#### Sample records for activation energy asymptotic

1. Asymptotic modal analysis and statistical energy analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dowell, Earl H.

1988-01-01

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is defined by considering the asymptotic limit of Classical Modal Analysis, an approach called Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA). The general approach is described for both structural and acoustical systems. The theoretical foundation is presented for structural systems, and experimental verification is presented for a structural plate responding to a random force. Work accomplished subsequent to the grant initiation focusses on the acoustic response of an interior cavity (i.e., an aircraft or spacecraft fuselage) with a portion of the wall vibrating in a large number of structural modes. First results were presented at the ASME Winter Annual Meeting in December, 1987, and accepted for publication in the Journal of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress and Reliability in Design. It is shown that asymptotically as the number of acoustic modes excited becomes large, the pressure level in the cavity becomes uniform except at the cavity boundaries. However, the mean square pressure at the cavity corner, edge and wall is, respectively, 8, 4, and 2 times the value in the cavity interior. Also it is shown that when the portion of the wall which is vibrating is near a cavity corner or edge, the response is significantly higher.

2. Asymptotic modal analysis and statistical energy analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dowell, Earl H.

1992-01-01

Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA) is a method which is used to model linear dynamical systems with many participating modes. The AMA method was originally developed to show the relationship between statistical energy analysis (SEA) and classical modal analysis (CMA). In the limit of a large number of modes of a vibrating system, the classical modal analysis result can be shown to be equivalent to the statistical energy analysis result. As the CMA result evolves into the SEA result, a number of systematic assumptions are made. Most of these assumptions are based upon the supposition that the number of modes approaches infinity. It is for this reason that the term 'asymptotic' is used. AMA is the asymptotic result of taking the limit of CMA as the number of modes approaches infinity. AMA refers to any of the intermediate results between CMA and SEA, as well as the SEA result which is derived from CMA. The main advantage of the AMA method is that individual modal characteristics are not required in the model or computations. By contrast, CMA requires that each modal parameter be evaluated at each frequency. In the latter, contributions from each mode are computed and the final answer is obtained by summing over all the modes in the particular band of interest. AMA evaluates modal parameters only at their center frequency and does not sum the individual contributions from each mode in order to obtain a final result. The method is similar to SEA in this respect. However, SEA is only capable of obtaining spatial averages or means, as it is a statistical method. Since AMA is systematically derived from CMA, it can obtain local spatial information as well.

3. Asymptotic modal analysis and statistical energy analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dowell, Earl H.; Peretti, Linda F.

1990-01-01

The sound field of a structural-acoustic enclosure was subject to experimental analysis and theoretical description in order to develop an efficient and accurate method for predicting sound pressure levels in enclosures such as aircraft fuselages. Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA) is the method under investigation. AMA is derived from classical modal analysis (CMA) by considering the asymptotic limit of the sound pressure level as the number of acoustic and/or structural modes approaches infinity. Using AMA, results identical to those of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) were obtained for the spatially-averaged sound pressure levels in the interior. AMA is systematically derived from CMA and therefore the degree of generality of the end result can be adjusted through the choice of appropriate simplifying assumptions. For example, AMA can be used to obtain local sound pressure levels at particular points inside the enclosure, or to include the effects of varying the size and/or location of the sound source. AMA theoretical results were compared with CMA theory and also with experiment for the case where the structural-acoustic enclosure is a rectangular cavity with part of one wall flexible and vibrating, while the rest of the cavity is rigid.

4. An asymptotic expansion for energy eigenvalues of anharmonic oscillators

SciTech Connect

Gaudreau, Philippe; Slevinsky, Richard M.; Safouhi, Hassan

2013-10-15

In the present contribution, we derive an asymptotic expansion for the energy eigenvalues of anharmonic oscillators for potentials of the form V(x)=κx{sup 2q}+ωx{sup 2},q=2,3,… as the energy level n approaches infinity. The asymptotic expansion is obtained using the WKB theory and series reversion. Furthermore, we construct an algorithm for computing the coefficients of the asymptotic expansion for quartic anharmonic oscillators, leading to an efficient and accurate computation of the energy values for n≥6. -- Highlights: •We derived the asymptotic expansion for energy eigenvalues of anharmonic oscillators. •A highly efficient recursive algorithm for computing S{sub k}{sup ′}(z) for WKB. •We contributed to series reversion theory by reverting a new form of asymptotic series. •Our numerical algorithm achieves high accuracy for higher energy levels.

5. Inverse scattering at fixed energy on asymptotically hyperbolic Liouville surfaces

Daudé, Thierry; Kamran, Niky; Nicoleau, Francois

2015-12-01

In this paper, we study an inverse scattering problem on Liouville surfaces having two asymptotically hyperbolic ends. The main property of Liouville surfaces consists of the complete separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi equations for the geodesic flow. An important related consequence is the fact that the stationary wave equation can be separated into a system of radial and angular ODEs. The full scattering matrix at fixed energy associated to a scalar wave equation on asymptotically hyperbolic Liouville surfaces can be thus simplified by considering its restrictions onto the generalized harmonics corresponding to the angular separated ODE. The resulting partial scattering matrices consists in a countable set of 2 × 2 matrices whose coefficients are the so called transmission and reflection coefficients. It is shown that the reflection coefficients are nothing but generalized Weyl-Titchmarsh (WT) functions for the radial ODE in which the generalized angular momentum is seen as the spectral parameter. Using the complex angular momentum method and recent results on 1D inverse problem from generalized WT functions, we show that the knowledge of the reflection operators at a fixed non-zero energy is enough to determine uniquely the metric of the asymptotically hyperbolic Liouville surface under consideration.

6. Asymptotic Energies and QED Shifts for Rydberg States of Helium

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Drake, G.W.F.

2007-01-01

This paper reviews progress that has been made in obtaining essentially exact solutions to the nonrelativistic three-body problem for helium by a combination of variational and asymptotic expansion methods. The calculation of relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections by perturbation theory is discussed, and in particular, methods for the accurate calculation of the Bethe logarithm part of the electron self energy are presented. As an example, the results are applied to the calculation of isotope shifts for the short-lived 'halo' nucleus He-6 relative to He-4 in order to determine the nuclear charge radius of He-6 from high precision spectroscopic measurements carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory. The results demonstrate that the high precision that is now available from atomic theory is creating new opportunities to create novel measurement tools, and helium, along with hydrogen, can be regarded as a fundamental atomic system whose spectrum is well understood for all practical purposes.

7. Asymptotic behavior of the vacuum energy for small Skyrmions

SciTech Connect

Zuk, J.A. )

1990-09-20

Various schemes for deriving effective Lagrangians, involving both quark and meson degrees of freedom, which are intermediate between QCD and low-energy pion dynamics have been proposed. While integration over the fermion fields within the framework of renormalized field theory leads to a vacuum instability, physically reasonable results are obtained for the theory taken with finite cut-off. In principle, properties of the nucleon, such as its mass, can be obtained from a self-consistent calculation in the Skyrmion sector. This procedure can be simplified by implementing a analytical approximation for the fermion vacuum energy which plays a central role. The authors discuss such an approximation, and use it to calculate exactly the asymptotic behaviour of the vacuum energy for small Skyrmions. It is found that, unlike in the renormalized theory, its functional dependence on the Skyrmion radius in this limit depends on the characteristics of the Skyrmion profile and choice of regularization scheme; however, the cut-off field theory exhibits no vacuum instability.

8. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. I. Formulation and asymptotic analysis

SciTech Connect

Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki; Carr, B. J.

2008-01-15

Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=({gamma}-1){mu} with 0<{gamma}<2/3. This corresponds to a 'dark energy' fluid and the Friedmann solution is accelerated in this case due to antigravity. This extends the previous analysis of spherically symmetric self-similar solutions for fluids with positive pressure ({gamma}>1). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically 'quasi-Friedmann', in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the 0<{gamma}<2/3 case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are genuinely asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasistatic or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotically quasistatic and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs solutions are analytically extendible and of great cosmological interest. We also investigate their conformal diagrams. The results of the present analysis are utilized in an accompanying paper to obtain and physically interpret numerical solutions.

9. Asymptotic domination of cold relativistic MHD winds by kinetic energy flux

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Begelman, Mitchell C.; Li, Zhi-Yun

1994-01-01

We study the conditions which lead to the conversion of most Poynting flux into kinetic energy flux in cold, relativistic hydromagnetic winds. It is shown that plasma acceleration along a precisely radial flow is extremely inefficient due to the near cancellation of the toroidal magnetic pressure and tension forces. However, if the flux tubes in a flow diverge even slightly faster than radially, the fast magnetosonic point moves inward from infinity to a few times the light cylinder radius. Once the flow becomes supermagnetosonic, further divergence of the flux tubes beyond the fast point can accelerate the flow via the 'magnetic nozzle' effect, thereby further converting Poynting flux to kinetic energy flux. We show that the Grad-Shafranov equation admits a generic family of kinetic energy-dominated asymptotic wind solutions with finite total magnetic flux. The Poynting flux in these solutions vanishes logarithmically with distance. The way in which the flux surfaces are nested within the flow depends only on the ratio of angular velocity to poliodal 4-velocity as a function of magnetic flux. Radial variations in flow structure can be expressed in terms of a pressure boundary condition on the outermost flux surface, provided that no external toriodal field surrounds the flow. For a special case, we show explicitly how the flux surfaces merge gradually to their asymptotes. For flows confined by an external medium of pressure decreasing to zero at infinity we show that, depending on how fast the ambient pressure declines, the final flow state could be either a collimated jet or a wind that fills the entire space. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results for jets from active galactic nuclei and for free pulsar winds such as that believed to power the Crab Nebula.

10. Asymptotically limitless quantum energy teleportation via qudit probes

Verdon-Akzam, Guillaume; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

2016-02-01

We propose a modified quantum energy teleportation scheme that uses arbitrary-dimensional qudit probes and polynomially localized Hamiltonians. We find that with an appropriate scaling of parameters, the teleported energy scales with the teleportation distance more favorably than the nonlocal tails of the Hamiltonians. We show that by allowing the exchange of arbitrary amounts of information between agents and in a suitable limit, an arbitrarily large amount of energy can be teleported through a massless quantum field.

11. Generalized gradient approximation exchange energy functional with correct asymptotic behavior of the corresponding potential

SciTech Connect

Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L.; Vela, Alberto; Trickey, S. B.

2015-02-07

A new non-empirical exchange energy functional of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type, which gives an exchange potential with the correct asymptotic behavior, is developed and explored. In combination with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) correlation energy functional, the new CAP-PBE (CAP stands for correct asymptotic potential) exchange-correlation functional gives heats of formation, ionization potentials, electron affinities, proton affinities, binding energies of weakly interacting systems, barrier heights for hydrogen and non-hydrogen transfer reactions, bond distances, and harmonic frequencies on standard test sets that are fully competitive with those obtained from other GGA-type functionals that do not have the correct asymptotic exchange potential behavior. Distinct from them, the new functional provides important improvements in quantities dependent upon response functions, e.g., static and dynamic polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities. CAP combined with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional gives roughly equivalent results. Consideration of the computed dynamical polarizabilities in the context of the broad spectrum of other properties considered tips the balance to the non-empirical CAP-PBE combination. Intriguingly, these improvements arise primarily from improvements in the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and not from shifts in the associated eigenvalues. Those eigenvalues do not change dramatically with respect to eigenvalues from other GGA-type functionals that do not provide the correct asymptotic behavior of the potential. Unexpected behavior of the potential at intermediate distances from the nucleus explains this unexpected result and indicates a clear route for improvement.

12. Asymptotically Limitless Quantum Energy Teleportation via Qudit Probes

Verdon-Akzam, Guillaume; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

We propose a modified Quantum Energy Teleportation (QET) scheme that uses arbitrary-dimensional qudit probes and polynomially localized Hamiltonians. We find that with an appropriate scaling of parameters, the teleported energy scales with the teleportation distance more favourably than the nonlocal tails of the Hamiltonians. We show that by allowing the exchange of arbitrary amounts of information between agents and in a suitable limit, an arbitrarily large amount of energy can be teleported through a massless quantum field. arXiv:1510.03751 - E.M-M and AK acknowledge funding from the NSERC Discovery program.

13. High-Energy QCD Asymptotics of Photon--Photon Collisions

SciTech Connect

Brodsky, Stanley J.

2002-07-26

The high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons, as predicted by the BFKL equation at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD, is discussed. The NLO BFKL predictions, improved by the BLM optimal scale setting, are in good agreement with recent OPAL and L3 data at CERN LEP2. NLO BFKL predictions for future linear colliders are presented.

14. Three-axis active magnetic attitude control asymptotical study

Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Roldugin, D. S.; Penkov, V. I.

2015-05-01

Active magnetic attitude control system providing given inertial attitude is considered. Control algorithm is constructed on the basis of a planar motion model. It decreases attitude discrepancy. Alternative approach is based on the PD-controller design. System behavior is analyzed for specific motion cases and sometimes for specific inertia tensor (axisymmetrical satellite) using averaging technique. Overall satellite angular motion is covered. Necessary attitude is found to be accessible for some control parameters. Stability is proven and optimal algorithm parameters are obtained. Floquet-based analysis is performed to verify and broaden analytical results.

15. An asymptotic-preserving scheme for the semiconductor Boltzmann equation toward the energy-transport limit

Hu, Jingwei; Wang, Li

2015-01-01

We design an asymptotic-preserving scheme for the semiconductor Boltzmann equation which leads to an energy-transport system for electron mass and energy as mean free path goes to zero. As opposed to the classical drift-diffusion limit where the stiff collisions are all in one scale, new difficulties arise in the two-scale stiff collision terms because the simple BGK penalization [15] fails to drive the solution to the correct limit. We propose to set up a spatially dependent threshold on the penalization of the stiffer collision operator such that the evolution of the solution resembles a Hilbert expansion at the continuous level. Formal asymptotic analysis and numerical results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of our scheme.

16. Asymptotic forms for the energy of force-free magnetic field ion figurations of translational symmetry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sturrock, P. A.; Antiochos, S. K.; Klinchuk, J. A.; Roumeliotis, G.

1994-01-01

It is known from computer calculations that if a force-free magnetic field configuration is stressed progressively by footpoint displacements, the configuration expands and approaches the open configuration with the same surface flux distribution and the energy of the field increases progressively. For configurations of translationalsymmetry, it has been found empirically that the energy tends asymptotically to a certain functional form. It is here shown that analysis of a simple model of the asymptotic form of force-free fields of translational symmetry leads to and therefore justifies this functional form. According to this model, the field evolves in a well-behaved manner with no indication of instability or loss of equilibrium.

17. Polynomial Asymptotes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dobbs, David E.

2010-01-01

This note develops and implements the theory of polynomial asymptotes to (graphs of) rational functions, as a generalization of the classical topics of horizontal asymptotes and oblique/slant asymptotes. Applications are given to hyperbolic asymptotes. Prerequisites include the division algorithm for polynomials with coefficients in the field of…

18. Asymptotic behavior of Laplacian-energy-like invariant of the 3.6.24 lattice with various boundary conditions.

PubMed

2016-01-01

Let G be a connected graph of order n with Laplacian eigenvalues [Formula: see text]. The Laplacian-energy-like invariant of G, is defined as [Formula: see text]. In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the 3.6.24 lattice in terms of Laplacian-energy-like invariant as m, n approach infinity. Additionally, we derive that [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] have the same asymptotic Laplacian-energy-like invariants. PMID:27625970

19. Extracting energy from a flow: An asymptotic approach using vortex-induced vibrations and feedback control

Meliga, Philippe; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Gallaire, François

2011-07-01

This paper considers vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder in water streams for renewable energy production. We use an analytical model recently obtained by the authors from the asymptotic analysis of a coupled flow-cylinder system, and assess the ability of a control velocity applied at the cylinder wall to optimize the magnitude of dissipated energy at disposal to be harvested. The retained approach is that of proportional feedback control. When the system evolves on its limit cycle, we show that the control yields an increase in the mean dissipated energy by 3.5%, as well as a significant improvement of the robustness with respect to small inaccuracies of the structural parameters. However, we also show that the system is susceptible to converge to cycles of lower energy when subjected to external disturbances, as a result of the simultaneous existence of multiple stable cycles. Consequently, we propose a transient control algorithm meant to force the return of the system to its optimal cycle. Its efficiency is assessed for two feedback approaches relying on distinct types of measurements: we find significant differences in the time needed to reach convergence to the optimal cycle, which ultimately results in energy being spent when feedback is designed from cylinder measurements, and in energy being harnessed when feedback is designed from flow measurements.

20. 5D supersymmetric domain wall solution with active hyperscalars and mixed AdS/non-AdS asymptotics

Bellorín, Jorge; Colonnello, Claudia

2011-05-01

We find a new supersymmetric 5D solution of {N} = 2 supergravity coupled to one hypermultiplet that depends only on the fifth dimension (the energy scale in a holographic context). In one asymptotic limit the domain wall approaches to the AdS5 form but in the other one it does not. Similarly, the hyperscalars, which are all proportional between them, go asymptotically to a critical point of the potential only in one direction. The quaternionic Kähler manifold of the model is the H4 hyperboloid. We use the standard metric of H4 in an explicit conformally flat form with several arbitrary parameters. We argue that the holographic dual of the domain wall is a RG flow of a D = 4, {N} = 1 gauge theory acquiring a conformal supersymmetry at the IR limit, which corresponds to the AdS5 asymptotic limit.

1. Can we define an asymptotic value for the ice active surface site density for heterogeneous ice nucleation?

Niedermeier, Dennis; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Wex, Heike; Ignatius, Karoliina; Stratmann, Frank

2015-05-01

The immersion freezing behavior of droplets containing size-segregated, monodisperse feldspar particles was investigated. For all particle sizes investigated, a leveling off of the frozen droplet fraction was observed reaching a plateau within the heterogeneous freezing temperature regime (T >- 38°C). The frozen fraction in the plateau region was proportional to the particle surface area. Based on these findings, an asymptotic value for ice active surface site density ns, which we named ns⋆, could be determined for the investigated feldspar sample. The comparison of these results with those of other studies not only elucidates the general feasibility of determining such an asymptotic value but also shows that the value of ns⋆ strongly depends on the method of the particle surface area determination. However, such an asymptotic value might be an important input parameter for atmospheric modeling applications. At least it shows that care should be taken when ns is extrapolated to lower or higher temperature.

2. An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion

Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.

2016-04-01

A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell

3. An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion

Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.

2016-08-01

A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell

4. Asymptotic entropy bounds

Bousso, Raphael

2016-07-01

We show that known entropy bounds constrain the information carried off by radiation to null infinity. We consider distant, planar null hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat spacetime. Their focusing and area loss can be computed perturbatively on a Minkowski background, yielding entropy bounds in terms of the energy flux of the outgoing radiation. In the asymptotic limit, we obtain boundary versions of the quantum null energy condition, of the generalized Second Law, and of the quantum Bousso bound.

5. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. I. Formulation and asymptotic analysis

Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki; Carr, B. J.

2008-01-01

Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(γ-1)μ with 0<γ<2/3. This corresponds to a “dark energy” fluid and the Friedmann solution is accelerated in this case due to antigravity. This extends the previous analysis of spherically symmetric self-similar solutions for fluids with positive pressure (γ>1). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically “quasi-Friedmann,” in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the 0<γ<2/3 case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are genuinely asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasistatic or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotically quasistatic and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs solutions are analytically extendible and of great cosmological interest. We also investigate their conformal diagrams. The results of the present analysis are utilized in an accompanying paper to obtain and physically interpret numerical solutions.

6. Asymptotic Eigenstructures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.

1980-01-01

The behavior of the closed loop eigenstructure of a linear system with output feedback is analyzed as a single parameter multiplying the feedback gain is varied. An algorithm is presented that computes the asymptotically infinite eigenstructure, and it is shown how a system with high gain, feedback decouples into single input, single output systems. Then a synthesis algorithm is presented which uses full state feedback to achieve a desired asymptotic eigenstructure.

7. Asymptotic modal analysis and statistical energy analysis of an acoustic cavity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kubota, Y.; Dionne, H. D.; Dowell, E. H.

1988-01-01

A basic asymptotic theory for structural wall/acoustic cavity interaction is presented, and the analysis is illustrated with examples of the acoustic cavity response to a prescribed wall motion. Although, when spatially averaged, the classical modal analysis (CMA) response approaches the asymptotic modal analysis (AMA) response more rapidly as the number of modes increases, it is shown that information about local response intensification is lost in the averaging process. A larger bandwidth at a given center frequency is found to contain more excited modes than a smaller bandwidth; however, the AMA is slightly more accurate in the smaller bandwidth. All AMA asymptotes were shown to be approached from below by a CMA with fixed bandwidth and increasing center frequency.

8. Thin Interface Asymptotics for an Energy/Entropy Approach to Phase-Field Models with Unequal Conductivities

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McFadden, G. B.; Wheeler, A. A.; Anderson, D. M.

1999-01-01

Karma and Rapped recently developed a new sharp interface asymptotic analysis of the phase-field equations that is especially appropriate for modeling dendritic growth at low undercoolings. Their approach relieves a stringent restriction on the interface thickness that applies in the conventional asymptotic analysis, and has the added advantage that interfacial kinetic effects can also be eliminated. However, their analysis focussed on the case of equal thermal conductivities in the solid and liquid phases; when applied to a standard phase-field model with unequal conductivities, anomalous terms arise in the limiting forms of the boundary conditions for the interfacial temperature that are not present in conventional sharp-interface solidification models, as discussed further by Almgren. In this paper we apply their asymptotic methodology to a generalized phase-field model which is derived using a thermodynamically consistent approach that is based on independent entropy and internal energy gradient functionals that include double wells in both the entropy and internal energy densities. The additional degrees of freedom associated with the generalized phased-field equations can be chosen to eliminate the anomalous terms that arise for unequal conductivities.

9. Tsunami asymptotics

Berry, M. V.

2005-01-01

By applying the technique of uniform asymptotic approximation to the oscillatory integrals representing tsunami wave profiles, the form of the travelling wave far from the source is calculated for arbitrary initial disturbances. The approximations reproduce the entire profiles very accurately, from the front to the tail, and their numerical computation is much faster than that of the oscillatory integrals. For one-dimensional propagation, the uniform asymptotics involve Airy functions and their derivatives; for two-dimensional propagation, the uniform asymptotics involve products of these functions. Separate analyses are required when the initial disturbance is specified as surface elevation or surface velocity as functions of position, and when these functions are even or odd. 'There was an awful rainbow once in heaven' (John Keats, 1820)

10. Activation Energy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2002-01-01

Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

11. Rotating thin shells in (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetimes: Mechanical properties, machian effects, and energy conditions

Lemos, José P. S.; Lopes, Francisco J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

2015-06-01

In this paper, a rotating thin shell in a (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetime is studied. The spacetime exterior to the shell is the rotating BTZ spacetime and the interior is the empty spacetime with a cosmological constant. Through the Einstein equation in (2 + 1) dimensions and the corresponding junction conditions we calculate the dynamical relevant quantities, namely, the rest energy-density, the pressure, and the angular momentum flux density. We also analyze the matter in a frame where its energy-momentum tensor has a perfect fluid form. In addition, we show that Machian effects, such as the dragging of inertial frames, also occur in rotating (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes. The weak and the dominant energy condition for these shells are discussed.

12. Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation

SciTech Connect

Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

2014-10-01

We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.

13. Can we define an asymptotic value for the ice active surface site density for heterogeneous ice nucleation?

Niedermeier, Dennis; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Wex, Heike; Ignatius, Karoliina; Stratmann, Frank

2015-04-01

The formation of ice in atmospheric clouds has a substantial influence on the radiative properties of clouds as well as on the formation of precipitation. Therefore much effort has been made to understand and quantify the major ice formation processes in clouds. Immersion freezing has been suggested to be a dominant primary ice formation process in low and mid-level clouds (mixed-phase cloud conditions). It also has been shown that mineral dust particles are the most abundant ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere and thus may play an important role for atmospheric ice nucleation (Murray et al., 2012). Additionally, biological particles like bacteria and pollen are suggested to be potentially involved in atmospheric ice formation, at least on a regional scale (Murray et al., 2012). In recent studies for biological particles (SNOMAX and birch pollen), it has been demonstrated that freezing is induced by ice nucleating macromolecules and that an asymptotic value for the mass density of these ice nucleating macromolecules can be determined (Hartmann et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013, Wex et al., 2014). The question arises whether such an asymptotic value can also be determined for the ice active surface site density ns, a parameter which is commonly used to describe the ice nucleation activity of e.g., mineral dust. Such an asymptotic value for ns could be an important input parameter for atmospheric modeling applications. In the presented study, we therefore investigated the immersion freezing behavior of droplets containing size-segregated, monodisperse feldspar particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). For all particle sizes considered in the experiments, we observed a leveling off of the frozen droplet fraction reaching a plateau within the heterogeneous freezing temperature regime (T > -38°C) which was proportional to the particle surface area. Based on these findings, we could determine an asymptotic value for the ice

14. Comprehensive fits to high energy data for σ , ρ , and B , and the asymptotic black-disk limit

Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc; Halzen, Francis

2015-12-01

We demonstrate that the entirety of the data on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering between 6 GeV and 57 TeV center-of-mass energy—the measured scattering cross sections, ρ values, and the forward slope parameters B for the differential cross sections—is sufficient to show that σelas/σtot→1 /2 and 8 π B /σtot→1 at very high energies. These relations demonstrate convincingly that the asymptotic p p and p ¯p scattering amplitudes approach those of scattering from a black disk. This result obviously introduces a constraint on any physics beyond the Standard Model that modifies the forward scattering amplitudes.

15. On the asymptotic balance between electric and magnetic energies for hydromagnetic relativistic flows

SciTech Connect

Núñez, Manuel

2013-06-15

In the equations of classical magnetohydrodynamics, the displacement current is considered vanishingly small due to low plasma velocities. For velocities comparable to the speed of light, the full relativistic electromagnetic equations must be used. In the absence of gravitational forcings and with an isotropic Ohm's law, it is proved that for poloidal magnetic field and velocity and toroidal electric field, the electric and magnetic energies tend to be equivalent in average for large times. This represents a partial extension of Cowling's theorem for axisymmetric fields.

16. STRONG VARIABLE ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM Y GEM: ACCRETION ACTIVITY IN AN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR WITH A BINARY COMPANION?

SciTech Connect

Sahai, Raghvendra; Neill, James D.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen

2011-10-20

Binarity is believed to dramatically affect the history and geometry of mass loss in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB stars, but observational evidence of binarity is sorely lacking. As part of a project to look for hot binary companions to cool AGB stars using the Galaxy Evolution Explorer archive, we have discovered a late-M star, Y Gem, to be a source of strong and variable UV emission. Y Gem is a prime example of the success of our technique of UV imaging of AGB stars in order to search for binary companions. Y Gem's large and variable UV flux makes it one of the most prominent examples of a late-AGB star with a mass accreting binary companion. The UV emission is most likely due to emission associated with accretion activity and a disk around a main-sequence companion star. The physical mechanism generating the UV emission is extremely energetic, with an integrated luminosity of a few x L{sub sun} at its peak. We also find weak CO J = 2-1 emission from Y Gem with a very narrow line profile (FWHM of 3.4 km s{sup -1}). Such a narrow line is unlikely to arise in an outflow and is consistent with emission from an orbiting, molecular reservoir of radius 300 AU. Y Gem may be the progenitor of the class of post-AGB stars which are binaries and possess disks but no outflows.

17. Kohn-Sham kinetic energy density in the nuclear and asymptotic regions: Deviations from the von Weizsäcker behavior and applications to density functionals

Della Sala, Fabio; Fabiano, Eduardo; Constantin, Lucian A.

2015-01-01

We show that the Kohn-Sham positive-definite kinetic energy (KE) density significantly differs from the von Weizsäcker (VW) one at the nuclear cusp as well as in the asymptotic region. At the nuclear cusp, the VW functional is shown to be linear, and the contribution of p -type orbitals to the KE density is theoretically derived and numerically demonstrated in the limit of infinite nuclear charge as well in the semiclassical limit of neutral large atoms. In the latter case, it reaches 12% of the KE density. In the asymptotic region we find new exact constraints for meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) exchange functionals: with an exchange enhancement factor proportional to √{α }, where α is the common meta-GGA ingredient, both the exchange energy density and the potential are proportional to the exact ones. In addition, this describes exactly the large-gradient limit of quasi-two-dimensional systems.

18. Energy assessment: physical activity

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

19. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

20. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

1. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

2. SYNCHROTRON AND SYNCHROTRON SELF-ABSORPTION FOR A POWER-LAW PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION: ASYMPTOTIC FORMS FOR FINITE ENERGY RANGE

SciTech Connect

Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S.

2009-12-10

We calculate and plot the synchrotron power, P {sub n}u, the absorption coefficient, alpha{sub n}u, and the source function, S {sub n}u, for a power-law distribution of charged particles with Lorentz parameter values gamma{sub 1} <= gamma <= gamma{sub 2}. For this purpose, we define parametric functions Z{sub p} (x, eta), H{sub p} (x, eta), and Y{sub p} (x, eta) with eta = gamma{sub 2}/gamma{sub 1}, such that P {sub n}u propor to Z{sub p} (gamma{sup -2} {sub 1}nu/nu{sub 0}, eta), alpha{sub n}u propor to H{sub p} (gamma{sup -2} {sub 1}nu/nu{sub 0}, eta), and S {sub n}u propor to Y{sub p} (gamma{sup -2} {sub 1}nu/nu{sub 0}, eta). Corresponding asymptotic forms are also calculated and plotted for three frequency ranges, i.e., x << 1, 1 << x << eta{sup 2}, and x >> eta{sup 2}, especially in the case of finite parameter eta. Asymptotic forms of the middle range are possible for functions Z{sub p} and Y{sub p} for p>1/3, and for function H{sub p} for all positive values of index p. A characteristic value, eta {sub c}(p, epsilon) (with epsilon << 1), is then defined for each of the above functions so that for eta approx> eta {sub c}(p, epsilon) the middle range asymptotic forms could be considered. Further calculation details are also presented and discussed.

3. Asymptotes in Polar Coordinates.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fay, Temple H.

1986-01-01

An old way to determine asymptotes for curves described in polar coordinates is presented. Practice in solving trigonometric equations, in differentiation, and in calculating limits is involved. (MNS)

4. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pacey, Philip D.

1981-01-01

Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

5. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carlton, Linda L.

Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

6. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides background information and…

7. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

8. Asymptotic Safety in quantum gravity

Nink, Andreas; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

2013-06-01

Asymptotic Safety (sometimes also referred to as nonperturbative renormalizability) is a concept in quantum field theory which aims at finding a consistent and predictive quantum theory of the gravitational field. Its key ingredient is a nontrivial fixed point of the theory's renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the coupling constants in the ultraviolet (UV) regime and renders physical quantities safe from divergences. Although originally proposed by Steven Weinberg to find a theory of quantum gravity the idea of a nontrivial fixed point providing a possible UV completion can be applied also to other field theories, in particular to perturbatively nonrenormalizable ones. The essence of Asymptotic Safety is the observation that nontrivial renormalization group fixed points can be used to generalize the procedure of perturbative renormalization. In an asymptotically safe theory the couplings do not need to be small or tend to zero in the high energy limit but rather tend to finite values: they approach a nontrivial UV fixed point. The running of the coupling constants, i.e. their scale dependence described by the renormalization group (RG), is thus special in its UV limit in the sense that all their dimensionless combinations remain finite. This suffices to avoid unphysical divergences, e.g. in scattering amplitudes. The requirement of a UV fixed point restricts the form of the bare action and the values of the bare coupling constants, which become predictions of the Asymptotic Safety program rather than inputs. As for gravity, the standard procedure of perturbative renormalization fails since Newton's constant, the relevant expansion parameter, has negative mass dimension rendering general relativity perturbatively nonrenormalizable. This has driven the search for nonperturbative frameworks describing quantum gravity, including Asymptotic Safety which -- in contrast to other approaches -- is characterized by its use of quantum field theory

9. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

10. Scaling and asymptotic properties of evaporated neutron inclusive cross sections in high energy hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

Galoyan, A. S.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinsky, V. V.

2015-09-01

New properties of the evaporated neutron ( E < 30 MeV) energy spectra in hadron-nucleus interactions have been found. Particularly, the spectra approach the asymptotic regime, namely, they weakly depend on the collision energy at momenta of projectile protons larger than 5-6 GeV/ c; the spectra for various nuclei are similar, and can be approximately described by the function A n f( E). Experimental data on neutron spectra in the case of projectile π-mesons show analogous behavior, but the statistics of the data do not allow one to draw clear conclusions. In our analysis we used ITEP experimental data on inclusive cross sections of neutrons produced in interactions of π-mesons and protons with various nuclei in the energy range from 747 MeV up to 8.1 GeV. The observed properties allow one to predict neutron yields in the nucleus-nucleus interactions at high and super high energies. Predictions for the NICA/MPD experiment at JINR are presented. It is shown that the FTF (Fritiof)-model of the Geant4 toolkit qualitatively reproduces the observed regularities. For the first time estimates of the neutron energy flows are obtained at both RHIC and LHC energies.

11. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

12. Asymptotics for spherical needlets

Baldi, P.; Kerkyacharian, G.; Marinucci, D.; Picard, D.

We investigate invariant random fields on the sphere using a new type of spherical wavelets, called needlets. These are compactly supported in frequency and enjoy excellent localization properties in real space, with quasi-exponentially decaying tails. We show that, for random fields on the sphere, the needlet coefficients are asymptotically uncorrelated for any fixed angular distance. This property is used to derive CLT and functional CLT convergence results for polynomial functionals of the needlet coefficients: here the asymptotic theory is considered in the high-frequency sense. Our proposals emerge from strong empirical motivations, especially in connection with the analysis of cosmological data sets.

13. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

1980-01-01

Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

14. Asymptotic theory of relativistic, magnetized jets

SciTech Connect

Lyubarsky, Yuri

2011-01-15

The structure of a relativistically hot, strongly magnetized jet is investigated at large distances from the source. Asymptotic equations are derived describing collimation and acceleration of the externally confined jet. Conditions are found for the transformation of the thermal energy into the fluid kinetic energy or into the Poynting flux. Simple scalings are presented for the jet collimation angle and Lorentz factors.

15. An asymptotical machine

Cristallini, Achille

2016-07-01

A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

16. The Effect of Disorder on the Free-Energy for the Random Walk Pinning Model: Smoothing of the Phase Transition and Low Temperature Asymptotics

Berger, Quentin; Lacoin, Hubert

2011-01-01

We consider the continuous time version of the Random Walk Pinning Model (RWPM), studied in (Berger and Toninelli (Electron. J. Probab., to appear) and Birkner and Sun (Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré Probab. Stat. 46:414-441, 2010; arXiv:0912.1663). Given a fixed realization of a random walk Y on ℤ d with jump rate ρ (that plays the role of the random medium), we modify the law of a random walk X on ℤ d with jump rate 1 by reweighting the paths, giving an energy reward proportional to the intersection time Lt(X,Y)=int0t {1}_{Xs=Ys} {d}s: the weight of the path under the new measure is exp ( βL t ( X, Y)), β∈ℝ. As β increases, the system exhibits a delocalization/localization transition: there is a critical value β c , such that if β> β c the two walks stick together for almost-all Y realizations. A natural question is that of disorder relevance, that is whether the quenched and annealed systems have the same behavior. In this paper we investigate how the disorder modifies the shape of the free energy curve: (1) We prove that, in dimension d≥3, the presence of disorder makes the phase transition at least of second order. This, in dimension d≥4, contrasts with the fact that the phase transition of the annealed system is of first order. (2) In any dimension, we prove that disorder modifies the low temperature asymptotic of the free energy.

17. Asymptotically and exactly energy balanced augmented flux-ADER schemes with application to hyperbolic conservation laws with geometric source terms

Navas-Montilla, A.; Murillo, J.

2016-07-01

In this work, an arbitrary order HLL-type numerical scheme is constructed using the flux-ADER methodology. The proposed scheme is based on an augmented Derivative Riemann solver that was used for the first time in Navas-Montilla and Murillo (2015) [1]. Such solver, hereafter referred to as Flux-Source (FS) solver, was conceived as a high order extension of the augmented Roe solver and led to the generation of a novel numerical scheme called AR-ADER scheme. Here, we provide a general definition of the FS solver independently of the Riemann solver used in it. Moreover, a simplified version of the solver, referred to as Linearized-Flux-Source (LFS) solver, is presented. This novel version of the FS solver allows to compute the solution without requiring reconstruction of derivatives of the fluxes, nevertheless some drawbacks are evidenced. In contrast to other previously defined Derivative Riemann solvers, the proposed FS and LFS solvers take into account the presence of the source term in the resolution of the Derivative Riemann Problem (DRP), which is of particular interest when dealing with geometric source terms. When applied to the shallow water equations, the proposed HLLS-ADER and AR-ADER schemes can be constructed to fulfill the exactly well-balanced property, showing that an arbitrary quadrature of the integral of the source inside the cell does not ensure energy balanced solutions. As a result of this work, energy balanced flux-ADER schemes that provide the exact solution for steady cases and that converge to the exact solution with arbitrary order for transient cases are constructed.

18. Asymptotic Formula for Quantum Harmonic Oscillator Tunneling Probabilities

2015-10-01

Using simple methods of asymptotic analysis it is shown that for a quantum harmonic oscillator in n-th energy eigenstate the probability of tunneling into the classically forbidden region obeys an unexpected but simple asymptotic formula: the leading term is inversely proportional to the cube root of n.

19. Asymptotic structure of hydromagnetically driven relativistic winds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chiueh, Tzihong; Li, Zhi-Yun; Begelman, Mitchell C.

1991-01-01

A fully relativistic analysis has been performed of the asymptotic structure of stationary axisymmetric hydromagnetic winds. If a flow fills the region containing the rotation axis, then the flux surfaces in the flow must collimate to a set of current-carrying cylindrical surface extending to infinite transverse radius, collimate to a set of cylindrical surfaces extending to a finite radius, or collimate to a current-free paraboloidal field configuration which fills up the entire space. If an asymptotically cylindrical flow carries a finite current at radii well beyond the light cylinder, then the Lorentz factor of the terminal flow speed on a given flux surface is proportional to the total current enclosed within this flux surface. If a flow is of type II paraboloidal, then its asymptotic energy flux is carried entirely by the gas motion rather than the electromagnetic fields.

20. Plane Wave and Coulomb Asymptotics

Mulligan, P. G.; Crothers, D. S. F.

2004-01-01

A simple plane wave solution of the Schrödinger Helmholtz equation is a quantum eigenfunction obeying both energy and linear momentum correspondence principles. Inclusion of the outgoing wave with scattering amplitude f obeys unitarity and the optical theorem. By closely considering the standard asymptotic development of the plane wave, we show that there is a problem with angular momentum when we consider forward scattering at the point of closest approach and at large impact parameter given semiclassically by (l + 1/2)/k where l is the azimuthal quantum number and may be large (J Leech et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 257901 (2002)). The problem is resolved via non-uniform, non-standard analysis involving the Heaviside step function, unifying classical, semiclassical and quantum mechanics, and the treatment is extended to the case of pure Coulomb scattering.

1. Asymptotic symmetries from finite boxes

2016-01-01

It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a 'box.' This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the anti-de Sitter and Poincaré asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2 + 1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS3 and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

2. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

3. Activation energy measurements of cheese

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

4. Activation Energies of Plasmonic Catalysts.

PubMed

Kim, Youngsoo; Dumett Torres, Daniel; Jain, Prashant K

2016-05-11

The activation energy of a catalytic reaction serves not only as a metric of the efficacy of a catalyst but also as a potential indicator of mechanistic differences between the catalytic and noncatalytic reaction. However, activation energies are quite underutilized in the field of photocatalysis. We characterize in detail the effect of visible light excitation on the activation enthalpy of an electron transfer reaction photocatalyzed by plasmonic Au nanoparticles. We find that in the presence of visible light photoexcitation, the activation enthalpy of the Au nanoparticle-catalyzed electron transfer reaction is significantly reduced. The reduction in the activation enthalpy depends on the excitation wavelength, the incident laser power, and the strength of a hole scavenger. On the basis of these results, we argue that the activation enthalpy reduction is directly related to the photoelectrochemical potential built-up on the Au nanoparticle under steady-state light excitation, analogous to electrochemical activation. Under optimum light excitation conditions, a potential as high as 240 mV is measured. The findings constitute more precise insights into the mechanistic role and energetic contribution of plasmonic excitation to chemical reactions catalyzed by transition metal nanoparticles. PMID:27064549

5. Internal spin angular momentum of an asymptotically flat spacetime

SciTech Connect

Randono, Andrew; Sloan, David

2009-08-15

In this paper we investigate the manner in which the internal spin angular momentum of a spinor field is encoded in the gravitational field at asymptotic infinity. The inclusion of internal spin requires us to reanalyze our notion of asymptotic flatness. In particular, the Poincare symmetry at asymptotic infinity must be replaced by a spin-enlarged Poincare symmetry. Likewise, the generators of the asymptotic symmetry group must be supplemented to account for the internal spin. In the Hamiltonian framework of first-order Einstein-Cartan gravity, the extra generator comes from the boundary term of the Gauss constraint in the asymptotically flat context. With the additional term, we establish the relations among the Noether charges of a Dirac field, the Komar integral, and the asymptotic Arnowitt-Deser-Misner-like geometric integral. We show that by imposing mild restraints on the generating functionals of gauge transformations at asymptotic infinity, the phase space is rendered explicitly finite. We construct the energy-momentum and the new total (spin+orbital) angular momentum boundary integrals that satisfy the appropriate algebra to be the generators of the spin-enlarged Poincare symmetry. This demonstrates that the internal spin is encoded in the tetrad at asymptotic infinity. In addition, we find that a new conserved and (spin-enlarged) Poincare invariant charge emerges that is associated with the global structure of a gauge transformation.

6. Dynamics of Dollard asymptotic variables. Asymptotic fields in Coulomb scattering

Morchio, G.; Strocchi, F.

2016-03-01

Generalizing Dollard’s strategy, we investigate the structure of the scattering theory associated to any large time reference dynamics UD(t) allowing for the existence of Møller operators. We show that (for each scattering channel) UD(t) uniquely identifies, for t →±∞, asymptotic dynamics U±(t); they are unitary groups acting on the scattering spaces, satisfy the Møller interpolation formulas and are interpolated by the S-matrix. In view of the application to field theory models, we extend the result to the adiabatic procedure. In the Heisenberg picture, asymptotic variables are obtained as LSZ-like limits of Heisenberg variables; their time evolution is induced by U±(t), which replace the usual free asymptotic dynamics. On the asymptotic states, (for each channel) the Hamiltonian can by written in terms of the asymptotic variables as H = H±(qout/in,pout/in), H±(q,p) the generator of the asymptotic dynamics. As an application, we obtain the asymptotic fields ψout/in in repulsive Coulomb scattering by an LSZ modified formula; in this case, U±(t) = U0(t), so that ψout/in are free canonical fields and H = H0(ψout/in).

7. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

1990-10-01

ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

8. Asymptotic entropic uncertainty relations

2016-03-01

We analyze entropic uncertainty relations for two orthogonal measurements on a N-dimensional Hilbert space, performed in two generic bases. It is assumed that the unitary matrix U relating both bases is distributed according to the Haar measure on the unitary group. We provide lower bounds on the average Shannon entropy of probability distributions related to both measurements. The bounds are stronger than those obtained with use of the entropic uncertainty relation by Maassen and Uffink, and they are optimal up to additive constants. We also analyze the case of a large number of measurements and obtain strong entropic uncertainty relations, which hold with high probability with respect to the random choice of bases. The lower bounds we obtain are optimal up to additive constants and allow us to prove a conjecture by Wehner and Winter on the asymptotic behavior of constants in entropic uncertainty relations as the dimension tends to infinity. As a tool we develop estimates on the maximum operator norm of a submatrix of a fixed size of a random unitary matrix distributed according to the Haar measure, which are of independent interest.

9. Asymptotic Parachute Performance Sensitivity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.

2006-01-01

In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than any other mission to Mars, Mars Science Laboratory will also provide scientists with unprecedented access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. By providing an Entry, Descent, and Landing system capable of landing at altitudes as high as 2 km above the reference gravitational equipotential surface, or areoid, as defined by the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter program, Mars Science Laboratory will demonstrate sufficient performance to land on 83% of the planet s surface. By contrast, the highest altitude landing to date on Mars has been the Mars Exploration Rover at 1.3 km below the areoid. The coupling of this improved altitude performance with latitude limits as large as 60 degrees off of the equator and a precise delivery to within 10 km of a surface target, will allow the science community to select the Mars Science Laboratory landing site from thousands of scientifically interesting possibilities. In meeting these requirements, Mars Science Laboratory is extending the limits of the Entry, Descent, and Landing technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Specifically, the drag deceleration provided by a Viking-heritage 16.15 m supersonic Disk-Gap-Band parachute in the thin atmosphere of Mars is insufficient, at the altitudes and ballistic coefficients under consideration by the Mars Science Laboratory project, to maintain necessary altitude performance and timeline margin. This paper defines and discusses the asymptotic parachute performance observed in Monte Carlo simulation and performance analysis and its effect on the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing architecture.

10. Exponential tilting in Bayesian asymptotics

PubMed Central

Kharroubi, S. A.; Sweeting, T. J.

2016-01-01

We use exponential tilting to obtain versions of asymptotic formulae for Bayesian computation that do not involve conditional maxima of the likelihood function, yielding a more stable computational procedure and significantly reducing computational time. In particular we present an alternative version of the Laplace approximation for a marginal posterior density. Implementation of the asymptotic formulae and a modified signed root based importance sampler are illustrated with an example. PMID:27279661

11. Asymptotic dynamics of monopole walls

Cross, R.

2015-08-01

We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are Abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

12. Brane model with two asymptotic regions

SciTech Connect

Lubo, Musongela

2005-02-15

Some brane models rely on a generalization of the Melvin magnetic universe including a complex scalar field among the sources. We argue that the geometric interpretation of Kip. S. Thorne of this geometry restricts the kind of potential a complex scalar field can display to keep the same asymptotic behavior. While a finite energy is not obtained for a Mexican hat potential in this interpretation, this is the case for a potential displaying a broken phase and an unbroken one. We use for technical simplicity and illustrative purposes an ad hoc potential which however shares some features with those obtained in some supergravity models. We construct a sixth dimensional cylindrically symmetric solution which has two asymptotic regions: the Melvin-like metric on one side and a flat space displaying a conical singularity on the other. The causal structure of the configuration is discussed. Unfortunately, gravity is not localized on the brane.

13. Brane model with two asymptotic regions

Lubo, Musongela

2005-02-01

Some brane models rely on a generalization of the Melvin magnetic universe including a complex scalar field among the sources. We argue that the geometric interpretation of Kip. S. Thorne of this geometry restricts the kind of potential a complex scalar field can display to keep the same asymptotic behavior. While a finite energy is not obtained for a Mexican hat potential in this interpretation, this is the case for a potential displaying a broken phase and an unbroken one. We use for technical simplicity and illustrative purposes an ad hoc potential which however shares some features with those obtained in some supergravity models. We construct a sixth dimensional cylindrically symmetric solution which has two asymptotic regions: the Melvin-like metric on one side and a flat space displaying a conical singularity on the other. The causal structure of the configuration is discussed. Unfortunately, gravity is not localized on the brane.

14. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tierney, Blue, Comp.

An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

15. Polynomial Asymptotes of the Second Kind

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dobbs, David E.

2011-01-01

This note uses the analytic notion of asymptotic functions to study when a function is asymptotic to a polynomial function. Along with associated existence and uniqueness results, this kind of asymptotic behaviour is related to the type of asymptote that was recently defined in a more geometric way. Applications are given to rational functions and…

16. Semilocal density functional theory with correct surface asymptotics

Constantin, Lucian A.; Fabiano, Eduardo; Pitarke, J. M.; Della Sala, Fabio

2016-03-01

Semilocal density functional theory is the most used computational method for electronic structure calculations in theoretical solid-state physics and quantum chemistry of large systems, providing good accuracy with a very attractive computational cost. Nevertheless, because of the nonlocality of the exchange-correlation hole outside a metal surface, it was always considered inappropriate to describe the correct surface asymptotics. Here, we derive, within the semilocal density functional theory formalism, an exact condition for the imagelike surface asymptotics of both the exchange-correlation energy per particle and potential. We show that this condition can be easily incorporated into a practical computational tool, at the simple meta-generalized-gradient approximation level of theory. Using this tool, we also show that the Airy-gas model exhibits asymptotic properties that are closely related to those at metal surfaces. This result highlights the relevance of the linear effective potential model to the metal surface asymptotics.

17. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

18. Asymptotic analysis of rf-heated collisional plasma

SciTech Connect

Fisch, N.J.; Karney, C.F.F.

1985-03-01

It is shown that a distribution of electrons in resonance with traveling waves, but colliding with background distributions of electrons and ions, evolves to a steady state. Details of the steady state are given analytically in the asymptotic limit of high electron energy and are compared with numerical solutions. The asymptotic analytic solution may be useful for quickly relating emission data to likely excitations and is more reliable than conventional numerical solutions at high energy. A method of improving numerics at high energy is suggested.

19. Asymptotic vacua with higher derivatives

Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Kolionis, Georgios; Tsokaros, Antonios

2016-04-01

We study limits of vacuum, isotropic universes in the full, effective, four-dimensional theory with higher derivatives. We show that all flat vacua as well as general curved ones are globally attracted by the standard, square root scaling solution at early times. Open vacua asymptote to horizon-free, Milne states in both directions while closed universes exhibit more complex logarithmic singularities, starting from initial data sets of a possibly smaller dimension. We also discuss the relation of our results to the asymptotic stability of the passage through the singularity in ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies.

20. Asymptotic Rayleigh instantaneous unit hydrograph

USGS Publications Warehouse

Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

1988-01-01

The instantaneous unit hydrograph for a channel network under general linear routing and conditioned on the network magnitude, N, tends asymptotically, as N grows large, to a Rayleigh probability density function. This behavior is identical to that of the width function of the network, and is proven under the assumption that the network link configuration is topologically random and the link hydraulic and geometric properties are independent and identically distributed random variables. The asymptotic distribution depends only on a scale factor, {Mathematical expression}, where ?? is a mean link wave travel time. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

1. Semiclassical asymptotic approximation of the two-dimensional Hartree operator spectrum near the upper boundaries of spectral clusters

Pereskokov, A. V.

2016-04-01

We consider an eigenvalue problem for the two-dimensional Hartree operator with a small parameter at the nonlinearity. We obtain the asymptotic eigenvalues and the asymptotic eigenfunctions near the upper boundaries of the spectral clusters formed near the energy levels of the unperturbed operator and construct an asymptotic expansion around the circle where the solution is localized.

2. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beaver, David; And Others

This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

3. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bakke, Ruth

This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

4. Asymptotic approach to special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle

SciTech Connect

Carmona, J. M.; Cortes, J. L.; Mazon, D.

2010-10-15

We propose a general framework to describe Planckian deviations from special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle. They are introduced as the leading corrections in an asymptotic approach to special relativity going beyond the energy power expansion of effective field theories. We discuss the conditions in which these Planckian effects might be experimentally observable in the near future, together with the nontrivial limits of applicability of this asymptotic approach that such a situation would produce, both at the very high (ultraviolet) and the very low (infrared) energy regimes.

5. Intrinsic free energy in active nematics

Thampi, Sumesh P.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

2015-10-01

Basing our arguments on the theory of active liquid crystals, we demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that the activity can induce an effective free energy which enhances ordering in extensile systems of active rods and in contractile suspensions of active discs. We argue that this occurs because any ordering fluctuation is enhanced by the flow field it produces. A phase diagram in the temperature-activity plane compares ordering due to a thermodynamic free energy to that resulting from the activity. We also demonstrate that activity can drive variations in concentration, but for a different physical reason that relies on the separation of hydrodynamic and diffusive time scales.

6. Asymptotically free scaling solutions in non-Abelian Higgs models

Gies, Holger; Zambelli, Luca

2015-07-01

We construct asymptotically free renormalization group trajectories for the generic non-Abelian Higgs model in four-dimensional spacetime. These ultraviolet-complete trajectories become visible by generalizing the renormalization/boundary conditions in the definition of the correlation functions of the theory. Though they are accessible in a controlled weak-coupling analysis, these trajectories originate from threshold phenomena which are missed in a conventional perturbative analysis relying on the deep Euclidean region. We identify a candidate three-parameter family of renormalization group trajectories interconnecting the asymptotically free ultraviolet regime with a Higgs phase in the low-energy limit. We provide estimates of their low-energy properties in the light of a possible application to the standard model Higgs sector. Finally, we find a two-parameter subclass of asymptotically free Coleman-Weinberg-type trajectories that do not suffer from a naturalness problem.

7. Stability of Non-Isolated Asymptotic Profiles for Fast Diffusion

Akagi, Goro

2016-07-01

The stability of asymptotic profiles of solutions to the Cauchy-Dirichlet problem for fast diffusion equation (FDE, for short) is discussed. The main result of the present paper is the stability of any asymptotic profiles of least energy. It is noteworthy that this result can cover non-isolated profiles, e.g., those for thin annular domain cases. The method of proof is based on the Łojasiewicz-Simon inequality, which is usually used to prove the convergence of solutions to prescribed limits, as well as a uniform extinction estimate for solutions to FDE. Besides, local minimizers of an energy functional associated with this issue are characterized. Furthermore, the instability of positive radial asymptotic profiles in thin annular domains is also proved by applying the Łojasiewicz-Simon inequality in a different way.

8. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1982-01-01

An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

9. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1985-01-01

Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

10. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory

SciTech Connect

Parker, G.B.

1991-01-01

This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year 1990 applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities. Four MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for energy testing and program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities.

11. Higher dimensional nonclassical eigenvalue asymptotics

Camus, Brice; Rautenberg, Nils

2015-02-01

In this article, we extend Simon's construction and results [B. Simon, J. Funct. Anal. 53(1), 84-98 (1983)] for leading order eigenvalue asymptotics to n-dimensional Schrödinger operators with non-confining potentials given by Hn α = - Δ + ∏ i = 1 n |x i| α i on ℝn (n > 2), α ≔ ( α 1 , … , α n ) ∈ ( R+ ∗ ) n . We apply the results to also derive the leading order spectral asymptotics in the case of the Dirichlet Laplacian -ΔD on domains Ωn α = { x ∈ R n : ∏ j = 1 n }x j| /α j α n < 1 } .

12. Asymptotic safety goes on shell

Benedetti, Dario

2012-01-01

It is well known in quantum field theory that the off-shell effective action depends on the gauge choice and field parametrization used in calculating it. Nevertheless, the typical scheme in which the scenario of asymptotically safe gravity is investigated is an off-shell version of the functional renormalization group equation. Working with the Einstein-Hilbert truncation as a test bed, we develop a new scheme for the analysis of asymptotically safe gravity in which the on-shell part of the effective action is singled out and we show that the beta function for the essential coupling has no explicit gauge dependence. In order to reach our goal, we introduce several technical novelties, including a different decomposition of the metric fluctuations, a new implementation of the ghost sector and a new cut-off scheme. We find a nontrivial fixed point, with a value of the cosmological constant that is independent of the gauge-fixing parameters.

13. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

14. Asymptotic safety: A simple example

SciTech Connect

Braun, Jens; Gies, Holger; Scherer, Daniel D.

2011-04-15

We use the Gross-Neveu model in 2asymptotic safety scenario: despite being perturbatively nonrenormalizable, the model defines an interacting quantum field theory being valid to arbitrarily high momentum scales owing to the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point. Using the functional renormalization group, we study the uv behavior of the model in both the purely fermionic as well as a partially bosonized language. We show that asymptotic safety is realized at non-Gaussian fixed points in both formulations, the universal critical exponents of which we determine quantitatively. The partially bosonized formulation allows to make contact to the large-N{sub f} expansion where the model is known to be renormalizable to all orders. In this limit, the fixed-point action as well as all universal critical exponents can be computed analytically. As asymptotic safety has become an important scenario for quantizing gravity, our description of a well-understood model is meant to provide for an easily accessible and controllable example of modern nonperturbative quantum field theory.

15. Supersymmetric asymptotic safety is not guaranteed

Intriligator, Kenneth; Sannino, Francesco

2015-11-01

It was recently shown that certain perturbatively accessible, non-supersymmetric gauge-Yukawa theories have UV asymptotic safety, without asymptotic freedom: the UV theory is an interacting RG fixed point, and the IR theory is free. We here investigate the possibility of asymptotic safety in supersymmetric theories, and use unitarity bounds, and the a-theorem, to rule it out in broad classes of theories. The arguments apply without assuming perturbation theory. Therefore, the UV completion of a non-asymptotically free susy theory must have additional, non-obvious degrees of freedom, such as those of an asymptotically free (perhaps magnetic dual) extension.

16. Asymptotic Linear Stability of Solitary Water Waves

Pego, Robert L.; Sun, Shu-Ming

2016-06-01

We prove an asymptotic stability result for the water wave equations linearized around small solitary waves. The equations we consider govern irrotational flow of a fluid with constant density bounded below by a rigid horizontal bottom and above by a free surface under the influence of gravity neglecting surface tension. For sufficiently small amplitude waves, with waveform well-approximated by the well-known sech-squared shape of the KdV soliton, solutions of the linearized equations decay at an exponential rate in an energy norm with exponential weight translated with the wave profile. This holds for all solutions with no component in (that is, symplectically orthogonal to) the two-dimensional neutral-mode space arising from infinitesimal translational and wave-speed variation of solitary waves. We also obtain spectral stability in an unweighted energy norm.

17. Chiral fermions in asymptotically safe quantum gravity

Meibohm, J.; Pawlowski, J. M.

2016-05-01

We study the consistency of dynamical fermionic matter with the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity using the functional renormalisation group. Since this scenario suggests strongly coupled quantum gravity in the UV, one expects gravity-induced fermion self-interactions at energies of the Planck scale. These could lead to chiral symmetry breaking at very high energies and thus to large fermion masses in the IR. The present analysis which is based on the previous works (Christiansen et al., Phys Rev D 92:121501, 2015; Meibohm et al., Phys Rev D 93:084035, 2016), concludes that gravity-induced chiral symmetry breaking at the Planck scale is avoided for a general class of NJL-type models. We find strong evidence that this feature is independent of the number of fermion fields. This finding suggests that the phase diagram for these models is topologically stable under the influence of gravitational interactions.

18. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

2016-04-01

In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

19. Energy and Energy Conservation Activities for High School Students.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bottinelli, Charles A., Ed.; Dow, John O., Ed.

This manual contains fifteen energy activities suitable for high school physical and environmental science and mathematics classrooms. The activities are independent, each having its own objectives, introduction, and background information. A special section of each activity is written for the instructor and contains limits, sample data, and…

20. Asymptotic falloff of local waveform measurements in numerical relativity

SciTech Connect

Pollney, Denis; Reisswig, Christian; Dorband, Nils; Schnetter, Erik; Diener, Peter

2009-12-15

We examine current numerical relativity computations of gravitational waves, which typically determine the asymptotic waves at infinity by extrapolation from finite (small) radii. Using simulations of a black hole binary with accurate wave extraction at r=1000M, we show that extrapolations from the near zone are self-consistent in approximating measurements at this radius, although with a somewhat reduced accuracy. We verify that {psi}{sub 4} is the dominant asymptotic contribution to the gravitational energy (as required by the peeling theorem) but point out that gauge effects may complicate the interpretation of the other Weyl components.

1. Superradiant instabilities of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes

Green, Stephen R.; Hollands, Stefan; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Wald, Robert M.

2016-06-01

We study the linear stability of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes in general relativity in spacetime dimension d≥slant 4. Our approach is an adaptation of the general framework of Hollands and Wald, which gives a stability criterion in terms of the sign of the canonical energy, { E }. The general framework was originally formulated for static or stationary and axisymmetric black holes in the asymptotically flat case, and the stability analysis for that case applies only to axisymmetric perturbations. However, in the asymptotically anti-de Sitter case, the stability analysis requires only that the black hole have a single Killing field normal to the horizon and there are no restrictions on the perturbations (apart from smoothness and appropriate behavior at infinity). For an asymptotically anti-de Sitter black hole, we define an ergoregion to be a region where the horizon Killing field is spacelike; such a region, if present, would normally occur near infinity. We show that for black holes with ergoregions, initial data can be constructed such that { E }\\lt 0, so all such black holes are unstable. To obtain such initial data, we first construct an approximate solution to the constraint equations using the WKB method, and then we use the Corvino–Schoen technique to obtain an exact solution. We also discuss the case of charged asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes with generalized ergoregions.

2. Complementary asymptotic results for the burning velocity of the ozone decomposition flame

SciTech Connect

Rogg, B.

1986-07-01

The merged regime of an ozone decomposition flame (Linan and Rodriguez, 1985) is investigated theoretically, applying the activation-energy asymptotic approach of Rogg and Wichman (1985). The structure and burning rate of the flame are characterized by carrying the analysis to the second order in the reciprocal of a Zel'dovich number, and numerical results based on the rate data and transport-coefficient correlations of Heimerl and Coffee (1980) are presented in tables. It is found that the two-term expansion reduces the errors of the one-term expansion to a few percent. 5 references.

3. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

2015-11-01

Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

4. Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories. I

DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

Wilczek, Frank; Gross, David J.

1973-07-01

Asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions are constructed and analyzed. The reasons for doing this are recounted, including a review of renormalization group techniques and their application to scaling phenomena. The renormalization group equations are derived for Yang-Mills theories. The parameters that enter into the equations are calculated to lowest order and it is shown that these theories are asymptotically free. More specifically the effective coupling constant, which determines the ultraviolet behavior of the theory, vanishes for large space-like momenta. Fermions are incorporated and the construction of realistic models is discussed. We propose that the strong interactions be mediated by a "color" gauge group which commutes with SU(3)xSU(3). The problem of symmetry breaking is discussed. It appears likely that this would have a dynamical origin. It is suggested that the gauge symmetry might not be broken, and that the severe infrared singularities prevent the occurrence of non-color singlet physical states. The deep inelastic structure functions, as well as the electron position total annihilation cross section are analyzed. Scaling obtains up to calculable logarithmic corrections, and the naive lightcone or parton model results follow. The problems of incorporating scalar mesons and breaking the symmetry by the Higgs mechanism are explained in detail.

5. Dissipation of atmospheric waves: An asymptotic approach

Godin, Oleg A.

2014-05-01

Wave energy dissipation through irreversible thermodynamic processes is a major factor influencing propagation of acoustic and gravity waves in the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate modeling of the wave dissipation is important in a wide range of problems from understanding the momentum and energy transport by waves into the upper atmosphere to predicting long-range propagation of infrasound to the acoustic remote sensing of mesospheric and thermospheric winds. Variations with height of the mass density, kinematic viscosity, and other physical parameters of the atmosphere have a profound effect on the wave dissipation and its frequency dependence. To characterize the wave dissipation, it is typical to consider an idealized environment, which admits plane-wave solutions. For instance, kinematic viscosity is often assumed to be constant in derivations of dispersion equations of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere. While the assumption of constant shear viscosity coefficient would be much more realistic, it does not lead to plane-wave solutions. Here, we use an asymptotic approach to derivation of dispersion equations of acoustic-gravity waves in dissipative fluids. The approach does not presuppose existence of any plane-wave solutions and relies instead on the assumption that spatial variations of environmental parameters are gradual. The atmosphere is modeled as a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Linearized hydrodynamic equations for compressible fluids in a gravity field are solved asymptotically, leading to a self-consistent version of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for acoustic-gravity waves. Dissipative processes are found to affect both the eikonal and the geometric (Berry) phase of the wave. Newly found expressions for acoustic-gravity wave attenuation due to viscosity and thermal conductivity of the air are compared to results previously reported in the literature. Effects of the wind on the wave

6. Numerical Asymptotic Solutions Of Differential Equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thurston, Gaylen A.

1992-01-01

Numerical algorithms derived and compared with classical analytical methods. In method, expansions replaced with integrals evaluated numerically. Resulting numerical solutions retain linear independence, main advantage of asymptotic solutions.

7. Nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars

SciTech Connect

El Eid, Mounib F.

2014-05-09

The nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars (briefly: AGB)is a challenging and fascinating subject in the theory of stellar evolution and important for observations as well. This is because about of half the heavy elements beyond iron are synthesized during thermal pulsation phases of these stars. Furthermore, the understanding of the production of the heavy elements and some light elements like carbon and fluorine represent a powerful tool to get more insight into the internal structure of these stars. The diversity of nuclear processing during the AGB phases may also motivate experimental activities in measuring important nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we emphasize several interesting feature of the nucleosynthesis in AGB stars which still needs further elaboration especially from theoretical point of view.

8. Asymptotically optimal topological quantum compiling.

PubMed

Kliuchnikov, Vadym; Bocharov, Alex; Svore, Krysta M

2014-04-11

We address the problem of compiling quantum operations into braid representations for non-Abelian quasiparticles described by the Fibonacci anyon model. We classify the single-qubit unitaries that can be represented exactly by Fibonacci anyon braids and use the classification to develop a probabilistically polynomial algorithm that approximates any given single-qubit unitary to a desired precision by an asymptotically depth-optimal braid pattern. We extend our algorithm in two directions: to produce braids that allow only single-strand movement, called weaves, and to produce depth-optimal approximations of two-qubit gates. Our compiled braid patterns have depths that are 20 to 1000 times shorter than those output by prior state-of-the-art methods, for precisions ranging between 10(-10) and 10(-30). PMID:24765934

9. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1980-01-01

A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

10. On the asymptotic similarity of rotating homogeneous turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Squires, K. D.; Chasnov, J. R.; Mansour, N. N.

1994-01-01

Asymptotic similarity states at large Reynolds numbers and small Rossby numbers in rotating homogeneous turbulence are investigated using the database obtained from large-eddy simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Previous work has shown that the turbulence kinetic energy and integral length scales are accurately described by simple scaling laws based on the low wavenumbers part of the three-dimensional energy spectrum. The primary interest of the present study is to search for spectrum similarity in the asymptotic state. Four independent energy spectra are defined. It is shown that rescaling of these energy spectra in the asymptotic regime will collapse three out of the four spectra. The spectrum which does not collapse is a function only of the vertical wavenumber and corresponds to two-component motions in the plane normal to the rotation axis. Detailed investigation of the cause of this anomalous behavior reveals the existence of a strong reverse cascade of energy from small-to-large scales of the two-dimensional, two-component motions. This feature of the rotating flow is presumably linked to the lack of a complete similarity state, though further study of this issue is required.

11. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

12. 8. Asymptotically Flat and Regular Cauchy Data

Dain, Sergio

I describe the construction of a large class of asymptotically flat initial data with non-vanishing mass and angular momentum for which the metric and the extrinsic curvature have asymptotic expansions at space-like infinity in terms of powers of a radial coordinate. I emphasize the motivations and the main ideas behind the proofs.

13. Einstein-Yang-Mills theory: Asymptotic symmetries

Barnich, Glenn; Lambert, Pierre-Henry

2013-11-01

Asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner. In agreement with a recent conjecture, one finds a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra not only in three dimensions but also in the four-dimensional asymptotically flat case.

14. An asymptotic model of the F layer

Oliver, W. L.

2012-01-01

A model of the F layer of the ionosphere is presented that consists of a bottomside asymptote that ignores transport and a topside asymptote that ignores chemistry. The asymptotes connect at the balance height dividing the chemistry and transport regimes. A combination of these two asymptotes produces a good approximation to the true F layer. Analogously, a model of F layer response to an applied vertical drift is presented that consists of two asymptotic responses, one that ignores transport and one that ignores chemistry. The combination of these asymptotic responses produces a good approximation to the response of the true F layer. This latter response is identical to the “servo” response of Rishbeth et al. (1978), derived from the continuity equation. The asymptotic approach bypasses the continuity equation in favor of “force balance” arguments and so replaces a differential equation with simpler algebraic equations. This new approach provides a convenient and intuitive mean for first-order estimates of the change in F layer peak height and density in terms of changes in neutral density, composition, temperature, winds, and electric fields. It is applicable at midlatitudes and at magnetically quiet times at high latitudes. Forensic inverse relations are possible but are not unique. The validity of the asymptotic relations is shown through numerical simulation.

15. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

16. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

17. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

18. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

19. Hardee County Energy Activities - Middle School Level.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

Described are over 70 activities designed to help students develop writing skills by examining energy issues. Intended for middle school students, the lessons were developed by Hardee County, Florida teachers. Learning strategies employed include class discussions, analogies, word puzzles, letter writing, sentence completions, vocabulary building…

20. Activation energy of water structural transitions

Kholmanskiy, Alexander

2015-06-01

In this work, the nature of molecular motions that dominate in the thermodynamics of anomalies of liquid water properties in the range of 0-100 °C has been studied. Temperature dependencies of water properties have been approximated by exponential functions and the activation energies for water structure transitions have been evaluated. The activation energy values were compared with the energy spectra of characteristic vibrations and with those of cooperative molecular motion in the lattice-type structure of hydrogen bonds. It has been found that it is the reaction of hydrogen bond breaking that mainly limits the abnormal dynamics of water viscosity, self-diffusion, dielectric relaxation time and electric conductivity. It has been assumed that the thermodynamics of cooperative motion and resonance phenomena in water clusters form a basis for the differentiation mechanism of extrema points in temperature dependencies of water density, isobaric heat capacity, sound velocity, surface tension coefficient and compressibility.

1. Asymptotic stability of relaxation shock profiles for hyperbolic conservation laws

Liu, Hailiang

This paper studies the asymptotic stability of traveling relaxation shock profiles for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Under a stability condition of subcharacteristic type the large time relaxation dynamics on the level of shocks is shown to be determined by the equilibrium conservation laws. The proof is due to the energy principle, using the weighted norms, the interaction of waves from various modes is treated by imposing suitable weight matrix.

2. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

2001-01-01

The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

3. Detecting communities using asymptotical surprise

Traag, V. A.; Aldecoa, R.; Delvenne, J.-C.

2015-08-01

Nodes in real-world networks are repeatedly observed to form dense clusters, often referred to as communities. Methods to detect these groups of nodes usually maximize an objective function, which implicitly contains the definition of a community. We here analyze a recently proposed measure called surprise, which assesses the quality of the partition of a network into communities. In its current form, the formulation of surprise is rather difficult to analyze. We here therefore develop an accurate asymptotic approximation. This allows for the development of an efficient algorithm for optimizing surprise. Incidentally, this leads to a straightforward extension of surprise to weighted graphs. Additionally, the approximation makes it possible to analyze surprise more closely and compare it to other methods, especially modularity. We show that surprise is (nearly) unaffected by the well-known resolution limit, a particular problem for modularity. However, surprise may tend to overestimate the number of communities, whereas they may be underestimated by modularity. In short, surprise works well in the limit of many small communities, whereas modularity works better in the limit of few large communities. In this sense, surprise is more discriminative than modularity and may find communities where modularity fails to discern any structure.

4. Asymptotics with a positive cosmological constant: I. Basic framework

Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice; Kesavan, Aruna

2015-01-01

The asymptotic structure of the gravitational field of isolated systems has been analyzed in great detail in the case when the cosmological constant Λ is zero. The resulting framework lies at the foundation of research in diverse areas in gravitational science. Examples include: (i) positive energy theorems in geometric analysis; (ii) the coordinate invariant characterization of gravitational waves in full, nonlinear general relativity; (iii) computations of the energy-momentum emission in gravitational collapse and binary mergers in numerical relativity and relativistic astrophysics; and (iv) constructions of asymptotic Hilbert spaces to calculate S-matrices and analyze the issue of information loss in the quantum evaporation of black holes. However, by now observations have led to a strong consensus that Λ is positive in our universe. In this paper we show that, unfortunately, the standard framework does not extend from the Λ =0 case to the Λ \\gt 0 case in a physically useful manner. In particular, we do not have positive energy theorems, nor an invariant notion of gravitational waves in the nonlinear regime, nor asymptotic Hilbert spaces in dynamical situations of semi-classical gravity. A suitable framework to address these conceptual issues of direct physical importance is developed in subsequent papers.

5. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paul, Heather L.

2011-01-01

Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

6. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paul, Heather L.

2012-01-01

Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

7. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maestrello, Lucio

2000-01-01

Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

8. EMC effect: asymptotic freedom with nuclear targets

SciTech Connect

West, G.B.

1984-01-01

General features of the EMC effect are discussed within the framework of quantum chromodynamics as expressed via the operator product expansion and asymptotic freedom. These techniques are reviewed with emphasis on the target dependence. 22 references.

9. Hermite polynomials and quasi-classical asymptotics

SciTech Connect

Ali, S. Twareque; Engliš, Miroslav

2014-04-15

We study an unorthodox variant of the Berezin-Toeplitz type of quantization scheme, on a reproducing kernel Hilbert space generated by the real Hermite polynomials and work out the associated quasi-classical asymptotics.

10. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

SciTech Connect

2014-06-01

Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

11. Asymptotically anomalous black hole configurations in gravitating nonlinear electrodynamics

SciTech Connect

Diaz-Alonso, J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.

2010-10-15

We analyze the class of nonlinear electrodynamics minimally coupled to gravitation supporting asymptotically flat non-Schwarzschild-like elementary solutions. The Lagrangian densities governing the dynamics of these models in flat space are defined and fully characterized as a subclass of the set of functions of the two standard field invariants, restricted by requirements of regularity, parity invariance and positivity of the energy, which are necessary conditions for the theories to be physically admissible. Such requirements allow for a complete characterization and classification of the geometrical structures of the elementary solutions for the corresponding gravity-coupled models. In particular, an immediate consequence of the requirement of positivity of the energy is the asymptotic flatness of gravitating elementary solutions for any admissible model. The present analysis, together with the (already published) one concerning the full class of admissible gravitating nonlinear electrodynamics supporting asymptotically flat Schwarzschild-like elementary solutions, completes and exhausts the study of the gravitating pointlike charge problem for this kind of models.

12. To theory of asymptotically stable accelerating Universe in Riemann-Cartan spacetime

SciTech Connect

Garkun, A.S.; Kudin, V.I.; Minkevich, A.V. E-mail: kudzin_w@tut.by

2014-12-01

Homogeneous isotropic cosmological models built in the framework of the Poincar'e gauge theory of gravity based on general expression of gravitational Lagrangian with indefinite parameters are analyzed. Special points of cosmological solutions for flat cosmological models at asymptotics and conditions of their stability in dependence of indefinite parameters are found. Procedure of numerical integration of the system of gravitational equations at asymptotics is considered. Numerical solution for accelerating Universe without dark energy is obtained.

13. Indirect methods of determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients and their application for nuclear astrophysics

SciTech Connect

Yarmukhamedov, R.

2014-05-09

The basic methods of the determination of asymptotic normalization coefficient for A+a→B of astrophysical interest are briefly presented. The results of the application of the specific asymptotic normalization coefficients derived within these methods for the extrapolation of the astrophysical S factors to experimentally inaccessible energy regions (E ≤ 25 keV) for the some specific radiative capture A(a,γ)B reactions of the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are presented.

14. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

SciTech Connect

Mashnik, Stepan G; Korovin, Yury A; Natalenko, Anatoly A; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu; Stankovskiy, A Yu

2010-01-01

A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1 H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

15. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

Korovin, Yu. A.; Natalenko, A. A.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.; Mashnik, S. G.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.

2010-12-01

A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

16. Energy and Man's Environment: Activity Guide. An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jones, John, Ed.

This publication provides the goals, concepts, objectives, and rationale for the six activity guides in this series of energy education materials. The organization of this series, as presented in this publication, centers around six goals which correspond to the activity guides. Under each goal are several concepts, which in turn, have several…

17. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jones, John, Ed.

This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

18. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jones, John, Ed.

This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

19. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

20. Asymptotic normalization coefficients (nuclear vertex constants) for p + {sup 7}Be {yields} {sup 8}B and the direct {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B astrophysical S factors at solar energies

SciTech Connect

Igamov, S. B.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

2008-10-15

A new analysis of the precise experimental astrophysical S factors for the direct-capture reaction {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B [A.J. Junghans et al., Phys. Rev. C 68, 065803 (2003) and L.T. Baby et al., Phys. Rev. C 67, 065805 (2003)] is carried out on the basis of a modified two-body potential approach in which the direct astrophysical S factor, S{sub 17}(E), is expressed in terms of the asymptotic normalization constants for p + {sup 7}Be {yields} {sup 8}B and two additional conditions are involved to verify the peripheral character of the reaction under consideration. The Woods-Saxon potential form is used for the bound-(p + {sup 7}Be)-state wave function and for p{sup 7}Be-scattering wave function. New estimates are obtained for the 'indirectly measured' values of the asymptotic normalization constants (the nuclear vertex constants) for the p + {sup 7}Be {yields} {sup 8}B and S{sub 17}(E) at E {<=} 115 keV, including E = 0. These values of S{sub 17}(E) and asymptotic normalization constants have been used for obtaining the indirectly measured values of the s-wave average scattering length and the p-wave effective-range parameters for p{sup 7}Be scattering.

1. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

SciTech Connect

Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

2010-09-01

Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

2. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

2014-03-01

We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

3. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

2014-12-01

The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

4. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

SciTech Connect

Eichman, J.

2015-04-21

This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

5. Oklahoma Energy Awareness Education, Energy Education Activities, Grades 4-12.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

This publication contains energy education activities for grades 4 through 12 and is part of a set of three publications. These activities are organized under five energy concepts: (1) energy is so basic that nothing moves without it; (2) conservation of energy; (3) there are other energy alternatives; (4) society depends on energy; and (5) the…

6. Asymptotic modelling of a thermopiezoelastic anisotropic smart plate

Long, Yufei

Motivated by the requirement of modelling for space flexible reflectors as well as other applications of plate structures in engineering, a general anisotropic laminated thin plate model and a monoclinic Reissner-Mindlin plate model with thermal deformation, two-way coupled piezoelectric effect and pyroelectric effect is constructed using the variational asymptotic method, without any ad hoc assumptions. Total potential energy contains strain energy, electric potential energy and energy caused by temperature change. Three-dimensional strain field is built based on the concept of warping function and decomposition of the rotation tensor. The feature of small thickness and large in-plane dimension of plate structure helped to asymptotically simplify the three-dimensional analysis to a two-dimensional analysis on the reference surface and a one-dimensional analysis through the thickness. For the zeroth-order approximation, the asymptotically correct expression of energy is derived into the form of energetic equation in classical laminated plate theory, which will be enough to predict the behavior of plate structures as thin as a space flexible reflector. A through-the-thickness strain field can be expressed in terms of material constants and two-dimensional membrane and bending strains, while the transverse normal and shear stresses are not predictable yet. In the first-order approximation, the warping functions are further disturbed into a high order and an asymptotically correct energy expression with derivatives of the two-dimensional strains is acquired. For the convenience of practical use, the expression is transformed into a Reissner-Mindlin form with optimization implemented to minimize the error. Transverse stresses and strains are recovered using the in-plane strain variables. Several numerical examples of different laminations and shapes are studied with the help of analytical solutions or shell elements in finite element codes. The constitutive relation is

7. A note on two-dimensional asymptotic magnetotail equilibria

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voigt, Gerd-Hannes; Moore, Brian D.

1994-01-01

In order to understand, on the fluid level, the structure, the time evolution, and the stability of current sheets, such as the magnetotail plasma sheet in Earth's magnetosphere, one has to consider magnetic field configurations that are in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force equilibrium. Any reasonable MHD current sheet model has to be two-dimensional, at least in an asymptotic sense (B(sub z)/B (sub x)) = epsilon much less than 1. The necessary two-dimensionality is described by a rather arbitrary function f(x). We utilize the free function f(x) to construct two-dimensional magnetotail equilibria are 'equivalent' to current sheets in empirical three-dimensional models. We obtain a class of asymptotic magnetotail equilibria ordered with respect to the magnetic disturbance index Kp. For low Kp values the two-dimensional MHD equilibria reflect some of the realistic, observation-based, aspects of three-dimensional models. For high Kp values the three-dimensional models do not fit the asymptotic MHD equlibria, which is indicative of their inconsistency with the assumed pressure function. This, in turn, implies that high magnetic activity levels of the real magnetosphere might be ruled by thermodynamic conditions different from local thermodynamic equilibrium.

8. Maximal hypersurfaces in asymptotically stationary spacetimes

Chrusciel, Piotr T.; Wald, Robert M.

1992-12-01

The purpose of the work is to extend the results on the existence of maximal hypersurfaces to encompass some situations considered by other authors. The existence of maximal hypersurface in asymptotically stationary spacetimes is proven. Existence of maximal surface and of foliations by maximal hypersurfaces is proven in two classes of asymptotically flat spacetimes which possess a one parameter group of isometries whose orbits are timelike 'near infinity'. The first class consists of strongly causal asymptotically flat spacetimes which contain no 'blackhole or white hole' (but may contain 'ergoregions' where the Killing orbits fail to be timelike). The second class of space times possess a black hole and a white hole, with the black and white hole horizon intersecting in a compact 2-surface S.

9. Dispersive shock wave interactions and asymptotics.

PubMed

Ablowitz, Mark J; Baldwin, Douglas E

2013-02-01

Dispersive shock waves (DSWs) are physically important phenomena that occur in systems dominated by weak dispersion and weak nonlinearity. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is the universal model for systems with weak dispersion and weak, quadratic nonlinearity. Here we show that the long-time-asymptotic solution of the KdV equation for general, steplike data is a single-phase DSW; this DSW is the "largest" possible DSW based on the boundary data. We find this asymptotic solution using the inverse scattering transform and matched-asymptotic expansions. So while multistep data evolve to have multiphase dynamics at intermediate times, these interacting DSWs eventually merge to form a single-phase DSW at large time. PMID:23496590

10. New measurements of the astrophysical S factor for {sup 12}C(p,{gamma}){sup 13}N reaction at low energies and the asymptotic normalization coefficient (nuclear vertex constant) for the p+{sup 12}C{yields}{sup 13}N reaction

SciTech Connect

Burtebaev, N.; Zazulin, D. M.; Igamov, S. B.; Yarmukhamedov, R.; Peterson, R. J.

2008-09-15

New measurements of differential and total cross sections for the {sup 12}C(p,{gamma}){sup 13}N reaction have been made at beam energies of E{sub p}=354,390,460,463,565,750, and 1061 keV. Analysis of the astrophysical S factor S(E) for the {sup 12}C(p,{gamma}){sup 13}N reaction at low energies and of the reaction rates has been carried out within the R-matrix approach by using the previously measured nuclear vertex constant (or the respective asymptotic normalization coefficient) for the virtual decay {sup 13}N{yields}p+{sup 12}C to fix the direct capture part of the amplitude in S(E). It is demonstrated that the R-matrix approach, using the measured asymptotic normalization coefficient, can be employed as an ideal tool, minimizing the uncertainties associated with a calculation of the direct capture cross section of the {sup 12}C(p,{gamma}){sup 13}N reaction at extremely low energies. New information on the proton and {gamma} width for the first excited state of {sup 13}N is obtained.

11. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary

SciTech Connect

Rizy, D Tom

2010-01-01

The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is

12. Asymptotics of a horizontal liquid bridge

Haynes, M.; O'Brien, S. B. G.; Benilov, E. S.

2016-04-01

This paper uses asymptotic techniques to find the shape of a two dimensional liquid bridge suspended between two vertical walls. We model the equilibrium bridge shape using the Laplace-Young equation. We use the Bond number as a small parameter to deduce an asymptotic solution which is then compared with numerical solutions. The perturbation approach demonstrates that equilibrium is only possible if the contact angle lies within a hysteresis interval and the analysis relates the width of this interval to the Bond number. This result is verified by comparison with a global force balance. In addition, we examine the quasi-static evolution of such a two dimensional bridge.

13. Asymptotic behavior of degenerate logistic equations

Arrieta, José M.; Pardo, Rosa; Rodríguez-Bernal, Aníbal

2015-12-01

We analyze the asymptotic behavior of positive solutions of parabolic equations with a class of degenerate logistic nonlinearities of the type λu - n (x)uρ. An important characteristic of this work is that the region where the logistic term n (ṡ) vanishes, that is K0 = { x : n (x) = 0 }, may be non-smooth. We analyze conditions on λ, ρ, n (ṡ) and K0 guaranteeing that the solution starting at a positive initial condition remains bounded or blows up as time goes to infinity. The asymptotic behavior may not be the same in different parts of K0.

14. Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering

Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J.; Silva, P. V. R. G.

2016-02-01

In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio X between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m. energy interval 5 GeV-8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for X, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio X bar = 0.30 ± 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for X and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80-100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

15. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

2012-01-01

By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

16. Asymptotic structure of the Einstein-Maxwell theory on AdS3

Pérez, Alfredo; Riquelme, Miguel; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

2016-02-01

The asymptotic structure of AdS spacetimes in the context of General Relativity coupled to the Maxwell field in three spacetime dimensions is analyzed. Although the fall-off of the fields is relaxed with respect to that of Brown and Henneaux, the variation of the canonical generators associated to the asymptotic Killing vectors can be shown to be finite once required to span the Lie derivative of the fields. The corresponding surface integrals then acquire explicit contributions from the electromagnetic field, and become well-defined provided they fulfill suitable integrability conditions, implying that the leading terms of the asymptotic form of the electromagnetic field are functionally related. Consequently, for a generic choice of boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetries are broken down to {R}⊗ U(1)⊗ U(1) . Nonetheless, requiring compatibility of the boundary conditions with one of the asymptotic Virasoro symmetries, singles out the set to be characterized by an arbitrary function of a single variable, whose precise form depends on the choice of the chiral copy. Remarkably, requiring the asymptotic symmetries to contain the full conformal group selects a very special set of boundary conditions that is labeled by a unique constant parameter, so that the algebra of the canonical generators is given by the direct sum of two copies of the Virasoro algebra with the standard central extension and U (1). This special set of boundary conditions makes the energy spectrum of electrically charged rotating black holes to be well-behaved.

17. Distributed activation energy model parameters of some Turkish coals

SciTech Connect

Gunes, M.; Gunes, S.K.

2008-07-01

A multi-reaction model based on distributed activation energy has been applied to some Turkish coals. The kinetic parameters of distributed activation energy model were calculated via computer program developed for this purpose. It was observed that the values of mean of activation energy distribution vary between 218 and 248 kJ/mol, and the values of standard deviation of activation energy distribution vary between 32 and 70 kJ/mol. The correlations between kinetic parameters of the distributed activation energy model and certain properties of coal have been investigated.

18. Asymptotic behaviour of backward elastic scattering

Germond, J. F.; Lombard, R. J.

1988-05-01

We discuss a compact formula proposed by Dias de Deus and Pimenta for the asymptotic value of the elastic scattering amplitude at backward angles. Improvements and generalization are obtained by means of the saddle-point method which corroborate old calculations by Serber.

19. Exponential asymptotics of the Voigt functions

Paris, R. B.

2015-06-01

We obtain the asymptotic expansion of the Voigt functionss K( x, y) and L( x, y) for large (real) values of the variables x and y, paying particular attention to the exponentially small contributions. A Stokes phenomenon is encountered as with x > 0 fixed. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of these new expansions.

20. Lectures on renormalization and asymptotic safety

SciTech Connect

Nagy, Sandor

2014-11-15

A short introduction is given on the functional renormalization group method, putting emphasis on its nonperturbative aspects. The method enables to find nontrivial fixed points in quantum field theoretic models which make them free from divergences and leads to the concept of asymptotic safety. It can be considered as a generalization of the asymptotic freedom which plays a key role in the perturbative renormalization. We summarize and give a short discussion of some important models, which are asymptotically safe such as the Gross–Neveu model, the nonlinear σ model, the sine–Gordon model, and we consider the model of quantum Einstein gravity which seems to show asymptotic safety, too. We also give a detailed analysis of infrared behavior of such scalar models where a spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place. The deep infrared behavior of the broken phase cannot be treated within the framework of perturbative calculations. We demonstrate that there exists an infrared fixed point in the broken phase which creates a new scaling regime there, however its structure is hidden by the singularity of the renormalization group equations. The theory spaces of these models show several similar properties, namely the models have the same phase and fixed point structure. The quantum Einstein gravity also exhibits similarities when considering the global aspects of its theory space since the appearing two phases there show analogies with the symmetric and the broken phases of the scalar models. These results be nicely uncovered by the functional renormalization group method.

1. Layer tracking, asymptotics, and domain decomposition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brown, D. L.; Chin, R. C. Y.; Hedstrom, G. W.; Manteuffel, T. A.

1991-01-01

A preliminary report is presented on the work on the tracking of internal layers in a singularly-perturbed convection-diffusion equation. It is shown why such tracking may be desirable, and it is also shown how to do it using domain decomposition based on asymptotic analysis.

2. Eigenvalue asymptotics for Dirac-Bessel operators

Hryniv, Rostyslav O.; Mykytyuk, Yaroslav V.

2016-06-01

In this paper, we establish the eigenvalue asymptotics for non-self-adjoint Dirac-Bessel operators on (0, 1) with arbitrary real angular momenta and square integrable potentials, which gives the first step for solution of the related inverse problem. The approach is based on a careful examination of the corresponding characteristic functions and their zero distribution.

3. On the Asymptotic Regimes and the Strongly Stratified Limit of Rotating Boussinesq Equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Babin, A.; Mahalov, A.; Nicolaenko, B.; Zhou, Y.

1997-01-01

Asymptotic regimes of geophysical dynamics are described for different Burger number limits. Rotating Boussinesq equations are analyzed in the asymptotic limit, of strong stratification in the Burger number of order one situation as well as in the asymptotic regime of strong stratification and weak rotation. It is shown that in both regimes horizontally averaged buoyancy variable is an adiabatic invariant for the full Boussinesq system. Spectral phase shift corrections to the buoyancy time scale associated with vertical shearing of this invariant are deduced. Statistical dephasing effects induced by turbulent processes on inertial-gravity waves are evidenced. The 'split' of the energy transfer of the vortical and the wave components is established in the Craya-Herring cyclic basis. As the Burger number increases from zero to infinity, we demonstrate gradual unfreezing of energy cascades for ageostrophic dynamics. The energy spectrum and the anisotropic spectral eddy viscosity are deduced with an explicit dependence on the anisotropic rotation/stratification time scale which depends on the vertical aspect ratio parameter. Intermediate asymptotic regime corresponding to strong stratification and weak rotation is analyzed where the effects of weak rotation are accounted for by an asymptotic expansion with full control (saturation) of vertical shearing. The regularizing effect of weak rotation differs from regularizations based on vertical viscosity. Two scalar prognostic equations for ageostrophic components (divergent velocity potential and geostrophic departure ) are obtained.

4. A study on the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy in Meyer-Neldel rule for charge mobility in pentacene OTFTs

SciTech Connect

Petrosino, Mario; Rubino, Alfredo; Miscioscia, Riccardo; Girolamo del Mauro, Anna de; Rega, Romina; Cerri, Valerio; Minarini, Carla

2010-06-02

A temperature analysis of the OTFT having pentacene as channel semiconductor and PMMA as gate dielectric has been performed. The experimental results have been studied by extracting the field-effect mobility of the TFTs and relating it to the sample's temperature. We have found the mobility to follow the Meyer-Neldel rule. This behavior can be considered imputable to the channel carrier hopping. The gate voltage effect on the thermal activation energy for the mobility and the asymptotic parameter has been also taken into account.

5. Asymptotic dynamics on a singular chemotaxis system modeling onset of tumor angiogenesis

Wang, Zhi-An; Xiang, Zhaoyin; Yu, Pei

2016-02-01

The asymptotic behavior of solutions to a singular chemotaxis system modeling the onset of tumor angiogenesis in two and three dimensional whole spaces is investigated in the paper. By a Cole-Hopf type transformation, the singular chemotaxis is converted into a non-singular hyperbolic system. Then we study the transformed system and establish the global existence, asymptotic decay rates and diffusion convergence rate of solutions by the method of energy estimates. The main novelty of our results is the finding of a hidden interactive dissipation structure in the system by which the energy dissipation is established.

6. School District Energy Conservation Activities. R-96-J-2.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

To help New York's State Department of Education assess public school districts' energy conservation activities, the results of an audit of school districts' energy conservation activities are presented. The audit shows that most school districts have made some efforts toward energy conservation and that the Department does provide some assistance…

7. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

8. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

EIA Publications

2013-01-01

World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Global Activity Module Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the World Energy Projection Plus (WEPS ) Global Activity Module (GAM) used to develop the International Energy Outlook for 2013 (IEO2013). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code.

9. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1985-01-01

Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

10. Asymptotic coefficients for one-interacting-level Voigt profiles

Cope, D.; Lovett, R. J.

1988-02-01

The asymptotic behavior of general Voigt profiles with general width and shift functions has been determined by Cope and Lovett (1987). The resulting asymptotic coefficients are functions of the perturber/radiator mass ratio; also, the coefficients for the one-interacting-level (OIL) profiles proposed by Ward et al. (1974) were studied. In this paper, the behavior of the OIL asymptotic coefficients for large mass ratio values is determined, thereby providing a complete picture of OIL asymptotics for all mass ratios.

11. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pohlman, Betty; And Others

This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and…

12. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 4. Revised Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pohlman, Betty; And Others

This activity notebook for grade 4 is one in a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade four. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

13. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 6. Revised Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pohlman, Betty; And Others

This activity notebook for grade 6 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade six. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

14. Energy Conservation Activities for the Classroom K-12.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kentucky Dept. of Energy, Frankfort.

After a brief introduction entitled "Where Does the Energy We Use Come From," this unit presents 86 activities. Each activity gives the title, concept, objectives, subject area, level, time involved, materials needed, procedures, and related career activities. Topics cover everything from housing insulation to alternate sources of energy to energy…

15. Determination of the 3He+α→7Be asymptotic normalization coefficients, the nuclear vertex constants, and their application for the extrapolation of the 3He(α,γ)7Be astrophysical S factors to the solar energy region

Tursunmahatov, Q. I.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

2012-04-01

A new analysis of the modern astrophysical S factors for the direct-capture 3He(α,γ)7Be reaction, precisely measured in recent works [B.S. Nara Singh , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.262503 93, 262503 (2004); D. Bemmerer , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.122502 97, 122502 (2006);F. Confortola , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.75.065803 75, 065803 (2007), Gy. Gyürky , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.75.035805 75, 035805 (2007), T. A. D. Brown , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.76.055801 76, 055801 (2007), and A. Di Leva, , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.232502 102, 232502 (2009)], has been carried out within the modified two-body potential approach. New estimates are obtained for the “indirectly determined” values of the asymptotic normalization constants and the respective nuclear vertex constants for 3He+α→7Be(g.s.) and 3He+α→7Be(0.429 MeV) as well as the astrophysical S factors S34(E) at E≤90 keV, including E=0. The values of asymptotic normalization constants have been used to obtain the values of the ratio of the α-particle spectroscopic factors for the mirror (7Li7Be) pair.

16. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

17. National Alliance of Clean Energy Incubator Activities - Final Technical Report

SciTech Connect

Chris Downing, P.E.

2004-12-14

Summary of activity related to development of the Alliance of Clean Energy Business Incubators and incubation services provided to the clean energy sector by the Advanced Technology Development Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

18. Solar-energy absorber: Active infrared (IR) trap

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brantley, L. W., Jr.

1974-01-01

Efficiency of solar-energy absorbers may be improved to 95% by actively cooling their intermediate glass plates. This approach may be of interest to manufacturers of solar absorbers and to engineers and scientists developing new sources of energy.

19. Asymptotics of Determinants of Bessel Operators

Basor, Estelle L.; Ehrhardt, Torsten

For aL∞(+)∩L1(+) the truncated Bessel operator Bτ(a) is the integral operator acting on L2[0,τ] with the kernel where Jν stands for the Bessel function with ν>-1. In this paper we determine the asymptotics of the determinant det(I+Bτ(a)) as τ-->∞ for sufficiently smooth functions a for which a(x)≠1 for all x[0,∞). The asymptotic formula is of the form det(I+Bτ(a)) GτE with certain constants G and E, and thus similar to the well-known Szegö-Akhiezer-Kac formula for truncated Wiener-Hopf determinants.

20. Asymptotically flat space–times: an enigma

Newman, Ezra T.

2016-07-01

We begin by emphasizing that we are dealing with standard Einstein or Einstein–Maxwell theory—absolutely no new physics has been inserted. The fresh item is that the well-known asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell theory are transformed to a new coordinate system with surprising and (seemingly) inexplicable results. We begin with the standard description of (Null) asymptotically flat space–times described in conventional Bondi-coordinates. After transforming the variables (mainly the asymptotic Weyl tensor components) to a very special set of Newman-Unti (NU) coordinates, we find a series of relations totally mimicking standard Newtonian classical mechanics and Maxwell theory. The surprising and troubling aspect of these relations is that the associated motion and radiation does not take place in physical space–time. Instead these relations takes place in an unusual inherited complex four-dimensional manifold referred to as H-space that has no immediate relationship with space–time. In fact these relations appear in two such spaces, H-space and its dual space \\bar{H}.

1. Asymptotic dynamics of the exceptional Bianchi cosmologies

Hewitt, C. G.; Horwood, J. T.; Wainwright, J.

2003-05-01

In this paper we give, for the first time, a qualitative description of the asymptotic dynamics of a class of non-tilted spatially homogeneous (SH) cosmologies, the so-called exceptional Bianchi cosmologies, which are of Bianchi type VI$_{-1/9}$. This class is of interest for two reasons. Firstly, it is generic within the class of non-tilted SH cosmologies, being of the same generality as the models of Bianchi types VIII and IX. Secondly, it is the SH limit of a generic class of spatially inhomogeneous $G_{2}$ cosmologies. Using the orthonormal frame formalism and Hubble-normalized variables, we show that the exceptional Bianchi cosmologies differ from the non-exceptional Bianchi cosmologies of type VI$_{h}$ in two significant ways. Firstly, the models exhibit an oscillatory approach to the initial singularity and hence are not asymptotically self-similar. Secondly, at late times, although the models are asymptotically self-similar, the future attractor for the vacuum-dominated models is the so-called Robinson-Trautman SH model instead of the vacuum SH plane wave models.

2. Asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham correlation potential

SciTech Connect

Joubert, D. P.

2007-07-15

The density-functional correlation potential of a finite system is shown to asymptotically approach a nonzero constant along a nodal surface of the energetically highest occupied orbital and zero everywhere else. This nonuniform asymptotic form of the correlation potential exactly cancels the nonuniform asymptotic behavior of the exact exchange potential discussed by Della Sala and Goerling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 33003 (2002)]. The sum of the exchange and correlation potentials therefore asymptotically tends to -1/r everywhere, consistent with the asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham potential as analyzed by Almbladh and von Barth [Phys. Rev. B 31, 3231 (1985)].

3. Using Tensor Momentum Dependent Deuteron Potential to Extract the Asymptotic D/S Ratio

SciTech Connect

2010-09-30

A new value for the deuteron asymptotic D/S ratio {eta} = 0.02640{+-}0.00024 is extracted from an empirical linear {eta}-Q relation found for a class of deuteron momentum dependent potentials with tensor momentum dependent part. These potentials fit a recently published phase shift analysis and the binding energy of the deuteron.

4. Asymptotic behavior of the Maupertuis action on a libration and tunneling in a double well

Anikin, A. Yu.

2013-03-01

This paper is devoted to an asymptotic formula for splitting of the lowest eigenvalues of a two-dimensional Schrödinger operator with a potential having two symmetric wells. We rigorously prove the corresponding formula, obtained earlier in a paper by J. Brüning, S. Yu. Dobrokhotov, and E. S. Semenov ["Unstable Closed Trajectories, Librations and Splitting of the Lowest Eigenvalues in Quantum Double Well Problem," Regul. Chaotic Dyn. 11 (2), 167-180 (2006)] at the physical level of rigor. The crucial role in our considerations is played by an asymptotic formula for the Maupertuis action (as a function of energy) on a periodic trajectory of the classical system (a libration) lying near a doubly asymptotic trajectory.

5. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hack, Nancy; And Others

These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

6. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

PubMed

Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

2014-09-01

A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

7. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bindel, Thomas H.

1996-01-01

Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

8. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

9. Okeechobee County Energy Education Activities--Middle School Level.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

Over 60 energy education activities related to mathematics, science, social studies, and English comprise this manual for middle school teachers. Included are issues for discussion, puzzles, science investigations, story writing exercises, and energy cost calculation problems. Among the topics covered in these lessons are energy consumption…

10. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1981-03-01

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

11. Construction of space-time ray asymptotics from stationary high-frequency asymptotics in nonstationary problems

Plachenov, A. B.

An algorithm is proposed for the transition from the short-wave asymptotics of stationary problems to the space-time asymptotics of nonstationary problems of linear wave propagation. The relationship between this algorithm and constructs of the spatial-temporal ray tracing method is examined. As an example, the algorithm is applied to the problem of the detection of a diffraction wave in the deep shade behind a smooth convex obstacle in the case where the incident wave is specified by its spatial-temporal ray expansion.

12. Asymptotic symmetries of Yang-Mills theory

Strominger, Andrew

2014-07-01

Asymptotic symmetries at future null infinity ( +) of Minkowski space for electrodynamics with massless charged fields, as well as nonabelian gauge theories with gauge group G, are considered at the semiclassical level. The possibility of charge/color flux through + suggests the symmetry group is infinite-dimensional. It is conjectured that the symmetries include a G Kac-Moody symmetry whose generators are "large" gauge transformations which approach locally holomorphic functions on the conformal two-sphere at + and are invariant under null translations. The Kac-Moody currents are constructed from the gauge field at the future boundary of +. The current Ward identities include Weinberg's soft photon theorem and its colored extension.

13. Exact and asymptotic distributions of LULU smoothers

Conradie, W. J.; de Wet, T.; Jankowitz, M.

2006-02-01

This paper considers a class of non-linear smoothers, called LULU smoothers, introduced by Rohwer in the late eighties in the mathematics literature, and since then investigated fairly extensively by a number of authors for its mathematical properties. They have been successfully applied in various engineering and scientific problems. However, to date their distribution theory has not received any attention in the literature. In this paper we derive their exact as well as asymptotic distributions and show their relationship to the upper order statistics.

14. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

DOEpatents

Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

2015-09-08

Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

15. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

PubMed

Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

1995-01-01

The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

16. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

17. THE MAGNETIC ENERGY-HELICITY DIAGRAM OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

SciTech Connect

Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Raouafi, Nour-Eddine

2012-11-01

Using a recently proposed nonlinear force-free method designed for single-vector magnetograms of solar active regions, we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different active regions. We find a statistically robust, monotonic correlation between the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity in the studied regions. This correlation implies that magnetic helicity, in addition to free magnetic energy, may be an essential ingredient for major solar eruptions. Eruptive active regions appear well segregated from non-eruptive ones in both free energy and relative helicity with major (at least M-class) flares occurring in active regions with free energy and relative helicity exceeding 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}, respectively. The helicity threshold agrees well with estimates of the helicity contents of typical coronal mass ejections.

18. The large Reynolds number - Asymptotic theory of turbulent boundary layers.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mellor, G. L.

1972-01-01

A self-consistent, asymptotic expansion of the one-point, mean turbulent equations of motion is obtained. Results such as the velocity defect law and the law of the wall evolve in a relatively rigorous manner, and a systematic ordering of the mean velocity boundary layer equations and their interaction with the main stream flow are obtained. The analysis is extended to the turbulent energy equation and to a treatment of the small scale equilibrium range of Kolmogoroff; in velocity correlation space the two-thirds power law is obtained. Thus, the two well-known 'laws' of turbulent flow are imbedded in an analysis which provides a great deal of other information.

19. Localized travelling waves in the asymptotic suction boundary layer

Kreilos, Tobias; Gibson, John F.; Schneider, Tobias M.

2016-05-01

We present two spanwise-localized travelling wave solutions in the asymptotic suction boundary layer, obtained by continuation of solutions of plane Couette flow. One of the solutions has the vortical structures located close to the wall, similar to spanwise-localized edge states previously found for this system. The vortical structures of the second solution are located in the free stream far above the laminar boundary layer and are supported by a secondary shear gradient that is created by a large-scale low-speed streak. The dynamically relevant eigenmodes of this solution are concentrated in the free stream, and the departure into turbulence from this solution evolves in the free stream towards the walls. For invariant solutions in free-stream turbulence, this solution thus shows that that the source of energy of the vortical structures can be a dynamical structure of the solution itself, instead of the laminar boundary layer.

20. Possibility of determination of the asymptotic level-density parameter

SciTech Connect

Kudyaev, G.A.; Ostapenko, Y.B.; Svirin, M.I.; Smirenkin, G.N.

1988-02-01

We investigate the sensitivity of the fissility of nuclei to the parameters of the density of excited levels and conclude that the nuclei in the region of Pb are most favorable for an experimental estimate of the asymptotic parameter a-italic-tilde = ..cap alpha..A. The mean value ..cap alpha.. = 0.086 +- 0.009 MeV/sup -1/ is found from analysis of the fission of seven nuclei from /sup 201/Tl to /sup 213/At. This value is in agreement with the phenomenological description of the energy dependence a(U) (..cap alpha.. = 0.093 MeV/sup -1/) and with the theoretical prediction ..cap alpha.. = 0.09 MeV/sup -1/ obtained for a Woods-Saxon potential.

1. Asymptotic behavior of macroscopic observables in generic spin systems

Kuwahara, Tomotaka

2016-05-01

This work clarifies a fundamental relationship between spectral gap and ground state properties, where the spectral gap means the energy difference between the ground state and the first excited state. In short-range interacting systems, the well-known exponential clustering theorem has been derived for the ground states: the bipartite correlations decay exponentially beyond a finite localization length, which is smaller than the inverse of the spectral gap. However, in more general systems including long-range interacting systems, the problem of how to characterize universal ground state structures by reference to the spectral gap is an ongoing challenge. Recently, for such systems, another fundamental constraint dubbed local reversibility has been proved for arbitrarily gapped ground states; as a consequence, it also results in the exponential concentration of the probability distribution of macroscopic observables. In this paper, we extend this kind of asymptotic behavior to more general setups.

2. ON ASYMPTOTIC DISTRIBUTION AND ASYMPTOTIC EFFICIENCY OF LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATORS OF SPATIAL VARIOGRAM PARAMETERS. (R827257)

EPA Science Inventory

## Abstract

In this article, we consider the least-squares approach for estimating parameters of a spatial variogram and establish consistency and asymptotic normality of these estimators under general conditions. Large-sample distributions are also established under a sp...

3. Asymptotically Lifshitz brane-world black holes

SciTech Connect

Ranjbar, Arash Sepangi, Hamid Reza Shahidi, Shahab

2012-12-15

We study the gravity dual of a Lifshitz field theory in the context of a RSII brane-world scenario, taking into account the effects of the extra dimension through the contribution of the electric part of the Weyl tensor. We study the thermodynamical behavior of such asymptotically Lifshitz black holes. It is shown that the entropy imposes the critical exponent z to be bounded from above. This maximum value of z corresponds to a positive infinite entropy as long as the temperature is kept positive. The stability and phase transition for different spatial topologies are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studying the gravity dual of a Lifshitz field theory in the context of brane-world scenario. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studying the thermodynamical behavior of asymptotically Lifshitz black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Showing that the entropy imposes the critical exponent z to be bounded from above. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussing the phase transition for different spatial topologies.

4. Vacuum polarization in asymptotically Lifshitz black holes

Quinta, Gonçalo M.; Flachi, Antonino; Lemos, José P. S.

2016-06-01

There has been considerable interest in applying the gauge-gravity duality to condensed matter theories with particular attention being devoted to gravity duals (Lifshitz spacetimes) of theories that exhibit anisotropic scaling. In this context, black hole solutions with Lifshitz asymptotics have also been constructed, focused on incorporating finite temperature effects. The goal here is to look at quantum polarization effects in these spacetimes and, to this aim, we develop a way to compute the coincidence limit of the Green's function for massive, nonminimally coupled scalar fields, adapting to the present situation the analysis developed for the case of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes. The basics are similar to previous calculations; however, in the Lifshitz case, one needs to extend the previous results to include a more general form for the metric and dependence on the dynamical exponent. All formulas are shown to reduce to the anti-de Sitter (AdS) case studied before once the value of the dynamical exponent is set to unity and the metric functions are accordingly chosen. The analytical results we present are general and can be applied to a variety of cases, in fact, to all spherically symmetric Lifshitz black hole solutions. We also implement the numerical analysis choosing some known Lifshitz black hole solutions as illustration.

5. Structural aspects of asymptotically safe black holes

Koch, Benjamin; Saueressig, Frank

2014-01-01

We study the quantum modifications of classical, spherically symmetric Schwarzschild (anti-) de Sitter black holes within quantum Einstein gravity. The quantum effects are incorporated through the running coupling constants Gk and Λk, computed within the exact renormalization group approach, and a common scale-setting procedure. We find that, in contrast to common intuition, it is actually the cosmological constant that determines the short-distance structure of the RG-improved black hole: in the asymptotic UV the structure of the quantum solutions is universal and given by the classical Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution, entailing a self-similarity between the classical and quantum regime. As a consequence asymptotically safe black holes evaporate completely and no Planck-size remnants are formed. Moreover, the thermodynamic entropy of the critical Nariai black hole is shown to agree with the microstate count based on the effective average action, suggesting that the entropy originates from quantum fluctuations around the mean-field geometry.

6. Asymptotic role of entanglement in quantum metrology

Augusiak, R.; Kołodyński, J.; Streltsov, A.; Bera, M. N.; Acín, A.; Lewenstein, M.

2016-07-01

Quantum systems allow one to sense physical parameters beyond the reach of classical statistics—with resolutions greater than 1 /N , where N is the number of constituent particles independently probing a parameter. In the canonical phase-sensing scenario the Heisenberg limit 1 /N2 may be reached, which requires, as we show, both the relative size of the largest entangled block and the geometric measure of entanglement to be nonvanishing as N →∞ . Yet, we also demonstrate that in the asymptotic N limit any precision scaling arbitrarily close to the Heisenberg limit (1 /N2 -ɛ with any ɛ >0 ) may be attained, even though the system gradually becomes noisier and separable, so that both the above entanglement quantifiers asymptotically vanish. Our work shows that sufficiently large quantum systems achieve nearly optimal resolutions despite their relative amount of entanglement being arbitrarily small. In deriving our results, we establish the continuity relation of the quantum Fisher information evaluated for a phaselike parameter, which lets us link it directly to the geometry of quantum states, and hence naturally to the geometric measure of entanglement.

7. An asymptotic analysis of mixing loss

SciTech Connect

Fritsch, G.; Giles, M.B.

1995-07-01

The objective of this paper is to establish, in a rigorous mathematical manner, a link between the dissipation of unsteadiness in a two-dimensional compressible flow and the resulting mixing loss. A novel asymptotic approach and a control-volume argument are central to the analysis. It represents the first work clearly identifying the separate contributions to the mixing loss from simultaneous linear disturbances, i.e., from unsteady entropy, vorticity, and pressure waves. The results of the analysis have important implications for numerical simulations of turbomachinery flows; the mixing loss at the stator/rotor interface in steady simulations and numerical smoothing are discussed in depth. For a transonic turbine, the entropy rise through the stage is compared for a steady and an unsteady viscous simulation. The large interface mixing loss in the steady simulation is pointed out and its physical significance is discussed. The asymptotic approach is then applied to the first detailed analysis of interface mixing loss. Contributions from different wave types and wavelengths are quantified and discussed.

8. Asymptotic accuracy of two-class discrimination

SciTech Connect

Ho, T.K.; Baird, H.S.

1994-12-31

Poor quality-e.g. sparse or unrepresentative-training data is widely suspected to be one cause of disappointing accuracy of isolated-character classification in modern OCR machines. We conjecture that, for many trainable classification techniques, it is in fact the dominant factor affecting accuracy. To test this, we have carried out a study of the asymptotic accuracy of three dissimilar classifiers on a difficult two-character recognition problem. We state this problem precisely in terms of high-quality prototype images and an explicit model of the distribution of image defects. So stated, the problem can be represented as a stochastic source of an indefinitely long sequence of simulated images labeled with ground truth. Using this sequence, we were able to train all three classifiers to high and statistically indistinguishable asymptotic accuracies (99.9%). This result suggests that the quality of training data was the dominant factor affecting accuracy. The speed of convergence during training, as well as time/space trade-offs during recognition, differed among the classifiers.

9. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

2015-05-01

Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

10. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jaffe, R. L.

1978-01-01

The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

11. Asymptotic behaviour of solutions of semilinear parabolic equations

SciTech Connect

Egorov, Yu V; Kondratiev, V A

2008-04-30

The asymptotic behaviour of solutions of a second-order semilinear parabolic equation is analyzed in a cylindrical domain that is bounded in the space variables. The dominant term of the asymptotic expansion of the solution as t{yields}+{infinity} is found. It is shown that the solution of this problem is asymptotically equivalent to the solution of a certain non-linear ordinary differential equation. Bibliography: 8 titles.

12. Numerical integration of asymptotic solutions of ordinary differential equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thurston, Gaylen A.

1989-01-01

Classical asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations derives approximate solutions that are numerically stable. However, the analysis also leads to tedious expansions in powers of the relevant parameter for a particular problem. The expansions are replaced with integrals that can be evaluated by numerical integration. The resulting numerical solutions retain the linear independence that is the main advantage of asymptotic solutions. Examples, including the Falkner-Skan equation from laminar boundary layer theory, illustrate the method of asymptotic analysis with numerical integration.

13. Perturbed Coulomb potentials in the Klein-Gordon equation via the asymptotic iteration method

SciTech Connect

Barakat, T.

2009-03-15

The asymptotic iteration method is used to construct the exact energy eigenvalues for a Lorentz vector or a Lorentz scalar, and an equally mixed Lorentz vector and Lorentz scalar Coulombic potentials. Highly accurate and rapidly converging ground-state energies for Lorentz vector Coulomb with a Lorentz vector or a Lorentz scalar linear potential, V(r)=-{lambda}{sub 1}/r+krandV(r)=-{lambda}{sub 1}/randW(r)=kr, respectively, are obtained.

14. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play

PubMed Central

Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

2014-01-01

Objective Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Methods Young adults aged 18–35 (N = 97, 50 female) < 300 pounds played a Dance Dance Revolution game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterwards. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. Results A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ2(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA < .001; 90% CI = .000 - .206; p = .692. Enjoyment mediated the relationship between engagement and energy expenditure (indirect effect = .138, p = .028), but other mediated effects were not significant. Conclusion Engagement, enjoyment, and BMI affect energy expended during active video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PMID:23527520

15. Asymptotic stability of Riemann waves for conservation laws

Chen, G.-Q.; Frid, H.; Marta

We are concerned with the asymptotic behavior of entropy solutions of conservation laws. A new notion about the asymptotic stability of Riemann solutions is introduced, and corresponding analytical frameworks are developed. The correlation between the asymptotic problem and many important topics in conservation laws and nonlinear analysis is recognized and analyzed, such as zero dissipation limits, uniqueness of entropy solutions, entropy analysis, and divergence-measure fields in L∞ . Then this theory is applied to understanding the asymptotic behavior of entropy solutions for many important systems of conservation laws.

16. Asymptotic modeling of synthetic aperture ladar sensor phenomenology

Neuroth, Robert M.; Rigling, Brian D.; Zelnio, Edmund G.; Watson, Edward A.; Velten, Vincent J.; Rovito, Todd V.

2015-05-01

Interest in the use of active electro-optical(EO) sensors for non-cooperative target identification has steadily increased as the quality and availability of EO sources and detectors have improved. A unique and recent innovation has been the development of an airborne synthetic aperture imaging capability at optical wavelengths. To effectively exploit this new data source for target identification, one must develop an understanding of target-sensor phenomenology at those wavelengths. Current high-frequency, asymptotic EM predictors are computationally intractable for such conditions, as their ray density is inversely proportional to wavelength. As a more efficient alternative, we have developed a geometric optics based simulation for synthetic aperture ladar that seeks to model the second order statistics of the diffuse scattering commonly found at those wavelengths but with much lesser ray density. Code has been developed, ported to high-performance computing environments, and tested on a variety of target models.

17. Energy Cost of Common Activities in Children and Adolescents

PubMed Central

Lyden, Kate; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty; Alhassan, Sofiya

2014-01-01

Background The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth assigns MET values to a wide range of activities. However, only 35% of activity MET values were derived from energy cost data measured in youth; the remaining activities were estimated from adult values. Purpose To determine the energy cost of common activities performed by children and adolescents and compare these data to similar activities reported in the compendium. Methods Thirty-two children (8–11 years old) and 28 adolescents (12–16 years) completed 4 locomotion activities on a treadmill (TRD) and 5 age-specific activities of daily living (ADL). Oxygen consumption was measured using a portable metabolic analyzer. Results In children, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 3 activities [basketball, bike riding, and Wii tennis (1.1–3.5 METs lower)]. In adolescents, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 4 ADLs [basketball, bike riding, board games, and Wii tennis (0.3–2.5 METs lower)] and 3 TRDs [2.24 m·s−1, 1.56 m·s−1, and 1.34 m·s−1 (0.4–0.8 METs lower)]. Conclusion The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is an invaluable resource to applied researchers. Inclusion of empirically derived data would improve the validity of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth. PMID:22398418

18. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

1986-01-01

Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

19. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

1985-01-01

Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

20. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

2012-02-01

Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal 9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

1. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

2. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2011-10-24

... Proposed Rulemaking (76 FR 55278). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Goorevich, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... assistance to foreign atomic energy activities (76 FR 55278). This regulation provides that persons...

3. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fraser, Mollie; And Others

As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

4. Effects of high activation energies on acoustic timescale detonation initiation

Regele, J. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Vasilyev, O. V.

2012-08-01

Acoustic timescale Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) has been shown to occur through the generation of compression waves emitted by a hot spot or reaction centre where the pressure and temperature increase with little diminution of density. In order to compensate for the multi-scale nature of the physico-chemical processes, previous numerical simulations in this area have been limited to relatively small activation energies. In this work, a computational study investigates the effect of increased activation energy on the time required to form a detonation wave and the change in behaviour of each hot spot as the activation energy is increased. The simulations use a localised spatially distributed thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas to facilitate DDT. The Adaptive Wavelet-Collocation Method is used to solve efficiently the 1-D reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics. The DDT process as described in previous work is characterised by the formation of hot spots during an initial transient period, explosion of the hot spots and creation of an accelerating reaction front that reaches the lead shock and forms an overdriven detonation wave. Current results indicate that as the activation energy is raised the chemical heat release becomes more temporally distributed. Hot spots that produce an accelerating reaction front with low activation energies change behaviour with increased activation energy so that no accelerating reaction front is created. An acoustic timescale ratio is defined that characterises the change in behaviour of each hot spot.

5. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

1973-01-01

The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

6. Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

7. Asymptotics for metamaterials and photonic crystals.

PubMed

Antonakakis, T; Craster, R V; Guenneau, S

2013-04-01

Metamaterial and photonic crystal structures are central to modern optics and are typically created from multiple elementary repeating cells. We demonstrate how one replaces such structures asymptotically by a continuum, and therefore by a set of equations, that captures the behaviour of potentially high-frequency waves propagating through a periodic medium. The high-frequency homogenization that we use recovers the classical homogenization coefficients in the low-frequency long-wavelength limit. The theory is specifically developed in electromagnetics for two-dimensional square lattices where every cell contains an arbitrary hole with Neumann boundary conditions at its surface and implemented numerically for cylinders and split-ring resonators. Illustrative numerical examples include lensing via all-angle negative refraction, as well as omni-directive antenna, endoscope and cloaking effects. We also highlight the importance of choosing the correct Brillouin zone and the potential of missing interesting physical effects depending upon the path chosen. PMID:23633908

8. Introduction to Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

El Eid, Mounib F.

2016-04-01

A brief introduction on the main characteristics of the asymptotic giant branch stars (briefly: AGB) is presented. We describe a link to observations and outline basic features of theoretical modeling of these important evolutionary phases of stars. The most important aspects of the AGB stars is not only because they are the progenitors of white dwarfs, but also they represent the site of almost half of the heavy element formation beyond iron in the galaxy. These elements and their isotopes are produced by the s-process nucleosynthesis, which is a neutron capture process competing with the β- radioactive decay. The neutron source is mainly due to the reaction 13C(α,n)16O reaction. It is still a challenging problem to obtain the right amount of 13 C that can lead to s-process abundances compatible with observation. Some ideas are presented in this context.

9. Asymptotic theory of quantum statistical inference

Hayashi, Masahito

Part I: Hypothesis Testing: Introduction to Part I -- Strong Converse and Stein's lemma in quantum hypothesis testing/Tomohiro Ogawa and Hiroshi Nagaoka -- The proper formula for relative entropy and its asymptotics in quantum probability/Fumio Hiai and Dénes Petz -- Strong Converse theorems in Quantum Information Theory/Hiroshi Nagaoka -- Asymptotics of quantum relative entropy from a representation theoretical viewpoint/Masahito Hayashi -- Quantum birthday problems: geometrical aspects of Quantum Random Coding/Akio Fujiwara -- Part II: Quantum Cramèr-Rao Bound in Mixed States Model: Introduction to Part II -- A new approach to Cramèr-Rao Bounds for quantum state estimation/Hiroshi Nagaoka -- On Fisher information of Quantum Statistical Models/Hiroshi Nagaoka -- On the parameter estimation problem for Quantum Statistical Models/Hiroshi Nagaoka -- A generalization of the simultaneous diagonalization of Hermitian matrices and its relation to Quantum Estimation Theory/Hiroshi Nagaoka -- A linear programming approach to Attainable Cramèr-Rao Type Bounds/Masahito Hayashi -- Statistical model with measurement degree of freedom and quantum physics/Masahito Hayashi and Keiji Matsumoto -- Asymptotic Quantum Theory for the Thermal States Family/Masahito Hayashi -- State estimation for large ensembles/Richard D. Gill and Serge Massar -- Part III: Quantum Cramèr-Rao Bound in Pure States Model: Introduction to Part III-- Quantum Fisher Metric and estimation for Pure State Models/Akio Fujiwara and Hiroshi Nagaoka -- Geometry of Quantum Estimation Theory/Akio Fujiwara -- An estimation theoretical characterization of coherent states/Akio Fujiwara and Hiroshi Nagaoka -- A geometrical approach to Quantum Estimation Theory/Keiji Matsumoto -- Part IV: Group symmetric approach to Pure States Model: Introduction to Part IV -- Optimal extraction of information from finite quantum ensembles/Serge Massar and Sandu Popescu -- Asymptotic Estimation Theory for a Finite-Dimensional Pure

10. Rubidium-rich asymptotic giant branch stars.

PubMed

García-Hernández, D A; García-Lario, P; Plez, B; D'Antona, F; Manchado, A; Trigo-Rodríguez, J M

2006-12-15

A long-debated issue concerning the nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is the identification of the neutron source. We report intermediate-mass (4 to 8 solar masses) AGB stars in our Galaxy that are rubidium-rich as a result of overproduction of the long-lived radioactive isotope (87)Rb, as predicted theoretically 40 years ago. This finding represents direct observational evidence that the (22)Ne(alpha,n)(25)Mg reaction must be the dominant neutron source in these stars. These stars challenge our understanding of the late stages of the evolution of intermediate-mass stars and would have promoted a highly variable Rb/Sr environment in the early solar nebula. PMID:17095658

11. An asymptotic approach for assessing fatigue reliability

SciTech Connect

Tang, J.

1996-12-01

By applying the cumulative fatigue damage theory to the random process reliability problem, and the introduction of a new concept of unified equivalent stress level in fatigue life prediction, a technical reliability model for the random process reliability problem under fatigue failure is proposed. The technical model emphasizes efficiency in the design choice and also focuses on the accuracy of the results. Based on this model, an asymptotic method for fatigue reliability under stochastic process loadings is developed. The proposed method uses the recursive iteration algorithm to achieve results which include reliability and corresponding life. The method reconciles the requirement of accuracy and efficiency for the random process reliability problems under fatigue failure. The accuracy and analytical and numerical efforts required are compared. Through numerical example, the advantage of the proposed method is demonstrated.

12. The asymptotics of large constrained graphs

2014-05-01

We show, through local estimates and simulation, that if one constrains simple graphs by their densities ɛ of edges and τ of triangles, then asymptotically (in the number of vertices) for over 95% of the possible range of those densities there is a well-defined typical graph, and it has a very simple structure: the vertices are decomposed into two subsets V1 and V2 of fixed relative size c and 1 - c, and there are well-defined probabilities of edges, gjk, between vj ∈ Vj, and vk ∈ Vk. Furthermore the four parameters c, g11, g22 and g12 are smooth functions of (ɛ, τ) except at two smooth ‘phase transition’ curves.

13. Global Asymptotic Behavior of Iterative Implicit Schemes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yee, H. C.; Sweby, P. K.

1994-01-01

The global asymptotic nonlinear behavior of some standard iterative procedures in solving nonlinear systems of algebraic equations arising from four implicit linear multistep methods (LMMs) in discretizing three models of 2 x 2 systems of first-order autonomous nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is analyzed using the theory of dynamical systems. The iterative procedures include simple iteration and full and modified Newton iterations. The results are compared with standard Runge-Kutta explicit methods, a noniterative implicit procedure, and the Newton method of solving the steady part of the ODEs. Studies showed that aside from exhibiting spurious asymptotes, all of the four implicit LMMs can change the type and stability of the steady states of the differential equations (DEs). They also exhibit a drastic distortion but less shrinkage of the basin of attraction of the true solution than standard nonLMM explicit methods. The simple iteration procedure exhibits behavior which is similar to standard nonLMM explicit methods except that spurious steady-state numerical solutions cannot occur. The numerical basins of attraction of the noniterative implicit procedure mimic more closely the basins of attraction of the DEs and are more efficient than the three iterative implicit procedures for the four implicit LMMs. Contrary to popular belief, the initial data using the Newton method of solving the steady part of the DEs may not have to be close to the exact steady state for convergence. These results can be used as an explanation for possible causes and cures of slow convergence and nonconvergence of steady-state numerical solutions when using an implicit LMM time-dependent approach in computational fluid dynamics.

14. Dusty Mass Loss from Galactic Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Meixner, Margaret; Kastner, Joel H.

2016-06-01

We are probing how mass loss from Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars depends upon their metallicity. Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are evolved stars that eject large parts of their mass in outflows of dust and gas in the final stages of their lives. Our previous studies focused on mass loss from AGB stars in lower metallicity galaxies: the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). In our present study, we analyze AGB star mass loss in the Galaxy, with special attention to the Bulge, to investigate how mass loss differs in an overall higher metallicity environment. We construct radiative transfer models of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of stars in the Galaxy identified as AGB stars from infrared and optical surveys. Our Magellanic Cloud studies found that the AGB stars with the highest mass loss rates tended to have outflows with carbon-rich dust, and that overall more carbon-rich (C-rich) dust than oxygen-rich (O-rich) was produced by AGB stars in both LMC and SMC. Our radiative transfer models have enabled us to determine reliably the dust chemistry of the AGB star from the best-fit model. For our Galactic sample, we are investigating both the dust chemistries of the AGB stars and their mass-loss rates, to compare the balance of C-rich dust to O-rich dust between the Galactic bulge and the Magellanic Clouds. We are also constructing detailed dust opacity models of AGB stars in the Galaxy for which we have infrared spectra; e.g., from the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). This detailed dust modeling of spectra informs our choice of dust properties to use in radiative transfer modeling of SEDs of Galactic AGB stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX15AF15G.

15. Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making…

16. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

2016-01-01

The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

17. Asymptotic analysis, Working Note No. 1: Basic concepts and definitions

SciTech Connect

Garbey, M.; Kaper, H.G.

1993-07-01

In this note we introduce the basic concepts of asymptotic analysis. After some comments of historical interest we begin by defining the order relations O, o, and O{sup {number_sign}}, which enable us to compare the asymptotic behavior of functions of a small positive parameter {epsilon} as {epsilon} {down_arrow} 0. Next, we introduce order functions, asymptotic sequences of order functions and more general gauge sets of order functions and define the concepts of an asymptotic approximation and an asymptotic expansion with respect to a given gauge set. This string of definitions culminates in the introduction of the concept of a regular asymptotic expansion, also known as a Poincare expansion, of a function f : (0, {epsilon}{sub o}) {yields} X, where X is a normed vector space of functions defined on a domain D {epsilon} R{sup N}. We conclude the note with the asymptotic analysis of an initial value problem whose solution is obtained in the form of a regular asymptotic expansion.

18. Asymptotic expansions for the reciprocal of the gamma function

2014-05-01

Asymptotic expansions are derived for the reciprocal of the gamma function. We show that the coefficients of the expansion are the same, up to a sign change, as the asymptotic expansions for the gamma function obtained by exponentiating the expansions of its logarithm due to Stirling and de Moivre. Expressions for the coefficients are given in terms of Bell polynomials.

19. Asymptotic distribution of stage-grouped population models.

PubMed

Zetlaoui, M; Picard, N; Bar-Hen, A

2006-03-01

Matrix models are often used to predict the dynamics of size-structured or age-structured populations. The asymptotic behaviour of such models is defined by their malthusian growth rate lambda, and by their stationary distribution w that gives the asymptotic proportion of individuals in each stage. As the coefficients of the transition matrix are estimated from a sample of observations, lambda and w can be considered as random variables whose law depends on the distribution of the observations. The goal of this study is to specify the asymptotic law of lambda and w when using the maximum likelihood estimators of the coefficients of the transition matrix. We prove that lambda and w are asymptotically normal, and the expressions of the asymptotic variance of lambda and of the asymptotic covariance matrix of w are given. The convergence speed of lambda and w towards their asymptotic law is studied using simulations. The results are applied to a real case study that consists of a Usher model for a tropical rain forest in French Guiana. They permit to assess the number of trees to measure to get a given precision on the estimated asymptotic diameter distribution, which is an important information on tropical forest management. PMID:16427655

20. Analysis of leaching data using asymptotic expansion techniques

SciTech Connect

Simonson, S.A.; Machiels, A.J.

1983-01-01

Asymptotic analysis constitutes a useful technique to determine the adjustable parameters appearing in mathematical models attempting to reproduce some experimental data. In particular, asymptotic expansions of a leach model proposed by A.J. Machiels and C. Pescatore are used to interpret leaching data from PNL 76-68 glass in terms of corrosion velocities and diffusion coefficients.

1. Asymptotic behaviour of the Boltzmann equation as a cosmological model

Lee, Ho

2016-08-01

As a Newtonian cosmological model the Vlasov-Poisson-Boltzmann system is considered, and a slightly modified Boltzmann equation, which describes the stability of an expanding universe, is derived. Asymptotic behaviour of solutions turns out to depend on the expansion of the universe, and in this paper we consider the soft potential case and will obtain asymptotic behaviour.

2. Scattering in an external electric field asymptotically constant in time

SciTech Connect

2011-06-15

We show the asymptotic completeness for two-body quantum systems in an external electric field asymptotically non-zero constant in time. One of the main ingredients of this paper is to give some propagation estimates for physical propagators generated by time-dependent Hamiltonians which govern the systems under consideration.

3. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

PubMed Central

Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

2015-01-01

An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

4. Asymptotic Stability of High-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov Solitons

Côte, Raphaël; Muñoz, Claudio; Pilod, Didier; Simpson, Gideon

2016-05-01

We prove that solitons (or solitary waves) of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, a physically relevant high dimensional generalization of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation appearing in Plasma Physics, and having mixed KdV and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) dynamics, are strongly asymptotically stable in the energy space. We also prove that the sum of well-arranged solitons is stable in the same space. Orbital stability of ZK solitons is well-known since the work of de Bouard [Proc R Soc Edinburgh 126:89-112, 1996]. Our proofs follow the ideas of Martel [SIAM J Math Anal 157:759-781, 2006] and Martel and Merle [Math Ann 341:391-427, 2008], applied for generalized KdV equations in one dimension. In particular, we extend to the high dimensional case several monotonicity properties for suitable half-portions of mass and energy; we also prove a new Liouville type property that characterizes ZK solitons, and a key Virial identity for the linear and nonlinear part of the ZK dynamics, obtained independently of the mixed KdV-NLS dynamics. This last Virial identity relies on a simple sign condition which is numerically tested for the two and three dimensional cases with no additional spectral assumptions required. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and different nonlinearities could be obtained after a suitable local well-posedness theory in the energy space, and the verification of a corresponding sign condition.

5. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heil, Daniel P.

2006-01-01

This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

6. Asymptotic approximations to posterior distributions via conditional moment equations

USGS Publications Warehouse

Yee, J.L.; Johnson, W.O.; Samaniego, F.J.

2002-01-01

We consider asymptotic approximations to joint posterior distributions in situations where the full conditional distributions referred to in Gibbs sampling are asymptotically normal. Our development focuses on problems where data augmentation facilitates simpler calculations, but results hold more generally. Asymptotic mean vectors are obtained as simultaneous solutions to fixed point equations that arise naturally in the development. Asymptotic covariance matrices flow naturally from the work of Arnold & Press (1989) and involve the conditional asymptotic covariance matrices and first derivative matrices for conditional mean functions. When the fixed point equations admit an analytical solution, explicit formulae are subsequently obtained for the covariance structure of the joint limiting distribution, which may shed light on the use of the given statistical model. Two illustrations are given. ?? 2002 Biometrika Trust.

7. An asymptotic homogenized neutron diffusion approximation. II. Numerical comparisons

SciTech Connect

Trahan, T. J.; Larsen, E. W.

2012-07-01

In a companion paper, a monoenergetic, homogenized, anisotropic diffusion equation is derived asymptotically for large, 3-D, multiplying systems with a periodic lattice structure [1]. In the present paper, this approximation is briefly compared to several other well known diffusion approximations. Although the derivation is different, the asymptotic diffusion approximation matches that proposed by Deniz and Gelbard, and is closely related to those proposed by Benoist. The focus of this paper, however, is a numerical comparison of the various methods for simple reactor analysis problems in 1-D. The comparisons show that the asymptotic diffusion approximation provides a more accurate estimate of the eigenvalue than the Benoist diffusion approximations. However, the Benoist diffusion approximations and the asymptotic diffusion approximation provide very similar estimates of the neutron flux. The asymptotic method and the Benoist methods both outperform the standard homogenized diffusion approximation, with flux weighted cross sections. (authors)

8. Solution of Dirac equation for Eckart potential and trigonometric Manning Rosen potential using asymptotic iteration method

Resita Arum, Sari; A, Suparmi; C, Cari

2016-01-01

The Dirac equation for Eckart potential and trigonometric Manning Rosen potential with exact spin symmetry is obtained using an asymptotic iteration method. The combination of the two potentials is substituted into the Dirac equation, then the variables are separated into radial and angular parts. The Dirac equation is solved by using an asymptotic iteration method that can reduce the second order differential equation into a differential equation with substitution variables of hypergeometry type. The relativistic energy is calculated using Matlab 2011. This study is limited to the case of spin symmetry. With the asymptotic iteration method, the energy spectra of the relativistic equations and equations of orbital quantum number l can be obtained, where both are interrelated between quantum numbers. The energy spectrum is also numerically solved using the Matlab software, where the increase in the radial quantum number nr causes the energy to decrease. The radial part and the angular part of the wave function are defined as hypergeometry functions and visualized with Matlab 2011. The results show that the disturbance of a combination of the Eckart potential and trigonometric Manning Rosen potential can change the radial part and the angular part of the wave function. Project supported by the Higher Education Project (Grant No. 698/UN27.11/PN/2015).

9. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

EIA Publications

2016-01-01

The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

10. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

PubMed

Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

2016-08-01

Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes. PMID:27627349