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Sample records for activation analysis applications

  1. Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, Ryan

    2011-04-27

    The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

  2. Applications of activation analysis to geochemical, meteoritic and lunar studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, D. L.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of activation analysis techniques to the analysis of cosmological materials, i.e., terrestrial, tektitic, meteoritic, and lunar matter, is reviewed. Elemental determinations can be made by instrumental fast-neutron and thermal-neutron activation analysis, photonuclear and charged-particle activation analysis, and by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Partition-coefficient methods, autoradiography studies, gamma-gamma coincidence counting, and age determination by neutron activation are discussed. Attention is given to K-Ar and I-Xe dating of meteorites.

  3. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  4. Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

  5. Activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 16 chapters on the application of activation analysis in the fields of life sciences, biological materials, coal and its effluents, environmental samples, archaeology, material science, and forensics. Each chapter is processed separately for the data base.

  6. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  7. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  8. Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.

  9. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  10. Application of Avco data analysis and prediction techniques (ADAPT) to prediction of sunspot activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, H. E.; Amato, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the application of Avco Data Analysis and Prediction Techniques (ADAPT) to derivation of new algorithms for the prediction of future sunspot activity. The ADAPT derived algorithms show a factor of 2 to 3 reduction in the expected 2-sigma errors in the estimates of the 81-day running average of the Zurich sunspot numbers. The report presents: (1) the best estimates for sunspot cycles 20 and 21, (2) a comparison of the ADAPT performance with conventional techniques, and (3) specific approaches to further reduction in the errors of estimated sunspot activity and to recovery of earlier sunspot historical data. The ADAPT programs are used both to derive regression algorithm for prediction of the entire 11-year sunspot cycle from the preceding two cycles and to derive extrapolation algorithms for extrapolating a given sunspot cycle based on any available portion of the cycle.

  11. Introducing Spectral Structure Activity Relationship (S-SAR) Analysis. Application to Ecotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Mihai V.; Lacrămă, Ana-Maria

    2007-01-01

    A novel quantitative structure-activity (property) relationship model, namely Spectral-SAR, is presented in an exclusive algebraic way replacing the old-fashioned multi-regression one. The actual S-SAR method interprets structural descriptors as vectors in a generic data space that is further mapped into a full orthogonal space by means of the Gram-Schmidt algorithm. Then, by coordinated transformation between the data and orthogonal spaces, the S-SAR equation is given under simple determinant form for any chemical-biological interactions under study. While proving to give the same analytical equation and correlation results with standard multivariate statistics, the actual S-SAR frame allows the introduction of the spectral norm as a valid substitute for the correlation factor, while also having the advantage to design the various related SAR models through the introduced “minimal spectral path” rule. An application is given performing a complete S-SAR analysis upon the Tetrahymena pyriformis ciliate species employing its reported eco-toxicity activities among relevant classes of xenobiotics. By representing the spectral norm of the endpoint models against the concerned structural coordinates, the obtained S-SAR endpoints hierarchy scheme opens the perspective to further design the ecotoxicological test batteries with organisms from different species.

  12. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L. Marra, F.

    2015-12-17

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  13. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L.; Marra, F.

    2015-12-01

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  14. Application of a hemolysis assay for analysis of complement activation by perfluorocarbon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christine T.N.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Beiser, Julia; Mitchell, Lynne M.; Huang, Jennifer L.; Senpan, Angana; Hu, Grace; Gordon, Mae; Baker, Nathan A.; Pan, Dipanjan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Hourcade, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles offer new options for medical diagnosis and therapeutics with their capacity to specifically target cells and tissues with imaging agents and/or drug payloads. The unique physical aspects of nanoparticles present new challenges for this promising technology. Studies indicate that nanoparticles often elicit moderate to severe complement activation. Using human in vitro assays that corroborated the mouse in vivo results we previously presented mechanistic studies that define the pathway and key components involved in modulating complement interactions with several gadolinium-functionalized perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFOB). Here we employ a modified in vitro hemolysis-based assay developed in conjunction with the mouse in vivo model to broaden our analysis to include PFOBs of varying size, charge and surface chemistry and examine the variations in nanoparticle-mediated complement activity between individuals. This approach may provide the tools for an in-depth structure-activity relationship study that will guide the eventual development of biocompatible nanoparticles. PMID:24211337

  15. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake; Christian, James F.

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As 6Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for 6Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery was observed

  16. Analysis of improved neutron activation technique using thick foils for application on medical LINAC environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagena, E.; Stoulos, S.; Manolopoulou, M.

    2016-01-01

    An improved neutron activation technique is analyzed that can be used for the characterization of the neutron field in low neutron flux environments, such as medical Linacs. Due to the much lower neutron fluence rates, thick materials instead of thin have been used. The study is focused on the calculations of basic components of the neutron activation analysis that are required for accurate results, such as the efficiency of the gamma detector used for γ-spectrometry as well as crucial correction factors that are required when dealing with thick samples in different geometries and forms. A Monte Carlo detector model, implemented by Geant4 MC Code was adjusted in accordance to results from various measurements performed. Moreover, regarding to estimate the self-shielding correction factors a new approach using both Monte Carlo and analytical approach was presented. This improvement gives more accurate results, which are important for both activation and shielding studies that take place in many facilities. A quite good agreement between the neutron fluxes is achieved; according to the data obtained a mean value of (2.13±0.34)×105 ncm-2 s-1 is representative for the isocenter of the specific Linac that corresponds to fluence of (5.53±0.94)×106 ncm-2 Gy-1. Comparable fluencies reported in the literature for similar Linacs operating with photon beams at 15 MeV.

  17. Applications of active microwave imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. P.; Childs, L. F.; Gilbert, R.; Harlan, J. C.; Hoffer, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Parsons, J.; Polcyn, F.; Schardt, B. B.; Smith, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics were discussed in reference to active microwave applications: (1) Use of imaging radar to improve the data collection/analysis process; (2) Data collection tasks for radar that other systems will not perform; (3) Data reduction concepts; and (4) System and vehicle parameters: aircraft and spacecraft.

  18. Test/analysis comparison of piezoelectric patch local behavior for vibroacoustic active control application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florens, Corine; Balmes, Etienne; Clero, Franck

    2007-04-01

    To predict the effect of active control on aircraft or helicopter trim panels, made with honeycomb sandwich composite, one approach consists in modeling the panel by Finite Element Method. FEM with shell elements for the laminate and volume elements for the core is classically used in industry; in a previous study the homogenized modeling approach has been validated. The aim of the present paper is to make a test/analysis comparison of the dynamic behavior of a honeycomb core sandwich beam actuated by a piezoelectric patch. More precisely, the behavior in the vicinity of the piezoelectric actuator is characterized, in order to validate the modeling approach of honeycomb sandwich composite equipped with piezoelectric patches.

  19. Application of the Linac of the Iren Facility for Production Some Radionuclides and Multielemental Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shovoodoi, G.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Ganbold, G.; Nyamsuren, B.; Belov, A. G.

    2009-03-01

    The possibility to develop multielemental activation analysis and production of some radionuclides widely used for the nuclear medicine, radiobiology and ecology monitoring at the linear electron accelerator (Ee- = 75 MeV) of the facility IREN (FLNP, JINR) are considered. Based on the experimental data obtained at low energy (Ee-<30 MeV) electron accelerators as well as the microtron MT-25 (FLNR, JINR) with the power 0.57 kW, are estimated photonuclear reaction yields for some radionuclides for the linear electron accelerator (Ee- = 75 MeV). Technical parameter of the linac will be as follow as: the electron beam current 2.8 A in 100 microsecond impulse and frequency 50 Hz, that means the electron beam power -1.1 kW in the target.

  20. Application for the wearable heart activity monitoring system: analysis of the autonomic function of HRV.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heui-Kyung; Lee, Jeong-Whan; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Lee, Young-Jae; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Choi, Hee-Jung; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The wearable patch-style heart activity monitoring system (HAMS) which was used for recording ECG signal in this study is self-developed. This electrode design helps the non-restricted, non-aware and non-invasive ECG measurement. The modified bipolar electrode is convenient in use because it is designed for easy attachment and detachment with ECG measuring module by snap button. Besides, it minimizes EMI by removing the cables. In the same subjects who were exposed under stress and non-stress, the questionnaire was given out, the amount of the stress hormone was measured by blood test and the ECG signal was recorded. Through the analysis of ECG signal which is measured with wearable patch-style HAMS, the parameter highly related with mental stress were extracted from frequency and time domain. These parameters were certified as the meaningful factor after correlation analysis on the results from questionnaire and stress hormone test. Also, it is proved that the availability of wearable patch-style heart monitoring system is efficient as health monitoring system in any places and occasion. PMID:19162895

  1. Application of slip-line analysis to the mechanical model of active accretionary wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, I.; Lee, H.; Kim, J.

    2012-04-01

    shows that the solution for the simple geometry of accretionary wedge is equivalent to the critical taper solution given by Davis et al. (1983). If a sedimentary formation covers the critical wedge, the stress underneath the formation is reduced to maintain the equilibrium with the basal friction strength. Thus the formation of sediment basin on top of the active accretionary wedge leads to the stress relaxation in the region below the basin. The topography of seafloor plays a crucial role in changing the basal friction along the base fault so that the geometry of the fault might be changed. Our numerical analysis also reveals that the pore pressure within the wedge and the décollement fault has no effect on the accretionary wedge angle.

  2. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  3. Application of active-phase plot to the kinetic analysis of lipoxygenase in reverse micelles.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gilabert, M; Sanchez-Ferrer, A; Garcia-Carmona, F

    1992-01-01

    A new plot for explaining the complex expression of the enzymic activity in reverse micelles has been developed as an extension of the theoretical model described by our group [Bru, Sánchez-Ferrer & García-Carmona (1990) Biochem. J. 268, 679-684]. The plot describes the changes in the relative volume, amount of enzyme (mumoles), enzyme concentration (microM) and substrate concentration (microM) in the phase where the enzyme is active. To illustrate the usefulness of this plot, the complex activity of soya bean lipoxygenase in reverse micelles acting on its interfacial substrate, octadecadienoic acid, was studied. It showed the key parameters ruling the activity profiles of lipoxygenase with respect to micelle size (omega 0), micelle concentration (theta) and the substrate/surfactant molar ratio (rho), which have never been described before. PMID:1281978

  4. Applications of genetic algorithms on the structure-activity relationship analysis of some cinnamamides.

    PubMed

    Hou, T J; Wang, J M; Liao, N; Xu, X J

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for 35 cinnamamides were studied. By using a genetic algorithm (GA), a group of multiple regression models with high fitness scores was generated. From the statistical analyses of the descriptors used in the evolution procedure, the principal features affecting the anticonvulsant activity were found. The significant descriptors include the partition coefficient, the molar refraction, the Hammet sigma constant of the substituents on the benzene ring, and the formation energy of the molecules. It could be found that the steric complementarity and the hydrophobic interaction between the inhibitors and the receptor were very important to the biological activity, while the contribution of the electronic effect was not so obvious. Moreover, by construction of the spline models for these four principal descriptors, the effective range for each descriptor was identified. PMID:10529984

  5. Analysis methods for solar heating and cooling applications: passive and active systems. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of analysis methods and design tools which are valuable in performing parametric studies of candidate designs are presented in this brochure. The methods included range from rules-of-thumb for builders to the simulation packages used by researchers. (MHR)

  6. Application of artificial neural network in precise prediction of cement elements percentages based on the neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari Zadeh, E.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Roshani, G. H.; Rezaei, A.

    2016-05-01

    Due to variation of neutron energy spectrum in the target sample during the activation process and to peak overlapping caused by the Compton effect with gamma radiations emitted from activated elements, which results in background changes and consequently complex gamma spectrum during the measurement process, quantitative analysis will ultimately be problematic. Since there is no simple analytical correlation between peaks' counts with elements' concentrations, an artificial neural network for analyzing spectra can be a helpful tool. This work describes a study on the application of a neural network to determine the percentages of cement elements (mainly Ca, Si, Al, and Fe) using the neutron capture delayed gamma-ray spectra of the substance emitted by the activated nuclei as patterns which were simulated via the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, version 2.7. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is developed with four specific peaks related to Ca, Si, Al and Fe, which were extracted as inputs. The proposed RBF model is developed and trained with MATLAB 7.8 software. To obtain the optimal RBF model, several structures have been constructed and tested. The comparison between simulated and predicted values using the proposed RBF model shows that there is a good agreement between them.

  7. Application of on-line laboratory computer analysis to fast neutron activation oxygen determinations

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.D.; Akanni, M.S.

    1983-04-01

    The development of an on-line laboratory computer analysis system designed for routine high volume oxygen determinations is discussed. The system is based on the detection of /sup 16/N photopeaks from the /sup 16/O(n,p) /sup 16/N reaction occurring during fast neutron irradiation. A system interface has been designed and constructed which is capable of controlling the Kaman 710 neutron generator, the sample transfer system, switching the BF/sub 3/ beam monitor detector or NaI(T1) detector outputs as required to a multichannel scaling MCA, and proper sequencing of the procedure. In addition, specific software has been developed for the control of the system during acquisition as well as evaluation of the MCS spectra generated.

  8. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bayati, Mohsen; Mahboub Ahari, Alireza; Badakhshan, Abbas; Gholipour, Mahin; Joulaei, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. Objectives: The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs). Materials and Methods: We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Results: Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC) was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. Conclusion: As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI

  9. Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, J. J.

    2001-07-01

    Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a "signature" of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min—compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives—but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly.

  10. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Tim Z.

    1994-07-01

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  11. Extracurricular activities of medical school applicants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants’ involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Methods: Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females) who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. Results: The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%), nonmedical community services (39.8%), club activities (22.9%), club officials (10%), and research (13.4%). On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Conclusion: Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds. PMID:26996435

  12. Integrated analysis and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of current research activities which, in a broad context, are focused on the development and verification of integrated structural analysis and optimal design capabilities for advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. The overview encompasses a variety of subject areas including: (1) composite materials; (2) advanced structural analysis; (3) constitutive modeling; (4) computational simulation; (5) probabilistic analysis; and (6) multidisciplinary optimization. Typical results are presented which illustrate the benefit and utility of the emerging technologies as applied to propulsion and power system structures.

  13. Application of the Huang-Hilbert transform and natural time to the analysis of seismic electric signal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulou, K. A.; Skordas, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Huang method is applied to Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activities in order to decompose them into their components, named Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). We study which of these components contribute to the basic characteristics of the signal. The Hilbert transform is then applied to the IMFs in order to determine their instantaneous amplitudes. The results are compared with those obtained from the analysis in a new time domain termed natural time, after having subtracted the magnetotelluric background from the original signal. It is shown that these instantaneous amplitudes, when combined with the natural time analysis, can be used for the distinction of SES from artificial noises.

  14. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

  15. The development and application of k0-standardization method of neutron activation analysis at Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghem, L.; Ramdhane, M.; Khaled, S.; Akhal, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the k0-NAA method has been applied and developed at the 15 MW Es-Salam research reactor, which includes: (1) the detection efficiency calibration of γ-spectrometer used in k0-NAA, (2) the determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f factors in the irradiation channel, and (3) the validation of the developed k0-NAA procedure by analysing SRM, namely AIEA-Soil7 and CRM, namely IGGE-GSV4. The analysis results obtained by k0-NAA with 27 elements of Soil-7 standard and 14 elements of GSV-4 standard were compared with certified values. The analysis results showed that the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10%. The k0-NAA procedure established at Es-Salam research reactor has been regarded as a reliable standardization method of NAA and as available for practical applications.

  16. Application of statistical process control and process capability analysis procedures in orbiter processing activities at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safford, Robert R.; Jackson, Andrew E.; Swart, William W.; Barth, Timothy S.

    1994-01-01

    Successful ground processing at KSC requires that flight hardware and ground support equipment conform to specifications at tens of thousands of checkpoints. Knowledge of conformance is an essential requirement for launch. That knowledge of conformance at every requisite point does not, however, enable identification of past problems with equipment, or potential problem areas. This paper describes how the introduction of Statistical Process Control and Process Capability Analysis identification procedures into existing shuttle processing procedures can enable identification of potential problem areas and candidates for improvements to increase processing performance measures. Results of a case study describing application of the analysis procedures to Thermal Protection System processing are used to illustrate the benefits of the approaches described in the paper.

  17. Tribological applications of surface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    For some years, surface analysis was used in fundamental studies of solid-solid contacts existing in tribological systems. Analysis was used to detect material transfer in sliding contacts. The effects of surface films on the adhesion of contacts was monitored. Finally electron spectroscopic analysis of interfaces has shed some light on the fundamental electronic nature of the interfacial bond. More recently, surface analysis was applied to many tribological engineering problems. In particular, identification of chemical films formed during the sliding contact of lubricated systems and study of the surface chemistry of lubricant additives were active areas of research. One or more of four properties of the analytical technique will be important in determining its utility. The four are: lateral resolution, specimen damage, depth resolution and the availability of chemical information. In each of the applications discussed here, the important factors are brought out.

  18. Neutron Activation Analysis of Water - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, John D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent developments in this field are emphasized. After a brief review of basic principles, topics discussed include sources of neutrons, pre-irradiation physical and chemical treatment of samples, neutron capture and gamma-ray analysis, and selected applications. Applications of neutron activation analysis of water have increased rapidly within the last few years and may be expected to increase in the future.

  19. The Applications of GIS in the Analysis of the Impacts of Human Activities on South Texas Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Merem, Edmund C.; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A.; Wesley, Joan M.; Robinson, Bennetta; Richardson, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    With water resource planning assuming greater importance in environmental protection efforts, analyzing the health of agricultural watersheds using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) becomes essential for decision-makers in Southern Texas. Within the area, there exist numerous threats from conflicting land uses. These include the conversion of land formerly designated for agricultural purposes to other uses. Despite current efforts, anthropogenic factors are greatly contributing to the degradation of watersheds. Additionally, the activities of waste water facilities located in some of the counties, rising populations, and other socioeconomic variables are negatively impacting the quality of water in the agricultural watersheds. To map the location of these stressors spatially and the extent of their impacts across time, the paper adopts a mix scale method of temporal spatial analysis consisting of simple descriptive statistics. In terms of objectives, this research provides geo-spatial analysis of the effects of human activities on agricultural watersheds in Southern Texas and the factors fuelling the concerns under the purview of watershed management. The results point to growing ecosystem decline across time and a geographic cluster of counties experiencing environmental stress. Accordingly, the emergence of stressors such as rising population, increased use of fertilizer treatments on farm land, discharges of atmospheric pollutants and the large presence of municipal and industrial waste treatment facilities emitting pathogens and pesticides directly into the agricultural watersheds pose a growing threat to the quality of the watershed ecosystem. PMID:21776238

  20. The applications of GIS in the analysis of the impacts of human activities on south Texas watersheds.

    PubMed

    Merem, Edmund C; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A; Wesley, Joan M; Robinson, Bennetta; Richardson, Chandra

    2011-06-01

    With water resource planning assuming greater importance in environmental protection efforts, analyzing the health of agricultural watersheds using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) becomes essential for decision-makers in Southern Texas. Within the area, there exist numerous threats from conflicting land uses. These include the conversion of land formerly designated for agricultural purposes to other uses. Despite current efforts, anthropogenic factors are greatly contributing to the degradation of watersheds. Additionally, the activities of waste water facilities located in some of the counties, rising populations, and other socioeconomic variables are negatively impacting the quality of water in the agricultural watersheds. To map the location of these stressors spatially and the extent of their impacts across time, the paper adopts a mix scale method of temporal spatial analysis consisting of simple descriptive statistics. In terms of objectives, this research provides geo-spatial analysis of the effects of human activities on agricultural watersheds in Southern Texas and the factors fuelling the concerns under the purview of watershed management. The results point to growing ecosystem decline across time and a geographic cluster of counties experiencing environmental stress. Accordingly, the emergence of stressors such as rising population, increased use of fertilizer treatments on farm land, discharges of atmospheric pollutants and the large presence of municipal and industrial waste treatment facilities emitting pathogens and pesticides directly into the agricultural watersheds pose a growing threat to the quality of the watershed ecosystem. PMID:21776238

  1. An Application of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  2. Application of stable isotope measurements and microbiological analysis for detecting methanogenic activity in a temperate forest wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, M.; Katsuyama, C.; Kondo, N.; Ohte, N.; Kato, K.

    2009-12-01

    Generally, forest soils act as a sink for methane (CH4). However, wetlands in riparian zones are recently reported to be “hot spots” of CH4 emissions, especially in forests under a humid climate. To understand how environmental conditions (i.e. hydrological and/or geomorphic condition) control on CH4 production, we investigated both methanogenic pathways (CO2/H2 reduction and acetate fermentation) and metahanogenic microbial communities in a wetland in a temperate forest catchment, central Japan. We used stable carbon isotopic analysis for detecting change in methanogenic pathways, and applied microbiological analysis for understanding the structure of methanogenic community. CH4 emission rates in wetland were strongly dependent on soil temperatures, and were highest in summer and lowest in winter. δ13CO2 increased with CH4 production in every summer, suggesting preferential use of 12CO2 as substrate for CO2/H2 reduction methanogenesis during high CH4 production period. δ13CH4 also increased in summer with δ13CO2. δ13CH4 changed more wildly than δ13CO2 did in summer with normal precipitation when CH4 production was strongly activated under high temperature and high groundwater table condition. This indicates increase in acetoclastic methanogenesis under hot and wet condition, considering that acetclastic methnogens produce heavier CH4 than that from CO2/H2 reducing pathway. Methanogen community composition estimated by cloning and sequence analyses implied that both acetoclastic and CO2/H2 reducing methanogens prevailed in wetland soil sampled in summer. This was consistent with the results of isotope measuremaents. Our results contribute to understand fully how the CH4 production changes with environmental conditions, with considering the activities of both main methanogenic pathway (from CO2 and acetate).

  3. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  4. Analysis of helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise with application to adaptive-passive and active alleviation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauszig, Lionel Christian

    This study focuses on detection and analysis methods of helicopter blade-vortex interactions (BVI) and applies these methods to two different BVI noise alleviation schemes---an adaptive-passive and an active scheme. A standard free-wake analysis based on relaxation methods is extended in this study to compute high-resolution blade loading, to account for blade-to-blade dissimilarities, and dual vortices when there is negative loading at the blade tips. The free-wake geometry is still calculated on a coarse azimuthal grid and then interpolated to a high-resolution grid to calculate the BVI induced impulsive loading. Blade-to-blade dissimilarities are accounted by allowing the different blades to release their own vortices. A number of BVI detection criteria, including the spherical method (a geometric criterion developed in this thesis) are critically examined. It was determined that high-resolution azimuthal discretization is required in virtually all detection methods except the spherical method which detected the occurrence of parallel BVI even while using a low-resolution azimuthal mesh. Detection methods based on inflow and blade loads were, in addition, found to be sensitive to vortex core size. While most BVI studies use the high-resolution airloads to compute BVI noise, the total noise can often be due to multiple dominant interactions on the advancing and retreating sides. A methodology is developed to evaluate the contribution of an individual interaction to the total BVI noise, based on using the loading due to an individual vortex as an input to the acoustic code WOPWOP. The adaptive-passive BVI alleviation method considered in this study comprises of reducing the length of one set of opposite blades (of a 4-bladed rotor) in low-speed descent. Results showed that differential coning resulting from the blade dissimilarity increases the blade-vortex miss-distances and reduces the BVI noise by 4 dB. The Higher Harmonic Control Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART

  5. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  6. Examination of the Early Diagnostic Applicability of Active Dynamic Thermography for Burn Wound Depth Assessment and Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Prindeze, Nicholas J; Fathi, Payam; Mino, Matthew J; Mauskar, Neil A; Travis, Taryn E; Paul, Dereck W; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in perfusion imaging, burn wound imaging technology continues to lag behind that of other fields. Quantification of blood flow is able to predict time for healing, but clear assessment of burn depth is still questionable. Active dynamic thermography (ADT) is a noncontact imaging modality capable of distinguishing tissue of different thermal conductivities. Utilizing the abnormal heat transfer properties of the burn zones, we examined whether ADT was useful in the determination of burn depth in a model of early burn wound evaluation. Duroc pigs (castrated male; n = 3) were anesthetized, and two burns were created with an aluminum billet at 3 and 12 seconds. These contact times resulted in superficial partial and deep partial thickness burn wounds, respectively. ADT and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) imaging were performed every 30 minutes postburn for a total of five imaging sessions ending 150 minutes postburn. For ADT, imaging excitation was performed for 42-120 seconds with dual quartz-infrared lamps, and subsequent infrared image capture was performed for 300 seconds. MATLAB-assisted image analysis was performed to determine burn zone region of interest thermal relaxation and characteristic patterns. LDI was performed with a moorLDI system, and biopsies were captured for histology following the 150-minute imaging session. Both ADT and LDI imaging modalities are able to detect different physical properties at 30, 60, 90 120, and 150 minutes postburn with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Resultant ADT cooling curves characterize greater differences with greater stimulation and a potentially more identifiable differential cooling characteristic. Histological analysis confirmed burn depth. This preliminary work confirms that ADT can measure burn depth and is deserving of further research either as a stand-alone imaging technology or in combination with a device to assess perfusion. PMID:25412050

  7. Application Power Signature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Combs, Jacob; Nazor, Jolie; Santiago, Fabian; Thysell, Rachelle; Rivoire, Suzanne; Poole, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community has been greatly concerned about energy efficiency. To address this concern, it is essential to understand and characterize the electrical loads of HPC applications. In this work, we study whether HPC applications can be distinguished by their power-consumption patterns using quantitative measures in an automatic manner. Using a collection of 88 power traces from 4 different systems, we find that basic statistical measures do a surprisingly good job of summarizing applications' distinctive power behavior. Moreover, this study opens up a new area of research in power-aware HPC that has a multitude of potential applications.

  8. Analysis of enzyme activity regulation by non-denaturing electrophoresis and application of this regulation for enzyme reactor production.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Youji; Miki, Shizuka

    2013-10-01

    Non-denaturing electrophoresis can be used to screen enzymes that self-regulate their activities by using a combination of enzymes and their inhibitors. Furthermore, this technique can be applied to develop enzyme reactors that self-regulate their activities. After separation of proteins from mouse liver cytosol by non-denaturing isoelectric focusing, lactate dehydrogense (LDH) and esterase activities were qualitatively and quantitatively examined using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and non-denaturing stacking gel electrophoresis. Activities of mouse liver-derived LDH and carboxylesterase were reversibly inhibited by oxamate and 6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine (acrinol), respectively, in the stacking gels and recovered when the enzymes migrated towards the separation gels. After separation and immobilization of the enzymes, their activities were inhibited by inhibitors and recovered after inhibitor removal. These results indicate that non-denaturing electrophoresis can be applied to select enzymes that self-regulate their activities and subsequently aid in the development of enzyme reactors that can control the enzyme activities. PMID:22803677

  9. [Application of the rough sets theory to the analysis of structure-activity relationships of pyridinium antifungal compounds].

    PubMed

    Krysiński, J

    1994-04-01

    Relationships between chemical structure and antifungal activity of 72 quaternary pyridinium chlorides were analysed using the method of rough sets. In the information system the compounds are described by eight condition attributes and divided into three classes of activity. Using the rough sets approach a smallest set of four condition attributes significant for a high quality of classification and accuracy of classes has been found. The resulting decision algorithm describes relations between structure and antifungal activity in terms of significant condition attributes. It may be helpful in predicting structures of new antifungal compounds to be synthesized. PMID:8204024

  10. Synthesis of Eu³⁺-activated BaMoO₄ phosphors and their Judd-Ofelt analysis: Applications in lasers and white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Shivakumara, C; Saraf, Rohit; Behera, Sukanti; Dhananjaya, N; Nagabhushana, H

    2015-12-01

    Eu(3+)-activated BaMoO4 phosphors were synthesized by the nitrate-citrate gel combustion method. The Rietveld refinement analysis confirmed that all the compounds were crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with I41/a (No. 88) space group. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of BaMoO4 phosphor reveals broad emission peaks at 465 and 605 nm, whereas the Eu(3+)-activated BaMoO4 phosphors show intense 615 nm ((5)D0→(7)F2) emission peak. Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to evaluate the intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4) of Eu(3+)-activated BaMoO4 phosphors. The transition probabilities (AT), radiative lifetime (τrad), branching ratio (β), stimulated emission cross-section (σe), gain bandwidth (σe×Δλeff) and optical gain (σe×τrad) were investigated by using the intensity parameters. CIE color coordinates confirmed that the BaMoO4 and Eu(3+)-activated BaMoO4 phosphors exhibit white and red luminescence, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the present phosphors can be a potential candidate for red lasers and white LEDs applications. PMID:26135534

  11. Interactive analysis program activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. P.; Frisch, H. P.; Jones, G. K.; Walker, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an analysis software system capable of performing interdisciplinary preliminary design analyses of large space structure configurations is discussed. Disciplines such as thermal, structures, and controls are to be integrated into a highly user oriented analysis capability. The key feature of the integrated analysis capability, a rapid and efficient system that will minimize solution turnaround time, is discussed.

  12. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Awitdrus, Farma, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R.; Kanwal, S.

    2015-04-01

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H2SO4 electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g-1 respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g-1, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  13. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Deraman, M. Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R.; Kanwal, S.

    2015-04-16

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g{sup −1} respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g{sup −1}, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  14. IMS applications analysis

    SciTech Connect

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  15. A signal processing approach for enhanced Acoustic Emission data analysis in high activity systems: Application to organic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharrat, M.; Ramasso, E.; Placet, V.; Boubakar, M. L.

    2016-03-01

    Structural elements made of Organic Matrix Composites (OMC) under complex loading may suffer from high Acoustic Emission (AE) activity caused by the emergence of different emission sources at high rates with high noise level, which finally engender continuous emissions. The detection of hits in this situation becomes a challenge particularly during fatigue tests. This work suggests an approach based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) denoising applied on signal segments. A particular attention is paid to the adjustment of the denoising parameters based on pencil lead breaks and their influence on the quality of the denoised AE signals. The validation of the proposed approach is performed on a ring-shaped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) under in-service-like conditions involving continuous emissions with superimposed damage-related transients. It is demonstrated that errors in hit detection are greatly reduced leading to a better identification of the natural damage scenario based on AE signals.

  16. Neutron activation analysis in the life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    Development of methods for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and their applications in the life sciences are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on epithermal activation with reactor neutrons (ENAA), and the advantages of this technique in analysis of environmental objects are shown. The results of applied INAA studies in the field of the life sciences carried out at the world's leading nuclear centers are reported. Experience in employing a radioanalytical complex at the IBR-2 reactor (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna) for such studies is summarized.

  17. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Green, J.; Segebade, C.

    2011-06-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  18. Military housing foam application and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

  19. An Innovative Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures and Studies on Change of Activation Energies of the Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz Dikko, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient changes with addition of contaminants to the original liquid. This forms the basis of a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer designed and constructed for this purpose. We find that the viscosity coefficient μ of alcohol increased almost linearly with water concentration at a rate that depends on the type of alcohol and water concentration. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration. This increase also depends on type of alcohol. Our detailed investigation on alcohol-water mixtures for both ethyl and methyl alcohol along with discussion on possible future potential application of such a simple, yet very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. A comparison is made of our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. A part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage in order to explain some of the observed properties is presented.

  20. Planning applications in image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

  1. Analysis methods for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Because photovoltaic power systems are being considered for an ever-widening range of applications, it is appropriate for system designers to have knowledge of and access to photovoltaic power systems simulation models and design tools. This brochure gives brief descriptions of a variety of such aids and was compiled after surveying both manufacturers and researchers. Services available through photovoltaic module manufacturers are outlined, and computer codes for systems analysis are briefly described. (WHK)

  2. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Robin P. Gardner

    2006-04-11

    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  3. Active IR-applications in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggenhauser, H.

    2002-06-01

    Applications of IR-thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. As it is well known from other areas of non-destructive testing, active IR-thermographic methods such as cooling down or lock-in thermography improves the results in many investigations. In civil engineering these techniques have not been used widely. Mostly thermography is used in a quasi-static manner. The interpretation of moisture measurements with thermography on surfaces can be very difficult due to several overlapping effects: emissivity changes due to composition, heat transfer through wet sections of the specimen, cooling through air flow or reflected spurious radiation sources. These effects can be reduced by selectively measuring the reflection in two wavelength windows, one on an absorption band of water and another in a reference band and then combining the results in a moisture index image. Cooling down thermography can be used to identify subsurface structural deficiencies. For building materials like concrete these measurements are performed on a much longer time scale than in flash lamp experiments. A quantitative analysis of the full cooling down process over several minutes can reliably identify defects at different depths. Experiments at BAM have shown, that active thermography is capabale of identifying structural deficiencies or moist areas in building materials much more reliable than quasi-static thermography.

  4. Fringe analysis for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gordon M.

    The capabilities of Ford USA's Computer Aided Holometry (CAH) system for stepped phase interferometry are presented. Holographic test equipment and facilities are briefly reviewed. Fringe analysis algorithms and procedures for practical semi-automated processing of stepped phase interferograms of complex real life structures for quantitative measurement of deformation and shape are discussed. Several automative applications illustrating the fringe analysis technique are presented, including: (1) the use of CAH combined with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) methods to study frictional effects of the thermal insertion of a wrist pin into a connecting rod; (2) a study of engine deformation due to hydraulic loading of the cylinders; and (3) the computation of sound pressure from CAH measured vibration amplitude/phase and shape using the Rayleigh integral and SYSNOISE TM methods. In the past, holometry methods have been used primarily for problem solving in structures that were already in production, often where limited opportunities existed to make expensive modifications to existing tooling. Infrequently holometry was used by knowledgeable engineers to develop optimized components in the prototype stage even without the current CAE methods. The opportunity and challenge of our day is to closely couple CAE (FEM, EFA) methods and experimental methods (CAH, modal, etc.) to optimize structural performance in the upstream product development process where necessary tooling modifications can and will be made.

  5. Film analysis systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekura, Y.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    The different components that can be used in modern film analysis systems are reviewed. TV camera and charge-coupled device sensors coupled to computers provide low cost systems for applications such as those described. The autoradiography (ARG) method provides an important tool for medical research and is especially useful for the development of new radiopharmaceutical compounds. Biodistribution information is needed for estimation of radiation dose, and for interpretation of the significance of observed patterns. The need for such precise information is heightened when one seeks to elucidate physiological principles/factors in normal and experimental models of disease. The poor spatial resolution achieved with current PET-imaging systems limits the information on radioreceptor mapping, neutrotransmitter, and neuroleptic drug distribution that can be achieved from patient studies. The artful use of ARG in carefully-controlled animal studies will be required to provide the additional information needed to fully understand results obtained with this new important research tool. (ERB)

  6. Development of Novel Rifampicin-Derived P-Glycoprotein Activators/Inducers. Synthesis, In Silico Analysis and Application in the RBE4 Cell Model, Using Paraquat as Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Sousa, Emília; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remião, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa transmembrane protein involved in the outward transport of many structurally unrelated substrates. P-gp activation/induction may function as an antidotal pathway to prevent the cytotoxicity of these substrates. In the present study we aimed at testing rifampicin (Rif) and three newly synthesized Rif derivatives (a mono-methoxylated derivative, MeORif, a peracetylated derivative, PerAcRif, and a reduced derivative, RedRif) to establish their ability to modulate P-gp expression and activity in a cellular model of the rat’s blood–brain barrier, the RBE4 cell line P-gp expression was assessed by western blot using C219 anti-P-gp antibody. P-gp function was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the accumulation of rhodamine123. Whenever P-gp activation/induction ability was detected in a tested compound, its antidotal effect was further tested using paraquat as cytotoxicity model. Interactions between Rif or its derivatives and P-gp were also investigated by computational analysis. Rif led to a significant increase in P-gp expression at 72 h and RedRif significantly increased both P-gp expression and activity. No significant differences were observed for the other derivatives. Pre- or simultaneous treatment with RedRif protected cells against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity, an effect reverted by GF120918, a P-gp inhibitor, corroborating the observed P-gp activation ability. Interaction of RedRif with P-gp drug-binding pocket was consistent with an activation mechanism of action, which was confirmed with docking studies. Therefore, RedRif protection against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in RBE4 cells, through P-gp activation/induction, suggests that it may be useful as an antidote for cytotoxic substrates of P-gp. PMID:23991219

  7. Application of epithermal neutron activation in multielement analysis of silicate rocks employing both coaxial Ge(Li) and low energy photon detector systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Rowe, J.J.; Steinnes, E.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental activation analysis of silicate rocks using epithermal neutrons has been studied using both high resolution coaxial Ge(Li) detectors and low energy photon detectors, and applied to the determination of 23 elements in eight new U.S.G.S. standard rocks. The analytical use X-ray peaks associated with electron capture or internal conversion processes has been evaluated. Of 28 elements which can be considered to be determinable by instrumental means, the epithermal activation approach is capable of giving improved sensitivity and precision in 16 cases, over the normal INAA procedure. In eleven cases the use of the low energy photon detector is thought to show advantages over convertional coaxial Ge(Li) spectroscopy. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  8. [Establishment of hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC(HE-HPLC) and application in analysis of active components in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides extract].

    PubMed

    Hong, Min; Ma, Hongyu; Zhu, Quan

    2009-02-01

    To screen effective principles from traditional Chinese medicine, a method named hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC (HE-HPLC) was establish in this study. The active principles in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis extract were combined with the hepatocytes under imitated physiological environments. Then the unattached substances were washed off by PBS with pH 7.4. After that the conjugated compounds were eluted by PBS with pH 4.0. These compounds released from target sites were collected and handled through SPE to be condensed, and analyzed by HPLC. The results indicated that two characteristic active compounds in the fruits of G. jasminoides extract binded to the hepatocytes. One of them is geniposide. The other is continued to be identified. It is showed that active principles which could bind to hepotocyte (through receptors, Channels, enzymes, etc.) could be detected, at least partly, by HE-HPLC analysis. There was a significant correlation between the retention properties of the active compounds which was obtained by HE-HPLC and their pharmacological effects on hepotocytes. PMID:19459310

  9. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a "naturally" energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted. PMID:22973502

  10. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-09-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a ``naturally'' energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted.

  11. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a “naturally” energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted. PMID:22973502

  12. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) applications activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP mea...

  13. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD. PMID:26471181

  14. Integrated FDIR Analysis Tool for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Annamaria; Malucchi, Giovanni; Di Tommaso, Umberto

    2013-08-01

    The crucial role of health management in space applications has been the subject of many studies carried out by NASA and ESA and is held in high regard by Thales Alenia Space. The common objective is to improve reliability and availability of space systems. This paper will briefly illustrate the evolution of IDEHAS (IntegrateD Engineering Harness Avionics and Software), an advanced tool currently used in Thales Alenia Space - Italy in several space programs and recently enhanced to fully support FDIR (Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery) analysis. The FDIR analysis logic flow will be presented, emphasizing the improvements offered to Mission Support & Operations activities. Finally the benefits provided to the Company and a list of possible future enhancements will be given.

  15. Transitioning Active Flow Control to Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Horta, Lucas G.; Chen, Fang-Jenq

    1999-01-01

    Active Flow Control Programs at NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and DARPA have been initiated with the goals of obtaining revolutionary advances in aerodynamic performance and maneuvering compared to conventional approaches. These programs envision the use of actuators, sensors, and controllers on applications such as aircraft wings/tails, engine nacelles, internal ducts, nozzles, projectiles, weapons bays, and hydrodynamic vehicles. Anticipated benefits of flow control include reduced weight, part count, and operating cost and reduced fuel burn (and emissions), noise and enhanced safety if the sensors serve a dual role of flow control and health monitoring. To get from the bench-top or laboratory test to adaptive distributed control systems on realistic applications, reliable validated design tools are needed in addition to sub- and large-scale wind-tunnel and flight experiments. This paper will focus on the development of tools for active flow control applications.

  16. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  17. Application of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in detecting and quantifying forest loss caused by artisanal gold mining activities in Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengisteab, B. S.; Blesius, L.; Hennessy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal gold mining in Guyana is mostly done in forest covered areas, causing forest loss and land degradation. Data from the Guyana Geology and Mining commission show there has been an increase of 2074% between 1986 and 2009. Our analysis of Landsat data between 1986 and 2013 for a part of the Upper Mazaruni area shows an increase from 34.2 to 278.4 hectares, which amounts to more than 800%. While the frequent coverage of Landsat data is useful for multitemporal studies, the lower resolution may not be adequate for accurate detection of mining sites. Therefore, RapidEye imagery from 2011 at a resolution of 5m was used to detect gold mining activity and to compare the results with the Landsat study. Processing was conducted in eCognition, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) software. OBIA is an image processing technique that has proven to be advantageous over traditional pixel based image processing techniques, with the primary advantage being the ability of the approach in combining both the spatial and spectral information. The satellite image was subjected to segmentation at multiple scales and classified using fuzzy sets of membership functions. Classification explicitly incorporated the different scales in order to accommodate different sizes of real-world objects and spatial relationships were utilized to establish connections between related objects. For example the presence or absence of water in pits, or the existence of sediments in the river may serve as additional indicators of mining sites besides the spectral components. Preliminary results show that OBIA approach was able to successfully detect and quantify small scale mining activities in the basin, and that the Landsat data were giving an acceptable estimate of mining sites over time. Keywords:Object Based Image Analysis, Gold Mining, Remote Sensing, Guyana

  18. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  19. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Moran, Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP measurements will allow global and high-resolution mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state at resolutions from 3-40 km. These measurements will have high value for a wide range of environmental applications that underpin many weather-related decisions including drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate predictions, and human health risk. In 2007, NASA was tasked by The National Academies to ensure that emerging scientific knowledge is actively applied to obtain societal benefits by broadening community participation and improving means for use of information. SMAP is one of the first missions to come out of this new charge, and its Applications Plan forms the basis for ensuring its commitment to its users. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methods and approaches of the SMAP applications activity, which is designed to increase and sustain the interaction between users and scientists involved in mission development.

  20. Patterns of Treatment Switching in Multiple Sclerosis Therapies in US Patients Active on Social Media: Application of Social Media Content Analysis to Health Outcomes Research

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Deepanshu; Bonzani, Ian; Huisman, Alice; Olson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media analysis has rarely been applied to the study of specific questions in outcomes research. Objective The aim was to test the applicability of social media analysis to outcomes research using automated listening combined with filtering and analysis of data by specialists. After validation, the process was applied to the study of patterns of treatment switching in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods A comprehensive listening and analysis process was developed that blended automated listening with filtering and analysis of data by life sciences-qualified analysts and physicians. The population was patients with MS from the United States. Data sources were Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and online forums. Sources were searched for mention of specific oral, injectable, and intravenous (IV) infusion treatments. The representativeness of the social media population was validated by comparison with community survey data and with data from three large US administrative claims databases: MarketScan, PharMetrics Plus, and Department of Defense. Results A total of 10,260 data points were sampled for manual review: 3025 from Twitter, 3771 from Facebook, 2773 from Internet forums, and 691 from blogs. The demographics of the social media population were similar to those reported from community surveys and claims databases. Mean age was 39 (SD 11) years and 14.56% (326/2239) of the population was older than 50 years. Women, patients aged 30 to 49 years, and those diagnosed for more than 10 years were represented by more data points than other patients were. Women also accounted for a large majority (82.6%, 819/991) of reported switches. Two-fifths of switching patients had lived with their disease for more than 10 years since diagnosis. Most reported switches (55.05%, 927/1684) were from injectable to oral drugs with switches from IV therapies to orals the second largest switch (15.38%, 259/1684). Switches to oral drugs accounted for more than 80% (927/1114) of the

  1. Bioaccessibility of AhR-active PAHs in sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill: Application of Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Shim, Won Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bioaccessibility of toxic substances in sedimentary residual oil is a crucial factor that needs to be considered for accurate risk assessments posed by oil spills. However, information on oil weathering processes and bioaccessibility of residual oil is often not sufficient and clear. In the present study, bioaccessibility of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments near the site of the Hebei Spirit oil spill (Korea, 2007) was assessed by Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis (EDA). Sediment samples collected 6 years after the oil spill were extracted using Soxhlet or Tenax, and EDA was performed using a battery of H4IIE-luc bioassay and GC/MSD analysis. Concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Soxhlet extracts ranged from 210 to 53,000 μg kg(-1) dry mass. However, concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Tenax extracts were approximately 20-fold less compared to those in Soxhlet extracts. In Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, the major AhR-active PAHs were identified as C1-chrysene, C3-chrysene, and C4-phenanthrene. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQ(PAHs)) explained 31% and 60% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQ concentrations in Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, respectively. Overall, bioaccessibility of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in sedimentary residual oils depended on hydrophobicity (log K(ow)) and degree of weathering of crude oil. The results of the present study provide further evidence in support of the biological and ecological recoveries of oil spill sites. PMID:26408977

  2. Thermal-Infrared Image Analysis Application to the Real-Time Monitoring of the Explosive Activity of Etna and Stromboli Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, M.; Biale, E.; Cristaldi, A.; Mangiagli, S.; Pecora, E.

    2005-12-01

    Starting from 1993 video-cameras were used for the monitoring of the explosive activity at Etna and Stromboli volcanoes. Using image analysis we were seeking to identify, classify and quantify the explosive events and any change of the activity trend that could precede a strong eruptive event, like paroxysmal explosion, fire fountain, lava flow. The visible-band cameras suffered of a low sensitivity that limited the early warning capability of the system at night and during poor weather. Taking into account the high-temperature of the erupted material, infrared cameras appeared the best choice to overcome this observational limitation, unfortunately at that time commercial infrared devises were still too much expensive and fragile to put in operation in such unsafe and extreme environment. In very recent time the availability of solid-state uncooled sensors made possible the use of these devices for volcano monitoring at Etna and Stromboli since their 2002 and 2003 eruptions. Presently three types of Thermal-Infrared image based surveillance systems are in operation at Etna and Stromboli. They are focused to identify, classify and quantify different types of explosive events from small strombolian explosions to large volcanic-cloud forming eruptions. VAMOS on-line image analyzer that operates detection and classification of the strombolian explosive events in real-time. The analysis include the counting of the explosions occurred at the different craters of Stromboli and the parameterization in classes of intensity for each explosion on the base of clast dispersion and kinetics energy. A week report of the trend of the volcanic activity is available at INGV web. SARATERM on-line analyzer of thermal images for recognizing, in function of the temperature, the emission of spatter, ashes or gas from the summit craters of Etna and Stromboli. This system is presently used to alert in real-time the on-duty volcanologists. Finally a network of IR cameras working in

  3. APPLICATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN FOOD ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gas chromatography (GC) is used widely in applications involving food analysis. Typical applications pertain to the quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of food composition, natural products, food additives, flavor and aroma components, a variety of transformation products, and contaminants suc...

  4. Applications analysis of high energy lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.; Mackay, J. S.; Nishioka, K.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and comparison of laser technology with competing technologies were made to determine possible laser applications. The analysis was undertaken as follows: (1) possible applications were listed and categorized; (2) required components were enumerated and the characteristics of these components were extrapolated; (3) complete system characteristics were calculated parametrically for selected applications using the postulated component characteristics; and (4) where possible and appropriate, comparisons were made with competing systems. It was found that any large scale replacement of existing systems and methods by lasers requires many technological advances in laser and associated systems. However, several applications appear feasible, such as low orbit drag make-up, orbit changing, communications, and illumination applications.

  5. Dielectric elastomers for active vibration control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, S.; Kaal, W.; Melz, T.

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DE) have proved to have high potential for smart actuator applications in many laboratory setups and also in first commercially available components. Because of their large deformation capability and the inherent fast response to external stimulation they proffer themselves to applications in the field of active vibration control, especially for lightweight structures. These structures typically tend to vibrate with large amplitudes even at low excitation forces. Here, DE actuators seem to be ideal components for setting up control loops to suppress unwanted vibrations. Due to the underlying physical effect DE actuators are generally non-linear elements with an approximately quadratic relationship between in- and output. Consequently, they automatically produce higher-order frequencies. This can cause harmful effects for vibration control on structures with high modal density. Therefore, a linearization technique is required to minimize parasitic effects. This paper shows and quantifies the nonlinearity of a commercial DE actuator and demonstrates the negative effects it can have in technical applications. For this purpose, two linearization methods are developed. Subsequently, the actuator is used to implement active vibration control for two different mechanical systems. In the first case a concentrated mass is driven with the controlled actuator resulting in a tunable oscillator. In the second case a more complex mechanical structure with multiple resonances is used. Different control approaches are applied likewise and their impact on the whole system is demonstrated. Thus, the potential of DE actuators for vibration control applications is highlighted.

  6. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  7. Thermal and tectonic history in the steamboat hills geothermal field: Determination of the age of active hydrothermal activity by application of AFTA{sup {trademark}} (apatite fission track analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Kamp, P.C. van de

    1995-12-31

    This study, in the Steamboat Hills area of the Carson segment of the northern Walker Lane Belt, was initiated to provide a regional thermal history framework and to investigate the age of the active local hydrothermal system. Seven outcrop samples, representing ?Cretaceous granodiorite and ?Triassic Peavine sequence metamorphosed volcanic flow and volcaniclastic rocks plus six samples of Peavine rocks in vertical sequence from an 0.8 km deep geothermal corehole have been analyzed using AFTA (apatite fission track analysis) and zircon fission track analysis.

  8. [Clinical application of skin sympathetic nerve activity].

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi

    2009-03-01

    Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is microneurographically recorded from the skin nerve fascicle in the peripheral nerves. It is characterized by the following features: 1) irregular, pulse asynchronous, burst activity with respiratory variation, 2) burst activity followed by vasoconstriction and/or sweating, 3) elicited by mental stress and arousal stimuli, e.g., sound, pain, electric stimulation, 4) burst with longer duration as compared with sympathetic outflow to muscles, and 5) burst activity following sudden inspiratory action. It comprises vasoconstrictor (VC) and sudomotor(SM) activity, as well as vasodilator (VD) activity. VC and SM discharge independently, whereas VD is the same activity with different neurotransmission. The VC and SM are differentiated by effector response, e.g., laser Doppler flowmetry and skin potential changes. SSNA function in thermoregulation in the human body; however it is also elicited by mental stress. SSNA is the lowest at thermoneutral ambient temperature (approximately 27 degrees C), and is enhanced in the pressence of ambient warm and cool air. The burst amplitude is well-correlated to both skin blood flow reduction rate or sweat rate change. The clinical application of SSNA comprises the following: 1) clarification of sweating phenomenon, 2) clarification and diagnosis of anhidrosis, 3) clarification and diagnosis of hyperhidrosis, 4) clarification of thermoregulatory function and diagnosis of thermoregulatory disorder, 5) clarification of pathophysiology and diagnosis of vascular diseases, e.g., Raynaud and Buerger diseases. 6) clarification of the relation between cognitive function and SSNA and 7) determination of pharmacological effect attributable to change in neuroeffector responses. PMID:19301594

  9. Large active retrodirective arrays for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    An active retrodirective array (ARA) transmits a beam toward the apparent source of an illuminating signal called the pilot. The term active implies that the array produces, not merely reflects, RF power. Retrodirectivity is achieved by retransmitting from each element of the array a signal whose phase is the conjugate of that received by the element. The problem of supplying the correct phase reference to the phase conjugation circuit (PCC) is solved by central phasing. A new form of central phasing suitable for very large arrays is outlined. ARAs may serve simultaneously as transmitting and receiving satellite antennas for space applications. Precision pointing and input-output isolation is provided by exact frequency-translating PCCs. A two-element ARA breadboard has been built and tested.

  10. Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi; Popov, Vyacheslav; Ryzhii, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene active plasmonics for terahertz (THz) device applications. Two-dimensional plasmons in graphene exhibit unique optoelectronic properties and mediate extraordinary light-matter interactions. It has been discovered theoretically that when the population of Dirac fermionic carriers in graphene are inverted by optical or electrical pumping, the excitation of graphene plasmons by the THz photons results in propagating surface plasmon polaritons with giant gain in a wide THz range. Furthermore, when graphene is patterned into a micro- or nanoribbon array by grating metallization, the structure acts as an active THz plasmonic amplifier, providing a superradiant plasmonic lasing with a giant gain at the plasmon modes in a wide THz frequency range. These new findings can lead to the creation of new types of plasmonic THz emitters and lasers operating even at room temperature.

  11. Active structural waveguide for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Karol; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Zmojda, Jacek; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    In the article a microstructural active optical fiber for sensing application was presented. Construction consists of three hexagonal rings and a core made of SiO2 - Al2O3 - Sb2O3 glass co-doped with 1Yb2O3/0.1Tm2O3 [mol%]. Developed optical fiber is characterized by upconversion luminescence (λp=980nm) at 480nm (Tm3+: 1G4→3H6) and 650 nm (Tm3+ : 1G4→3F4). Population of thulium levels was attained in result of the Yb 3+→Tm3+ upconversion energy transfer. Sensing application of elaborated active photonic structure was presented on the example of aqueous fluorescein solution. Fabricated microstructural optical fiber enables to measure of the fluorescein solutions with the concentration of (0.25 - 5.42)·10-4 [mol%]. Sensitivity of the elaborated measurement setup is 1.51·104 [1/mol%].

  12. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  13. Instrumented Shoes for Real-Time Activity Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Moufawad El Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Major, Kristof; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Activity monitoring in daily life is gaining momentum as a health assessment tool, especially in older adults and at-risk populations. Several research-based and commercial systems have been proposed with varying performances in classification accuracy. Configurations with many sensors are generally accurate but cumbersome, whereas single sensors tend to have lower accuracies. To this end, we propose an instrumented shoes system capable of accurate activity classification and gait analysis that contains sensors located entirely at the level of the shoes. One challenge in daily activity monitoring is providing punctual and subject-tailored feedback to improve mobility. Therefore, the instrumented shoe system was equipped with a Bluetooth® module to transmit data to a smartphone and perform detailed activity profiling of the monitored subjects. The potential applications of such a system are numerous in mobility and fall risk-assessment as well as in fall prevention. PMID:27332298

  14. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are…

  15. Small wind systems application analysis. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The potential market for SWECS, or wind machines smaller than 100 kW for five selected applications was estimated. The goals of the study were to aid manufacturers in attaining financing by convincing venture capital investors of the potential of SWECS and to aid government planners in allocating R and D expenditures that will effectively advance SWECS commercialization. The five applications were selected through an initial screening and priority-ranking analysis. The year of analysis was 1985, but all dollar amounts, such as fuel costs, are expressed in 1980 dollars. The five SWECS applications investigated were farm residences, non-farm residences rural electric cooperatives, feed grinders, and remote communities.

  16. Human activity discrimination for maritime application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Evelyn; Deaver, Dawne M.; Krapels, Keith

    2008-04-01

    The US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is investigating how motion affects the target acquisition model (NVThermIP) sensor performance estimates. This paper looks specifically at estimating sensor performance for the task of discriminating human activities on watercraft, and was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Traditionally, sensor models were calibrated using still images. While that approach is sufficient for static targets, video allows one to use motion cues to aid in discerning the type of human activity more quickly and accurately. This, in turn, will affect estimated sensor performance and these effects are measured in order to calibrate current target acquisition models for this task. The study employed an eleven alternative forced choice (11AFC) human perception experiment to measure the task difficulty of discriminating unique human activities on watercrafts. A mid-wave infrared camera was used to collect video at night. A description of the construction of this experiment is given, including: the data collection, image processing, perception testing and how contrast was defined for video. These results are applicable to evaluate sensor field performance for Anti-Terrorism and Force Protection (AT/FP) tasks for the U.S. Navy.

  17. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  18. Failure environment analysis tool applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Wadsworth, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding risks and avoiding failure are daily concerns for the women and men of NASA. Although NASA's mission propels us to push the limits of technology, and though the risks are considerable, the NASA community has instilled within, the determination to preserve the integrity of the systems upon which our mission and, our employees lives and well-being depend. One of the ways this is being done is by expanding and improving the tools used to perform risk assessment. The Failure Environment Analysis Tool (FEAT) was developed to help engineers and analysts more thoroughly and reliably conduct risk assessment and failure analysis. FEAT accomplishes this by providing answers to questions regarding what might have caused a particular failure; or, conversely, what effect the occurrence of a failure might have on an entire system. Additionally, FEAT can determine what common causes could have resulted in other combinations of failures. FEAT will even help determine the vulnerability of a system to failures, in light of reduced capability. FEAT also is useful in training personnel who must develop an understanding of particular systems. FEAT facilitates training on system behavior, by providing an automated environment in which to conduct 'what-if' evaluation. These types of analyses make FEAT a valuable tool for engineers and operations personnel in the design, analysis, and operation of NASA space systems.

  19. Failure environment analysis tool applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Wadsworth, David B.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding risks and avoiding failure are daily concerns for the women and men of NASA. Although NASA's mission propels us to push the limits of technology, and though the risks are considerable, the NASA community has instilled within it, the determination to preserve the integrity of the systems upon which our mission and, our employees lives and well-being depend. One of the ways this is being done is by expanding and improving the tools used to perform risk assessment. The Failure Environment Analysis Tool (FEAT) was developed to help engineers and analysts more thoroughly and reliably conduct risk assessment and failure analysis. FEAT accomplishes this by providing answers to questions regarding what might have caused a particular failure; or, conversely, what effect the occurrence of a failure might have on an entire system. Additionally, FEAT can determine what common causes could have resulted in other combinations of failures. FEAT will even help determine the vulnerability of a system to failures, in light of reduced capability. FEAT also is useful in training personnel who must develop an understanding of particular systems. FEAT facilitates training on system behavior, by providing an automated environment in which to conduct 'what-if' evaluation. These types of analyses make FEAT a valuable tool for engineers and operations personnel in the design, analysis, and operation of NASA space systems.

  20. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100 C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changed suddenly.

  1. Pathway network analysis and an application to the ODE model of MMP2 activation in the early stage of cancer cell invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minerva, D.; Kawasaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is known as the leading causes of death in the world, particularly in developing countries. Metastasis is believed as factor that make the situation worse. Cancer cell has the ability to invade and metastasize to a distant part of body. The mechanism of cancer cell invasion involving three molecules; MT1-MMP, TIMP2, and MMP2. The interaction of the three molecules activates MMP2 by cutting the MMP2 binding from a specific complex. The MMP2 activation leads to the release of cancer cell from its primary state towards distant part of body. In this paper, we will present the result of recent studies about MMP2 activation from mathematical point of view. We study the MMP2 activation model using law of mass action and conservation. We propose a method based on attachment and detachment rules and conservation law to analyze the ordinary differential equations system of pathway network associated with the MMP2 activation. As the result, we obtain possible way to suppress the spread of cancer cell.

  2. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  3. Geometries and applications of active fiber bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglmayr, Josef

    2001-10-01

    Active fiber bundles (FBs) are aimed to model photonic switching and processing in 3-D without the restrictions of the photonic technology. The 2-D photonic architectures are assumed to be implemented by networks of directional couplers (DCs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs), respectively. For the implementation several crucial problems are expected: (1) proper operation of the spatial couplers/switches (nonblocking interconnections) and (2) coupling in the interstage interconnection section mainly caused by parallel and crossing fibers/waveguides (WGs). For the design of proper operating switches (refinement of couplers) the application of decoupling concepts of modern control theory is proposed. The final goal is to translate the refined couplers into integrated photonic architectures rather than into additional lightwave circuits (LWCs) which simply would increase the coupling. The decoupling concepts are reviewed. The paper is an attempt to prepare for applying well-known system engineering concepts to the upcoming technology of photonics.

  4. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  5. Analyses of Oxyanion Materials by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Leung, K.-N.; Garabedian, G.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-03-24

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to analyze metal ion oxyanion materials that have multiple applications, including medicine, materials, catalysts, and electronics. The significance for the need for accurate, highly sensitive analyses for the materials is discussed in the context of quality control of end products containing the parent element in each material. Applications of the analytical data for input to models and theoretical calculations related to the electronic and other properties of the materials are discussed.

  6. Analysis of active renin heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Katz, S A; Malvin, R L; Lee, J; Kim, S H; Murray, R D; Opsahl, J A; Abraham, P A

    1991-09-01

    Active renin is a heterogeneous enzyme that can be separated into multiple forms with high-resolution isoelectric focusing. The isoelectric heterogeneity may result from differences in glycosylation between the different forms. In order to determine the relationship between active renin heterogeneity and differences in composition or attachment of oligosaccharides, two separate experiments were performed: (i) Tunicamycin, which interferes with normal glycosylation processing, increased the proportion of relatively basic renin forms secreted into the incubation media by rat renal cortical slices. (ii) Endoglycosidase F, which enzymatically removes carbohydrate from some classes of glycoprotein, similarly increased the proportion of relatively basic forms when incubated with active human recombinant renin. In addition, further studies with inhibitors of human renin activity revealed that the heterogeneous renin forms were similarly inhibited by two separate renin inhibitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that renin isoelectric heterogeneity is due in part to differences in carbohydrate moiety attachment and that the heterogeneity of renin does not influence access of direct renin inhibitors to the active site of renin. PMID:1908097

  7. Analysis and Application of Microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lu

    New trends of generating electricity locally and utilizing non-conventional or renewable energy sources have attracted increasing interests due to the gradual depletion of conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The new type of power generation is called Distributed Generation (DG) and the energy sources utilized by Distributed Generation are termed Distributed Energy Sources (DERs). With DGs embedded in the distribution networks, they evolve from passive distribution networks to active distribution networks enabling bidirectional power flows in the networks. Further incorporating flexible and intelligent controllers and employing future technologies, active distribution networks will turn to a Microgrid. A Microgrid is a small-scale, low voltage Combined with Heat and Power (CHP) supply network designed to supply electrical and heat loads for a small community. To further implement Microgrids, a sophisticated Microgrid Management System must be integrated. However, due to the fact that a Microgrid has multiple DERs integrated and is likely to be deregulated, the ability to perform real-time OPF and economic dispatch with fast speed advanced communication network is necessary. In this thesis, first, problems such as, power system modelling, power flow solving and power system optimization, are studied. Then, Distributed Generation and Microgrid are studied and reviewed, including a comprehensive review over current distributed generation technologies and Microgrid Management Systems, etc. Finally, a computer-based AC optimization method which minimizes the total transmission loss and generation cost of a Microgrid is proposed and a wireless communication scheme based on synchronized Code Division Multiple Access (sCDMA) is proposed. The algorithm is tested with a 6-bus power system and a 9-bus power system.

  8. An active viscoelastic metamaterial for isolation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, M.; Daley, S.

    2014-04-01

    Metamaterials are of interest due to their ability to produce novel acoustic behaviour beyond that seen in naturally occurring media. Of particular interest is the appearance of band gaps which lead to very high levels of attenuation within narrow frequency ranges. Resonant elements within metamaterials allow band gaps to form within the long wavelength limit at low frequencies where traditional passive isolation solutions suffer poor performance. Hence metamaterials may provide a path to high performance, low frequency isolation. Two metamaterials are presented here. An acoustic material consisting of an array of split hollow spheres is developed, and its performance is validated experimentally. The application of an acoustic/mechanical analogy allows the development of an elastodynamic metamaterial that could be employed as a high performance vibration isolator at low frequencies. A prototype isolator is manufactured, and its performance is measured. The passively occurring band gap is enhanced using an active control architecture. The use of the active control system in conjunction with the natural passive behaviour of the metamaterial enables high levels of isolation across a broad frequency range. An eventual goal of the work is to produce such materials on a small scale, and as such the metamaterials developed are designed for, and produced using, additive layer manufacturing techniques.

  9. Actively Controlled Shaft Seals for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  10. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  11. Voxel-Based LIDAR Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrom, Shea T.

    One of the greatest recent changes in the field of remote sensing is the addition of high-quality Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments. In particular, the past few decades have been greatly beneficial to these systems because of increases in data collection speed and accuracy, as well as a reduction in the costs of components. These improvements allow modern airborne instruments to resolve sub-meter details, making them ideal for a wide variety of applications. Because LIDAR uses active illumination to capture 3D information, its output is fundamentally different from other modalities. Despite this difference, LIDAR datasets are often processed using methods appropriate for 2D images and that do not take advantage of its primary virtue of 3-dimensional data. It is this problem we explore by using volumetric voxel modeling. Voxel-based analysis has been used in many applications, especially medical imaging, but rarely in traditional remote sensing. In part this is because the memory requirements are substantial when handling large areas, but with modern computing and storage this is no longer a significant impediment. Our reason for using voxels to model scenes from LIDAR data is that there are several advantages over standard triangle-based models, including better handling of overlapping surfaces and complex shapes. We show how incorporating system position information from early in the LIDAR point cloud generation process allows radiometrically-correct transmission and other novel voxel properties to be recovered. This voxelization technique is validated on simulated data using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software, a first-principles based ray-tracer developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Voxel-based modeling of LIDAR can be useful on its own, but we believe its primary advantage is when applied to problems where simpler surface-based 3D models conflict with the requirement of realistic geometry. To

  12. Environmental applications of the particle analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.

    1993-09-28

    This study demonstrates the applicability of particle counting technology for analysis of various water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Particle Analysis System described in this study determined the water quality of samples from environmental remediation, stormwater treatment, and drinking water treatment operations. Samples were measured in either discrete or on-line mode. This data showed filtration efficiencies, particle counts, particle size distributions, and real-time treatment system performance. Particle counting proved more sensitive than the turbidimetric measurement technique commonly used by the water treatment industry. Particle counting is a two-dimensional measurement of counts and sizes, whereas turbidity is a one-dimensional measurement of water clarity. Samples showing identical turbidities could be distinguished easily with the Particle Analysis System. The Particle Analysis System proved to be an efficient and reliable water quality measurement tool, and it is applicable to a variety of water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant.

  13. A microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity suitable for the analysis of large numbers of samples, and its application to the study of Drosophila learning mutants.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, J D; Dudai, Y

    1988-02-15

    We have developed a microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity which depends on the immobilization of substrate proteins to nitrocellulose. The technique makes use of a filtration manifold, allowing as much as a 10-fold increase in efficiency as compared to other protein kinase assays. We have used this assay to measure cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in Drosophila learning and memory mutants, with exogenous and endogenous substrates. An alteration was found in the affinity of PKA in the mutant turnip. The procedure should be useful for rapid screening of mutants and drugs and could be adapted to additional types of protein kinases as well as protein phosphatases. PMID:3369684

  14. Soils Activity Mobility Study: Methodology and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, Alissa; Yucel, Vefa

    2014-09-29

    This report presents a three-level approach for estimation of sediment transport to provide an assessment of potential erosion risk for sites at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are posted for radiological purposes and where migration is suspected or known to occur due to storm runoff. Based on the assessed risk, the appropriate level of effort can be determined for analysis of radiological surveys, field experiments to quantify erosion and transport rates, and long-term monitoring. The method is demonstrated at contaminated sites, including Plutonium Valley, Shasta, Smoky, and T-1. The Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee (PSIAC) procedure is selected as the Level 1 analysis tool. The PSIAC method provides an estimation of the total annual sediment yield based on factors derived from the climatic and physical characteristics of a watershed. If the results indicate low risk, then further analysis is not warranted. If the Level 1 analysis indicates high risk or is deemed uncertain, a Level 2 analysis using the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) is proposed. In addition, if a sediment yield for a storm event rather than an annual sediment yield is needed, then the proposed Level 2 analysis should be performed. MUSLE only provides sheet and rill erosion estimates. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) provides storm peak runoff rate and storm volumes, the inputs necessary for MUSLE. Channel Sediment Transport (CHAN-SED) I and II models are proposed for estimating sediment deposition or erosion in a channel reach from a storm event. These models require storm hydrograph associated sediment concentration and bed load particle size distribution data. When the Level 2 analysis indicates high risk for sediment yield and associated contaminant migration or when there is high uncertainty in the Level 2 results, the sites can be further evaluated with a Level 3 analysis using more complex

  15. Azaglycomimetics: Natural Occurrence, Biological Activity, and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Naoki

    A large number of alkaloids mimicking the structures of monosaccharides or oligosaccharides have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. The sugar mimicking alkaloids with a nitrogen in the ring are called azasugars or iminosugars. Naturally occurring azasugars are classified into five structural classes: polyhydroxylated piperidines, pyrrolidines, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and nortropanes. They are easily soluble in water because of their polyhydroxylated structures and inhibit glycosidases because of a structural resemblance to the sugar moiety of the natural substrate. Glycosidases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic processes, such as digestion, lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, biosynthesis of glycoproteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and ER-associated degradation of glycoproteins. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo by inhibitors is of great interest from a therapeutic point of view. Azasugars are an important class of glycosidase inhibitors and are arousing great interest for instance as antidiabetics, antiobesity drugs, antivirals, and therapeutic agents for some genetic disorders. This review describes the recent studies on isolation, characterization, glycosidase inhibitory activity, and therapeutic application of azaglycomimetics.

  16. NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

  17. Dynamic analysis of changing features of tumor cells incubated with antitumor agents in vitro and its application for predictive activity assay of antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Oguro, M; Takagi, T; Takenaga, K

    1985-02-01

    Continuous observation of living malignant cells (L1210) in a specially devised glass observation chamber with an inverted microscope made it possible to classify various cellular morphological features induced by antitumor agents into the following four stages: 1) an initial stage consisting of cytoplasmic granulation and coloring, 2) an intermediate stage of shrinkage of nuclei, increases of vacuoles and cytoplasmic budding, 3) a determinate stage of cell ballooning and 4) the terminal stage (cell ghost). Both the initial and intermediate stages are characterized by cellular changes that appear at an early phase and remain opportunistic in terms of viability. Emergence of these cellular changes is largely dependent on the specific mode of action of antitumor agents. In contrast, definite irreversibility in the changes found in both the terminal and determinate stages was confirmed by continuous observation until the cells showed lytic or ghost features, using a video-recording system. A plot of the number of cells counted in both the determinate and terminal stages versus the time-dose schedule is designated as the "time-dose-response" plot, and this proved useful for estimating the characteristics of the antitumor agents tested and the actions of new antitumor agents on malignant cells (predictive activity assay graph). PMID:3920102

  18. Adaptive Multi-Layer LMS Controller Design and Application to Active Vibration Suppression on a Truss and Proposed Impact Analysis Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Timothy A.; Shin, Y. S.; Agrawal, B. N.

    2001-01-01

    This research develops an adaptive controller that actively suppresses a single frequency disturbance source at a remote position and tests the system on the NPS Space Truss. The experimental results are then compared to those predicted by an ANSYS finite element model. The NPS space truss is a 3.7-meter long truss that simulates a space-borne appendage with sensitive equipment mounted at its extremities. One of two installed piezoelectric actuators and an Adaptive Multi-Layer LMS control law were used to effectively eliminate an axial component of the vibrations induced by a linear proof mass actuator mounted at one end of the truss. Experimental and analytical results both demonstrate reductions to the level of system noise. Vibration reductions in excess of 50dB were obtained through experimentation and over 100dB using ANSYS, demonstrating the ability to model this system with a finite element model. This report also proposes a method to use distributed quartz accelerometers to evaluate the location, direction, and energy of impacts on the NPS space truss using the dSPACE data acquisition and processing system to capture the structural response and compare it to known reference Signals.

  19. Analysis of electron auroras based on the Monte Carlo method: Application to active electron arc auroras observed by the sounding rocket at Syowa Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Kunizo; Ejiri, Masaki; Itikawa, Yukikazu

    A downward electron differential number flux, the absolute photoemission rate for the (0, 1) band of the first negative band system of the molecular nitrogen ion, and the number density of thermal electrons were simultaneously measured by the sounding rocket S-310JA-8 launched toward active auroral arcs at a substorm expansion phase on April 4, 1984, from Syowa Station in Antarctica. We apply the Monte Carlo method to analyze these observed results. The MSIS-86 model is employed to represent the atmospheric number density and temperature in the aurora observed by this experiment. Only N2, O, and O2 are taken into account as constituent elements of the atmosphere. Electrons are injected downward into the upper atmosphere at the altitude of 200 km, at which the downward electron differential number flux was measured. An initial electron energy is considered in the range of 0.1-18 keV. It is assumed that an initial pitch angle is uniformly distributed in the range of [0, π/2]. Excitation and ionization rates of N2, O, and O2 are calculated as a function of altitude, the initial pitch angle, and the initial electron energy. Production and emission rates of the N2+ 1N (0, 1) band are deduced by using these calculated rates. Time variation of the observed absolute intensity of this band is reasonably well reproduced by the Monte Carlo method combined with the measured electron number flux.

  20. The origin and evolution of activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Creighton, C

    1992-01-01

    Practitioners of occupational therapy in the early 1900s selected therapeutic activities with an intuitive understanding of their characteristics and operations. The term activity analysis and the methodology for breaking down and examining tasks scientifically, however, were borrowed from industry during World War I. Methods originally used in time and motion study of jobs were applied to vocational retraining and therapeutic crafts; later, they were applied to a broader range of activities. The most systematic early use of activity analysis was in occupational therapy for physical dysfunction, particularly in military hospitals. Development of the concept was gradual until the 1970s, when the delineation of theoretical frames of reference for practice led to important changes. Today, activity analysis is viewed as a multifaceted process that involves both generic and specific components. PMID:1558138

  1. A forensic application of PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Warren, M. W.; Falsetti, A. B.

    2001-07-01

    PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone.

  2. Simultaneous analysis of codeine and its active metabolites in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of codeine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiujun; Zhang, Weiping; Bai, Yin; Guo, Tao; Gu, Jingkai

    2013-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive bioassay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of codeine and its active metabolites, including morphine, morphine 3β-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine 6β-glucuronide (M6G), in human plasma. Sample preparation of plasma after the addition of naloxone as internal standard (IS) involved solid-phase extraction (SPE) on C18 cartridges. Reversed-phase chromatography using a gradient elution with methanol and 0.04% formic acid solution (pH 3.5) was used for separation in a run time of 5 min. The analytes were detected in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions at m/z 300.4→215.2 for codeine, 286.2→152.0 for morphine, and 462.2→286.2 for M3G and M6G. The method has the following performance characteristics: a reliable response range of 0.05-80 ng/ml for codeine, M3G and M6G and a response range of 0.05-5.0 ng/ml for morphine with correlation coefficients (r) of >0.997 for all analytes. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for all four analytes was 0.05 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium and high concentration levels showed <12% relative standard deviation (RSD) and -6.9 to 8.1% relative error (RE) for all the analytes. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of codeine in healthy Mongolian Chinese volunteers after a 30 mg oral dose. PMID:23507688

  3. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  4. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the feasibility of utilizing controllable mechanical seals for aerospace applications. A potential application was selected as a demonstration case: the buffer gas seal in a LOX (liquid oxygen) turbopump. Currently, floating ring seals are used in this application. Their replacement with controllable mechanical seals would result in substantially reduced leakage rates. This would reduce the required amount of stored buffer gas, and therefore increase the vehicle payload. For such an application, a suitable controllable mechanical seal was designed and analyzed.

  5. Taking into account photofission effects in gamma-activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dayvdov, M.G.; Kishel'gof, V.V.; Naumov, A.P.; Trukhov, A.V.

    1986-11-01

    The authors proposed a method for calculating the effect of photofission of U and Th, which is based on the well-known laws of physics of photofission and methods for calculating the activity of fission products. The authors compared the results of numerical calculations of the gamma spectra of photofission products with the measurements performed with a Ge (Li) detector with the spectra from activated model samples of U and Th. The method developed enables calculating the coefficients of interference and is also applicable to the solution of the problems of optimization of gamma activation analysis taking into account U and Th fission.

  6. Application of critical path analysis in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research operates in a strictly regulated environment under various management models, but a distinct management model of clinical trial (CT) still needs exploration and research. Critical path analysis (CPA) is a management approach can be used for monitoring, analysis, and prediction of success of its time-bound operational activities. A model CT was compiled with 78 activities, which were further merged into 35 major activities. After performing dependence analysis, the list was finalized with 25 activities which were taken in activity predecessor to create a network diagram and perform CPA considering patients, conduct, and outcome. Activities were inclusive, described the trial entirely with accuracy, and were in chronological and logical sequences. This approach does not replace an understanding of or adherence to the requirements contained in all applicable regulations, guidelines or standard operating procedures governing clinical studies but ensures the proper use of operational and decisional approaches including optimal resource management. As the need to meet deadlines becomes more important and the need to produce good, stable project plans, CPA is very useful for determining activities that can lead to project delay. With this approach, project may be effectively monitored, and realistic schedules can be maintained. PMID:26955606

  7. Application of critical path analysis in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research operates in a strictly regulated environment under various management models, but a distinct management model of clinical trial (CT) still needs exploration and research. Critical path analysis (CPA) is a management approach can be used for monitoring, analysis, and prediction of success of its time-bound operational activities. A model CT was compiled with 78 activities, which were further merged into 35 major activities. After performing dependence analysis, the list was finalized with 25 activities which were taken in activity predecessor to create a network diagram and perform CPA considering patients, conduct, and outcome. Activities were inclusive, described the trial entirely with accuracy, and were in chronological and logical sequences. This approach does not replace an understanding of or adherence to the requirements contained in all applicable regulations, guidelines or standard operating procedures governing clinical studies but ensures the proper use of operational and decisional approaches including optimal resource management. As the need to meet deadlines becomes more important and the need to produce good, stable project plans, CPA is very useful for determining activities that can lead to project delay. With this approach, project may be effectively monitored, and realistic schedules can be maintained. PMID:26955606

  8. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  9. Probabilistic structural analysis methods and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Dias, B.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced algorithm for simulating the probabilistic distribution of structural responses due to statistical uncertainties in loads, geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions is reported. The method effectively combines an advanced algorithm for calculating probability levels for multivariate problems (fast probability integration) together with a general-purpose finite-element code for stress, vibration, and buckling analysis. Application is made to a space propulsion system turbine blade for which the geometry and material properties are treated as random variables.

  10. Error analysis of quartz crystal resonator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lucklum, R.; Behling, C.; Hauptmann, P.; Cernosek, R.W.; Martin, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    Quartz crystal resonators in chemical sensing applications are usually configured as the frequency determining element of an electrical oscillator. By contrast, the shear modulus determination of a polymer coating needs a complete impedance analysis. The first part of this contribution reports the error made if common approximations are used to relate the frequency shift to the sorbed mass. In the second part the authors discuss different error sources in the procedure to determine shear parameters.

  11. Software applications for flux balance analysis.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Koh, Geoffrey; Chung, Bevan K S; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is a widely used computational method for characterizing and engineering intrinsic cellular metabolism. The increasing number of its successful applications and growing popularity are possibly attributable to the availability of specific software tools for FBA. Each tool has its unique features and limitations with respect to operational environment, user-interface and supported analysis algorithms. Presented herein is an in-depth evaluation of currently available FBA applications, focusing mainly on usability, functionality, graphical representation and inter-operability. Overall, most of the applications are able to perform basic features of model creation and FBA simulation. COBRA toolbox, OptFlux and FASIMU are versatile to support advanced in silico algorithms to identify environmental and genetic targets for strain design. SurreyFBA, WEbcoli, Acorn, FAME, GEMSiRV and MetaFluxNet are the distinct tools which provide the user friendly interfaces in model handling. In terms of software architecture, FBA-SimVis and OptFlux have the flexible environments as they enable the plug-in/add-on feature to aid prospective functional extensions. Notably, an increasing trend towards the implementation of more tailored e-services such as central model repository and assistance to collaborative efforts was observed among the web-based applications with the help of advanced web-technologies. Furthermore, most recent applications such as the Model SEED, FAME, MetaFlux and MicrobesFlux have even included several routines to facilitate the reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic models. Finally, a brief discussion on the future directions of FBA applications was made for the benefit of potential tool developers. PMID:23131418

  12. Medically related activities of application team program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Application team methodology identifies and specifies problems in technology transfer programs to biomedical areas through direct contact with users of aerospace technology. The availability of reengineering sources increases impact of the program on the medical community and results in broad scale application of some bioinstrumentation systems. Examples are given that include devices adapted to the rehabilitation of neuromuscular disorders, power sources for artificial organs, and automated monitoring and detection equipment in clinical medicine.

  13. IR Activities. IR Applications, Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Stephen; Gerek, Mary Louise

    2007-01-01

    Institutional research is the sum total of all activities directed at describing the full spectrum of functions (educational, administrative, and support) occurring within a college or university. Institutional research activities examine those functions in their broadest definitions, and embrace data collection and analytical strategies in…

  14. Au@Ag Heterogeneous Nanorods as Nanozyme Interfaces with Peroxidase-Like Activity and Their Application for One-Pot Analysis of Glucose at Nearly Neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Li, Cuncheng; Zhang, Tao; Lang, Qiaolin; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-01

    As substitutes for natural peroxidases, most nanomaterial-based enzyme mimetics (nanozymes) have unique properties such as high stability, low-cost, large surface area, and high catalytic activity. However, they usually work in acidic conditions and thus impede their real applications. In this work, by modulating the nanostructure, composition, and surface property of the bimetallic materials, the positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium)-stabilized Au@Ag heterogeneous nanorods (NRs) were developed as synergistic peroxidase-like interfaces, which exhibited high activity over a wide pH range (pH 4.0-6.5) using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as the chromogenic substrate. At pH 6.5, the peroxidase-like activity for the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs was stable and optimal within 20-40 °C. Moreover, the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs showed excellent temperature stability and long-term storage stability. Given these characters, the detection of H2O2 at pH 6.5 was proposed on the basis of the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs catalyzing the colorimetric reaction of H2O2 and ABTS, where the oxidized ABTS showed a typical absorption peak at 414 nm. The absorbance at 414 nm was linear with H2O2 concentration from 0.01 to 10 mM. Further, considering that Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs and glucose oxidase (GOx) have similar optimal pH for catalytic activities, a novel one-pot method for the detection of glucose was developed by the coupled catalytic reaction using GOx, Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, and ABTS at nearly neutral pH (pH 6.5) and 37 °C. This proposed method had simple and rapid processes, wide linear range (0.05-20 mM), and reliability for the successful analysis of real samples. On the basis of these attractive and unique characteristics, Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs can become promising substitutes for peroxidase in analytical chemistry and environmental science. PMID:26076372

  15. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  16. Multidisciplinary analysis of actively controlled large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    The control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program has supported the development of an analysis capability at the Langley Research Center called the Integrated Multidisciplinary Analysis Tool (IMAT) which provides an efficient data storage and transfer capability among commercial computer codes to aid in the dynamic analysis of actively controlled structures. IMAT is a system of computer programs which transfers Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) configurations, structural finite element models, material property and stress information, structural and rigid-body dynamic model information, and linear system matrices for control law formulation among various commercial applications programs through a common database. Although general in its formulation, IMAT was developed specifically to aid in the evaluation of the structures. A description of the IMAT system and results of an application of the system are given.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of biologically active aminoalkanephosphonic acids.

    PubMed

    Kudzin, Zbigniew H; Gralak, Dorota K; Andrijewski, Grzegorz; Drabowicz, Józef; Luczak, Jerzy

    2003-05-23

    A new approach for simultaneous analysis of biologically active aminoalkanephosphonic acids, namely glyphosate, phosphonoglycine, phosphonosarcosine, phosphonoalanine, phosphono-beta-alanine, phosphonohomoalanine, phosphono-gamma-homoalanine and glufosinate, is presented. This includes a preliminary 31p NMR analysis of these amino acids, their further derivatization to volatile phosphonates (phosphinates) by means of trifluoroacetic acid-trifluoroacetic anhydride-trimethyl orthoacetate reagent and subsequent analysis of derivatization products using MS and/or GC-MS (chemical ionization and/or electron impact ionization). PMID:12862383

  18. Development of an active magnetic regenerator for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weibo

    2014-07-01

    This paper discusses the design of a micromachined regenerator in an Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) system for space applications. The AMRR system is designed to provide continuous remote/distributed cooling at about 2 K and reject heat at temperatures of about 15 K. This paper first discusses the general thermal and fluid performance requirements for an AMRR regenerator, a unique structured bed configuration that enables the regenerator to meet these requirements, and its thermal and fluid performance based on numerical analyses. The paper then discusses the general design consideration for the magnetic field driving the regenerator for optimal thermal performance, and the analysis processes to optimize the variation rate of the magnetic field in an actual superconducting magnet during the isothermal processes of the AMRR cycle to enhance the performance of an actual regenerator. The paper finally presents the thermal performance of the regenerator from such iterative design optimization processes.

  19. Gamete activation: basic knowledge and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Ménézo, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The first clues to the process of gamete activation date back to nearly 60 years ago. The mutual activation of gametes is a crucial event during fertilization. In the testis and ovaries, spermatozoa and oocytes are in a state of meiotic and metabolic quiescence and require reciprocal signals in order to undergo functional changes that lead to competence for fertilization. First, the oocyte activates sperm by triggering motility, chemoattraction, binding and the acrosome reaction, culminating with the fusion of the two plasma membranes. At the end of this cascade of events, collectively known as sperm capacitation, sperm-induced oocyte activation occurs, generating electrical, morphological and metabolic modifications in the oocyte. Objective and rationale The aim of this review is to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the entire process of gamete activation in selected specific animal models that have contributed to our understanding of fertilization in mammals, including humans. Here we describe in detail the reciprocal induction of the two activation processes, the molecules involved and the mechanisms of cell interaction and signal transduction that ultimately result in successful embryo development and creation of a new individual. Search methods We carried out a literature survey with no restrictions on publication date (from the early 1950s to March 2016) using PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge by utilizing common keywords applied in the field of fertilization and embryo development. We also screened the complete list of references published in the most recent research articles and relevant reviews published in English (both animal and human studies) on the topics investigated. Outcomes Literature on the principal animal models demonstrates that gamete activation is a pre-requisite for successful fertilization, and is a process common to all species studied to date. We provide a detailed description of the dramatic

  20. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  1. Risk assessment and its application to flight safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, D.L.; Barton, W.R.

    1989-12-01

    Potentially hazardous test activities have historically been a part of Sandia National Labs mission to design, develop, and test new weapons systems. These test activities include high speed air drops for parachute development, sled tests for component and system level studies, multiple stage rocket experiments, and artillery firings of various projectiles. Due to the nature of Sandia's test programs, the risk associated with these activities can never be totally eliminated. However, a consistent set of policies should be available to provide guidance into the level of risk that is acceptable in these areas. This report presents a general set of guidelines for addressing safety issues related to rocket flight operations at Sandia National Laboratories. Even though the majority of this report deals primarily with rocket flight safety, these same principles could be applied to other hazardous test activities. The basic concepts of risk analysis have a wide range of applications into many of Sandia's current operations. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Prompt gamma activation analysis: An old technique made new

    SciTech Connect

    English, Jerry; Firestone, Richard; Perry, Dale; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Garabedian, Glenn; Bandong, Bryan; Molnar, Gabor; Revay, Zsolt

    2002-12-01

    The long list of contributors to the prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) project is important because it highlights the broad cast of active PGAA researchers from various facilities and backgrounds. PGAA is basically a simple process in principle that was traditionally difficult in application. It is an old technique that has for years been tied to and associated exclusively with nuclear reactor facilities, which has limited its acceptance as a general, analytical tool for identifying and quantifying elements or, more precisely, isotopes, whether radioactive or nonradioactive. Field use was not a viable option.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Corey Thuen

    2013-01-01

    The On-Device Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Applications (ODAMA) project was started in an effort to protect mobile devices used in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from cyber attack. Because mobile devices hide as much of the “computer” as possible, the user’s ability to assess the software running on their system is limited. The research team chose Google’s Android platform for this initial research because it is open source and it would give us freedom in our approach, including the ability to modify the mobile device’s operating system itself. The research team concluded that a Privileged Application was the right approach, and the result was ODAMA. This project is an important piece of the work to secure the expanding use of mobile devices with our nation’s critical infrastructure.

  4. Pharmacological Activities and Applications of Spicatoside A

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Mahesh; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Liriopogons (Liriope and Opiopogon) species are used as a main medicinal ingredient in several Asian countries. The Liriopes Radix (tuber, root of Liriope platyphylla) has to be a promising candidate due to their source of phytochemicals. Steroidal saponins and their glycosides, phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites are considered of active constituents in Liriopes Radix. Spicatoside A, a steroidal saponin, could be more efficacious drug candidate in future. In this review, we summarized the available knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological activities for spicatoside A. It significantly suppressed the level of NF-κB, NO, iNOS, Cox-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and MAPKs in LPS-stimulated inflammation. The production of MUC5AC mucin was increased. MMP-13 expression was down-regulated in IL-1β-treated cells and reduced glycosaminoglycan release from IL-1α-treated cells. The neurite outgrowth activity, PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, TrkA and CREB phosphorylation and neurotropic factors such as NGF and BDNF were upregulated with increased latency time. It also showed cell growth inhibitory activity on various carcinoma cells. From this, spicatoside A exerts anti-inflammation, anti-asthma, anti-osteoclastogenesis, neurite outgrowth, memory consolidation and anticancer activities. Further studies are needed on spicatoside A in order to understand mechanisms of action to treat various human diseases. PMID:27169821

  5. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Virology and Microbial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harz, Michaela; Stöckel, Stephan; Ciobotă, Valerian; Cialla, Dana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    This chapter reports from the utilization of Raman spectroscopic techniques like Raman microscopy, Raman optical activity (ROA), UV-resonance Raman (UVRR)-spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for the investigation of viruses and microorganisms, especially bacteria and yeasts for medical and pharmaceutical applications. The application of these Raman techniques allows for the analysis of chemical components of cells and subcellular regions, as well as the monitoring of chemical differences occurring as a result of the growth of microorganisms. In addition, the interaction of microorganisms with active pharmaceutical agents can be investigated. In combination with chemometric methods Raman spectroscopy can also be applied to identify microorganisms both in micro colonies and even on single cells.

  6. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.

  7. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-22

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  8. Guidebook for analysis of tether applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended as a tool to facilitate initial analyses of proposed tether applications in space. The guiding philosophy is that a brief analysis of all the common problem areas is far more useful than a detailed study in any one area. Such analyses can minimize the waste of resources on elegant but fatally flawed concepts, and can identify the areas where more effort is needed on concepts which do survive the initial analyses. The simplified formulas, approximations, and analytical tools included should be used only for preliminary analyses. For detailed analyses, the references with each topic and in the bibliography may be useful.

  9. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  10. Application of ultrasonics to chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chmilenko, F.A.; Baklanov, A.N.; Sidorova, L.P.; Piskun, Yu.M.

    1994-06-01

    Ultrasonics has found a wide utility in chemistry, making available energy densities of the order of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 3}, which is 3-5 orders of magnitude greater than the energy densities used in some physical methods like radiolysis and photolysis. The paper overviews several techniques of ultrasound to chemical analysis with the greatest effect obtained by using a wide range of ultrasound frequencies. The methods described include: using different ultrasound properties like velocity of propagation, decay rate, acoustic resistance, and relaxational absorption as analytical signals; the use of sonoluminescence; applications for oxidation, coagulating, and dispersion by ultrasound methods; use of ultrasound for sample preparation; and the use of ultrasound for widening the scope of the atomic spectroscopy and electrochemcial methods of analysis.

  11. Application of Electromigration Techniques in Environmental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bald, Edward; Kubalczyk, Paweł; Studzińska, Sylwia; Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Inherently trace-level concentration of pollutants in the environment, together with the complexity of sample matrices, place a strong demand on the detection capabilities of electromigration methods. Significant progress is continually being made, widening the applicability of these techniques, mostly capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and capillary electrochromatography, to the analysis of real-world environmental samples, including the concentration sensitivity and robustness of the developed analytical procedures. This chapter covers the recent major developments in the domain of capillary electrophoresis analysis of environmental samples for pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, amines, carboxylic acids, explosives, pharmaceuticals, and ionic liquids. Emphasis is made on pre-capillary and on-capillary chromatography and electrophoresis-based concentration of analytes and detection improvement.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.; Silverman, A.; Ouellet, C.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z

    1992-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  13. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Guoxin Lu

    2007-12-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  14. Various applications of Active Field Control (AFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Hideo; Kishinaga, Shinji; Kawakami, Fukushi

    2003-10-01

    AFC is an electro-acoustic enhancement system, which has been under development at Yamaha Corporation. In this paper, several types of various AFC applications are discussed, while referring to representative projects for each application in Japan. (1) Realization of acoustics in a huge hall to classical music program, e.g., Tokyo International Forum. This venue is a multipurpose hall with approximately 5000 seats. AFC achieves loudness and reverberance equivalent to those of a hall with 2500 seats or fewer. (2) Optimization of acoustics for a variety of programs, e.g., Arkas Sasebo. AFC is used to create the optimum acoustics for each program, such as reverberance for classical concerts, acoustical support for opera singers, uniformity throughout the hall from the stage to under-balcony area, etc. (3) Control of room shape acoustical effect, e.g., Osaka Central Public Hall: In this renovation project, preservation of historically important architecture in the original form is required. AFC is installed to vary only the acoustical environment without architectural changes. (4) Assistance with crowd enthusiasm for sports entertainment, e.g., Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium. In this venue, which is designed as a very absorptive space for speech intelligibility, AFC is installed to enhance the atmosphere of live sports entertainment.

  15. Modeling the Benchmark Active Control Technology Wind-Tunnel Model for Active Control Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the formulation of a model of the dynamic behavior of the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for active control design and analysis applications. The model is formed by combining the equations of motion for the BACT wind tunnel model with actuator models and a model of wind tunnel turbulence. The primary focus of this report is the development of the equations of motion from first principles by using Lagrange's equations and the principle of virtual work. A numerical form of the model is generated by making use of parameters obtained from both experiment and analysis. Comparisons between experimental and analytical data obtained from the numerical model show excellent agreement and suggest that simple coefficient-based aerodynamics are sufficient to accurately characterize the aeroelastic response of the BACT wind tunnel model. The equations of motion developed herein have been used to aid in the design and analysis of a number of flutter suppression controllers that have been successfully implemented.

  16. Analysis of the activity pattern of volcanoes through self-organized crack networks: The effect of density barriers—An application to Vesuvius activity in the period 1631-1944

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegari, E.; Di Maio, R.; Scandone, R.

    2013-06-01

    We simulated the pattern of activity of a strato-volcano by using a cellular automaton model where magma is allowed to ascend to the surface through self-organized crack networks. Magma rises toward the surface by filling connected paths of fractures until the magma's density is less than that of surrounding rocks. If magma enters a region with negative or neutral buoyancy, it cools and solidifies; as a result, the local density profile is modified, and magmatic dikes are formed. We simulated the temporal evolution of high-density pathways of dikes that magma may eventually utilize to reach the surface. We showed that if a shallow neutral-negative buoyancy zone is restored after eruptions, due to, for example, piecemeal or chaotic collapses, a characteristic timescale appears in the inter-event repose time distribution. Such characteristic repose time represents the average time that magma takes to form a high-density pathway through the less dense rock layer, and it may give a hint to predict possible eruptive scenarios. Even if the model includes many simplifying assumptions in the definition of magma-rock interaction, the results obtained from simulations are consistent with the eruptive behavior of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano for the 1631-1944 period.

  17. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  18. Nonlinear analysis of epileptic activity in rabbit neocortex.

    PubMed

    Sarnthein, J; Abarbanel, H D; Pockberger, H

    1998-01-01

    We report on the nonlinear analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in the rabbit visual cortex. Epileptic seizures were induced by local penicillin application and triggered by visual stimulation. The analysis procedures for nonlinear signals have been developed over the past few years and applied primarily to physical systems. This is an early application to biological systems and the first to EEG data. We find that during epileptic activity, both global and local embedding dimensions are reduced with respect to nonepileptic activity. Interestingly, these values are very low (dE approximately equal to 3) and do not change between preictal and tonic stages of epileptic activity, also the Lyapunov dimension remains constant. However, between these two stages the manifestations of the local dynamics change quite drastically, as can be seen, e.g., from the shape of the attractors. Furthermore, the largest Lyapunov exponent is reduced by a factor of about two in the second stage and characterizes the difference in dynamics. Thus, the occurrence of clinical symptoms associated with the tonic seizure activity seems to be mainly related to the local dynamics of the nonlinear system. These results thus seem to give a strong indication that the dynamics remains much the same in these stages of behavior, and changes are due to alterations in model parameters and consequent bifurcations of the observed orbits. PMID:9485585

  19. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naillon, Martine

    1994-01-01

    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  20. Applications of chemiluminescence to bacterial analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searle, N. D.

    1975-01-01

    Luminol chemiluminescence method for detecting bacteria was based on microbial activation of the oxidation of the luminol monoanion by hydrogen peroxide. Elimination of the prior lysing step, previously used in the chemiluminescence technique, was shown to improve considerably the reproducibility and accuracy of the method in addition to simplifying it. An inexpensive, portable photomultiplier detector was used to measure the maximum light intensity produced when the sample is added to the reagent. Studies of cooling tower water show that the luminol chemiluminescence technique can be used to monitor changes in viable cell population both under normal conditions and during chlorine treatment. Good correlation between chemiluminescence and plate counts was also obtained in the analysis of process water used in paper mills. This method showed good potential for monitoring the viable bacteria populations in activated sludge used in waste treatment plants to digest organic matter.

  1. Analysis of wavelet technology for NASA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. O., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to introduce a broad group of NASA researchers and administrators to wavelet technology and to determine its future role in research and development at NASA JSC. The activities of several briefings held between NASA JSC scientists and Rice University researchers are discussed. An attached paper, 'Recent Advances in Wavelet Technology', summarizes some aspects of these briefings. Two proposals submitted to NASA reflect the primary areas of common interest. They are image analysis and numerical solutions of partial differential equations arising in computational fluid dynamics and structural mechanics.

  2. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  3. Acceleration of Data Analysis Applications using GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillmore, D.; Messmer, P.; Mullowney, P.; Amyx, K.

    2008-12-01

    The vast amount of data collected by present and future scientific instruments, sensors and numerical models requires a significant increase in computing power for analysis. In many cases, processing time on a single workstation becomes impractical. While clusters of commodity processors can be utilized to accelerate some of these tasks, the relatively high software development cost, as well as acquisition and operational costs, make them less attractive for broad use. Over the past few years, another class of architectures has gained some popularity, namely heterogeneous architectures, which consist of general purpose processors connected to specialized processors. One of the most prominent examples are Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which offer a tremendous amount of floating-point processing power due to demand for high-quality graphics in the computer game market. However, in order to harness this processing power, software developers have to develop with a detailed understanding of the underlying hardware. This burden on the developer is often hardly justifiable considering the rapid evolution of the hardware. In this talk, we will introduce GPULib, an open source library that enables scientists to accelerate their data analysis tasks using the GPUs already installed in their system from within high-level languages like IDL or MATLAB, and present examples and possible speedup from real-world data analysis applications. This work is funded through NASA Phase II SBIR Grant NNG06CA13C.

  4. Remote sensing application to regional activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahrokhi, F.; Jones, N. L.; Sharber, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Two agencies within the State of Tennessee were identified whereby the transfer of aerospace technology, namely remote sensing, could be applied to their stated problem areas. Their stated problem areas are wetland and land classification and strip mining studies. In both studies, LANDSAT data was analyzed with the UTSI video-input analog/digital automatic analysis and classification facility. In the West Tennessee area three land-use classifications could be distinguished; cropland, wetland, and forest. In the East Tennessee study area, measurements were submitted to statistical tests which verified the significant differences due to natural terrain, stripped areas, various stages of reclamation, water, etc. Classifications for both studies were output in the form of maps of symbols and varying shades of gray.

  5. Large Active Retrodirective Arrays for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    An active retrodirective array (ARA) electronically points a microwave beam back at the apparent source of an incident pilot signal. Retrodirectivity is the result of phase conjugation of the pilot signal received by each element of the array. The problem of supplying the correct phase reference to the phase conjugation circuit (PCC) associated with each element of the array is solved by central phasing. By eliminating the need for structural rigidity, central phasing confers a decisive advantage on ARA's as large spaceborne antennas. A new form of central phasing suitable for very large arrays is described. ARA's may easily be modified to serve both as transmitting and receiving arrays simultaneously. Two new kinds of exact, frequency translating PCC's are described. Such PCC's provide the ARA with input-output isolation and freedom from squint. The pointing errors caused by the radial and transverse components of the ARA's velocity, by the propagation medium, and by multipath are discussed. A two element ARA breadboard was built and tested at JPL. Its performance is limited primarily by multipath induced errors.

  6. The applicability and effectiveness of cluster analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, D. S.; Actkinson, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    An insight into the characteristics which determine the performance of a clustering algorithm is presented. In order for the techniques which are examined to accurately cluster data, two conditions must be simultaneously satisfied. First the data must have a particular structure, and second the parameters chosen for the clustering algorithm must be correct. By examining the structure of the data from the Cl flight line, it is clear that no single set of parameters can be used to accurately cluster all the different crops. The effectiveness of either a noniterative or iterative clustering algorithm to accurately cluster data representative of the Cl flight line is questionable. Thus extensive a prior knowledge is required in order to use cluster analysis in its present form for applications like assisting in the definition of field boundaries and evaluating the homogeneity of a field. New or modified techniques are necessary for clustering to be a reliable tool.

  7. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  8. Active-Twist Rotor Control Applications for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2004-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in active-twist rotor control is discussed using representative examples from analytical and experimental studies, and the application to rotary-wing UAVs is considered. Topics include vibration and noise reduction, rotor performance improvement, active blade tracking, stability augmentation, and rotor blade de-icing. A review of the current status of piezoelectric fiber composite actuator technology, the class of piezoelectric actuators implemented in active-twist rotor systems, is included.

  9. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  10. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  11. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  12. Generic element processor (application to nonlinear analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Gary

    1989-01-01

    The focus here is on one aspect of the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed: finite element technology. The approach involves a Generic Element Processor: a command-driven, database-oriented software shell that facilitates introduction of new elements into the testbed. This shell features an element-independent corotational capability that upgrades linear elements to geometrically nonlinear analysis, and corrects the rigid-body errors that plague many contemporary plate and shell elements. Specific elements that have been implemented in the Testbed via this mechanism include the Assumed Natural-Coordinate Strain (ANS) shell elements, developed with Professor K. C. Park (University of Colorado, Boulder), a new class of curved hybrid shell elements, developed by Dr. David Kang of LPARL (formerly a student of Professor T. Pian), other shell and solid hybrid elements developed by NASA personnel, and recently a repackaged version of the workhorse shell element used in the traditional STAGS nonlinear shell analysis code. The presentation covers: (1) user and developer interfaces to the generic element processor, (2) an explanation of the built-in corotational option, (3) a description of some of the shell-elements currently implemented, and (4) application to sample nonlinear shell postbuckling problems.

  13. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  14. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  15. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    PubMed

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass. PMID:20382474

  16. Malpractice claims analysis yields widely applicable principles.

    PubMed

    Waldman, J D; Spector, R A

    2003-01-01

    We received 50 claims of medical negligence in pediatric cardiology. From the analysis, patterns were identified and recommendations for improvement were found that apply generally to healthcare. Less than half (38%) of the claims were found to be medically meritorious. The impression of substandard care was often (7/50) created by an erroneous attribution of cause of death at autopsy. Both structured learning for caregivers and education of the public will reduce the frequency of malpractice forms-both valid and frivolous. Caregivers should document more effectively. The current tort system neither deters nor compensates as it was intended. The assignment of blame to a single individual is usually not in concert with the reality of modern medicine. Good health care is not a passive behavior; active participation by the public is required. PMID:12360392

  17. Accelerating DNA analysis applications on GPU clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2010-06-13

    DNA analysis is an emerging application of high performance bioinformatic. Modern sequencing machinery are able to provide, in few hours, large input streams of data which needs to be matched against exponentially growing databases known fragments. The ability to recognize these patterns effectively and fastly may allow extending the scale and the reach of the investigations performed by biology scientists. Aho-Corasick is an exact, multiple pattern matching algorithm often at the base of this application. High performance systems are a promising platform to accelerate this algorithm, which is computationally intensive but also inherently parallel. Nowadays, high performance systems also include heterogeneous processing elements, such as Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), to further accelerate parallel algorithms. Unfortunately, the Aho-Corasick algorithm exhibits large performance variabilities, depending on the size of the input streams, on the number of patterns to search and on the number of matches, and poses significant challenges on current high performance software and hardware implementations. An adequate mapping of the algorithm on the target architecture, coping with the limit of the underlining hardware, is required to reach the desired high throughputs. Load balancing also plays a crucial role when considering the limited bandwidth among the nodes of these systems. In this paper we present an efficient implementation of the Aho-Corasick algorithm for high performance clusters accelerated with GPUs. We discuss how we partitioned and adapted the algorithm to fit the Tesla C1060 GPU and then present a MPI based implementation for a heterogeneous high performance cluster. We compare this implementation to MPI and MPI with pthreads based implementations for a homogeneous cluster of x86 processors, discussing the stability vs. the performance and the scaling of the solutions, taking into consideration aspects such as the bandwidth among the different nodes.

  18. Matched Peptides: Tuning Matched Molecular Pair Analysis for Biopharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals hold great promise for the future of drug discovery. Nevertheless, rational drug design strategies are mainly focused on the discovery of small synthetic molecules. Herein we present matched peptides, an innovative analysis technique for biological data related to peptide and protein sequences. It represents an extension of matched molecular pair analysis toward macromolecular sequence data and allows quantitative predictions of the effect of single amino acid substitutions on the basis of statistical data on known transformations. We demonstrate the application of matched peptides to a data set of major histocompatibility complex class II peptide ligands and discuss the trends captured with respect to classical quantitative structure–activity relationship approaches as well as structural aspects of the investigated protein–peptide interface. We expect our novel readily interpretable tool at the interface of cheminformatics and bioinformatics to support the rational design of biopharmaceuticals and give directions for further development of the presented methodology. PMID:26501781

  19. Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, R.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the

  20. Electrodermal activity analysis during affective haptic elicitation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Alberto; Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Bianchi, Matteo; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates how the autonomic nervous system dynamics, quantified through the analysis of the electrodermal activity (EDA), is modulated according to affective haptic stimuli. Specifically, a haptic display able to convey caress-like stimuli is presented to 32 healthy subjects (16 female). Each stimulus is changed according to six combinations of three velocities and two forces levels of two motors stretching a strip of fabric. Subjects were also asked to score each stimulus in terms of arousal (high/low activation) and valence (pleasant/unpleasant), in agreement with the circumplex model of affect. EDA was processed using a deconvolutive method, separating tonic and phasic components. A statistical analysis was performed in order to identify significant differences in EDA features among force and velocity levels, as well as in their valence and arousal scores. Results show that the simulated caress induced by the haptic display significantly affects the EDA. In detail, the phasic component seems to be inversely related to the valence score. This finding is new and promising, since it can be used, e.g., as an additional cue for haptics design. PMID:26737605

  1. Physical Activity Recognition with Mobile Phones: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Lu, Hong; Liu, Zhigang; Boda, Péter Pál

    In this book chapter, we present a novel system that recognizes and records the physical activity of a person using a mobile phone. The sensor data is collected by built-in accelerometer sensor that measures the motion intensity of the device. The system recognizes five everyday activities in real-time, i.e., stationary, walking, running, bicycling, and in vehicle. We first introduce the sensor's data format, sensor calibration, signal projection, feature extraction, and selection methods. Then we have a detailed discussion and comparison of different choices of feature sets and classifiers. The design and implementation of one prototype system is presented along with resource and performance benchmark on Nokia N95 platform. Results show high recognition accuracies for distinguishing the five activities. The last part of the chapter introduces one demo application built on top of our system, physical activity diary, and a selection of potential applications in mobile wellness, mobile social sharing and contextual user interface domains.

  2. Uncertainty Analysis of Instrument Calibration and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping

    1999-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic researchers require estimated precision and bias uncertainties of measured physical quantities, typically at 95 percent confidence levels. Uncertainties of final computed aerodynamic parameters are obtained by propagation of individual measurement uncertainties through the defining functional expressions. In this paper, rigorous mathematical techniques are extended to determine precision and bias uncertainties of any instrument-sensor system. Through this analysis, instrument uncertainties determined through calibration are now expressed as functions of the corresponding measurement for linear and nonlinear univariate and multivariate processes. Treatment of correlated measurement precision error is developed. During laboratory calibration, calibration standard uncertainties are assumed to be an order of magnitude less than those of the instrument being calibrated. Often calibration standards do not satisfy this assumption. This paper applies rigorous statistical methods for inclusion of calibration standard uncertainty and covariance due to the order of their application. The effects of mathematical modeling error on calibration bias uncertainty are quantified. The effects of experimental design on uncertainty are analyzed. The importance of replication is emphasized, techniques for estimation of both bias and precision uncertainties using replication are developed. Statistical tests for stationarity of calibration parameters over time are obtained.

  3. Digraph matrix analysis applications to systems interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Altenbach, T.; Lappa, D.; Kimura, C.; Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Fromme, D.; Smith, C.F.; Williams, W.

    1984-01-01

    Complex events such as Three Mile Island-2, Brown's Ferry-3 and Crystal River-3 have demonstrated that previously unidentified system interdependencies can be important to safety. A major aspect of these events was dependent faults (common cause/mode failures). The term systems interactions has been introduced by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to identify the concepts of spatial and functional coupling of systems which can lead to system interdependencies. Spatial coupling refers to dependencies resulting from a shared environmental condition; functional coupling refers to both dependencies resulting from components shared between safety and/or support systems, and to dependencies involving human actions. The NRC is currently developing guidelines to search for and evaluate adverse systems interactions at light water reactors. One approach utilizes graph theoretical methods and is called digraph matrix analysis (DMA). This methodology has been specifically tuned to the systems interaction problem. The objective of this paper is to present results from two DMA applications and to contrast them with the results from more traditional fault tree approaches.

  4. Decision analysis applications and the CERCLA process

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.T.; Lyon, B.F. |

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative decision methods can be developed during environmental restoration projects that incorporate stakeholder input and can complement current efforts that are undertaken for data collection and alternatives evaluation during the CERCLA process. These decision-making tools can supplement current EPA guidance as well as focus on problems that arise as attempts are made to make informed decisions regarding remedial alternative selection. In examining the use of such applications, the authors discuss the use of decision analysis tools and their impact on collecting data and making environmental decisions from a risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based decision rules that incorporate stakeholder concerns. This represents a quantitative method for implementing the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. These objective functions can be expressed using a variety of indices to analyze problems that currently arise in the environmental field. Examples include cost, magnitude of risk, efficiency, and probability of success or failure. Based on such defined objective functions, a project can evaluate the impact of different risk and decision selection strategies on data worth and alternative selection.

  5. Forensic analysis of social networking application on iOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Wang, Lianhai

    2013-12-01

    The increased use of social networking application on iPhone and iPad make these devices a goldmine for forensic investigators. Besides, QQ, Wechat, Sina Weibo and skype applications are very popular in China and didn't draw attention to researchers. These social networking applications are used not only on computers, but also mobile phones and tablets. This paper focuses on conducting forensic analysis on these four social networking applications on iPhone and iPad devices. The tests consisted of installing the social networking applications on each device, conducting common user activities through each application and correlation analysis with other activities. Advices to the forensic investigators are also given. It could help the investigators to describe the crime behavior and reconstruct the crime venue.

  6. Usability engineering: domain analysis activities for augmented-reality systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbard, Joseph; Swan, J. E., II; Hix, Deborah; Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Livingston, Mark; Brown, Dennis B.; Julier, Simon J.

    2002-05-01

    This paper discusses our usability engineering process for the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS). Usability engineering is a structured, iterative, stepwise development process. Like the related disciplines of software and systems engineering, usability engineering is a combination of management principals and techniques, formal and semi- formal evaluation techniques, and computerized tools. BARS is an outdoor augmented reality system that displays heads- up battlefield intelligence information to a dismounted warrior. The paper discusses our general usability engineering process. We originally developed the process in the context of virtual reality applications, but in this work we are adapting the procedures to an augmented reality system. The focus of this paper is our work on domain analysis, the first activity of the usability engineering process. We describe our plans for and our progress to date on our domain analysis for BARS. We give results in terms of a specific urban battlefield use case we have designed.

  7. Relating Concepts and Applications through Structured Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Leonard

    The central research question in this study was whether structured active learning affects the abilities of science and engineering undergraduates to relate abstract concepts and realistic applications more than a relatively traditional instructional method. More specifically, the research was designed to determine whether differences in the…

  8. Thin Film on CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for Space Applications

    PubMed Central

    Schulze Spuentrup, Jan Dirk; Burghartz, Joachim N.; Graf, Heinz-Gerd; Harendt, Christine; Hutter, Franz; Nicke, Markus; Schmidt, Uwe; Schubert, Markus; Sterzel, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    A 664 × 664 element Active Pixel image Sensor (APS) with integrated analog signal processing, full frame synchronous shutter and random access for applications in star sensors is presented and discussed. A thick vertical diode array in Thin Film on CMOS (TFC) technology is explored to achieve radiation hardness and maximum fill factor.

  9. Six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Leonard S.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 Jan. - 31 Mar. 1993 on six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application is presented. A performance and cost report is included. Topics covered include: actuator testing; mechanical amplifier design; and neural network control system development and experimental evaluation.

  10. Organic thin film transistors: from active materials to novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsi, L.; Cioffi, N.; Di Franco, C.; Sabbatini, L.; Zambonin, P. G.; Bleve-Zacheo, T.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper, a bird's eye view of most of the organic materials employed as n-channel and p-channel transistor active layers is given along with the relevant device performances; organic thin film transistors (OTFT) operation regimes are discussed and an interesting perspective application of OTFT as multi-parameter gas sensor is proposed.

  11. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of some building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salagean, M. N.; Pantelica, A. I.; Georgescu, I. I.; Muntean, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U. Yb, W and Zn in seven Romanian building materials were determined by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method using the VVR-S Reactor of NIPNE- Bucharest. Raw matarials used in cement obtaining ≈ 75% of limestone and ≈ 25% of clay, cement samples from three different factories, furnace slag, phosphogypsum, and a type of brick have been analyzed. The brick was compacted from furnace slay, fly coal ash, phosphogypsum, lime and cement. The U, Th and K concentrations determined in the brick are in agreement with the natural radioactivity measurements of226Ra,232Th and40K. These specific activities were found about twice and 1.5 higher than the accepted levels in the case of226Ra and232Th, as well as40K, respectively. By consequence, the investigated brick is considered a radioactive waste. The rather high content of Co, Cr, K, Th, and Zh in the brick is especially due to the slag and fly ash, the main componets. The presence of U, Th and K in slag is mainly correlated with the limestone and dolomite as fluxes in matallurgy.

  13. Analysis of small commercial photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, J.; Allred, R.; McCarthy, R.

    1982-07-01

    The objective was to determine promising small commercial (to 500 kW) grid connected photovoltaic applications. Twelve applications were evaluated, including detailed performance and economic analyses covering different collector types, utility rate structures and geographic locations. The attractiveness of battery storage was also examined.

  14. A Review of Smartphone Applications for Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. Methods In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. Results After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Discussion Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity. PMID:27034992

  15. Application of the associated particle technique for the whole-body measurement of protein, fat and water by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mitra, S; Wolff, J E; Garrett, R; Peters, C W

    1995-06-01

    A small and compact sealed tube neutron generator with an integral alpha particle detector has been used for applying the associated particle technique for prompt-gamma 14 MeV neutron activation analysis of total body carbon (TBC), total body nitrogen (TBN) and total body oxygen (TBO). Ground sheep meat samples in the weight range 20-40 kg and of varying composition have been scanned using two 12.5 cm diameter x 10 cm Nal(Tl) crystals for gamma-ray detection. The content of protein, fat and water was calculated from their fractional content of C, N and O using a four-compartment model of body composition, which included minerals. The precision for measuring TBC, TBN and TBO has been obtained from the mean count rates of ten repeat irradiations of the same sample. The accuracy has been confirmed by comparison against chemical analysis. The reproducibilities for measuring TBN have been found to be comparable to those obtained when the same samples were analysed using prompt-gamma thermal-neutron activation analysis in an existing body composition facility. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that an instrument comprising the neutron generator and four 15 cm x 15 cm x 45 cm NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors can be assembled to determine, in vivo, protein, fat and water in an approximately 41 kg sample with precisions of 4.4%, 5.0% and 2.1% (CV) respectively within a 15 min scan. The radiation dose equivalent delivered due to neutrons would be approximately 0.03 mSv. PMID:7659729

  16. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  17. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  18. Active optics for space applications: an ESA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Hallibert, Pascal; Pereira do Carmo, Joao; Wille, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Active optics for Space is relatively new field that takes advantage of lessons learnt on ground, and together with the tighter constrains of space environment it allows operation of larger mirrors apertures for space telescopes and better image quality. Technical developments are crucial to guarantee proper technological readiness for applications on new missions whose performance can be driven also by these novelties. This paper describes the philosophy pursued at ESA, providing an overview of the activities run within the Agency, as well as perspectives for new developments. The Optics Section of the Directorate of Technical and Quality Management of ESA/ESTEC is currently running three projects. Two examples are here addressed.

  19. Cellulose Electro-Active Paper: From Discovery to Technology Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2014-09-01

    Cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap) is an attractive material of electro-active polymers (EAPs) family due to its smart characteristics. EAPap is thin cellulose film coated with metal electrodes on both sides. Its large displacement output, low actuation voltage and low power consumption can be used for biomimetic sensors/actuators and electromechanical system. Because cellulose EAPap is ultra-lightweight, easy to manufacture, inexpensive, biocompatible, and biodegradable, it has been employed for many applications such as bending actuator, vibration sensor, artificial muscle, flexible speaker, and can be advantageous in areas such as micro-insect robots, micro-flying objects, microelectromechanical systems, biosensors, and flexible displays.

  20. Applications of wavelets in morphometric analysis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Tao, Xiaodong; Shen, Dinggang

    2003-11-01

    Morphometric analysis of medical images is playing an increasingly important role in understanding brain structure and function, as well as in understanding the way in which these change during development, aging and pathology. This paper presents three wavelet-based methods with related applications in morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images. The first method handles cases where very limited datasets are available for the training of statistical shape models in the deformable segmentation. The method is capable of capturing a larger range of shape variability than the standard active shape models (ASMs) can, by using the elegant spatial-frequency decomposition of the shape contours provided by wavelet transforms. The second method addresses the difficulty of finding correspondences in anatomical images, which is a key step in shape analysis and deformable registration. The detection of anatomical correspondences is completed by using wavelet-based attribute vectors as morphological signatures of voxels. The third method uses wavelets to characterize the morphological measurements obtained from all voxels in a brain image, and the entire set of wavelet coefficients is further used to build a brain classifier. Since the classification scheme operates in a very-high-dimensional space, it can determine subtle population differences with complex spatial patterns. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

  1. Design and Application of the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Terry, Michelle; Crillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce; Maxwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conducting human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will present unique challenges in the areas of supportability and maintainability. The durations of proposed missions can be relatively long and re-supply of logistics, including maintenance and repair items, will be limited or non-existent. In addition, mass and volume constraints in the transportation system will limit the total amount of logistics that can be flown along with the crew. These constraints will require that new strategies be developed with regards to how spacecraft systems are designed and maintained. NASA is currently developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) as an initial step in defining future human missions. These DRMs establish destinations and concepts of operation for future missions, and begin to define technology and capability requirements. Because of the unique supportability challenges, historical supportability data and models are not directly applicable for establishing requirements for beyond LEO missions. However, supportability requirements could have a major impact on the development of the DRMs. The mass, volume, and crew resources required to support the mission could all be first order drivers in the design of missions, elements, and operations. Therefore, there is a need for enhanced analysis capabilities to more accurately establish mass, volume, and time requirements for supporting beyond LEO missions. Additionally, as new technologies and operations are proposed to reduce these requirements, it is necessary to have accurate tools to evaluate the efficacy of those approaches. In order to improve the analysis of supportability requirements for beyond LEO missions, the Space Missions Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool (EMAT). This tool is a probabilistic simulator that evaluates the need for repair and maintenance activities during space missions and the logistics and crew

  2. Image analysis applications for grain science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Steele, James L.

    1991-02-01

    Morphometrical features of single grain kernels or particles were used to discriminate two visibly similar wheat varieties foreign material in wheat hardsoft and spring-winter wheat classes and whole from broken corn kernels. Milled fractions of hard and soft wheat were evaluated using textural image analysis. Color image analysis of sound and mold damaged corn kernels yielded high recognition rates. The studies collectively demonstrate the potential for automated classification and assessment of grain quality using image analysis.

  3. Active and passive multispectral scanner for earth resources applications: An advanced applications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.

  4. Biological markers of macrophage activation: applications for fish phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Enane, N A; Frenkel, K; O'Connor, J M; Squibb, K S; Zelikoff, J T

    1993-01-01

    The immune defence mechanisms of fish seem to be related and similarly competent to those of mammals. Because of this, there is an increased interest in the immune responses of fish as models for higher vertebrates in immunological/immunotoxicological studies. Macrophages (M phi), phagocytic cells of the mammalian and teleost immune system which reside in tissues, represent a quiescent population of cells. However, upon stimulation, alterations in the physiology of these resident M phi occur which can be defined in terms of activation. This study was undertaken to determine whether biological markers used to assess mammalian M phi activation are applicable for use with fish M phi. Cells were recovered from the peritoneal cavity of non-injected and Aeromonas salmonicida-injected fish, and differences between resident and elicited M phi were evaluated with respect to protein content, phagocytic competence, enzyme activities and hydrogen peroxide production. Results demonstrate that biological markers used to assess mammalian M phi activation, with the exception of acid phosphatase activity, can be used to characterize the activation state of trout M phi, and that the activation process in both fish and mammals may occur by similar mechanism(s). PMID:8244466

  5. Human striatal L-dopa decarboxylase activity estimated in vivo using 6-[18F]fluoro-dopa and positron emission tomography: error analysis and application to normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, H; Cumming, P; Reith, J; Léger, G; Diksic, M; Evans, A C; Gjedde, A

    1993-01-01

    DOPA decarboxylase is the enzyme directly responsible for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and indirectly of noradrenaline, in brain. We used the decarboxylation coefficient (k3D) of 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA (FDOPA) to denote the relative activity of L-DOPA decarboxylase in vivo in the human brain. To determine the relative enzyme activity with positron emission tomography (PET), we evaluated the model that separates the metabolism into compartments of nondiffusible and diffusible (i.e., transient) tracer metabolites. Error analysis indicated that the least-squares optimization alone was not sufficient to yield accurate estimates of k3D in the presence of the inherent error of PET. To improve the accuracy of the k3D estimates by optimizing the number of parameters, we introduced biological constraints which included a tracer partition volume (Ve) common to frontal cortex and striatum, and a fixed ratio (q) between the blood-brain barrier transport coefficients of O-methyl-[18F]fluoro-DOPA and FDOPA, the two sources of radioactivity in plasma. We found that a two-step analysis yielded sufficiently accurate estimates of k3D. The two steps include the initial estimation of the partition volume in frontal cortex and the subsequent use of this value to determine k3D in striatum and other structures. We studied twelve healthy controls (age 45 +/- 15 years). The average k3D value was 0.081 +/- 0.024 min-1 (coefficient of variation (COV) 30%) for caudate nucleus, 0.074 +/- 0.013 min-1 (COV 18%) for putamen, and 0.010 +/- 0.005 min-1 (COV 50%) for cerebral cortex. PMID:8417009

  6. Regression Analysis: Legal Applications in Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizell, Julie A.; Shippen, Benjamin S., Jr.; Luna, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews multiple regression analysis, describes how its results should be interpreted, and instructs institutional researchers on how to conduct such analyses using an example focused on faculty pay equity between men and women. The use of multiple regression analysis will be presented as a method with which to compare salaries of…

  7. Miscue Analysis: Applications to Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.

    This book is a series of essays on the subject of miscue analysis, a diagnostic procedure rooted in the psycholinguistic view of reading. The focus of miscue analysis is on the broad field of reading comprehension rather than the isolated decoding of individual words and letters. The contents of this book include: "Introduction" by Sister Rosemary…

  8. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S. K.

    1991-10-01

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequence of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  9. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  10. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  11. Infrared active polarimetric imaging system controlled by image segmentation algorithms: application to decamouflage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Nicolas; Goudail, François; Plassart, Corentin; Boffety, Matthieu; Feneyrou, Patrick; Leviandier, Luc; Galland, Frédéric; Bertaux, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    We describe an active polarimetric imager with laser illumination at 1.5 µm that can generate any illumination and analysis polarization state on the Poincar sphere. Thanks to its full polarization agility and to image analysis of the scene with an ultrafast active-contour based segmentation algorithm, it can perform adaptive polarimetric contrast optimization. We demonstrate the capacity of this imager to detect manufactured objects in different types of environments for such applications as decamouflage and hazardous object detection. We compare two imaging modes having different number of polarimetric degrees of freedom and underline the characteristics that a polarimetric imager aimed at this type of applications should possess.

  12. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  13. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  14. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. asic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. hese basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. he paper describes the app...

  15. Some archaeologic applications of accelerator radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, D. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Linick, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    The method of preparation of archaeologic samples for AMS radiocarbon dating, the precision of such measurements and the conversion of radiocarbon results to calendar ages are presented. The application of the technique to measurements of the ages of bones, textiles (including the Shroud of Turin), cultigens and other achaeologic artifacts is described.

  16. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  17. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  18. Guidebook for analysis of tether applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended as a tool to facilitate initial analyses of proposed tether applications in space. Topics disscussed include: orbit and orbit transfer equations; orbital perturbations; aerodynamic drag; thermal balance; micrometeoroids; gravity gradient effects; tether control strategies; momentum transfer; orbit transfer by tethered release/rendezvous; impact hazards for tethers; electrodynamic tether principles; and electrodynamic libration control issues.

  19. SHIRCO INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM: APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the Shirco infrared Thermal Destruction Technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment method for waste site clean-ups. A Superfund Innovative Technical Evaluation (SITE) was conducted on a lOO-ton day unit during a removal action at Br...

  20. Modified Activated Carbon to be Used in Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, M. S.; de Silva, W. R. M.; de Silva, K. M. N.

    2014-11-01

    In this study a novel nano composite of hydroxyapatite nano particles impregnated activated carbon (C-HAp), which was synthesized in our own method, was used in iron adsorption studies. The study was conducted in order to investigate the potential of using C-HAp nanocomposite to be used in clinical detoxifications such as acute iron toxicity where the use of Activated carbon (GAC) is not very effective. Adsorption studies were conducted for synthetic solutions of Fe2+, Fe3+ and iron syrup using GAC, C-HAp and neat HAp as adsorbents. According to the results C-HAp nano composite showed improved properties than GAC in adsorbing Fe2+, Fe3+ and also Fe ions in iron syrup solutions. Thus the results of the in-vitro studies of iron adsorption studies indicated the potential of using C-HAp as an alternative to activated carbon in such clinical applications.

  1. An active matter analysis of intracellular Active Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Kejia; Bae, Sung Chul; Granick, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Tens of thousands of fluorescence-based trajectories at nm resolution have been analyzed, regarding active transport along microtubules in living cells. The following picture emerges. Directed motion to pre-determined locations is certainly an attractive idea, but cannot be pre-programmed as to do so would sacrifice adaptability. The polarity of microtubules is inadequate to identify these directions in cells, and no other mechanism is currently known. We conclude that molecular motors carry cargo through disordered intracellular microtubule networks in a statistical way, with loud cellular ``noise'' both in directionality and speed. Programmed random walks describe how local 1D active transport traverses crowded cellular space efficiently, rapidly, minimizing the energy waste that would result from redundant activity. The mechanism of statistical regulation is not yet understood, however.

  2. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  3. Knowledge discovery in group activities through sequential observation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2014-06-01

    Understanding of Group Activities (GA) has significant applications in civilian and military domains. The process of understanding GA is typically involved with spatiotemporal analysis of multi-modality sensor data. Video imagery is one popular sensing modality that offers rich data, however, data associated with imagery source may become fragmented and discontinued due to a number of reasons (e.g., data transmission, or observation obstructions and occlusions). However, making sense out of video imagery is a real challenge. It requires a proper inference working model capable of analyzing video imagery frame by frame, extract and inference spatiotemporal information pertaining to observations while developing an incremental perception of the GA as they emerge overtime. In this paper, we propose an ontology based GA recognition where three inference Hidden Markov Models (HMM's) are used for predicting group activities taking place in outdoor environments and different task operational taxonomy. The three competing models include: a concatenated HMM, a cascaded HMM, and a context-based HMM. The proposed ontology based GA-HMM was subjected to set of semantically annotated visual observations from outdoor group activity experiments. Experimental results from GA-HMM are presented with technical discussions on design of each model and their potential implication to Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS).

  4. WWER Expert System for Fuel Failure Analysis Using Data on Primary Coolant Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Likhanskii, V.V.; Evdokimov, I.A.; Sorokin, A.A.; Khromov, A.G.; Kanukova, V.D.; Apollonova, O.V.; Ugryumov, A.V.

    2007-07-01

    The computer expert system for fuel failure analysis of WWER during operation is presented. The diagnostics is based on the measurement of specific activity of reference nuclides in reactor primary coolant and application of a computer code for the data interpretation. The data analysis includes an evaluation of tramp uranium mass in reactor core, detection of failures by iodine and caesium spikes, evaluation of burnup of defective fuel. Evaluation of defective fuel burnup was carried out by applying the relation of caesium nuclides activity in spikes and relations of activities of gaseous fission products for steady state operational conditions. The method of burnup evaluation of defective fuel by use of fission gas activity is presented in detail. The neural-network analysis is performed for determination of failed fuel rod number and defect size. Results of the expert system application are illustrated for several fuel campaigns on operating WWER NPPs. (authors)

  5. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  6. [Advances in independent component analysis and its application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huafu; Yao, Dezhong

    2003-06-01

    The independent component analysis (ICA) is a new technique in statistical signal processing, which decomposes mixed signals into statistical independent components. The reported applications in biomedical and radar signal have demonstrated its good prospect in various blind signal separation. In this paper, the progress of ICA in such as its principle, algorithm and application and advance direction of ICA in future is reviewed. The aim is to promote the research in theory and application in the future. PMID:12856621

  7. Potential applications of computational fluid dynamics to biofluid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.; Kwak, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was developed to the stage where it has become an indispensable part of aerospace research and design. In view of advances made in aerospace applications, the computational approach can be used for biofluid mechanics research. Several flow simulation methods developed for aerospace problems are briefly discussed for potential applications to biofluids, especially to blood flow analysis.

  8. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.

    PubMed

    Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

    2011-11-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jord

  10. An Automated Inadvertent Intruder Analysis Application

    SciTech Connect

    KOFFMAN, LARRYD.

    2004-07-17

    Savannah River National Laboratory is responsible for the radiological performance assessment analysis for Savannah River Site waste disposal facilities (McDowell-Boyer2000), which results in limits on the amounts of radiological substances that can be placed in the waste disposal facilities. To arrive at these limits, the performance assessment considers numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. Inadvertent intruder analysis considers three distinct scenarios for exposure referred to as the agriculture scenario, the resident scenario, and the post-drilling scenario. Each of these scenarios has specific exposure pathways that contribute to the overall dose for the scenario.

  11. Automated shock detection and analysis algorithm for space weather application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotnikov, Vasiliy S.; Smith, Charles W.; Hu, Qiang; Szabo, Adam; Skoug, Ruth M.; Cohen, Christina M. S.

    2008-03-01

    Space weather applications have grown steadily as real-time data have become increasingly available. Numerous industrial applications have arisen with safeguarding of the power distribution grids being a particular interest. NASA uses short-term and long-term space weather predictions in its launch facilities. Researchers studying ionospheric, auroral, and magnetospheric disturbances use real-time space weather services to determine launch times. Commercial airlines, communication companies, and the military use space weather measurements to manage their resources and activities. As the effects of solar transients upon the Earth's environment and society grow with the increasing complexity of technology, better tools are needed to monitor and evaluate the characteristics of the incoming disturbances. A need is for automated shock detection and analysis methods that are applicable to in situ measurements upstream of the Earth. Such tools can provide advance warning of approaching disturbances that have significant space weather impacts. Knowledge of the shock strength and speed can also provide insight into the nature of the approaching solar transient prior to arrival at the magnetopause. We report on efforts to develop a tool that can find and analyze shocks in interplanetary plasma data without operator intervention. This method will run with sufficient speed to be a practical space weather tool providing useful shock information within 1 min of having the necessary data to ground. The ability to run without human intervention frees space weather operators to perform other vital services. We describe ways of handling upstream data that minimize the frequency of false positive alerts while providing the most complete description of approaching disturbances that is reasonably possible.

  12. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits. PMID:27480693

  13. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  14. Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 and -D2 produced in an inflammatory cell reaction and its application for activity screening and potency evaluation using turbulent flow chromatography liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Sook; Peng, Lei; Kang, Kyungsu; Choi, Yongsoo

    2016-09-01

    Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) and -D2 (PGD2) produced from a RAW264.7 cell-based reaction was performed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), which was online coupled with turbulent flow chromatography (TFC). The capability of this method to accurately measure PG levels in cell reaction medium containing cytokines or proteins as a reaction byproduct was cross-validated by two conventional methods. Two methods, including an LC-HRMS method after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the sample and a commercial PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed PGE2 and/or PGD2 levels almost similar to those obtained by TFC LC-HRMS over the reaction time after LPS stimulation. After the cross-validation, significant analytical throughputs, allowing simultaneous screening and potency evaluation of 80 natural products including 60 phytochemicals and 20 natural product extracts for the inhibition of the PGD2 produced in the cell-based inflammatory reaction, were achieved using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed. Among the 60 phytochemicals screened, licochalcone A and formononetin inhibited PGD2 production the most with IC50 values of 126 and 151nM, respectively. For a reference activity, indomethacin and diclofenac were used, measuring IC50 values of 0.64 and 0.21nM, respectively. This method also found a butanol extract of Akebia quinata Decne (AQ) stem as a promising natural product for PGD2 inhibition. Direct and accurate analysis of PGs in the inflammatory cell reaction using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed enables the high-throughput screening and potency evaluation of as many as 320 samples in less than 48h without changing a TFC column. PMID:27524299

  15. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  16. Probing heterotrimeric G protein activation: applications to biased ligands

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Colette; Saulière, Aude; Galandrin, Ségolène; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Galés, Céline

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) drive numerous signaling pathways involved in the regulation of a broad range of physiologic processes. Today, they represent the largest target for modern drugs development with potential application in all clinical fields. Recently, the concept of “ligand-directed trafficking” has led to a conceptual revolution in pharmacological theory, thus opening new avenues for drug discovery. Accordingly, GPCRs do not function as simple on-off switch but rather as filters capable of selecting activation of specific signals and thus generating textured responses to ligands, a phenomenon often referred to as ligand-biased signaling. Also, one challenging task today remains optimization of pharmacological assays with increased sensitivity so to better appreciate the inherent texture of ligand responses. However, considering that a single receptor has pleiotropic signalling properties and that each signal can crosstalk at different levels, biased activity remains thus difficult to evaluate. One strategy to overcome these limitations would be examining the initial steps following receptor activation. Even if some G protein-independent functions have been recently described, heterotrimeric G protein activation remains a general hallmark for all GPCRs families and the first cellular event subsequent to agonist binding to the receptor. Herein, we review the different methodologies classically used or recently developed to monitor G protein activation and discuss them in the context of G protein biased -ligands. PMID:22229559

  17. Probing heterotrimeric G protein activation: applications to biased ligands.

    PubMed

    Denis, Colette; Saulière, Aude; Galandrin, Segolene; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Galés, Céline

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) drive numerous signaling pathways involved in the regulation of a broad range of physiologic processes. Today, they represent the largest target for modern drugs development with potential application in all clinical fields. Recently, the concept of "ligand-directed trafficking" has led to a conceptual revolution in pharmacological theory, thus opening new avenues for drug discovery. Accordingly, GPCRs do not function as simple on-off switch but rather as filters capable of selecting the activation of specific signals and thus generating texture responses to ligands, a phenomenon often referred to as ligand-biased signaling. Also, one challenging task today remains optimization of pharmacological assays with increased sensitivity so to better appreciate the inherent texture of ligands. However, considering that a single receptor has pleiotropic signaling properties and that each signal can crosstalk at different levels, biased activity remains thus difficult to evaluate. One strategy to overcome these limitations would be examining the initial steps following receptor activation. Even, if some G protein independent functions have been recently described, heterotrimeric G protein activation remains a general hallmark for all GPCRs families and the first cellular event subsequent to agonist binding to the receptor. Herein, we review the different methodologies classically used or recently developed to monitor G protein activation and discussed them in the context of G protein biased-ligands. PMID:22229559

  18. Dielectric elastomer laminates for active membrane pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Kimberly; Tews, Alyson; Frecker, Mary I.; Mockensturm, Eric; Goulbourne, Nakhiah C.; Snyder, Alan J.

    2004-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated promise for the use of dielectric elastomer (DE) films in diaphragm pump applications. Because the films tend to be quite thin, single layers operate at very low pressures. To make this technology suitable for practical applications, the films may be organized into laminates which will operate at increased pressures. Radially stretched circular diaphragms of two materials were tested: 3M VHB 4905 polyacrylate and spin-cast Nusil CF19-2186 silicone. The diaphragms were stacked, each layer sharing an electrode with the adjacent layer. The stack was mounted on a sealed chamber and energized at varied electric fields while regulated pressure was applied to the interior chamber, displacing the diaphragm. The pressure-volume properties of the stacks were recorded for each activation state.

  19. Application of active contours for photochromic tracer flow extraction.

    PubMed

    Androutsos, D; Trahanias, P E; Venetsanopoulos, A N

    1997-06-01

    This paper addresses the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques to automate tracer flow extraction in images obtained by the photochromic dye technique. This task is important in modeled arterial blood flow studies. Currently, it is performed via manual application of B-spline curve fitting. However, this is a tedious and error-prone procedure and its results are nonreproducible. In the proposed approach, active contours, snakes, are employed in a new curve-fitting method for tracer flow extraction in photochromic images. An algorithm implementing snakes is introduced to automate extraction. Utilizing correlation matching, the algorithm quickly locates and localizes all flow traces in the images. The feasibility of the method for tracer flow extraction is demonstrated. Moreover, results regarding the automation algorithm are presented showing its accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed approach for tracer flow extraction has potential for real-system application. PMID:9184890

  20. Electron Spectroscopy: Applications for Chemical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heercules, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of XPS as an effective method for surface analysis during the period 1964-1977 is presented. The study shows that unlike other surface methods, XPS data can be obtained for both conductors and insulators and a variety of samples can be handled effectively, which is one of the major reasons for the popularity of the technique.

  1. Theory and Application of DNA Histogram Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Charles Bruce

    The underlying principles and assumptions associated with DNA histograms are discussed along with the characteristics of fluorescent probes. Information theory was described and used to calculate the information content of a DNA histogram. Two major types of DNA histogram analyses are proposed: parametric and nonparametric analysis. Three levels…

  2. Principles of Discourse Analysis: Explanation and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    Discourse analysis attempts to identify and describe the semantic relationships among units of thought larger than a word (predications). Two basic types of these relationships exist between predications, conceptual and nonconceptual. A conceptual relationship exists between two predications when they share a concept or when a concept in one…

  3. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…

  4. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  5. Activities of the US Geological Survey in Applications of Remote Sensing in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in the Chesapeake Bay region has been a central concern of three project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey: two are developmental, and one is operational. The two developmental activities were experiments in land-use and land-cover inventory and change detection using remotely sensed data from aircraft and from the LANDSAT and Skylab satellites. One of these is CARETS (Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site). The other developmental task is the Census Cities Experiment in Urban Change Detection. The present major concern is an operational land-use and land-cover data-analysis program, including a supporting geographical information system.

  6. Measurements and analysis in imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Timothy L.

    2009-02-01

    A Total Quality Management (TQM) approach can be used to analyze data from biomedical optical and imaging platforms of tissues. A shift from individuals to teams, partnerships, and total participation are necessary from health care groups for improved prognostics using measurement analysis. Proprietary measurement analysis software is available for calibrated, pixel-to-pixel measurements of angles and distances in digital images. Feature size, count, and color are determinable on an absolute and comparative basis. Although changes in images of histomics are based on complex and numerous factors, the variation of changes in imaging analysis to correlations of time, extent, and progression of illness can be derived. Statistical methods are preferred. Applications of the proprietary measurement software are available for any imaging platform. Quantification of results provides improved categorization of illness towards better health. As health care practitioners try to use quantified measurement data for patient diagnosis, the techniques reported can be used to track and isolate causes better. Comparisons, norms, and trends are available from processing of measurement data which is obtained easily and quickly from Scientific Software and methods. Example results for the class actions of Preventative and Corrective Care in Ophthalmology and Dermatology, respectively, are provided. Improved and quantified diagnosis can lead to better health and lower costs associated with health care. Systems support improvements towards Lean and Six Sigma affecting all branches of biology and medicine. As an example for use of statistics, the major types of variation involving a study of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) are examined. Typically, special causes in medicine relate to illness and activities; whereas, common causes are known to be associated with gender, race, size, and genetic make-up. Such a strategy of Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) involves comparison of patient results

  7. A miniature shock-activated thermal battery for munitions applications

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Kirby, D.L.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of a small, fast-rise thermal battery for non-spinning munitions applications was examined by studying the response of conventional thermal cells to impact (mechanical) energy to simulate a setback environment. This is an extension of earlier work that demonstrated that shock activation could be used to produce power from a conventional thermal-battery cell. The results of tests with both single and multiple cells are presented, along with data for a 5-cell miniature (5-mm diameter) thermal battery. The issues needing to be resolved before such a device can become a commercial reality are also discussed.

  8. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: Statistical analysis and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffarian, Saveez

    2002-01-01

    The experimental design and realization of an apparatus which can be used both for single molecule fluorescence detection and also fluorescence correlation and cross correlation spectroscopy is presented. A thorough statistical analysis of the fluorescence correlation functions including the analysis of bias and errors based on analytical derivations has been carried out. Using the methods developed here, the mechanism of binding and cleavage site recognition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) for their substrates has been studied. We demonstrate that two of the MMP family members, Collagenase (MMP-1) and Gelatinase A (MMP-2) exhibit diffusion along their substrates, the importance of this diffusion process and its biological implications are discussed. We show through truncation mutants that the hemopexin domain of the MMP-2 plays and important role in the substrate diffusion of this enzyme. Single molecule diffusion of the collagenase MMP-1 has been observed on collagen fibrils and shown to be biased. The discovered biased diffusion would make the MMP-1 molecule an active motor, thus making it the first active motor that is not coupled to ATP hydrolysis. The possible sources of energy for this enzyme and their implications are discussed. We propose that a possible source of energy for the enzyme can be in the rearrangement of the structure of collagen fibrils. In a separate application, using the methods developed here, we have observed an intermediate in the intestinal fatty acid binding protein folding process through the changes in its hydrodynamic radius also the fluctuations in the structure of the IFABP in solution were measured using FCS.

  9. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  10. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  11. THE APPLICATION OF FACTOR ANALYSIS TO SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF AEROSOL MASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the development of receptor models that can be employed in air quality management, the application of target transformation factor analysis (TTFA) has been under active investigation. This method has the advantage of requiring limited a priori knowledge of the number o...

  12. Ordinal symbolic analysis and its application to biomedical recordings

    PubMed Central

    Amigó, José M.; Keller, Karsten; Unakafova, Valentina A.

    2015-01-01

    Ordinal symbolic analysis opens an interesting and powerful perspective on time-series analysis. Here, we review this relatively new approach and highlight its relation to symbolic dynamics and representations. Our exposition reaches from the general ideas up to recent developments, with special emphasis on its applications to biomedical recordings. The latter will be illustrated with epilepsy data. PMID:25548264

  13. Applications of cluster analysis to satellite soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munteanu, M. J.; Jakubowicz, O.; Kalnay, E.; Piraino, P.

    1984-01-01

    The advantages of the use of cluster analysis in the improvement of satellite temperature retrievals were evaluated since the use of natural clusters, which are associated with atmospheric temperature soundings characteristic of different types of air masses, has the potential for improving stratified regression schemes in comparison with currently used methods which stratify soundings based on latitude, season, and land/ocean. The method of discriminatory analysis was used. The correct cluster of temperature profiles from satellite measurements was located in 85% of the cases. Considerable improvement was observed at all mandatory levels using regression retrievals derived in the clusters of temperature (weighted and nonweighted) in comparison with the control experiment and with the regression retrievals derived in the clusters of brightness temperatures of 3 MSU and 5 IR channels.

  14. Towards sentiment analysis application in housing projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadzir, Nurul Husna; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2016-08-01

    In becoming a develop nation by 2020, Malaysia Government realized the need in providing affordable house to the public. Since Second Malaysia Plan, government has implemented various affordable housing projects and it continues until recent Malaysia Plan. To measure the effectiveness of the initiatives taken, public opinion is necessary. A social media platform has been seen as the most effective mechanism to get information on people's thought and feeling towards certain issues. One of the best ways to extract emotions and thoughts from what people post in social media is through Sentiment Analysis (SA). There are three different levels of analysis: document level, sentence level and feature level. Most of previous research focused on the classification of sentiment at document or sentence level. Unfortunately, both document and sentence level does not discover what exactly people like or not. While the analysis based on feature, there exist accuracy problem when classifying the sentiment scores. This paper will propose a new framework that focuses on sentiment classification scores at feature level to overcome the uncertainty and accuracy issues on the result.

  15. Integrated fire analysis: Application to offshore cases

    SciTech Connect

    Saubestre, V.; Khalfi, J.P.; Paygnard, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluating thermal loads from different fire scenarios and then response of the structure to these loads covers several fields. It is also difficult and time consuming to implement. Interfaces are necessary between the heat calculation, transient propagation and structural analysis software packages. Nevertheless, it is necessary to design structures to accommodate heat loads in order to meet safety requirements or functional specification. Elf, along with several operators and organizations, have sponsored a research project on this topic. The project, managed by SINTEF NBL (Norwegian Fire Research Laboratory), has delivered an integrated fire analysis software package which can be used to address design-to-fire-related issues in various contexts. The core modules of the integrated package are robust, well validated analysis tools. This paper describes some benefits (technical or cost related) of using an integrated approach to assess the response of a structure to thermal loads. Three examples are described: consequence of an accidental scenario on the living quarters in an offshore complex, necessity for the reinforcement of a flareboom following a change in process, evaluation of the amount of insulation needed for a topside process primary structure. The paper focuses on the importance for the operator to have a practical tool which can lead to substantial cost saving while reducing the uncertainty linked to safety issues.

  16. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    TD64, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, is one of several groups with high-fidelity fluids design and analysis expertise in the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). TD64 assists personnel working on other programs. The group participates in projects in the following areas: turbomachinery activities, nozzle activities, combustion devices, and the Columbia accident investigation.

  17. Fatty acid oxidation: systems analysis and applications.

    PubMed

    Cintolesi, Angela; Rodríguez-Moyá, María; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are essential components of cellular structure and energy-generating routes in living organisms. They exist in a variety of chemical configurations and functionalities and are catabolized by different oxidative routes, according to their structure. α- and ω-Oxidation are minor routes that occur only in eukaryotes, while β-oxidation is the major degradation route in eukaroytes and prokaryotes. These pathways have been characterized and engineered from different perspectives for industrial and biomedical applications. The severity of FA oxidation disorders in humans initially guided the study of FA metabolism at a molecular-level. On the other hand, recent advances in metabolic engineering and systems biology have powered the study of FA biosynthetic and catabolic routes in microorganisms at a systems-level. Several studies have proposed these pathways as platforms for the production of fuels and chemicals from biorenewable sources. The lower complexity of microbial systems has allowed a more comprehensive study of FA metabolism and has opened opportunities for a wider range of applications. Still, there is a need for techniques that facilitate the translation of high-throughput data from microorganisms to more complex eukaryotic systems in order to aid the development of diagnostic and treatment strategies for FA oxidation disorders. In addition, further systems biology analyses on human systems could also provide valuable insights on oxidation disorders. This article presents a comparison of the three main FA oxidative routes, systems biology analyses that have been used to study FA metabolism, and engineering efforts performed on microbial systems. PMID:23661533

  18. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  19. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  20. Quaternion Singular Spectrum Analysis of Electroencephalogram With Application in Sleep Analysis.

    PubMed

    Enshaeifar, Shirin; Kouchaki, Samaneh; Took, Clive Cheong; Sanei, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    A novel quaternion-valued singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is introduced for multichannel analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG). The analysis of EEG typically requires the decomposition of data channels into meaningful components despite the notoriously noisy nature of EEG--which is the aim of SSA. However, the singular value decomposition involved in SSA implies the strict orthogonality of the decomposed components, which may not reflect accurately the sources which exhibit similar neural activities. To allow for the modelling of such co-channel coupling, the quaternion domain is considered for the first time to formulate the SSA using the augmented statistics. As an application, we demonstrate how the augmented quaternion-valued SSA (AQSSA) can be used to extract the sources, even at a signal-to-noise ratio as low as -10 dB. To illustrate the usefulness of our quaternion-valued SSA in a rehabilitation setting, we employ the proposed SSA for sleep analysis to extract statistical descriptors for five-stage classification (Awake, N1, N2, N3 and REM). The level of agreement using these descriptors was 74% as quantified by the Cohen's kappa. PMID:26276995

  1. A unified framework for activity recognition-based behavior analysis and action prediction in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Iram; Fahim, Muhammad; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, activity recognition in smart homes is an active research area due to its applicability in many applications, such as assistive living and healthcare. Besides activity recognition, the information collected from smart homes has great potential for other application domains like lifestyle analysis, security and surveillance, and interaction monitoring. Therefore, discovery of users common behaviors and prediction of future actions from past behaviors become an important step towards allowing an environment to provide personalized service. In this paper, we develop a unified framework for activity recognition-based behavior analysis and action prediction. For this purpose, first we propose kernel fusion method for accurate activity recognition and then identify the significant sequential behaviors of inhabitants from recognized activities of their daily routines. Moreover, behaviors patterns are further utilized to predict the future actions from past activities. To evaluate the proposed framework, we performed experiments on two real datasets. The results show a remarkable improvement of 13.82% in the accuracy on average of recognized activities along with the extraction of significant behavioral patterns and precise activity predictions with 6.76% increase in F-measure. All this collectively help in understanding the users" actions to gain knowledge about their habits and preferences. PMID:23435057

  2. A Unified Framework for Activity Recognition-Based Behavior Analysis and Action Prediction in Smart Homes

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Iram; Fahim, Muhammad; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, activity recognition in smart homes is an active research area due to its applicability in many applications, such as assistive living and healthcare. Besides activity recognition, the information collected from smart homes has great potential for other application domains like lifestyle analysis, security and surveillance, and interaction monitoring. Therefore, discovery of users common behaviors and prediction of future actions from past behaviors become an important step towards allowing an environment to provide personalized service. In this paper, we develop a unified framework for activity recognition-based behavior analysis and action prediction. For this purpose, first we propose kernel fusion method for accurate activity recognition and then identify the significant sequential behaviors of inhabitants from recognized activities of their daily routines. Moreover, behaviors patterns are further utilized to predict the future actions from past activities. To evaluate the proposed framework, we performed experiments on two real datasets. The results show a remarkable improvement of 13.82% in the accuracy on average of recognized activities along with the extraction of significant behavioral patterns and precise activity predictions with 6.76% increase in F-measure. All this collectively help in understanding the users” actions to gain knowledge about their habits and preferences. PMID:23435057

  3. Application of multidisciplinary analysis to gene expression.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuefel; Kang, Huining; Fields, Chris; Cowie, Jim R.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Sibirtsev, Valeriy; Mosquera-Caro, Monica P.; Xu, Yuexian; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Helman, Paul; Andries, Erik; Ar, Kerem; Potter, Jeffrey; Willman, Cheryl L.; Murphy, Maurice H.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cancer, at the genomic level, could lead to individualized patient diagnostics and treatments. The developments to follow will signal a significant paradigm shift in the clinical management of human cancer. Despite our initial hopes, however, it seems that simple analysis of microarray data cannot elucidate clinically significant gene functions and mechanisms. Extracting biological information from microarray data requires a complicated path involving multidisciplinary teams of biomedical researchers, computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and computational linguists. The integration of the diverse outputs of each team is the limiting factor in the progress to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with the molecular biology of cancer. Specifically, one must deal with sets of significant genes identified by each method and extract whatever useful information may be found by comparing these different gene lists. Here we present our experience with such comparisons, and share methods developed in the analysis of an infant leukemia cohort studied on Affymetrix HG-U95A arrays. In particular, spatial gene clustering, hyper-dimensional projections, and computational linguistics were used to compare different gene lists. In spatial gene clustering, different gene lists are grouped together and visualized on a three-dimensional expression map, where genes with similar expressions are co-located. In another approach, projections from gene expression space onto a sphere clarify how groups of genes can jointly have more predictive power than groups of individually selected genes. Finally, online literature is automatically rearranged to present information about genes common to multiple groups, or to contrast the differences between the lists. The combination of these methods has improved our understanding of infant leukemia. While the complicated reality of the biology dashed our initial, optimistic hopes for simple answers from

  4. The technical analysis of the stock exchange and physics: Japanese candlesticks for solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, C.; Atanasov, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we use the Japanese candlesticks, a method popular in the technical analysis of the Stock/Forex markets and apply it to a variable in physics-the solar activity. This method is invented and used exclusively for economic analysis and its application to a physical problem produced unexpected results. We found that the Japanese candlesticks are convenient tool in the analysis of the variables in the physics of the Sun. Based on our observations, we differentiated a new cycle in the solar activity.

  5. Application of TIMS data in stratigraphic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    An in-progress study demonstrates the utility of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data for unraveling the stratigraphic sequence of a western interior, North American foreland basin. The TIMS data can be used to determine the stratigraphic distribution of minerals that are diagnostic of specific depositional distribution. The thematic mapper (TM) and TIMS data were acquired in the Wind River/Bighorn area of central Wyoming in November 1982, and July 1983, respectively. Combined image processing, photogeologic, and spectral analysis methods were used to: map strata; construct stratigraphic columns; correlate data; and identify mineralogical facies.

  6. Applications of immobilized biocatalysts in chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, L.D.

    1986-04-01

    In 1974, Weetall published a report in Analytical Chemistry documenting the increasing interest in a relatively new concept in catalysis involving enzymes physically or covalently bound to a solid support. Very few reports of a new immobilization chemistry can stir enthusiasm, and the descriptions of new analysis systems have become less and less frequent. With these advances in mind, it seems appropriate to evaluate the use of immobilized enzymes as routine laboratory tools, a prediction made in 1976 (2), and the reasons for the success or failure of the technique. 20 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Hand geometry field application data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, M.; Ahrens, J.

    1997-03-01

    Over the last fifteen years, Sandia National Laboratories Security Systems and Technology Center, Department 5800, has been involved in several laboratory tests of various biometric identification devices. These laboratory tests were conducted to verify the manufacturer`s performance claims, to determine strengths and weaknesses of particular devices, and to evaluate which devices meet the US Department of Energy`s unique needs for high-security devices. However, during a recent field installation of one of these devices, significantly different performance was observed than had been predicted by these laboratory tests. This report documents the data analysis performed in the search for an explanation of these differences.

  8. Electrocatalytic activity of ordered intermetallic phases for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Casado-Rivera, Emerilis; Volpe, David J; Alden, Laif; Lind, Cora; Downie, Craig; Vázquez-Alvarez, Terannie; Angelo, Antonio C D; DiSalvo, Francis J; Abruña, Héctor D

    2004-03-31

    The electrocatalytic activities of a wide range of ordered intermetallic phases toward a variety of potential fuels have been studied, and results have been compared to those of a pure polycrystalline platinum (Pt(pc)) electrode. A significant number of the ordered intermetallic phases exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity when compared to that of Pt, in terms of both oxidation onset potential and current density. The PtBi, PtIn, and PtPb ordered intermetallic phases appeared to be the most promising electrocatalysts tested thus far for fuel cell applications. PtPb, in particular, showed an onset potential that was 100 mV less positive and a peak current density approximately 40 times higher than those observed for Pt in the case of methanol oxidation. The ability to control the geometric and electronic structures of the electrocatalytic material by using ordered intermetallic phases has been shown to be a promising direction of inquiry in the search for superior electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. PMID:15038758

  9. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dunscombe, Peter B. Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-05-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources.

  10. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  11. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  12. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  13. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  14. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  15. Applications of Ergodic Theory to Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    The study of differential equations, or dynamical systems in general, has two fundamentally different approaches. We are most familiar with the construction of solutions to differential equations. Another approach is to study the statistical behavior of the solutions. Ergodic Theory is one of the most developed methods to study the statistical behavior of the solutions of differential equations. In the theory of satellite orbits, the statistical behavior of the orbits is used to produce 'Coverage Analysis' or how often a spacecraft is in view of a site on the ground. In this paper, we consider the use of Ergodic Theory for Coverage Analysis. This allows us to greatly simplify the computation of quantities such as the total time for which a ground station can see a satellite without ever integrating the trajectory, see Lo 1,2. More over, for any quantity which is an integrable function of the ground track, its average may be computed similarly without the integration of the trajectory. For example, the data rate for a simple telecom system is a function of the distance between the satellite and the ground station. We show that such a function may be averaged using the Ergodic Theorem.

  16. Acceleration of reverse analysis method using hyperbolic activation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pwasong, Augustine; Sathasivam, Saratha

    2015-10-01

    Hyperbolic activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing data mining by using a technique named as Reverse Analysis method. In this paper, we describe how Hopfield network perform better with hyperbolic activation function and able to induce logical rules from large database by using reverse analysis method: given the values of the connections of a network, we can hope to know what logical rules are entrenched in the database. We limit our analysis to Horn clauses.

  17. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  18. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  19. MALDI-MS Patterning of Caspase Activities and Its Application in the Assessment of Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junjie; Liu, Fei; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been widely used for enzyme activity assays. Herein, we propose a MALDI-MS patterning strategy for the convenient visual presentation of multiple enzyme activities with an easy-to-prepare chip. The array-based caspase-activity patterned chip (Casp-PC) is fabricated by hydrophobically assembling different phospholipid-tagged peptide substrates on a modified ITO slide. The advantages of amphipathic phospholipids lead to high-quality mass spectra for imaging analysis. Upon the respective cleavage of these substrates by different caspases, such as caspase-1, -2, -3, and -8, to produce a mass shift, the enzyme activities can be directly evaluated by MALDI-MS patterning by m/z-dependent imaging of the cleavage products. The ability to identify drug-sensitive/resistant cancer cells and assess the curative effects of anticancer drugs is demonstrated, indicating the applicability of the method and the designed chip. PMID:27101158

  20. Linking New Learning with Previous Experiences: An Activity in Teaching Dimensional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Werner, Jana Rae

    Throughout America's secondary science classrooms, students struggle to master fundamental science principles, especially when math-related applications are involved. For example, in chemistry students struggle to solve quantitative problems. This paper presents an activity that leads to a useful understanding of dimensional analysis; i.e., unit…

  1. Integrated expressional analysis: application to the drug discovery process.

    PubMed

    Ilyin, Sergey E; Horowitz, Daniel; Belkowski, Stanley M; Xin, Hong; Eckardt, Annette J; Darrow, Andrew L; Chen, Cailin; Maley, Derrick; D'Andrea, Michael; Plata-Salamán, Carlos R; Derian, Claudia K

    2005-11-01

    Microarray technology enables high-throughput testing of gene expression to investigate various neuroscience related questions. This in turn creates a demand for scalable methods to confirm microarray results and the opportunity to use this information to discover and test novel pathways and therapeutic applications. Discovery of new central nervous system (CNS) treatments requires a comprehensive understanding of multiple aspects including the biology of a target, the pathophysiology of a disease/disorder, and the selection of successful lead compounds as well as efficient biomarker and drug disposition strategies such as absorption (how a drug is absorbed), distribution (how a drug spreads through an organism), metabolism (chemical conversion of a drug, if any, and into which substances), and elimination (how is a drug eliminated) (ADME). Understanding of the toxicity is also of paramount importance. These approaches, in turn, require novel high-content integrative assay technologies that provide thorough information about changes in cell biology. To increase efficiency of profiling, characterization, and validation, we established a new screening strategy that combines high-content image-based testing on Array Scan (Cellomics) with a confocal system and the multiplexed TaqMan RT-PCR method for quantitative mRNA expression analysis. This approach could serve as an interface between high-throughput microarray testing and specific application of markers discovered in the course of a microarray experiment. Markers could pinpoint activation or inhibition of a molecular pathway related, for instance, to neuronal viability. We demonstrate the successful testing of the same cell population in an image-based translocational assay followed by poly(A) mRNA capture and multiplexed single tube RT-PCR. In addition, Ciphergen ProteinChip analysis can be performed on the supernatant, thus allowing significant complementarity in the data output and interpretation by also

  2. Practical application of fault tree analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Prugh, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed survey of standard and novel approaches to Fault Tree construction, based on recent developments at Du Pont, covers the effect-to-cause procedure for control systems as in process plants; the effect-to-cause procedure for processes; source-of-hazard analysis, as in pressure vessel rupture; use of the ''fire triangle'' in a Fault Tree; critical combinations of safeguard failures; action points for automatic or operator control of a process; situations involving hazardous reactant ratios; failure-initiating and failure-enabling events and intervention by the operator; ''daisy-chain'' hazards, e.g., in batch processes and ship accidents; combining batch and continuous operations in a Fault Tree; possible future structure-development procedures for fault-tree construction; and the use of quantitative results (calculated frequencies of Top-Event occurrence) to restructure the Fault Tree after improving the process to any acceptable risk level.

  3. Applications of display technology in protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, M

    2000-12-01

    Display technology refers to a collection of methods for creating libraries of modularly coded biomolecules that can be screened for desired properties. It has become a routine tool for enriching molecular diversity and producing novel types of proteins. The combination of an ever-increasing variety of libraries of modularly coded protein complexxes with the development of innovative approaches to select a wide array of desired properties has facilitated large-scale analyses of protein-protein/protein-substrate interactions, rapid isolation of antibodies (or antibody mimetics) without immunization, and function-based protein analysis. Several practical and theoretical challenges remain to be addressed before display technology can be readily applied to proteomic studies. PMID:11101802

  4. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  5. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is one of the many potentially catastrophic hazards associated with the operation of crewed spacecraft. A major lesson learned by NASA from the Apollo 204 fire in 1966 was that ignition sources in an electrically powered vehicle should and can be minimized, but can never be eliminated completely. For this reason, spacecraft fire control is based on minimizing potential ignition sources and eliminating materials that can propagate fire. Fire extinguishers are always provided on crewed spacecraft, but are not considered as part of the fire control process. "Eliminating materials that can propagate fire" does not mean eliminating all flammable materials - the cost of designing and building spacecraft using only nonflammable materials is extraordinary and unnecessary. It means controlling the quantity and configuration of such materials to eliminate potential fire propagation paths and thus ensure that any fire would be small, localized, and isolated, and would self-extinguish without harm to the crew. Over the years, NASA has developed many solutions for controlling the configuration of flammable materials (and potentially flammable materials in commercial "off-the-shelf" hardware) so that they can be used safely in air and oxygen-enriched environments in crewed spacecraft. This document describes and explains these design solutions so payload customers and other organizations can use them in designing safe and cost-effective flight hardware. Proper application of these guidelines will produce acceptable flammability configurations for hardware located in any compartment of the International Space Station or other program crewed vehicles and habitats. However, use of these guidelines does not exempt hardware organizations of the responsibility for safety of the hardware under their control.

  6. Persuasive Technology in Mobile Applications Promoting Physical Activity: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John; Win, Khin Than; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Freeman, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Persuasive technology in mobile applications can be used to influence the behaviour of users. A framework known as the Persuasive Systems Design model has been developed for designing and evaluating systems that influence the attitudes or behaviours of users. This paper reviews the current state of mobile applications for health behavioural change with an emphasis on applications that promote physical activity. The inbuilt persuasive features of mobile applications were evaluated using the Persuasive Systems Design model. A database search was conducted to identify relevant articles. Articles were then reviewed using the Persuasive Systems Design model as a framework for analysis. Primary task support, dialogue support, and social support were found to be moderately represented in the selected articles. However, system credibility support was found to have only low levels of representation as a persuasive systems design feature in mobile applications for supporting physical activity. To ensure that available mobile technology resources are best used to improve the wellbeing of people, it is important that the design principles that influence the effectiveness of persuasive technology be understood. PMID:26748792

  7. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichester, D. L.; Seabury, E. H.

    2009-03-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  8. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  9. Neutron-activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction Determination of traces of antimony.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Shabana, R; Sanad, W; Allam, B; Khalifa, K

    1968-02-01

    The application of neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction to the determination of traces of antimony in aluminium and rocks is reported. Three simple extraction procedures, using isopropyl ether, hexone, and tributyl phosphate, are described for the selective separation of radioantimony from interfering radionuclides. Antimony concentration is measured by counting the activities of the (122)Sb and (124)Sb photopeaks at 0.564 and 0.603 MeV. PMID:18960289

  10. NaI detector neutron activation spectra for PGNAA applications

    PubMed

    Gardner; El; Zheng; Hayden; Mayo

    2000-10-01

    When NaI detectors are used in prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis devices, they are activated by neutrons that penetrate the detector. While thermal neutron filters like boron or lithium can be used to reduce this activation, it can never be completely eliminated by this approach since high energy neutrons can penetrate the detector and thermalize inside it. This activation results in the emission of prompt gamma rays from both the I and Na and the production of the radioisotopes 128I and 24Na that subsequently decay and emit their characteristic beta particles and gamma rays. The resulting three spectra represent a background for this measurement. An experimental method for obtaining these three spectra is described and results are reported for 2" x 2", 5" x 5", 6" x 6", and 1" x 6" NaI detectors using the thermal neutron beam of the NCSU PULSTAR nuclear reactor. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation programs have been developed and used for simulating these spectra. Good results have been obtained by the Monte Carlo method for the two radioisotope spectra, and it is anticipated that good results will also be obtained for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum when the I and Na coincidence schemes are known. PMID:11003483

  11. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  12. Techniques of EMG signal analysis: detection, processing, classification and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M.S.; Mohd-Yasin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals can be used for clinical/biomedical applications, Evolvable Hardware Chip (EHW) development, and modern human computer interaction. EMG signals acquired from muscles require advanced methods for detection, decomposition, processing, and classification. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the various methodologies and algorithms for EMG signal analysis to provide efficient and effective ways of understanding the signal and its nature. We further point up some of the hardware implementations using EMG focusing on applications related to prosthetic hand control, grasp recognition, and human computer interaction. A comparison study is also given to show performance of various EMG signal analysis methods. This paper provides researchers a good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis procedures. This knowledge will help them develop more powerful, flexible, and efficient applications. PMID:16799694

  13. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  14. Application of Ice Nucleation - Active Bacteria to Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Soichi; Watanabe, Michiko

    Ice nucleation-active bacteria act as nuclei and are able to freeze water without supercooling to a great degree. They are known as a major cause of the frost damage to crops. We have been trying with success to positively apply these bacteria to freeze texturing of food materials, freeze concentration of fresh liquid foods, formation of new physical properties of foods by freezing, and so forth. The most useful species for these applications is Xanthomonas campestris which has recently been designated as a food additive by the Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare and produced on an industrial scale. This paper reviews these topics, with some practical examples quoted primarily from our studies.

  15. Active Sensing and Its Application to Sensor Node Reconfiguration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a perturbation/correlation-based active sensing method and its application to sensor node configuration for environment monitoring. Sensor networks are widely used as data measurement tools, especially in dangerous environments. For large scale environment monitoring, a large number of nodes is required. For optimal measurements, the placement of nodes is very important. Nonlinear spring force-based configuration is introduced. Perturbation/correlation-based estimation of the gradient is developed and it is much more robust because it does not require any differentiation. An algorithm for tuning the stiffness using the estimated gradient for node reconfiguration is presented. The performance of the proposed algorithm is discussed with simulation results. PMID:25299949

  16. Dynamic mechanical analysis: A practical introduction to techniques and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, K.

    1999-03-01

    This introduction provides the chemist, chemical engineer, or materials scientists with a starting point to understand the applications of dynamic mechanical analysis, its workings, and its advantages and limitations. This book serves as a systematic study of manufacturing polymeric materials and components as well as for developing new materials. Contents include: introduction to dynamic mechanical analysis; basic rheological concepts: stress, strain, and flow; rheology basic: creep-recovery and stress relaxation; dynamic testing; time-temperature scans part 1: transitions in polymers; time and temperature studies part 2: thermosets; frequency scans; DMA applications to real problems: guidelines; and appendix: sample experiments for the DMA.

  17. Performance Analysis of Multilevel Parallel Applications on Shared Memory Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Caubet, Jordi; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe how to apply powerful performance analysis techniques to understand the behavior of multilevel parallel applications. We use the Paraver/OMPItrace performance analysis system for our study. This system consists of two major components: The OMPItrace dynamic instrumentation mechanism, which allows the tracing of processes and threads and the Paraver graphical user interface for inspection and analyses of the generated traces. We describe how to use the system to conduct a detailed comparative study of a benchmark code implemented in five different programming paradigms applicable for shared memory

  18. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  19. Passive versus active mitigation cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.; Galbraith, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The scope of this task is to assess the impact of mitigation alternatives for Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103 on the Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. This assessment and other related tasks are part of an Action Plan Path Forward prepared by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Life Extension and Transition Program. Task 3.7 of the Action Plan for Project W-236A MWTF analyzed the comparative cost/risk of two hydrogen gas mitigation alternatives (active versus passive) to recommend the most appropriate course of action to resolve the hydrogen gas safety issue. The qualitative success of active mitigation has been demonstrated through Tank 241-SY-101 testing. Passive mitigation has not been demonstrated but will be validated by laboratory test work performed under Task 3.1 of the Action Plan. It is assumed for this assessment that the uncertainties associated with the performance of either alternative is comparable. Determining alternative specific performance measures beyond those noted are not in the scope of this effort.

  20. Application-specific architectures of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelezniak, Michal; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Colledani, Claude; Degerli, Yavuz; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Deveaux, Michael; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Fourches, Nicolas; Goffe, Mathieu; Grandjean, Damien; Guilloux, Fabrice; Heini, Sebastien; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne; Pellicioli, Michel; Shabetai, Alexandre; Valin, Isabelle; Winter, Marc

    2006-11-01

    Several development directions intended to adapt and optimize monolithic active pixel sensors for specific applications are presented in this work. The first example, compatible with the STAR microvertex upgrade, is based on a simple two-transistor pixel circuitry. It is suited for a long integration time, room-temperature operation and minimum power dissipation. In another approach for this application, a specific readout method is proposed, allowing optimization of the integration time independently of the full frame-readout time. The circuit consists of an in-pixel front-end voltage amplifier, with a gain on the order of five, followed by two analog memory cells. The extended version of this scheme, based on the implementation of more memory cells per pixel, is the solution considered for the outer layers of a microvertex detector at the international linear collider. For the two innermost layers, a circuit allowing fast frame scans together with on-line, on-chip data sparsification is proposed. The first results of this prototype demonstrate that the fixed pattern dispersion is reduced below a noise level of 15 e -, allowing the use of a single comparator or a low-resolution ADC per pixel column. A common element for most of the mentioned readout schemes is a low-noise, low power consumption, layout efficient in-pixel amplifier. A review of possible solutions for this element together with some experimental results is presented.

  1. Actively Cooled SLMS(TM) Technology for HEL Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, Marc T.; Goodman, William A.; Reily, Jack C.; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Haight, Harlan J.; Tucker, John; Wright, Ernest R.; Hogue, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Jacoby is the Chief Scientist for Schafer's Lightweight Optical Systems business area with twenty four years experience in laser and optical systems for space and military applications. He and colleague Dr. Goodman conceived and developed Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS(TM)) technologies for space applications from the extreme UV to FAR IR wavelengths. Schafer has demonstrated two different methods for actively cooling our Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS(TM)) technology. Direct internal cooling was accomplished by flowing liquid nitrogen through the continuous open cell core of the SLMS(TM) mirror. Indirect external cooling was accomplished by flowing liquid nitrogen through a CTE matched Cesic square-tube manifold that was bonded to the back of the mirror in the center. Testing was done in the small 4-foot thermal/vacuum chamber located at the NASA/MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility. Seven thermal diodes were located over the front side of the 5 inch diameter mirror and one was placed on the outlet side of the Cesic manifold. Results indicate that the mirror reaches steady state at 82K in less than four minutes for both cooling methods. The maximum temperature difference of the eight diodes was less than 200 mK when the mirror was internally cooled and covered with MLI to insulate it from the large 300 K aluminum plate that was used to mount it.

  2. Application of Optical Biosensors in Small-Molecule Screening Activities

    PubMed Central

    Geschwindner, Stefan; Carlsson, Johan F.; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have seen remarkable progress and improvements in optical biosensor systems such that those are currently seen as an important and value-adding component of modern drug screening activities. In particular the introduction of microplate-based biosensor systems holds the promise to match the required throughput without compromising on data quality thus representing a sought-after complement to traditional fluidic systems. This article aims to highlight the application of the two most prominent optical biosensor technologies, namely surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and optical waveguide grating (OWG), in small-molecule screening and will present, review and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different assay formats on these platforms. A particular focus will be on the specific advantages of the inhibition in solution assay (ISA) format in contrast to traditional direct binding assays (DBA). Furthermore we will discuss different application areas for both fluidic as well as plate-based biosensor systems by considering the individual strength of the platforms. PMID:22666031

  3. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak.

  4. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  5. Formal analysis of device authentication applications in ubiquitous computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dongwan; Claycomb, William R.

    2010-11-01

    Authentication between mobile devices in ad-hoc computing environments is a challenging problem. Without pre-shared knowledge, existing applications rely on additional communication methods, such as out-of-band or location-limited channels for device authentication. However, no formal analysis has been conducted to determine whether out-of-band channels are actually necessary. We answer this question through formal analysis, and use BAN logic to show that device authentication using a single channel is not possible.

  6. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz.... Product name: Demiditraz Technical. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at 100%. Proposed...., Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Product name: CA Acaricide. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at...

  7. An evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis for determination of trace elements in some geological samples.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S; Kapsimalis, R

    2009-12-01

    Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has been used for a variety of applications, but never has a detailed discussion of its use in far more complex matrices, such as geological samples, been fully addressed. This investigation seeks to serve as a qualitative evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis (CSNAA) and to illustrate the benefits of using Compton suppression with thermal and epithermal neutrons for the analysis of several geological specimens. PMID:19577479

  8. Neutron-activation analysis applied to copper ores and artifacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, N. F.

    1970-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is used for quantitative identification of trace metals in copper. Establishing a unique fingerprint of impurities in Michigan copper would enable identification of artifacts made from this copper.

  9. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μV rms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented. PMID:26861324

  10. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M. Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μVrms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented. PMID:26861324

  11. Applications of a broad-spectrum tool for conservation and fisheries analysis: aquatic gap analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Steen, Paul J.; Lyons, John; Stewart, Jana S.

    2009-01-01

    Natural resources support all of our social and economic activities, as well as our biological existence. Humans have little control over most of the physical, biological, and sociological conditions dictating the status and capacity of natural resources in any particular area. However, the most rapid and threatening influences on natural resources typically are anthropogenic overuse and degradation. In addition, living natural resources (i.e., organisms) do not respect political boundaries, but are aware of their optimal habitat and environmental conditions. Most organisms have wider spatial ranges than the jurisdictional boundaries of environmental agencies that deal with them; even within those jurisdictions, information is patchy and disconnected. Planning and projecting effects of ecological management are difficult, because many organisms, habitat conditions, and interactions are involved. Conservation and responsible resource use involves wise management and manipulation of the aspects of the environment and biological communities that can be effectively changed. Tools and data sets that provide new insights and analysis capabilities can enhance the ability of resource managers to make wise decisions and plan effective, long-term management strategies. Aquatic gap analysis has been developed to provide those benefits. Gap analysis is more than just the assessment of the match or mis-match (i.e., gaps) between habitats of ecological value and areas with an appropriate level of environmental protection (e.g., refuges, parks, preserves), as the name suggests. Rather, a Gap Analysis project is a process which leads to an organized database of georeferenced information and previously available tools to examine conservation and other ecological issues; it provides a geographic analysis platform that serves as a foundation for aquatic ecological studies. This analytical tool box allows one to conduct assessments of all habitat elements within an area of interest

  12. An automated method to quantify microglia morphology and application to monitor activation state longitudinally in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Cleopatra; Weimer, Robby M

    2012-01-01

    Microglia are specialized immune cells of the brain. Upon insult, microglia initiate a cascade of cellular responses including a characteristic change in cell morphology. To study the dynamics of microglia immune response in situ, we developed an automated image analysis method that enables the quantitative assessment of microglia activation state within tissue based solely on cell morphology. Per cell morphometric analysis of fluorescently labeled microglia is achieved through local iterative threshold segmentation, which reduces errors caused by signal-to-noise variation across large volumes. We demonstrate, utilizing systemic application of lipopolysaccharide as a model of immune challenge, that several morphological parameters, including cell perimeter length, cell roundness and soma size, quantitatively distinguish resting versus activated populations of microglia within tissue comparable to traditional immunohistochemistry methods. Furthermore, we provide proof-of-concept data that monitoring soma size enables the longitudinal assessment of microglia activation in the mouse neocortex imaged via 2-photon in vivo microscopy. The ability to quantify microglia activation automatically by shape alone allows unbiased and rapid analysis of both fixed and in vivo central nervous system tissue. PMID:22457705

  13. Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

  14. Activated Corrosion Product Analysis. Analytical Approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Golubov, Stanislav I; Busby, Jeremy T; Stoller, Roger E

    2010-01-01

    The presence of activated corrosion products (ACPs) in a water cooling system is a key factor in the licensing of ITER and affects nuclear classification, which governs design and operation. The objective of this study is to develop a method to accurately estimate radionuclide concentrations during ITER operation in support of nuclear classification. A brief overview of the PACTITER numerical code, which is currently used for ACP estimation, is presented. An alternative analytical approach for calculation of ACPs, which can also be used for validation of existing numerical codes, including PACTITER, has been proposed. A continuity equation describing the kinetics of accumulation of radioactive isotopes in a water cooling system in the form of a closed ring has been formulated, taking into account the following processes: production of radioactive elements and their decay, filtration, and ACP accumulation in filter system. Additional work is needed to more accurately assess the ACP inventory in the cooling water system, including more accurate simulation of the Tokamak cooling water system (TCWS) operating cycle and consideration of material corrosion, release, and deposition rates.

  15. Gaia Payload Module Testing and Analysis Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soula, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    The Gaia objective is to produce a very accurate catalogue of 1 billion of sky objects in our galaxy and beyond. ASTRIUM’s extensive experience on silicon carbide (SiC) instruments has helped developing the latest-generation payload module. It integrates the most sensitive and stable telescopes ever made, mounted on a SiC torus structure supported by three bipods. This payload module has been tested in June 2011 by ASTRIUM at INTESPACE facilities in Toulouse. To conduct the sine qualification tests and support the data analyses in real-time, advanced tools have been used. Most of them have been developed in a previous ESA R&D project [1] “DYNamics: AssessMent and Improvement of TEst Data (DYNAMITED)” and implemented in a DynaWorks® environment. Mass Operator calculation, to evaluate the payload module interface loads from measured accelerations, or automatic correlation through a criterion based on FRF from tests or predictions, are part of these tools. Testing such a structure also revealed some piloting difficulties due to a quite low and varying damping of the structure and a strong coupling with the shaker. To take into account such phenomena in the correlation work, enhanced simulations have also been performed considering multi-points phased excitations. These analyses demonstrate the payload module qualification status and allow derivate a more representative model to be used in further coupled system activities.

  16. Analysis of Smad Phosphatase Activity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Qin, Lan; Lin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 at the C-terminal SXS motif by BMP type I receptors is one of the most critical events in BMP signaling. Conversely, protein phosphatases that dephosphorylate phospho-Smad1/5/8 can consequently prevent or terminate BMP signaling. PPM1H is an undercharacterized phosphatase in the PPM family. We recently demonstrated that PPM1H can dephosphorylate Smad1 in the cytoplasm and block BMP signaling responses in cellular assays. Here we describe in vitro method showing that PPM1H is a bona fide phosphatase for Smad1/5/8. PPM1H is produced as GST fusion protein in E. coli, and purified against glutathione sepharose beads. Bacterially purified recombinant PPM1H possesses phosphatase activity toward artificial substrate para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Recombinant PPM1H also dephosphorylates immuno-purified phosphorylated Smad1 in test tubes. These direct in vitro phosphatase assays provide convincing evidence demonstrating the role of PPM1H as a specific phosphatase for P-Smad1. PMID:26520120

  17. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v). PMID:24792543

  18. Detector analysis for shallow water active sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Thomas J.; Phillips, Michael E.

    2002-11-01

    SPAWAR Systems Center-San Diego, in concert with the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has designed and built a proof-of-concept broadband biomimetic sonar. This proof-of-concept sonar emulates a dolphin biosonar system; emitted broadband signals approximate the frequency and time domain characteristics of signals produced by echolocating dolphins, the receive system is spatially modeled after the binaural geometry of the dolphin, and signal processing algorithms incorporate sequential integration of aspect varying returns. As with any sonar, object detection in shallow water while maintaining an acceptable false alarm rate is an important problem. A comprehensive parametric analysis of detection algorithms is presented, focusing primarily on two detector strategies: a matched filter and a spectral detector. The spectral detector compares the ratio of in-band to out-of-band power, and thus functions something like a phase-incoherent matched filter. This computationally efficient detector is shown to perform well with high proportional bandwidth signals. The detector (either matched filter or spectral) is coupled with an alpha-beta tracker which maintains a running noise estimate and calculates signal excess above the estimated noise level which is compared to a fixed threshold.

  19. Annotated bibliography on decision analysis with applications to project management

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.M.; Bryson, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The results of an extensive literature survey on decision analysis, with specific application to problems in research and development project management, are summarized in bibliographic form. Approximately 215 references are organized by subject matter and also summarized and annotated (several lines per reference) in a separate listing.

  20. Boundary element techniques - Applications in stress analysis and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Brebbia, C.A.; Venturini, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume includes contributions in the field of stress analysis, soil and rock mechanics, non-linear problems, dynamics and vibrations, plate bending and heat transfer. The companion volume includes contributions dealing with viscous and inviscid fluid flow, aerodynamics and hydrodynamics applications, elastostatics and computational and mathematical aspects.

  1. The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool: A Web Application

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, William H. Jr.

    2012-08-02

    The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool is a type of Google maps for adversaries. It's a web-based Geospatial application similar to Google Maps. It helps the U.S. government plan operations that predict where an adversary might be. It's easily accessible and maintainble and it's simple to use without much training.

  2. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis. PMID:21985357

  3. Application of software technology to automatic test data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagner, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The verification process for a major software subsystem was partially automated as part of a feasibility demonstration. The methods employed are generally useful and applicable to other types of subsystems. The effort resulted in substantial savings in test engineer analysis time and offers a method for inclusion of automatic verification as a part of regression testing.

  4. Application of Sediment Backstripping Corrections for Basin Analysis Using Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Marlon Scott; Hsui, Albert Tong-Kwan

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a program created to serve as an instructional tool for teaching basin analysis. Described is the use of the program for interpreting plots resulting from backstripping methods. Included in the discussion are implementation, applications and availability of the "Subside!" program. (CW)

  5. Dynamic mechanical analysis: A practical introduction to techniques and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, K.

    1999-01-01

    This book introduces DMA, its history, and its current position as part of thermal analysis on polymers. It discusses major types of instrumentation, including oscillatory rotational, oscillatory axial, and torsional pendulum. It also describes analytical techniques in terms of utility, quality of data, methods of calibration, and suitability for different types of materials and assesses applications for thermoplastics, thermosetting systems, and thermosets.

  6. Household Refuse Analysis: Theory, Method, and Applications in Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathje, William L., Ed.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl K., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The articles in this issue explore the current parameters of household refuse analysis. An overview of garbage research studies is presented; research methodology, theories, and applications are examined. U.S. household refuse is compared to the discards of households in Mexico City. (RM)

  7. Final Report 02-ERD-056 Active Load Control& Mitigation Using Microtabs: A Wind Energy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Nakafuji, D Y

    2003-02-24

    With public concern over the security and reliability of our existing electricity infrastructure and the resurgence of wind energy, the wind industry offers an immediate, first point of entry for the application and demonstration of an active load control technology. An innovative microtab approach is being investigated and demonstrated for active aerodynamic load control applications under the mid-year LDRD (June-Sept. 2002) effort. With many of these million dollar turbines failing at only half the design lifespans, conventional techniques for stiffening rotors, enlarging generators and gearboxes, and reinforcing towers are insufficient to accommodate the demands for bigger, taller and more powerful turbines. The DOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports R&D efforts to develop lighter, more efficient and longer lasting wind turbines and advance turbine components. However, as wind turbine systems continue to increase in size and complexity, fundamental research and technology development has not kept pace with needs. New technologies to increase turbine life spans and to reduce costs are needed to realize wind electricity generation potentials. It is becoming quite evident that without a better understanding of static and dynamic response to normal and abnormal operating loads coupled with sophisticated flow analysis and control techniques, large turbine operating life and component life will be severely limited. Promising technologies include active load control and load alleviation systems to mitigate peak loads from damaging key components. This project addresses science and engineering challenges of developing enabling technologies for active load control for turbine applications using an innovative, translational microtab approach. Figure 1.1 illustrates the microtabs as applied on a wind turbine system. Extending wind turbine operating life is a crucial component for reducing the cost of wind-generated electricity, enabling wind

  8. Predictive Analysis of Landslide Activity Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuzon, N.; Regan, J.; Slesnick, C.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides are historically one of the most damaging geohazard phenomena in terms of death tolls and socio-economic losses. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of landslides and how environmental phenomena affect their frequency and severity is of critical importance. Of specific importance for mitigating future damage is increasing our understanding of how climate change will affect landslide severity, occurrence rates, and damage. We are developing data driven models aimed at predicting landslide activity. The models learn multi-dimensional weather and geophysical patterns associated with historical landslides and estimate location-dependent probabilities for landslides under current or future weather and geophysical conditions. Our approach uses machine learning algorithms capable of determining non-linear associations between dependent variables and landslide occurrence without requiring detailed knowledge of geomorphology. Our primary goal in year one of the project is to evaluate the predictive capabilities of data mining models in application to landslide activity, and to analyze if the approach will discover previously unknown variables and/or relationships important to landslide occurrence, frequency or severity. The models include remote sensing and ground-based data, including weather, landcover, slope, elevation and drainage information as well as urbanization data. The historical landslide dataset we used to build our preliminary models was compiled from City of Seattle landslide files, United States Geological Survey reports, newspaper articles, and a verified subset of the Seattle Landslide Database that consists of all reported landslides within Seattle, WA, between 1948 and 1999. Most of the landslides analyzed to-date are shallow. Using statistical analysis and unsupervised clustering methods we have thus far identified subsets of weather conditions that lead to a significantly higher landslide probability, and have developed

  9. Application of independent component analysis in face images: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuchi; Lu, Hanqing

    2003-09-01

    Face technologies which can be applied to access control and surveillance, are essential to intelligent vision-based human computer interaction. The research efforts in this field include face detecting, face recognition, face retrieval, etc. However, these tasks are challenging because of variability in view point, lighting, pose and expression of human faces. The ideal face representation should consider the variability so as to we can develop robust algorithms for our applications. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as an unsupervised learning technique has been used to find such a representation and obtained good performances in some applications. In the first part of this paper, we depict the models of ICA and its extensions: Independent Subspace Analysis (ISA) and Topographic ICA (TICA).Then we summaraize the process in the applications of ICA and its extension in Face images. At last we propose a promising direction for future research.

  10. Synthesis of n-way active topology for wide-band RF/microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, Blaise

    2012-05-01

    A novel architecture of n-way active topology for RF/microwave module applications is developed. This architecture is based on the use of active cell composed of a field effect transistor (FET) in cascade with shunt resistor. A theoretic analysis illustrating the S-parameters calculation was established. The expressions of the n-way power divider output gains were demonstrated. A synthesis method of active power-splitter or/and 180° balun in function of the considered FET stage number constituting each outer branch was proposed. A simple active power-splitter was designed using an even number of FET between the input-output branches. In addition, a variable gain active power-splitter was simulated. The FETs are biased at Vds = 6 V and Ids = 25 mA. So, insertion losses above -1.5 dB, return losses better than -15 dB and excellent isolation below -30 dB at all three ports were obtained from 0.5 to 5.5 GHz. Using odd number of FET stage, an active balun was realised. Then, simulations of active balun showing a perfectly constant differential out-phase (180° ± 5°), insertion losses above -1.5 dB and an excellent isolation below -30 dB for all three ports, from 0.3 to 4.5 GHz were performed.

  11. Understanding Tensions: Activity Systems Analysis of Cross-Continental Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, LanHui Zhang; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Using the lens of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, activity theory, and Engeström's activity systems analysis, this qualitative study explores students' experiences in the context of a sixteen-week transpacific collaboration between seven students at Northern Illinois University (NIU) and seven students from Shandong Normal…

  12. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  13. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  14. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  15. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  16. Genre Analysis of Personal Statements: Analysis of Moves in Application Essays to Medical and Dental Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Huiling

    2007-01-01

    Despite the important role the personal statement plays in the graduate school application processes, little research has been done on its functional features and little instruction has been given about it in academic writing courses. The author conducted a multi-level discourse analysis on a corpus of 30 medical/dental school application letters,…

  17. Reconstruction of human brain spontaneous activity based on frequency-pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography data

    PubMed Central

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Ustinin, Mikhail N.; Rykunov, Stanislav D.; Boyko, Anna I.; Sychev, Vyacheslav V.; Walton, Kerry D.; Rabello, Guilherme M.; Garcia, John

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis and localization of brain activity has been developed, based on multichannel magnetic field recordings, over minutes, superimposed on the MRI of the individual. Here, a high resolution Fourier Transform is obtained over the entire recording period, leading to a detailed multi-frequency spectrum. Further analysis implements a total decomposition of the frequency components into functionally invariant entities, each having an invariant field pattern localizable in recording space. The method, addressed as functional tomography, makes it possible to find the distribution of magnetic field sources in space. Here, the method is applied to the analysis of simulated data, to oscillating signals activating a physical current dipoles phantom, and to recordings of spontaneous brain activity in 10 healthy adults. In the analysis of simulated data, 61 dipoles are localized with 0.7 mm precision. Concerning the physical phantom the method is able to localize three simultaneously activated current dipoles with 1 mm precision. Spatial resolution 3 mm was attained when localizing spontaneous alpha rhythm activity in 10 healthy adults, where the alpha peak was specified for each subject individually. Co-registration of the functional tomograms with each subject's head MRI localized alpha range activity to the occipital and/or posterior parietal brain region. This is the first application of this new functional tomography to human brain activity. The method successfully provides an overall view of brain electrical activity, a detailed spectral description and, combined with MRI, the localization of sources in anatomical brain space. PMID:26528119

  18. Analysis of estimation algorithms for CDTI and CAS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goka, T.

    1985-01-01

    Estimation algorithms for Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) and Collision Avoidance System (CAS) applications were analyzed and/or developed. The algorithms are based on actual or projected operational and performance characteristics of an Enhanced TCAS II traffic sensor developed by Bendix and the Federal Aviation Administration. Three algorithm areas are examined and discussed. These are horizontal x and y, range and altitude estimation algorithms. Raw estimation errors are quantified using Monte Carlo simulations developed for each application; the raw errors are then used to infer impacts on the CDTI and CAS applications. Applications of smoothing algorithms to CDTI problems are also discussed briefly. Technical conclusions are summarized based on the analysis of simulation results.

  19. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a

  20. 78 FR 16701 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone Activity Permit... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Application for Foreign Trade Zone Admission and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone Activity Permit (CBP Forms 214,...

  1. Tomato Plant Proteins Actively Responding to Fungal Applications and Their Role in Cell Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Zoobia; Shafique, Sobiya; Ahmad, Aqeel; Shafique, Shazia; Yasin, Nasim A.; Ashraf, Yaseen; Ibrahim, Asma; Akram, Waheed; Noreen, Sibgha

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of protein induction in tomato plants has been investigated after the applications of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal species. Moreover, particular roles of the most active protein against biological applications were also determined using chromatographic techniques. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium oxalicum were applied as a pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal species, respectively. Protein profile analysis revealed that a five protein species (i.e., protein 1, 6, 10, 12, and 13) possessed completely coupled interaction with non-pathogenic inducer application (P. oxalicum). However, three protein species (i.e., 10, 12, and 14) recorded a strong positive interaction with both fungal species. Protein 14 exhibited the maximum interaction with fungal applications, and its role in plant metabolism was studied after its identification as protein Q9M1W6. It was determined that protein Q1M1W6 was involved in guaiacyl lignin biosynthesis, and its inhibition increased the coumarin contents in tomato plants. Moreover, it was also observed that the protein Q9M1W6 takes significant part in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and Indole acetic acid contents, which are defense and growth factors of tomato plants. The study will help investigators to design fundamental rules of plant proteins affecting cell physiology under the influence of external fungal applications. PMID:27445848

  2. MCT SWIR modules for passive and active imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Benecke, M.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Weber, A.; Wendler, J.; Sieck, A.

    2016-05-01

    Based on AIM's state-of-the-art MCT IR technology, detector modules for the SWIR spectral range have been developed, fabricated and characterized. While LPE grown MCT FPAs with extended 2.5μm cut-off have been fabricated and integrated also MBE grown MCT on GaAs is considered for future production. Two imaging applications have been in focus operating either in passive mode by making use of e.g. the night glow, or in active mode by laser illumination for gated viewing. Dedicated readout integrated circuits (ROIC), realized in 0.18μm Si-CMOS technology providing the required functionality for passive imaging and gated imaging, have been designed and implemented. For both designs a 640x512 15μm pitch format was chosen. The FPAs are integrated in compact dewar cooler configurations using AIM's split linear coolers. A command and control electronics (CCE) provides supply voltages, biasing, clocks, control and video digitization for easy system interfacing. For imaging under low-light conditions a low-noise 640x512 15μm pitch ROIC with CTIA input stages and correlated double sampling was designed. The ROIC provides rolling shutter and snapshot integration. To reduce size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) a 640x512 format detector in a 10μm pitch is under development. The module makes use of the extended SWIR spectral cut-off up to 2.5μm. To be used for active gated-viewing operation SWIR MCT avalanche photodiodes have been implemented and characterized on FPA level in a 640x512 15μm pitch format. The specific ROIC provides also the necessary functions for range gate control and triggering by the laser illumination. First lab and field tests of a gated viewing demonstrator have been carried out. The paper will present the development status and performance results of AIM's MCT based SWIR Modules for imaging applications.

  3. Potential applications of environmental sampling and analysis for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.

    1993-03-01

    This objective of this paper is to address the usefulness of envirorunental sampling and analysis in support of the IAEA. In particular, whether state-of-the-art analytical methods may provide detection of undeclared nuclear activities. It is important to emphasize that envirorunental sampling offers the IAEA a method of improving the assurance that a particular facility has no ongoing undeclared nuclear activities. It is suggested as a supplement to the existing IAEA safeguards inspections and activities. Enviromental sampling with appropriate analytical techniques can detect unknown activity fairly well, but it is not very reliable for determining how much or when activity has actually occured. Additionally, it is important to point out that the cost of such an envirorunental sampling program needs to be balanced with the confidence provided to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Environmental sampling wig probably not allow the IAEA to reduce or eliminate some of its existing baseline activities. The addition of an environmental sampling and analysis program will entail a cost of its own, and adding such a program may not reduce IAEA total costs. The overall cost of such a program will depend on the level of confidence required, (e.g. number and type of samples and analyses), the Quality Assurance plan to be implemented and the number of sites to be inspected. A more detailed cost analysis is not within the scope of this paper.

  4. Neutron activation analysis for antimetabolites. [in food samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Determination of metal ion contaminants in food samples is studied. A weighed quantity of each sample was digested in a concentrated mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and perchloric acids to affect complete solution of the food products. The samples were diluted with water and the pH adjusted according to the specific analysis performed. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis, polarography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The solid food samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analysis for increased sensitivity and lower levels of detectability. The results are presented in tabular form.

  5. Pathway alignment: application to the comparative analysis of glycolytic enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, T; Schuster, S; Snel, B; Huynen, M; Bork, P

    1999-01-01

    Comparative analysis of metabolic pathways in different genomes yields important information on their evolution, on pharmacological targets and on biotechnological applications. In this study on glycolysis, three alternative ways of comparing biochemical pathways are combined: (1) analysis and comparison of biochemical data, (2) pathway analysis based on the concept of elementary modes, and (3) a comparative genome analysis of 17 completely sequenced genomes. The analysis reveals a surprising plasticity of the glycolytic pathway. Isoenzymes in different species are identified and compared; deviations from the textbook standard are detailed. Several potential pharmacological targets and by-passes (such as the Entner-Doudoroff pathway) to glycolysis are examined and compared in the different species. Archaean, bacterial and parasite specific adaptations are identified and described. PMID:10493919

  6. Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Hourtoule, Claire; Singer, Christian; Devilliers, Christophe; Lopez, Céline; Chazallet, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    The need for both high quality images and lightweight structures is one of the main drivers in space telescope design. An efficient wavefront control system will become mandatory in future large observatories, retaining performance while relaxing specifications in the global system's stability. We present the mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space project, which aims to demonstrate the applicability of active optics for future space instrumentation. It has led to the development of a 24-actuator, 90-mm-diameter active mirror, able to compensate for large lightweight primary mirror deformations in the telescope's exit pupil. The correcting system has been designed for expected wavefront errors from 3-m-class lightweight primary mirrors, while also taking into account constraints for space use. Finite element analysis allowed an optimization of the system in order to achieve a precision of correction better than 10 nm rms. A dedicated testbed has been designed to fully characterize the integrated system performance in representative operating conditions. It is composed of: a telescope simulator, an active correction loop, a point spread function imager, and a Fizeau interferometer. All conducted tests demonstrated the correcting mirror performance and has improved this technology maturity to a TRL4.

  7. Analysis and synthesis of distributed-lumped-active networks by digital computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The use of digital computational techniques in the analysis and synthesis of DLA (distributed lumped active) networks is considered. This class of networks consists of three distinct types of elements, namely, distributed elements (modeled by partial differential equations), lumped elements (modeled by algebraic relations and ordinary differential equations), and active elements (modeled by algebraic relations). Such a characterization is applicable to a broad class of circuits, especially including those usually referred to as linear integrated circuits, since the fabrication techniques for such circuits readily produce elements which may be modeled as distributed, as well as the more conventional lumped and active ones.

  8. Exploring the applicability of equine blood to bloodstain pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Bethany A J; Banks, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic application of the interpretation of distinct patterns which blood exhibits during a bloodletting incident, providing key evidence with its ability to map the sequence of events. Here, we explore the use of equine blood and investigate its suitability within the field of BPA. Blood is a complex fluid, and finding a suitable safe substitute to human blood that encompasses all of its characteristics has been the focus of many investigations. Animal blood has been concluded as the closest and therefore the most suitable alternate. However, it seems that currently only porcine blood is most prominently utilised.In this study, equine blood was investigated, using two different anti-clotting methods, where blood impacts were explored over a typical range of varying impact velocities upon a selection of commonly encountered surfaces. Key BPA parameters, such as the diameters of the resulting bloodstains, number of spines and area of origin were measured, which were subsequently applied into previously derived BPA equations.We find that defibrinated equine blood is a suitable alternative and offers the same conclusive outcomes to human blood. This gives bloodstain pattern investigators and researchers an additional choice of blood which can be of benefit when certain bloods are difficult to attain or when the activity involves the usage of a large quantity of blood. Additionally we explore the effect on BPA of aged blood, which revealed a significant decrease in stain diameter of up to 12.78 % when blood has been left for 57 days. A shelf life of no more than 12 days is recommended when blood is refrigerated at 4℃. PMID:25013163

  9. Investigation of a novel molecular descriptor for the lead optimization of 4-aminoquinazolines as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 inhibitors: application for quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis in lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Joel K; Martinez, Yannica; Sasaki, Brandi; Harris, Melissa; Kurata, Wendy E; Lau, Alan F

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the use of infrared vibrational frequency of ligands as a potential novel molecular descriptor in three different molecular target and chemical series. The vibrational energy of a ligand was approximated from the sum of infrared (IR) absorptions of each functional group within a molecule and normalized by its molecular weight (MDIR). Calculations were performed on a set of 4-aminoquinazolines with similar docking scores for the VEGFR2/KDR receptor. 4-Aminoquinazolines with MDIR values ranging 192-196 provided compounds with KDR inhibitory activity. The correlation of KDR inhibitory activity was similarly observed in a separate chemical series, the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines. Initial exploration of this molecular descriptor supports a tool for rapid lead optimization in the 4-aminoquinazoline chemical series and a potential method for scaffold hopping in pursuit of new inhibitors. PMID:21306896

  10. Investigation of a novel molecular descriptor for the lead optimization of 4-aminoquinazolines as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor – 2 inhibitors: Application for quantitative structure activity relationship analysis in lead optimization

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Joel K.; Martinez, Yannica; Sasaki, Brandi; Harris, Melissa; Kurata, Wendy E.; Lau, Alan F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the use of infrared vibrational frequency of ligands as a potential novel molecular descriptor in three different molecular target and chemical series. The vibrational energy of a ligand was approximated from the sum of infrared (IR) absorptions of each functional group within a molecule and normalized by its molecular weight (MDIR). Calculations were performed on a set of 4-aminoquinazolines with similar docking scores for the VEGFR2/KDR receptor. 4-Aminoquinazolines with MDIR values ranging 192–196 provided compounds with KDR inhibitory activity. The correlation of KDR inhibitory activity was similarly observed in a separate chemical series, the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines. Initial exploration of this molecular descriptor supports a tool for rapid lead optimization in the 4-aminoquinazoline chemical series and a potential method for scaffold hopping in pursuit of new inhibitors. PMID:21306896

  11. Active matrix OLED for rugged HMD and viewfinder applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Kia; Jones, Susan K.; Prache, Olivier; Fellowes, David A.

    2004-09-01

    We present characterization of a full-color 852x3x600-pixel, active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) color microdisplay (eMagin Corporation's SVGA+ display) for environmentally demanding applications. The results show that the AMOLED microdisplay can provide cold-start turn-on and operate at extreme temperature conditions, far in excess of non-emissive displays. Correction factors for gamma response of the AMOLED microdisplay as a function of temperature have been determined to permit consistent luminance and contrast from -40°C to over +80°C. Gamma adjustments are made by a simple temperature compensation adjustment of the reference voltages of the AMOLED. The typical room temperature full-on luminance half-life of the SVGA+ full color display organic light emitting diode (OLED) display at over 3,000 hr at a starting luminance at approx. 100 cd/m2, translates to more than 15,000 hr of continuous full-motion video usage, based on a 25% duty cycle at a typical 50-60 cd/m2 commercial luminance level, or over 60,000 hr half-life in monochrome white usage, or over 100,000 hr luminance half-life in monochrome yellow usage at similar operating conditions. Half life at typical night vision luminance levels would be much longer.

  12. Application of musical timbre discrimination features to active sonar classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Victor W.; Hines, Paul C.; Pecknold, Sean

    2005-04-01

    In musical acoustics significant effort has been devoted to uncovering the physical basis of timbre perception. Most investigations into timbre rely on multidimensional scaling (MDS), in which different musical sounds are arranged as points in multidimensional space. The Euclidean distance between points corresponds to the perceptual distance between sounds and the multidimensional axes are linked to measurable properties of the sounds. MDS has identified numerous temporal and spectral features believed to be important to timbre perception. There is reason to believe that some of these features may have wider application in the disparate field of underwater acoustics, since anecdotal evidence suggests active sonar returns from metallic objects sound different than natural clutter returns when auralized by human operators. This is particularly encouraging since attempts to develop robust automatic classifiers capable of target-clutter discrimination over a wide range of operational conditions have met with limited success. Spectral features relevant to target-clutter discrimination are believed to include click-pitch and envelope irregularity; relevant temporal features are believed to include duration, sub-band attack/decay time, and time separation pitch. Preliminary results from an investigation into the role of these timbre features in target-clutter discrimination will be presented. [Work supported by NSERC and GDC.

  13. A small active dosimeter for applications in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Birgit; Maršálek, Karel; Berger, Thomas; Burmeister, Sönke; Reitz, Günther; Heber, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    The radiation field in low Earth orbits (LEO) differs significantly from the radiation environment on Earth's surface. Exposures are by far higher and pose an additional health risk for astronauts. Continuous monitoring is therefore a necessary task in the frame of radiation protection measures. A small battery-driven active dosimeter telescope based on silicon detectors meeting the requirements for LEO applications has been developed. The instrument, the Mobile Dosimetric Telescope (MDT), is designed to measure the absorbed dose rate and the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. From the latter the mean quality factor of the radiation field can be derived and hence an estimate of the dose equivalent as a measure of the exposure. The calibration of the device is done using radioactive isotopes and heavy ions. Fragmentation products of heavy ions are used to show the ability of the MDT to reliably detect energy depositions from high energetic nuclei. Radiation measurements inside aircraft during long distance flights, serving as field tests of the instrument, prove the good performance of the instrument.

  14. A Micro Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter for Astrobiology Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Donald W.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    A micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (microFACS) for astrobiology applications is under development. This device is designed to have a footprint of 7 cm x 7 cm x 4 cm and allow live-dead counts and sorting of cells that have fluorescent characteristics from staining. The FACS system takes advantage of microfluidics to create a cell sorter that can fit in the palm of the hand. A micron-scale channel allows cells to pass by a blue diode which causes emission of marker-expressed cells which are detected by a filtered photodetector. A small microcontroller then counts cells and operates high speed valves to select which chamber the cell is collected in (a collection chamber or a waste chamber). Cells with the expressed characteristic will be collected in the collection chamber. This system has been built and is currently being tested. We are also designing a system with integrated MEMS-based pumps and valves for a small and compact unit to fly on small satellite-based biology experiments.

  15. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaza, E.; Symonds-Tayler, R.; Collins, D. J.; McDonald, F.; McNair, H. A.; Scurr, E.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.

    2015-02-01

    A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment.

  16. 78 FR 4155 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone Activity Permit... Application for Foreign Trade Zone Admission and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone... Foreign Trade Zone Admission and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade......

  17. Polyglot Programming in Applications Used for Genetic Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Applications used for the analysis of genetic data process large volumes of data with complex algorithms. High performance, flexibility, and a user interface with a web browser are required by these solutions, which can be achieved by using multiple programming languages. In this study, I developed a freely available framework for building software to analyze genetic data, which uses C++, Python, JavaScript, and several libraries. This system was used to build a number of genetic data processing applications and it reduced the time and costs of development. PMID:25197633

  18. Polyglot programming in applications used for genetic data analysis.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Applications used for the analysis of genetic data process large volumes of data with complex algorithms. High performance, flexibility, and a user interface with a web browser are required by these solutions, which can be achieved by using multiple programming languages. In this study, I developed a freely available framework for building software to analyze genetic data, which uses C++, Python, JavaScript, and several libraries. This system was used to build a number of genetic data processing applications and it reduced the time and costs of development. PMID:25197633

  19. 75 FR 78805 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Refund of Educational Contributions) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Refund of Educational Contributions) Activity Under... INFORMATION: Title: Application for Refund of Educational Contributions (VEAP, Chapter 32, Title 38,...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Refund of Educational Contributions) Activity... on the collection of information through Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at www.Regulations... forms of information technology. Title: Application for Refund of Educational Contributions...

  1. 77 FR 20887 - Proposed Information Collection (Educational/Vocational Counseling Application) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Educational/Vocational Counseling Application) Activity: Comment... comments for information needed to determine an applicant's entitlement to counseling services. DATES... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Educational/Vocational...

  2. 77 FR 67804 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Application for Client Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Application for Client Assistance Program... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Application for Client Assistance Program... request funds to establish and carry out Client Assistance Programs (CAP). CAP is mandated by...

  3. 78 FR 36035 - Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... beneficiary travel mileage reimbursement benefit in an efficient, convenient and accurate manner. VHA must... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application... to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form)'' in...

  4. Applications of nuclear technologies for in-vivo elemental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Wielopolski, L.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement facilities developed, to date, include a unique whole-body-counter, (WBC); a total-body neutron-activation facility (TBNAA); and a partial-body activation facility (PBNAA). A variation of the prompt-gamma neutron-activation technique for measuring total-body nitrogen was developed to study body composition of cancer patients and the effect of nutritional regimens on the composition. These new techniques provide data in numerous clinical studies not previously amenable to investigation. The development and perfection of these techniques provide unique applications of radiation and radioisotopes to the early diagnosis of certain diseases and the evaluation of therapeutic programs. The PBNAA technique has been developed and calibrated for in-vivo measurement of metals. Development has gone forward on prompt-gamma neutron activation for the measurement of cadmium, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for measurement of iron. Other techniques are being investigated for in-vivo measurement of metals such as silicon and beryllium.

  5. Application Of Shakedown Analysis To Cyclic Creep Damage Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Peter; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Shakedown analysis may be used to provide a conservative estimate of local rupture and hence cyclic creep damage for use in a creep-fatigue assessment. The shakedown analysis is based on an elastic-perfectly plastic material with a temperature-dependent pseudo yield stress defined to guarantee that a shakedown solution exists which does not exceed rupture stress and temperature for a defined life. The ratio of design life to the estimated maximum cyclic life is the shakedown creep damage. The methodology does not require stress classification and is also applicable to cycles over the full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Full cyclic creep and damage analysis is the alternative when shakedown analysis appears to be excessively conservative.

  6. Fast PCA via UTV decomposition and application on EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2009-01-01

    In the mean square error sense, principal component analysis (PCA) or Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) can optimally summarize the high dimensional data into only a few meaningful ones. However, for the biomedical signal analysis, e.g. electroencephalogram (EEG), the data need to be updated or downdated very often. This fact makes the PCA impractical to be employed, especially in real-time signal analysis. In this paper, we propose the fast computational method for approximating the PCA such that the new transform, called fast PCA (fastPCA), can easily be updated and downdated. The fastPCA is calculated via the UTV decomposition which is the method normally used to approximate the rank-revealing property of the singular value decomposition (SVD). The merit of the fastPCA is also illustrated via the application on EEG analysis. PMID:19964138

  7. The relevance of particle flux monitors in accelerator-based activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Segebade, Chr.; Maimaitimin, M.; Sun Zaijing

    2013-04-19

    One of the most critical parameters in activation analysis is the flux density of the activating radiation, its spatial distribution in particular. The validity of the basic equation for calculating the activity induced to the exposed item depends upon the fulfilment of several conditions, the most relevant of them being equal doses of incident activating radiation received by the unknown sample, the calibration material and the reference material, respectively. This requirement is most problematic if accelerator-produced radiation is used for activation. Whilst nuclear research reactors usually are equipped with exposure positions that provide fairly homogenous activation fields for thermal neutron activation analysis accelerator-generated particle beams (neutrons, photons, charged particles) usually exhibit axial and, in particular, sharp radial flux gradients. Different experimental procedures have been developed to fulfil the condition mentioned above. In this paper, three variants of the application of flux monitors in photon activation analysis are discussed (external monitor, additive and inherent internal monitor). Experiments have indicated that the latter technique yields highest quality of the analytical results.

  8. The relevance of particle flux monitors in accelerator-based activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segebade, Chr.; Maimaitimin, M.; Zaijing, Sun

    2013-04-01

    One of the most critical parameters in activation analysis is the flux density of the activating radiation, its spatial distribution in particular. The validity of the basic equation for calculating the activity induced to the exposed item depends upon the fulfilment of several conditions, the most relevant of them being equal doses of incident activating radiation received by the unknown sample, the calibration material and the reference material, respectively. This requirement is most problematic if accelerator-produced radiation is used for activation. Whilst nuclear research reactors usually are equipped with exposure positions that provide fairly homogenous activation fields for thermal neutron activation analysis accelerator-generated particle beams (neutrons, photons, charged particles) usually exhibit axial and, in particular, sharp radial flux gradients. Different experimental procedures have been developed to fulfil the condition mentioned above. In this paper, three variants of the application of flux monitors in photon activation analysis are discussed (external monitor, additive and inherent internal monitor). Experiments have indicated that the latter technique yields highest quality of the analytical results.

  9. Fault tolerance analysis and applications to microwave modules and MMIC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggan, Garry H.

    A project whose objective was to provide an overview of built-in-test (BIT) considerations applicable to microwave systems, modules, and MMICs (monolithic microwave integrated circuits) is discussed. Available analytical techniques and software for assessing system failure characteristics were researched, and the resulting investigation provides a review of two techniques which have applicability to microwave systems design. A system-level approach to fault tolerance and redundancy management is presented in its relationship to the subsystem/element design. An overview of the microwave BIT focus from the Air Force Integrated Diagnostics program is presented. The technical reports prepared by the GIMADS team were reviewed for applicability to microwave modules and components. A review of MIMIC (millimeter and microwave integrated circuit) program activities relative to BIT/BITE is given.

  10. Monitoring of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensing for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Park, Chan - Yik; Jun, Seung - Moon

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of an initial investigation into tracking and monitoring the integrity of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensors. The target application of this study is a fitting lug assembly of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), where a composite wing is mounted to a UAV fuselage. The SHM methods deployed in this study are impedance-based SHM techniques, time-series analysis, and high-frequency response functions measured by piezoelectric active-sensors. Different types of simulated damage are introduced into the structure, and the capability of each technique is examined and compared. Additional considerations encountered in this initial investigation are made to guide further thorough research required for the successful field deployment of this technology.

  11. Inspectional analysis to search for symmetric solutions. Applications in electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Marrero, José Luis

    2014-12-01

    A group of symmetries of a mathematical equation is a set of transformations of the dependent and independent variables that leaves the equation invariant. Invariance under symmetry groups is important because it often reduces the set of partial differential equations that describe a problem of continuum physics to a simpler set of ordinary differential equations, which can always be integrated numerically. It is also important because one can make useful inferences about the properties of their solutions without actually solving those equations. Testing differential equations for invariance under groups of transformations is termed inspectional analysis. Examples of the applications of inspectional analysis to electromagnetic problems are discussed. Two groups of symmetries and their associated solutions are studied: the group of scalings with self-similar solutions, and the group of translations with travelling-wave solutions. Also, applications of symmetry groups to boundary value problems are considered. Finally, dimensional analysis, used to reduce the number of variables, parameters, and physical constants in physical problems, is reviewed as a special case of the group of scalings of the fundamental units. It is argued that inspectional analysis is more adequate than dimensional analysis to reduce the number of variables in a differential equation.

  12. Application of integrated fluid-thermal-structural analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieting, Allan R.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Bey, Kim S.; Thornton, Earl A.; Morgan, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles operate in a hostile aerothermal environment which has a significant impact on their aerothermostructural performance. Significant coupling occurs between the aerodynamic flow field, structural heat transfer, and structural response creating a multidisciplinary interaction. Interfacing state-of-the-art disciplinary analysis methods is not efficient, hence interdisciplinary analysis methods integrated into a single aerothermostructural analyzer are needed. The NASA Langley Research Center is developing such methods in an analyzer called LIFTS (Langley Integrated Fluid-Thermal-Structural) analyzer. The evolution and status of LIFTS is reviewed and illustrated through applications.

  13. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  14. Why social network analysis is important to Air Force applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, Paul R.; McIntire, John P.; Geiselman, Eric; Mohd-Zaid, Fairul

    2012-06-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool used to help analysts discover relationships amongst groups of people as well as individuals. It is the mathematics behind such social networks as Facebook and MySpace. These networks alone cause a huge amount of data to be generated and the issue is only compounded once one adds in other electronic media such as e-mails and twitter. In this paper we outline the basics of social network analysis and how it may be used in current and future Air Force applications.

  15. Single-molecule detection: applications to ultrasensitive biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Alonso; Shera, E. Brooks

    1995-06-01

    Recent developments in laser-based detection of fluorescent molecules have made possible the implementation of very sensitive techniques for biochemical analysis. We present and discuss our experiments on the applications of our recently developed technique of single-molecule detection to the analysis of molecules of biological interest. These newly developed methods are capable of detecting and identifying biomolecules at the single-molecule level of sensitivity. In one case, identification is based on measuring fluorescence brightness from single molecules. In another, molecules are classified by determining their electrophoretic velocities.

  16. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130

  17. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  18. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  19. Performance Analysis of Web Applications Based on User Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quanshu; Ye, Hairong; Ding, Zuohua

    This paper proposes a method to conduct performance eanalysis of web applications. The behavior model is firstly built from log file after user navigation, then an extended state diagram is extracted from this log file, finally multiple Markov model is cooperated to this state diagram and the performance analysis can be obtained from the Markov model. Five indexes are used to measure the performance and they are: service response time, service path length, service utilization, service implementation rate and access error rate. Our performance analysis result will provide a suggestion to improve the design of web applications and optimize the services. A case study of Zhejiang Chess web site has been used to demonstrate the advantage of our method.

  20. Market penetration analysis for direct heat geothermal energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.; Nelson, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    This study is concerned with the estimation of the National geothermal market potential and penetration in direct heat applications for residences and certain industry segments. An important aspect of this study is that the analysis considers both known and anticipated goethermal resources. This allows for an estimation of the longer-range potential for geothermal applications. Thus the approach and results of this study provide new insights and valuable information not obtained from more limited, site-specific types of analyses. Estimates made in this study track geothermal market potential and projected penetration from the present to the year 2020. Private sector commercialization of geothermal energy over this period requires assistance in the identification of markets and market sizes, potential users, and appropriate technical applications.

  1. Application of active controls to civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of active controls on civil transport aircraft and some of the complex problems involved are described. The approach taken by NASA as part of the Active Control Technology Program is discussed to integrate active controls in the conceptual design phase. It is shown that when handled correctly, active controls improve aircraft performance.

  2. Analysis of small crack behavior for airframe applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, R. C.; Chan, K. S.; Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Davidson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The small fatigue crack problem is critically reviewed from the perspective of airframe applications. Different types of small cracks-microstructural, mechanical, and chemical-are carefully defined and relevant mechanisms identified. Appropriate analysis techniques, including both rigorous scientific and practical engineering treatments, are briefly described. Important materials data issues are addressed, including increased scatter in small crack data and recommended small crack test methods. Key problems requiring further study are highlighted.

  3. Global-local methodologies and their application to nonlinear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    An assessment is made of the potential of different global-local analysis strategies for predicting the nonlinear and postbuckling responses of structures. Two postbuckling problems of composite panels are used as benchmarks and the application of different global-local methodologies to these benchmarks is outlined. The key elements of each of the global-local strategies are discussed and future research areas needed to realize the full potential of global-local methodologies are identified.

  4. On One Application of Fourier Analysis in Plastic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimov, Abdumalik; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    In present paper, we discuss the spectral methods of measurement of the degree of speech and/or quality of sound by comparing the coefficient of performance indicators depending on energy distributions, ratio of energy of the fundamental tone and energy of overtones. Such a method is very efficient for string oscillation with different initial conditions and it is useful for justification of applications of Fourier analysis in plastic surgery in treatment of some medical diseases.

  5. Applications of functional data analysis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional data analysis (FDA) is increasingly being used to better analyze, model and predict time series data. Key aspects of FDA include the choice of smoothing technique, data reduction, adjustment for clustering, functional linear modeling and forecasting methods. Methods A systematic review using 11 electronic databases was conducted to identify FDA application studies published in the peer-review literature during 1995–2010. Papers reporting methodological considerations only were excluded, as were non-English articles. Results In total, 84 FDA application articles were identified; 75.0% of the reviewed articles have been published since 2005. Application of FDA has appeared in a large number of publications across various fields of sciences; the majority is related to biomedicine applications (21.4%). Overall, 72 studies (85.7%) provided information about the type of smoothing techniques used, with B-spline smoothing (29.8%) being the most popular. Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for extracting information from functional data was reported in 51 (60.7%) studies. One-quarter (25.0%) of the published studies used functional linear models to describe relationships between explanatory and outcome variables and only 8.3% used FDA for forecasting time series data. Conclusions Despite its clear benefits for analyzing time series data, full appreciation of the key features and value of FDA have been limited to date, though the applications show its relevance to many public health and biomedical problems. Wider application of FDA to all studies involving correlated measurements should allow better modeling of, and predictions from, such data in the future especially as FDA makes no a priori age and time effects assumptions. PMID:23510439

  6. Off-the-shelf mobile handset environments for deploying accelerometer based gait and activity analysis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Martin; Wang, Han; Kilmartin, Liam

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been substantial research interest in the application of accelerometry data for many forms of automated gait and activity analysis algorithms. This paper introduces a summary of new "of-the-shelf" mobile phone handset platforms containing embedded accelerometers which support the development of custom software to implement real time analysis of the accelerometer data. An overview of the main software programming environments which support the development of such software, including Java ME based JSR 256 API, C++ based Motion Sensor API and the Python based "aXYZ" module, is provided. Finally, a sample application is introduced and its performance evaluated in order to illustrate how a standard mobile phone can be used to detect gait activity using such a non-intrusive and easily accepted sensing platform. PMID:19964383

  7. Desired features of smartphone applications promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Bock, Beth

    2011-12-01

    Approximately one-third of adults in the United States are physically inactive. This is a significant public health concern as physical activity (PA) can influence the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. To minimize these health risks, effective PA interventions must be developed and disseminated to the vast number of individuals who remain sedentary. Smartphone technology presents an exciting opportunity for delivering PA interventions remotely. Although a number of PA applications are currently available for smartphones, these "apps" are not based on established theories of health behavior change and most do not include evidence-based features (e.g., reinforcement and goal setting). Our aim was to collect formative data to develop a smartphone PA app that is empirically and theoretically-based and incorporates user preferences. We recruited 15 sedentary adults to test three currently available PA smartphone apps and provide qualitative and quantitative feedback. Findings indicate that users have a number of specific preferences with regard to PA app features, including that apps provide automatic tracking of PA (e.g., steps taken and calories burned), track progress toward PA goals, and integrate a music feature. Participants also preferred that PA apps be flexible enough to be used with several types of PA, and have well-documented features and user-friendly interfaces (e.g., a one-click main page). When queried by the researcher, most participants endorsed including goal-setting and problem-solving features. These findings provide a blue print for developing a smartphone PA app that incorporates evidence-based components and user preferences. PMID:22010977

  8. Evaluation of Distribution Analysis Software for DER Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, RH

    2003-01-23

    The term ''Distributed energy resources'' or DER refers to a variety of compact, mostly self-contained power-generating technologies that can be combined with energy management and storage systems and used to improve the operation of the electricity distribution system, whether or not those technologies are connected to an electricity grid. Implementing DER can be as simple as installing a small electric generator to provide backup power at an electricity consumer's site. Or it can be a more complex system, highly integrated with the electricity grid and consisting of electricity generation, energy storage, and power management systems. DER devices provide opportunities for greater local control of electricity delivery and consumption. They also enable more efficient utilization of waste heat in combined cooling, heating and power (CHP) applications--boosting efficiency and lowering emissions. CHP systems can provide electricity, heat and hot water for industrial processes, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control to improve indoor air quality. DER technologies are playing an increasingly important role in the nation's energy portfolio. They can be used to meet base load power, peaking power, backup power, remote power, power quality, as well as cooling and heating needs. DER systems, ranging in size and capacity from a few kilowatts up to 50 MW, can include a number of technologies (e.g., supply-side and demand-side) that can be located at or near the location where the energy is used. Information pertaining to DER technologies, application solutions, successful installations, etc., can be found at the U.S. Department of Energy's DER Internet site [1]. Market forces in the restructured electricity markets are making DER, both more common and more active in the distribution systems throughout the US [2]. If DER devices can be made even more competitive with central generation sources this trend will become unstoppable. In response, energy

  9. Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencini, Massimo; Ginelli, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    stable and unstable directions associated with Lyapunov exponents. Recently, novel and efficient algorithms for computing CLVs have become available, turning them into a practical tool for the study and characterization of chaotic dynamical systems, especially when many degrees of freedom are considered. Applications include—but are not limited to—the characterization of collective chaotic modes and the study of intermittency in shell models for turbulence. This section also includes a pedagogical discussion of CLVs in low dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Time series analysis. The computation of Lyapunov exponents from time series data is a very active field of research playing a crucial role in experimental studies, with applications ranging from nonlinear optics to neuroscience. The need to reconstruct a higher dimensional phase space from scalar or lower dimensional data poses fundamental issues, introducing spurious Lyapunov exponents and limiting the accuracy when quantities such as the Kaplan-Yorke-dimension or the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy are concerned. Recent advances based on CLVs, however, may help in identifying such spurious exponents, increasing the accuracy of embedding techniques. Many-body systems. The study of many-body dynamical systems plays a fundamental role in the debate on the foundations of statistical physics. In this respect, the discovery of long wavelength tangent space modes associated with close-to-zero Lyapunov exponents, the so-called hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, has raised hopes that a clear link could be established between hydrodynamic transport coefficients and microscopic dynamical properties. In this section, three contributions discuss Lyapunov analysis applied to many-body systems such as hard disks and lattices of interacting classical spins. Spatiotemporal chaos and hyperbolicity. Spatially extended chaotic systems pose a number of new issues when spatiotemporal chaos is considered, ranging from questions on its extensivity

  10. Distributed analysis environment for HEP and interdisciplinary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mościcki, J. T.

    2003-04-01

    Huge data volumes of Larger Hadron Collider experiment require parallel end-user analysis on clusters of hundreds of machines. While the focus of end-user High-Energy Physics analysis is on ntuples, the master-worker model of parallel processing may be also used in other contexts such as detector simulation. The aim of DIANE R&D project ( http://cern.ch/it-proj-diane) currently held by CERN IT/API group is to create a generic, component-based framework for distributed, parallel data processing in master-worker model. Pre-compiled user analysis code is loaded dynamically at runtime in component libraries and called back when appropriate. Such application-oriented framework must be flexible enough to integrate with the emerging GRID technologies as they become available in the time to come. Therefore, common services such as environment reconstruction, code distribution, load balancing and authentication are designed and implemented as pluggable modules. This approach allows to easily replace them with modules implemented with newer technology as necessary. The paper gives an overview of DIANE architecture and explains the main design choices. Selected examples of diverse applications from a variety of domains applicable to DIANE are presented. As well as preliminary benchmarking results.

  11. Physical basis for prompt-neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The technique called prompt ..gamma..-ray neutron activation analysis has been applied to rapid materials analysis. The radiation following the neutron radiation capture is prompt in the sense that the nuclear decay time is on the order of 10/sup -15/ second, and thus the technique is not strictly activation, but should be called radiation neutron capture spectroscopy or neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. This paper reviews the following: sources and detectors, theory of radiative capture, nonstatistical capture, giant dipole resonance, fast neutron capture, and thermal neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectra. 14 figures.

  12. Inference of Splicing Regulatory Activities by Sequence Neighborhood Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Michael B; Shomron, Noam; Yeo, Gene W; Schneider, Aniket; Xiao, Xinshu; Burge, Christopher B

    2006-01-01

    Sequence-specific recognition of nucleic-acid motifs is critical to many cellular processes. We have developed a new and general method called Neighborhood Inference (NI) that predicts sequences with activity in regulating a biochemical process based on the local density of known sites in sequence space. Applied to the problem of RNA splicing regulation, NI was used to predict hundreds of new exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) and silencer (ESS) hexanucleotides from known human ESEs and ESSs. These predictions were supported by cross-validation analysis, by analysis of published splicing regulatory activity data, by sequence-conservation analysis, and by measurement of the splicing regulatory activity of 24 novel predicted ESEs, ESSs, and neutral sequences using an in vivo splicing reporter assay. These results demonstrate the ability of NI to accurately predict splicing regulatory activity and show that the scope of exonic splicing regulatory elements is substantially larger than previously anticipated. Analysis of orthologous exons in four mammals showed that the NI score of ESEs, a measure of function, is much more highly conserved above background than ESE primary sequence. This observation indicates a high degree of selection for ESE activity in mammalian exons, with surprisingly frequent interchangeability between ESE sequences. PMID:17121466

  13. Flow injection spectrophotometric analysis of human salivary α-amylase activity using an enzyme degradation of starch-iodine complexes in flow channel and its application to human stress testing.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, Takao; Igarashi, Shukuro; Takagai, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (FIA) of human salivary α-amylase was developed using an enzyme degradation reaction of starch-iodine complexes. In this proposed method, the salivary α-amylase, known as a human stress indicator, is directly and rapidly determined without any pretreatment. In this study, the optimum starch-iodine complexes (i.e., optimum molecular weight and amylase-amylopectin compounding ratio) were selected, and their rapid degradation in the flow channel was investigated to determine salivary amylase in the FIA system. The determination range of α-amylase was obtained from 0.25 to 5.0 kilo Novo unit per milliliter (KNU/mL), and these concentrations were equivalent to the real concentration of amylase in human saliva. The quantitative values obtained by this method were found to be highly reproducible with 1.6% (n=25) of the relative standard deviation for 1.0 KNU/mL. The detection limit (3σ) was 60 NU/mL. In addition, the method requires small volume of a sample (20 µL), and 30 samples was sequentially measured within one hour. Real human saliva collected before and after exercise was utilized to demonstrate the feasibility of human stress test and analytical performance of this approach. PMID:24189429

  14. Guidelines for the use of microcomputer applications in safety- related activities (NCIG-20)

    SciTech Connect

    Domenico, W.F. )

    1992-07-01

    This document presents guidelines and supporting information for the use of microcomputer applications in safety-related activities. The guidelines address controls that should be implemented following development of the applications, in order to ensure that accurate, traceable, and reproducible results are obtained when the applications are used. Guidelines are presented for management, the organization or person supplying the application, and the user of the application.

  15. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient AGENCY: Environmental... products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products... agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North...

  16. 78 FR 75343 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    .... Applicant: Novozymes BioAg, Inc., 13100 W. Lisbon Road, Suite 600, Brookfield, WI 53005. Active ingredient... (represented by Technology Sciences Group, Inc., 712 Fifth St., Suite A, Davis CA 95616). Active...

  17. Seismic Analysis Issues in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.; Morante, R.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of several seismic analysis issues encountered during a review of recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  18. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  19. Environmental applications activity at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paludan, C. T. N.

    1972-01-01

    MSFC environmental applications demonstration projects have emphasized application of aerospace technology to community needs of southeastern U.S. Some of the typical projects underway are: hydrological parameter determination; land use surveys; agricultural stress detection; new community site surveys; pollution monitoring; urban transportation studies; and urban environmental quality.

  20. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  1. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  2. Sensitivity analysis technique for application to deterministic models

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigami, T.; Cazzoli, E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Unwin, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of sever accident source terms for light water reactors should include consideration of uncertainties. An important element of any uncertainty analysis is an evaluation of the sensitivity of the output probability distributions reflecting source term uncertainties to assumptions regarding the input probability distributions. Historically, response surface methods (RSMs) were developed to replace physical models using, for example, regression techniques, with simplified models for example, regression techniques, with simplified models for extensive calculations. The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for sensitivity analysis that does not utilize RSM, but instead relies directly on the results obtained from the original computer code calculations. The merits of this approach are demonstrated by application of the proposed method to the suppression pool aerosol removal code (SPARC), and the results are compared with those obtained by sensitivity analysis with (a) the code itself, (b) a regression model, and (c) Iman's method.

  3. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations. PMID:25580080

  4. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  5. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimizationmore » problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.« less

  6. Modeling the Benchmark Active Control Technology Wind-Tunnel Model for Application to Flutter Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation of a model of the dynamic behavior of the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind-tunnel model for application to design and analysis of flutter suppression controllers. The model is formed by combining the equations of motion for the BACT wind-tunnel model with actuator models and a model of wind-tunnel turbulence. The primary focus of this paper is the development of the equations of motion from first principles using Lagrange's equations and the principle of virtual work. A numerical form of the model is generated using values for parameters obtained from both experiment and analysis. A unique aspect of the BACT wind-tunnel model is that it has upper- and lower-surface spoilers for active control. Comparisons with experimental frequency responses and other data show excellent agreement and suggest that simple coefficient-based aerodynamics are sufficient to accurately characterize the aeroelastic response of the BACT wind-tunnel model. The equations of motion developed herein have been used to assist the design and analysis of a number of flutter suppression controllers that have been successfully implemented.

  7. Application of Open Source Technologies for Oceanographic Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Gangl, M.; Quach, N. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Chin, T. M.; Greguska, F.

    2015-12-01

    NEXUS is a data-intensive analysis solution developed with a new approach for handling science data that enables large-scale data analysis by leveraging open source technologies such as Apache Cassandra, Apache Spark, Apache Solr, and Webification. NEXUS has been selected to provide on-the-fly time-series and histogram generation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission for Level 2 and Level 3 Active, Passive, and Active Passive products. It also provides an on-the-fly data subsetting capability. NEXUS is designed to scale horizontally, enabling it to handle massive amounts of data in parallel. It takes a new approach on managing time and geo-referenced array data by dividing data artifacts into chunks and stores them in an industry-standard, horizontally scaled NoSQL database. This approach enables the development of scalable data analysis services that can infuse and leverage the elastic computing infrastructure of the Cloud. It is equipped with a high-performance geospatial and indexed data search solution, coupled with a high-performance data Webification solution free from file I/O bottlenecks, as well as a high-performance, in-memory data analysis engine. In this talk, we will focus on the recently funded AIST 2014 project by using NEXUS as the core for oceanographic anomaly detection service and web portal. We call it, OceanXtremes

  8. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-02-13

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.

  9. Features for voice activity detection: a comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Simon; Herbig, Tobias; Buck, Markus; Schmidt, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    In many speech signal processing applications, voice activity detection (VAD) plays an essential role for separating an audio stream into time intervals that contain speech activity and time intervals where speech is absent. Many features that reflect the presence of speech were introduced in literature. However, to our knowledge, no extensive comparison has been provided yet. In this article, we therefore present a structured overview of several established VAD features that target at different properties of speech. We categorize the features with respect to properties that are exploited, such as power, harmonicity, or modulation, and evaluate the performance of some dedicated features. The importance of temporal context is discussed in relation to latency restrictions imposed by different applications. Our analyses allow for selecting promising VAD features and finding a reasonable trade-off between performance and complexity.

  10. Electro-Active Polymer (EAP) Actuators for Planetary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Leary, S.; Shahinpoor, M.; Harrison, J. O.; Smith, J.

    1999-01-01

    NASA is seeking to reduce the mass, size, consumed power, and cost of the instrumentation used in its future missions. An important element of many instruments and devices is the actuation mechanism and electroactive polymers (EAP) are offering an effective alternative to current actuators. In this study, two families of EAP materials were investigated, including bending ionomers and longitudinal electrostatically driven elastomers. These materials were demonstrated to effectively actuate manipulation devices and their performance is being enhanced in this on-going study. The recent observations are reported in this paper, include the operation of the bending-EAP at conditions that exceed the harsh environment on Mars, and identify the obstacles that its properties and characteristics are posing to using them as actuators. Analysis of the electrical characteristics of the ionomer EAP showed that it is a current driven material rather than voltage driven and the conductivity distribution on the surface of the material greatly influences the bending performance. An accurate equivalent circuit modeling of the ionomer EAP performance is essential for the design of effective drive electronics. The ionomer main limitations are the fact that it needs to be moist continuously and the process of electrolysis that takes place during activation. An effective coating technique using a sprayed polymer was developed extending its operation in air from a few minutes to about four months. The coating technique effectively forms the equivalent of a skin to protect the moisture content of the ionomer. In parallel to the development of the bending EAP, the development of computer control of actuated longitudinal EAP has been pursued. An EAP driven miniature robotic arm was constructed and it is controlled by a MATLAB code to drop and lift the arm and close and open EAP fingers of a 4-finger gripper. Keywords: Miniature Robotics, Electroactive Polymers, Electroactive Actuators, EAP

  11. Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles. PMID:24957037

  12. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  13. Making Sense of Total VET Activity: An Initial Market Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    Following the successful first national publication of total vocational education and training (VET) activity and presentation of various informative data products, NCVER has continued to undertake further analysis of the submitted data. This paper is the first in a suite of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) authored…

  14. Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity. Interim Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Raymond C.

    This interim report discusses progress toward three major goals of the Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity: increased pupil inquiry, changed teacher behavior to facilitate pupil inquiry, and the development of a 32-week course of instruction to provide for these behavioral changes. Data currently available deals with the emotional…

  15. Cowplex usage of the gold gamma - activation analysis information

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyarev, S.I.

    1993-12-31

    A simultaneous gold assay method, evaluation of gold`s grain number and weight, and lithologic type, of ore bearing rock, is described. The basis of this method is gamma activation analysis which permits the assay of 500 grams of gold samples crushed up to 3 mm.

  16. The Analysis and Reconciliation of Students' Rebuttals in Argumentation Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ren; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the guidance provided by science teachers to resolve conflicts during socioscientific issue-based argumentation activities. A graphical representation (GR) was developed as a tool to code and analyze the dialogue interaction process. Through the GR and qualitative analysis, we identified three types of dialogue…

  17. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  18. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission: Improving Science Application Tools and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.; Moran, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    NASA depends on the science community to identify and prioritize leading-edge scientific questions and the observations required to answer them. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission has been identified as a priority for NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the most recent decadal survey. Following launch in 2014, SMAP will deliver global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial hydrologic and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer that share a deployable mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at spatial scales. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with a 2-3 day revisit frequency and 1-2 day revisit in boreal latitudes. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit frequency. SMAP data are valuable for both scientific research and practical applications. SMAP has the potential to drive a diverse range of novel research in drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate prediction, human health risk analysis and defense systems. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will provide new information for many science and applications disciplines. A SMAP Applications Team will explore ways to measure interaction and integration of SMAP data with the Emergency Management User community of Maryland in order to produce quantitative metrics related to long-term projects, milestone completion, and movement of SMAP products into routine operations for emergency response.

  19. Analysis of Compressive Sensing for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuioceanu, Maria

    Compressive Sensing (CS) systems capture data with fewer measurements than traditional sensors assuming that imagery is redundant and compressible in the spectral and spatial dimensions. This thesis utilizes a model of the Coded Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imager-Dual Disperser (CASSI-DD) to simulate CS measurements from traditionally sensed HyMap images. A novel reconstruction algorithm that combines spectral smoothing and spatial total variation (TV) is used to create high resolution hyperspectral imagery from the simulated CS measurements. This research examines the effect of the number of measurements, which corresponds to the percentage of physical data sampled, on the quality of simulated CS data as estimated through performance of spectral image processing algorithms. The effect of CS on the data cloud is explored through principal component analysis (PCA) and endmember extraction. The ultimate purpose of this thesis is to investigate the utility of the CS sensor model and reconstruction for various hyperspectral applications in order to identify the strengths and limitations of CS. While CS is shown to create useful imagery for visual analysis, the data cloud is altered and per-pixel spectral fidelity declines for CS reconstructions from only a small number of measurements. In some hyperspectral applications, many measurements are needed in order to obtain comparable results to traditionally sensed HSI, including atmospheric compensation and subpixel target detection. On the other hand, in hyperspectral applications where pixels must be dramatically altered in order to be misclassified, such as land classification or NDVI mapping, CS shows promise.

  20. Transmutation analysis of realistic low-activation steels for magnetic fusion reactors and IFMIF

    SciTech Connect

    Cabellos, O; Sanz, J; Garc?a-Herranz, N; D?az, S; Reyes, S; Piedloup, S

    2005-11-22

    A comprehensive transmutation study for steels considered in the selection of structural materials for magnetic and inertial fusion reactors has been performed in the IFMIF neutron irradiation scenario, as well as in the ITER and DEMO ones for comparison purposes. An element-by-element transmutation approach is used in the study, addressing the generation of: (1) H and He and (2) solid transmutants. The IEAF-2001 activation library and the activation code ACAB were applied to the IFMIF transmutation analysis, after proving the applicability of ACAB for transmutation calculations of this kind of intermediate energy systems.

  1. 26 CFR 1.145-2 - Application of private activity bond regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the private business use test and the private security or payment test mean “5 percent” and “net... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of private activity bond regulations... Bonds § 1.145-2 Application of private activity bond regulations. (a) In general. Except as provided...

  2. 26 CFR 1.145-2 - Application of private activity bond regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the private business use test and the private security or payment test mean “5 percent” and “net... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of private activity bond regulations... Bonds § 1.145-2 Application of private activity bond regulations. (a) In general. Except as provided...

  3. 26 CFR 1.145-2 - Application of private activity bond regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the private business use test and the private security or payment test mean “5 percent” and “net... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of private activity bond regulations... Bonds § 1.145-2 Application of private activity bond regulations. (a) In general. Except as provided...

  4. 26 CFR 1.145-2 - Application of private activity bond regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the private business use test and the private security or payment test mean “5 percent” and “net... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of private activity bond regulations... Bonds § 1.145-2 Application of private activity bond regulations. (a) In general. Except as provided...

  5. 26 CFR 1.145-2 - Application of private activity bond regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the private business use test and the private security or payment test mean “5 percent” and “net... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of private activity bond regulations... Bonds § 1.145-2 Application of private activity bond regulations. (a) In general. Except as provided...

  6. Mapping of Brain Activity by Automated Volume Analysis of Immediate Early Genes.

    PubMed

    Renier, Nicolas; Adams, Eliza L; Kirst, Christoph; Wu, Zhuhao; Azevedo, Ricardo; Kohl, Johannes; Autry, Anita E; Kadiri, Lolahon; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Victoria X; Tang, Cheuk Y; Olsen, Olav; Dulac, Catherine; Osten, Pavel; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-06-16

    Understanding how neural information is processed in physiological and pathological states would benefit from precise detection, localization, and quantification of the activity of all neurons across the entire brain, which has not, to date, been achieved in the mammalian brain. We introduce a pipeline for high-speed acquisition of brain activity at cellular resolution through profiling immediate early gene expression using immunostaining and light-sheet fluorescence imaging, followed by automated mapping and analysis of activity by an open-source software program we term ClearMap. We validate the pipeline first by analysis of brain regions activated in response to haloperidol. Next, we report new cortical regions downstream of whisker-evoked sensory processing during active exploration. Last, we combine activity mapping with axon tracing to uncover new brain regions differentially activated during parenting behavior. This pipeline is widely applicable to different experimental paradigms, including animal species for which transgenic activity reporters are not readily available. PMID:27238021

  7. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  8. Pore size distribution analysis of activated carbons prepared from coconut shell using methane adsorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadpour, A.; Okhovat, A.; Darabi Mahboub, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    The application of Stoeckli theory to determine pore size distribution (PSD) of activated carbons using high pressure methane adsorption data is explored. Coconut shell was used as a raw material for the preparation of 16 different activated carbon samples. Four samples with higher methane adsorption were selected and nitrogen adsorption on these adsorbents was also investigated. Some differences are found between the PSD obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms and their PSD resulting from the same analysis using methane adsorption data. It is suggested that these differences may arise from the specific interactions between nitrogen molecules and activated carbon surfaces; therefore caution is required in the interpretation of PSD obtained from the nitrogen isotherm data.

  9. Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S.; Cowley, Paula J.

    2004-09-28

    Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.

  10. 78 FR 72688 - Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Drill; Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Drill... data and information that is submitted with an Application for Permit to Drill (APD), a Revised APD... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR part 250, Application for Permit to Drill and all supporting documentation....

  11. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Titles a. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary...

  12. 78 FR 72693 - Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Modify; Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Modify... data and information that is submitted with an Application for Permit to Modify (APM) under the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Application for Permit to Modify (APM), BSEE- 0124. Form:...

  13. neutron activation analysis using thermochromatography. II. thermochromatographic separation of elements in the analysis of geological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sattarov, G.; Davydov, A.V.; Khamatov, S.; Kist, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    The use of gas thermochromatography (GTC) in the radioactivation analysis of difficulty soluble samples with a strongly activating substrate is discussed. The effect of sample coarseness and ore type on the rate of extraction of gold and accompanying elements was studied. The limits of detection of 22 elements were compared using neutron activation analysis with GTC and INAA. The analytical parameters of the procedure were estimated.

  14. Discriminant analysis in wildlife research: Theory and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1981-01-01

    Discriminant analysis, a method of analyzing grouped multivariate data, is often used in ecological investigations. It has both a predictive and an explanatory function, the former aiming at classification of individuals of unknown group membership. The goal of the latter function is to exhibit group separation by means of linear transforms, and the corresponding method is called canonical analysis. This discussion focuses on the application of canonical analysis in ecology. In order to clarify its meaning, a parametric approach is taken instead of the usual data-based formulation. For certain assumptions the data-based canonical variates are shown to result from maximum likelihood estimation, thus insuring consistency and asymptotic efficiency. The distorting effects of covariance heterogeneity are examined, as are certain difficulties which arise in interpreting the canonical functions. A 'distortion metric' is defined, by means of which distortions resulting from the canonical transformation can be assessed. Several sampling problems which arise in ecological applications are considered. It is concluded that the method may prove valuable for data exploration, but is of limited value as an inferential procedure.

  15. Application of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-03-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) the authors have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. They have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. They are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. The primary vehicle the authors have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. They are currently adapting their methods and tools of human error analysis to the domain of air traffic management (ATM) systems. Under the NASA-sponsored Advanced Air Traffic Technologies (AATT) program they are working to address issues of human reliability in the design of ATM systems to support the development of a free flight environment for commercial air traffic in the US. They are also currently testing the application of their human error analysis approach for space flight operations. They have developed a simplified model of the critical habitability functions for the space station Mir, and have used this model to assess the affects of system failures and human errors that have occurred in the wake of the collision incident last year. They are developing an approach so that lessons learned from Mir operations can be systematically applied to design and operation of long-term space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the manned Mars mission.

  16. A Global Sensitivity Analysis Methodology for Multi-physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, C H; Graziani, F R

    2007-02-02

    Experiments are conducted to draw inferences about an entire ensemble based on a selected number of observations. This applies to both physical experiments as well as computer experiments, the latter of which are performed by running the simulation models at different input configurations and analyzing the output responses. Computer experiments are instrumental in enabling model analyses such as uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. This report focuses on a global sensitivity analysis methodology that relies on a divide-and-conquer strategy and uses intelligent computer experiments. The objective is to assess qualitatively and/or quantitatively how the variabilities of simulation output responses can be accounted for by input variabilities. We address global sensitivity analysis in three aspects: methodology, sampling/analysis strategies, and an implementation framework. The methodology consists of three major steps: (1) construct credible input ranges; (2) perform a parameter screening study; and (3) perform a quantitative sensitivity analysis on a reduced set of parameters. Once identified, research effort should be directed to the most sensitive parameters to reduce their uncertainty bounds. This process is repeated with tightened uncertainty bounds for the sensitive parameters until the output uncertainties become acceptable. To accommodate the needs of multi-physics application, this methodology should be recursively applied to individual physics modules. The methodology is also distinguished by an efficient technique for computing parameter interactions. Details for each step will be given using simple examples. Numerical results on large scale multi-physics applications will be available in another report. Computational techniques targeted for this methodology have been implemented in a software package called PSUADE.

  17. Hyphenated techniques and their applications in natural products analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Satyajit D; Nahar, Lutfun

    2012-01-01

    A technique where a separation technique is coupled with an online spectroscopic detection technology is known as hyphenated technique, e.g., GC-MS, LC-PDA, LC-MS, LC-FTIR, LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, and CE-MS. Recent advances in hyphenated analytical techniques have remarkably widened their applications to the analysis of complex biomaterials, especially natural products. This chapter focuses on the applications of hyphenated techniques to pre-isolation and isolation of natural products, dereplication, online partial identification of compounds, chemotaxonomic studies, chemical finger-printing, quality control of herbal products, and metabolomic studies, and presents specific examples. However, a particular emphasis has been given on the hyphenated techniques that involve an LC as the separation tool. PMID:22367902

  18. Recent applications of the transonic wing analysis computer code, TWING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, N. R.; Holst, T. L.; Thomas, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of the transonic-wing-analysis computer code TWING is given. TWING utilizes a fully implicit approximate factorization iteration scheme to solve the full potential equation in conservative form. A numerical elliptic-solver grid-generation scheme is used to generate the required finite-difference mesh. Several wing configurations were analyzed, and the limits of applicability of this code was evaluated. Comparisons of computed results were made with available experimental data. Results indicate that the code is robust, accurate (when significant viscous effects are not present), and efficient. TWING generally produces solutions an order of magnitude faster than other conservative full potential codes using successive-line overrelaxation. The present method is applicable to a wide range of isolated wing configurations including high-aspect-ratio transport wings and low-aspect-ratio, high-sweep, fighter configurations.

  19. [Failure mode and effect analysis: application in chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Sheu-Wen

    2009-08-01

    Medical institutions are increasingly concerned about ensuring the safety of patients under their care. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a qualitative approach based on a proactive process. Strongly promoted by the Joint Commission Accredited of Health Organization (JCAHO) since 2002, FMEA has since been adopted and widely practiced in healthcare organizations to assess and analyze clinical error events. FMEA has proven to be an effective method of minimizing errors in both manufacturing and healthcare industries. It predicts failure points in systems and allows an organization to address proactively the causes of problems and prioritize improvement strategies. The application of FMEA in chemotherapy at our department identified three main failure points: (1) inappropriate chemotherapy standard operating procedures (SOPs), (2) communication barriers, and (3) insufficient training of nurses. The application of FMEA in chemotherapy is expected to enhance the sensitivity and proactive abilities of healthcare practitioners during potentially risky situations as well as to improve levels of patient care safety. PMID:19634100

  20. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for reactor-safety applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    The application and usefulness of an adjoint-based methodology for performing sensitivity analysis on reactor safety computer codes is investigated. The adjoint-based methodology, referred to as differential sensitivity theory (DST), provides first-order derivatives of the calculated quantities of interest (responses) with respect to the input parameters. The basic theoretical development of DST is presented along with the needed general extensions for consideration of model discontinuities and a variety of useful response definitions. A simple analytic problem is used to highlight the general DST procedures. Finally, DST procedures presented in this work are applied to two highly nonlinear reactor accident analysis codes: (1) FASTGAS, a relatively small code for analysis of loss-of-decay-heat-removal accident in a gas-cooled fast reactor, and (2) an existing code called VENUS-II which is typically employed for analyzing the core disassembly phase of a hypothetical fast reactor accident. The two codes are different both in terms of complexity and in terms of the facets of DST which can be illustrated. Sensitivity results from the adjoint codes ADJGAS and VENUS-ADJ are verified with direct recalculations using perturbed input parameters. The effectiveness of the DST results for parameter ranking, prediction of response changes, and uncertainty analysis are illustrated. The conclusion drawn from this study is that DST is a viable, cost-effective methodology for accurate sensitivity analysis.

  1. On the Application of Hilbert Spectral Analysis for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Hilbert spectral analysis (Huang et al, 1998, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A 454, pp 903-995) consisted of two steps: First, the data has to be reduced into a finite number of Intrinsic Mode Function by the Empirical Mode Decomposition method, then the resulting Intrinsic Mode Functions are converted to time-frequency-energy distribution through Hilbert transform. In this approach, the Empirical Mode Functions served as the basis functions with which the data is expanded. This basis function is adaptive, and the decomposition is nonlinear. Furthermore, as the Hilbert transform is a singular transform, it retains a high degree of local information. The instantaneous frequency is determined by differentiation of the phase function; therefore, there is no restriction of the 'uncertainty principle' for all the time-frequency analysis resulting from a priori basis approach. With the adaptive basis and the instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert Spectral analysis can represent data from nonlinear and nonstationary processes without resorting to the harmonics. Another advantage of using instantaneous frequency is the ability to find out frequency from limited length of data, which is a critical problem in climate studies. As the processes driving the climate changes could be both nonlinear and nonstationary, the Hilbert Spectral Analysis could be of great use in examining the underlying mechanisms. A preliminary study based on the length of day data will be presented as example for the application of the Hilbert Spectral Analysis for climate study.

  2. Activation of materials proposed for use in superconducting linac applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.L.; Snead, C.L.; Greene, G.A.; Chan, K.C.D.; Safa, H.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of construction materials proposed for use in both superconducting and conventional high-power linear accelerators have been activated with 800 and 2,000 MeV protons to study the decay characteristics of these activated materials. Irradiation times ranged from 10 minutes to 18.67 hours. The decay characteristics of these activated materials were measured and compared to calculated decay curves based on simplified assumptions.

  3. Summary of the Active Microwave Workshop, chapter 1. [utilization in applications and aerospace programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the utility, feasibility, and advantages of active microwave sensors for a broad range of applications, including aerospace. In many instances, the material provides an in-depth examination of the applicability and/or the technology of microwave remote sensing, and considerable documentation is presented in support of these techniques. An assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of active microwave sensor data indicates that satisfactory data are obtainable for several significant applications.

  4. Low-volume multiplexed proteolytic activity assay and inhibitor analysis through a pico-injector array.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ee Xien; Miller, Miles A; Jing, Tengyang; Lauffenburger, Doug A; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2015-02-21

    Secreted active proteases, from families of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), participate in diverse pathological processes. To simultaneously measure multiple specific protease activities, a series of parallel enzyme reactions combined with a series of inhibitor analyses for proteolytic activity matrix analysis (PrAMA) are essential but limited due to the sample quantity requirements and the complexity of performing multiple reactions. To address these issues, we developed a pico-injector array to generate 72 different reactions in picoliter-volume droplets by controlling the sequence of combinational injections, which allowed simultaneous recording of a wide range of multiple enzyme reactions and measurement of inhibitor effects using small sample volumes (~10 μL). Multiple MMP activities were simultaneously determined by 9 different substrates and 2 inhibitors using injections from a pico-injector array. Due to the advantages of inhibitor analysis, the MMP/ADAM activities of MDA-MB-231, a breast cancer cell line, were characterized with high MMP-2, MMP-3 and ADAM-10 activity. This platform could be customized for a wide range of applications that also require multiple reactions with inhibitor analysis to enhance the sensitivity by encapsulating different chemical sensors. PMID:25553996

  5. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank; Dews, Peter B.; Estes, William K.; Morse, William H.; Van Orman, Willard; Herrnstein, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance. PMID:22478169

  6. neutron activation analysis using thermochromatography. III. analysis of samples of biological origin

    SciTech Connect

    Sattarov, G.; Davydov, A.V.; Khamatov, S.; Kist, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    The use of gas thermochromatography (GTC) in the radioactivation analysis of biological materials is discussed. A group separation of a number of highly volatile elements from sodium and bromine radionuclides has been achieved. The limit of detection of the elements by INAA and neutron activation analysis was estimated using GTC. The advantages of the procedure and the analytical parameters are discussed.

  7. APPLICATION OF SPATIAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO PETROLEUM RESOURCE ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Betty M.; Domaratz, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    Petroleum resource assessment procedures require the analysis of a large volume of spatial data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and applied spatial information handling procedures and digital cartographic techniques to a recent study involving the assessment of oil and gas resource potential for 74 million acres of designated and proposed wilderness lands in the western United States. The part of the study which dealt with the application of spatial information technology to petroleum resource assessment procedures is reviewed. A method was designed to expedite the gathering, integrating, managing, manipulating and plotting of spatial data from multiple data sources that are essential in modern resource assessment procedures.

  8. Application of deterministic chaos analysis to investigating CFB hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, C.; Luo, Z.; Li, X.; Fang, M.; Ni, M.; Cen, K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents an application of deterministic chaos analysis to the behavior of a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Two improvements for the traditional algorithm are put forward: a rule and the mathematical model are present to determine the no-scale interval, and an improved formula and the corresponding recurrence formula are given to calculate distance. Calculation results for different operating conditions indicate that the correlation dimension and Kolmogorov entropy can be employed to characterize fluidization regimes and their transitions, and may be used to detect abnormal conditions in CFB.

  9. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of optogenetic modulation of neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Gu, L.; Ghosh, N.; Mohanty, S. K.

    2013-02-01

    Here, we introduce a computational procedure to examine whether optogenetically activated neuronal firing recordings could be characterized as multifractal series. Optogenetics is emerging as a valuable experimental tool and a promising approach for studying a variety of neurological disorders in animal models. The spiking patterns from cortical region of the brain of optogenetically-stimulated transgenic mice were analyzed using a sophisticated fluctuation analysis method known as multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). We observed that the optogenetically-stimulated neural firings are consistent with a multifractal process. Further, we used MFDFA to monitor the effect of chemically induced pain (formalin injection) and optogenetic treatment used to relieve the pain. In this case, dramatic changes in parameters characterizing a multifractal series were observed. Both the generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum effectively differentiates the neural activities during control and pain induction phases. The quantitative nature of the analysis equips us with better measures to quantify pain. Further, it provided a measure for effectiveness of the optogenetic stimulation in inhibiting pain. MFDFA-analysis of spiking data from other deep regions of the brain also turned out to be multifractal in nature, with subtle differences in the parameters during pain-induction by formalin injection and inhibition by optogenetic stimulation. Characterization of neuronal firing patterns using MFDFA will lead to better understanding of neuronal response to optogenetic activation and overall circuitry involved in the process.

  10. Active Flow Control on Bidirectional Rotors for Tidal MHK Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, Henry; van Dam, Cornelis P.

    2013-08-22

    A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) tidal turbine extracts energy from tidal currents, providing clean, sustainable electricity generation. In general, all MHK conversion technologies are confronted with significant operational hurdles, resulting in both increased capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. To counter these high costs while maintaining reliability, MHK turbine designs can be simplified. Prior study found that a tidal turbine could be cost-effectively simplified by removing blade pitch and rotor/nacelle yaw. Its rotor would run in one direction during ebb and then reverse direction when the current switched to flood. We dubbed such a turbine a bidirectional rotor tidal turbine (BRTT). The bidirectional hydrofoils of a BRTT are less efficient than conventional hydrofoils and capture less energy, but the elimination of the pitch and yaw systems were estimated to reduce levelized cost of energy by 7.8%-9.6%. In this study, we investigated two mechanisms for recapturing some of the performance shortfall of the BRTT. First, we developed a novel set of hydrofoils, designated the yy series, for BRTT application. Second, we investigated the use of active flow control via microtabs. Microtabs are small deployable/retractable tabs, typically located near the leading or trailing edge of an air/hydrofoil with height on the order of the boundary layer thickness (1% - 2% of chord). They deploy approximately perpendicularly to the foil surface and, like gurney flaps and plain flaps, globally affect the aerodynamics of the airfoil. By strategically placing microtabs and selectively deploying them based on the direction of the inflow, performance of a BRTT rotor can be improved while retaining bidirectional operation. The yy foils were computationally designed and analyzed. They exhibited better performance than the baseline bidirectional foil, the ellipse. For example, the yyb07cn-180 had 14.7% higher (l/d)max than an ellipse of equal thickness. The yyb07cn

  11. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Application Driven Activities in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…

  12. Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement. II - Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Yungel, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Reported here for the first time is the use of a single airborne instrument to make concurrent measurements of oceanic chlorophyll concentration by (1) laser-induced fluorescence, (2) passive upwelling radiance, and (3) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Results from field experiments conducted with the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the New York Bight demonstrate the capability of a single active-passive instrument to perform new and potentially important ocean color studies related to (1) active lidar validation of passive ocean color in-water algorithms, (2) chlorophyll a in vivo fluorescence yield variability, (3) calibration of active multichannel lidar systems, (4) effect of sea state on passive and active ocean color measurements, (5) laser/solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence investigations, and (6) subsequent improvement of satellite-borne ocean color scanners. For validation and comparison purposes a separate passive ocean color sensor was also flown along with the new active-passive sensor during these initial field trials.

  13. An ecosystem analysis of the activated sludge microbial community.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Trissevyene V

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken (i) to investigate the interactions of the activated sludge microbial community in a chemostat with the "environment", such as the substrate composition and variations, (ii) to investigate how these interactions affect the quality of the treated effluent and (iii) to determine the limits or applicability conditions to the indicators and to the prediction potential of the treated effluent quality. This work presents (a) the experimental results obtained from a reactor fed municipal wastewater (Data Set2-DS2) concerning the reactor's operating conditions and the microbial community of the sludge (b) comparisons between DS2 and an older Data Set (DS1) obtained when the reactor was fed synthetic substrate, all other experimental conditions being identical, and (c) simulation results and sensitivity analyses of two model runs (R1 and R2, corresponding to DS1 and DS2). The first trophic level (P(1)) of the DS2 microbial community consisted of bacteria, the second trophic level (P(2)) of bacteria-eating protozoa, rotifers and nematodes and the third trophic level (P(3)) of carnivorous protozoa and arthropods. Rotifers were an important constituent of the DS2 microbial community. The DS1 and DS1 communities differed in total size, trophic level sizes and species composition. Correlations between the major microbial groups of DS2 community and either loading rates or effluent quality attributes were generally low, but the correlation of bacteria with SVI and ammonia in the effluent was better. Also, the ratio of rotifers to protozoa in P(2) was correlated to BOD in the effluent. The results of this work indicate that predictions of the treated effluent quality based only on protozoa may not be safe. Sensitivity analysis of R2 run indicate that, when variation in Y and K(d) biokinetic coefficients of the sludge are combined with fluctuations in composition and quality of municipal wastewater entering the reactor, then sufficient significant

  14. Applications of surface analysis and surface theory in tribology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    Tribology, the study of adhesion, friction and wear of materials, is a complex field which requires a knowledge of solid state physics, surface physics, chemistry, material science, and mechanical engineering. It has been dominated, however, by the more practical need to make equipment work. With the advent of surface analysis and advances in surface and solid-state theory, a new dimension has been added to the analysis of interactions at tribological interfaces. In this paper the applications of tribological studies and their limitations are presented. Examples from research at the NASA Lewis Research Center are given. Emphasis is on fundamental studies involving the effects of monolayer coverage and thick films on friction and wear. A summary of the current status of theoretical calculations of defect energetics is presented. In addition, some new theoretical techniques which enable simplified quantitative calculations of adhesion, fracture, and friction are discussed.

  15. Applications of surface analysis and surface theory in tribology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John

    1988-01-01

    Tribology, the study of adhesion, friction and wear of materials is a complex field which requires a knowledge of solid state physics, surface physics, chemistry, material science and mechanical engineering. It has been dominated, however, by the more practical need to make equipment work. With the advent of surface analysis and advances in surface and solid state theory, a new dimension has been added to the analysis of interactions at tribological interfaces. In this paper the applications of tribological studies and their limitations are presented. Examples from research at the NASA Lewis Research Center are given. Emphasis is on fundamental studies involving the effects of monolayer coverage and thick films on friction and wear. A summary of the current status of theoretical calculations of defect energetics is presented. In addition, some new theoretical techniques which enable simplified quantitative calculations of adhesion, fracture and friction are discussed.

  16. Theory and application of experimental model analysis in earthquake engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncarz, P. D.

    The feasibility and limitations of small-scale model studies in earthquake engineering research and practice is considered with emphasis on dynamic modeling theory, a study of the mechanical properties of model materials, the development of suitable model construction techniques and an evaluation of the accuracy of prototype response prediction through model case studies on components and simple steel and reinforced concrete structures. It is demonstrated that model analysis can be used in many cases to obtain quantitative information on the seismic behavior of complex structures which cannot be analyzed confidently by conventional techniques. Methodologies for model testing and response evaluation are developed in the project and applications of model analysis in seismic response studies on various types of civil engineering structures (buildings, bridges, dams, etc.) are evaluated.

  17. Significance probability mapping: an aid in the topographic analysis of brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Duffy, F H; Bartels, P H; Burchfiel, J L

    1981-05-01

    We illustrate the application of significance probability mapping (SPM) to the analysis of topographic maps of spectral analyzed EEG and visual evoked potential (VEP) activity from patients with brain tumors, boys with dyslexia, and control subjects. When the VEP topographic plots of tumor patients were displayed as number of standard deviations from a reference mean, more subjects were correctly identified than by inspection of the underlying raw data. When topographic plots of EEG alpha activity obtained while listening to speech or music were compared by t statistic to plots of resting alpha activity, regions of cortex presumably activated by speech or music were delineated. DIfferent regions were defined in dyslexic boys and controls. We propose that SPM will prove valuable in the regional localization of normal and abnormal functions in other clinical situations. PMID:6165544

  18. Multi-scale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gamborino, Diana; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Martinell, Julio J.

    2016-07-08

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps that are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions, we show that the multi-scale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also to be extracted from the analysis.

  19. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  20. Multi-scale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamborino, Diana; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Martinell, Julio J.

    2016-07-01

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps that are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions, we show that the multi-scale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also to be extracted from the analysis.

  1. Analysis of exposure due to work on activated components

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this brief note the author summarized analysis of the exposure incurred in various maintenance jobs involving activated accelerator and beam line components at Fermilab. A tabulation was made of parameters associated with each job. Included are rather terse descriptions of the various tasks. The author presented various plots of the quantities in the table. All exposure rates are mR/hr while all exposures accumulated are mR. The exposure rates were generally measured at the Fermilab standard one foot distance from the activated component. Accumulated exposures are taken from the self-reading pocket dosimeter records maintained by the radiation control technicians.

  2. Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.; Vanderark, Stephen T.

    1993-01-01

    The Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing (E/L) Activities documents all tasks required to land the Orbiter following an STS mission. In addition to analysis of tasks performed, task conditions are described, including estimated time for completion, altitude, relative velocity, normal and lateral acceleration, location of controls operated or monitored, and level of g's experienced. This analysis precedes further investigations into potential effects of zero g on piloting capabilities for landing the Orbiter following long-duration missions. This includes, but is not limited to, researching the effects of extended duration missions on piloting capabilities. Four primary constraints of the analysis must be clarified: (1) the analysis depicts E/L in a static manner--the actual process is dynamic; (2) the task analysis was limited to a paper analysis, since it was not feasible to conduct research in the actual setting (i.e., observing or filming duration an actual E/L); (3) the tasks included are those required for E/L during nominal, daylight conditions; and (4) certain E/L tasks will vary according to the flying style of each commander.

  3. Teaching chemistry with neutron activation analysis at Dalhousie University

    SciTech Connect

    Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A. )

    1991-11-01

    The Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) has been operating since July 1976 and has proven to be an invaluable tool in many teaching programs. These reactors are inherently safe and are designed to serve teaching and research needs of the universities, research centers, hospitals, etc. Since the DUSR has been, from its inception, associated with the Trace Analysis Research Centre, which is the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Department of Chemistry, the main thrust of its use continues to be in the field of nuclear analytical chemistry. Both teaching and research programs involve trace element analysis by neutron activation.

  4. Structural active cooling applications for the Space Shuttle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, R. V.; Niblock, G. A.; Huneidi, F.

    1972-01-01

    Analytic and experimental studies have been conducted to evaluate a number of active cooling approaches to structural thermal protection for the Space Shuttle. The primary emphasis was directed toward the thermal protection system. Trade study results are presented for various heat shield material and TPS arrangements. Both metallic and reusable surface insulation (RSI) concepts were considered. Active systems heat sinks consisted of hydrogen, phase change materials, and expendable water. If consideration is given only to controlling the surface temperature, passive TPS was found to provide the most efficient system. Use of active cooling which incorporates some interior temperature control made the thermally less efficient RSI system more attractive.

  5. Application of fuzzy expert systems for EOR project risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ting-Horng, Chung; Carroll, H.B.; Lindsey, R.

    1995-12-31

    This work describes a new method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project preassessment. Instead of using the conventional costly simulation approach, a fuzzy expert system was developed. A database of EOR project costs and oil prices of the past decades was incorporated into the expert system. The EOR project risk-analysis includes three stages: (1) preliminary screening of EOR methods, (2) field performance estimation, and (3) economic analysis. Since this fuzzy expert system has incorporated both implemented EOR technology and experts` experience, it thus reduces the requirements of massive laboratory and field data for input. Estimates of displacement efficiency (E{sub d}) and sweep efficiency (E{sub v}) were formulated for each EOR process. E{sub d} and E{sub v} were treated as fuzzy variables. The overall recovery efficiency is evaluated from the product of Ed and Ev using fuzzy set arithmetic. Economic analysis is based on the estimated recovery efficiency, residual oil inplace, oil price, and operating costs. Examples of the application of the developed method for a CO{sub 2}-flooding project analysis is presented.

  6. IFDOTMETER: A New Software Application for Automated Immunofluorescence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, S M S; Gragera-Hidalgo, Antonio; Cristo, Alejandro; Bravo-San Pedro, Jose M; González-Polo, Rosa A; Fuentes, José M

    2016-04-01

    Most laboratories interested in autophagy use different imaging software for managing and analyzing heterogeneous parameters in immunofluorescence experiments (e.g., LC3-puncta quantification and determination of the number and size of lysosomes). One solution would be software that works on a user's laptop or workstation that can access all image settings and provide quick and easy-to-use analysis of data. Thus, we have designed and implemented an application called IFDOTMETER, which can run on all major operating systems because it has been programmed using JAVA (Sun Microsystems). Briefly, IFDOTMETER software has been created to quantify a variety of biological hallmarks, including mitochondrial morphology and nuclear condensation. The program interface is intuitive and user-friendly, making it useful for users not familiar with computer handling. By setting previously defined parameters, the software can automatically analyze a large number of images without the supervision of the researcher. Once analysis is complete, the results are stored in a spreadsheet. Using software for high-throughput cell image analysis offers researchers the possibility of performing comprehensive and precise analysis of a high number of images in an automated manner, making this routine task easier. PMID:26303944

  7. Analysis operator learning and its application to image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hawe, Simon; Kleinsteuber, Martin; Diepold, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    Exploiting a priori known structural information lies at the core of many image reconstruction methods that can be stated as inverse problems. The synthesis model, which assumes that images can be decomposed into a linear combination of very few atoms of some dictionary, is now a well established tool for the design of image reconstruction algorithms. An interesting alternative is the analysis model, where the signal is multiplied by an analysis operator and the outcome is assumed to be sparse. This approach has only recently gained increasing interest. The quality of reconstruction methods based on an analysis model severely depends on the right choice of the suitable operator. In this paper, we present an algorithm for learning an analysis operator from training images. Our method is based on l(p)-norm minimization on the set of full rank matrices with normalized columns. We carefully introduce the employed conjugate gradient method on manifolds, and explain the underlying geometry of the constraints. Moreover, we compare our approach to state-of-the-art methods for image denoising, inpainting, and single image super-resolution. Our numerical results show competitive performance of our general approach in all presented applications compared to the specialized state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:23412611

  8. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers’ failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases. PMID:25685513

  9. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-07-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers' failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases. PMID:25685513

  10. Estimating the amount of Ship Recycling Activity Using Remote Sensing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watagawa, M.; Shinoda, T.; Hasegawa, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched for earth observation and there are more than 6 million scenes of archives including coastal areas during period of five years. The wealth of satellite imagery is noticeable for investigating monitoring methods such as ship detection in wide ocean area. Especially, it is useful way to estimate past behaviour from satellite imagery compared to reference data. We collected satellite imagery and analysis breaking process in major ship breaking yards between year 2009 and 2011. Comparing the number of recycling ships by satellite imagery to the world statistics is in good agreement. In this study, Remote Sensing Application has been discussed in order to assess the potential to be used for economic activities such as ship recycling in wide coastal area. It was used to evaluate the performance of ship recycling monitoring by Satellite imagery. Additionally, an approach for recognizing ships by SAR imagery regardless of weather conditions is presented.

  11. Application of smart materials to helicopter rotor active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Ealey, Mark A.; Schetky, Lawrence M.

    1997-05-01

    Helicopter design is limited by the compromise inherent in meeting hover and forward flight requirements, and the unsteady environment encountered in forward flight. Active control of helicopter rotors using smart material, in-blade actuation can overcome these barriers and provide substantial reductions in noise and vibrations and improved performance. The present study covers the blade/actuator integration and actuator development for a full scale system to demonstrate active control of noise and vibrations as well as inflight blade tracking on the MD Explorer helicopter. A piezoelectric multilayer stack actuator, driving a trailing edge flap, is used for active control. A shape memory alloy torsion actuator, driving a trailing edge trim tab, is used for inflight tracking. Overall, this DARPA sponsored program entails the design, development, and fabrication of the full scale active control rotor system. If successful, an entry in the NASA Ames 40 X 80 foot wind tunnel and flight tests are planned for a follow on program.

  12. A Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. This paper provides a tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements as well as a comparison of the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation. This paper also surveys the flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: Suppression of Transient Accelerations By Levitation (STABLE); the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM); and the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS).

  13. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  14. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS): Initial application and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial application, and evaluation of the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS). Grounded in Communication Accommodation Theory, this coding system provides a method for analyzing physician and patient nonverbal accommodation behaviors within medical consultations. Methods Video recordings of 45 new visit consultations at a comprehensive cancer center were coded using the NAAS. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. For validation purposes, two independent coders rated all consultations for theoretically-related constructs. Results The NAAS demonstrated high levels of reliability. Statistically significant correlations were observed across all 10 behavior categories for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Evidence of content and construct validity was also observed. Conclusion The current study presents the initial application and evaluation of a coding system meant for analysis of the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within medical consultations. The results of this initial trial and psychometric evaluation provide evidence of the NAAS as a valid and reliable nonverbal accommodation coding system. PMID:20851559

  15. Canonical Correlation Analysis on Riemannian Manifolds and Its Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunwoo J; Adluru, Nagesh; Bendlin, Barbara B; Johnson, Sterling C; Vemuri, Baba C; Singh, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a widely used statistical technique to capture correlations between two sets of multi-variate random variables and has found a multitude of applications in computer vision, medical imaging and machine learning. The classical formulation assumes that the data live in a pair of vector spaces which makes its use in certain important scientific domains problematic. For instance, the set of symmetric positive definite matrices (SPD), rotations and probability distributions, all belong to certain curved Riemannian manifolds where vector-space operations are in general not applicable. Analyzing the space of such data via the classical versions of inference models is rather sub-optimal. But perhaps more importantly, since the algorithms do not respect the underlying geometry of the data space, it is hard to provide statistical guarantees (if any) on the results. Using the space of SPD matrices as a concrete example, this paper gives a principled generalization of the well known CCA to the Riemannian setting. Our CCA algorithm operates on the product Riemannian manifold representing SPD matrix-valued fields to identify meaningful statistical relationships on the product Riemannian manifold. As a proof of principle, we present results on an Alzheimer's disease (AD) study where the analysis task involves identifying correlations across diffusion tensor images (DTI) and Cauchy deformation tensor fields derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. PMID:25317426

  16. Recent Applications for in Vitro Antioxidant Activity Assay.

    PubMed

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Danet, Andrei Florin; Fleschin, Şerban; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2016-09-01

    This review presents some of the most recent aspects related to antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays. Taking into account the reactions involved, in the antioxidant activity determinations, the assays can be classified into two main types: hydrogen atom transfer reactions and electron transfer. This review focuses on analytical methods used for antioxidant activity assay, published in the period 2009-2014. PMID:26575594

  17. Analysis and performance of subsonic ejectors for pulsatile flow applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, J.G.; Liburdy, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    This study looks at the application of ejectors to four-stroke engines. The goal is to develop a system of exhaust gas emission control by premixing exhaust gas with fresh atmospheric air. The constraints on the system include relatively low pressure pulsatile flow of the primary gas, geometric constraints (small size), significant density differences between the two fluid streams and possible large back-pressure operating conditions. A model is applied to the ejector application to pulsatile flow based on a global control volume analysis. The model constrains the operating conditions based on conservation of mass, momentum and energy for incompressible flow conditions. The time dependent effects are modeled by including a representative inertia term in the momentum equation based on quasi-steady conditions. The results are used to illustrate the operating characteristics for a small four-stroke engine application. The sensitivity of operation to the operating and design parameters of the system are illustrated. In particular, the effects of the pulsatile flow on the operation are shown to increase the performance under certain operating conditions. The model simulation is compared to some data available in the literature.

  18. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of volcanic samples: Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Zoller, W.H.; Finnegan, D.L.; Crowe, B.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of volcanic emissions have been collected between and during eruptions of both Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes during the last three years. Airborne particles have been collected on Teflon filters and acidic gases on base-impregnated cellulose filters. Chemically neutral gas-phase species are collected on charcoal-coated cellulose filters. The primary analytical technique used is nondestructive neutron activation analysis, which has been used to determine the quantities of up to 35 elements on the different filters. The use of neutron activation analysis makes it possible to analyze for a wide range of elements in the different matrices used for the collection and to learn about the distribution between particles and gas phases for each of the elements.

  19. Orthogonal analysis of functional gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Tsai, De-Hao; Lu, Yi-Fu; DelRio, Frank W; Cho, Tae Joon; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R; Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew; Hackley, Vincent A

    2015-11-01

    We report a comprehensive strategy based on implementation of orthogonal measurement techniques to provide critical and verifiable material characteristics for functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) used in biomedical applications. Samples were analyzed before and after ≈50 months of cold storage (≈4 °C). Biomedical applications require long-term storage at cold temperatures, which could have an impact on AuNP therapeutics. Thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG)-conjugated AuNPs with different terminal groups (methyl-, carboxylic-, and amine-) were chosen as a model system due to their high relevancy in biomedical applications. Electrospray-differential mobility analysis, asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and small-angle X-ray scattering were employed to provide both complementary and orthogonal information on (1) particle size and size distribution, (2) particle concentrations, (3) molecular conjugation properties (i.e., conformation and surface packing density), and (4) colloidal stability. Results show that SH-PEGs were conjugated on the surface of AuNPs to form a brush-like polymer corona. The surface packing density of SH-PEG was ≈0.42 nm(-2) for the methyl-PEG-SH AuNPs, ≈0.26 nm(-2) for the amine-SH-PEG AuNPs, and ≈0.18 nm(-2) for the carboxylic-PEG-SH AuNPs before cold storage, approximately 10 % of its theoretical maximum value. The conformation of surface-bound SH-PEGs was then estimated to be in an intermediate state between brush-like and random-coiled, based on the measured thicknesses in liquid and in dry states. By analyzing the change in particle size distribution and number concentration in suspension following cold storage, the long term colloidal stability of AuNPs was shown to be significantly improved via functionalization with SH-PEG, especially in the case of methyl-PEG-SH and carboxylic

  20. Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Petrie, L.M.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypic analysis capabilities that can be used by the nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, the project will investigate the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses, as well as within a new deterministic code that allows specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model the geometry details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored.

  1. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  2. Analysis of Low Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles for Solar Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfei

    The present work focuses on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems and their application to low temperature waste heat recovery, combined heat and power as well as off-grid solar power generation applications. As CO_2 issues come to the fore front and fossil fuels become more expensive, interest in low grade heat recovery has grown dramatically in the past few years. Solar energy, as a clean, renewable, pollution-free and sustainable energy has great potential for the use of ORC systems. Several ORC solutions have been proposed to generate electricity from low temperature sources. The ORC systems discussed here can be applied to fields such as solar thermal, biological waste heat, engine exhaust gases, small-scale cogeneration, domestic boilers, etc. The current work presents a thermodynamic and economic analysis for the use of ORC systems to convert solar energy or low exergy energy to generate electrical power. The organic working fluids investigated here were selected to investigate the effect of the fluid saturation temperature on the performance of ORCs. The working fluids under investigation are R113, R245fa, R123, with boiling points between 40°C and 200°C at pressures from 10 kPa to 10 MPa. Ambient temperature air at 20oC to 30oC is utilized as cooling resource, and allowing for a temperature difference 10°C for effective heat transfer. Consequently, the working fluids are condensed at 40°C. A combined first- and second-law analysis is performed by varying some system independent parameters at various reference temperatures. The present work shows that ORC systems can be viable and economical for the applications such as waste heat use and off-grid power generation even though they are likely to be more expensive than grid power.

  3. 13 CFR 106.202 - What are the minimum requirements applicable to Cosponsored Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the minimum requirements applicable to Cosponsored Activities? 106.202 Section 106.202 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION COSPONSORSHIPS, FEE AND NON-FEE BASED SBA-SPONSORED ACTIVITIES AND GIFTS Cosponsored Activities § 106.202 What are the...

  4. Genetic analysis of lipolytic activities in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Li, Haijuan; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 displays lipolytic activity for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study we performed a mutational in vivo analysis of esterases and lipases that confer growth on tributyrin. We interrupted 10 ORFs suspected to encode lipolytic enzymes. Two chromosomal loci were identified that resulted in reduced hydrolysis capabilities against tributyrin and various para-nitrophenyl acyl esters. By implementation of a convenient new one-step method which abstains from the use of selectable markers, a mutant strain with multiple scar-less deletions was constructed by sequentially deleting ORFs TT_C1787, TT_C0340, TT_C0341 and TT_C0904. The quadruple deletion mutant of T. thermophilus exhibited significantly lower lipolytic activity (approximately 25% residual activity compared to wild type strain) over a broad range of fatty acyl esters and had lost the ability to grow on agar plates containing tributyrin as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we were able to determine the impact of each gene disruption on the lipolytic activity profile in this model organism and show that the esterase activity in T. thermophilus HB27 is due to a concerted action of several hydrolases having different substrate preferences and activities. The esterase-less T. thermophilus multi-deletion mutant from this study can be used as a screening and expression host for esterase genes from thermophiles or metagenomes. PMID:25102235

  5. Transition path theory analysis of c-Src kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yilin; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S; Roux, Benoît

    2016-08-16

    Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family are large multidomain allosteric proteins that are crucial to cellular signaling pathways. In a previous study, we generated a Markov state model (MSM) to simulate the activation of c-Src catalytic domain, used as a prototypical tyrosine kinase. The long-time kinetics of transition predicted by the MSM was in agreement with experimental observations. In the present study, we apply the framework of transition path theory (TPT) to the previously constructed MSM to characterize the main features of the activation pathway. The analysis indicates that the activating transition, in which the activation loop first opens up followed by an inward rotation of the αC-helix, takes place via a dense set of intermediate microstates distributed within a fairly broad "transition tube" in a multidimensional conformational subspace connecting the two end-point conformations. Multiple microstates with negligible equilibrium probabilities carry a large transition flux associated with the activating transition, which explains why extensive conformational sampling is necessary to accurately determine the kinetics of activation. Our results suggest that the combination of MSM with TPT provides an effective framework to represent conformational transitions in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:27482115

  6. Functional domain analysis of the Saccharomyces MAL-activator.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Gibson, A W; Kim, J H; Wojciechowicz, L A; Zhang, B; Michels, C A

    1999-08-01

    MAL63 of the MAL6 locus and its homologues at the other MAL loci encode transcription activators required for the maltose-inducible expression of the MAL structural genes. We carried out a deletion analysis of LexA-MAL63 gene fusions to localize the functional domains of the Mal63 MAL-activator protein. Our results indicate that the sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of Mal63p is contained in residues 1-100; that residues 60-283 constitute a functional core region including the transactivation domain; that residues 251-299 are required to inhibit the activation function of Mal63p; and that the rest of the C-terminal region of the protein contains a maltose-responsive domain that acts to relieve the inhibitory effect on the activation function. Abundant overproduction of Mal63p does not overcome the negative regulation of MAL gene expression in the absence of maltose, suggesting that a titratable MAL-specific repressor similar to Gal80p is not involved in the negative regulation of the MAL-activator. A model for maltose-inducible autoregulation of the MAL-activator is presented. PMID:10447589

  7. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout. PMID:25237348

  8. Application of chromatography technology in the separation of active components from nature derived drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H-Y; Jiang, J-G

    2010-11-01

    Chromatography technology has been widely applied in various aspects of the pharmacy research on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This paper reviews literatures, published in the past decades, on the separation of active component from TCM using chromatography technology. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), affinity chromatography (AC), and bio-chromatography (BC) are introduced in detail. Compared to high performance of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), analysis time and solvent loss are significantly reduced by UPLC with increase in resolution and sensitivity. Some ingredients from nature derived drugs can be separated more completely by HSCCC, which has remarkable characteristics such as low cost, simple operation and no pollution. Trace components from complex systems can be selectively and efficiently separated and purified by AC, This feature makes it effective in isolation and identification of active components of Chinese herbs. Interference of some impurities could be excluded by BC. Active ingredients that are difficult to be separated by normal method can be acquired by SFC. Currently, application of novel chromatography techniques in TCM is still in the exploratory stage and many problems, such as preparation of stationary phase and detection, need to be solved. PMID:20701587

  9. Modeling, analysis, control and design application guidelines of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) for wind power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaud, Tarek

    Double Fed Induction Generators (DFIG) has been widely used for the past two decades in large wind farms. However, there are many open-ended problems yet to be solved before they can be implemented in some specific applications. This dissertation deals with the general analysis, modeling, control and applications of the DFIG for large wind farm applications. A detailed "d-q" model of DFIG along with other applications is simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results have been discussed in detail in both sub-synchronous and super-synchronous mode of operation. An improved vector control strategy based on the rotor flux oriented vector control has been proposed to control the active power output of the DFIG. The new vector control strategy is compared with the stator flux oriented vector control which is commonly used. It is observed that the new improved vector control method provides a better active power tracking accuracy compare with the stator flux oriented vector control. The behavior of the DFIG -based wind farm under the various grid disturbances is also studied in this dissertation. The implementation of the Flexible AC Transmission System devices (FACTS) to overcome the voltage stability issue for such applications is investigated. The study includes the implementation of both a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), and the static VAR compensator (SVC) as dynamic reactive power compensators at the point of common coupling to support DFIG-based wind farm during disturbances. Integrating FACTS protect the grid connected DFIG-based wind farm from going offline during and after the disturbances. It is found that the both devices improve the transient performance and therefore helps the wind turbine generator system to remain in service during grid faults. A comparison between the performance of the two devices in terms of the amount of reactive power injected, time response and the application cost has been discussed in this

  10. Advanced Embedded Active Assemblies for Extreme Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of advanced technologies for the integration of electronic die within membrane polymers. Specifically, investigators thinned silicon die, electrically connecting them with circuits on flexible liquid crystal polymer (LCP), using gold thermo-compression flip chip bonding, and embedding them within the material. Daisy chain LCP assemblies were thermal cycled from -135 to +85degC (Mars surface conditions for motor control electronics). The LCP assembly method was further utilized to embed an operational amplifier designed for operation within the Mars surface ambient. The embedded op-amp assembly was evaluated with respect to the influence of temperature on the operational characteristics of the device. Applications for this technology range from multifunctional, large area, flexible membrane structures to small-scale, flexible circuits that can be fit into tight spaces for flex to fit applications.

  11. Antibacterial activities of bacteriocins: application in foods and pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hung; Sung, Calvin T.; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a kind of ribosomal synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which can kill or inhibit bacterial strains closely-related or non-related to produced bacteria, but will not harm the bacteria themselves by specific immunity proteins. Bacteriocins become one of the weapons against microorganisms due to the specific characteristics of large diversity of structure and function, natural resource, and being stable to heat. Many recent studies have purified and identified bacteriocins for application in food technology, which aims to extend food preservation time, treat pathogen disease and cancer therapy, and maintain human health. Therefore, bacteriocins may become a potential drug candidate for replacing antibiotics in order to treat multiple drugs resistance pathogens in the future. This review article summarizes different types of bacteriocins from bacteria. The latter half of this review focuses on the potential applications in food science and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24904554

  12. Coherent active methods for applications in room acoustics.

    PubMed

    Guicking, D; Karcher, K; Rollwage, M

    1985-10-01

    An adjustment of reverberation time in rooms is often desired, even for low frequencies where passive absorbers fail. Among the active (electroacoustic) systems, incoherent ones permit lengthening of reverberation time only, whereas coherent active methods will allow sound absorption as well. A coherent-active wall lining consists of loudspeakers with microphones in front and adjustable control electronics. The microphones pick up the incident sound and drive the speakers in such a way that the reflection coefficient takes on prescribed values. An experimental device for the one-dimensional case allows reflection coefficients between almost zero and about 1.5 to be realized below 1000 Hz. The extension to three dimensions presents problems, especially by nearfield effects. Experiments with a 3 X 3 loudspeaker array and computer simulations proved that the amplitude reflection coefficient can be adjusted between 10% and 200% for sinusoidal waves at normal and oblique incidence. Future developments have to make the system work with broadband excitation and in more diffuse sound fields. It is also planned to combine the active reverberation control with active diffusion control. PMID:3840501

  13. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) - Applications and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Mark T. D.

    The aim of this introduction is to describe briefly the applications and methodologies involved in (Q)SAR and relate these to the various chapters in this volume. This chapter gives the reader an overview of how, why and where in silico methods, including (Q)SAR, have been utilized to predict endpoints as diverse as those from pharmacology and toxicology. It provides an illustration of how all the various topics in this book interweave to form a single coherent area of science.

  14. Method of "Active Correlations" for DSSSD detector application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, Yu. S.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PC based algorithm is developed for DSSSD ( Double Side Silicon Strip Detector) detector. Brief description of the detection system is also presented. Complete fusion nuclear reaction nat Yt + 48 Ca → 217 Th is used to test this algorithm at 48Ca beam. Example of successful application of a former algorithm for resistive strip PIPS (resistive strip Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon) detector is presented too.

  15. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, S. A.; Blattnig, S. R.; Singleterry, R. C.; Westover, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited.

  16. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited. PMID:26177618

  17. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for reactor safety applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.

    1986-08-01

    The application and usefulness of an adjoint-based methodology for performing sensitivity analysis on reactor safety computer codes is investigated. The adjoint-based methodology, referred to as differential sensitivity theory (DST), provides first-order derivatives of the calculated quantities of interest (responses) with respect to the input parameters. The basic theoretical development of DST is presented along with the needed general extensions for consideration of model discontinuities and a variety of useful response definitions. A simple analytic problem is used to highlight the general DST procedures. finally, DST procedures presented in this work are applied to two highly nonlinear reactor accident analysis codes: (1) FASTGAS, a relatively small code for analysis of a loss-of-decay-heat-removal accident in a gas-cooled fast reactor, and (2) an existing code called VENUS-II which has been employed for analyzing the core disassembly phase of a hypothetical fast reactor accident. The two codes are different both in terms of complexity and in terms of the facets of DST which can be illustrated. Sensitivity results from the adjoint codes ADJGAS and VENUS-ADJ are verified with direct recalcualtions using perturbed input parameters. The effectiveness of the DST results for parameter ranking, prediction of response changes, and uncertainty analysis are illustrated. The conclusion drawn from this study is that DST is a viable, cost-effective methodology for accurate sensitivity analysis. In addition, a useful sensitivity tool for use in the fast reactor safety area has been developed in VENUS-ADJ. Future work needs to concentrate on combining the accurate first-order derivatives/results from DST with existing methods (based solely on direct recalculations) for higher-order response surfaces.

  18. Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

  19. Safety study application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Included are analyses of existing facilities done under the aegis of the Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program, and analyses of new and modified facilities. A graded approach is used wherein the level of analysis and documentation for each facility is commensurate with the magnitude of the hazard(s), the complexity of the facility and the stage of the facility life cycle. Safety analysis reports (SARs) for hazard Category 1 and 2 facilities are usually detailed and extensive because these categories are associated with public health and safety risk. SARs for Category 3 are normally much less extensive because the risk to public health and safety is slight. At Energy Systems, safety studies are the name given to SARs for Category 3 (formerly {open_quotes}low{close_quotes}) facilities. Safety studies are the appropriate instrument when on-site risks are limited to irreversible consequences to a few people, and off-site consequences are limited to reversible consequences to a few people. This application guide provides detailed instructions for performing safety studies that meet the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.22, {open_quotes}Technical Safety Requirements,{close_quotes} and 5480.23, {open_quotes}Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.{close_quotes} A seven-chapter format has been adopted for safety studies. This format allows for discussion of all the items required by DOE Order 5480.23 and for the discussions to be readily traceable to the listing in the order. The chapter titles are: (1) Introduction and Summary, (2) Site, (3) Facility Description, (4) Safety Basis, (5) Hazardous Material Management, (6) Management, Organization, and Institutional Safety Provisions, and (7) Accident Analysis.

  20. Variational Methods in Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization for Aerodynamic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, A. H.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Tiwari, S. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Variational methods (VM) sensitivity analysis, which is the continuous alternative to the discrete sensitivity analysis, is employed to derive the costate (adjoint) equations, the transversality conditions, and the functional sensitivity derivatives. In the derivation of the sensitivity equations, the variational methods use the generalized calculus of variations, in which the variable boundary is considered as the design function. The converged solution of the state equations together with the converged solution of the costate equations are integrated along the domain boundary to uniquely determine the functional sensitivity derivatives with respect to the design function. The determination of the sensitivity derivatives of the performance index or functional entails the coupled solutions of the state and costate equations. As the stable and converged numerical solution of the costate equations with their boundary conditions are a priori unknown, numerical stability analysis is performed on both the state and costate equations. Thereafter, based on the amplification factors obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue equations, the stability behavior of the costate equations is discussed and compared with the state (Euler) equations. The stability analysis of the costate equations suggests that the converged and stable solution of the costate equation is possible only if the computational domain of the costate equations is transformed to take into account the reverse flow nature of the costate equations. The application of the variational methods to aerodynamic shape optimization problems is demonstrated for internal flow problems at supersonic Mach number range. The study shows, that while maintaining the accuracy of the functional sensitivity derivatives within the reasonable range for engineering prediction purposes, the variational methods show a substantial gain in computational efficiency, i.e., computer time and memory, when compared with the finite