid in discerning the type of human activity more quickly and accurately. This, in turn, will affect estimated sensor performance and these effects are measured in order to calibrate current target acquisition models for this task. The study employed an eleven alternative forced choice (11AFC) human perception experiment to measure the task difficulty of discriminating unique human activities on watercrafts. A mid-wave infrared camera was used to collect video at night. A description of the construction of this experiment is given, including: the data collection, image processing, perception testing and how contrast was defined for video. These results are applicable to evaluate sensor field performance for Anti-Terrorism and Force Protection (AT/FP) tasks for the U.S. Navy.

  17. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  18. Failure environment analysis tool applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Wadsworth, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding risks and avoiding failure are daily concerns for the women and men of NASA. Although NASA's mission propels us to push the limits of technology, and though the risks are considerable, the NASA community has instilled within, the determination to preserve the integrity of the systems upon which our mission and, our employees lives and well-being depend. One of the ways this is being done is by expanding and improving the tools used to perform risk assessment. The Failure Environment Analysis Tool (FEAT) was developed to help engineers and analysts more thoroughly and reliably conduct risk assessment and failure analysis. FEAT accomplishes this by providing answers to questions regarding what might have caused a particular failure; or, conversely, what effect the occurrence of a failure might have on an entire system. Additionally, FEAT can determine what common causes could have resulted in other combinations of failures. FEAT will even help determine the vulnerability of a system to failures, in light of reduced capability. FEAT also is useful in training personnel who must develop an understanding of particular systems. FEAT facilitates training on system behavior, by providing an automated environment in which to conduct 'what-if' evaluation. These types of analyses make FEAT a valuable tool for engineers and operations personnel in the design, analysis, and operation of NASA space systems.

  19. Failure environment analysis tool applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Wadsworth, David B.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding risks and avoiding failure are daily concerns for the women and men of NASA. Although NASA's mission propels us to push the limits of technology, and though the risks are considerable, the NASA community has instilled within it, the determination to preserve the integrity of the systems upon which our mission and, our employees lives and well-being depend. One of the ways this is being done is by expanding and improving the tools used to perform risk assessment. The Failure Environment Analysis Tool (FEAT) was developed to help engineers and analysts more thoroughly and reliably conduct risk assessment and failure analysis. FEAT accomplishes this by providing answers to questions regarding what might have caused a particular failure; or, conversely, what effect the occurrence of a failure might have on an entire system. Additionally, FEAT can determine what common causes could have resulted in other combinations of failures. FEAT will even help determine the vulnerability of a system to failures, in light of reduced capability. FEAT also is useful in training personnel who must develop an understanding of particular systems. FEAT facilitates training on system behavior, by providing an automated environment in which to conduct 'what-if' evaluation. These types of analyses make FEAT a valuable tool for engineers and operations personnel in the design, analysis, and operation of NASA space systems.

  20. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100 C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changed suddenly.

  1. Pathway network analysis and an application to the ODE model of MMP2 activation in the early stage of cancer cell invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minerva, D.; Kawasaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is known as the leading causes of death in the world, particularly in developing countries. Metastasis is believed as factor that make the situation worse. Cancer cell has the ability to invade and metastasize to a distant part of body. The mechanism of cancer cell invasion involving three molecules; MT1-MMP, TIMP2, and MMP2. The interaction of the three molecules activates MMP2 by cutting the MMP2 binding from a specific complex. The MMP2 activation leads to the release of cancer cell from its primary state towards distant part of body. In this paper, we will present the result of recent studies about MMP2 activation from mathematical point of view. We study the MMP2 activation model using law of mass action and conservation. We propose a method based on attachment and detachment rules and conservation law to analyze the ordinary differential equations system of pathway network associated with the MMP2 activation. As the result, we obtain possible way to suppress the spread of cancer cell.

  2. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  3. Geometries and applications of active fiber bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglmayr, Josef

    2001-10-01

    Active fiber bundles (FBs) are aimed to model photonic switching and processing in 3-D without the restrictions of the photonic technology. The 2-D photonic architectures are assumed to be implemented by networks of directional couplers (DCs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs), respectively. For the implementation several crucial problems are expected: (1) proper operation of the spatial couplers/switches (nonblocking interconnections) and (2) coupling in the interstage interconnection section mainly caused by parallel and crossing fibers/waveguides (WGs). For the design of proper operating switches (refinement of couplers) the application of decoupling concepts of modern control theory is proposed. The final goal is to translate the refined couplers into integrated photonic architectures rather than into additional lightwave circuits (LWCs) which simply would increase the coupling. The decoupling concepts are reviewed. The paper is an attempt to prepare for applying well-known system engineering concepts to the upcoming technology of photonics.

  4. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  5. Analyses of Oxyanion Materials by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Leung, K.-N.; Garabedian, G.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-03-24

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to analyze metal ion oxyanion materials that have multiple applications, including medicine, materials, catalysts, and electronics. The significance for the need for accurate, highly sensitive analyses for the materials is discussed in the context of quality control of end products containing the parent element in each material. Applications of the analytical data for input to models and theoretical calculations related to the electronic and other properties of the materials are discussed.

  6. Analysis of active renin heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Katz, S A; Malvin, R L; Lee, J; Kim, S H; Murray, R D; Opsahl, J A; Abraham, P A

    1991-09-01

    Active renin is a heterogeneous enzyme that can be separated into multiple forms with high-resolution isoelectric focusing. The isoelectric heterogeneity may result from differences in glycosylation between the different forms. In order to determine the relationship between active renin heterogeneity and differences in composition or attachment of oligosaccharides, two separate experiments were performed: (i) Tunicamycin, which interferes with normal glycosylation processing, increased the proportion of relatively basic renin forms secreted into the incubation media by rat renal cortical slices. (ii) Endoglycosidase F, which enzymatically removes carbohydrate from some classes of glycoprotein, similarly increased the proportion of relatively basic forms when incubated with active human recombinant renin. In addition, further studies with inhibitors of human renin activity revealed that the heterogeneous renin forms were similarly inhibited by two separate renin inhibitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that renin isoelectric heterogeneity is due in part to differences in carbohydrate moiety attachment and that the heterogeneity of renin does not influence access of direct renin inhibitors to the active site of renin. PMID:1908097

  7. Analysis and Application of Microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lu

    New trends of generating electricity locally and utilizing non-conventional or renewable energy sources have attracted increasing interests due to the gradual depletion of conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The new type of power generation is called Distributed Generation (DG) and the energy sources utilized by Distributed Generation are termed Distributed Energy Sources (DERs). With DGs embedded in the distribution networks, they evolve from passive distribution networks to active distribution networks enabling bidirectional power flows in the networks. Further incorporating flexible and intelligent controllers and employing future technologies, active distribution networks will turn to a Microgrid. A Microgrid is a small-scale, low voltage Combined with Heat and Power (CHP) supply network designed to supply electrical and heat loads for a small community. To further implement Microgrids, a sophisticated Microgrid Management System must be integrated. However, due to the fact that a Microgrid has multiple DERs integrated and is likely to be deregulated, the ability to perform real-time OPF and economic dispatch with fast speed advanced communication network is necessary. In this thesis, first, problems such as, power system modelling, power flow solving and power system optimization, are studied. Then, Distributed Generation and Microgrid are studied and reviewed, including a comprehensive review over current distributed generation technologies and Microgrid Management Systems, etc. Finally, a computer-based AC optimization method which minimizes the total transmission loss and generation cost of a Microgrid is proposed and a wireless communication scheme based on synchronized Code Division Multiple Access (sCDMA) is proposed. The algorithm is tested with a 6-bus power system and a 9-bus power system.

  8. An active viscoelastic metamaterial for isolation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, M.; Daley, S.

    2014-04-01

    Metamaterials are of interest due to their ability to produce novel acoustic behaviour beyond that seen in naturally occurring media. Of particular interest is the appearance of band gaps which lead to very high levels of attenuation within narrow frequency ranges. Resonant elements within metamaterials allow band gaps to form within the long wavelength limit at low frequencies where traditional passive isolation solutions suffer poor performance. Hence metamaterials may provide a path to high performance, low frequency isolation. Two metamaterials are presented here. An acoustic material consisting of an array of split hollow spheres is developed, and its performance is validated experimentally. The application of an acoustic/mechanical analogy allows the development of an elastodynamic metamaterial that could be employed as a high performance vibration isolator at low frequencies. A prototype isolator is manufactured, and its performance is measured. The passively occurring band gap is enhanced using an active control architecture. The use of the active control system in conjunction with the natural passive behaviour of the metamaterial enables high levels of isolation across a broad frequency range. An eventual goal of the work is to produce such materials on a small scale, and as such the metamaterials developed are designed for, and produced using, additive layer manufacturing techniques.

  9. Actively Controlled Shaft Seals for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  10. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  11. Voxel-Based LIDAR Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrom, Shea T.

    One of the greatest recent changes in the field of remote sensing is the addition of high-quality Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments. In particular, the past few decades have been greatly beneficial to these systems because of increases in data collection speed and accuracy, as well as a reduction in the costs of components. These improvements allow modern airborne instruments to resolve sub-meter details, making them ideal for a wide variety of applications. Because LIDAR uses active illumination to capture 3D information, its output is fundamentally different from other modalities. Despite this difference, LIDAR datasets are often processed using methods appropriate for 2D images and that do not take advantage of its primary virtue of 3-dimensional data. It is this problem we explore by using volumetric voxel modeling. Voxel-based analysis has been used in many applications, especially medical imaging, but rarely in traditional remote sensing. In part this is because the memory requirements are substantial when handling large areas, but with modern computing and storage this is no longer a significant impediment. Our reason for using voxels to model scenes from LIDAR data is that there are several advantages over standard triangle-based models, including better handling of overlapping surfaces and complex shapes. We show how incorporating system position information from early in the LIDAR point cloud generation process allows radiometrically-correct transmission and other novel voxel properties to be recovered. This voxelization technique is validated on simulated data using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software, a first-principles based ray-tracer developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Voxel-based modeling of LIDAR can be useful on its own, but we believe its primary advantage is when applied to problems where simpler surface-based 3D models conflict with the requirement of realistic geometry. To

  12. Environmental applications of the particle analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.

    1993-09-28

    This study demonstrates the applicability of particle counting technology for analysis of various water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Particle Analysis System described in this study determined the water quality of samples from environmental remediation, stormwater treatment, and drinking water treatment operations. Samples were measured in either discrete or on-line mode. This data showed filtration efficiencies, particle counts, particle size distributions, and real-time treatment system performance. Particle counting proved more sensitive than the turbidimetric measurement technique commonly used by the water treatment industry. Particle counting is a two-dimensional measurement of counts and sizes, whereas turbidity is a one-dimensional measurement of water clarity. Samples showing identical turbidities could be distinguished easily with the Particle Analysis System. The Particle Analysis System proved to be an efficient and reliable water quality measurement tool, and it is applicable to a variety of water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant.

  13. A microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity suitable for the analysis of large numbers of samples, and its application to the study of Drosophila learning mutants.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, J D; Dudai, Y

    1988-02-15

    We have developed a microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity which depends on the immobilization of substrate proteins to nitrocellulose. The technique makes use of a filtration manifold, allowing as much as a 10-fold increase in efficiency as compared to other protein kinase assays. We have used this assay to measure cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in Drosophila learning and memory mutants, with exogenous and endogenous substrates. An alteration was found in the affinity of PKA in the mutant turnip. The procedure should be useful for rapid screening of mutants and drugs and could be adapted to additional types of protein kinases as well as protein phosphatases. PMID:3369684

  14. Soils Activity Mobility Study: Methodology and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, Alissa; Yucel, Vefa

    2014-09-29

    This report presents a three-level approach for estimation of sediment transport to provide an assessment of potential erosion risk for sites at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are posted for radiological purposes and where migration is suspected or known to occur due to storm runoff. Based on the assessed risk, the appropriate level of effort can be determined for analysis of radiological surveys, field experiments to quantify erosion and transport rates, and long-term monitoring. The method is demonstrated at contaminated sites, including Plutonium Valley, Shasta, Smoky, and T-1. The Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee (PSIAC) procedure is selected as the Level 1 analysis tool. The PSIAC method provides an estimation of the total annual sediment yield based on factors derived from the climatic and physical characteristics of a watershed. If the results indicate low risk, then further analysis is not warranted. If the Level 1 analysis indicates high risk or is deemed uncertain, a Level 2 analysis using the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) is proposed. In addition, if a sediment yield for a storm event rather than an annual sediment yield is needed, then the proposed Level 2 analysis should be performed. MUSLE only provides sheet and rill erosion estimates. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) provides storm peak runoff rate and storm volumes, the inputs necessary for MUSLE. Channel Sediment Transport (CHAN-SED) I and II models are proposed for estimating sediment deposition or erosion in a channel reach from a storm event. These models require storm hydrograph associated sediment concentration and bed load particle size distribution data. When the Level 2 analysis indicates high risk for sediment yield and associated contaminant migration or when there is high uncertainty in the Level 2 results, the sites can be further evaluated with a Level 3 analysis using more complex

  15. Azaglycomimetics: Natural Occurrence, Biological Activity, and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Naoki

    A large number of alkaloids mimicking the structures of monosaccharides or oligosaccharides have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. The sugar mimicking alkaloids with a nitrogen in the ring are called azasugars or iminosugars. Naturally occurring azasugars are classified into five structural classes: polyhydroxylated piperidines, pyrrolidines, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and nortropanes. They are easily soluble in water because of their polyhydroxylated structures and inhibit glycosidases because of a structural resemblance to the sugar moiety of the natural substrate. Glycosidases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic processes, such as digestion, lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, biosynthesis of glycoproteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and ER-associated degradation of glycoproteins. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo by inhibitors is of great interest from a therapeutic point of view. Azasugars are an important class of glycosidase inhibitors and are arousing great interest for instance as antidiabetics, antiobesity drugs, antivirals, and therapeutic agents for some genetic disorders. This review describes the recent studies on isolation, characterization, glycosidase inhibitory activity, and therapeutic application of azaglycomimetics.

  16. NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

  17. Dynamic analysis of changing features of tumor cells incubated with antitumor agents in vitro and its application for predictive activity assay of antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Oguro, M; Takagi, T; Takenaga, K

    1985-02-01

    Continuous observation of living malignant cells (L1210) in a specially devised glass observation chamber with an inverted microscope made it possible to classify various cellular morphological features induced by antitumor agents into the following four stages: 1) an initial stage consisting of cytoplasmic granulation and coloring, 2) an intermediate stage of shrinkage of nuclei, increases of vacuoles and cytoplasmic budding, 3) a determinate stage of cell ballooning and 4) the terminal stage (cell ghost). Both the initial and intermediate stages are characterized by cellular changes that appear at an early phase and remain opportunistic in terms of viability. Emergence of these cellular changes is largely dependent on the specific mode of action of antitumor agents. In contrast, definite irreversibility in the changes found in both the terminal and determinate stages was confirmed by continuous observation until the cells showed lytic or ghost features, using a video-recording system. A plot of the number of cells counted in both the determinate and terminal stages versus the time-dose schedule is designated as the "time-dose-response" plot, and this proved useful for estimating the characteristics of the antitumor agents tested and the actions of new antitumor agents on malignant cells (predictive activity assay graph). PMID:3920102

  18. Analysis of electron auroras based on the Monte Carlo method: Application to active electron arc auroras observed by the sounding rocket at Syowa Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Kunizo; Ejiri, Masaki; Itikawa, Yukikazu

    A downward electron differential number flux, the absolute photoemission rate for the (0, 1) band of the first negative band system of the molecular nitrogen ion, and the number density of thermal electrons were simultaneously measured by the sounding rocket S-310JA-8 launched toward active auroral arcs at a substorm expansion phase on April 4, 1984, from Syowa Station in Antarctica. We apply the Monte Carlo method to analyze these observed results. The MSIS-86 model is employed to represent the atmospheric number density and temperature in the aurora observed by this experiment. Only N2, O, and O2 are taken into account as constituent elements of the atmosphere. Electrons are injected downward into the upper atmosphere at the altitude of 200 km, at which the downward electron differential number flux was measured. An initial electron energy is considered in the range of 0.1-18 keV. It is assumed that an initial pitch angle is uniformly distributed in the range of [0, π/2]. Excitation and ionization rates of N2, O, and O2 are calculated as a function of altitude, the initial pitch angle, and the initial electron energy. Production and emission rates of the N2+ 1N (0, 1) band are deduced by using these calculated rates. Time variation of the observed absolute intensity of this band is reasonably well reproduced by the Monte Carlo method combined with the measured electron number flux.

  19. Adaptive Multi-Layer LMS Controller Design and Application to Active Vibration Suppression on a Truss and Proposed Impact Analysis Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Timothy A.; Shin, Y. S.; Agrawal, B. N.

    2001-01-01

    This research develops an adaptive controller that actively suppresses a single frequency disturbance source at a remote position and tests the system on the NPS Space Truss. The experimental results are then compared to those predicted by an ANSYS finite element model. The NPS space truss is a 3.7-meter long truss that simulates a space-borne appendage with sensitive equipment mounted at its extremities. One of two installed piezoelectric actuators and an Adaptive Multi-Layer LMS control law were used to effectively eliminate an axial component of the vibrations induced by a linear proof mass actuator mounted at one end of the truss. Experimental and analytical results both demonstrate reductions to the level of system noise. Vibration reductions in excess of 50dB were obtained through experimentation and over 100dB using ANSYS, demonstrating the ability to model this system with a finite element model. This report also proposes a method to use distributed quartz accelerometers to evaluate the location, direction, and energy of impacts on the NPS space truss using the dSPACE data acquisition and processing system to capture the structural response and compare it to known reference Signals.

  20. The origin and evolution of activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Creighton, C

    1992-01-01

    Practitioners of occupational therapy in the early 1900s selected therapeutic activities with an intuitive understanding of their characteristics and operations. The term activity analysis and the methodology for breaking down and examining tasks scientifically, however, were borrowed from industry during World War I. Methods originally used in time and motion study of jobs were applied to vocational retraining and therapeutic crafts; later, they were applied to a broader range of activities. The most systematic early use of activity analysis was in occupational therapy for physical dysfunction, particularly in military hospitals. Development of the concept was gradual until the 1970s, when the delineation of theoretical frames of reference for practice led to important changes. Today, activity analysis is viewed as a multifaceted process that involves both generic and specific components. PMID:1558138

  1. A forensic application of PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Warren, M. W.; Falsetti, A. B.

    2001-07-01

    PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone.

  2. Simultaneous analysis of codeine and its active metabolites in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of codeine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiujun; Zhang, Weiping; Bai, Yin; Guo, Tao; Gu, Jingkai

    2013-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive bioassay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of codeine and its active metabolites, including morphine, morphine 3β-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine 6β-glucuronide (M6G), in human plasma. Sample preparation of plasma after the addition of naloxone as internal standard (IS) involved solid-phase extraction (SPE) on C18 cartridges. Reversed-phase chromatography using a gradient elution with methanol and 0.04% formic acid solution (pH 3.5) was used for separation in a run time of 5 min. The analytes were detected in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions at m/z 300.4→215.2 for codeine, 286.2→152.0 for morphine, and 462.2→286.2 for M3G and M6G. The method has the following performance characteristics: a reliable response range of 0.05-80 ng/ml for codeine, M3G and M6G and a response range of 0.05-5.0 ng/ml for morphine with correlation coefficients (r) of >0.997 for all analytes. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for all four analytes was 0.05 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium and high concentration levels showed <12% relative standard deviation (RSD) and -6.9 to 8.1% relative error (RE) for all the analytes. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of codeine in healthy Mongolian Chinese volunteers after a 30 mg oral dose. PMID:23507688

  3. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  4. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the feasibility of utilizing controllable mechanical seals for aerospace applications. A potential application was selected as a demonstration case: the buffer gas seal in a LOX (liquid oxygen) turbopump. Currently, floating ring seals are used in this application. Their replacement with controllable mechanical seals would result in substantially reduced leakage rates. This would reduce the required amount of stored buffer gas, and therefore increase the vehicle payload. For such an application, a suitable controllable mechanical seal was designed and analyzed.

  5. Taking into account photofission effects in gamma-activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dayvdov, M.G.; Kishel'gof, V.V.; Naumov, A.P.; Trukhov, A.V.

    1986-11-01

    The authors proposed a method for calculating the effect of photofission of U and Th, which is based on the well-known laws of physics of photofission and methods for calculating the activity of fission products. The authors compared the results of numerical calculations of the gamma spectra of photofission products with the measurements performed with a Ge (Li) detector with the spectra from activated model samples of U and Th. The method developed enables calculating the coefficients of interference and is also applicable to the solution of the problems of optimization of gamma activation analysis taking into account U and Th fission.

  6. Application of critical path analysis in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research operates in a strictly regulated environment under various management models, but a distinct management model of clinical trial (CT) still needs exploration and research. Critical path analysis (CPA) is a management approach can be used for monitoring, analysis, and prediction of success of its time-bound operational activities. A model CT was compiled with 78 activities, which were further merged into 35 major activities. After performing dependence analysis, the list was finalized with 25 activities which were taken in activity predecessor to create a network diagram and perform CPA considering patients, conduct, and outcome. Activities were inclusive, described the trial entirely with accuracy, and were in chronological and logical sequences. This approach does not replace an understanding of or adherence to the requirements contained in all applicable regulations, guidelines or standard operating procedures governing clinical studies but ensures the proper use of operational and decisional approaches including optimal resource management. As the need to meet deadlines becomes more important and the need to produce good, stable project plans, CPA is very useful for determining activities that can lead to project delay. With this approach, project may be effectively monitored, and realistic schedules can be maintained. PMID:26955606

  7. Application of critical path analysis in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research operates in a strictly regulated environment under various management models, but a distinct management model of clinical trial (CT) still needs exploration and research. Critical path analysis (CPA) is a management approach can be used for monitoring, analysis, and prediction of success of its time-bound operational activities. A model CT was compiled with 78 activities, which were further merged into 35 major activities. After performing dependence analysis, the list was finalized with 25 activities which were taken in activity predecessor to create a network diagram and perform CPA considering patients, conduct, and outcome. Activities were inclusive, described the trial entirely with accuracy, and were in chronological and logical sequences. This approach does not replace an understanding of or adherence to the requirements contained in all applicable regulations, guidelines or standard operating procedures governing clinical studies but ensures the proper use of operational and decisional approaches including optimal resource management. As the need to meet deadlines becomes more important and the need to produce good, stable project plans, CPA is very useful for determining activities that can lead to project delay. With this approach, project may be effectively monitored, and realistic schedules can be maintained. PMID:26955606

  8. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  9. Probabilistic structural analysis methods and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Dias, B.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced algorithm for simulating the probabilistic distribution of structural responses due to statistical uncertainties in loads, geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions is reported. The method effectively combines an advanced algorithm for calculating probability levels for multivariate problems (fast probability integration) together with a general-purpose finite-element code for stress, vibration, and buckling analysis. Application is made to a space propulsion system turbine blade for which the geometry and material properties are treated as random variables.

  10. Error analysis of quartz crystal resonator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lucklum, R.; Behling, C.; Hauptmann, P.; Cernosek, R.W.; Martin, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    Quartz crystal resonators in chemical sensing applications are usually configured as the frequency determining element of an electrical oscillator. By contrast, the shear modulus determination of a polymer coating needs a complete impedance analysis. The first part of this contribution reports the error made if common approximations are used to relate the frequency shift to the sorbed mass. In the second part the authors discuss different error sources in the procedure to determine shear parameters.

  11. Software applications for flux balance analysis.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Koh, Geoffrey; Chung, Bevan K S; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is a widely used computational method for characterizing and engineering intrinsic cellular metabolism. The increasing number of its successful applications and growing popularity are possibly attributable to the availability of specific software tools for FBA. Each tool has its unique features and limitations with respect to operational environment, user-interface and supported analysis algorithms. Presented herein is an in-depth evaluation of currently available FBA applications, focusing mainly on usability, functionality, graphical representation and inter-operability. Overall, most of the applications are able to perform basic features of model creation and FBA simulation. COBRA toolbox, OptFlux and FASIMU are versatile to support advanced in silico algorithms to identify environmental and genetic targets for strain design. SurreyFBA, WEbcoli, Acorn, FAME, GEMSiRV and MetaFluxNet are the distinct tools which provide the user friendly interfaces in model handling. In terms of software architecture, FBA-SimVis and OptFlux have the flexible environments as they enable the plug-in/add-on feature to aid prospective functional extensions. Notably, an increasing trend towards the implementation of more tailored e-services such as central model repository and assistance to collaborative efforts was observed among the web-based applications with the help of advanced web-technologies. Furthermore, most recent applications such as the Model SEED, FAME, MetaFlux and MicrobesFlux have even included several routines to facilitate the reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic models. Finally, a brief discussion on the future directions of FBA applications was made for the benefit of potential tool developers. PMID:23131418

  12. Medically related activities of application team program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Application team methodology identifies and specifies problems in technology transfer programs to biomedical areas through direct contact with users of aerospace technology. The availability of reengineering sources increases impact of the program on the medical community and results in broad scale application of some bioinstrumentation systems. Examples are given that include devices adapted to the rehabilitation of neuromuscular disorders, power sources for artificial organs, and automated monitoring and detection equipment in clinical medicine.

  13. IR Activities. IR Applications, Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Stephen; Gerek, Mary Louise

    2007-01-01

    Institutional research is the sum total of all activities directed at describing the full spectrum of functions (educational, administrative, and support) occurring within a college or university. Institutional research activities examine those functions in their broadest definitions, and embrace data collection and analytical strategies in…

  14. Au@Ag Heterogeneous Nanorods as Nanozyme Interfaces with Peroxidase-Like Activity and Their Application for One-Pot Analysis of Glucose at Nearly Neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Li, Cuncheng; Zhang, Tao; Lang, Qiaolin; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-01

    As substitutes for natural peroxidases, most nanomaterial-based enzyme mimetics (nanozymes) have unique properties such as high stability, low-cost, large surface area, and high catalytic activity. However, they usually work in acidic conditions and thus impede their real applications. In this work, by modulating the nanostructure, composition, and surface property of the bimetallic materials, the positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium)-stabilized Au@Ag heterogeneous nanorods (NRs) were developed as synergistic peroxidase-like interfaces, which exhibited high activity over a wide pH range (pH 4.0-6.5) using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as the chromogenic substrate. At pH 6.5, the peroxidase-like activity for the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs was stable and optimal within 20-40 °C. Moreover, the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs showed excellent temperature stability and long-term storage stability. Given these characters, the detection of H2O2 at pH 6.5 was proposed on the basis of the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs catalyzing the colorimetric reaction of H2O2 and ABTS, where the oxidized ABTS showed a typical absorption peak at 414 nm. The absorbance at 414 nm was linear with H2O2 concentration from 0.01 to 10 mM. Further, considering that Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs and glucose oxidase (GOx) have similar optimal pH for catalytic activities, a novel one-pot method for the detection of glucose was developed by the coupled catalytic reaction using GOx, Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, and ABTS at nearly neutral pH (pH 6.5) and 37 °C. This proposed method had simple and rapid processes, wide linear range (0.05-20 mM), and reliability for the successful analysis of real samples. On the basis of these attractive and unique characteristics, Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs can become promising substitutes for peroxidase in analytical chemistry and environmental science. PMID:26076372

  15. Multidisciplinary analysis of actively controlled large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    The control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program has supported the development of an analysis capability at the Langley Research Center called the Integrated Multidisciplinary Analysis Tool (IMAT) which provides an efficient data storage and transfer capability among commercial computer codes to aid in the dynamic analysis of actively controlled structures. IMAT is a system of computer programs which transfers Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) configurations, structural finite element models, material property and stress information, structural and rigid-body dynamic model information, and linear system matrices for control law formulation among various commercial applications programs through a common database. Although general in its formulation, IMAT was developed specifically to aid in the evaluation of the structures. A description of the IMAT system and results of an application of the system are given.

  16. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of biologically active aminoalkanephosphonic acids.

    PubMed

    Kudzin, Zbigniew H; Gralak, Dorota K; Andrijewski, Grzegorz; Drabowicz, Józef; Luczak, Jerzy

    2003-05-23

    A new approach for simultaneous analysis of biologically active aminoalkanephosphonic acids, namely glyphosate, phosphonoglycine, phosphonosarcosine, phosphonoalanine, phosphono-beta-alanine, phosphonohomoalanine, phosphono-gamma-homoalanine and glufosinate, is presented. This includes a preliminary 31p NMR analysis of these amino acids, their further derivatization to volatile phosphonates (phosphinates) by means of trifluoroacetic acid-trifluoroacetic anhydride-trimethyl orthoacetate reagent and subsequent analysis of derivatization products using MS and/or GC-MS (chemical ionization and/or electron impact ionization). PMID:12862383

  18. Development of an active magnetic regenerator for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weibo

    2014-07-01

    This paper discusses the design of a micromachined regenerator in an Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) system for space applications. The AMRR system is designed to provide continuous remote/distributed cooling at about 2 K and reject heat at temperatures of about 15 K. This paper first discusses the general thermal and fluid performance requirements for an AMRR regenerator, a unique structured bed configuration that enables the regenerator to meet these requirements, and its thermal and fluid performance based on numerical analyses. The paper then discusses the general design consideration for the magnetic field driving the regenerator for optimal thermal performance, and the analysis processes to optimize the variation rate of the magnetic field in an actual superconducting magnet during the isothermal processes of the AMRR cycle to enhance the performance of an actual regenerator. The paper finally presents the thermal performance of the regenerator from such iterative design optimization processes.

  19. Gamete activation: basic knowledge and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Ménézo, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The first clues to the process of gamete activation date back to nearly 60 years ago. The mutual activation of gametes is a crucial event during fertilization. In the testis and ovaries, spermatozoa and oocytes are in a state of meiotic and metabolic quiescence and require reciprocal signals in order to undergo functional changes that lead to competence for fertilization. First, the oocyte activates sperm by triggering motility, chemoattraction, binding and the acrosome reaction, culminating with the fusion of the two plasma membranes. At the end of this cascade of events, collectively known as sperm capacitation, sperm-induced oocyte activation occurs, generating electrical, morphological and metabolic modifications in the oocyte. Objective and rationale The aim of this review is to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the entire process of gamete activation in selected specific animal models that have contributed to our understanding of fertilization in mammals, including humans. Here we describe in detail the reciprocal induction of the two activation processes, the molecules involved and the mechanisms of cell interaction and signal transduction that ultimately result in successful embryo development and creation of a new individual. Search methods We carried out a literature survey with no restrictions on publication date (from the early 1950s to March 2016) using PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge by utilizing common keywords applied in the field of fertilization and embryo development. We also screened the complete list of references published in the most recent research articles and relevant reviews published in English (both animal and human studies) on the topics investigated. Outcomes Literature on the principal animal models demonstrates that gamete activation is a pre-requisite for successful fertilization, and is a process common to all species studied to date. We provide a detailed description of the dramatic

  20. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  1. Risk assessment and its application to flight safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, D.L.; Barton, W.R.

    1989-12-01

    Potentially hazardous test activities have historically been a part of Sandia National Labs mission to design, develop, and test new weapons systems. These test activities include high speed air drops for parachute development, sled tests for component and system level studies, multiple stage rocket experiments, and artillery firings of various projectiles. Due to the nature of Sandia's test programs, the risk associated with these activities can never be totally eliminated. However, a consistent set of policies should be available to provide guidance into the level of risk that is acceptable in these areas. This report presents a general set of guidelines for addressing safety issues related to rocket flight operations at Sandia National Laboratories. Even though the majority of this report deals primarily with rocket flight safety, these same principles could be applied to other hazardous test activities. The basic concepts of risk analysis have a wide range of applications into many of Sandia's current operations. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Prompt gamma activation analysis: An old technique made new

    SciTech Connect

    English, Jerry; Firestone, Richard; Perry, Dale; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Garabedian, Glenn; Bandong, Bryan; Molnar, Gabor; Revay, Zsolt

    2002-12-01

    The long list of contributors to the prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) project is important because it highlights the broad cast of active PGAA researchers from various facilities and backgrounds. PGAA is basically a simple process in principle that was traditionally difficult in application. It is an old technique that has for years been tied to and associated exclusively with nuclear reactor facilities, which has limited its acceptance as a general, analytical tool for identifying and quantifying elements or, more precisely, isotopes, whether radioactive or nonradioactive. Field use was not a viable option.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Corey Thuen

    2013-01-01

    The On-Device Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Applications (ODAMA) project was started in an effort to protect mobile devices used in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from cyber attack. Because mobile devices hide as much of the “computer” as possible, the user’s ability to assess the software running on their system is limited. The research team chose Google’s Android platform for this initial research because it is open source and it would give us freedom in our approach, including the ability to modify the mobile device’s operating system itself. The research team concluded that a Privileged Application was the right approach, and the result was ODAMA. This project is an important piece of the work to secure the expanding use of mobile devices with our nation’s critical infrastructure.

  4. Pharmacological Activities and Applications of Spicatoside A

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Mahesh; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Liriopogons (Liriope and Opiopogon) species are used as a main medicinal ingredient in several Asian countries. The Liriopes Radix (tuber, root of Liriope platyphylla) has to be a promising candidate due to their source of phytochemicals. Steroidal saponins and their glycosides, phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites are considered of active constituents in Liriopes Radix. Spicatoside A, a steroidal saponin, could be more efficacious drug candidate in future. In this review, we summarized the available knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological activities for spicatoside A. It significantly suppressed the level of NF-κB, NO, iNOS, Cox-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and MAPKs in LPS-stimulated inflammation. The production of MUC5AC mucin was increased. MMP-13 expression was down-regulated in IL-1β-treated cells and reduced glycosaminoglycan release from IL-1α-treated cells. The neurite outgrowth activity, PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, TrkA and CREB phosphorylation and neurotropic factors such as NGF and BDNF were upregulated with increased latency time. It also showed cell growth inhibitory activity on various carcinoma cells. From this, spicatoside A exerts anti-inflammation, anti-asthma, anti-osteoclastogenesis, neurite outgrowth, memory consolidation and anticancer activities. Further studies are needed on spicatoside A in order to understand mechanisms of action to treat various human diseases. PMID:27169821

  5. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Virology and Microbial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harz, Michaela; Stöckel, Stephan; Ciobotă, Valerian; Cialla, Dana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    This chapter reports from the utilization of Raman spectroscopic techniques like Raman microscopy, Raman optical activity (ROA), UV-resonance Raman (UVRR)-spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for the investigation of viruses and microorganisms, especially bacteria and yeasts for medical and pharmaceutical applications. The application of these Raman techniques allows for the analysis of chemical components of cells and subcellular regions, as well as the monitoring of chemical differences occurring as a result of the growth of microorganisms. In addition, the interaction of microorganisms with active pharmaceutical agents can be investigated. In combination with chemometric methods Raman spectroscopy can also be applied to identify microorganisms both in micro colonies and even on single cells.

  6. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.

  7. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-22

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  8. Guidebook for analysis of tether applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended as a tool to facilitate initial analyses of proposed tether applications in space. The guiding philosophy is that a brief analysis of all the common problem areas is far more useful than a detailed study in any one area. Such analyses can minimize the waste of resources on elegant but fatally flawed concepts, and can identify the areas where more effort is needed on concepts which do survive the initial analyses. The simplified formulas, approximations, and analytical tools included should be used only for preliminary analyses. For detailed analyses, the references with each topic and in the bibliography may be useful.

  9. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  10. Application of Electromigration Techniques in Environmental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bald, Edward; Kubalczyk, Paweł; Studzińska, Sylwia; Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Inherently trace-level concentration of pollutants in the environment, together with the complexity of sample matrices, place a strong demand on the detection capabilities of electromigration methods. Significant progress is continually being made, widening the applicability of these techniques, mostly capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and capillary electrochromatography, to the analysis of real-world environmental samples, including the concentration sensitivity and robustness of the developed analytical procedures. This chapter covers the recent major developments in the domain of capillary electrophoresis analysis of environmental samples for pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, amines, carboxylic acids, explosives, pharmaceuticals, and ionic liquids. Emphasis is made on pre-capillary and on-capillary chromatography and electrophoresis-based concentration of analytes and detection improvement.

  11. Application of ultrasonics to chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chmilenko, F.A.; Baklanov, A.N.; Sidorova, L.P.; Piskun, Yu.M.

    1994-06-01

    Ultrasonics has found a wide utility in chemistry, making available energy densities of the order of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 3}, which is 3-5 orders of magnitude greater than the energy densities used in some physical methods like radiolysis and photolysis. The paper overviews several techniques of ultrasound to chemical analysis with the greatest effect obtained by using a wide range of ultrasound frequencies. The methods described include: using different ultrasound properties like velocity of propagation, decay rate, acoustic resistance, and relaxational absorption as analytical signals; the use of sonoluminescence; applications for oxidation, coagulating, and dispersion by ultrasound methods; use of ultrasound for sample preparation; and the use of ultrasound for widening the scope of the atomic spectroscopy and electrochemcial methods of analysis.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.; Silverman, A.; Ouellet, C.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z

    1992-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  13. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Guoxin Lu

    2007-12-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  14. Various applications of Active Field Control (AFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Hideo; Kishinaga, Shinji; Kawakami, Fukushi

    2003-10-01

    AFC is an electro-acoustic enhancement system, which has been under development at Yamaha Corporation. In this paper, several types of various AFC applications are discussed, while referring to representative projects for each application in Japan. (1) Realization of acoustics in a huge hall to classical music program, e.g., Tokyo International Forum. This venue is a multipurpose hall with approximately 5000 seats. AFC achieves loudness and reverberance equivalent to those of a hall with 2500 seats or fewer. (2) Optimization of acoustics for a variety of programs, e.g., Arkas Sasebo. AFC is used to create the optimum acoustics for each program, such as reverberance for classical concerts, acoustical support for opera singers, uniformity throughout the hall from the stage to under-balcony area, etc. (3) Control of room shape acoustical effect, e.g., Osaka Central Public Hall: In this renovation project, preservation of historically important architecture in the original form is required. AFC is installed to vary only the acoustical environment without architectural changes. (4) Assistance with crowd enthusiasm for sports entertainment, e.g., Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium. In this venue, which is designed as a very absorptive space for speech intelligibility, AFC is installed to enhance the atmosphere of live sports entertainment.

  15. Modeling the Benchmark Active Control Technology Wind-Tunnel Model for Active Control Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the formulation of a model of the dynamic behavior of the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for active control design and analysis applications. The model is formed by combining the equations of motion for the BACT wind tunnel model with actuator models and a model of wind tunnel turbulence. The primary focus of this report is the development of the equations of motion from first principles by using Lagrange's equations and the principle of virtual work. A numerical form of the model is generated by making use of parameters obtained from both experiment and analysis. Comparisons between experimental and analytical data obtained from the numerical model show excellent agreement and suggest that simple coefficient-based aerodynamics are sufficient to accurately characterize the aeroelastic response of the BACT wind tunnel model. The equations of motion developed herein have been used to aid in the design and analysis of a number of flutter suppression controllers that have been successfully implemented.

  16. Analysis of the activity pattern of volcanoes through self-organized crack networks: The effect of density barriers—An application to Vesuvius activity in the period 1631-1944

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegari, E.; Di Maio, R.; Scandone, R.

    2013-06-01

    We simulated the pattern of activity of a strato-volcano by using a cellular automaton model where magma is allowed to ascend to the surface through self-organized crack networks. Magma rises toward the surface by filling connected paths of fractures until the magma's density is less than that of surrounding rocks. If magma enters a region with negative or neutral buoyancy, it cools and solidifies; as a result, the local density profile is modified, and magmatic dikes are formed. We simulated the temporal evolution of high-density pathways of dikes that magma may eventually utilize to reach the surface. We showed that if a shallow neutral-negative buoyancy zone is restored after eruptions, due to, for example, piecemeal or chaotic collapses, a characteristic timescale appears in the inter-event repose time distribution. Such characteristic repose time represents the average time that magma takes to form a high-density pathway through the less dense rock layer, and it may give a hint to predict possible eruptive scenarios. Even if the model includes many simplifying assumptions in the definition of magma-rock interaction, the results obtained from simulations are consistent with the eruptive behavior of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano for the 1631-1944 period.

  17. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  18. Nonlinear analysis of epileptic activity in rabbit neocortex.

    PubMed

    Sarnthein, J; Abarbanel, H D; Pockberger, H

    1998-01-01

    We report on the nonlinear analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in the rabbit visual cortex. Epileptic seizures were induced by local penicillin application and triggered by visual stimulation. The analysis procedures for nonlinear signals have been developed over the past few years and applied primarily to physical systems. This is an early application to biological systems and the first to EEG data. We find that during epileptic activity, both global and local embedding dimensions are reduced with respect to nonepileptic activity. Interestingly, these values are very low (dE approximately equal to 3) and do not change between preictal and tonic stages of epileptic activity, also the Lyapunov dimension remains constant. However, between these two stages the manifestations of the local dynamics change quite drastically, as can be seen, e.g., from the shape of the attractors. Furthermore, the largest Lyapunov exponent is reduced by a factor of about two in the second stage and characterizes the difference in dynamics. Thus, the occurrence of clinical symptoms associated with the tonic seizure activity seems to be mainly related to the local dynamics of the nonlinear system. These results thus seem to give a strong indication that the dynamics remains much the same in these stages of behavior, and changes are due to alterations in model parameters and consequent bifurcations of the observed orbits. PMID:9485585

  19. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naillon, Martine

    1994-01-01

    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  20. Applications of chemiluminescence to bacterial analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searle, N. D.

    1975-01-01

    Luminol chemiluminescence method for detecting bacteria was based on microbial activation of the oxidation of the luminol monoanion by hydrogen peroxide. Elimination of the prior lysing step, previously used in the chemiluminescence technique, was shown to improve considerably the reproducibility and accuracy of the method in addition to simplifying it. An inexpensive, portable photomultiplier detector was used to measure the maximum light intensity produced when the sample is added to the reagent. Studies of cooling tower water show that the luminol chemiluminescence technique can be used to monitor changes in viable cell population both under normal conditions and during chlorine treatment. Good correlation between chemiluminescence and plate counts was also obtained in the analysis of process water used in paper mills. This method showed good potential for monitoring the viable bacteria populations in activated sludge used in waste treatment plants to digest organic matter.

  1. Analysis of wavelet technology for NASA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. O., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to introduce a broad group of NASA researchers and administrators to wavelet technology and to determine its future role in research and development at NASA JSC. The activities of several briefings held between NASA JSC scientists and Rice University researchers are discussed. An attached paper, 'Recent Advances in Wavelet Technology', summarizes some aspects of these briefings. Two proposals submitted to NASA reflect the primary areas of common interest. They are image analysis and numerical solutions of partial differential equations arising in computational fluid dynamics and structural mechanics.

  2. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  3. Acceleration of Data Analysis Applications using GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillmore, D.; Messmer, P.; Mullowney, P.; Amyx, K.

    2008-12-01

    The vast amount of data collected by present and future scientific instruments, sensors and numerical models requires a significant increase in computing power for analysis. In many cases, processing time on a single workstation becomes impractical. While clusters of commodity processors can be utilized to accelerate some of these tasks, the relatively high software development cost, as well as acquisition and operational costs, make them less attractive for broad use. Over the past few years, another class of architectures has gained some popularity, namely heterogeneous architectures, which consist of general purpose processors connected to specialized processors. One of the most prominent examples are Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which offer a tremendous amount of floating-point processing power due to demand for high-quality graphics in the computer game market. However, in order to harness this processing power, software developers have to develop with a detailed understanding of the underlying hardware. This burden on the developer is often hardly justifiable considering the rapid evolution of the hardware. In this talk, we will introduce GPULib, an open source library that enables scientists to accelerate their data analysis tasks using the GPUs already installed in their system from within high-level languages like IDL or MATLAB, and present examples and possible speedup from real-world data analysis applications. This work is funded through NASA Phase II SBIR Grant NNG06CA13C.

  4. Remote sensing application to regional activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahrokhi, F.; Jones, N. L.; Sharber, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Two agencies within the State of Tennessee were identified whereby the transfer of aerospace technology, namely remote sensing, could be applied to their stated problem areas. Their stated problem areas are wetland and land classification and strip mining studies. In both studies, LANDSAT data was analyzed with the UTSI video-input analog/digital automatic analysis and classification facility. In the West Tennessee area three land-use classifications could be distinguished; cropland, wetland, and forest. In the East Tennessee study area, measurements were submitted to statistical tests which verified the significant differences due to natural terrain, stripped areas, various stages of reclamation, water, etc. Classifications for both studies were output in the form of maps of symbols and varying shades of gray.

  5. Large Active Retrodirective Arrays for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    An active retrodirective array (ARA) electronically points a microwave beam back at the apparent source of an incident pilot signal. Retrodirectivity is the result of phase conjugation of the pilot signal received by each element of the array. The problem of supplying the correct phase reference to the phase conjugation circuit (PCC) associated with each element of the array is solved by central phasing. By eliminating the need for structural rigidity, central phasing confers a decisive advantage on ARA's as large spaceborne antennas. A new form of central phasing suitable for very large arrays is described. ARA's may easily be modified to serve both as transmitting and receiving arrays simultaneously. Two new kinds of exact, frequency translating PCC's are described. Such PCC's provide the ARA with input-output isolation and freedom from squint. The pointing errors caused by the radial and transverse components of the ARA's velocity, by the propagation medium, and by multipath are discussed. A two element ARA breadboard was built and tested at JPL. Its performance is limited primarily by multipath induced errors.

  6. The applicability and effectiveness of cluster analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, D. S.; Actkinson, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    An insight into the characteristics which determine the performance of a clustering algorithm is presented. In order for the techniques which are examined to accurately cluster data, two conditions must be simultaneously satisfied. First the data must have a particular structure, and second the parameters chosen for the clustering algorithm must be correct. By examining the structure of the data from the Cl flight line, it is clear that no single set of parameters can be used to accurately cluster all the different crops. The effectiveness of either a noniterative or iterative clustering algorithm to accurately cluster data representative of the Cl flight line is questionable. Thus extensive a prior knowledge is required in order to use cluster analysis in its present form for applications like assisting in the definition of field boundaries and evaluating the homogeneity of a field. New or modified techniques are necessary for clustering to be a reliable tool.

  7. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  8. Active-Twist Rotor Control Applications for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2004-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in active-twist rotor control is discussed using representative examples from analytical and experimental studies, and the application to rotary-wing UAVs is considered. Topics include vibration and noise reduction, rotor performance improvement, active blade tracking, stability augmentation, and rotor blade de-icing. A review of the current status of piezoelectric fiber composite actuator technology, the class of piezoelectric actuators implemented in active-twist rotor systems, is included.

  9. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  10. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  11. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  12. Generic element processor (application to nonlinear analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Gary

    1989-01-01

    The focus here is on one aspect of the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed: finite element technology. The approach involves a Generic Element Processor: a command-driven, database-oriented software shell that facilitates introduction of new elements into the testbed. This shell features an element-independent corotational capability that upgrades linear elements to geometrically nonlinear analysis, and corrects the rigid-body errors that plague many contemporary plate and shell elements. Specific elements that have been implemented in the Testbed via this mechanism include the Assumed Natural-Coordinate Strain (ANS) shell elements, developed with Professor K. C. Park (University of Colorado, Boulder), a new class of curved hybrid shell elements, developed by Dr. David Kang of LPARL (formerly a student of Professor T. Pian), other shell and solid hybrid elements developed by NASA personnel, and recently a repackaged version of the workhorse shell element used in the traditional STAGS nonlinear shell analysis code. The presentation covers: (1) user and developer interfaces to the generic element processor, (2) an explanation of the built-in corotational option, (3) a description of some of the shell-elements currently implemented, and (4) application to sample nonlinear shell postbuckling problems.

  13. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  14. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  15. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    PubMed

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass. PMID:20382474

  16. Malpractice claims analysis yields widely applicable principles.

    PubMed

    Waldman, J D; Spector, R A

    2003-01-01

    We received 50 claims of medical negligence in pediatric cardiology. From the analysis, patterns were identified and recommendations for improvement were found that apply generally to healthcare. Less than half (38%) of the claims were found to be medically meritorious. The impression of substandard care was often (7/50) created by an erroneous attribution of cause of death at autopsy. Both structured learning for caregivers and education of the public will reduce the frequency of malpractice forms-both valid and frivolous. Caregivers should document more effectively. The current tort system neither deters nor compensates as it was intended. The assignment of blame to a single individual is usually not in concert with the reality of modern medicine. Good health care is not a passive behavior; active participation by the public is required. PMID:12360392

  17. Matched Peptides: Tuning Matched Molecular Pair Analysis for Biopharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals hold great promise for the future of drug discovery. Nevertheless, rational drug design strategies are mainly focused on the discovery of small synthetic molecules. Herein we present matched peptides, an innovative analysis technique for biological data related to peptide and protein sequences. It represents an extension of matched molecular pair analysis toward macromolecular sequence data and allows quantitative predictions of the effect of single amino acid substitutions on the basis of statistical data on known transformations. We demonstrate the application of matched peptides to a data set of major histocompatibility complex class II peptide ligands and discuss the trends captured with respect to classical quantitative structure–activity relationship approaches as well as structural aspects of the investigated protein–peptide interface. We expect our novel readily interpretable tool at the interface of cheminformatics and bioinformatics to support the rational design of biopharmaceuticals and give directions for further development of the presented methodology. PMID:26501781

  18. Accelerating DNA analysis applications on GPU clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2010-06-13

    DNA analysis is an emerging application of high performance bioinformatic. Modern sequencing machinery are able to provide, in few hours, large input streams of data which needs to be matched against exponentially growing databases known fragments. The ability to recognize these patterns effectively and fastly may allow extending the scale and the reach of the investigations performed by biology scientists. Aho-Corasick is an exact, multiple pattern matching algorithm often at the base of this application. High performance systems are a promising platform to accelerate this algorithm, which is computationally intensive but also inherently parallel. Nowadays, high performance systems also include heterogeneous processing elements, such as Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), to further accelerate parallel algorithms. Unfortunately, the Aho-Corasick algorithm exhibits large performance variabilities, depending on the size of the input streams, on the number of patterns to search and on the number of matches, and poses significant challenges on current high performance software and hardware implementations. An adequate mapping of the algorithm on the target architecture, coping with the limit of the underlining hardware, is required to reach the desired high throughputs. Load balancing also plays a crucial role when considering the limited bandwidth among the nodes of these systems. In this paper we present an efficient implementation of the Aho-Corasick algorithm for high performance clusters accelerated with GPUs. We discuss how we partitioned and adapted the algorithm to fit the Tesla C1060 GPU and then present a MPI based implementation for a heterogeneous high performance cluster. We compare this implementation to MPI and MPI with pthreads based implementations for a homogeneous cluster of x86 processors, discussing the stability vs. the performance and the scaling of the solutions, taking into consideration aspects such as the bandwidth among the different nodes.

  19. Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, R.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the

  20. Electrodermal activity analysis during affective haptic elicitation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Alberto; Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Bianchi, Matteo; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates how the autonomic nervous system dynamics, quantified through the analysis of the electrodermal activity (EDA), is modulated according to affective haptic stimuli. Specifically, a haptic display able to convey caress-like stimuli is presented to 32 healthy subjects (16 female). Each stimulus is changed according to six combinations of three velocities and two forces levels of two motors stretching a strip of fabric. Subjects were also asked to score each stimulus in terms of arousal (high/low activation) and valence (pleasant/unpleasant), in agreement with the circumplex model of affect. EDA was processed using a deconvolutive method, separating tonic and phasic components. A statistical analysis was performed in order to identify significant differences in EDA features among force and velocity levels, as well as in their valence and arousal scores. Results show that the simulated caress induced by the haptic display significantly affects the EDA. In detail, the phasic component seems to be inversely related to the valence score. This finding is new and promising, since it can be used, e.g., as an additional cue for haptics design. PMID:26737605

  1. Physical Activity Recognition with Mobile Phones: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Lu, Hong; Liu, Zhigang; Boda, Péter Pál

    In this book chapter, we present a novel system that recognizes and records the physical activity of a person using a mobile phone. The sensor data is collected by built-in accelerometer sensor that measures the motion intensity of the device. The system recognizes five everyday activities in real-time, i.e., stationary, walking, running, bicycling, and in vehicle. We first introduce the sensor's data format, sensor calibration, signal projection, feature extraction, and selection methods. Then we have a detailed discussion and comparison of different choices of feature sets and classifiers. The design and implementation of one prototype system is presented along with resource and performance benchmark on Nokia N95 platform. Results show high recognition accuracies for distinguishing the five activities. The last part of the chapter introduces one demo application built on top of our system, physical activity diary, and a selection of potential applications in mobile wellness, mobile social sharing and contextual user interface domains.

  2. Uncertainty Analysis of Instrument Calibration and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping

    1999-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic researchers require estimated precision and bias uncertainties of measured physical quantities, typically at 95 percent confidence levels. Uncertainties of final computed aerodynamic parameters are obtained by propagation of individual measurement uncertainties through the defining functional expressions. In this paper, rigorous mathematical techniques are extended to determine precision and bias uncertainties of any instrument-sensor system. Through this analysis, instrument uncertainties determined through calibration are now expressed as functions of the corresponding measurement for linear and nonlinear univariate and multivariate processes. Treatment of correlated measurement precision error is developed. During laboratory calibration, calibration standard uncertainties are assumed to be an order of magnitude less than those of the instrument being calibrated. Often calibration standards do not satisfy this assumption. This paper applies rigorous statistical methods for inclusion of calibration standard uncertainty and covariance due to the order of their application. The effects of mathematical modeling error on calibration bias uncertainty are quantified. The effects of experimental design on uncertainty are analyzed. The importance of replication is emphasized, techniques for estimation of both bias and precision uncertainties using replication are developed. Statistical tests for stationarity of calibration parameters over time are obtained.

  3. Decision analysis applications and the CERCLA process

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.T.; Lyon, B.F. |

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative decision methods can be developed during environmental restoration projects that incorporate stakeholder input and can complement current efforts that are undertaken for data collection and alternatives evaluation during the CERCLA process. These decision-making tools can supplement current EPA guidance as well as focus on problems that arise as attempts are made to make informed decisions regarding remedial alternative selection. In examining the use of such applications, the authors discuss the use of decision analysis tools and their impact on collecting data and making environmental decisions from a risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based decision rules that incorporate stakeholder concerns. This represents a quantitative method for implementing the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. These objective functions can be expressed using a variety of indices to analyze problems that currently arise in the environmental field. Examples include cost, magnitude of risk, efficiency, and probability of success or failure. Based on such defined objective functions, a project can evaluate the impact of different risk and decision selection strategies on data worth and alternative selection.

  4. Digraph matrix analysis applications to systems interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Altenbach, T.; Lappa, D.; Kimura, C.; Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Fromme, D.; Smith, C.F.; Williams, W.

    1984-01-01

    Complex events such as Three Mile Island-2, Brown's Ferry-3 and Crystal River-3 have demonstrated that previously unidentified system interdependencies can be important to safety. A major aspect of these events was dependent faults (common cause/mode failures). The term systems interactions has been introduced by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to identify the concepts of spatial and functional coupling of systems which can lead to system interdependencies. Spatial coupling refers to dependencies resulting from a shared environmental condition; functional coupling refers to both dependencies resulting from components shared between safety and/or support systems, and to dependencies involving human actions. The NRC is currently developing guidelines to search for and evaluate adverse systems interactions at light water reactors. One approach utilizes graph theoretical methods and is called digraph matrix analysis (DMA). This methodology has been specifically tuned to the systems interaction problem. The objective of this paper is to present results from two DMA applications and to contrast them with the results from more traditional fault tree approaches.

  5. Forensic analysis of social networking application on iOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Wang, Lianhai

    2013-12-01

    The increased use of social networking application on iPhone and iPad make these devices a goldmine for forensic investigators. Besides, QQ, Wechat, Sina Weibo and skype applications are very popular in China and didn't draw attention to researchers. These social networking applications are used not only on computers, but also mobile phones and tablets. This paper focuses on conducting forensic analysis on these four social networking applications on iPhone and iPad devices. The tests consisted of installing the social networking applications on each device, conducting common user activities through each application and correlation analysis with other activities. Advices to the forensic investigators are also given. It could help the investigators to describe the crime behavior and reconstruct the crime venue.

  6. Usability engineering: domain analysis activities for augmented-reality systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbard, Joseph; Swan, J. E., II; Hix, Deborah; Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Livingston, Mark; Brown, Dennis B.; Julier, Simon J.

    2002-05-01

    This paper discusses our usability engineering process for the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS). Usability engineering is a structured, iterative, stepwise development process. Like the related disciplines of software and systems engineering, usability engineering is a combination of management principals and techniques, formal and semi- formal evaluation techniques, and computerized tools. BARS is an outdoor augmented reality system that displays heads- up battlefield intelligence information to a dismounted warrior. The paper discusses our general usability engineering process. We originally developed the process in the context of virtual reality applications, but in this work we are adapting the procedures to an augmented reality system. The focus of this paper is our work on domain analysis, the first activity of the usability engineering process. We describe our plans for and our progress to date on our domain analysis for BARS. We give results in terms of a specific urban battlefield use case we have designed.

  7. Relating Concepts and Applications through Structured Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Leonard

    The central research question in this study was whether structured active learning affects the abilities of science and engineering undergraduates to relate abstract concepts and realistic applications more than a relatively traditional instructional method. More specifically, the research was designed to determine whether differences in the…

  8. Thin Film on CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for Space Applications

    PubMed Central

    Schulze Spuentrup, Jan Dirk; Burghartz, Joachim N.; Graf, Heinz-Gerd; Harendt, Christine; Hutter, Franz; Nicke, Markus; Schmidt, Uwe; Schubert, Markus; Sterzel, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    A 664 × 664 element Active Pixel image Sensor (APS) with integrated analog signal processing, full frame synchronous shutter and random access for applications in star sensors is presented and discussed. A thick vertical diode array in Thin Film on CMOS (TFC) technology is explored to achieve radiation hardness and maximum fill factor.

  9. Six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Leonard S.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 Jan. - 31 Mar. 1993 on six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application is presented. A performance and cost report is included. Topics covered include: actuator testing; mechanical amplifier design; and neural network control system development and experimental evaluation.

  10. Organic thin film transistors: from active materials to novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsi, L.; Cioffi, N.; Di Franco, C.; Sabbatini, L.; Zambonin, P. G.; Bleve-Zacheo, T.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper, a bird's eye view of most of the organic materials employed as n-channel and p-channel transistor active layers is given along with the relevant device performances; organic thin film transistors (OTFT) operation regimes are discussed and an interesting perspective application of OTFT as multi-parameter gas sensor is proposed.

  11. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of some building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salagean, M. N.; Pantelica, A. I.; Georgescu, I. I.; Muntean, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U. Yb, W and Zn in seven Romanian building materials were determined by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method using the VVR-S Reactor of NIPNE- Bucharest. Raw matarials used in cement obtaining ≈ 75% of limestone and ≈ 25% of clay, cement samples from three different factories, furnace slag, phosphogypsum, and a type of brick have been analyzed. The brick was compacted from furnace slay, fly coal ash, phosphogypsum, lime and cement. The U, Th and K concentrations determined in the brick are in agreement with the natural radioactivity measurements of226Ra,232Th and40K. These specific activities were found about twice and 1.5 higher than the accepted levels in the case of226Ra and232Th, as well as40K, respectively. By consequence, the investigated brick is considered a radioactive waste. The rather high content of Co, Cr, K, Th, and Zh in the brick is especially due to the slag and fly ash, the main componets. The presence of U, Th and K in slag is mainly correlated with the limestone and dolomite as fluxes in matallurgy.

  13. Analysis of small commercial photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, J.; Allred, R.; McCarthy, R.

    1982-07-01

    The objective was to determine promising small commercial (to 500 kW) grid connected photovoltaic applications. Twelve applications were evaluated, including detailed performance and economic analyses covering different collector types, utility rate structures and geographic locations. The attractiveness of battery storage was also examined.

  14. A Review of Smartphone Applications for Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. Methods In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. Results After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Discussion Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity. PMID:27034992

  15. Application of the associated particle technique for the whole-body measurement of protein, fat and water by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mitra, S; Wolff, J E; Garrett, R; Peters, C W

    1995-06-01

    A small and compact sealed tube neutron generator with an integral alpha particle detector has been used for applying the associated particle technique for prompt-gamma 14 MeV neutron activation analysis of total body carbon (TBC), total body nitrogen (TBN) and total body oxygen (TBO). Ground sheep meat samples in the weight range 20-40 kg and of varying composition have been scanned using two 12.5 cm diameter x 10 cm Nal(Tl) crystals for gamma-ray detection. The content of protein, fat and water was calculated from their fractional content of C, N and O using a four-compartment model of body composition, which included minerals. The precision for measuring TBC, TBN and TBO has been obtained from the mean count rates of ten repeat irradiations of the same sample. The accuracy has been confirmed by comparison against chemical analysis. The reproducibilities for measuring TBN have been found to be comparable to those obtained when the same samples were analysed using prompt-gamma thermal-neutron activation analysis in an existing body composition facility. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that an instrument comprising the neutron generator and four 15 cm x 15 cm x 45 cm NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors can be assembled to determine, in vivo, protein, fat and water in an approximately 41 kg sample with precisions of 4.4%, 5.0% and 2.1% (CV) respectively within a 15 min scan. The radiation dose equivalent delivered due to neutrons would be approximately 0.03 mSv. PMID:7659729

  16. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  17. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  18. Active optics for space applications: an ESA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Hallibert, Pascal; Pereira do Carmo, Joao; Wille, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Active optics for Space is relatively new field that takes advantage of lessons learnt on ground, and together with the tighter constrains of space environment it allows operation of larger mirrors apertures for space telescopes and better image quality. Technical developments are crucial to guarantee proper technological readiness for applications on new missions whose performance can be driven also by these novelties. This paper describes the philosophy pursued at ESA, providing an overview of the activities run within the Agency, as well as perspectives for new developments. The Optics Section of the Directorate of Technical and Quality Management of ESA/ESTEC is currently running three projects. Two examples are here addressed.

  19. Cellulose Electro-Active Paper: From Discovery to Technology Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2014-09-01

    Cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap) is an attractive material of electro-active polymers (EAPs) family due to its smart characteristics. EAPap is thin cellulose film coated with metal electrodes on both sides. Its large displacement output, low actuation voltage and low power consumption can be used for biomimetic sensors/actuators and electromechanical system. Because cellulose EAPap is ultra-lightweight, easy to manufacture, inexpensive, biocompatible, and biodegradable, it has been employed for many applications such as bending actuator, vibration sensor, artificial muscle, flexible speaker, and can be advantageous in areas such as micro-insect robots, micro-flying objects, microelectromechanical systems, biosensors, and flexible displays.

  20. Applications of wavelets in morphometric analysis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Tao, Xiaodong; Shen, Dinggang

    2003-11-01

    Morphometric analysis of medical images is playing an increasingly important role in understanding brain structure and function, as well as in understanding the way in which these change during development, aging and pathology. This paper presents three wavelet-based methods with related applications in morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images. The first method handles cases where very limited datasets are available for the training of statistical shape models in the deformable segmentation. The method is capable of capturing a larger range of shape variability than the standard active shape models (ASMs) can, by using the elegant spatial-frequency decomposition of the shape contours provided by wavelet transforms. The second method addresses the difficulty of finding correspondences in anatomical images, which is a key step in shape analysis and deformable registration. The detection of anatomical correspondences is completed by using wavelet-based attribute vectors as morphological signatures of voxels. The third method uses wavelets to characterize the morphological measurements obtained from all voxels in a brain image, and the entire set of wavelet coefficients is further used to build a brain classifier. Since the classification scheme operates in a very-high-dimensional space, it can determine subtle population differences with complex spatial patterns. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

  1. Design and Application of the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Terry, Michelle; Crillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce; Maxwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conducting human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will present unique challenges in the areas of supportability and maintainability. The durations of proposed missions can be relatively long and re-supply of logistics, including maintenance and repair items, will be limited or non-existent. In addition, mass and volume constraints in the transportation system will limit the total amount of logistics that can be flown along with the crew. These constraints will require that new strategies be developed with regards to how spacecraft systems are designed and maintained. NASA is currently developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) as an initial step in defining future human missions. These DRMs establish destinations and concepts of operation for future missions, and begin to define technology and capability requirements. Because of the unique supportability challenges, historical supportability data and models are not directly applicable for establishing requirements for beyond LEO missions. However, supportability requirements could have a major impact on the development of the DRMs. The mass, volume, and crew resources required to support the mission could all be first order drivers in the design of missions, elements, and operations. Therefore, there is a need for enhanced analysis capabilities to more accurately establish mass, volume, and time requirements for supporting beyond LEO missions. Additionally, as new technologies and operations are proposed to reduce these requirements, it is necessary to have accurate tools to evaluate the efficacy of those approaches. In order to improve the analysis of supportability requirements for beyond LEO missions, the Space Missions Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool (EMAT). This tool is a probabilistic simulator that evaluates the need for repair and maintenance activities during space missions and the logistics and crew

  2. Image analysis applications for grain science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Steele, James L.

    1991-02-01

    Morphometrical features of single grain kernels or particles were used to discriminate two visibly similar wheat varieties foreign material in wheat hardsoft and spring-winter wheat classes and whole from broken corn kernels. Milled fractions of hard and soft wheat were evaluated using textural image analysis. Color image analysis of sound and mold damaged corn kernels yielded high recognition rates. The studies collectively demonstrate the potential for automated classification and assessment of grain quality using image analysis.

  3. Active and passive multispectral scanner for earth resources applications: An advanced applications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.

  4. Biological markers of macrophage activation: applications for fish phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Enane, N A; Frenkel, K; O'Connor, J M; Squibb, K S; Zelikoff, J T

    1993-01-01

    The immune defence mechanisms of fish seem to be related and similarly competent to those of mammals. Because of this, there is an increased interest in the immune responses of fish as models for higher vertebrates in immunological/immunotoxicological studies. Macrophages (M phi), phagocytic cells of the mammalian and teleost immune system which reside in tissues, represent a quiescent population of cells. However, upon stimulation, alterations in the physiology of these resident M phi occur which can be defined in terms of activation. This study was undertaken to determine whether biological markers used to assess mammalian M phi activation are applicable for use with fish M phi. Cells were recovered from the peritoneal cavity of non-injected and Aeromonas salmonicida-injected fish, and differences between resident and elicited M phi were evaluated with respect to protein content, phagocytic competence, enzyme activities and hydrogen peroxide production. Results demonstrate that biological markers used to assess mammalian M phi activation, with the exception of acid phosphatase activity, can be used to characterize the activation state of trout M phi, and that the activation process in both fish and mammals may occur by similar mechanism(s). PMID:8244466

  5. Human striatal L-dopa decarboxylase activity estimated in vivo using 6-[18F]fluoro-dopa and positron emission tomography: error analysis and application to normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, H; Cumming, P; Reith, J; Léger, G; Diksic, M; Evans, A C; Gjedde, A

    1993-01-01

    DOPA decarboxylase is the enzyme directly responsible for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and indirectly of noradrenaline, in brain. We used the decarboxylation coefficient (k3D) of 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA (FDOPA) to denote the relative activity of L-DOPA decarboxylase in vivo in the human brain. To determine the relative enzyme activity with positron emission tomography (PET), we evaluated the model that separates the metabolism into compartments of nondiffusible and diffusible (i.e., transient) tracer metabolites. Error analysis indicated that the least-squares optimization alone was not sufficient to yield accurate estimates of k3D in the presence of the inherent error of PET. To improve the accuracy of the k3D estimates by optimizing the number of parameters, we introduced biological constraints which included a tracer partition volume (Ve) common to frontal cortex and striatum, and a fixed ratio (q) between the blood-brain barrier transport coefficients of O-methyl-[18F]fluoro-DOPA and FDOPA, the two sources of radioactivity in plasma. We found that a two-step analysis yielded sufficiently accurate estimates of k3D. The two steps include the initial estimation of the partition volume in frontal cortex and the subsequent use of this value to determine k3D in striatum and other structures. We studied twelve healthy controls (age 45 +/- 15 years). The average k3D value was 0.081 +/- 0.024 min-1 (coefficient of variation (COV) 30%) for caudate nucleus, 0.074 +/- 0.013 min-1 (COV 18%) for putamen, and 0.010 +/- 0.005 min-1 (COV 50%) for cerebral cortex. PMID:8417009

  6. Regression Analysis: Legal Applications in Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizell, Julie A.; Shippen, Benjamin S., Jr.; Luna, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews multiple regression analysis, describes how its results should be interpreted, and instructs institutional researchers on how to conduct such analyses using an example focused on faculty pay equity between men and women. The use of multiple regression analysis will be presented as a method with which to compare salaries of…

  7. Miscue Analysis: Applications to Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.

    This book is a series of essays on the subject of miscue analysis, a diagnostic procedure rooted in the psycholinguistic view of reading. The focus of miscue analysis is on the broad field of reading comprehension rather than the isolated decoding of individual words and letters. The contents of this book include: "Introduction" by Sister Rosemary…

  8. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  9. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S. K.

    1991-10-01

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequence of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  10. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  11. Infrared active polarimetric imaging system controlled by image segmentation algorithms: application to decamouflage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Nicolas; Goudail, François; Plassart, Corentin; Boffety, Matthieu; Feneyrou, Patrick; Leviandier, Luc; Galland, Frédéric; Bertaux, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    We describe an active polarimetric imager with laser illumination at 1.5 µm that can generate any illumination and analysis polarization state on the Poincar sphere. Thanks to its full polarization agility and to image analysis of the scene with an ultrafast active-contour based segmentation algorithm, it can perform adaptive polarimetric contrast optimization. We demonstrate the capacity of this imager to detect manufactured objects in different types of environments for such applications as decamouflage and hazardous object detection. We compare two imaging modes having different number of polarimetric degrees of freedom and underline the characteristics that a polarimetric imager aimed at this type of applications should possess.

  12. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  13. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  14. Modified Activated Carbon to be Used in Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, M. S.; de Silva, W. R. M.; de Silva, K. M. N.

    2014-11-01

    In this study a novel nano composite of hydroxyapatite nano particles impregnated activated carbon (C-HAp), which was synthesized in our own method, was used in iron adsorption studies. The study was conducted in order to investigate the potential of using C-HAp nanocomposite to be used in clinical detoxifications such as acute iron toxicity where the use of Activated carbon (GAC) is not very effective. Adsorption studies were conducted for synthetic solutions of Fe2+, Fe3+ and iron syrup using GAC, C-HAp and neat HAp as adsorbents. According to the results C-HAp nano composite showed improved properties than GAC in adsorbing Fe2+, Fe3+ and also Fe ions in iron syrup solutions. Thus the results of the in-vitro studies of iron adsorption studies indicated the potential of using C-HAp as an alternative to activated carbon in such clinical applications.

  15. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  16. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  17. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. asic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. hese basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. he paper describes the app...

  18. Some archaeologic applications of accelerator radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, D. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Linick, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    The method of preparation of archaeologic samples for AMS radiocarbon dating, the precision of such measurements and the conversion of radiocarbon results to calendar ages are presented. The application of the technique to measurements of the ages of bones, textiles (including the Shroud of Turin), cultigens and other achaeologic artifacts is described.

  19. SHIRCO INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM: APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the Shirco infrared Thermal Destruction Technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment method for waste site clean-ups. A Superfund Innovative Technical Evaluation (SITE) was conducted on a lOO-ton day unit during a removal action at Br...

  20. Guidebook for analysis of tether applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended as a tool to facilitate initial analyses of proposed tether applications in space. Topics disscussed include: orbit and orbit transfer equations; orbital perturbations; aerodynamic drag; thermal balance; micrometeoroids; gravity gradient effects; tether control strategies; momentum transfer; orbit transfer by tethered release/rendezvous; impact hazards for tethers; electrodynamic tether principles; and electrodynamic libration control issues.

  1. An active matter analysis of intracellular Active Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Kejia; Bae, Sung Chul; Granick, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Tens of thousands of fluorescence-based trajectories at nm resolution have been analyzed, regarding active transport along microtubules in living cells. The following picture emerges. Directed motion to pre-determined locations is certainly an attractive idea, but cannot be pre-programmed as to do so would sacrifice adaptability. The polarity of microtubules is inadequate to identify these directions in cells, and no other mechanism is currently known. We conclude that molecular motors carry cargo through disordered intracellular microtubule networks in a statistical way, with loud cellular ``noise'' both in directionality and speed. Programmed random walks describe how local 1D active transport traverses crowded cellular space efficiently, rapidly, minimizing the energy waste that would result from redundant activity. The mechanism of statistical regulation is not yet understood, however.

  2. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  3. Knowledge discovery in group activities through sequential observation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2014-06-01

    Understanding of Group Activities (GA) has significant applications in civilian and military domains. The process of understanding GA is typically involved with spatiotemporal analysis of multi-modality sensor data. Video imagery is one popular sensing modality that offers rich data, however, data associated with imagery source may become fragmented and discontinued due to a number of reasons (e.g., data transmission, or observation obstructions and occlusions). However, making sense out of video imagery is a real challenge. It requires a proper inference working model capable of analyzing video imagery frame by frame, extract and inference spatiotemporal information pertaining to observations while developing an incremental perception of the GA as they emerge overtime. In this paper, we propose an ontology based GA recognition where three inference Hidden Markov Models (HMM's) are used for predicting group activities taking place in outdoor environments and different task operational taxonomy. The three competing models include: a concatenated HMM, a cascaded HMM, and a context-based HMM. The proposed ontology based GA-HMM was subjected to set of semantically annotated visual observations from outdoor group activity experiments. Experimental results from GA-HMM are presented with technical discussions on design of each model and their potential implication to Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS).

  4. WWER Expert System for Fuel Failure Analysis Using Data on Primary Coolant Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Likhanskii, V.V.; Evdokimov, I.A.; Sorokin, A.A.; Khromov, A.G.; Kanukova, V.D.; Apollonova, O.V.; Ugryumov, A.V.

    2007-07-01

    The computer expert system for fuel failure analysis of WWER during operation is presented. The diagnostics is based on the measurement of specific activity of reference nuclides in reactor primary coolant and application of a computer code for the data interpretation. The data analysis includes an evaluation of tramp uranium mass in reactor core, detection of failures by iodine and caesium spikes, evaluation of burnup of defective fuel. Evaluation of defective fuel burnup was carried out by applying the relation of caesium nuclides activity in spikes and relations of activities of gaseous fission products for steady state operational conditions. The method of burnup evaluation of defective fuel by use of fission gas activity is presented in detail. The neural-network analysis is performed for determination of failed fuel rod number and defect size. Results of the expert system application are illustrated for several fuel campaigns on operating WWER NPPs. (authors)

  5. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  6. [Advances in independent component analysis and its application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huafu; Yao, Dezhong

    2003-06-01

    The independent component analysis (ICA) is a new technique in statistical signal processing, which decomposes mixed signals into statistical independent components. The reported applications in biomedical and radar signal have demonstrated its good prospect in various blind signal separation. In this paper, the progress of ICA in such as its principle, algorithm and application and advance direction of ICA in future is reviewed. The aim is to promote the research in theory and application in the future. PMID:12856621

  7. Potential applications of computational fluid dynamics to biofluid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.; Kwak, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was developed to the stage where it has become an indispensable part of aerospace research and design. In view of advances made in aerospace applications, the computational approach can be used for biofluid mechanics research. Several flow simulation methods developed for aerospace problems are briefly discussed for potential applications to biofluids, especially to blood flow analysis.

  8. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.

    PubMed

    Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

    2011-11-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jord

  10. An Automated Inadvertent Intruder Analysis Application

    SciTech Connect

    KOFFMAN, LARRYD.

    2004-07-17

    Savannah River National Laboratory is responsible for the radiological performance assessment analysis for Savannah River Site waste disposal facilities (McDowell-Boyer2000), which results in limits on the amounts of radiological substances that can be placed in the waste disposal facilities. To arrive at these limits, the performance assessment considers numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. Inadvertent intruder analysis considers three distinct scenarios for exposure referred to as the agriculture scenario, the resident scenario, and the post-drilling scenario. Each of these scenarios has specific exposure pathways that contribute to the overall dose for the scenario.

  11. Automated shock detection and analysis algorithm for space weather application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotnikov, Vasiliy S.; Smith, Charles W.; Hu, Qiang; Szabo, Adam; Skoug, Ruth M.; Cohen, Christina M. S.

    2008-03-01

    Space weather applications have grown steadily as real-time data have become increasingly available. Numerous industrial applications have arisen with safeguarding of the power distribution grids being a particular interest. NASA uses short-term and long-term space weather predictions in its launch facilities. Researchers studying ionospheric, auroral, and magnetospheric disturbances use real-time space weather services to determine launch times. Commercial airlines, communication companies, and the military use space weather measurements to manage their resources and activities. As the effects of solar transients upon the Earth's environment and society grow with the increasing complexity of technology, better tools are needed to monitor and evaluate the characteristics of the incoming disturbances. A need is for automated shock detection and analysis methods that are applicable to in situ measurements upstream of the Earth. Such tools can provide advance warning of approaching disturbances that have significant space weather impacts. Knowledge of the shock strength and speed can also provide insight into the nature of the approaching solar transient prior to arrival at the magnetopause. We report on efforts to develop a tool that can find and analyze shocks in interplanetary plasma data without operator intervention. This method will run with sufficient speed to be a practical space weather tool providing useful shock information within 1 min of having the necessary data to ground. The ability to run without human intervention frees space weather operators to perform other vital services. We describe ways of handling upstream data that minimize the frequency of false positive alerts while providing the most complete description of approaching disturbances that is reasonably possible.

  12. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits. PMID:27480693

  13. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  14. Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 and -D2 produced in an inflammatory cell reaction and its application for activity screening and potency evaluation using turbulent flow chromatography liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Sook; Peng, Lei; Kang, Kyungsu; Choi, Yongsoo

    2016-09-01

    Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) and -D2 (PGD2) produced from a RAW264.7 cell-based reaction was performed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), which was online coupled with turbulent flow chromatography (TFC). The capability of this method to accurately measure PG levels in cell reaction medium containing cytokines or proteins as a reaction byproduct was cross-validated by two conventional methods. Two methods, including an LC-HRMS method after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the sample and a commercial PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed PGE2 and/or PGD2 levels almost similar to those obtained by TFC LC-HRMS over the reaction time after LPS stimulation. After the cross-validation, significant analytical throughputs, allowing simultaneous screening and potency evaluation of 80 natural products including 60 phytochemicals and 20 natural product extracts for the inhibition of the PGD2 produced in the cell-based inflammatory reaction, were achieved using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed. Among the 60 phytochemicals screened, licochalcone A and formononetin inhibited PGD2 production the most with IC50 values of 126 and 151nM, respectively. For a reference activity, indomethacin and diclofenac were used, measuring IC50 values of 0.64 and 0.21nM, respectively. This method also found a butanol extract of Akebia quinata Decne (AQ) stem as a promising natural product for PGD2 inhibition. Direct and accurate analysis of PGs in the inflammatory cell reaction using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed enables the high-throughput screening and potency evaluation of as many as 320 samples in less than 48h without changing a TFC column. PMID:27524299

  15. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  16. Probing heterotrimeric G protein activation: applications to biased ligands

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Colette; Saulière, Aude; Galandrin, Ségolène; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Galés, Céline

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) drive numerous signaling pathways involved in the regulation of a broad range of physiologic processes. Today, they represent the largest target for modern drugs development with potential application in all clinical fields. Recently, the concept of “ligand-directed trafficking” has led to a conceptual revolution in pharmacological theory, thus opening new avenues for drug discovery. Accordingly, GPCRs do not function as simple on-off switch but rather as filters capable of selecting activation of specific signals and thus generating textured responses to ligands, a phenomenon often referred to as ligand-biased signaling. Also, one challenging task today remains optimization of pharmacological assays with increased sensitivity so to better appreciate the inherent texture of ligand responses. However, considering that a single receptor has pleiotropic signalling properties and that each signal can crosstalk at different levels, biased activity remains thus difficult to evaluate. One strategy to overcome these limitations would be examining the initial steps following receptor activation. Even if some G protein-independent functions have been recently described, heterotrimeric G protein activation remains a general hallmark for all GPCRs families and the first cellular event subsequent to agonist binding to the receptor. Herein, we review the different methodologies classically used or recently developed to monitor G protein activation and discuss them in the context of G protein biased -ligands. PMID:22229559

  17. Probing heterotrimeric G protein activation: applications to biased ligands.

    PubMed

    Denis, Colette; Saulière, Aude; Galandrin, Segolene; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Galés, Céline

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) drive numerous signaling pathways involved in the regulation of a broad range of physiologic processes. Today, they represent the largest target for modern drugs development with potential application in all clinical fields. Recently, the concept of "ligand-directed trafficking" has led to a conceptual revolution in pharmacological theory, thus opening new avenues for drug discovery. Accordingly, GPCRs do not function as simple on-off switch but rather as filters capable of selecting the activation of specific signals and thus generating texture responses to ligands, a phenomenon often referred to as ligand-biased signaling. Also, one challenging task today remains optimization of pharmacological assays with increased sensitivity so to better appreciate the inherent texture of ligands. However, considering that a single receptor has pleiotropic signaling properties and that each signal can crosstalk at different levels, biased activity remains thus difficult to evaluate. One strategy to overcome these limitations would be examining the initial steps following receptor activation. Even, if some G protein independent functions have been recently described, heterotrimeric G protein activation remains a general hallmark for all GPCRs families and the first cellular event subsequent to agonist binding to the receptor. Herein, we review the different methodologies classically used or recently developed to monitor G protein activation and discussed them in the context of G protein biased-ligands. PMID:22229559

  18. Dielectric elastomer laminates for active membrane pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Kimberly; Tews, Alyson; Frecker, Mary I.; Mockensturm, Eric; Goulbourne, Nakhiah C.; Snyder, Alan J.

    2004-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated promise for the use of dielectric elastomer (DE) films in diaphragm pump applications. Because the films tend to be quite thin, single layers operate at very low pressures. To make this technology suitable for practical applications, the films may be organized into laminates which will operate at increased pressures. Radially stretched circular diaphragms of two materials were tested: 3M VHB 4905 polyacrylate and spin-cast Nusil CF19-2186 silicone. The diaphragms were stacked, each layer sharing an electrode with the adjacent layer. The stack was mounted on a sealed chamber and energized at varied electric fields while regulated pressure was applied to the interior chamber, displacing the diaphragm. The pressure-volume properties of the stacks were recorded for each activation state.

  19. Application of active contours for photochromic tracer flow extraction.

    PubMed

    Androutsos, D; Trahanias, P E; Venetsanopoulos, A N

    1997-06-01

    This paper addresses the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques to automate tracer flow extraction in images obtained by the photochromic dye technique. This task is important in modeled arterial blood flow studies. Currently, it is performed via manual application of B-spline curve fitting. However, this is a tedious and error-prone procedure and its results are nonreproducible. In the proposed approach, active contours, snakes, are employed in a new curve-fitting method for tracer flow extraction in photochromic images. An algorithm implementing snakes is introduced to automate extraction. Utilizing correlation matching, the algorithm quickly locates and localizes all flow traces in the images. The feasibility of the method for tracer flow extraction is demonstrated. Moreover, results regarding the automation algorithm are presented showing its accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed approach for tracer flow extraction has potential for real-system application. PMID:9184890

  20. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…

  1. Theory and Application of DNA Histogram Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Charles Bruce

    The underlying principles and assumptions associated with DNA histograms are discussed along with the characteristics of fluorescent probes. Information theory was described and used to calculate the information content of a DNA histogram. Two major types of DNA histogram analyses are proposed: parametric and nonparametric analysis. Three levels…

  2. Electron Spectroscopy: Applications for Chemical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heercules, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of XPS as an effective method for surface analysis during the period 1964-1977 is presented. The study shows that unlike other surface methods, XPS data can be obtained for both conductors and insulators and a variety of samples can be handled effectively, which is one of the major reasons for the popularity of the technique.

  3. Principles of Discourse Analysis: Explanation and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    Discourse analysis attempts to identify and describe the semantic relationships among units of thought larger than a word (predications). Two basic types of these relationships exist between predications, conceptual and nonconceptual. A conceptual relationship exists between two predications when they share a concept or when a concept in one…

  4. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  5. Activities of the US Geological Survey in Applications of Remote Sensing in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in the Chesapeake Bay region has been a central concern of three project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey: two are developmental, and one is operational. The two developmental activities were experiments in land-use and land-cover inventory and change detection using remotely sensed data from aircraft and from the LANDSAT and Skylab satellites. One of these is CARETS (Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site). The other developmental task is the Census Cities Experiment in Urban Change Detection. The present major concern is an operational land-use and land-cover data-analysis program, including a supporting geographical information system.

  6. Measurements and analysis in imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Timothy L.

    2009-02-01

    A Total Quality Management (TQM) approach can be used to analyze data from biomedical optical and imaging platforms of tissues. A shift from individuals to teams, partnerships, and total participation are necessary from health care groups for improved prognostics using measurement analysis. Proprietary measurement analysis software is available for calibrated, pixel-to-pixel measurements of angles and distances in digital images. Feature size, count, and color are determinable on an absolute and comparative basis. Although changes in images of histomics are based on complex and numerous factors, the variation of changes in imaging analysis to correlations of time, extent, and progression of illness can be derived. Statistical methods are preferred. Applications of the proprietary measurement software are available for any imaging platform. Quantification of results provides improved categorization of illness towards better health. As health care practitioners try to use quantified measurement data for patient diagnosis, the techniques reported can be used to track and isolate causes better. Comparisons, norms, and trends are available from processing of measurement data which is obtained easily and quickly from Scientific Software and methods. Example results for the class actions of Preventative and Corrective Care in Ophthalmology and Dermatology, respectively, are provided. Improved and quantified diagnosis can lead to better health and lower costs associated with health care. Systems support improvements towards Lean and Six Sigma affecting all branches of biology and medicine. As an example for use of statistics, the major types of variation involving a study of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) are examined. Typically, special causes in medicine relate to illness and activities; whereas, common causes are known to be associated with gender, race, size, and genetic make-up. Such a strategy of Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) involves comparison of patient results

  7. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: Statistical analysis and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffarian, Saveez

    2002-01-01

    The experimental design and realization of an apparatus which can be used both for single molecule fluorescence detection and also fluorescence correlation and cross correlation spectroscopy is presented. A thorough statistical analysis of the fluorescence correlation functions including the analysis of bias and errors based on analytical derivations has been carried out. Using the methods developed here, the mechanism of binding and cleavage site recognition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) for their substrates has been studied. We demonstrate that two of the MMP family members, Collagenase (MMP-1) and Gelatinase A (MMP-2) exhibit diffusion along their substrates, the importance of this diffusion process and its biological implications are discussed. We show through truncation mutants that the hemopexin domain of the MMP-2 plays and important role in the substrate diffusion of this enzyme. Single molecule diffusion of the collagenase MMP-1 has been observed on collagen fibrils and shown to be biased. The discovered biased diffusion would make the MMP-1 molecule an active motor, thus making it the first active motor that is not coupled to ATP hydrolysis. The possible sources of energy for this enzyme and their implications are discussed. We propose that a possible source of energy for the enzyme can be in the rearrangement of the structure of collagen fibrils. In a separate application, using the methods developed here, we have observed an intermediate in the intestinal fatty acid binding protein folding process through the changes in its hydrodynamic radius also the fluctuations in the structure of the IFABP in solution were measured using FCS.

  8. A miniature shock-activated thermal battery for munitions applications

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Kirby, D.L.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of a small, fast-rise thermal battery for non-spinning munitions applications was examined by studying the response of conventional thermal cells to impact (mechanical) energy to simulate a setback environment. This is an extension of earlier work that demonstrated that shock activation could be used to produce power from a conventional thermal-battery cell. The results of tests with both single and multiple cells are presented, along with data for a 5-cell miniature (5-mm diameter) thermal battery. The issues needing to be resolved before such a device can become a commercial reality are also discussed.

  9. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  10. THE APPLICATION OF FACTOR ANALYSIS TO SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF AEROSOL MASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the development of receptor models that can be employed in air quality management, the application of target transformation factor analysis (TTFA) has been under active investigation. This method has the advantage of requiring limited a priori knowledge of the number o...