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1

Mechanical approach to the neutrons spectra collimation and detection  

SciTech Connect

Neutrons spectra from most of known sources require being collimated for numerous applications; among them one is the Neutron Activation Analysis. High energy neutrons are collimated through a mechanical procedure as one of the most promising methods. The output energy of the neutron beam depends on the velocity of the rotating Polyethylene disks. The collimated neutrons are then measured by an innovative detection technique with high accuracy.

Sadeghi, H.; Roshan, M. V. [Energy Engineering and Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-11-15

2

Automation system for measurement of gamma-ray spectra of induced activity for multi-element high volume neutron activation analysis at the reactor IBR-2 of Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics at the joint institute for nuclear research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automation system for measurement of induced activity of gamma-ray spectra for multi-element high volume neutron activation analysis (NAA) was designed, developed and implemented at the reactor IBR-2 at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. The system consists of three devices of automatic sample changers for three Canberra HPGe detector-based gamma spectrometry systems. Each sample changer consists of two-axis of linear positioning module M202A by DriveSet company and disk with 45 slots for containers with samples. Control of automatic sample changer is performed by the Xemo S360U controller by Systec company. Positioning accuracy can reach 0.1 mm. Special software performs automatic changing of samples and measurement of gamma spectra at constant interaction with the NAA database.

Pavlov, S. S.; Dmitriev, A. Yu.; Chepurchenko, I. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

2014-11-01

3

Spent-fuel photon and neutron source spectra  

SciTech Connect

Computational activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been performed to develop appropriate data and techniques for computing the photon and neutron source spectra of spent fuel. The methods reviewed here include both the determination of spent-fuel composition and the radiation source spectra associated with these isotopic inventories.

Hermann, O.W.; Alexander, C.W.

1983-01-01

4

Neutron Spectra in a 15 MV LINAC  

SciTech Connect

Neutron spectra were calculated inside the treatment hall of a 15 MV LINAC, calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo methods. With a Bonner sphere spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminiscent dosimeters the neutron spectrum at 100 cm from the isocenter was measured and compared with the calculated spectrum. All the spectra in the treatment hall show the presence of evaporation and knock-on neutrons; also the room-return due to the hall features is shown. In the maze the large contribution are due to epithermal and thermal neutrons. A good agreement between the calculated and measured spectrum at 100 cm was noticed, from this comparison the differences are attributed to the water content in the concrete of the hall.

Vega-Carrillo, H. R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares de la Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas. Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Chu, Wei-Han [National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tung, Chuan-Jong [Chan Gung University, Taiwan (China); Lan, Jen-Hong [Chan Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center and National Kaohsiung University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2010-12-07

5

Activity: Graphing Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces two different representations of spectra: the photographic representation, such as the rainbow, and the graphical representation used more often by astronomers. A rainbow is often given as an everyday example of a spectrum. Most students have seen a rainbow, so this example is used to help make the unfamiliar more familiar. However, the spectra that scientists use, which students will see in this lesson plan, appear very different than a rainbow. In this activity, students will explore for themselves two different representations of the same spectrum, noting advantages and disadvantages of each. They will explore the differences and similarities of both these representations, and will develop a more intuitive feel for a graphical representation, which may not yet be familiar to them.

2007-02-03

6

Uncertainty Quantification on Prompt Fission Neutrons Spectra  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainties in the evaluated prompt fission neutrons spectra present in ENDF/B-VII.0 are assessed in the framework of the Los Alamos model. The methodology used to quantify the uncertainties on an evaluated spectrum is introduced. We also briefly review the Los Alamos model and single out the parameters that have the largest influence on the calculated results. Using a Kalman filter, experimental data and uncertainties are introduced to constrain model parameters, and construct an evaluated covariance matrix for the prompt neutrons spectrum. Preliminary results are shown in the case of neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U from thermal up to 15 MeV incident energies.

Talou, P. [T-16, Nuclear Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: talou@lanl.gov; Madland, D.G.; Kawano, T. [T-16, Nuclear Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)

2008-12-15

7

Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

2013-10-01

8

Arsenic activation neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

Jacobs, E.L.

1980-01-28

9

Arsenic activation neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

Jacobs, Eddy L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1981-01-01

10

Neutron Irradiation Experiments: Automated Processing and Analysis of ?-spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adequate prediction of the activation and transmutation response of materials under fusion neutron irradiation is heavily reliant on the quality of the nuclear data used in inventory calculations. Foil irradiation experiments have been conducted using a 14 MeV DT neutron source hosted at AWE Aldermaston in the UK as part of an effort to improve and increase the integral data available for input to the nuclear cross section database. An automated processing system has been developed to handle the huge number of ?-spectra generated from these experiments. As well as providing a framework in which to process a large number of separate experiments automatically and in a consistent manner, the system also allows for the time-dependent ?-spectra available for an individual experiment to be considered as a whole, thereby improving the accuracy of measurements in comparison to those based on a single time-integrated spectrum.

Gilbert, M. R.; Packer, L. W.; Lilley, S.

2014-05-01

11

Activation neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable

T. S. Ambardanishvili; M. A. Kolomiitsev; T. Y. Zakharina; V. J. Dundua; N. V. Chikhladze

1976-01-01

12

Measurements of fast-neutron spectra in reactor shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental techniques previously used for measuring neutron spectra ; in fast critical assemblies have been applied to reactor shielding problems. ; Fast-neutron spectra in the energy range from 25 MeV to 1 MeV have been measured ; in the water shield surrounding a small thermal research reactor. Three ; different water thicknesses were investigated, as well as a combination of

C. D. Livengood; C. K. Paulson; H. E. Hungerford

1973-01-01

13

Fission neutron spectra measurements at LANSCE - status and plans  

SciTech Connect

A program to measure fission neutron spectra from neutron-induced fission of actinides is underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in a collaboration among the CEA laboratory at Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spallation source of fast neutrons at LANSCE is used to provide incident neutron energies from less than 1 MeV to 100 MeV or higher. The fission events take place in a gas-ionization fission chamber, and the time of flight from the neutron source to that chamber gives the energy of the incident neutron. Outgoing neutrons are detected by an array of organic liquid scintillator neutron detectors, and their energies are deduced from the time of flight from the fission chamber to the neutron detector. Measurements have been made of the fission neutrons from fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu. The range of outgoing energies measured so far is from 1 MeV to approximately 8 MeV. These partial spectra and average fission neutron energies are compared with evaluated data and with models of fission neutron emission. Results to date will be presented and a discussion of uncertainties will be given in this presentation. Future plans are to make significant improvements in the fission chambers, neutron detectors, signal processing, data acquisition and the experimental environment to provide high fidelity data including mea urements of fission neutrons below 1 MeV and improvements in the data above 8 MeV.

Haight, Robert C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Noda, Shusaku [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ronald O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Donnell, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Devlin, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chatillon, Audrey [CEA-FRANCE; Granier, Thierry [CEA-FRANCE; Taieb, Julien [CEA-FRANCE; Laurent, Benoit [CEA-FRANCE; Belier, Gilbert [CEA-FRANCE; Becker, John A [LLNL; Wu, Ching - Yen [LLNL

2009-01-01

14

Delayed-neutron energy spectra following thermal-neutron-induced fission of Pu-239  

SciTech Connect

Delayed-neutron (DN) energy spectra following thermal neutron induced fission of /sup 239/Pu as a function of time after fission have been measured, using the beta-neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer at the University of Lowell. Thermal/epithermal neutrons were produced on the 5.5-MV Van de Graaff accelerator using the /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be reaction. Time spectra over the neutron energy range of 0.01-4.0 MeV were measured for seven different time intervals after fission, each interval containing varying contributions from the six delayed neutrons groups. The DN energy spectra following induced thermal fission of /sup 239/Pu are compared to those resulting from induced thermal fission of /sup 235/U for each of the seven delay time intervals. Decomposition of the measured spectra into six-group DN spectra was accomplished employing an iterative least-squares method, incorporating a constraint requiring all six-group spectra remain positive for all neutron energies and have shapes similar to initial comparison spectra.

Haghighi, M.H.

1987-01-01

15

A study of neutron spectra from medical linear accelerators.  

PubMed

Medical accelerators with photon energies over 10 MeV generate an undesired fast neutron contamination in the therapeutic beam. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the transport of these photoneutrons across the head of various medical accelerators of high energy. The average and most probable neutron energies were obtained from these spectra, before and after crossing the accelerator shielding. The degradation of these spectra, when they cross concrete barriers with thickness which vary between 25 and 100 cm, was also studied. PMID:15498687

Facure, A; Falcão, R C; Silva, A X; Crispim, V R; Vitorelli, J C

2005-01-01

16

Inversion of neutron/gamma spectra from scintillator measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on-board NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover will measure charged particles as well as neutron and gamma radiation on the Martian surface. Neutral particles are an important contribution to this radiation environment. RAD measures them with a CsI (Tl) and a plastic scintillator, which are both surrounded by an anticoincidence. The incident neutron/gamma spectrum is obtained from the measurements using inversion methods which often fit a functional behavior, e.g., a power law, to the measured data applying the instrument response function and, e.g., a least-squares method. In situations where count rates are small, i.e., where the stochastic nature of the measurement is evident, maximum likelihood estimates with underlying Poissonian statistics improve the resulting spectra. We demonstrate the measurement and inversion of gamma/neutron spectra for a detector concept featuring one high-density scintillator and one high-proton-content scintillator. The applied inversion methods derive the original spectra without any strong assumptions of the functional behavior. Instrument response functions are obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations in matrix form with which the instrument response is treated as a set of linear equations. Using the response matrices we compare a constrained least-squares minimization, a chi-squared minimization and a maximum likelihood method with underlying Poissonian statistics. We make no assumptions about the incident particle spectrum and the methods intrinsically satisfy the constraint of non-negative counts. We analyzed neutron beam measurements made at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and inverted the measurement data for both neutron and gamma spectra. Monte-Carlo-generated measurements of the expected Martian neutron/gamma spectra were inverted as well, here the maximum likelihood method with underlying Poissonian statistics produces significantly better results.

Köhler, J.; Ehresmann, B.; Martin, C.; Böhm, E.; Kharytonov, A.; Kortmann, O.; Zeitlin, C.; Hassler, D. M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

2011-11-01

17

Neutron spectra measurement and comparison of the HFR and THOR BNCT beams.  

PubMed

This paper aims to measure the spectra of HB11 (high flux reactor, HFR) and the Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) beams by multiple activation foils. The self-shielding corrections were made with the aid of MCNP calculations. The initial spectra were adjusted by a sophisticated process named coarse-scaling adjustment using SAND-EX, which can adjust a given coarse-group spectrum into a fine-group structure, i.e. 640 groups, with excellent continuity. The epithermal neutron flux of the THOR beam is about three times of HB11. The thermal neutron flux, boron and gold reaction rates along the central axis of a PMMA phantom are calculated for both adjusted spectra for comparison. PMID:19409798

Liu, Yuan-Hao; Nievaart, Sander; Tsai, Pi-En; Liu, Hong-Ming; Moss, Ray; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

2009-07-01

18

Delayed Neutron Energy Spectra Following Thermal Neutron Induced Fission of PLUTONIUM-239.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delayed-neutron (DN) energy spectra following thermal neutron induced fission of ^{239 }{rm Pu} as a function of time after fission have been measured, using the beta-neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer at the University of Lowell. Thermal/epithermal neutrons were produced on the 5.5-MV Van de Graaff accelerator using the ^7 {rm Li(p,n)^7Be} reaction. The target assembly and fission chamber were surrounded by 0.3-cubic meter of paraffin. Four Bicron 51 liquid scintillators were used to measure DN spectra over the neutron energy range 0.15-4.0 MeV, while four ^6{ rm Li}-loaded glass scintillators were used for the energy region 0.01-0.03 MeV. Both types of scintillators used a neutron-gamma pulse-shape discrimination system to suppress gamma-ray acceptance. Recoiling fission fragments produced in a ^{239} {rm Pu}-lined fission chamber were transferred by a helium jet system to a low background counting area where they were sprayed onto a moving tape having adjustable speed for proper determination of delay times. Time spectra over the neutron energy range of 0.01 -4.0 MeV were measured for seven different time intervals after fission, each interval containing varying contributions from the six delayed neutrons groups. The DN energy spectra following induced thermal fission of ^{239 }{rm Pu} are compared to those resulting from induced thermal fission of ^ {235}{rm U} for each of the seven delay time intervals. This thesis presents measured composite DN energy spectra of seven different time intervals and their average energies, along with a ^{239} {rm Pu} equilibrium DN energy spectrum obtained from the composite DN energy spectra. Finally, decomposition of the measured spectra into six-group DN spectra was accomplished employing an iterative least-squares method, incorporating a constraint requiring all six-group spectra remain positive for all neutron energies and have shapes similar to initial comparison spectra.

Haghighi, Mahmoud Hassanalizadeh

1987-09-01

19

Calculation of Prompt Neutron Multiplicities and Spectra for Several Actinides  

SciTech Connect

The prompt fission neutron multiplicity and spectra of actinides are nuclear data of crucial importance. Based on experimental fission yield and total kinetic energy data, new calculations for the prompt neutron multiplicity and spectra for 238U(n,f), 237Np(n,f) in the incident neutron energy range up to the second chance fission threshold, for 238U(n,f), up to 50 MeV, and for 252Cf(SF) have been performed.For the first time the multi-modality of the fission process was taken into account up to the second fission chance (about 6 MeV). Additionally, for some isotopes a more realistic fission fragment residual temperature distribution as well as an anisotropy of the prompt neutron emission led to improved agreement between the calculation and experimental results. Also, the range of fission fragment pairs entering in the multiplicity and spectrum model was extended over the entire experimental fission-fragment mass range. This led to an improved version of the Los Alamos (LA) model and especially to an improved determination of the input model parameters. In addition the LA model is extended towards higher incident neutron energy, where the fission of compound nuclei formed by charged particle emission occurs.

Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Tudora, Anabella; Vladuca, Gheorghita [Faculty of Physics, Bucharest University, RO-76900 Bucharest (Romania)

2005-05-24

20

X-ray spectra from convective photospheres of neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

We present first results of modeling convective photospheres of neutron stars. We show that in photospheres composed of the light elements convection arises only at relatively low effective temperatures ({le}3 - 5 x 10{sup 4} K), whereas in the case of iron composition it arises at T{sub eff}{le} 3 x 10{sup 5}K. Convection changes the depth dependence of the photosphere temperature and the shapes of the emergent spectra. Thus, it should be taken into account for the proper interpretation of EUV/soft-X-ray observations of the thermal radiation from neutron stars.

Zavlin, V.E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Pavlov, G.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., PA (United States)]|[Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology, St. Petersburg, RU (United States); Shibanov, Yu.A. [Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-01-17

21

Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications  

SciTech Connect

The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

MacLellan, Ryan [University of Alabama, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tuscaloosa, AL, 35487-0324 (United States)

2011-04-27

22

Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

MacLellan, Ryan

2011-04-01

23

Multisphere neutron spectra measurements near a high energy medical accelerator.  

PubMed

Photoneutron spectral measurements in the vicinity of a high energy medical accelerator have been performed. A LiI (Eu) scintillator and paired thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in conjunction with moderating multispheres to measure the neutron spectra. The photoneutron fluence rate, fluence lethargy, average energy, and quality factors have been calculated using a recursive unfolding algorithm. The dose rates and dose equivalent rates received by the patient and operators due to these neutrons have been estimated from these unfolded spectra. Doses predicted by a semi-empirical dose-equivalent model were compared to the measured values at each point. The dose equivalent rate to operators was found to be 1.9 x 10(-11) Sv MU(-1). PMID:9721837

Veinot, K G; Hertel, N E; Brooks, K W; Sweezy, J E

1998-09-01

24

Active coded aperture neutron imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their penetrating power, energetic neutrons and gamma rays (>~1 MeV) offer the best possibility of detecting highly shielded or distant special nuclear material (SNM). Of these, fast neutrons offer the greatest advantage due to their very low and well understood natural background. We are investigating a wholly new approach to fast-neutron imaging-an active coded-aperture system that uses a

Peter Marleau; James Brennan; Erik Brubaker; Nathan Hilton; John Steele

2009-01-01

25

The study of neutron spectra in water bath from Pb target irradiated by 250MeV/u protons  

E-print Network

The spallation neutrons were produced by the irradiation of Pb with 250 MeV protons. The Pb target was surrounded by water which was used to slow down the emitted neutrons. The moderated neutrons in the water bath were measured by using the resonance detectors of Au, Mn and In with Cd cover. According to the measured activities of the foils, the neutron flux at different resonance energy were deduced and the epithermal neutron spectra were proposed. Corresponding results calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX were compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the code.

Yanyan Li; Xueying Zhang; Yongqin Ju; Fei Ma; Hongbin Zhang; Liang Chen; Honglin Ge; Peng Luo; Bin Zhou; Yanbin Zhang; Jianyang Li; Junkui Xu; Songlin Wang; Yongwei Yang; Lei Yang

2014-09-05

26

Neutron fluences and energy spectra in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Joint Soviet-American measurements of the neutron component of space radiation (SR) were carried out during the flight of the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos-2044. Neutron flux densities and differential energy spectra were measured inside and on the external surface of the spacecraft. Three energy intervals were employed: thermal (En < or = 0.2 eV), resonance (0.2 eV < En < 1.0 MeV) and fast (En > or = 1.0 MeV) neutrons. The first two groups were measured with U.S. 6LiF detectors, while fast neutrons were recorded both by U.S. fission foils and Soviet nuclear emulsions. Estimations were made of the contributions to absorbed and equivalent doses from each neutron energy interval and a correlation was presented between fast neutron fluxes, measured outside the satellite, and the phase of solar activity (SA). Average dose equivalent rates of 0.018 and 0.14 mrem d-1 were measured for thermal and resonance neutrons, respectively, outside the spacecraft. The corresponding values for fast neutrons were 3.3 (U.S.) and 1.8 (U.S.S.R.) mrem d-1. Inside the spacecraft, a value of 3.5 mrem d-1 was found.

Dudkin, V. E.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

1992-01-01

27

Neutron influences and energy spectra in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Joint Soviet-American measurements of the neutron component of space radiation (SR) were carried out during the flight of the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos-2044. Neutron flux densities and differential energy spectra were measured inside and on the external surface of the spacecraft. Three energy intervals were employed: thermal (E(sub n) less than or equal to 0.2 eV), resonance (0.2 eV less than E(sub n) less than 1.0 MeV) and fast (E(sub n) greater than or equal to 1.0 MeV) neutrons. The first two groups were measured with U.S. (6)LiF detectors, while fast neutrons were recorded both by U.S. fission foils and Soviet nuclear emulsions. Estimations were made of the contributions to absorbed and equivalent doses from each neutron energy interval and a correlation was presented between fast neutron fluxes, measured outside the satellite, and the phase of solar activity (SA). Average dose equivalent rates of 0.018 and 0.14 mrem d(exp -1) were measured for thermal and resonance neutrons, respectively, outside the spacecraft. The corresponding values for fast neutrons were 3.3 (U.S.) and 1.8 (U.S.S.R.) mrem d(exp -1). Inside the spacecraft, a value of 3.5 mrem d(exp -1) was found.

Dudkin, V. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.; Rshtuni, Sh. B.; Benton, E, V.; Frank, A. L.

1995-01-01

28

Dependence of Delayed-Neutron Energy Spectra on the Energy of Neutrons which Induce Fission of Uranium -235  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delayed neutron energy spectra following both fast and thermal neutron induced fission of U-235 are measured by the time-of-flight technique using beta-neutron correlations. Fast neutrons are produced via the (p,n) reaction in Li-7 using the University of Lowell 5.5 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator, whereas thermal neutrons are produced by surrounding the fission chamber and target assembly with paraffin. Fission fragments stopped in the helium atmosphere of the fission chamber are transferred by a helium jet system to a low background counting room where the composite delayed neutron energy spectra are measured as a function of time after fission. The delayed neutron energy spectra following fast fission of U-235 are compared to those resulting from thermal fission of U-235. Two mathematical methods are developed to deduce the equilibrium delayed neutron spectrum from the composite delayed neutron spectra measured as a function of delay time after fission. These methods are then applied to obtain the equilibrium delayed neutron spectrum from thermal fission of U-235. Finally, the six-group delayed neutron spectra resulting from thermal fission of U-235 are deduced from the measured composite delayed neutron spectra as a function of delay time after fission using a matrix inversion method.

Sharfuddin, Quazi

29

Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnosticsa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the 89Zr/89mZr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

2012-10-01

30

Dynamic scaling of quasielastic neutron scattering spectra from interfacial water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for analysis of high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra of water in porous media is proposed and applied to the case of water in hydrated tricalcium and dicalcium silicates. We plot the normalized frequency-dependent susceptibility as a function of a scaling variable \\|?\\|/?p, where ?p is the peak position of the susceptibility function. QENS data have been scaled into a single master curve and fitted with an empirical formula proposed by Bergman to obtain three independent parameters describing the relaxation dynamics of hydration water in calcium silicates.

Fratini, E.; Chen, S.-H.; Baglioni, P.; Cook, J. C.; Copley, J. R.

2002-01-01

31

Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides  

SciTech Connect

This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

2013-11-06

32

Unfolding the fast neutron spectra of a BC501A liquid scintillation detector using GRAVEL method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate knowledge of the neutron energy spectra is useful in basic research and applications. The overall procedure of measuring and unfolding the fast neutron energy spectra with BC501A liquid scintillation detector is described. The recoil proton spectrum of 241Am-Be neutrons was obtained experimentally. With the NRESP7 code, the response matrix of detector was simulated. Combining the recoil proton spectrum and response matrix, the unfolding of neutron spectra was performed by GRAVEL iterative algorithm. A MatLab program based on the GRAVEL method was developed. The continuous neutron spectrum of 241Am-Be source and monoenergetic neutron spectrum of D-T source have been unfolded successfully and are in good agreement with their standard reference spectra. The unfolded 241Am-Be spectrum are more accurate than the spectra unfolded by artificial neural networks in recent years.

Chen, YongHao; Chen, XiMeng; Lei, JiaRong; An, Li; Zhang, XiaoDong; Shao, JianXiong; Zheng, Pu; Wang, XinHua

2014-10-01

33

Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities  

SciTech Connect

No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality ptimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

Kroc, T.K.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

34

Six-group decomposition of composite delayed neutron spectra from sup 235 U fission  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a constrained least-squares method is developed for deducing six-group delayed neutron energy spectra from composite spectra measured at six or more delay time intervals following fission. The constraining condition is chosen to yield stable solutions that also provide good fits to the measured spectra. The method is applied to previously measured composite spectra of {sup 235}U to obtain six-group delayed neutron energy spectra. The solutions are unique for a large range of constraint spectra. The dependence of the solutions on the choice of six-group parameters {beta} {lambda} is also examined.

Villani, M.F.; Couchell, G.P.; Haghighi, M.H.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.; Sharfuddin, Q. (Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell, Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics, Lowell, MA (US))

1992-08-01

35

Search for an energy dependence in /sup 235/U delayed neutron spectra  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive search for a dependence of composite (aggregate) delayed neutron spectra on the energy of neutrons inducing fission of /sup 235/U was performed for eight nearly contiguous delay time intervals between 0.17 to 85.5 s. The experimental arrangement combined a helium jet and tape transfer system with a beta-neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. Thermal and fast neutron measurements were performed successively. Results are compared with the spectra derived from individual precursor data complemented by theoretical estimates of missing spectra.

Sharfuddin, Q.; Schier, W.A.; Tanczyn, R.S.; Pullen, D.J.; Haghighi, M.H.; Fisteag, L.; Couchell, G.P.

1988-04-01

36

Calculation of delayed-neutron energy spectra in a QRPA-Hauser-Feshbach model  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical {beta}-delayed-neutron spectra are calculated based on the Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (QRPA) and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Neutron emissions from an excited daughter nucleus after {beta} decay to the granddaughter residual are more accurately calculated than in previous evaluations, including all the microscopic nuclear structure information, such as a Gamow-Teller strength distribution and discrete states in the granddaughter. The calculated delayed-neutron spectra agree reasonably well with those evaluations in the ENDF decay library, which are based on experimental data. The model was adopted to generate the delayed-neutron spectra for all 271 precursors.

Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

37

Neutron and gamma dose and spectra measurements on the Little Boy replica  

SciTech Connect

The radiation-measurement team of the Weapons Engineering Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) measured neutron and gamma dose and spectra on the Little Boy replica at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in April 1983. This assembly is a replica of the gun-type atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima in 1945. These measurements support the National Academy of Sciences Program to reassess the radiation doses due to atomic bomb explosions in Japan. Specifically, the following types of information were important: neutron spectra as a function of geometry, gamma to neutron dose ratios out to 1.5 km, and neutron attenuation in the atmosphere. We measured neutron and gamma dose/fission from close-in to a kilometer out, and neutron and gamma spectra at 90 and 30/sup 0/ close-in. This paper describes these measurements and the results. 12 references, 13 figures, 5 tables.

Hoots, S.; Wadsworth, D.

1984-06-01

38

Monte Carlo simulation of fast neutron spectra: Mean lineal energy estimation with an effectiveness function and correlation to RBE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Intercomparisons of radiotherapy trials conducted at different fast neutron facilities are complicated by the dependence of the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of the different beams on the fast neutrons spectra. To obtain a better understanding of the influence of neutron energy on radiation quality, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate fast neutron (FN) spectra at different irradiation positions.

Jean-Philippe Pignol; Jacobus Slabbert; Peter Binns

2001-01-01

39

New experimental system for measuring composite delayed-neutron spectra following fission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new experimental approach for measuring composite delayed-neutron spectra as a function of delay time following fission. Fission fragments are transported from the fission chamber to a low background counting room by helium jet and tape transport systems. A ?-neutron time-of-flight spectrometer incorporating both 6Li-glass and Pilot U scintillators is used to measure the spectra in the neutron energy range 10-2000 keV. Delay times can be varied from 0.17 s to several minutes. Fission is induced with either thermal or fast neutrons.

Schier, W. A.; Couchell, G. P.; Pullen, D. J.; Sampas, N. M.; Ciarcia, C. A.; Haghighi, M. H.; Sharfuddin, Q.; Tanczyn, R. S.

1984-12-01

40

Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners construct a spectroscope out of a shoe box or mailing tube, diffraction grating, and other simple materials. They then use their spectroscope to observe spectra, the colors that make up light. Learners compare the spectra of various light sources. Use this activity to introduce learners to basic principles of light and color. Also, look at a related page about auroras to understand how distinguishing spectra of different atoms helps scientists understand the universe.

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

41

Differential neutron energy spectra measured on spacecraft low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods for measuring neutrons in the range from thermal energies to dozens of MeV were used. In the first method, alpha-particles emitted from the (sup 6) Li(n.x)T reaction are detected with the help of plastic nuclear track detectors, yielding results on thermal and resonance neutrons. Also, fission foils are used to detect fast neutrons. In the second method, fast neutrons are recorded by nuclear photographic emulsions (NPE). The results of measurements on board various satellites are presented. The neutron flux density does not appear to correlate clearly with orbital parameters. Up to 50% of neutrons are due to albedo neutrons from the atmosphere while the fluxes inside the satellites are 15-20% higher than those on the outside. Estimates show that the neutron contribution to the total equivalent radiation dose reaches 20-30%.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, E. V.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.

1995-01-01

42

MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

2010-09-01

43

Activities on Nuclear Data Measurements at Pohang Neutron Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the activities of the Pohang Neutron Facility which consists of an electron linear accelerator, a water-cooled Ta target, and a 12-m time-of-flight path. It has been equipped with a four-position sample changer controlled remotely by a CAMAC data acquisition system, which allows simultaneous accumulation of the neutron time of flight spectra from 4 different detectors. It can be possible to measure the neutron total cross-sections in the neutron energy range from 0.1 eV to few hundreds eV by using the neutron time-of-flight method. A 6LiZnS(Ag) glass scintillator was used as a neutron detector. The neutron flight path from the water-cooled Ta target to the neutron detector was 12.1 m. The background level was determined by using notch-filters of Co, In, Ta, and Cd sheets. In order to reduce the gamma rays from bremsstrahlung and those from neutron capture, we employed a neutron-gamma separation system based on their different pulse shapes. The present measurements of several samples (Ta, Mo) are in general agreement with the evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI. We measured the thermal neutron capture cross-sections and the resonance integrals of the 186W(n,?)187W reaction and the 98Mo(n,?)99Mo reaction by the activation method using the 197Au(n,?)198Au monitor reaction as a single comparator. We also report the isomeric yield ratios for the 44 m, gSc isomeric pairs produced from four different photonuclear reactions 45Sc(?,n)44m,gSc, natTi(?,xn1p)44m,gSc, natFe(?,xn5p)52m,gMn, and 103Rh(?,4n)99m,gRh by using the activation method.

Kim, Guinyun

2009-03-01

44

Neutron spectra at two beam ports of a TRIGA Mark III reactor loaded with HEU fuel.  

PubMed

The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, one radial and another tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Measurements were carried out with the reactor core loaded with high enriched uranium fuel. Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a (6)LiI(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 in.-diameter high-density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code. For each spectrum total flux, mean energy and ambient dose equivalent were determined. Measured spectra show fission, epithermal and thermal neutrons, being harder in the radial beam port. PMID:23746708

Vega-Carrillo, H R; Hernández-Dávila, V M; Aguilar, F; Paredes, L; Rivera, T

2014-01-01

45

Investigation of elemental analysis using neutron-capture gamma ray spectra  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluated the potential of neutron-capture gamma rays in elemental analysis. A large portion of the work was devoted to the development of a method for the analysis of weak peaks in gamma ray spectra. This was ...

Hamawi, John Nicholas

1969-01-01

46

Delayed-Neutron Energy Spectra for Thermal Fission of URANIUM-235.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to measure delayed-neutron energy spectra resulting from thermal fission of U-235 has been carried out at the University of Lowell. Delayed neutrons, emitted by the radioactive fission fragments having halflives varying from 0.2 to 56 seconds, are important in the operation and control of fission reactors. In separate experiments at the University of Lowell 1-MW Fission Reactor and 5.5-MV Van de Graaff Accelerator, thermal fission was induced in a U-235 lined hemispherical fission chamber. The resulting fission fragments were transferred by a helium-jet system to a low-background counting area where composite delayed-neutron energy spectra were measured as a function of time after fission. Neutron energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique using beta-neutron correlations for timing. Two types of scintillators were used for neutron detection: Li-6 glass sensitive to neutrons in the energy range 10 - 300 keV, and plastic Pilot U sensitive to neutrons in the range 100 keV - 2.0 MeV. Spectra over the neutron energy range 0.1 - 2.0 MeV were measured for eight different time intervals after fission, each time interval containing varying contributions from the Six-Groups of delayed neutrons. Two of the eight time intervals were chosen to contain significant contributions from the shortest lived Groups 5 and 6. This work presents a brief outline of pertinent background material followed by a detailed discussion of the experimental technique and data analysis leading to final energy spectra. Measured composite energy spectra along with average energies are presented. Comparisons to spectra constructed from the Studsvik compilation are also presented.

Tanczyn, Robert Steven

47

Analytical functions to predict cosmic-ray neutron spectra in the atmosphere.  

PubMed

Estimation of cosmic-ray neutron spectra in the atmosphere has been an essential issue in the evaluation of the aircrew doses and the soft-error rates of semiconductor devices. We therefore performed Monte Carlo simulations for estimating neutron spectra using the PHITS code in adopting the nuclear data library JENDL-High-Energy file. Excellent agreements were observed between the calculated and measured spectra for a wide altitude range even at the ground level. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the simulation results, we propose analytical functions that can predict the cosmic-ray neutron spectra for any location in the atmosphere at altitudes below 20 km, considering the influences of local geometries such as ground and aircraft on the spectra. The accuracy of the analytical functions was well verified by various experimental data. PMID:16953673

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji

2006-09-01

48

Russian measurements of neutron energy spectra on the Mir orbital station.  

PubMed

Results of the experiments on neutron energy spectra measurements within broad energy range from 5 x 10(-7) to 2 x 10(2) MeV aboard the Mir orbital station and equivalent neutron dose estimation are presented. Four measurement techniques were used during the experiments. The shape of spectra and their absolute values are in good agreement. According to those experiments, an equivalent neutron dose depends upon effective shielding thickness and spacecraft mass. The neutron dose mentioned is comparable with that of ionizing radiation. Neutron flux levels measured aboard the Mir station have shown that a neutron spectrometer involving broad energy range will be used within the radiation monitoring systems in manned space flights. PMID:11855413

Lyagushin, V I; Dudkin, V E; Potapov, Y V; Sevastianov, V D

2001-06-01

49

Calculation verification of the utilization of LR-0 for reference neutron spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-defined neutron spectrum is crucial for calibration and testing of detectors for spectrometry and dosimetry purposes. As a possible source of neutrons nuclear reactors can be utilized. In reactor core most of the neutrons are originated from fission and neutron spectra is usually some form of moderated spectra of fast neutrons. The reactor LR-0 is an experimental light-water zero-power pool-type reactor originally designed for research of the VVER type reactor cores, spent-fuel storage lattices and benchmark experiments. The main reactor feature that influences the performance of experiments is the flexible arrangement of the core. Special types of the possible core arrangements on the reactor LR-0 can provide different neutron spectra in special experimental channels. These neutron spectra are modified by inserting different materials around the channel and whole core is driven by standard fuel assemblies. Fast, epithermal or thermal spectra can be simulated using graphite, H2O, D2O insertions, air, Cd foils or fuel with different enrichment.

Ján, Mil?ák; Michal, Koš?ál; Marie, Švadlenková; Michal, Koleška; Vojt?ch, Rypar

2014-11-01

50

Assessing neutron generator output using neutron activation of silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

D-T neutron generators are used for elemental composition analysis and medical applications. Often composition is determined by examining elemental ratios in which the knowledge of the neutron flux is unnecessary. However, the absolute value of the neutron flux is required when the generator is used for neutron activation analysis, to study radiation damage to materials, to monitor the operation of the generator, and to measure radiation exposure. We describe a method for absolute neutron output and flux measurements of low output D-T neutron generators using delayed activation of silicon. We irradiated a series of silicon oxide samples with 14.1 MeV neutrons and counted the resulting gamma rays of the 28Al nucleus with an efficiency-calibrated detector. To minimize the photon self-absorption effects within the samples, we used a zero-thickness extrapolation technique by repeating the measurement with samples of different thicknesses. The neutron flux measured 26 cm away from the tritium target of a Thermo Electron A-325 D-T generator (Thermo Electron Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO) was 6.2 × 10 3 n/s/cm 2 ± 5%, which is consistent with the manufacturer's specifications.

Kehayias, Pauli M.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

2007-08-01

51

Active Neutron Shielding for Dark Matter Searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrons are a dangerous background to direct dark matter detection searches because they can mimic exactly the signal signature. Recent studies find that the few existing underground measurements of the fast, muon-induced neutron flux disagree at the 30%-50% level with predictions. Given this level of uncertainty, it is desirable to measure the neutron flux in-situ, as well as to reduce the number of neutrons incident on a dark matter detector. Towards these ends, we are developing a neutron veto system for both active and passive shielding. The goals of this R&D are (i) a measurement of the neutron energy spectrum underground above 10 MeV neutron kinetic energies, and (ii) measurements of the attenuation vs. energy of these neutrons in 1 meter of water, concrete, and liquid scintillator. These measurements will provide valuable input for simulation and design of shields for low-background experiments underground.

Monroe, Jocelyn; Yamamoto, Richard; Fisher, Peter; Cornell, Brett; Robinson, Mareena; Cowern, Dianna; Eyers, Richard; Henderson, Shawn

2009-05-01

52

Analysis of primary damage in silicon carbide under fusion and fission neutron spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation parameters on primary damage states of SiC are evaluated and compared for the first wall of ITER under deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) operation, the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and high flux isotope reactor (HFIR). With the same neutron fluence, the studied fusion spectra produce more damage and much higher gas production than the fission spectra. Due to comparable gas production and similar weighted primary recoil spectra, HFIR is considered suitable to simulate the neutron irradiation in an HTGR. In contrast to the significant differences between the weighted primary recoil spectra of the fission and the fusion spectra, the weighted secondary recoil spectra of HFIR and HTGR match those of DD and DT, indicating that displacement cascades by the fission and the fusion irradiation are similar when the damage distribution among damaged regions by secondary recoils is taken into account.

Guo, Daxi; Zang, Hang; Zhang, Peng; Xi, Jianqi; Li, Tao; Ma, Li; He, Chaohui

2014-12-01

53

Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra.  

PubMed

We report on irradiation tests of InSb based Hall sensors at two irradiation facilities with two distinct types of neutron spectra. One was a fission reactor neutron spectrum with a significant presence of thermal neutrons, while another one was purely fast neutron field. Total neutron fluence of the order of 10(16)?cm(-2) was accumulated in both cases, leading to significant drop of Hall sensor sensitivity in case of fission reactor spectrum, while stable performance was observed at purely fast neutron spectrum. This finding suggests that performance of this particular type of Hall sensors is governed dominantly by transmutation. Additionally, it further stresses the need to test ITER candidate Hall sensors under neutron flux with ITER relevant spectrum. PMID:21033987

?uran, I; Bolshakova, I; Viererbl, L; Sentkerestiová, J; Holyaka, R; Lahodová, Z; Bém, P

2010-10-01

54

Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra  

SciTech Connect

We report on irradiation tests of InSb based Hall sensors at two irradiation facilities with two distinct types of neutron spectra. One was a fission reactor neutron spectrum with a significant presence of thermal neutrons, while another one was purely fast neutron field. Total neutron fluence of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} was accumulated in both cases, leading to significant drop of Hall sensor sensitivity in case of fission reactor spectrum, while stable performance was observed at purely fast neutron spectrum. This finding suggests that performance of this particular type of Hall sensors is governed dominantly by transmutation. Additionally, it further stresses the need to test ITER candidate Hall sensors under neutron flux with ITER relevant spectrum.

Duran, I. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v. v. i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Bolshakova, I.; Holyaka, R. [Magnetic Sensor Laboratory, Lviv Polytechnic National University, 790 31 Lviv (Ukraine); Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z. [Nuclear Research Institute plc., 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Sentkerestiova, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Bem, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

2010-10-15

55

EUV/soft x-ray spectra for low B neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent ROSAT and EUVE detections of spin-powered neutron stars suggest that many emit 'thermal' radiation, peaking in the EUV/soft X-ray band. These data constrain the neutron stars' thermal history, but interpretation requires comparison with model atmosphere computations, since emergent spectra depend strongly on the surface composition and magnetic field. As recent opacity computations show substantial change to absorption cross sections at neutron star photospheric conditions, we report here on new model atmosphere computations employing such data. The results are compared with magnetic atmosphere models and applied to PSR J0437-4715, a low field neutron star.

Romani, Roger W.; Rajagopal, Mohan; Rogers, Forrest J.; Iglesias, Carlos A.

1995-01-01

56

Calculations of neutron flux spectra induced in the earth's atmosphere by galactic cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations have been carried out to determine the neutron flux induced in the earth's atmosphere by galactic protons and alpha particles at solar minimum for a geomagnetic latitude of 42 N. Neutron flux spectra were calculated using Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates methods, and various comparisons with experimental data are presented. The magnitude and shape of the calculated neutron-leakage spectrum at the particular latitude considered support the theory that the cosmic-ray-albedo-neutron-decay mechanism is the source of the protons and electrons trapped in the Van Allen belts.

Armstrong, T. W.; Chandler, K. C.; Barish, J.

1972-01-01

57

EUV/soft x-ray spectra for low B neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

Recent ROSAT and EUVE detections of spin-powered neutron stars suggest that many emit ``thermal`` radiation, peaking in the EUV/soft X-ray band. These data constrain the neutron stars` thermal history, but interpretation requires comparison with model atmosphere computations, since emergent spectra depend strongly on the surface composition and magnetic field. As recent opacity computations show substantial change to absorption cross sections at neutron star photospheric conditions, we report here on new model atmosphere computations employing such data. The results are compared with magnetic atmosphere models and applied to PSR J0437-4715, a low field neutron star.

Romani, R.W.; Rajagopal, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-05-23

58

Neutron dose equivalent and neutron spectra in tissue for clinical linacs operating at 15, 18 and 20 MV.  

PubMed

In this work, the dose equivalent due to photoneutrons and the neutron spectra in tissue was calculated for various linacs (Varian Clinac 2100C, Elekta Inor, Elekta SL25 and Siemens Mevatron KDS) operating at energies between 15 and 20 MV, using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (v. 2.5). The dose equivalent in an ICRU tissue phantom has been calculated for anteroposterior treatments with a detailed simulation of the geometry of the linac head and the coupled electron-photon-neutron transport. Neutron spectra at the phantom entrance and at 1-cm depth in the phantom, depth distribution of the neutron fluence in the beam axis and dose distributions outside the beam axis at various depths have also been calculated and compared with previously published results. The differences between the neutron production of the various linacs considered has been analysed. Varian linacs show a larger neutron production than the Elekta and Siemens linacs at the same operating energy. The dose equivalent due to neutrons produced by medical linacs operating at energies >15 MeV is relevant and should not be neglected because of the additional doses that patients can receive. PMID:21233098

Martínez-Ovalle, S A; Barquero, R; Gómez-Ros, J M; Lallena, A M

2011-11-01

59

Measurement of Leakage Neutron Spectra for Tungsten with D-T Neutrons and Validation of Evaluated Nuclear Data  

E-print Network

Integral neutronics experiments have been investigated at Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS) in order to validate evaluated nuclear data related to the design of Chinese Initiative Accelerator Driven Systems (CIADS). In present paper, the accuracy of evaluated nuclear data for Tungsten has been examined by comparing measured leakage neutron spectra with calculated ones. Leakage neutron spectra from the irradiation of D-T neutrons on Tungsten slab sample were experimentally measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$ by using a time-of-flight method. Theoretical calculations are carried out by Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP-4C with evaluated nuclear data of the ADS-2.0, ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0 and CENDL-3.1 libraries. From the comparisons, it is found that the calculations with ADS-2.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 give good agreements with the experiments in the whole energy regions at 60$^{\\circ}$, while a large discrepancy is observed at 120$^{\\circ}$ in the elastic scattering peak, caused by a slight difference in the oscillation pattern of the elastic angular distribution at angles larger than 20$^{\\circ}$. However, the calculated spectra using data from ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0 and CENDL-3.1 libraries showed larger discrepancies with the measured ones, especially around 8.5-13.5 MeV. Further studies are presented for these disagreements.

S. Zhanga; Z. Chen; Y. Nie; R. Wada; X. Ruan; R. Han; X. Liu; W. Lin; J. Liu; F. Shi; P. Ren; G. Tian; F. Luo; J. Ren; J. Bao

2014-11-20

60

Evaluation of Hylife-II and Sombrero using 175- and 566- group neutron transport and activation cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from

D Cullen; J Latkowski; J Sanz

1999-01-01

61

239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra Impact on a Set of Criticality and Experimental Reactor Benchmarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large set of nuclear data are investigated to improve the calculation predictions of the new neutron transport simulation codes. With the next generation of nuclear power plants (GEN IV projects), one expects to reduce the calculated uncertainties which are mainly coming from nuclear data and are still very important, before taking into account integral information in the adjustment process. In France, future nuclear power plant concepts will probably use MOX fuel, either in Sodium Fast Reactors or in Gas Cooled Fast Reactors. Consequently, the knowledge of 239Pu cross sections and other nuclear data is crucial issue in order to reduce these sources of uncertainty. The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra (PFNS) for 239Pu are part of these relevant data (an IAEA working group is even dedicated to PFNS) and the work presented here deals with this particular topic. The main international data files (i.e. JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0, BRC-2009) have been considered and compared with two different spectra, coming from the works of Maslov and Kornilov respectively. The spectra are first compared by calculating their mathematical moments in order to characterize them. Then, a reference calculation using the whole JEFF-3.1.1 evaluation file is performed and compared with another calculation performed with a new evaluation file, in which the data block containing the fission spectra (MF=5, MT=18) is replaced by the investigated spectra (one for each evaluation). A set of benchmarks is used to analyze the effects of PFNS, covering criticality cases and mock-up cases in various neutron flux spectra (thermal, intermediate, and fast flux spectra). Data coming from many ICSBEP experiments are used (PU-SOL-THERM, PU-MET-FAST, PU-MET-INTER and PU-MET-MIXED) and French mock-up experiments are also investigated (EOLE for thermal neutron flux spectrum and MASURCA for fast neutron flux spectrum). This study shows that many experiments and neutron parameters are very sensitive to the PFNS, in particular for high leakage thermal criticality cases for which the discrepancy between international evaluation files spectra and Kornilov spectra can reach 800 pcm. A neutronic analysis is proposed to explain this large discrepancy. For fast spectrum cases, Maslov's and Kornilov's spectra have a negative effect, between some dozens of pcm to around 300 pcm.

Peneliau, Y.; Litaize, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.

2014-04-01

62

Composite delayed neutron energy spectra for thermal fission of /sup 235/U  

SciTech Connect

Composite delayed neutron energy spectra from the thermal neutron fission of /sup 235/U have been measured for eight delay-time intervals between 0.17 and 85.5 s. This experimental technique combines a helium-jet and tape transfer system with a beta-neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The neutron energy range of 0.01 to 2.0 MeV is spanned with /sup 6/Li-glass, plastic, and liquid scintillators. Spectra are compared to ENDF/B-V as well as to individual precursors' data and average energies are tabulated for the present and previous compilations. An equilibrium spectrum is also calculated and compared to ENDF/B-V and individual precursor measurements.

Tanczyn, R.S.; Sharfuddin, Q.; Schier, W.A.; Pullen, D.J.; Haghighi, M.H.; Fisteag, L.; Couchell, G.P.

1986-12-01

63

Ion Energy Spectra and Neutron Emission from a Deuterium Plasma Focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the studies of deuteron beam characteristics (flux and energy distribution) and neutron production. The investigations were performed by analyzing the correlation between the neutron yield and the energy spectra of the axially emitted deuteron beam, on a shot to shot basis. An ion magnetic spectrometer was implemented successfully on a 3kJ Mather-type plasma focus

M. S. Rafique; S. V. Springham; A. Patran; S. Lee

2000-01-01

64

Measurements of the Martian Gamma/Neutron Spectra with MSL/RAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) onboard Mars Science Laboratory's rover curiosity measures the energetic charged and neutral particle spectra and the radiation dose rate on the Martian surface. An important factor for determining the biological impact of the Martian surface radiation is the specific contribution of neutrons, which possess a high biological effectiveness. In contrast to charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays are generally only measured indirectly. Their measurement is the result of a complex convolution of the incident particle spectrum with the measurement process. We apply an inversion method to calculate the gamma/neutron spectra from the RAD neutral particle measurements. Here we show first measurements of the Martian gamma/neutron spectra and compare them to theoretical predictions. We find that the shape of the gamma spectrum is very similar to the predicted one, but with a ~50% higher intensity. The measured neutron spectrum agrees well with prediction up to ~100 MeV, but shows a considerably increased intensity for higher energies. The measured neutron spectrum translates into a radiation dose rate of 25 ?Gy/day and a dose equivalent rate of 106 ?Sv/day. This corresponds to 10% of the total surface dose rate, and 15% of the biological relevant surface dose equivalent rate on Mars. Measuring the Martian neutron spectra is an essential step for determining the mutagenic influences to past or present life at or beneath the Martian surface as well as the radiation hazard for future human exploration, including the shielding design of a potential habitat. The contribution of neutrons to the dose equivalent increases considerably with shielding thickness, so our measurements provide an important figure to mitigate cancer risk.

Kohler, J.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Ehresmann, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Hassler, D.; Reitz, G.; Brinza, D.; Weigle, E.; Boettcher, S.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Boehm, E.; Posner, A.; Rafkin, S. C.; Kortmann, O.

2013-12-01

65

A fast and flexible reactor physics model for simulating neutron spectra and depletion in fast reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes within a nuclear reactor core is central to the analysis of nuclear fuel cycles. We present a fast, flexible tool for determining the time dependent neutron spectrum within fast reactors. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to simulate the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. While originally developed for LWR simulations, the model is shown to produce fast reactor spectra that show high degree of fidelity to available fast reactor benchmarks.

Recktenwald, Geoff; Deinert, Mark

2010-03-01

66

Measurement of Prompt Fission ?-ray Spectra in Fast Neutron-induced Fission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of prompt fission ?-ray emission has been of major interest in reactor physics for a few years. Since very few experimental spectra were ever published until now, new measurements would be also valuable to improve our understanding of the fission process. An experimental method is currently being developed to measure the prompt fission ?-ray spectrum from some tens keV up to 10 MeV at least. The mean multiplicity and total energy could be deduced. In this method, the ?-rays are measured with a bismuth germanate (BGO) detector which has the advantage to present a high P/T ratio and a high efficiency compared to other ?-ray detectors. The prompt fission neutrons are rejected by the time of flight technique between the BGO detector and a fission trigger given by a fission chamber or a scintillating active target. Energy and efficiency calibration of the BGO detector were carried out up to 10.76 MeV by means of the 27Al(p,?) reaction. First prompt fission ?-ray spectrum measurements performed for the spontaneous fission of 252Cf and for 1.7 and 15.6 MeV neutron-induced fission of 238U at the CEA, DAM, DIF Van de Graaff accelerator, will be presented.

Laborie, J.-M.; Belier, G.; Taieb, J.

67

Comparison of neutron spectra measured with three sizes of organic liquid scintillators using differentiation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proton recoil distributions were obtained by using organic liquid scintillators of different size. The measured distributions are converted to neutron spectra by differentiation analysis for comparison to the unfolded spectra of the largest scintillator. The approximations involved in the differentiation analysis are indicated to have small effects on the precision of neutron spectra measured with the smaller scintillators but introduce significant error for the largest scintillator. In the case of the smallest cylindrical scintillator, nominally 1.2 by 1.3 cm, the efficiency is shown to be insensitive to multiple scattering and to the angular distribution to the incident flux. These characteristics of the smaller scintillator make possible its use to measure scalar flux spectra within media high efficiency is not required.

Shook, D. F.; Pierce, C. R.

1972-01-01

68

A laser-induced repetitive fast neutron source applied for gold activation analysis.  

PubMed

A laser-induced repetitively operated fast neutron source was developed for applications in laser-driven nuclear physics research. The developed neutron source, which has a neutron yield of approximately 4 × 10(5) n/pulse and can be operated up to a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, was applied for a gold activation analysis. Relatively strong delayed gamma spectra of the activated gold were measured at 333 keV and 355 keV, and proved the possibility of the neutron source for activation analyses. In addition, the nuclear reactions responsible for the measured gamma spectra of gold were elucidated by the 14 MeV fast neutrons resulting from the D(t,n)He(4) nuclear reaction, for which the required tritium originated from the primary fusion reaction, D(d,p)T(3). PMID:23277984

Lee, Sungman; Park, Sangsoon; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Hyungki

2012-12-01

69

A laser-induced repetitive fast neutron source applied for gold activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

A laser-induced repetitively operated fast neutron source was developed for applications in laser-driven nuclear physics research. The developed neutron source, which has a neutron yield of approximately 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} n/pulse and can be operated up to a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, was applied for a gold activation analysis. Relatively strong delayed gamma spectra of the activated gold were measured at 333 keV and 355 keV, and proved the possibility of the neutron source for activation analyses. In addition, the nuclear reactions responsible for the measured gamma spectra of gold were elucidated by the 14 MeV fast neutrons resulting from the D(t,n)He{sup 4} nuclear reaction, for which the required tritium originated from the primary fusion reaction, D(d,p)T{sup 3}.

Lee, Sungman; Park, Sangsoon; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Hyungki [Quantum Optics Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-15

70

NONDESTRUCTIVE MULTIELEMENT INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure permitted accurate and sensitive measurement of most elements with atomic numbers between 11 and 92. The sensitivity of the procedure was dependent on each element's intrinsic characteristics and the sample matri...

71

Effects of Rapid Spin on the Spectra and Pulse Profiles of Neutron Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of sources that are prime targets for determining neutron star masses and radii spin at 300-700 Hz. At these high spin frequencies, neutron stars become oblate and their spacetime acquires a significant quadrupole moment. In this talk, I will present the rotational broadening and distortion of thermal and line spectra due to these effects. I will also discuss the asymmetry and the energy dependence introduced by the stellar spin to X-ray pulse profiles. I will conclude by describing ways to mitigate and/or exploit these rapid spin effects when measuring neutron star radii.

Ozel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Baubock, Michi; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Morsink, Sharon

2014-08-01

72

Neutron activation analysis in the life sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of methods for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and their applications in the life sciences are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on epithermal activation with reactor neutrons (ENAA), and the advantages of this technique in analysis of environmental objects are shown. The results of applied INAA studies in the field of the life sciences carried out at the world's leading nuclear centers are reported. Experience in employing a radioanalytical complex at the IBR-2 reactor (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna) for such studies is summarized.

Frontasyeva, M. V.

2011-03-01

73

Measurement of Leakage Neutron Spectra for Tungsten with D-T Neutrons and Validation of Evaluated Nuclear Data  

E-print Network

Integral neutronics experiments have been investigated at Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS) in order to validate evaluated nuclear data related to the design of Chinese Initiative Accelerator Driven Systems (CIADS). In present paper, the accuracy of evaluated nuclear data for Tungsten has been examined by comparing measured leakage neutron spectra with calculated ones. Leakage neutron spectra from the irradiation of D-T neutrons on Tungsten slab sample were experimentally measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$ by using a time-of-flight method. Theoretical calculations are carried out by Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP-4C with evaluated nuclear data of the ADS-2.0, ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0 and CENDL-3.1 libraries. From the comparisons, it is found that the calculations with ADS-2.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 give good agreements with the experiments in the whole energy regions at 60$^{\\circ}$, while a large discrepancy is observed at 120$^{\\circ}$ in the elastic...

Zhanga, S; Nie, Y; Wada, R; Ruan, X; Han, R; Liu, X; Lin, W; Liu, J; Shi, F; Ren, P; Tian, G; Luo, F; Ren, J; Bao, J

2014-01-01

74

Neutron spectra evaluation obtained from the track-size distribution on electrochemically etched CR-39 foils  

SciTech Connect

We are studying the relationship between neutron energy and track-size distribution on electrochemically etched CR-39 foils using a two-stage etching procedure. Although the electrochemical etching process alters the track size, we now find that the track diameter is related to the neutron energy even after the second stage (blowup) is completed. This relationship is complex, being effected by the etching parameters, including oven temperature, etching high voltage, and etching time. Current studies are directed at establishing the effect of each of these parameters on the track-size distribution and at determining an optimal etching procedure for neutron spectra evaluation. If neutron spectral information can be determined from the track-size distribution, dose can be calculated directly from the neutron fluence and spectrum.

Hankins, D.E.; Westermark, J.

1987-05-01

75

Neutron spectra at different High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel surveillance locations  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses the potential problem of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports. Surveillance specimens irradiated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at relatively low neutron flux levels (about 1.5E + 8 cm{sup {minus}2}.s{sup {minus}1}) and low temperatures (about 50{degrees}C) showed embrittlement more rapidly than expected. Commercial power reactors have similar flux levels and temperatures at the level vessel support structures. The purposes of this work are to provide the neutron fluence spectra data that are needed to evaluate previously measured mechanical property changes in the HFIR, to explain the discrepancies in neutron flux levels between the nickel dosimeters and two other dosimeters, neptunium and beryllium, and to address any questions or peculiarities of the HFIR reactor environment. The current work consists of neutron and gamma transport calculations, dosimetry measurements, and least-squares logarithmic adjustment to obtain the best estimates for the neutron spectra and the related neutron exposure parameters. The results indicate that the fission rates in neptunium-237 (Np-237) and uranium-238 (U-238) and the helium production rates in beryllium-9 (Be-9) are dominated by photo-induced reactions. The displacements per atom rate for iron (dpa/s) from gamma rays is five times higher than the dpa/s from neutrons. The neutron fluxes in key 7, position 5 do not show any significant gradient in the surveillance capsule, but key 4 and key 2 showed differences in magnitude as well as in the shape of the spectrum. The stainless steel monitor in the V-notch of the Charpy specimens of the surveillance capsules is adequate to determine the neutron flux above 1.0 MeV at the desired V-notch location. Simultaneous adjustment of neutron and gamma fluxes with the measurements has been demonstrated and should avoid future problems with photo-induced reactions.

Remec, I. [Josef Sefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kam, F.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-12-01

76

Theoretical description of prompt fission neutron multiplicity and spectra  

E-print Network

The present work concerns two successful models used today: Point by Point (PbP) and the Monte Carlo approaches. The description of the PbP model and of the extended Los Alamos model for higher energies that takes into account the secondary chains and ways is given in Chapter II. In this chapter are given also examples of PbP and most probable fragmentation approach calculations for various quantities which characterize prompt emission: multi-parametric matrices, quantities as a function of fragment mass, quantities as a function of the TKE and total average quantities, for different spontaneous and neutron induced fissioning systems. Special care was given to the TXE partition between the fully accelerated fission fragments, two partition methods used in the PbP model being discussed in details. In Chapter III is given the description of the Monte Carlo treatment included in the FIFRELIN code. Only those aspects that differ from the PbP treatment are emphasized. A special attention is given to the latest developments of the code concerning the inclusion of the energy dependent compound nucleus cross section of the inverse process of neutron evaporation from fragments. In this chapter examples of calculation with the FIFRELIN code for the case of the standard fissioning system 252Cf(SF) are given. Original results for several plutonium spontaneous fissioning systems (236,238,240,242,244Pu) and one neutron induced fissioning system (239Pu(nth,f)) obtained with both PbP and Monte Carlo treatments are given in Chapter IV. The last chapter includes an overview of the most important conclusions resulting from the intercomparison of the results obtained with both treatments in chapter IV.

Cristian Manailescu

2014-10-16

77

Neutron counter based on beryllium activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, ?)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting ?- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of ?-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known ?-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of ?- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

2014-08-01

78

Dynamics of Myoglobin: Comparison of Simulation Results with Neutron Scattering Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to calculate the incoherent neutron scattering spectra of myoglobin between 80 K and 325 K and compared with experimental data. There is good agreement over the entire temperature range for the elastic, quasi-elastic, and inelastic components of the scattering. This provides support for the accuracy of the simulations of the internal motions that make the

Jeremy Smith; Krzysztof Kuczera; Martin Karplus

1990-01-01

79

The effects of boron on the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of alanine irradiated with thermal neutrons  

SciTech Connect

The effects of boric acid admixture on the intensity and line structure of EPR spectra of free radicals produced in alanine by thermal neutrons are presented. The EPR signal enhancement, up to a factor of 40 depending on the boron concentration, is related to additional energy deposition in alanine crystals by the disintegration products resulting from the capture of a thermal neutron by boron, {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li. The changes in the shape of the EPR spectra observed by changing the microwave power are due to the differences in the microwave power saturation of the free radicals produced by a low-LET radiation and those produced by the high-LET components of the radiation after the neutron capture reaction. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Ciesielski, B.; Wielopolski, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-10-01

80

Distortion of pulse-height spectra of neutron capture gamma rays  

SciTech Connect

A distortion of pulse-height spectra of neutron capture {gamma}-rays caused by {gamma}-flash at neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurement using a pulse neutron source has been investigated. Pulses from C6D6 detectors accumulated by flash-ADC were processed with both traditional analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and flash-ADC operational modes. A correction factor of {gamma}-ray yields, due to baseline shift, was quantitatively obtained by comparing the pulse-height spectra of the two data-collecting modes. The magnitude of the correction factor depends on the time, which passed after {gamma}-flash, and has complicated time dependence with a changing sign.

Laptev, A.; Harada, H.; Nakamura, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Hori, J. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Igashira, M.; Ohsaki, T.; Ohgama, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-26, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2006-03-13

81

Neutron spectra and dose-rate measurements around a transport cask for spent reactor fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A storage facility with a capacity of 420 containers is available for the interim storage of spent fuel from power reactors at the village of Gorleben in Germany. During transportation and storage of spent fuel casks radiation exposure of the personnel is dominated by neutrons. The routine control of the dose rate limits according to the transport regulations and the licence of the storage facility is performed with conventional neutron survey meters. These monitors, calibrated for fast neutrons at radionuclide neutron sources, usually overestimate the real dose rate in unknown neutron fields. In this paper, a series of measurements with several monitoring instruments near a transport cask of the CASTOR type is presented. The results are compared with reference data for the does equivalents calculated from the measured fluence spectra using a Bonner multisphere spectrometer. Besides reliable information about neutron spectra and dose rates at the container, it was found that some of the rem counters overestimate the true dose rate by a factor of 2 or more.

Rimpler, Arndt

1997-02-01

82

Rotational Corrections to Neutron-star Radius Measurements from Thermal Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the rotational broadening in the observed thermal spectra of neutron stars spinning at moderate rates in the Hartle-Thorne approximation. These calculations accurately account for the effects of the second-order Doppler boosts as well as for the oblate shapes and the quadrupole moments of the neutron stars. We find that fitting the spectra and inferring the bolometric fluxes under the assumption that a star is not rotating causes an underestimate of the inferred fluxes and, thus, radii. The correction depends on the stellar spin, mass, radius, and the observer's inclination. For a 10 km, 1.4 M ? neutron star spinning at 600 Hz, the rotational correction to the flux is ~1%-4%, while for a 15 km neutron star with the same spin period, the correction ranges from 2% for pole-on sources to 12% for edge-on sources. We calculate the inclination-averaged corrections to inferred radii as a function of the neutron-star radius and mass and provide an empirical formula for the corrections. For realistic neutron-star parameters (1.4 M ?, 12 km, 600 Hz), the stellar radius is on the order of 4% larger than the radius inferred under the assumption that the star is not spinning.

Bauböck, Michi; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Morsink, Sharon M.

2015-01-01

83

Neutron spectrum measurements using proton recoil proportional counters: results of measurements of leakage spectra for the Little Boy assembly  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of degraded fission-neutron spectra using recoil proportional counters are done routinely for studies involving fast reactor mockups. The same techniques are applicable to measurements of neutron spectra required for personnel dosimetry in fast neutron environments. A brief discussion of current applications of these methods together with the results of a measurement made on the LITTLE BOY assembly at Los Alamos are here described.

Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.

1984-01-01

84

Vibrational spectra of light and heavy water with application to neutron cross section calculations  

SciTech Connect

The design of nuclear reactors and neutron moderators require a good representation of the interaction of low energy (E < 1 eV) neutrons with hydrogen and deuterium containing materials. These models are based on the dynamics of the material, represented by its vibrational spectrum. In this paper, we show calculations of the frequency spectrum for light and heavy water at room temperature using two flexible point charge potentials: SPC-MPG and TIP4P/2005f. The results are compared with experimental measurements, with emphasis on inelastic neutron scattering data. Finally, the resulting spectra are applied to calculation of neutron scattering cross sections for these materials, which were found to be a significant improvement over library data.

Damian, J. I. Marquez; Granada, J. R. [Neutron Physics Department and Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA (Argentina); Malaspina, D. C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2013-07-14

85

New calculations of the atmospheric cosmic radiation field--results for neutron spectra.  

PubMed

The propagation of primary cosmic rays through the Earth's atmosphere and the energy spectra of the resulting secondary particles have been calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA with several novel auxiliary methods. Solar-modulated primary cosmic ray spectra were determined through an analysis of simultaneous proton and helium measurements made on spacecraft or high-altitude balloon flights. Primary protons and helium ions are generated within the rigidity range of 0.5 GV-20 TV, uniform in cos2theta. For a given location, primaries above the effective angle-dependent geomagnetic cut-off rigidity, and re-entrant albedo protons, are transported through the atmosphere. Helium ions are initially transported using a separate transport code called HEAVY to simulate fragmentation. HEAVY interfaces with FLUKA to provide interaction starting points for each nucleon originating from a helium nucleus. Calculated cosmic ray neutron spectra and consequent dosimetric quantities for locations with a wide range of altitude (atmospheric depth) and geomagnetic cut-off are presented and compared with measurements made on a high-altitude aeroplane. Helium ion propagation using HEAVY and inclusion of re-entrant albedo protons with the incident primary spectra significantly improved the agreement of the calculated cosmic ray neutron spectra with measured spectra. These cosmic ray propagation calculations provide the basis for a new atmospheric ionising radiation (AIR) model for air-crew dosimetry, calculation of effects on microelectronics, production of cosmogenic radionuclides and other uses. PMID:15353685

Clem, J M; De Angelis, G; Goldhagen, P; Wilson, J W

2004-01-01

86

Moderated 252Cf neutron energy spectra in brain tissue and calculated boron neutron capture dose.  

PubMed

While there is significant clinical experience using both low- and high-dose (252)Cf brachytherapy, combination therapy using (10)B for neutron capture therapy-enhanced (252)Cf brachytherapy has not been performed. Monte Carlo calculations were performed in a brain phantom (ICRU 44 brain tissue) to evaluate the dose enhancement predicted for a range of (10)B concentrations over a range of distances from a clinical (252)Cf source. These results were compared to experimental measurements and calculations published in the literature. For (10)B concentrations neutron capture dose enhancement was small in comparison to the (252)Cf fast neutron dose. PMID:15308139

Rivard, Mark J; Zamenhof, Robert G

2004-11-01

87

An integral test of the inelastic cross sections of Pb and Mo using measured neutron spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of measurements and calculations of fast neutron spectra from a radioactive neutron source inside spheres of Mo or Pb and from a cylindrical reactor containing a thick Pb or Mo reflector are used as a test of ENDF cross sections. The sphere leakage spectra were measured at a sphere-to-spectrometer distance of 2 meters using a 54 Ci spherical Am-Be neutron source. Reactor leakage spectrum measurements were made at the surface of the ZP-1 reactor when bare, with a Pb radial reflector 21 cm thick, and with a metallic Mo radial reflector 10 cm thick. In the case of the thin Mo sphere there is agreement between the calculation and measurement. The Pb calculation is much lower than the measurement except at the highest neutron energy. Two-dimensional calculations of reactor spectra result indicate that the reactor source is reasonably well known. Significant differences in leakage spectrum shape for both Mo and Pb reflectors suggest that there are large uncertainties in the inelastic cross sections for Pb and some for Mo.

Shook, D. F.; Fieno, D.; Ford, C. H.; Wrights, G. N.

1972-01-01

88

Thermal-neutron-capture prompt-gamma emission spectra of representative coals. [1. 5 to 11 MeV  

SciTech Connect

Prompt gamma ray emission spectra have been calculated from 1.5 to 11 MeV for a wide range of coal compositions exposed to a thermal neutron flux. These include contributions to the spectra from all of the major and minor elements present in the coals. Characteristics of the spectra are discussed and correlated with the coal compositions.

Herzenberg, C L; Olson, I K

1981-12-01

89

Neutron irradiation of superconductors and damage energy scaling of different neutron spectra  

SciTech Connect

Three different neutron sources were used to irradiate identical sets of NbTi superconductors up to about half the lifetime dose of a superconducting magnet in a fusion reactor. Based on a careful source characterization of the TRIGA Mark-II reactor in Vienna, the spallation neutron source IPNS at Argonne and the 14 MeV neutron source RTNS-II at Livermore, the damage energy cross sections were calculated for four different types of NbTi alloys (42, 46.5, 49 and 54 wt % Ti). The experimental results on the variations of critical current densities j/sub c/ with neutron dose are found to scale within the experimental uncertainties with the appropriate damage energy cross sections. This first explicit proof of damage energy scaling for j/sub c/-variations in superconductors is considered to be most valuable for the evaluation of radiation damage in superconductors under fusion reactor conditions. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Hahn, P.A.; Weber, H.W.; Guinan, M.W.; Birtcher, R.C.; Brown, B.S.; Greenwood, L.R.

1985-08-01

90

Investigating Coincidence Techniques in Biomedical Applications of Neutron Activation Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While neutron activation analysis has been widely used in biomedical applications for some time, the use of non-radioactive tracer techniques, to monitor, for example, organ blood flow, is more recent. In these studies, pre-clinical animal models are injected with micro-spheres labeled with stable isotopes of elements that have a high neutron absorption cross-section. Subsequently, samples of blood and/or tissue from different locations in the body are subjected to neutron activation analysis to measure the propagation of the labeled micro-spheres through the body. Following irradiation, the counting (with high-resolution Ge detectors) is typically delayed by a few days to dissipate short-lived activity in the samples and improve signal-to-noise for the peaks of interest in the activation spectrum. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether coincidence techniques (for isotopes which decay via two-photon cascades) could improve signal-to-noise and turn-around times. The samples were irradiated at the 1 MW research reactor at the UMass Lowell Radiation Laboratory. The analysis of the multi-parameter coincidence data recorded in event-mode will be presented and compared with the standard method of recording singles spectra.

Chowdhury, P.; Gramer, R.; Tandel, S. K.; Reinhardt, C. J.

2004-05-01

91

IIB soliton spectra with all fluxes activated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building upon an earlier proposal for the classification of fluxes, a sequence is proposed which generalizes the AHSS by computing type IIB string theory's group of conserved RR and also NS charges, which is conjectured to be a K-theory of dual pairs. As a test of this proposal, the formalism of Maldacena, Moore and Seiberg ( arxiv:hep-th/0108100) is applied to classify D-branes, NS5-branes, F-strings and their dielectric counterparts in IIB compactified on a 3-sphere with both NS and RR background fluxes. The soliton spectra on the 3-sphere are then compared with the output of the sequence, as is the baryon spectrum in Witten's non- spinc example, AdS 5× RP5. The group of conserved charges is seen to change during Brown-Teitelboim-like phase transitions which change the effective cosmological constant.

Evslin, Jarah

2003-05-01

92

Measurement of U-235 Fission Neutron Spectra Using a Multiple Gamma Coincidence Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Los Alamos Model of Madland and Nix predicts the shape of the fission neutron energy spectrum for incident primary neutrons of different energies. Verifications of the model normally are limited to measurements of the fission neutron spectra for energies higher than that of the primary neutrons because the low-energy spectrum is distorted by the admixture of elastically and inelastically scattered neutrons. This situation can be remedied by using a measuring technique that separates fission from scattering events. One solution consists of using a fissile sample so thin that fission fragments can be observed indicating the occurrence of a fission event. A different approach is considered in this paper. It has been established that a fission event is accompanied by the emission of between seven and eight gamma rays, while in a scattering interaction, between zero and two gammas are emitted, so that a gamma multiplicity detector should supply a datum to distinguish a fission event from a scattering event. We proceed as follows: A subnanosecond pulsed and bunched proton beam from the UML Van de Graaff generates nearly mono-energetic neutrons by irradiating a thin metallic lithium target. The neutrons irradiate a 235U sample. Emerging neutron energies are measured with a time-of-flight spectrometer. A set of four BaF2 detectors is located close to the 235U sample. These detectors together with their electronic components identify five different events for each neutron detected, i.e., whether four, three, two, one, or none of the BaF2 detectors received one (or more) gamma rays. We present work, preliminary to the final measurements, involving feasibility considerations based on gamma-ray coincidence measurements with four BaF2 detectors, and the design of a Fission-Scattering Discriminator under construction.

Ji, Chuncheng; Kegel, G. H. R.; Egan, J. J.; DeSimone, D. J.; Alimeti, A.; Roldan, C. F.; McKittrick, T. M.; Kim, D.-S.; Chen, X.; Tremblay, S. E.

2005-05-01

93

Model X-ray Spectra of Magnetic Neutron Stars with Hydrogen Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere models for magnetized neutron stars in radiative equilibrium with fixed surface fields between B=1012 and 1013 G and effective temperatures logTeff=5.5-6.8, as well as with surface B and Teff distributions around these values. The models are based on the latest equation of state and opacity results for magnetized, partially ionized hydrogen plasmas. The atmospheres directly determine the characteristics of thermal emission from the surface of neutron stars. We also incorporate these model spectra into XSPEC, under the model name NSMAX, thus allowing them to be used by the community to fit X-ray observations of neutron stars. This work is supported by NASA, FASI, RFBR, and CNRS.

Ho, Wynn C. G.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Chabrier, G.

2008-03-01

94

Model X-Ray Spectra of Magnetic Neutron Stars with Hydrogen Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere models for magnetized neutron stars in radiative equilibrium with fixed surface fields between B=1012 and 2×1013 G and effective temperatures logTeff=5.5-6.8, as well as with surface B and Teff distributions around these values. The models are based on the latest equation of state and opacity results for magnetized partially ionized hydrogen plasmas. The atmospheres directly determine the characteristics of thermal emission from the surface of neutron stars. We also incorporate these model spectra into XSPEC, under the model name NSMAX, thus allowing them to be used by the community to fit X-ray observations of neutron stars.

Ho, Wynn C. G.; Potekhin, Alexander Y.; Chabrier, Gilles

2008-09-01

95

Realistic neutron spectra for radiation protection and other applications at AERI, Budapest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reconstruction of the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) gave a good possibility to develop mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields for different applications like: simulation of operational spectra at power reactors, dosimeter development, neutron radiography, biological experiments. Recently, there are 3 horizontal channels available. In addition, isotopic neutron sources are in use in a separate laboratory. In a rotatable holder 4 different sources can be stored and automatically moved into irradiation position. There are changeable collimators and absorbers to modify the spectrum. In the large hall there are possibilities to study the room scatter, angular dependence of detectors, phantom albedo effect etc. Recently available sources are different Pu-Be (from 10 5-10 7 n/s yield), Ra-Be and Cf.

Pálfalvi, J.; Sajó-Bohus, L.; Balaskó, M.

2002-01-01

96

High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The areal density ({rho}R) of cryogenic DT implosions on Omega is inferred by measuring the spectrum of neutrons that elastically scatter off the dense deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fuel. Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) techniques are used to measure the energy spectrum with high resolution. High signal-to-background data has been recorded on cryogenic DT implosions using a well-collimated 13.4-m line of sight and an nTOF detector with an advanced liquid scintillator compound. An innovative method to analyze the elastically scattered neutron spectra was developed using well-known cross sections of the DT nuclear reactions. The estimated areal densities are consistent with alternative {rho}R measurements and 1-D simulations.

Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Casey, D. T.; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Gardner, S. [Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, Ontario, New York 14519 (United States)

2012-10-15

97

Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Denison, Arthur B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01

98

Neutron activation analysis of Nigerian crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 40 crude oils from 10 different oil fields in Nigeria were analysed for 39 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Significant correlations were found between Ni and V concentrations and Ni versus Se concentrations. The American Petroleum Institute (API) gravities are inversely correlated with total transition metal concentration of the oils but there is no obvious

A. F. Oluwole; O. I. Asubiojo; J. I. Nwachukwu; J. O. Ojo; O. J. Ogunsola; J. A. Adejumo; R. H. Filby; S. Fitzgerald; C. Grimm

1993-01-01

99

Characterization of neutron flux spectra in the irradiation sites of a 37 GBq 241Am-Be isotopic source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, an irradiation unit with a 37 GBq 241Am-Be neutron source was installed at Institute of Nuclear Sciences of Ankara University. Design and configuration properties of the irradiation unit are described. It has two different sample irradiation positions, one is called site #1 having a pneumatic sample transfer system and the other is site #2 having a location for manual use. In order to characterize neutron flux spectra in the irradiation sites, the measurement results were obtained for thermal (?th) and epithermal neutron fluxes (?epi), thermal to epithermal flux ratio (f) and epithermal spectrum shaping factors (?) by employing cadmium ratios of gold (Au) and molybdenum (Mo) monitors. The activities produced in these foils were measured by using a p-type, 44.8% relative efficiency HPGe well detector. For the measured ?-rays, self-absorption and true coincidence summing effects were taken into account. Additionally, thermal neutron self-shielding and resonance neutron self-shielding effects were taken into account in the measured results. For characterization of site #1, the required parameters were found to be ?th = (2.11 ± 0.05) × 103 n cm-2 s-1, ?epi = (3.32 ± 0.17) × 101 n cm-2 s-1, f = 63.6 ± 1.5, ? = 0.045 ± 0.009, respectively. Similarly, those parameters were measured in site #2 as ?th = (1.49 ± 0.04) × 103 n cm-2 s-1, ?epi = (2.93 ± 0.15) × 101 n cm-2 s-1, f = 50.9 ± 1.3 and ? = 0.038 ± 0.008. The results for f-values indicate that good thermalization of fast neutrons on the order of 98% was achieved in both sample irradiation sites. This is because an optimum combination of water and paraffin moderator is used in the present configuration. In addition, the shielding requirements are met by using natural boron oxide powder (5.5 cm) and boron loaded paraffin layers against neutrons, and a 15 cm thick lead bricks against gamma-rays from source and its surrounding materials.

Yücel, Haluk; Budak, Mustafa Guray; Karadag, Mustafa; Yüksel, Alptu? Özer

2014-11-01

100

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Obsidian rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumental neutron activation analysis technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of up to 30 elements\\u000a including major, minor and trace elements in Obsidian Rock (a proposed NBS-SRM-278). INAA method involves both short and long\\u000a irradiations followed by gamma-ray activity measurement with a Ge(Li) detector. The accuracy of the procedure has been checked\\u000a by analyzing IAEA Reference Materials.

S. Ahmad; M. S. Chaudhary; I. H. Qureshi

1981-01-01

101

Neural Networks and the Classification of Active Galactic Nucleus Spectra  

E-print Network

The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a classifier of digital spectra is investigated. Using both simulated and real data, it is shown that neural networks can be trained to discriminate between the spectra of different classes of active galactic nucleus (AGN) with realistic sample sizes and signal-to-noise ratios. By working in the Fourier domain, neural nets can classify objects without knowledge of their redshifts.

Daya M. Rawson; Jeremy Bailey; Paul J. Francis

1996-07-29

102

Monte Carlo calculations of neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra for fusion-reactor shield design: Comparison with experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron and gamma-ray spectra resulting from the interactions of approx. 14-MeV neutrons in laminated slabs of stainless steel type-304 and borated polyethylene were calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculated spectra are compared with measured data as a function of slab thickness and material composition and as a function of detector location behind the slabs. Comparisons of the

R. T. Santoro; J. M. Barnes

1983-01-01

103

Measurement of neutron energy spectra and neutron dose rates from 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction induced on thin LiF target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements of neutron energy spectra and neutron dose rates were performed using the KN Van de Graaff accelerator, located at the McMaster University Accelerator Laboratory (MAL). Protons were accelerated on the thin lithium fluoride (LiF) target and produced mono-energetic neutrons which were measured using three different spectrometers: Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS), Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS), and Rotational Proton Recoil Spectrometer (ROSPEC). The purpose of this work is (1) measurement and quantification of low energy accelerator neutron fields in terms of neutron fluence and dose, (2) comparison of results obtained by three different instruments, (3) comparison of measurements with Monte Carlo simulations based on theoretical neutron yields from 7Li(p,n)7Be nuclear reaction, and (4) comparison of results obtained using different neutron spectral unfolding methods. The nominal thickness of the LiF target used in the experiment was 50 ?g /cm2, which corresponds to the linear thickness of 0.19 ?m and results in approximately 6 keV energy loss for the proton energies used in the experiment (2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 MeV). For each of the proton energies, neutron fluence per incident proton charge was measured and several dosimetric quantities of interest in radiation protection were derived. In addition, theoretical neutron yield calculations together with the results of Monte Carlo (MCNP) modeling of the neutron spectra are reported. Consistent neutron fluence spectra were obtained with three detectors and good agreement was observed between theoretically calculated and measured neutron fluences and derived dosimetric quantities for investigated proton energies at 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 MeV. In the case of 2.2 MeV, some plausibly explainable discrepancies were observed.

Atanackovic, Jovica; Matysiak, Witold; Dubeau, Jacques; Witharana, Sampath; Waker, Anthony

2015-02-01

104

Uranium and Plutonium Average Prompt-fission Neutron Energy Spectra (PFNS) from the Analysis of NTS NUEX Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In neutron experiments (NUEX) conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the time-of-flight of fission-neutrons emitted from nuclear tests were observed by measuring the current generated by the collection of protons scattered from a thin CH2 foil many meters from the nuclear device into a Faraday cup. The time dependence of the Faraday cup current is a measure of the energy spectrum of the neutrons that leak from the device. With good device models and accurate neutron-transport codes, the leakage spectra can be converted into prompt fast-neutron-induced fission-neutron energy spectra. This has been done for two events containing plutonium, and for an earlier event containing uranium. The prompt-fission neutron spectra have been inferred for 1.5-MeV 239Pu(n,f) and 235U(n,f) reactions for outgoing neutron energies from 1.5 to ?10.5 MeV, in 1-MeV steps. These spectra are in good agreement with the Los Alamos fission model.

Lestone, J. P.; Shores, E. F.

2014-05-01

105

Microdosimetric spectra of the THOR neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

A primary objective of the BNCT project in Taiwan, involving THOR (Tsing Hua Open Pool Reactor), was to examine the potential treatment of hepatoma. To characterise the epithermal neutron beam in THOR, the microdosimetry distributions in lineal energy were determined using paired tissue-equivalent proportional counters with and without boron microfoils. Microdosimetry results were obtained in free-air and at various depths in a PMMA phantom near the exit of the beam port. A biological weighting function, dependent on lineal energy, was used to estimate the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. An effective RBE of 2.7 was found at several depths in the phantom. PMID:12918789

Hsu, F Y; Tung, C J; Watt, D E

2003-01-01

106

A simple method for the analysis of neutron resonance capture spectra  

SciTech Connect

Neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) is a method used to determine the bulk composition of various kinds of objects and materials. It is based on analyzing direct capture resonance peaks. However, the analysis is complicated by scattering followed by capture effects in the object itself. These effects depend on the object's shape and size. In this paper the new Delft elemental analysis program (DEAP) is presented which can automatically and quickly analyze multiple NRCA spectra in a practical and simple way, yielding the elemental bulk composition of an object, largely independent of its shape and size. The DEAP method is demonstrated with data obtained with a Roman bronze water tap excavated in Nijmegen (The Netherlands). DEAP will also be used in the framework of the Ancient Charm project as data analysis program for neutron resonance capture imaging (NRCI) experiments. NRCI provides three-dimensional visualization and quantification of the internal structure of archaeological objects by performing scanning measurements with narrowly collimated neutron beams on archaeological objects in computed tomography based experimental setups. The large amounts (hundreds to thousands) of spectra produced during a NRCI experiment can automatically and quickly be analyzed by DEAP.

Clarijs, Martijn C.; Bom, Victor R.; Eijk, Carel W. E. van [Radiation, Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

2009-03-15

107

Measured microdosimetric spectra and therapeutic potential of boron neutron capture enhancement of 252Cf brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Californium-252 is a neutron-emitting radioisotope used as a brachytherapy source for radioresistant tumors. Presented here are microdosimetric spectra measured as a function of simulated site diameter and distance from applicator tube 252Cf sources. These spectra were measured using miniature tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs). An investigation of the clinical potential of boron neutron capture (BNC) enhancement of 252Cf brachytherapy is also provided. The absorbed dose from the BNC reaction was measured using a boron-loaded miniature TEPC. Measured neutron, photon and BNC absorbed dose components are provided as a function of distance from the source. In general, the absorbed dose results show good agreement with results from other measurement techniques. A concomitant boost to 252Cf brachytherapy may be provided through the use of the BNC reaction. The potential magnitude of this BNC enhancement increases with increasing distance from the source and is capable of providing a therapeutic gain greater than 30% at a distance of 5 cm from the source, assuming currently achievable boron concentrations. PMID:16137204

Burmeister, J; Kota, C; Maughan, R L

2005-09-01

108

Evaluation of HYLIFE-II and Sombrero using 175- and 566-group neutron transport and activation cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code allow enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross-section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from

Jeffery F Latkowski; Dermott E Cullen; Javier Sanz

2000-01-01

109

Infrared spectra and pharmacological activity of hindered phenols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IR Fourier spectra of pharmacologically active sterically hindered phenols in CCl4 solutions are studied. A relationship between the absorption intensity in the spectral range of the free vibrations of OH-groups and the antimicrobial activity of the phenols is discovered. If the hydroxyl groups are in an ortho-position within a molecule, then intramolecular hydrogen bonds are formed. The hindered phenols with nonassociated hydroxyl groups are the most pharmacologically active.

Belkov, M. V.; Polozov, G. I.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Shadyro, O. I.

2011-07-01

110

A Computation and Database Development for Fast Neutron Activation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A COMPUTATION AND DATABASE DEVELOPMENT FOR FAST NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) is an important element in material analysis by means of irradiation processing using neutron generator accelerator with energy of 14 MeV. Given an irradiation data, a computation behind FNAA application comprises calculation of disintegration per second (dps) of underlying materials, efficiency of the detector being

Slamet Santosa; Elin Nuraini

111

Measured and calculated fast neutron spectra in a depleted uranium and lithium hydride shielded reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of MeV neutron were made at the surface of a lithium hydride and depleted uranium shielded reactor. Four shield configurations were considered: these were assembled progressively with cylindrical shells of 5-centimeter-thick depleted uranium, 13-centimeter-thick lithium hydride, 5-centimeter-thick depleted uranium, 13-centimeter-thick lithium hydride, 5-centimeter-thick depleted uranium, and 3-centimeter-thick depleted uranium. Measurements were made with a NE-218 scintillation spectrometer; proton pulse height distributions were differentiated to obtain neutron spectra. Calculations were made using the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DOT and ENDF/B (version 3) cross sections. Good agreement between measured and calculated spectral shape was observed. Absolute measured and calculated fluxes were within 50 percent of one another; observed discrepancies in absolute flux may be due to cross section errors.

Lahti, G. P.; Mueller, R. A.

1973-01-01

112

Computation of Neutron Star Surface Emission Spectra for Arbitrary Magnetic Field Directions without Diffusion Approximation  

E-print Network

To derive physical properties of the neutron star surface with observed spectra, a realistic model spectrum of neutron star surface emission is essential. Limited by computing resources, a full computation of the radiative transfer equations without the diffusion approximation has been conducted up to date only for the case of local magnetic fields being perpendicular to the stellar surface. In this paper we report the full-computation result for an arbitrary field direction. For comparison we also compute the radiative transfer equation using the diffusion approximation. For a given effective temperature, the computed spectrum with the diffusion approximation is always softer than that of a full computation at a non-negligible level. It leads to an over-estimate of the effective temperature if the diffusion approximation spectrum is employed in the spectral fitting. Other characteristics for different magnetic field orientations, such as the beaming pattern of the two polarization modes and the structure of the atmosphere, are also discussed.

L. W. Yeh; G. T. Chen; H. K. Chang

2006-12-22

113

DS02 fluence spectra for neutrons and gamma rays at Hiroshima and Nagasaki with fluence-to-kerma coefficients and transmission factors for sample measurements.  

PubMed

Fluence spectra at several ground distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are provided along with associated fluence-to-kerma coefficients from the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). Also included are transmission factors for calculating expected responses of in situ sample measurements of neutron activation products such as (32)P,(36)Cl,(39)Ar,(41)Ca, (60)Co,(63)Ni,(152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The free-in-air (FIA) fluences calculated in 2002 are available for 240 angles, 69 energy groups, 101 ground distances, 5 heights, 4 radiation source components, 2 cities. The DS02 code uses these fluences partitioned to a prompt and delayed portion, collapsed to 58 energy groups and restricted to 97 ground distances. This is because the fluence spectra were required to be in the same format that was used in the older Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) computer code, of which the DS02 computer code is a modification. The 2002 calculation fluences and the collapsed DS02 code fluences are presented and briefly discussed. A report on DS02, which is available on the website at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, provides tables and figures of the A-bomb neutron and gamma-ray output used as the sources in the 2002 radiation transport calculations. While figures illustrating the fluence spectra at several ground ranges are presented in the DS02 Report, it does not include any tables of the calculated fluence spectra in the DS02 report. This paper provides, at several standard distances from the hypocenter, the numerical information which is required to translate the FIA neutron fluences given in DS02 to a neutron activation measurement or neutron and gamma-ray soft-tissue dose. PMID:17643260

Egbert, Stephen D; Kerr, George D; Cullings, Harry M

2007-11-01

114

Measurements of keV-neutron Capture Cross Sections and Capture Gamma-ray Spectra of Pd Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra of 104,105,106,108,110Pd were measured in the neutron energy region from 15 to 100 keV. A neutron time-of-flight method was utilized by means of an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer and a 1.5 nsec pulsed neutron source via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. The capture yields were obtained by applying a pulse-height weighting technique to the net gamma-ray pulse-height spectra. The capture cross sections of 104,105,106,108,110Pd were determined with uncertainties of less than 6%, using the standard capture cross sections of 197Au. The capture gamma-ray spectra of 104,105,106,108,110Pd were also derived by unfolding the respective observed capture gamma-ray pulse-height spectra.

Terada, K.; Matsuhashi, T.; Hales, B.; Katabuchi, T.; Igashira, M.

2014-05-01

115

Systematic Measurements of keV-NEUTRON Capture Cross Sections and Capture Gamma-Ray Spectra of pd Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capture cross sections and capture ?-ray spectra of 104,105Pd were measured in the neutron energy region of 15-100 keV as a part of systematic series of measurements. A neutron time-of-flight method was adopted, using a ns pulsed neutron source via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction. The capture ?-rays from the samples were measured with an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The capture yields were obtained by applying a pulse-height weighting technique to the net capture ?-ray pulse-height spectra. The capture cross sections of 104,105Pd were derived with errors less than 5%, using the standard capture cross sections of 197Au. The capture ?-ray spectra of 104,105Pd were also derived by un-folding the respective observed capture ?-ray pulse-height spectra.

Terada, K.; Igashira, M.; Matsuhashi, T.; Katabuchi, T.; Anh, T. T.

2013-03-01

116

Measurements and calculations of thermal neutron fluence rate and neutron energy spectra resulting from moderation of 252Cf fast neutrons: applications for neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

252Cf is a neutron emitting radioisotope which has promise for both standard brachytherapy and neutron capture enhanced brachytherapy. In this study, experimental measurements and calculations were used to determine the thermal neutron fluence rate, phi(th) [n cm(-2) s(-1) mg(-1)], in the vicinity of 252Cf applicator tube (AT) type sources. Results of these measurements were confirmed with Monte Carlo calculations performed in a distributed manner on multiple workstations using MCNP. Three studies were executed: (1) relative phi(th) as a function of distance from a 252Cf AT source in an A-150 tissue equivalent plastic phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) of varying 6Li/Li enrichment, (2) phi(th) measured with gold foils in a 114 liter water phantom 5 cm from two 252Cf AT sources, and (3) calculations of the impact of phantom material composition (e.g., A-150, water, brain, muscle) on phi(th) from moderated 252Cf fast neutrons. TLD results and Monte Carlo calculations in A-150 of relative phi(th) typically agreed within 1% and at most differed by 3% for distances from 1 to 6 cm. Foil measurements followed the ASTM E 262-86e protocol, and the ratio of activated plain and Cd encased gold foils (7.31) agreed well with the calculated ratio (7.26). Measured phi(th) at 5 cm (1.70+/-0.10 x 10(7) n cm(-2) s(-1) mg(-1)) was 10% greater than that determined using MCNP (1.55+/-0.12 x 10(7) n cm(-2) s(-1) mg(-1)), but was within the combined uncertainties. Compared with A-150 at a distance of 1 cm, phi(th) was 20%, 22%, and 32% less for water, brain, and muscle, respectively; these ratios decreased to 16%, 16%, and 24% less, respectively, at a distance of 5 cm from the source in a 15 cm diameter phantom. Comparisons of these results generally agreed with those in the literature for a value of 2 x 10(7) n cm(-2) s(-1) mg(-1) in water at 3 cm. PMID:10984222

Rivard, M J

2000-08-01

117

Moisture measurement for radioactive wastes using neutron activation of copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests have demonstrated the use of neutron activation of copper to measure the moisture in radioactive wastes. Neutrons from a source scatter and return to activate the copper in the probe, the amount of activation varying with moisture content. A low-background spectrometer counts the gamma rays from activated 64Cu. The calibration of count rate vs moisture was measured with

P. L. Reeder; D. C. Stromswold; R. L. Brodzinski; J. H. Reeves; W. E. Wilson

1997-01-01

118

Active and sterile neutrino mass effects on beta decay spectra  

SciTech Connect

We study the spectra of the emitted charged leptons in charge current weak nuclear processes to analyze the effect of neutrino masses. Standard active neutrinos are studied here, with masses of the order of 1 eV or lower, as well as sterile neutrinos with masses of a few keV. The latter are warm dark matter (WDM) candidates hypothetically produced or captured as small mixtures with the active neutrinos. We compute differential decay or capture rates spectra in weak charged processes of different nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 187}Re, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 163}Ho, etc) using different masses of both active and sterile neutrinos and different values of the mixing parameter.

Boillos, Juan Manuel; Moya de Guerra, Elvira [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, U. Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Moreno, Oscar [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, U. Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, E-28040, Madrid (Spain)

2013-06-10

119

Experimental and MCNP simulated gamma-ray spectra for the UNCOSS neutron-based explosive detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the FP7 UNCOSS project (Underwater Coastal Sea Surveyor), whose aim is to develop a neutron-based explosive detection system to identify unexploded ordnance (UXO) lying on the sea bottom, the choice of the gamma-ray detector is essential to reach the optimal performances. This paper presents comparative tests between the two candidates: NaI(Tl) and LaBr 3(Ce) detectors, in favour to the 3 in.×3 in. LaBr 3(Ce); thus, confirming the choice previously performed by numerical simulation because of its higher fast timing properties, spectral resolution, and efficiency per volume unit. The gamma-ray spectra produced by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams on the elements of interest (C, O, N, Al, Fe, Si, and Ca) have also been recorded with this detector in order to unfold the spectrum of the interrogated object into elementary contributions. A qualitative comparison with the gamma-ray spectra simulated with the MCNPX computer code and the ENDFB/VII.0 nuclear library has also been performed to validate the numerical model. An additional quantitative validation has been performed with an explosive-like material (ammonium acetate).

Eleon, C.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.; Valkovic, V.

2011-02-01

120

Neutron fluence and energy spectra around the Varian Clinac 2100C/2300C medical accelerator.  

PubMed

We have simulated the head geometry of a Varian Clinac 2100C/2300C medical accelerator in a Monte Carlo calculation to produce photoneutrons and transport them through the head shielding into a typical therapy room (modeled by a test cell at Varian Associates). The fast neutron leakage fluence and energy spectra have been calculated at 7 positions around the linac head for typical beam operation at 10, 15, 18 and 20 MV. The results of these calculations have been compared with limited measurements made using the same model accelerator operating in a Varian test cell. Calculations were also made for the fluence and energy spectra outside the head with no surrounding concrete walls, floor or ceiling to eliminate the effects of scattering from concrete. Comparisons were also made with calculations using a much simplified head geometry. The results indicate that the calculations using the complex head geometry compare, within the uncertainties, with the measurements. The simple head geometry leads to differences of a factor of 2 from the complex geometry. Results of these calculations can be used to calculate fast neutron transmission through various shielding configurations and through labyrinths. PMID:9415580

Kase, K R; Mao, X S; Nelson, W R; Liu, J C; Kleck, J H; Elsalim, M

1998-01-01

121

OPACITIES AND SPECTRA OF THE r-PROCESS EJECTA FROM NEUTRON STAR MERGERS  

SciTech Connect

Material ejected during (or immediately following) the merger of two neutron stars may assemble into heavy elements through the r-process. The subsequent radioactive decay of the nuclei can power transient electromagnetic emission similar to, but significantly dimmer than, an ordinary supernova. Identifying such events is an important goal of future optical surveys, offering new perspectives on the origin of r-process nuclei and the astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. Predictions of the transient light curves and spectra, however, have suffered from the uncertain optical properties of heavy ions. Here we argue that the opacity of an expanding r-process material is dominated by bound-bound transitions from those ions with the most complex valence electron structure, namely the lanthanides. For a few representative ions, we run atomic structure models to calculate the radiative transition rates for tens of millions of lines. The resulting r-process opacities are orders of magnitude larger than that of ordinary (e.g., iron-rich) supernova ejecta. Radiative transport calculations using these new opacities suggest that the light curves should be longer, dimmer, and redder than previously thought. The spectra appear to be pseudo-blackbody, with broad absorption features, and peak in the infrared ({approx}1 {mu}m). We discuss uncertainties in the opacities and attempt to quantify their impact on the spectral predictions. The results have important implications for observational strategies to find and study the radioactively powered electromagnetic counterparts to neutron star mergers.

Kasen, Daniel; Barnes, Jennifer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Badnell, N. R. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2013-09-01

122

Studies of Neutron and Proton Nuclear Activation in Low-Earth Orbit 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of neutron and proton nuclear activation in low-Earth orbit reported in NASA CR-162051 has been continued with increasing emphasis given to primary and secondary neutron activation. The previously reported activation due to protons has been modified to include: (1) flux attenuation caused by all inelastic reactions; (2) the modification of the proton flux distribution caused by sample covering material; and (3) the activation of the sample as a function of the distance into the sample from the surface of incidence. A method has been developed for including the effects on the activation of the finite width and length of the samples. The reactant product spectra produced by proton-induced reactions has been studied. Cross sections needed for neutron induced reactions leading to long-lived (half-life 1 day) radioisotopes have been identified and, in some cases, compiled.

Laird, C. E.

1983-01-01

123

A fast-neutron activation detector for 14MeV pulsed neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast-neutron activation detector is described in which the gamma rays ; resulting from the decay of Pb\\/sup 207m\\/- are observed in a plastic scintillator. ; The Pb\\/sup 207m\\/ is produced by fast-neutron activation of a lead shield ; which surrounds the scintillator and photomultiplier. Following a 20-msec delay ; from the neutron pulse, the Pb\\/sup 207m\\/ activity is observed

Lawrence Ruby; J. B. Rechen

1962-01-01

124

A FAST-NEUTRON ACTIVATION DETECTOR FOR 14Mev PULSED NEUTRON SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast-neutron activation detector is described in which the gamma rays ; resulting from the decay of Pb\\/sup 207m\\/ are observed in a plastic scintillator. ; The Pb\\/sup 207m\\/ produced by fast-neutron activation of a lead shield which ; surrounds the scintillator and photomultiplier. Following a 20-msec delay from ; the neutron pulse, the Pb\\/sup 207m\\/ activity is observed for

L. Ruby; J. B. Rechen

1961-01-01

125

Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery  

SciTech Connect

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

Whitehead, J.; Silverman, A.; Ouellet, C.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z

1992-07-01

126

A CORRELATION BETWEEN STELLAR ACTIVITY AND HOT JUPITER EMISSION SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence for a correlation between the observed properties of hot Jupiter emission spectra and the activity levels of the host stars measured using Ca II H and K emission lines. We find that planets with dayside emission spectra that are well-described by standard one-dimensional atmosphere models with water in absorption (HD 189733, TrES-1, TrES-3, WASP-4) orbit chromospherically active stars, while planets with emission spectra that are consistent with the presence of a strong high-altitude temperature inversion and water in emission orbit quieter stars. We estimate that active G and K stars have Lyman {alpha} fluxes that are typically a factor of 4-7 times higher than quiet stars with analogous spectral types and propose that the increased UV flux received by planets orbiting active stars destroys the compounds responsible for the formation of the observed temperature inversions. In this paper, we also derive a model-independent method for differentiating between these two atmosphere types using the secondary eclipse depths measured in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands on the Spitzer Space Telescope and argue that the observed correlation is independent of the inverted/non-inverted paradigm for classifying hot Jupiter atmospheres.

Knutson, Heather A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard, E-mail: hknutson@berkeley.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

2010-09-10

127

Active Neutron Shielding R&D for Dark Matter Searches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrons are a dangerous background to direct dark matter detection searches because they can mimic exactly the signal signature. For this reason, it is desirable to measure the neutron flux directly at underground sites where dark matter experiments are active. We have developed a liquid scintillator-based neutron detector for this purpose, which is currently underground and taking data at the

Shawn Henderson; Jocelyn Monroe; Peter Fisher

2011-01-01

128

The influence of the deviation from the equilibrium deuteron distribution on the neutron spectra in linear pinch geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to analyze the influence of the deviation from the equilibrium distribution of the fast deuterons on the neutron spectrum, the limiting case, corresponding to a two dimensional monoenergetic deuteron distribution, was studied. The appearance of a pronounced peak in the side-on spectra at neutron energy = 2.5 MeV is noted. There is good agreement between theory and experiment, if relaxation processes are taken into account.

Deutsch, R.; Herold, H.; Kaeppeler, H. J.; Schmidt, H.

1982-07-01

129

Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

Harbottle, G.

1987-01-01

130

Fast neutron spectra produced by a 49 MeV deuteron-beryllium reaction and its modification by selected absorbers  

E-print Network

)b reaction is 5 2 . 6 7 Mey since the 0 value is 4 . 63 NeV. The calculation indicated that 3 5 04 channels separated the reference gamma bur st and the high energy neutrons associated with the next neutron burst . This also corresponds... . 3. 1. . So f tware Lamias 19 Table ZI. Relation of CELLEN Cells to the Final Energy Ranges Used in the Neutron Spectra Determinations. Final Cell Number '1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1. 9 20 2'1 22 23 24 25...

Hertel, Nolan Elmer

2012-06-07

131

Abundance Calculations and Error Analysis for Lighter Neutron-Capture Elements with Improved Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of light neutron capture elements is an unsolved problem of nuclear astrophysics. Previous studies have not been able to provide a satisfactory mechanism for the production of elements such as zirconium (Zr), yttrium (Y) and strontium (Sr) in the early galaxy. In a previous paper, we studied the abundances of these elements using high-resolution spectra to reduce uncertainty. We now analyze possible sources of error in the computational models used to simulate the stellar atmospheres under observation - models that are used in the calculation of elemental abundances. By adjusting the model parameters such as effective temperature, microturbulent velocity, surface gravity, and metallicity we can judge the relative sensitivity of our calculations to errors in these values.

Burris, Debra L.; Lusk, J.

2010-01-01

132

Neutron spectra as a function of angle at two meters from the Little Boy assembly  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of neutron spectra produced by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Little Boy replica assembly (Comet) were made with a combined multisphere and liquid scintillator system, that has been widely used at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The combined system was used for measurements at the side (90/sup 0/) and nose (0/sup 0/) of the assembly; additional measurements were made at 45/sup 0/ using only the liquid scintillator. Data were obtained at two meters from the center of the reactive region of the assembly, with good agreement between the multisphere and scintillator results. Comparison with liquid scintillator measurements performed by experimenters from the Canadian Defence Research Establishment, Ottawa (DREO) and calculations from LANL depended on the specific angle, obtaining the best agreement at 90/sup 0/. 32 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

Griffith, R.V.; Huntzinger, C.J.; Thorngate, J.H.

1984-07-02

133

SOURCES 4A: A Code for Calculating (alpha,n), Spontaneous Fission, and Delayed Neutron Sources and Spectra  

SciTech Connect

SOURCES 4A is a computer code that determines neutron production rates and spectra from ({alpha},n) reactions, spontaneous fission, and delayed neutron emission due to the decay of radionuclides. The code is capable of calculating ({alpha},n) source rates and spectra in four types of problems: homogeneous media (i.e., a mixture of {alpha}-emitting source material and low-Z target material), two-region interface problems (i.e., a slab of {alpha}-emitting source material in contact with a slab of low-Z target material), three-region interface problems (i.e., a thin slab of low-Z target material sandwiched between {alpha}-emitting source material and low-Z target material), and ({alpha},n) reactions induced by a monoenergetic beam of {alpha}-particles incident on a slab of target material. Spontaneous fission spectra are calculated with evaluated half-life, spontaneous fission branching, and Watt spectrum parameters for 43 actinides. The ({alpha},n) spectra are calculated using an assumed isotropic angular distribution in the center-of-mass system with a library of 89 nuclide decay {alpha}-particle spectra, 24 sets of measured and/or evaluated ({alpha},n) cross sections and product nuclide level branching fractions, and functional {alpha}-particle stopping cross sections for Z < 106. The delayed neutron spectra are taken from an evaluated library of 105 precursors. The code outputs the magnitude and spectra of the resultant neutron source. It also provides an analysis of the contributions to that source by each nuclide in the problem.

Madland, D.G.; Arthur, E.D.; Estes, G.P.; Stewart, J.E.; Bozoian, M.; Perry, R.T.; Parish, T.A.; Brown, T.H.; England, T.R.; Wilson, W.B.; Charlton, W.S.

1999-09-01

134

High-energy spectra of active nuclei. 1: The catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a catalog of high-energy spectra (E is greater than or equal to 0.01 keV) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The catalog contains 209 objects (140 Seyfert galaxies, 65 quasars, and 4 objects otherwise classified), for a total of 1030 spectra. Most of the data have been collected from the literature over a period spanning more than 20 yr starting from the early 1970s up to the end of 1992. For a numbner of objects (17), EXOSAT/ME data have been extracted and analyzed, and the 27 spectra obtained have been added to the database. For each object we report individual observation spectral fit parameters using a power-law model corrected for cold gas absorption along the line of sight (photon index, 1 keV intensity and hydrogen column density), plus other relevant data. It is hoped that this database can become a useful tool for the study of the AGN phenomenon in its various aspects.

Malaguti, G.; Bassani, L.; Caroli, E.

1994-01-01

135

Mineral exploration and soil analysis using in situ neutron activation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A feasibility study has been made to operate by remote control an unshielded portable positive-ion accelerator type neutron source to induce activities in the ground or rock by "in situ" neutron irradiation. Selective activation techniques make it possible to detect some thirty or more elements by irradiating the ground for periods of a few minutes with either 3-MeV or 14-MeV neutrons. The depth of penetration of neutrons, the effect of water content of the soil on neutron moderation, gamma ray attenuation in the soil and other problems are considered. The analysis shows that, when exploring for most elements of economic interest, the reaction 2H(d,n)3He yielding ??? 3-MeV neutrons is most practical to produce a relatively uniform flux of neutrons of less than 1 keV to a depth of 19???-20???. Irradiation with high energy neutrons (??? 14 MeV) can also be used and may be better suited for certain problems. However, due to higher background and lower sensitivity for the heavy minerals, it is not a recommended neutron source for general exploration use. Preliminary experiments have been made which indicate that neutron activation in situ is feasible for a mineral exploration or qualititative soil analysis. ?? 1976.

Senftle, F.E.; Hoyte, A.F.

1966-01-01

136

Inter-pulse high-resolution gamma-ray spectra using a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A neutron generator pulsed at 100 s-1 was suspended in an artificial borehole containing a 7.7 metric ton mixture of sand, aragonite, magnetite, sulfur, and salt. Two Ge(HP) gamma-ray detectors were used: one in a borehole sonde, and one at the outside wall of the sample tank opposite the neutron generator target. Gamma-ray spectra were collected by the outside detector during each of 10 discrete time windows during the 10 ms period following the onset of gamma-ray build-up after each neutron burst. The sample was measured first when dry and then when saturated with water. In the dry sample, gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering, neutron capture, and decay were counted during the first (150 ??s) time window. Subsequently only capture and decay gamma rays were observed. In the wet sample, only neutron capture and decay gamma rays were observed. Neutron capture gamma rays dominated the spectrum during the period from 150 to 400 ??s after the neutron burst in both samples, but decreased with time much more rapidly in the wet sample. A signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) analysis indicates that optimum conditions for neutron capture analysis occurred in the 350-800 ??s window. A poor S/N in the first 100-150 ??s is due to a large background continuum during the first time interval. Time gating can be used to enhance gamma-ray spectra, depending on the nuclides in the target material and the reactions needed to produce them, and should improve the sensitivity of in situ well logging. ?? 1984.

Evans, L.G.; Trombka, J.I.; Jensen, D.H.; Stephenson, W.A.; Hoover, R.A.; Mikesell, J.L.; Tanner, A.B.; Senftle, F.E.

1984-01-01

137

Neutron activation diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron yields are measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by an extensive suite of neutron activation diagnostics. Neutrons interact with materials whose reaction cross sections threshold just below the fusion neutron production energy, providing an accurate measure of primary unscattered neutrons without contribution from lower-energy scattered neutrons. Indium samples are mounted on diagnostic instrument manipulators in the NIF target chamber, 25-50 cm from the source, to measure 2.45 MeV deuterium-deuterium fusion neutrons through the 115In(n,n')115m In reaction. Outside the chamber, zirconium and copper are used to measure 14 MeV deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons via 90Zr(n,2n), 63Cu(n,2n), and 65Cu(n,2n) reactions. An array of 16 zirconium samples are located on port covers around the chamber to measure relative yield anisotropies, providing a global map of fuel areal density variation. Neutron yields are routinely measured with activation to an accuracy of 7% and are in excellent agreement both with each other and with neutron time-of-flight and magnetic recoil spectrometer measurements. Relative areal density anisotropies can be measured to a precision of less than 3%. These measurements reveal apparent bulk fuel velocities as high as 200 km/s in addition to large areal density variations between the pole and equator of the compressed fuel.

Bleuel, D. L.; Yeamans, C. B.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Caggiano, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cooper, G. W.; Drury, O. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hatarik, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Knittel, K. M.; Leeper, R. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Moran, M.; Ruiz, C. L.; Schneider, D. H. G.

2012-10-01

138

Updating analytical techniques for fast neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two improvements in the analytical techniques used for fast neutron activation analysis have been developed and put into routine\\u000a use. The first is neutron shielding of a NaI (TL) counting system, which reduces the counting noise encountered during neutron\\u000a generation. The second is a modification of batch type irradiation for long lived nuclides so they can be done simultaneously\\u000a with

J. B. Cross; D. H. Cleveland; L. V. Harris

1982-01-01

139

Opacities and spectra of hydrogen atmospheres of moderately magnetized neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. There is observational evidence that central compact objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants have moderately strong magnetic fields B ~ 1011 G. Meanwhile, available models of partially ionized hydrogen atmospheres of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields are restricted to B ? 1012 G. Extension of the applicability range of the photosphere models to lower field strengths is complicated by a stronger asymmetry of decentered atomic states and by the importance of excited bound states. Aims: We extend the equation of state and radiative opacities, as presented in previous papers for 1012G ? B ? 1015 G, to weaker fields. Methods: We constructed analytical fitting formulae for binding energies, sizes, and oscillator strengths for different bound states of a hydrogen atom moving in moderately strong magnetic fields and calculate an extensive database for photoionization cross sections of such atoms. Using these atomic data, in the framework of the chemical picture of plasmas we solved the ionization equilibrium problem and calculated thermodynamic functions and basic opacities of partially ionized hydrogen plasmas at these field strengths. Then plasma polarizabilities were calculated from the Kramers-Kronig relation, and the radiative transfer equation for the coupled normal polarization modes was solved to obtain model spectra. Results: An equation of state and radiative opacities for a partially ionized hydrogen plasma are obtained at magnetic fields B, temperatures T, and densities ? typical for atmospheres of CCOs and other isolated neutron stars with moderately strong magnetic fields. The first- and second-order thermodynamic functions, monochromatic radiative opacities, and Rosseland mean opacities are calculated and tabulated, considering partial ionization, for 3 × 1010G ? B ? 1012 G, 105 K ? T ? 107 K, and a wide range of densities. Atmosphere models and spectra are calculated to verify the applicability of the results and to determine the range of magnetic fields and effective temperatures where the incomplete ionization of the hydrogen plasma is important. Tables of thermodynamic functions, atomic number fractions, opacities, and plasma polarizability coefficients are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A69

Potekhin, A. Y.; Chabrier, G.; Ho, W. C. G.

2014-12-01

140

Measurement of keV-neutron capture cross-sections and capture ?-ray spectra of 56Fe and 57Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross-sections and the capture ?-ray spectra of 56Fe and 57Fe have been measured in the neutron energy range from 10 to 90 keV. Pulsed keV-neutrons were produced from the 7Li( p, n) 7Be reaction by bombarding a lithium target with a 1.5-ns bunched proton beam from a 3 MV Pelletron accelerator. The incident neutron spectrum on the capture sample was measured using a time-of-flight method with a 6Li-glass detector. The capture ?-rays emitted from an iron or standard gold sample were detected with a large anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The capture yield of the iron or gold sample was obtained by applying a pulse-height weighting technique to the corresponding capture ?-ray pulse-height spectrum. The capture cross-sections of 56,57Fe were derived with errors less than 5% using the standard capture cross-sections of 197Au. The capture ?-ray spectra were obtained by unfolding the observed capture ?-ray pulse-height spectra. The present results for the capture cross-sections were compared with the previous measurements and the evaluated values of ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3. The Maxwellian-averaged capture cross-sections of 56Fe and 57Fe at 30 keV are derived as 12.22 ± 2.06 mb and 44.48 ± 7.56 mb, respectively.

Wang, Taofeng; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Guinyun; Oh, Youngdo; Namkung, Won; Ro, Tae-Ik; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Igashira, Masayuki; Katabuchi, Tatsuya

2010-03-01

141

Transport analysis of measured neutron leakage spectra from spheres as tests of evaluated high energy cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integral tests of evaluated ENDF/B high-energy cross sections have been made by comparing measured and calculated neutron leakage flux spectra from spheres of various materials. An Am-Be (alpha,n) source was used to provide fast neutrons at the center of the test spheres of Be, CH2, Pb, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W. The absolute leakage flux spectra were measured in the energy range 0.5 to 12 MeV using a calibrated NE213 liquid scintillator neutron spectrometer. Absolute calculations of the spectra were made using version 3 ENDF/B cross sections and an S sub n discrete ordinates multigroup transport code. Generally excellent agreement was obtained for Be, CH2, Pb, and Mo, and good agreement was observed for Nb although discrepancies were observed for some energy ranges. Poor comparative results, obtained for Ta and W, are attributed to unsatisfactory nonelastic cross sections. The experimental sphere leakage flux spectra are tabulated and serve as possible benchmarks for these elements against which reevaluated cross sections may be tested.

Bogart, D. D.; Shook, D. F.; Fieno, D.

1973-01-01

142

Neutron activation analysis of inorganic fillers for polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron activation analysis of inorganic fillers for organic composites has been made for the purpose of studying the radioactive nuclides produced in polymer composites by neutron irradiation. Five kinds of fillers such as glass fiber, mica flake, quartz powder, alumina fiber and silicon carbide fiber were chosen as typical samples. In the neutron-irradiated glass fiber and mica flake, various long-lived radioactive nuclides weredetected. On the other hand, no appreciable amount of long-lived components was found in the irradiated specimens of quartz powder, alumina and silicon carbide fibers, indicating that these are desirable as candidate fillers for polymer composites used in intense neutron fields.

Yamaoka, H.; Matsushita, R.; Miyata, K.; Nakayama, Y.

1996-08-01

143

Measurement and calculation of fast-neutron spectra in water, graphite and lithium fluoride assemblies with a D-T neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalar neutron spectra were measured with a miniature NE213 spectrometer at several positions in water, graphite and lithium fluoride assemblies, which were irradiated with D-T neutrons. The n-? discrimination was executed at each pulse height. The pulse height spectrum was unfolded to an energy spectrum with a modified FERDOR code. The measured spectrum was compared with a calculated spectrum using the MORSE-GG Monte Carlo code with the GICXFNS group cross-section set processed from the ENDF/B-IV and -V libraries. The measured spectrum in the graphite assembly showed fine structure, and each peak and valley corresponds to a level-inelastic scattering and total cross-section resonance peak. The measured spectrum in the lithium-fluoride assembly was rather smooth. In general, all the measured spectra agreed with the calculated ones in measurement and calculation error, though the error and oscillation of the unfolding were substantial.

Sekimoto, H.; Lee, D.; Hojo, K.; Hojo, T.; Oishi, K.; Noura, T.; Ohtsuka, M.; Yamamuro, N.

1985-08-01

144

Evaluation and use of the prompt fission neutron spectrum and spectra covariance matrices in criticality and shielding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prompt fission neutron spectra covariance matrices of 235U, 238U and 239Pu were evaluated using the Monte Carlo method for two empirical spectra formulations, Watt and Kornilov, and compared to the existing evaluations such as JENDL-3.3. The fission spectra, together with the covariance matrices and the methods for the calculation of the corresponding sensitivity profiles were validated on several applications, including shielding (VENUS-3 benchmark, pressure vessel dosimetry) as well as on fast and thermal reactor systems (KRITZ and SNEAK critical experiments). A new set of parameters for a Kornilov model is proposed that improve both benchmark performance and the agreement with recently measured differential spectra. A recommendation to use constrained sensitivity coefficients was confirmed for the case of the fission spectrum induced uncertainty in the effective multiplication factor (keff) and in the detector responses, in order to assure the proper normalisation of the corresponding covariance matrices.

Kodeli, Ivan; Trkov, Andrej; Capote, Roberto; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Maslov, Vladimir

2009-11-01

145

Active Neutron Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material  

SciTech Connect

Portable electronic neutron generators (ENGs) may be used to interrogate suspicious items to detect, characterize, and quantify the presence fissionable material based upon the measurement of prompt and/or delayed emissions of neutrons and/or photons resulting from fission. The small size (<0.2 m3), light weight (<12 kg), and low power consumption (<50 W) of modern ENGs makes them ideally suited for use in field situations, incorporated into systems carried by 2-3 individuals under rugged conditions. At Idaho National Laboratory we are investigating techniques and portable equipment for performing active neutron interrogation of moderate sized objects less than ~2-4 m3 to detect shielded fissionable material. Our research in this area relies upon the use of pulsed deuterium-tritium ENGs and the measurement of die-away prompt fission neutrons and other neutron signatures in-between neutron pulses from the ENG and after the ENG is turned off.

D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

2009-05-01

146

Three-hour activity index based on power spectra estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new index of magnetic activity during three-hour intervals. The new index E is based on the energy spectra. As a result of the fact that energy is additive, we can use information from both horizontal components simultaneously. After calibration of the new index in relation to the commonly used K index, we made some numerical tests comparing both indices. The tests showed that the values of indices are similar (differences greater than +/-1 occurred only in 0.1 per cent of cases). We also made calculation of correlation with some magnetospheric parameters. The new index seems to correlate slightly better than the old one. It is still an open question whether the new index can be treated as an improved version of the K index and create a prolongation of old series.

Reda, J.; Jankowski, J.

2004-04-01

147

An atlas of Calcium triplet spectra of active galaxies  

E-print Network

We present a spectroscopic atlas of active galactic nuclei covering the region around the 8498, 8542, 8662 Calcium triplet (CaT) lines. The sample comprises 78 objects, divided into 43 Seyfert 2s, 26 Seyfert 1s, 3 Starburst and 6 normal galaxies. The spectra pertain to the inner ~300 pc in radius, and thus sample the central kinematics and stellar populations of active galaxies. The data are used to measure stellar velocity dispersions (sigma_star) both with cross-correlation and direct fitting methods. These measurements are found to be in good agreement with each-other and with those in previous studies for objects in common. The CaT equivalent width is also measured. We find average values and sample dispersions of W_CaT of 4.6+/-2.0, 7.0 and 7.7+/-1.0 angstrons for Seyfert 1s, Seyfert 2s and normal galaxies, respectively. We further present an atlas of [SIII]\\lambda 9069 emission line profiles for a subset of 40 galaxies. These data are analyzed in a companion paper which addresses the connection between stellar and Narrow Line Region kinematics, the behaviour of the CaT equivalent width as a function of sigma_star, activity type and stellar population properties.

A. Garcia-Rissmann; L. R. Vega; N. V. Asari; R. Cid Fernandes; H. Schmitt; R. M. Gonzalez Delgado; T. Storchi-Bergmann

2005-02-23

148

Neutron-activation analysis applied to copper ores and artifacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neutron activation analysis is used for quantitative identification of trace metals in copper. Establishing a unique fingerprint of impurities in Michigan copper would enable identification of artifacts made from this copper.

Linder, N. F.

1970-01-01

149

Neutron activation studies and the effect of exercise on osteoporosis  

SciTech Connect

A technique is described to measure calcium content by in vivo neutron activation analysis of the trunk and upper thighs. In postmenopausal women, estrogen and calcium or fluoride reversed osteoporosis.

Harrison, J.E.

1984-01-01

150

A new active thermal neutron detector.  

PubMed

This communication presents the main results about the design and in-house fabrication of a new solid-state neutron detector, which produces a DC output signal proportional to the thermal neutron fluence rate. The detector has been developed within the framework of the 3-y project NESCOFI@BTF of INFN (CSN V). Due to its sensitivity, photon rejection, low cost and minimum size, this device is suited to be used in moderator-based spectrometers. PMID:24345462

Bedogni, R; Bortot, D; Pola, A; Introini, M V; Gentile, A; Esposito, A; Gómez-Ros, J M; Palomba, M; Grossi, A

2014-10-01

151

Differential neutron energy spectra measured on spacecraft in low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods for measuring neutrons in the range from thermal energies to dozens of MeV were used. In the first method, alpha-particles emitted from the 6Li(n,alpha)T reaction are detected with the help of plastic nuclear track detectors, yielding results on thermal and resonance neutrons. Also, fission foils are used to detect fast neutrons. In the second method, fast neutrons are recorded by nuclear photographic emulsions (NPE). The results of measurements on board various satellites are presented. The neutron flux density does not appear to correlate clearly with orbital parameters. Up to 50% of neutrons are due to albedo neutrons from the atmosphere while the fluxes inside the satellites are 15-20% higher than those on the outside. Estimates show that the neutron contribution to the total equivalent radiation dose reaches 20-30%.

Dudkin, V. E.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

1990-01-01

152

Alterations in dose and lineal energy spectra under different shieldings in the Los Alamos high-energy neutron field.  

PubMed

Nuclear interactions of space radiation with shielding materials result in alterations in dose and lineal energy spectra that depend on the specific elemental composition, density and thickness of the material. The shielding characteristics of materials have been studied using charged-particle beams and radiation transport models by examining the risk reduction using the conventional dose-equivalent approach. Secondary neutrons contribute a significant fraction of the total radiation exposure in space. An experiment to study the changes in dose and lineal energy spectra by shielding materials was carried out at the Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center neutron facility. In the energy range of about 2 to 200 MeV, this neutron spectrum is similar in shape within a factor of about 2 to the spectrum expected in the International Space Station habitable modules. It is shown that with a shielding thickness of about 5 g cm(-2), the conventional radiation risk increases, in some cases by as much as a factor of 2, but decreases with thicknesses of about of 20 g cm(-2). This suggests that care must be taken in evaluating the shielding effectiveness of a given material by including both the charged-particle and neutron components of space radiation. PMID:11096428

Badhwar, G D; Huff, H; Wilkins, R

2000-12-01

153

Neutron-activation revisited: the depletion and depletion-activation models.  

PubMed

The growth of a radioactive daughter in neutron activation is commonly described with the saturation model that ignores the consumption of parent nuclei during the radio-activation process. This approach is not valid when radioactive sources with high specific activities are produced or when the particle fluence rates used are very high. Assuming a constant neutron fluence rate throughout the activation target, a neutron-activation model that accounts for the depletion in parent nuclei is introduced. This depletion model is governed by relationships similar to those describing the parent-daughter-granddaughter decay series, and, in contrast to the saturation model, correctly predicts the practical limit of the daughter specific activity, irrespective of the particle fluence rate. Also introduced is a neutron-activation model that in addition to parent depletion accounts for the neutron activation of daughter nuclei in situations where the cross section for this effect is high. The model is referred to as the depletion-activation model and it provides the most realistic description for the daughter specific activity in neutron activation. Three specific neutron activation examples of interest to medical physics are presented: activation of molybdenum-98 into molybdenum-99 described by the saturation model; activation of cobalt-59 into cobalt-60 described by the depletion model; and activation of iridium-191 into iridium-192 described by the depletion-activation model. PMID:15789576

Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Podgorsak, Ervin B

2005-02-01

154

Neutron threshold activation detectors (TAD) for the detection of fissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt fission neutrons are one of the strongest signatures of the fission process. Depending on the fission inducing radiation, their average number ranges from 2.5 to 4 neutrons per fission. They are more energetic and abundant, by about 2 orders of magnitude, than the delayed neutrons (?3 vs. ?0.01) that are commonly used as indicators for the presence of fissionable materials. The detection of fission prompt neutrons, however, has to be done in the presence of extremely intense probing radiation that stimulated them. During irradiation, the fission stimulation radiation, X-rays or neutrons, overwhelms the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitate them. Consequently, by the time the detectors recover from the source radiation, fission prompt neutrons are no longer emitted. In order to measure the prompt fission signatures under these circumstances, special measures are usually taken with the detectors such as heavy shielding with collimation, use of inefficient geometries, high pulse height bias and gamma-neutron separation via pulse-shape discrimination with an appropriate organic scintillator. These attempts to shield the detector from the flash of radiation result in a major loss of sensitivity. It can lead to a complete inability to detect the fission prompt neutrons. In order to overcome the blinding induced background from the source radiation, the detection of prompt fission neutrons needs to occur long after the fission event and after the detector has fully recovered from the source overload. A new approach to achieve this is to detect the delayed activation induced by the fission neutrons. The approach demonstrates a good sensitivity in adverse overload situations (gamma and neutron "flash") where fission prompt neutrons could normally not be detected. The new approach achieves the required temporal separation between the detection of prompt neutrons and the detector overload by the neutron activation of the detector material. The technique, called Threshold Activation Detection (TAD), is to utilize appropriate substances that can be selectively activated by the fission neutrons and not by the source radiation and then measure the radioactively decaying activation products (typically beta and gamma rays) well after the source pulse. The activation material should possess certain properties: a suitable half-life of the order of seconds; an energy threshold below which the numerous source neutrons will not activate it (e.g., 3 MeV); easily detectable activation products (typically >1 MeV beta and gamma rays) and have a usable cross-section for the selected reaction. Ideally the substance would be a part of the scintillator. There are several good material candidates for the TAD, including fluorine, which is a major constituent of available scintillators such as BaF 2, CaF 2 and hydrogen free liquid fluorocarbon. Thus the fluorine activation products, in particular the beta particles, can be measured with a very high efficiency in the detector. The principles, applications and experimental results obtained with the fluorine based TAD are discussed.

Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; King, Michael J.

2011-10-01

155

Planetary Geochemistry Using Active Neutron and Gamma Ray Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pulsed Neutron Generator-Gamma Ray And Neutron Detector (PNG-GRAND) experiment is an innovative application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology so successfully used in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth, The objective of our active neutron-gamma ray technology program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is to bring the PNG-GRAND instrument to the point where it can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Venus, asterOIds, comets and the satellites of the outer planets, Gamma-Ray Spectrometers have been incorporated into numerous orbital planetary science missions and, especially in the case of Mars Odyssey, have contributed detailed maps of the elemental composition over the entire surface of Mars, Neutron detectors have also been placed onboard orbital missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Prospector to measure the hydrogen content of the surface of the moon, The DAN in situ experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory not only includes neutron detectors, but also has its own neutron generator, However, no one has ever combined the three into one instrument PNG-GRAND combines a pulsed neutron generator (PNG) with gamma ray and neutron detectors to produce a landed instrument that can determine subsurface elemental composition without drilling. We are testing PNG-GRAND at a unique outdoor neutron instrumentation test facility recently constructed at NASA/GSFC that consists of a 2 m x 2 m x 1 m granite structure in an empty field, We will present data from the operation of PNG-GRAND in various experimental configurations on a known sample in a geometry that is identical to that which can be achieved on a planetary surface. We will also compare the material composition results inferred from our experiments to both an independent laboratory elemental composition analysis and MCNPX computer modeling results,

Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

2010-01-01

156

Instrumental neutron activation determination of gold in mineral raw materials using a californium neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facility using a californium neutron source and a method for the neutron activation analysis of gold were developed. The\\u000a sensitivity of the determination is 0.1 g\\/t. The sources of random and systematic errors have been studied. It has been concluded\\u000a that in prospection and evaluation of gold ore deposits, the traditional test tube analysis for gold may be replaced

N. A. Shilo; E. G. Ippolitov; V. V. Ivanenko; B. N. Kustov; V. V. Zheleznov; G. N. Aristov; A. S. Shtan; I. N. Ivanov; V. V. Kovalenko; N. B. Kondrat’ev

1983-01-01

157

Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.  

PubMed

The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordão presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordão and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different concentrations of different metals. The advantages of using INAA are the multielementality, low detection limits and use of solid samples (no need of digestion). PMID:21367605

Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

2011-11-01

158

Fast neutron activation analysis of glycidyl azide polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast neutron activation analysis technique using 14 MeV neutrons has been applied to analyse nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen\\u000a content of glycidyl azide polymers (GAP) with\\u000a $$\\\\bar M$$\\u000a n around 2100. It has been found that the method is better suited for elemental analysis of GAP than infrared spectroscopy.\\u000a In fact IR spectral analysis fails to detect chlorine in the polymer

S P Panda; S G Kulkarni; S K Sahu; V N Bhoraskar; P A Dokhale

1996-01-01

159

Characterization of a nuclear reactor for neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Résumé  Ouelques caractéristiques du réacteur nucléaire NBSR utilisé pour l'analyse par activation neutronique ont été évaluées; les\\u000a techniques de mesure développées sont décrites. La discussion porte sur les caractéristiques suivantes: (1) le flux de neutrons\\u000a thermiques absorbés par le cadmium, (2) la distribution énergétique des neutrons mesurée grâce aux rapports cadmium et à des\\u000a détecteurs à seuil. L'excès de pression dans

D. A. Becker; P. D. LaFleur

1974-01-01

160

Study of seleniferous soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Soil samples from the seleniferous region of Punjab State in India were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons and high resolution ?-ray spectrometry. Samples were collected from three different depths namely surface, root and geological bed zones. Concentrations of 15 elements including selenium and arsenic were determined by relative method. For comparison purposes, soil samples collected from a non-seleniferous region were also analyzed. PMID:21334213

Srivastava, Alok; Bains, G S; Acharya, R; Reddy, A V R

2011-05-01

161

Measurement of neutron spectra generated from bombardment of 4 to 24 MeV protons on a thick 9Be target and estimation of neutron yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study on the measurement of neutron spectra emitted from the interaction of protons of various energies with a thick beryllium target has been carried out. The measurements were carried out in the forward direction (at 0° with respect to the direction of protons) using CR-39 detectors. The doses were estimated using the in-house image analyzing program autoTRAK_n, which works on the principle of luminosity variation in and around the track boundaries. A total of six different proton energies starting from 4 MeV to 24 MeV with an energy gap of 4 MeV were chosen for the study of the neutron yields and the estimation of doses. Nearly, 92% of the recoil tracks developed after chemical etching were circular in nature, but the size distributions of the recoil tracks were not found to be linearly dependent on the projectile energy. The neutron yield and dose values were found to be increasing linearly with increasing projectile energies. The response of CR-39 detector was also investigated at different beam currents at two different proton energies. A linear increase of neutron yield with beam current was observed.

Paul, Sabyasachi; Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Sharma, S. C.; Ramjilal, Ninawe, N. G.; Sunil, C.; Gupta, A. K.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

2014-06-01

162

Measurement of neutron spectra generated from bombardment of 4 to 24 MeV protons on a thick ?Be target and estimation of neutron yields.  

PubMed

A systematic study on the measurement of neutron spectra emitted from the interaction of protons of various energies with a thick beryllium target has been carried out. The measurements were carried out in the forward direction (at 0° with respect to the direction of protons) using CR-39 detectors. The doses were estimated using the in-house image analyzing program autoTRAK_n, which works on the principle of luminosity variation in and around the track boundaries. A total of six different proton energies starting from 4 MeV to 24 MeV with an energy gap of 4 MeV were chosen for the study of the neutron yields and the estimation of doses. Nearly, 92% of the recoil tracks developed after chemical etching were circular in nature, but the size distributions of the recoil tracks were not found to be linearly dependent on the projectile energy. The neutron yield and dose values were found to be increasing linearly with increasing projectile energies. The response of CR-39 detector was also investigated at different beam currents at two different proton energies. A linear increase of neutron yield with beam current was observed. PMID:24985813

Paul, Sabyasachi; Sahoo, G S; Tripathy, S P; Sharma, S C; Ramjilal; Ninawe, N G; Sunil, C; Gupta, A K; Bandyopadhyay, T

2014-06-01

163

EU Blanket Design Activities and Neutronics Support Efforts  

SciTech Connect

An overview is provided of the design activities and the related neutronics support efforts conducted in the European Union for the development of breeder blankets for future fusion power reactors. The EU fusion programme considers two blanket lines, the Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket with Lithium ceramics pebbles (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} or Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) as breeder and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier, and the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) blanket with the Pb-Li eutectic alloy as breeder and neutron multiplier. The blanket design and the related R and D efforts are based on the use of the same coolant and the same modular blanket structure to minimise the development costs as much as possible. The neutronic support efforts include design analyses for the layout and optimization of the modular HCPB/HCLL blankets based on detailed three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations as well as underlying neutronics activities conducted in the frame of the European Fusion and Activation File (EFF/EAF) projects to develop qualified nuclear data and computational tools for reliable neutronics design calculations.

Fischer, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Batistoni, P. [ENEA Fusion Division (Italy); Boccaccini, L.V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Giancarli, L. [CEA Saclay (France); Hermsmeyer, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Y. [CEA Saclay (France)

2005-05-15

164

Addressing Different Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures from Fissionable Material  

SciTech Connect

In a continuing effort to examine portable methods for implementing active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded fissionable material research is underway to investigate the utility of analyzing multiple time-correlated signatures. Time correlation refers here to the existence of unique characteristics of the fission interrogation signature related to the start and end of an irradiation, as well as signatures present in between individual pulses of an irradiating source. Traditional measurement approaches in this area have typically worked to detect die-away neutrons after the end of each pulse, neutrons in between pulses related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products, or neutrons or gamma rays related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products after the end of an irradiation exposure. In this paper we discus the potential weaknesses of assessing only one signature versus multiple signatures and make the assertion that multiple complimentary and orthogonal measurements should be used to bolster the performance of active interrogation systems, helping to minimize susceptibility to the weaknesses of individual signatures on their own. Recognizing that the problem of detection is a problem of low count rates, we are exploring methods to integrate commonly used signatures with rarely used signatures to improve detection capabilities for these measurements. In this paper we will discuss initial activity in this area with this approach together with observations of some of the strengths and weaknesses of using these different signatures.

D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

2009-10-01

165

Application of cold-neutron prompt gamma activation analysis at the University of Texas reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cold-neutron prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) system is operational at the University of Texas (UT) 1 MW TRIGA research reactor. A 6 m long curved neutron guide followed by an 80 cm long converging (focusing) neutron guide transports cold neutrons from the Texas Cold Neutron Source to the PGAA chamber. The UT-PGAA system will be used to determine hydrogen

B. W. Wehring; K. Ünlü; C. Ríos-Martínez

1997-01-01

166

Bonner sphere measurements of 241Am-B and 241Am-F neutron energy spectra unfolded using high-resolution a priori data.  

PubMed

High-resolution neutron energy spectra, covering the entire energy range of interest, for two standard radionuclide neutron sources ((241)Am-B and (241)Am-F) have been derived from Bonner sphere measurements by using high-resolution a priori data in the unfolding process. In each case, two a priori spectra were used, one from a two-stage calculation and also one from a combination of the calculated spectrum with a high-resolution measured spectrum. The unfolded spectra are compared with those published elsewhere and show significant differences from the ISO- and IAEA-recommended spectra for (241)Am-B and (241)Am-F, respectively. Values for the fluence-average energy and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients are presented for the new spectra, and the implications of the new spectra for the emission rates of the sources when measured by the manganese bath technique are also determined. PMID:24126487

Roberts, N J; Jones, L N; Liu, Z Z; Tagziria, H; Thomas, D J

2014-10-01

167

Energetic neutron and gamma-ray spectra under the earth radiation belts according to “SALUTE7”-“KOSMOS-1686” orbital complex and “CORONAS-i” satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectra of neutrons >10 MeV and gamma-rays 1.5–100 MeV under the Earth Radiation Belts, restored from the data, obtained onboard orbital complex “SALUTE-7”-“KOSMOS-1686”, are presented. The spectra shapes are similar to those for albedo neutrons and gamma-rays, but absolute values of their fluxes (0.2 cm?2 s?1 for neutrons, 0.8 cm?2 s?1 for gamma-rays at the equator and 1.2 cm?2

A. V. Bogomolov; A. V. Dmitriev; I. N. Myagkova; S. P. Ryumin; O. N. Smirnova; I. M. Sobolevsky

1998-01-01

168

Energetic neutron and gamma-ray spectra under the earth radiation belts according to ``SALUTE7''-``KOSMOS-1686'' orbital complex and ``CORONAS-I'' satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectra of neutrons > 10 MeV and gamma-rays 1.5-100 MeV under the Earth Radiation Belts, restored from the data, obtained onboard orbital complex ``SALUTE-7''-``KOSMOS-1686'', are presented. The spectra shapes are similar to those for albedo neutrons and gamma-rays, but absolute values of their fluxes (0.2 cm^-2 s^-1 for neutrons, 0.8 cm^-2 s^-1 for gamma-rays at the equator and 1.2

A. V. Bogomolov; A. V. Dmitriev; I. N. Myagkova; S. P. Ryumin; O. N. Smirnova; I. M. Sobolevsky

1998-01-01

169

Analysis of natural neutron flux in a seismically active zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a seismically active zone in the near Almaty area (Kazakhstan) since 1996 observations of variations of a natural neutron flux have been conducted. Sometimes the neutron flux rises sharply within the one-hour interval in comparison with the background. It occurs on the eve of activation of seismic processes. Increase of the neutron flux level had taken place from 1 h to 10 days prior to earthquakes. It is also indicated a tendency of growth of the anomaly level in accordance with the growth of energetic class of the subsequent earthquake. A character of connection between the neutron flux and earthquakes is still not clear. It is proposed that the neutron flux anomalies caused by variations of cosmic radiation intensity under action of fluxes of solar material, which is burst into interplanetary space (solar wind) during solar flares. Energy of the solar wind transferred to Earth puts into action a trigger mechanism of the process of initiation of earthquakes at those places where conditions have already been prepared for them. The neutron flux anomalies can be used as substantial additional information for classical geophysical methods of short-term earthquake prediction.

Ostapenko, V. F.; Krasnoperov, V. A.

170

The equilibrium and preequilibrium neutron-emission spectra of some structural fusion materials for (n, xn) reactions up to 16 MeV energy  

SciTech Connect

In this study, neutron-emission spectra produced by (n, xn) reactions for some structural fusion materials as {sup 27}Al, {sup 51}V, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 55}Mn, and {sup 56}Fe have been investigated by a neutron beam up to 16 MeV. Multiple preequilibrium mean-free-path constant from internal transition and the preequilibrium and equilibrium level-density parameters have been investigated for some (n, xn) neutron-emission spectra calculated in this study. Preequilibrium neutron-emission spectra were calculated by using new-evaluated hybrid model and geometry-dependent hybrid model, full-exciton model, and cascade-exciton model. The reaction equilibrium component was calculated by Weisskopf-Ewing model. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found agreement with each other.

Kaplan, A., E-mail: kaplan@fef.sdu.edu.t [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics (Turkey); Tel, E. [Gazi University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics (Turkey); Aydin, A. [Kirikkale University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics (Turkey)

2009-06-15

171

Measurement of fast neutron spectra from the interaction of 20 MeV protons with thick Be and C targets using CR-39 detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast neutron spectral yield from the interaction of 20 MeV protons with thick Be and C targets are measured using CR-39 detectors. An image analysing program (autoTRAK_n) dedicated for neutron spectrum generation and dose estimation is developed based on the analysis of greylevel variations within each track and is used in the present study. The most important parameters for neutron spectrometry, i.e., track depth (length) and angle of all neutron-induced recoil tracks are determined using autoTRAK_n. The methodology is tested successfully to reproduce the spectra of some standard neutron sources which was reported earlier. In this study, autoTRAK_n is applied to generate neutron spectra from the above mentioned reactions, i.e., 9Be(p, n), 12C(p, n) and the neutron yields (total number of neutrons per projectile) for both the reactions are determined by folding the track density with the detector response. The dose equivalents and H?(10)-to-fluence ratios are also estimated. All these quantities are automatically obtained from the program. The neutron yield and the dose equivalent for 9Be(p, n) reaction are found to be about 4 times higher than that for 12C(p, n) reaction. The present methodology for neutron spectrum generation is found to be simple and effective and does not involve the complex spectrum unfolding procedures.

Tripathy, S. P.; Paul, S.; Sahoo, G. S.; Suman, V.; Sunil, C.; Joshi, D. S.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

2014-01-01

172

Possible differentiation of natal areas of North American waterfowl by neutron activation analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The possibility of using neutron activation analyses to differentiate sources of North American waterfowl was investigated by irradiating rectrices and wing bones of birds collected in several localities, and comparing the characteristic gamma-ray spectra. Canada goose rectrices from Oregon specimens could be distinguished from those taken in Wisconsin and Colorado based on higher levels of Mn. Mallard, black duck, and blue-winged teal wing bones from Wisconsin, Colorado, and New Brunswick could not be clearly identified as to locality from levels of Ca, Al, Na, Mn, and Cl.

Devine, T.; Peterle, T.J.

1968-01-01

173

Phonon self-energy and origin of anomalous neutron scattering spectra in SnTe and PbTe thermoelectrics  

SciTech Connect

The anharmonic lattice dynamics of rock-salt thermoelectric compounds SnTe and PbTe are investigated with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and first-principles calculations. The experiments show that, surprisingly, although SnTe is closer to the ferroelectric instability, phonon spectra in PbTe exhibit a more anharmonic character. This behavior is reproduced in first-principles calculations of the temperature-dependent phonon self-energy. Our simulations reveal how the nesting of phonon dispersions induces prominent features in the self-energy, which account for the measured INS spectra and their temperature dependence. We establish that the phase-space for three-phonon scattering processes, rather than just the proximity to the lattice instability, is the mechanism determining the complex spectrum of the transverse-optical ferroelectric mode.

Li, Chen [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Jie [ORNL] [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL] [ORNL; Cao, Huibo [ORNL] [ORNL; Christianson, Andrew D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL] [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL] [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

174

Phonon self-energy and origin of anomalous neutron scattering spectra in SnTe and PbTe thermoelectrics.  

PubMed

The anharmonic lattice dynamics of rock-salt thermoelectric compounds SnTe and PbTe are investigated with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and first-principles calculations. The experiments show that, surprisingly, although SnTe is closer to the ferroelectric instability, phonon spectra in PbTe exhibit a more anharmonic character. This behavior is reproduced in first-principles calculations of the temperature-dependent phonon self-energy. Our simulations reveal how the nesting of phonon dispersions induces prominent features in the self-energy, which account for the measured INS spectra and their temperature dependence. We establish that the phase space for three-phonon scattering processes, combined with the proximity to the lattice instability, is the mechanism determining the complex spectrum of the transverse-optic ferroelectric mode. PMID:24836255

Li, C W; Hellman, O; Ma, J; May, A F; Cao, H B; Chen, X; Christianson, A D; Ehlers, G; Singh, D J; Sales, B C; Delaire, O

2014-05-01

175

Phonon Self-Energy and Origin of Anomalous Neutron Scattering Spectra in SnTe and PbTe Thermoelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anharmonic lattice dynamics of rock-salt thermoelectric compounds SnTe and PbTe are investigated with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and first-principles calculations. The experiments show that, surprisingly, although SnTe is closer to the ferroelectric instability, phonon spectra in PbTe exhibit a more anharmonic character. This behavior is reproduced in first-principles calculations of the temperature-dependent phonon self-energy. Our simulations reveal how the nesting of phonon dispersions induces prominent features in the self-energy, which account for the measured INS spectra and their temperature dependence. We establish that the phase space for three-phonon scattering processes, combined with the proximity to the lattice instability, is the mechanism determining the complex spectrum of the transverse-optic ferroelectric mode.

Li, C. W.; Hellman, O.; Ma, J.; May, A. F.; Cao, H. B.; Chen, X.; Christianson, A. D.; Ehlers, G.; Singh, D. J.; Sales, B. C.; Delaire, O.

2014-05-01

176

ORIGEN-S (. cap alpha. ,n) neutron source spectra in borosilicate glass containing HLW (high-level waste)  

SciTech Connect

There is growing interest in the methodology and computational software for evaluating the (..cap alpha..,n) source spectra produced in mixtures of high-level waste (HLW) and borosilicate glass. The need for this development has been seen in previous work involving the analysis of HLW in borosilicate glass. Descriptions and applications of the ORIGEN-S method of computing neutron source spectra by both (..cap alpha..,n) reactions and spontaneous fission of UO/sub 2/ spent fuel have been reported previously. This summary presents a significant expansion of the ORIGEN-S (..cap alpha..,n) model to include ..cap alpha..-interactions with the light elements of borosilicate glass.

Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.; Ludwig, S.B.

1987-01-01

177

Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

Bedogni, R.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Pérez, L.; Angelone, M.; Tana, L.

2012-08-01

178

MANTRA: An Integral Reactor Physics Experiment to Infer the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Actinides and Fission Products in Fast and Epithermal Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an update of an on-going collaborative INL-ANL-ISU integral reactor physics experiment whose objective is to infer the effective neutron capture cross sections for most of the actinides of importance for reactor physics and fuel cycle studies in both fast and epithermal spectra. Some fission products are also being considered. The principle of the experiment is to irradiate very pure actinide samples in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The determination of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation together with the neutron fluence will allow inference of effective neutron capture cross-sections in different neutron spectra.

Youinou, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Veselka, H.; Salvatores, M.; Paul, M.; Pardo, R.; Palmiotti, G.; Palchan, T.; Nusair, O.; Nimmagadda, J.; Nair, C.; Murray, P.; Maddock, T.; Kondrashev, S.; Kondev, F. G.; Jones, W.; Imel, G.; Glass, C.; Fonnesbeck, J.; Berg, J.; Bauder, W.

2014-05-01

179

The effect of turbulent kinetic energy on inferred ion temperature from neutron spectra  

SciTech Connect

Measuring the width of the energy spectrum of fusion-produced neutrons from deuterium (DD) or deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas is a commonly used method for determining the ion temperature in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In a plasma with a Maxwellian distribution of ion energies, the spread in neutron energy arises from the thermal spread in the center-of-mass velocities of reacting pairs of ions. Fluid velocities in ICF are of a similar magnitude as the center-of-mass velocities and can lead to further broadening of the neutron spectrum, leading to erroneous inference of ion temperature. Motion of the reacting plasma will affect DD and DT neutrons differently, leading to disagreement between ion temperatures inferred from the two reactions. This effect may be a contributor to observations over the past decades of ion temperatures higher than expected from simulations, ion temperatures in disagreement with observed yields, and different temperatures measured in the same implosion from DD and DT neutrons. This difference in broadening of DD and DT neutrons also provides a measure of turbulent motion in a fusion plasma.

Murphy, T. J., E-mail: tjmurphy@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2014-07-15

180

The effect of turbulent kinetic energy on inferred ion temperature from neutron spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring the width of the energy spectrum of fusion-produced neutrons from deuterium (DD) or deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas is a commonly used method for determining the ion temperature in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In a plasma with a Maxwellian distribution of ion energies, the spread in neutron energy arises from the thermal spread in the center-of-mass velocities of reacting pairs of ions. Fluid velocities in ICF are of a similar magnitude as the center-of-mass velocities and can lead to further broadening of the neutron spectrum, leading to erroneous inference of ion temperature. Motion of the reacting plasma will affect DD and DT neutrons differently, leading to disagreement between ion temperatures inferred from the two reactions. This effect may be a contributor to observations over the past decades of ion temperatures higher than expected from simulations, ion temperatures in disagreement with observed yields, and different temperatures measured in the same implosion from DD and DT neutrons. This difference in broadening of DD and DT neutrons also provides a measure of turbulent motion in a fusion plasma.

Murphy, T. J.

2014-07-01

181

BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

1987-01-01

182

Performance of the University of Texas cold-neutron prompt gamma activation analysis facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Texas cold-neutron prompt gamma-activation analysis (PGAA) facility is operational at the 1-MW UT TRIGA\\u000a research reactor. The UT-PGAA facility utilizes a guided cold neutron beam produced by the Texas Cold Neutron Source. The\\u000a cold neutrons are transported to the PGAA chamber via a 6-m long curved neutron guide followed by an 80-cm long converging\\u000a neutron guide. A

C. Ríos-Martínez; K. Ünlü; B. W. Wehring

1998-01-01

183

Neutron activation analysis of essential elements in Multani mitti clay using miniature neutron source reactor.  

PubMed

Multani mitti clay was studied for 19 essential and other elements. Four different radio-assay schemes were adopted for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using miniature neutron source reactor. The estimated weekly intakes of Cr and Fe are high for men, women, pregnant and lactating women and children while intake of Co is higher in adult categories and Mn by pregnant women. Comparison of MM clay with other type of clays shows that it is a good source of essential elements. PMID:22871439

Waheed, S; Rahman, S; Faiz, Y; Siddique, N

2012-10-01

184

Analysis by neutron activation analysis a some ancient Dacian ceramics  

E-print Network

Ancient Dacian ceramics, from three different establishments from Romanian territory have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. A series of elements has been determined: Ba, Eu, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm. Ba is the element that could be considered to differentiate relatively the three groups of ceramics.

Agata Olariu

1999-08-30

185

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of tomato epidermis on gold/ silver sol active substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, tomato epidermis' surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra were measured on gold and silver active substrates and analyzed. Preparing and using gold sol and silver sol in similar particle diameters (about 50-60nm), three comparable Raman spectra were obtained. Silver sol and gold sol can both increase Raman scattering signal of tomato epidermis. Through the Raman spectra, silver sol has greater enhancement ability than gold sol to tomato epidermis.

Zhang, Wei; Chen, Zhenyi; Chen, Na; Hu, Ling; Zhu, Hongfei; Liu, Shupeng; Guo, Qiang

2011-12-01

186

Determination of the internal structure of neutron stars from gravitational wave spectra  

E-print Network

In this paper the internal structure of a neutron star is shown to be inferrable from its gravitational-wave spectrum. Iteratively applying the inverse scheme of the scaled coordinate logarithmic perturbation method for neutron stars proposed by Tsui and Leung [Astrophys. J. {\\bf 631}, 495 (2005)], we are able to determine the mass, the radius and the mass distribution of a star from its quasi-normal mode frequencies of stellar pulsation. In addition, accurate equation of state of nuclear matter can be obtained from such inversion scheme. Explicit formulas for the case of axial $w$-mode oscillation are derived here and numerical results for neutron stars characterized by different equations of state are shown.

L. K. Tsui; P. T. Leung; J. Wu

2006-10-20

187

Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications  

SciTech Connect

Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

2008-08-01

188

Rainbow-Like Spectra with a CD: An Active-Learning  

E-print Network

Rainbow-Like Spectra with a CD: An Active-Learning Exercise G. Planins v ic v , University and transmission, and rainbow-like spectra to a large lecture hall of 200­300 students. He also described how rainbow-like spec- tra; and 2. a qualitative explanation of surprising results of those explorations

Planin�iè, Gorazd

189

Neutron spectra produced by a fast pulse assembly in free field and perturbed environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free field radiation environment produced by the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor (FBR) was calculated. The primary ranges of interest were for positions 7 meters and 170 meters from the FBR. Calculations were also made for penetrations at ranges of 600 meters and 1000 meters. Neutron spectral shapes were also calculated for a perturbed environment produced by

T. M. Flanders

1980-01-01

190

Measured and Calculated Neutron Spectra and Dose Equivalent Rates at High Altitudes; Relevance to SST Operations and Space Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the NASA Langley-New York University high-altitude radiation study are presented. Measurements of the absorbed dose rate and of secondary fast neutrons (1 to 10 MeV energy) during the years 1965 to 1971 are used to determine the maximum radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays of supersonic transport (SST) and subsonic jet occupants. The maximum dose equivalent rates that the SST crews might receive turn out to be 13 to 20 percent of the maximum permissible dose rate (MPD) for radiation workers (5 rem/yr). The exposure of passengers encountering an intense giant-energy solar particle event could exceed the MPD for the general population (0.5 rem/yr), but would be within these permissible limits if in such rare cases the transport descends to subsonic altitude; it is in general less than 12 percent of the MPD. By Monte Carlo calculations of the transport and buildup of nucleons in air for incident proton energies E of 0.02 to 10 GeV, the measured neutron spectra were extrapolated to lower and higher energies and for galactic cosmic rays were found to continue with a relatively high intensity to energies greater than 400 MeV, in a wide altitude range. This condition, together with the measured intensity profiles of fast neutrons, revealed that the biologically important fast and energetic neutrons penetrate deep into the atmosphere and contribute approximately 50 percent of the dose equivalant rates at SST and present subsonic jet altitudes.

Foelsche, T.; Mendell, R. B.; Wilson, J. W.; Adams, R. R.

1974-01-01

191

MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON SPECTRA IN 0.8-GEV AND 1.6-GEV PROTON-IRRADIATED<2 OF 2>NA THICK TARGETS  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of neutron spectra in W, and Na targets irradiated by 0.8 GeV and 1.6 GeV protons are presented. Measurements were made by the TOF techniques using the proton beam from ITEP U-10 synchrotron. Neutrons were detected with BICRON-511 liquid scintillator-based detectors. The neutron detection efficiency was calculated via the SCINFUL and CECIL codes. The W results are compared with the similar data obtained elsewhere. The measured neutron spectra are compared with the LAHET and CEM2k code simulations results. Attempt is made to explain some observed disagreements between experiments and simulations. The presented results are of interest both in terms of nuclear data buildup and as a benchmark of the up-to-date predictive power of the simulation codes used in designing the hybrid accelerator-driven system (ADS) facilities with sodium-cooled tungsten targets.

Titarenko, Y. E. (Yury E.); Batyaev, V. F. (Vyacheslav F.); Zhivun, V. M. (Valery M.); Koldobsky, A. B. (Aleksander B.); Mulambetov, R. D. (Ruslan D.); Fischenko, D. V. (Dmitry V.); Smirnov, G. N. (Gennady N.); Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Prael, R. E. (Richard E.); Yasuda, H.; Sierk, A. J. (Arnold J.)

2001-01-01

192

Detection sensitivities in 3-8 MeV neutron activation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of detection sensitivities of 73 radioactive elements using fast unmoderated neutrons includes experiments for irradiation, cooling and counting conditions. The gamma ray emission spectra is used to identify the unknown material.

Wahlgren, M. A.; Wing, J.

1968-01-01

193

Neutron Production Measurements Relevant to Shielding forSpace-Related Activities  

SciTech Connect

Neutron production cross sections have been measured from290 MeV/nucleon C and 600 MeV/nucleon Ne interacting in a slab ofsimulated Martian regolith/polyethylene composite, and from 400MeV/nucleon Ne interacting in a section of wall materials from theInternational Space Station. Neutron spectra were measured at 7 anglesbetween 5 degrees and 80 degrees, and for neutron energies 5 MeV andgreater. Spectra at forward angles are dominated by the breakup of theprojectile, whereas spectra at back angles show the typical exponentialfalloff with energy that is indicative of decay from the overlap regionand the target remnant. The measured total neutron production crosssections indicate that the regolith/polyethylene composite may be a moreeffective shielding material than the ISS wall materials, in terms of thenumber of neutrons produced.

Heilbronn, Lawrence; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Takeshi; Iwase,Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Sato, Hisaki; Ronningen, Reginald

2002-04-09

194

Approximations for neutron emission spectra from proton collisions between 20 and 500 MeV on nuclei of A greater than or equal to 12  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When high energy protons from solar proton events or trapped radiation belts impinge on spacecraft structures, secondary particles are emitted. The most pernicious secondaries, from either a biological or physical standpoint, are the cascade and evaporation neutrons because of their reaction with matter leading to radioactive materials in the spacecraft structures. Empirically determined cascade and evaporation neutron emission spectra for protons of energy between 20 and 500 MeV incident on all materials at or above carbon in mass number are presented.

Burrell, M. O.

1973-01-01

195

A study of aliphatic amino acids using simulated vibrational circular dichroism and Raman optical activity spectra  

E-print Network

Vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra, such as vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra, of aliphatic amino acids are simulated using density functional theory (DFT) methods in both gas phase (neutral form) and solution (zwitterionic form), together with their respective infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of the amino acids. The DFT models, which are validated by excellent agreements with the available experimental Raman and ROA spectra of alanine in solution, are employed to study other aliphatic amino acids. The inferred (IR) intensive region (below 2000 cm-1) reveals the signature of alkyl side chains, whereas the Raman intensive region (above 3000 cm-1) contains the information of the functional groups in the amino acids. Furthermore, the chiral carbons of the amino acids (except for glycine) dominate the VCD and ROA spectra in the gas phase, but the methyl group vibrations produce stronger VCD and ROA signals in solution. The C-H related asymmetric vibrations domina...

Ganesan, Aravindhan; Wang, Feng

2013-01-01

196

Determinations of the radii, redshifts, and atmospheric compositions of neutron stars from modeling their Chandra X-ray spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fitting the X-ray spectra of thermal radiation from neutron stars with realistic atmosphere models provides a way to place constraints on their radii, surface gravities and compositions, and to test general relativity in the strong field limit. Such determinations allow us to constrain the equation of state of nuclear matter. I present fits which constrain the radii and surface compositions of two neutron stars, using high quality Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the point source in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant (Cas A XPS), and the isolated neutron star RX J1856.5-3754. I apply models calculated with advanced versions of the ATM model atmosphere code developed by Madej and Joss for neutron- star atmospheres composed of hydrogen, hydrogen-helium, iron, or a silicon to iron mixture. The results, taken assuming a typical value of 1.4 solar masses, show that the X-ray emission is generated from hot spot regions of scale size ˜3 4 km, on stars of intrinsic radius 9 and 12.5 km. This implies a relatively stiff equation of state. For the Cas A XPS, I fit the most source photons to date with spectra extracted from three Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations (ObsIds 114, 1952, 1046), with a total effective exposure of approximately 110,000 seconds. With these data, I am able to show that atmosphere models fit significantly better than blackbody models, although a wide range of radii are permitted. I also present evidence of an absorption feature in the XPS spectrum caused by silicon present in the supernova remnant, and discuss efforts to fit CCD pileup of the spectrum. For the RX J1856.5-3754, I fit a 450,000 second Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating/High Resolution Camera observation. My findings agree with previous results that a blackbody model provides the best fit, and reject hydrogen and iron atmospheres. While previous attempts to fit the spectrum with rotationally-blurred iron or solar abundance atmospheres have failed, I successfully fit the spectrum to a rotationally Doppler blurred silicon-ash model, a surface composition which might exist following a supernova. The fit implies a rotational period of approximately 2 ms. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

Stage, Michael D.

2003-12-01

197

Measurement of the Thick Target Be(p,n) Neutron Energy Spectra W. B. Howard  

E-print Network

therapy beam. #12;4 BNCT and BNCS research is being conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology electrostatic, high current, multiplier type [3], produces a proton or deuteron beam whose energy and current energy spectra of the reaction Be(p,n) were measured 9 at several angles for proton bombarding energies

Massey, Thomas N.

198

Neutron Time of Flight phonon spectra of Cu2O and Ag2O powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negative thermal expansion materials cuprite (Cu2O) and Ag2O share the same structure (space group Pn3m). Here, we report inelastic neutron time of flight measurements of room temperature powder samples of each system, using the Pharos chopper spectrometer at LANSCE, at up to 100 meV energy transfer. For Cu2O, high energy optical phonons are observed between 60 and 80 meV, while for Ag2O, these phonons are observed between 50 and 70 meV. Results are compared to previous work, and to recent neutron triple axis spectrometer results for Cu2O, and their relevance to negative thermal expansion is discussed.

Winn, Barry; Hagen, Mark; Shapiro, Steve

2009-03-01

199

Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

2006-01-01

200

Passive and Active Neutron Matrix Correction for Heterogeneous Distributions Utilizing the Neutron Imaging Technique  

SciTech Connect

Classical Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) and Differential Die-Away (DDA) active neutron interrogation techniques [1, 2] are well suited for determining the gross matrix correction factors for homogenous mass distributions of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) within an interfering waste drum matrix. These measured passive and active matrix correction factors are crucial in quantifying the SNM mass, associated Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) within the drum. When heterogeneous SNM mass distributions are encountered, the measured SNM mass, TMU and MDA biases introduced may be 100%, or greater, especially for dense hydrogenous matrices. The standard matrix correction factors can be adjusted if a coarse spatial image of the SNM mass, relative to the matrix, is available. The image can then be analyzed to determine the spatially-adjusted, matrix correction factors case by case. This image analysis approach was accomplished by modifying the standard Passive-Active Neutron (PAN) counter design [3] to accommodate a unique data acquisition architecture that supports a newly developed image acquisition and analysis application called the Neutron Imaging Technique (NIT). The NIT functionality supports both PNCC and DDA acquisition and analysis modes and exploits the symmetry between a stored set of factory acquired NIT images with those from the unknown PAN assay. The NIT result is then an adjustment to the classical correction factor reducing, if not removing, the SNM mass bias and revealing the true TMU and MDA values. In this paper we describe the NIT for the PAN design from the software and algorithmic perspectives and how this technique accommodates waste matrix drums that are difficult, from the classical standpoint, if not impossible, to extract meaningful SNM mass, TMU and MDA results. (authors)

Villani, M.F.; Croft, St. [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden, CT (United States); Alvarez, E.; Wilkins, C.G.; Stamp, D.; Fisher, J. [Canberra Harwell, Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom); Ambrifi, A.; Simone, G. [Nucleco SpA, Casaccia (Italy); Bourva, L.C. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Safeguards, Vienna (Australia)

2008-07-01

201

Oxygen isotope measurement by instrumental neutron activation analysis using reactor neutron—Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen isotopes16O and18O were determined using reactor instrumental neutron activation analysis by utilizing the16O(n, p)16N and the18O(n, )19O reaction in the UCI 250 kw TRIGA research reactor.1 Such measurements were used to follow an exchange reaction between H2\\u000a18O and finely ground coal. The best conditions for the determination were explored and interference reactions quantified. Single irradiation\\/count sequences were

G. E. Miller; T. A. Crofoot

1993-01-01

202

A study of Venus surface elemental composition from 14 MeV neutron induced gamma ray spectroscopy: Activation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface elemental composition of Venus can be determined using an artificially pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator (PNG) combined with a gamma ray spectrometer (GRS). The 14 MeV neutrons will interact with the surface materials and generate gamma rays, characteristic of specific elements, whose energy spectrum will be measured by GRS. These characteristic gamma rays are produced mainly through 3 different neutron interaction mechanisms: capture, inelastic, and activation reactions. Each reaction type has a different neutron energy dependency and different time scale for gamma ray production and transport. Certain elements are more easily identified through one reaction type over the others. Thus, careful analysis of the gamma ray spectra during and after the neutron pulse provides a comprehensive understanding of the surface elemental composition. In this paper, we use a well-tested neutron/gamma transport code, called Monte Carlo N-Particles (MCNP), to investigate the measurement capability of a PNG-GRS detection system through the neutron activation reactions. An activation analysis was performed for a representative soil composition of Venus with a notional operational scenario of PNG and GRS. The analysis shows that the proposed instrument concept can identify most of the modeled surface elements at Venus with sufficient accuracy through the activation mode. Specifically, U, Th, K, Si can be measured to within 1%, Fe within 2%, Al within 10%, Ca within 5%, Mg with 15%, Mn with 20%, and Cl within 6%. Although modeled in the analysis, it is shown that the activation mode alone cannot distinguish the S and Ti peaks.

Jun, I.; Kim, W.; Smith, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.

2011-02-01

203

A Study of Venus Surface Elemental Composition From 14-MeV Neutron Induced Gamma Ray Spectroscopy: Activation Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface elemental composition of Venus can be determined by using an artificially pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator (PNG) combined with a gamma ray spectrometer (GRS). The 14 MeV neutrons will interact with the surface materials and generate gamma rays, characteristic of specific elements, whose energy spectrum will be measured by GRS. These characteristic gamma rays are produced mainly through 3 different neutron interaction mechanisms: capture, inelastic, and activation reactions. Each reaction type has a different neutron energy dependency and different time scale for gamma ray production and transport. Certain elements are more easily identified through one reaction type over the others. Thus, careful analysis of the gamma ray spectra during and after the neutron pulse provides a comprehensive understanding of the surface elemental composition. In this paper, we use a well-tested neutron/gamma transport code, called Monte Carlo N-Particles (MCNP), to investigate the measurement capability of a PNG-GRS detection system through the neutron activation reactions. An activation analysis was performed for a representative soil composition of Venus with a notional operational scenario of PNG and GRS. The analysis shows that the proposed instrument concept can identify most of the modeled surface elements at Venus with sufficient accuracy through the activation mode. Specifically, U, Th, K, Si can be measured to within 1%, Fe within 2%, Al within 10%, Ca within 5%, Mg with 15%, Mn with 20%, and Cl within 6%. Although modeled in the analysis, it is shown that the activation mode alone cannot distinguish the S and Ti peaks.

Jun, I.; Kim, W.; Smith, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M. L.

2010-12-01

204

Dose equivalents to neutron therapy facility staff due to induced activation.  

PubMed

The sources of the induced activity from the d(48.5)+Be fast neutron therapy beam of the Harper Hospital superconducting cyclotron have been investigated. The distribution of activity in the treatment room was measured, and the levels of dose equivalent to the staff were established. Activation spectra were measured with a high purity RE-Ge detector. Peaks corresponding to 28Al, 56Mn, 24Na, 64Cu, 66Cu, and 187W were present in the spectra. The dose equivalents due to the induced activation were measured by means of an ionization chamber type survey meter at six locations in the room. Irradiations of 120 monitor units were given at 15-min intervals, thus simulating the clinical situation. The measurements were made between the irradiations. The highest levels were registered around the treatment head. Two patterns are clearly distinguishable in these measurements. A fast decaying component with approximately 2 min half-life can be ascribed predominantly to 28Al and a slow growing component reaching saturation after about 4-5 treatments is associated with the presence of 56Mn. For uniform treatment load the activation build-up in each location was similar every day of the week with minimal values measured after the week end shut down. Personnel monitoring is achieved with dosimeters capable of detecting an extended range of neutron energies as well as beta rays and photons. Correlation between the number of fields treated and the doses to the radiation therapy technologists was shown. The mean dose equivalent received by the therapists is 7.1 +/- 0.2 microSv per treatment field. Means of reducing personnel dose equivalent levels are proposed. PMID:9030837

Yudelev, M; Maughan, R L; Jordan, L E; Saxena, R

1997-03-01

205

Development of a new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

A new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been developed by Adelphi Technology for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and fast neutron radiography. The generator makes an excellent fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron source for laboratories and industrial applications that require the safe production of neutrons, a small footprint, low cost, and small regulatory burden. The generator has three major components: a Radio Frequency Induction Ion Source, a Secondary Electron Shroud, and a Diode Accelerator Structure and Target. Monoenergetic neutrons (2.5MeV) are produced with a yield of 10(10)n/s using 25-50mA of deuterium ion beam current and 125kV of acceleration voltage. The present study characterizes the performance of the neutron generator with respect to neutron yield, neutron production efficiency, and the ionic current as a function of the acceleration voltage at various RF powers. In addition the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) simulation code was used to optimize the setup with respect to thermal flux and radiation protection. PMID:25305524

Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

2014-12-01

206

The epithermal neutron flux distribution in a nuclear reactor and its effect on epithermal neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shape of the epithermal neutron energy distribution has been determined in two irradiation positions of the University\\u000a of London CONSORT II reactor. The method applied involves cadmium ratio measurements using a series of resonance detectors.\\u000a Principles of the method and some considerations relative to epithermal neutron activation analysis in connection with the\\u000a deviation of the epithermal neutron flux distribution

T. Bereznai; T. D. Mac Mahon

1978-01-01

207

Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron-induced activation in a Fast-Neutron and Gamma-Based Cargo Inspection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An air cargo inspection system combining two nuclear reaction based techniques, namely Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography is currently being developed. This system is expected to allow detection of standard and improvised explosives as well as special nuclear materials. An important aspect for the applicability of nuclear techniques in an airport inspection facility is the inventory and lifetimes of radioactive isotopes produced by the neutron radiation inside the cargo, as well as the dose delivered by these isotopes to people in contact with the cargo during and following the interrogation procedure. Using MCNPX and CINDER90 we have calculated the activation levels for several typical inspection scenarios. One example is the activation of various metal samples embedded in a cotton-filled container. To validate the simulation results, a benchmark experiment was performed, in which metal samples were activated by fast-neutrons in a water-filled glass jar. The induced activity was determined by analyzing the gamma spectra. Based on the calculated radioactive inventory in the container, the dose levels due to the induced gamma radiation were calculated at several distances from the container and in relevant time windows after the irradiation, in order to evaluate the radiation exposure of the cargo handling staff, air crew and passengers during flight. The possibility of remanent long-lived radioactive inventory after cargo is delivered to the client is also of concern and was evaluated.

Bromberger, B.; Bar, D.; Brandis, M.; Dangendorf, V.; Goldberg, M. B.; Kaufmann, F.; Mor, I.; Nolte, R.; Schmiedel, M.; Tittelmeier, K.; Vartsky, D.; Wershofen, H.

2012-03-01

208

Determination of indium in standard rocks by neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

A rapid neutron activation method for the determination of indium in rocks, based on 54 min (116m)In, is described. The method has been applied to a series of geochemical standards including granite G-1 and diabase W-1. The precision is better than +/- 5% for samples containing more than 5 x 10(-10)g indium. Good agreement with previously published values for G-1 and W-1 has been obtained. PMID:18959988

Johansen, O; Steinnes, E

1966-08-01

209

Neutron-Induced Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This section presents the principles, the practical aspects, and the applications of neutron-induced prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). The fundamentals of the method, the characteristics of the analytical technique, and the instrumentation are introduced. The measurements of samples and standards together with the procedures of the quantitative analysis are described. High-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy, enabling reliable chemical analyses, is discussed in detail. A comprehensive section of the most recent applications of the PGAA method is also given.

Révay, Z.; Lindstrom, R. M.; Mackey, E. A.; Belgya, T.

210

Obsidian sources characterized by neutron-activation analysis.  

PubMed

Concentrations of elements such as manganese, scandium, lanthanum, rubidium, samarium, barium, and zirconium in obsidian samples from different flows show ranges of 1000 percent or more, whereas the variation in element content in obsidian samples from a single flow appears to be less than 40 percent. Neutron-activation analysis of these elements, as well as of sodium and iron, provides a means of identifying the geologic source of an archeological artifact of obsidian. PMID:17776740

Gordus, A A; Wright, G A; Griffin, J B

1968-07-26

211

Mechanistic analysis of loft pulsed neutron activation data  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) is a technique for measuring mass-weighted flow velocities without perturbing the flow. Monte Carlo PNA tagging and Monte Carlo detection calculations of the irradiated fluid with the transport of the irradiated fluid are used to predict the time spectrum in a PNA measurement. This mechanistic method has been used to analyze recent LOFT PNA measurements of single-phase water flowing in a 14-in. (0.35 m) schedule 160 steel pipe.

Perez-Griffo, M.L.; Block, R.C.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

1981-01-01

212

Magnetar activity mediated by plastic deformations of neutron star crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We advance a `solar flare' model of magnetar activity, whereas a slow evolution of the magnetic field in the upper crust, driven by electron magnetohydrodynamic flows, twists the external magnetic flux tubes, producing persistent emission, bursts, and flares. At the same time, the neutron star crust plastically relieves the imposed magnetic field stress, limiting the strain ?t to values well below the critical strain ?crit of a brittle fracture, ?t ˜ 10-2?crit. Magnetar-like behaviour, occurring near the magnetic equator, takes place in all neutron stars, but to a different extent. The persistent luminosity is proportional to cubic power of the magnetic field (at a given age), and hence is hardly observable in most rotationally powered neutron stars. Giant flares can occur only if the magnetic field exceeds some threshold value, while smaller bursts and flares may take place in relatively small magnetic fields. Bursts and flares are magnetospheric reconnection events that launch Alfvén shocks which convert into high-frequency whistlers upon hitting the neutron star surface. The resulting whistler pulse induces a strain that increases with depth both due to the increasing electron density (and the resulting slowing of the waves), and due to the increasing coherence of a whistler pulse with depth. The whistler pulse is dissipated on a time-scale of approximately a day at shallow depths corresponding to ? ˜ 1010 g cm-3; this energy is detected as enhanced post-flare surface emission.

Lyutikov, Maxim

2015-02-01

213

Monte Carlo Calculation of Thermal Neutron Inelastic Scattering Cross Section Uncertainties by Sampling Perturbed Phonon Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear data libraries provide fundamental reaction information required by nuclear system simulation codes. The inclusion of data covariances in these libraries allows the user to assess uncertainties in system response parameters as a function of uncertainties in the nuclear data. Formats and procedures are currently established for representing covariances for various types of reaction data in ENDF libraries. This covariance data is typically generated utilizing experimental measurements and empirical models, consistent with the method of parent data production. However, ENDF File 7 thermal neutron scattering library data is, by convention, produced theoretically through fundamental scattering physics model calculations. Currently, there is no published covariance data for ENDF File 7 thermal libraries. Furthermore, no accepted methodology exists for quantifying or representing uncertainty information associated with this thermal library data. The quality of thermal neutron inelastic scattering cross section data can be of high importance in reactor analysis and criticality safety applications. These cross sections depend on the material's structure and dynamics. The double-differential scattering law, S(alpha, beta), tabulated in ENDF File 7 libraries contains this information. For crystalline solids, S(alpha, beta) is primarily a function of the material's phonon density of states (DOS). Published ENDF File 7 libraries are commonly produced by calculation and processing codes, such as the LEAPR module of NJOY, which utilize the phonon DOS as the fundamental input for inelastic scattering calculations to directly output an S(alpha, beta) matrix. To determine covariances for the S(alpha, beta) data generated by this process, information about uncertainties in the DOS is required. The phonon DOS may be viewed as a probability density function of atomic vibrational energy states that exist in a material. Probable variation in the shape of this spectrum may be established that depends on uncertainties in the physics models and methodology employed to produce the DOS. Through Monte Carlo sampling of perturbations from the reference phonon spectrum, an S(alpha, beta) covariance matrix may be generated. In this work, density functional theory and lattice dynamics in the harmonic approximation are used to calculate the phonon DOS for hexagonal crystalline graphite. This form of graphite is used as an example material for the purpose of demonstrating procedures for analyzing, calculating and processing thermal neutron inelastic scattering uncertainty information. Several sources of uncertainty in thermal neutron inelastic scattering calculations are examined, including sources which cannot be directly characterized through a description of the phonon DOS uncertainty, and their impacts are evaluated. Covariances for hexagonal crystalline graphite S(alpha, beta) data are quantified by coupling the standard methodology of LEAPR with a Monte Carlo sampling process. The mechanics of efficiently representing and processing this covariance information is also examined. Finally, with appropriate sensitivity information, it is shown that an S(alpha, beta) covariance matrix can be propagated to generate covariance data for integrated cross sections, secondary energy distributions, and coupled energy-angle distributions. This approach enables a complete description of thermal neutron inelastic scattering cross section uncertainties which may be employed to improve the simulation of nuclear systems.

Holmes, Jesse Curtis

214

Calculation of effective dose from measurements of secondary neutron spectra and scattered photon dose from dynamic MLC IMRT for 6 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV beam energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective doses were calculated from the delivery of 6 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate treatment plans. ICRP-60 tissue weighting factors were used for the calculations. Photon doses were measured in phantom for all beam energies. Neutron spectra were measured for 15 MV and 18 MV and ICRP-74 quality conversion factors used to

Rebecca M. Howell; Nolan E. Hertel; Wang Zhonglu; Jesson Hutchinson; Gary D. Fullerton

2006-01-01

215

One-group fission cross sections for plutonium and minor actinides inserted in calculated neutron spectra of fast reactor cooled with lead-208 or lead-bismuth eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The paper is dedicated to one-group fission cross sections of Pu and MA in LFRs spectra with the aim to increase these values by choosing a coolant which hardens neutron spectra. It is shown that replacement of coolant from Pb-Bi with Pb-208 in the fast reactor RBEC-M, designed in Russia, leads to increasing the core mean neutron energy. As concerns fuel Pu isotopes, their one-group fission cross sections become slightly changed, while more dramatically Am-241 one-group fission cross section is changed. Another situation occurs in the lateral blanket containing small quantities of minor actinides. It is shown that as a result of lateral blanket mean neutron energy hardening the one-group fission cross sections of Np-237, Am-241 and Am-243 increases up to 8-11%. This result allows reducing the time of minor actinides burning in FRs. (authors)

Khorasanov, G. L.; Blokhin, A. I. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering Named after A.I. Leypunsky, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk, 249033 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

216

DEVELOPMENT OF MONTE CARLO CODE FOR COINCIDENCE PROMPT GAMMA NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) offers a non-destructive, relatively rapid on-line method ,for determination of elemental ,composition ,of bulk ,and other samples. However, PGNAA has an inherently large background - that primarily is due to the presence of the neutron excitation source. This includes neutron activation of the detector, gamma rays from the neutron source, and prompt gamma

Xiaogang Han; Robin. P. Gardner; Charles W. Mayo; Weijun Guo

217

L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,?), (n,p), (n,?), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

Meyer, G.

2003-02-01

218

Neutron radiation tolerance of Au-activated silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Double injection devices prepared by the introduction of deep traps, using the Au activation method have been found to tolerate gamma irradiation into the Gigarad (Si) region without significant degradation of operating characteristics. Silicon double injection devices, using deep levels creacted by Au diffusion, can tolerate fast neutron irradiation up to 10 to the 15th n/sq cm. Significant parameter degradation occurs at 10 to the 16th n/sq cm. However, since the actual doping of the basic material begins to change as a result of the transmutation of silicon into phosphorus for neutron fluences greater than 10 to the 17th/sq cm, the radiation tolerance of these devices is approaching the limit possible for any device based on initially doped silicon.

Joyner, W. T.

1987-01-01

219

A scintillation spectrometer for direct comparison of neutron energy spectra at high and low rates.  

PubMed

The energy spectrum of the HB11 beam at HFR, Petten, has previously been measured by proton and alpha recoil in hydrogen and helium gas proportional counters at power levels of a few kW. There is some doubt whether the spectrum remains the same at the much higher power of 45 MW required for therapeutic fluxes. In order to test this point, a scintillation detector has been developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villingen, Switzerland. While the device is again based on the proton recoil reaction, a combination of mm-sized plastic scintillators and fast electronics will allow it to operate at both a few kW and 45 MW, permitting direct comparison of energy spectra at these very different power levels. Results of preliminary tests at LFR, Petten, are presented. PMID:8434335

Crawford, J F; Konijnenberg, M W; Perks, C A; Stecher-Rasmussen, F; Watkins, P R

1993-01-01

220

Neutron spectral and angular distribution measurements for 113 and 256 MeV protons on range-thick Al and sup 238 U targets using the foil activation techniques  

SciTech Connect

Second neutron yields, energy spectra, and angular distributions have been measured at seven angles from 0 to 150{degree} for 113 and 256 MeV protons stopped in range-thick targets of aluminum and depleted uranium ({sup 238}U). Thin foil stacks of ten different materials were activated by secondary neutrons at distances of 20--30 cm from the targets. Following each irradiation, 30--40 different activation products were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. These activation rates were then used to adjust neutron energy spectra calculated by the HETC computer code. Activation cross sections were taken from ENDF/BV below 20 MeV, from literature values tested in Be(d,n) fields up to 50 MeV, and from proton spallation data and calculations from 50--250 MeV. Spectral adjustments were made with the STAY'SL computer code using a least-squares technique to minimize {chi}{sup 2} for a covariance matrix determined from uncertainties in the measured activities, cross sections, and calculated flux spectra. Neutron scattering effects were estimated from foil packets irradiated at different distances from the target. Proton effects were measured with (p,n) reactions. Systematic differences were found between the adjusted and calculated neutron spectra, namely, that HETC underpredicts the neutron flux at back angles by a factor of 2--3 and slightly overpredicts the flux at forward angles. 19 refs., 23 figs., 13 tabs.

Greenwood, L.R.; Intasorn, A.

1989-07-01

221

A Hybrid Model for the Spectra of Neutron Star Accretion Columns Including Comptonization and Cyclotron Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physical model for the radiation emitted from accretion columns of neutron stars with magnetic fields on the order of 1012 G has to reflect the large-scale dynamical structure of the inflowing matter as well as the quantum mechanical scattering processes leading to the formation of cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs). Becker & Wolff (B&W) developed an analytic model for the broadband continuum while the CRSFs have been investigated by Schönherr & Schwarm (S&S). While both models describe the separate trends seen in observational data very well, a fully self-consistent fitting approach to determine the physical parameters (e.g., accretion rate, magnetic field strength) of the accretion column in accreting X-ray pulsars requires accounting for both processes in one unified model. We present our first approach towards such an unified hybrid model covering both the macro- and the microphysics of the accreting plasma. We assume a cylinder symmetrical dual layer structure of the accretion column. The inner layer reflects the dynamical structure described by the B&W model while the optical thin outer layer acts as a CRSF forming region similar to a photosphere. We adopt the parameters from a fit of the B&W model to Her X-1 and calculate the emergent radiation as well as the dynamical properties such as bulk velocity within the core of the accretion column. Radiation escaping the optical thick core region is further altered by the outer shell, a thin layer with an optical depth on the order of 10-4-10-2 Thomson optical depth, adding cyclotron lines by processing it through the S&S model. This hybrid model is only a first step towards an unified model for accreting neutron stars with strong magnetic fields. In the future we will investigate the insertion of a third layer in the middle as a transition region, parameter boundaries, and also incorporate general relativity with the ultimate goal to use this new tool to model phase-resolved spectroscopy of accreting X-ray pulsars. We would like to thank the ISSI, Bern, for hosting inspiring and productive international team meetings such as the one resulting in the ideas presented here.

Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Schönherr, G.; Becker, P. A.; Wolff, M. T.; Wilms, J.; Ferrigno, C.; West, B.

2013-04-01

222

NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING AN ISOTOPIC NEUTRON SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

NAA using {sup 252}Cf is used to address important areas of applied interest at SRS. Sensitivity needs for many of the applications are not severe; analyses are accomplished using a 21 mg {sup 252}Cf NAA facility. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, it offers strong advantages for samples in difficult-to-digest matrices when its sensitivity is sufficient. Following radiochemical separation with stable carrier addition, chemical yields for a number methods are determined by neutron activation of the stable carrier. In some of the cases where no suitable stable carriers exist, the source has been used to generate radioactive tracers to yield separations.

Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Raymond Sigg, R

2006-08-14

223

Magnetic spectra in the tridiminished-icosahedron {Fe9} nanocluster by inelastic neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect

Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments under applied magnetic field at low temperatures show detailed low-lying magnetic excitations in the so-called tridiminshed iron icosahedron magnetic molecule. The magnetic molecule consists of nine iron Fe3+ (s=5/2) and three phosphorous atoms that are situated on the 12 vertices of a nearly perfect icosahedron. The three phosphorous atoms form a plane that separates the iron cluster into two weakly coupled three- and six-ion fragments, {Fe3} and {Fe6}, respectively. The magnetic field INS results exhibit an S=1/2 ground state expected from a perfect equilateral triangle of the {Fe3} triad with a powder averaged g value =2.00. Two sets of triplet excitations whose temperature and magnetic field dependence indicate an S=0 ground state with two nondegenerate S=1 states are attributed to the {Fe6} fragment. The splitting may result from a finite coupling between the two fragments, single-ion anisotropy, antisymmetric exchange couplings, or from magnetic frustration of its triangular building blocks.

Vaknin, David [Ames Laboratory; Demmel, Franz [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

2014-05-01

224

Magnetic spectra in the tridiminished-icosahedron {Fe9} nanocluster by inelastic neutron scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments under applied magnetic field at low temperatures show detailed low-lying magnetic excitations in the so-called tridiminshed iron icosahedron magnetic molecule. The magnetic molecule consists of nine iron Fe3+ (s =5/2) and three phosphorous atoms that are situated on the 12 vertices of a nearly perfect icosahedron. The three phosphorous atoms form a plane that separates the iron cluster into two weakly coupled three- and six-ion fragments, {Fe3} and {Fe6}, respectively. The magnetic field INS results exhibit an S =1/2 ground state expected from a perfect equilateral triangle of the {Fe3} triad with a powder averaged g value =2.00. Two sets of triplet excitations whose temperature and magnetic field dependence indicate an S =0 ground state with two nondegenerate S =1 states are attributed to the {Fe6} fragment. The splitting may result from a finite coupling between the two fragments, single-ion anisotropy, antisymmetric exchange couplings, or from magnetic frustration of its triangular building blocks.

Vaknin, David; Demmel, Franz

2014-05-01

225

The THz fingerprint spectra of the active ingredients of a TCM medicine: Herba Ephedrae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, THz-TDS has been used to measure the spectral properties of two active ingredients of Herba Ephedrae: ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which exist in hydrochloride salts. The THz spectra of the sole-ingredient, twoingredient and three-ingredient compounds are studied. We obtained the finger-print spectra of the net active ingredients of the medicine, and also measured the mixtures of by two or three active ingredients at the different ratios. At the same time, theoretical analysis and quantitative analysis is applied to foretell the different THz spectra, identify the ingredients and infer the contents of principal components in samples. The THz spectroscopy is a potential and promising technique in evaluating and inspecting the quality of the drugs in the TCM field.

Ma, Shihua; Liu, Guifeng; Zhang, Peng; Song, Xiyu; Ji, Te; Wang, Wenfeng

2008-12-01

226

RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

2011-07-01

227

Neutron activation analysis in teaching analytical chemistry at UCI  

SciTech Connect

The undergraduate curriculum in chemistry at the University of California at Irvine has included practice with experiments in radiochemistry and activation analysis since 1968, 3 years after the campus was founded. In 1969, a TRIGA nuclear reactor was installed that operates at 250 kW steady state or can pulse to {approximately}10 MW of peak power. This has been the main activation source, although experiments have also been carried out by students using a 14-MeV neutron generator (Kaman Sciences, Model 711) and a small (1-{mu}Ci) {sup 252}Cf source on loan from the US Department of Energy. The majority of the experience has been within a junior/senior-level elective course in radioisotope techniques. However, experiments were also introduced by this author into the required instrumental analysis course. A very worthwhile experience was gained when students were assigned an unknown material (sometimes an inexpensive standard reference material) and asked to determine the concentration of a single trace element by two or three different techniques (atomic absorption, polarography, or derivative spectrophotometry) in addition to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA).

Miller, G.E. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

1991-11-01

228

Activation of cobalt by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb  

SciTech Connect

A study has been completed of cobalt activation in samples from two new locations in Hiroshima. The samples consisted of a piece of steel from a bridge located at a distance of about 1300 m from the hypocenter and pieces of both steel and concrete from a building located at approximately 700 m. The concrete was analyzed to obtain information needed to calculate the cobalt activation in the two steel samples. Close agreement was found between calculated and measured values for cobalt activation of the steel sample from the building at 700 m. It was found, however, that the measured values for the bridge sample at 1300 m were approximately twice the calculated values. Thus, the new results confirm the existence of a systematic error in the transport calculations for neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. 52 refs., 32 figs., 16 tabs.

Kerr, G.D.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brodzinski, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Marcum, J. (R and D Associates, Marina del Rey, CA (USA))

1990-02-01

229

A Kinematically Beamed, Low Energy Pulsed Neutron Source for Active Interrogation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a new active interrogation system based on a kinematically focused low energy neutron beam. The key idea is that one of the defining characteristics of SNM (Special Nuclear Materials) is the ability for low energy or thermal neutrons to induce fission. Thus by using low energy neutrons for the interrogation source we can accomplish three goals, (1)

D Dietrich; C Hagmann; P Kerr; L Nakae; M Rowland; N Snyderman; W Stoeffl; R Hamm

2004-01-01

230

A kinematically beamed, low energy pulsed neutron source for active interrogation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a new active interrogation system based on a kinematically focused low energy neutron beam. The key idea is that one of the defining characteristics of special nuclear materials (SNM) is the ability for low energy or thermal neutrons to induce fission. Thus by using low energy neutrons for the interrogation source we can accomplish three goals: (1)

Dan Dietrich; Chris Hagmann; Phil Kerr; Les Nakae; Mark Rowland; Neal Snyderman; Wolfgang Stoeffl; Robert Hamm

2005-01-01

231

Determination of boron in water using neutron scattering and transmission, and prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis methods: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boron concentration in water was determined using neutron scattering and transmission, and prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis methods. The experimental setup is based on a Pu-Be neutron source, 3He neutron detectors and an NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector. Water samples of different volumes and known amounts of boron were prepared. Transmitted and scattered neutrons and prompt gamma rays resulting from neutron capture reactions within the samples were simultaneously measured. The sensitivities of the neutron scattering and transmission measurements were determined to be better than those of the prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis. The neutron scattering measurements were determined to be more sensitive than those of the neutron transmission measurements.

El Abd, A.

2014-10-01

232

Fusion of time-dependent gamma production spectra from thermal neutron capture and fast neutron inelastic scattering to improve material detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron-based inspection techniques are unique in their ability to provide material specific signatures, thus offering very high performance and automatic detection of explosives and other contraband. Thermal neutron capture gamma spectroscopy provides excellent sensitivities to hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, and other elements, which are characteristic to most explosives, drugs and other contraband that may be smuggled into the country. Fast neutron

T. Gozani; M. Elsalim; D. Strellis; D. Brown

2003-01-01

233

Conceptual study of a compact accelerator-driven neutron source for radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of a compact accelerator-driven device for the generation of neutron spectra suitable for isotope production by neutron capture, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy, is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations. The device is essentially an extension of the activator proposed by Rubbia [CERN\\/LHC\\/97-04(EET)], in which fast neutrons are diffused and moderated within a properly sized lead

M. Angelone; S. Atzeni; S. Rollet

2002-01-01

234

COLLISIONAL ACTIVATION MASS SPECTRA OF M-. IONS OF AZO DYES CONTAINING 2-NAPHTHOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Collisionally activated decomposition mass spectra of M- ions of azo dyes are presented. he compounds are of general structure Ar(l)-N=N-Ar(2), where Ar(l) is substituted phenyl and Ar(2) is 2-naphthol. Characteristic fragment ions observed include m/z 157, which corresponds to t...

235

Rare-earth elements in Egyptian granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

The mobilization of rare-earth elements (REEs) in the environment requires monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are mainly present at trace levels. The similarity in REEs chemical behavior makes the separate determination of each element by chemical methods difficult; instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), based on nuclear properties of the elements to be determined, is a method of choice in trace analysis of REEs and related elements. Therefore, INAA was applied as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of REEs to find out what information could be obtained about the REEs of some Egyptian granite collected from four locations in Aswan area in south Egypt as follows wadi El-Allaqi, El-Shelal, Gabel Ibrahim Pasha and from Sehyel Island and to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of NAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The following elements have been determined: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu. The gamma spectra was collected by HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of computerized multichannel analyzer. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was also used. PMID:17208446

El-Taher, A

2007-04-01

236

Determination of 30 elements in coal and fly ash by thermal and epithermal neutron-activation analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirty elements are determined in coal and fly ash by instrumental neutron-activation analysis using both thermal and epithermal irradiation. Gamma-ray spectra were recorded 7 and 20 days after the irradiations. The procedure is applicable to the routine analysis of coals and fly ash. Epithermal irradiation was found preferable for the determination of Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Sm, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U, whereas thermal irradiation was best for Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Yb and Lu. Results for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) agree with those of other investigators. ?? 1977.

Rowe, J.J.; Steinnes, E.

1977-01-01

237

The calculation of charged particle fluence and LET spectra for the irradiation of biologically significant materials by neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

14.7 MeV neutrons, the 252Cf neutron spectrum and a cyclotron generated neutron spectrum are considered to irradiate water, tissue-equivalent plastic and standard man tissue and results are given for all these cases. From a knowledge of the target composition, and the cross-sections and kinetics of all the possible neutron induced reactions in the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, the

A. A. Edwards; J. A. Dennis

1975-01-01

238

Analysis of Some Egyptian Cosmetic Samples by Fast Neutron Activation Analysis  

E-print Network

A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This generator can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. In our work, the concentration of the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe, were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis.

Medhat, M E; Fayez-Hassan, M

2001-01-01

239

Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Active Galactic Nucleus Activity from Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the total infrared (IR, 8-1000 ?m) emission in a complete volume-limited sample of 53 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L IR = 1011-1012 L ?). We decompose the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution 5-38 ?m spectra of the LIRGs into AGN and starburst components using clumpy torus models and star-forming galaxy templates, respectively. We find that 50% (25/50) of local LIRGs have an AGN component detected with this method. There is good agreement between these AGN detections through mid-IR spectral decomposition and other AGN indicators, such as the optical spectral class, mid-IR spectral features, and X-ray properties. Taking all the AGN indicators together, the AGN detection rate in the individual nuclei of LIRGs is ~62%. The derived AGN bolometric luminosities are in the range L bol(AGN) = (0.4-50) × 1043 erg s-1. The AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosities of the galaxies is generally small, with 70% of LIRGs having L bol[AGN]/L IR <= 0.05. Only ~= 8% of local LIRGs have a significant AGN bolometric contribution L bol[AGN]/L IR > 0.25. From the comparison of our results with literature results of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L IR = 1012-1013 L ?), we confirm that in the local universe the AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosity increases with the IR luminosity of the galaxy/system. If we add up the AGN bolometric luminosities we find that AGNs only account for 5%^{+8%}_{-3%} of the total IR luminosity produced by local LIRGs (with and without AGN detections). This proves that the bulk of the IR luminosity of local LIRGs is due to star formation activity. Taking the newly determined IR luminosity density of LIRGs in the local universe, we then estimate an AGN IR luminosity density of ?AGN IR = 3 × 105 L ? Mpc-3 in LIRGs. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

2012-01-01

240

Preparation of neutron-activated xenon for liquid xenon detector calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the preparation of neutron-activated xenon for the calibration of liquid xenon (LXe) detectors. Gamma rays from the decay of xenon metastable states, produced by fast neutron activation, were detected and their activities measured in a LXe scintillation detector. Following a 5-day activation of natural xenon gas with a 252Cf (4×105n\\/s) source, the activities of two gamma ray lines

K. Ni; R. Hasty; T. M. Wongjirad; L. Kastens; A. Manzur; D. N. McKinsey

2007-01-01

241

Fast-Neutron Activation of Long-Lived Nuclides in Natural Pb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observe the production of the long-lived nuclide ^207Bi and supported nuclides ^202Tl and ^194Au in a sample of Pb due to high-energy neutron interactions using a neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The activated sample was counted by a Ge detector to measure the amount of radioactive nuclides present. These nuclides are critical in understanding potential backgrounds in low background experiments utilizing large amounts of Pb shielding due to cosmogenic neutron interactions in the Pb while residing on the Earth's surface. We present the measured production and a predicted cosmogenic production rate based on a measured cosmic-ray neutron flux.

Hixon, D.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.

2011-04-01

242

Tables for simplifying calculations of activities produced by thermal neutrons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The method of calculation described is useful for the types of work of which examples are given. It is also useful in making rapid comparison of the activities that might be expected from several different elements. For instance, suppose it is desired to know which of the three elements, cobalt, nickel, or vanadium is, under similar conditions, activated to the greatest extent by thermal neutrons. If reference is made to a cross-section table only, the values may be misleading unless properly interpreted by a suitable comparison of half-lives and abundances. In this table all the variables have been combined and the desired information can be obtained directly from the values of A 3??, the activity produced per gram per second of irradiation, under the stated conditions. Hence, it is easily seen that, under similar circumstances of irradiation, vanadium is most easily activated even though the cross section of one of the cobalt isotopes is nearly five times that of vanadium and the cross section of one of the nickel isotopes is three times that of vanadium. ?? 1954 Societa?? Italiana di Fisica.

Senftle, F.E.; Champion, W.R.

1954-01-01

243

Lead Activation Neutron Yield Measurement System Used in ICF Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead activation measurement system is used to measure very low yield neutron of DT or DD reaction, activation sample is Pb sheath that surrounds a NaI(Tl) detector or Pb disks in front of it. Using this detector, adding amplifier, single-channel and multi-channel scaling system in computer, we can measure the ? rays from the activated sample(207mPb) with 0.8s half-life decay and calculate the yield. Because half-life decay is too short to move activated sample to measure room manually or mechanic, we place the detector as close as 32cm from the laser target. To minimize this effect of the X-rays burst from the laser irradiated target, we use a gate circuit to remove the detector high voltage about 200ms to 1s adjustable, and restores it less than 100ms after the shot. The drift of the peak address of the pulse-height spectrum is unavoidable because of the NaI(Tl) detectors and the electronic system. We used an embedded multi-channel pulse height analyzer in this system to monitor and adjust the peak address of the spectrum in time. This system is used successfully in ICF experiment on SG-II facility.

Cunbang, Yang; Jie, Feng; Zhiyuan, Liang

2008-11-01

244

Assessing Neutron Generator Output Using Delayed Activation of Silicon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generators are used for elemental composition analysis and medical applications. Often composition is determined by examining elemental ratios in which the knowledge of the neutron flux is unnecessary. However, the absolute value of the neutron flux is required when t...

245

Neutron threshold activation detectors (TAD) for the detection of fissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompt fission neutrons are one of the strongest signatures of the fission process. Depending on the fission inducing radiation, their average number ranges from 2.5 to 4 neutrons per fission. They are more energetic and abundant, by about 2 orders of magnitude, than the delayed neutrons (?3 vs. ?0.01) that are commonly used as indicators for the presence of fissionable

Tsahi Gozani; John Stevenson; Michael J. King

2011-01-01

246

A new instrument for activation analysis - The cold neutron irradiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program of developing analytical applications of cold neutrons, the authors are undertaking optimization studies of a novel design that exploits the combination of the superior analytical properties of cold neutrons with the simplicity and portability of isotopic neutron sources such as [sup 252]Cf. The basic concept is simple: The capabilities of the usual design in which

D. D. Clark; T. Z. Hossain

1993-01-01

247

Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility  

E-print Network

Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility G://rsi.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 10D918 (2012) Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron(+ ) and 65 Cu(n,2n) 64 Cu(+ ), has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The induced copper

248

Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.

Cohn, S.H.

1982-01-01

249

Neutron activation analysis of sea-, lake-, and evaporated salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt is essential for human nutrition. Recently, it has become popular in Europe to rather use exotic sea salt or lake salt instead of purified evaporated salt, because of an alleged higher content of trace elements. In this study the content of trace elements and their bioavailability of 19 samples of different types of salt and 1 sample of brine purification sludge were investigated using instrumental neutron activation analysis. In general, sea-, lake-, and evaporated salt are quite pure. Trace elements determined in salt were Al, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Sr, and Zn; some of them only in individual cases. It was found that, in general, the content of trace elements in sea- or lake salt was higher than in purified salt. Nevertheless, the use of sea- or lake salt does not contribute significantly to the human needs of essential trace elements, because their concentration in salt is too low or their compounds are not bioavailable.

Steinhauser, G.; Sterba, J. H.; Poljanc, K.; Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.

2006-01-01

250

Neutron activation analysis of a particle returned from asteroid Itokawa.  

PubMed

A single grain (~3 micrograms) returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft was analyzed by neutron activation analysis. This grain is mainly composed of olivine with minor amounts of plagioclase, troilite, and metal. Our results establish that the Itokawa sample has similar chemical characteristics (iron/scandium and nickel/cobalt ratios) to chondrites, confirming that this grain is extraterrestrial in origin and has primitive chemical compositions. Estimated iridium/nickel and iridium/cobalt ratios for metal in the Itokawa samples are about five times lower than CI carbonaceous chondrite values. A similar depletion of iridium was observed in chondrule metals of ordinary chondrites. These metals must have condensed from the nebular where refractory siderophile elements already condensed and were segregated. PMID:21868669

Ebihara, M; Sekimoto, S; Shirai, N; Hamajima, Y; Yamamoto, M; Kumagai, K; Oura, Y; Ireland, T R; Kitajima, F; Nagao, K; Nakamura, T; Naraoka, H; Noguchi, T; Okazaki, R; Tsuchiyama, A; Uesugi, M; Yurimoto, H; Zolensky, M E; Abe, M; Fujimura, A; Mukai, T; Yada, Y

2011-08-26

251

Measurements of the neutron activation cross sections for Bi and Co at 386 MeV.  

PubMed

Neutron activation cross sections for Bi and Co at 386 MeV were measured by activation method. A quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam was produced using the (7)Li(p,n) reaction. The energy spectrum of these neutrons has a high-energy peak (386 MeV) and a low-energy tail. Two neutron beams, 0° and 25° from the proton beam axis, were used for sample irradiation, enabling a correction for the contribution of the low-energy neutrons. The neutron-induced activation cross sections were estimated by subtracting the reaction rates of irradiated samples for 25° irradiation from those of 0° irradiation. The measured cross sections were compared with the findings of other studies, evaluated in relation to nuclear data files and the calculated data by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System code. PMID:24368868

Yashima, H; Sekimoto, S; Ninomiya, K; Kasamatsu, Y; Shima, T; Takahashi, N; Shinohara, A; Matsumura, H; Satoh, D; Iwamoto, Y; Hagiwara, M; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W; Shibata, S

2014-10-01

252

The role of neutron activation analysis in nutritional biomonitoring programs  

SciTech Connect

Nutritional biomonitoring is a multidisciplinary task and an integral part of a more general bioenvironmental surveillance. In its comprehensive form, it is a combination of biological, environmental, and nutrient monitoring activities. Nutrient monitoring evaluates the input of essential nutrients required to maintain vital bodily functions; this includes vigilance over extreme fluctuations of nutrient intake in relation to the recommended dietary allowances and estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes and adherence to the goals of provisional tolerance limits. Environmental monitoring assesses the external human exposure via ambient pathways, namely, air, water, soil, food, etc. Biological monitoring quantifies a toxic agent and its metabolites in representative biologic specimens of an exposed organ to identify health effects. In practice, coordinating all three components of a nutritional biomonitoring program is complex, expensive, and tedious. Experience gained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys demonstrates the problems involved. By far the most critical challenge faced here is the question of analytical quality control, particularly when trace element determinations are involved. Yet, measures to ensure reliability of analytical data are mandatory, and there are no short-cuts to this requirement. The purpose of this presentation is to elucidate the potential of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in nutritional biomonitoring activities.

Iyengar, V.

1988-01-01

253

Health physics aspects of neutron activated components in a linear accelerator.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the residual radioactivity in the therapy accessories of a medical x ray linear accelerator. The residual radioactivity mainly originated from nuclear activation reactions by neutrons, which are present as a contamination radiation in the x-ray beam. The radiation used in this study was the 25 MV x-ray beam produced by a CGR Saturne III linear accelerator. The five treatment aids include four wedges of various angles and one cerrobend block. The decrease in dose rates with time was followed for 60 min for each of the five treatment aids immediately after 999 monitor units of irradiation. The integral doses from the surface of each of four activated therapy accessories following three different radiation doses were measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters (CaF2). In the TLD measurement, polyethylene filters were used to differentiate beta or beta particles from the mixed decay radiation. A high-purity germanium detection system was utilized to collect and to analyze the gamma spectra from the activated therapy accessories. The residual radioisotopes found in the 15 degree wedge and 30 degree wedge included V, Cr, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. In the 45 degree and 60 degree wedges, the radionuclides identified were Co, Ni, Cu, and W. The principal nuclides identified in the irradiated cerrobend block were In, Sn, Cd, Pb. The corresponding nuclear reactions from which the residual radionuclides produced were confirmed by consulting the current literature. PMID:15069298

Guo, Shuntong; Ziemer, Paul L

2004-05-01

254

Active detection of shielded SNM with 60-keV neutrons  

SciTech Connect

Fissile materials, e.g. {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu, can be detected non-invasively by active neutron interrogation. A unique characteristic of fissile material exposed to neutrons is the prompt emission of high-energy (fast) fission neutrons. One promising mode of operation subjects the object to a beam of medium-energy (epithermal) neutrons, generated by a proton beam impinging on a Li target. The emergence of fast secondary neutrons then clearly indicates the presence of fissile material. Our interrogation system comprises a low-dose 60-keV neutron generator (5 x 10{sup 6}/s), and a 1 m{sup 2} array of scintillators for fast neutron detection. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate the detectability of small quantities (370 g) of HEU shielded by steel (200 g/cm{sup 2}) or plywood (30 g/cm{sup 2}), with a typical measurement time of 1 min.

Hagmann, C; Dietrich, D; Hall, J; Kerr, P; Nakae, L; Newby, R; Rowland, M; Snyderman, N; Stoeffl, W

2008-07-08

255

X-ray spectra and the rotation-activity connection of RS Canum Venaticorum binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from a survey of RS CVn binaries which were observed with the imaging proportional counter (IPC) on board the Einstein Observatory. Spectral analyses of the IPC pulse height spectra show that the coronae of RS CVn binaries always contain hot gas with temperatures in excess of 10 to the 7th K, similar to active late-type main-sequence stars, and that at least two temperature components are necessary to account for the higher quality IPC spectra (when absorption is unimportant). It is argued that these bimodal temperature distributions found by the IPC are indicative of true distributions of emission measure versus temperature that are continuous (just as is the case of magnetically confined coronal plasma loops observed on the sun). It is further shown that none of the derivable X-ray characteristics of RS CVn binaries depend on rotation period, implying that previous claims of period-activity relationships in RS CVn binaries were unfounded.

Majer, P.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Golub, L.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

1986-01-01

256

Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r{sup 2} decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm{sup 2} and is ? 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

Hahn, K. D., E-mail: kdhahn@sandia.gov; Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Diagnostics and Target Physics, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Diagnostics and Target Physics, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)] [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Leeper, R. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2014-04-15

257

Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: design, analysis, and sensitivity.  

PubMed

We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r(2) decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm(2) and is ? 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects. PMID:24784607

Hahn, K D; Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Fehl, D L; Chandler, G A; Knapp, P F; Leeper, R J; Nelson, A J; Smelser, R M; Torres, J A

2014-04-01

258

Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r2 decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm2 and is ˜ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

Hahn, K. D.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Leeper, R. J.; Nelson, A. J.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A.

2014-04-01

259

Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis system design: effects of D-T versus D-D neutron generator source selection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is used for the non-invasive measurement of human body composition. Advancements in portable, compact neutron generator design have made those devices attractive as neutron sources. Two distinct generators are available: D-D with 2.5 MeV, and D-T wi...

260

Improved thermal neutron activation sensor for detection of bulk explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defence R&D Canada - Suffield and Bubble Technology Industries have been developing thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensors for detection of buried bulk explosives since 1994. First generation sensors, employing an isotopic source and NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors, were deployed by Canadian Forces in 2002 as confirmation sensors on the ILDS teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor anti-tank landmine detection systems. The first generation TNA could detect anti-tank mines buried 10 cm or less in no more than a minute, but deeper mines and those significantly displaced horizontally required considerably longer times. Mines as deep as 30 cm could be detected with long counting times (1000 s). The second generation TNA detector is being developed with a number of improvements aimed at increasing sensitivity and facilitating ease of operation. Among these are an electronic neutron generator to increase sensitivity for deeper and horizontally displaced explosives; LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, to improve time response and energy resolution; improved thermal and electronic stability; improved sensor head geometry to minimize spatial response nonuniformity; and more robust data processing. This improved sensitivity can translate to either decreased counting times, decreased minimum detectable explosive quantities, increased maximum sensor-to-target displacement, or a trade off among all three. Experiments to characterize the performance of the latest generation TNA in detecting buried landmines and IEDs hidden in culverts were conducted during 2011. This paper describes the second generation system. The experimental setup and methodology are detailed and preliminary comparisons between the performance of first and second generation systems are presented.

McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.; Andrews, H. Robert; Clifford, Edward T. H.; Mosquera, Cristian M.

2012-06-01

261

A kinematically beamed, low energy pulsed neutron source for active interrogation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a new active interrogation system based on a kinematically focused low energy neutron beam. The key idea is that one of the defining characteristics of special nuclear materials (SNM) is the ability for low energy or thermal neutrons to induce fission. Thus by using low energy neutrons for the interrogation source we can accomplish three goals: (1) energy discrimination allows us to measure the prompt fast fission neutrons produced while the interrogation beam is on; (2) neutrons with an energy of approximately 60-100 keV do not fission 238U and Thorium, but penetrate bulk material nearly as far as high energy neutrons do and (3) below about 100 keV neutrons lose their energy by kinematical collisions rather than via the nuclear (n, 2n) or (n, n') processes thus further simplifying the prompt neutron induced background. 60 keV neutrons create a low radiation dose and readily thermal capture in normal materials, thus providing a clean spectroscopic signature of the intervening materials. The kinematically beamed source also eliminates the need for heavy backward and sideway neutron shielding. We have designed and built a very compact pulsed neutron source, based on an RFQ proton accelerator and a lithium target. We are developing fast neutron detectors that are nearly insensitive to the ever-present thermal neutron and neutron capture induced gamma ray background. The detection of only a few high energy fission neutrons in time correlation with the linac pulse will be a clear indication of the presence of SNM.

Dietrich, Dan; Hagmann, Chris; Kerr, Phil; Nakae, Les; Rowland, Mark; Snyderman, Neal; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Hamm, Robert

2005-12-01

262

Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths. PMID:10724430

Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

2000-03-01

263

Improvement of calibration assessment for gold fast-neutron activation analysis using plasma focus devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

By exploiting the gamma detector-shielding configuration in a plasma focus (PF) device dedicated to fast-neutron activation analysis of gold, a reliable neutron counter may be established. The decay of 207Pbm induced by neutrons in the lead shielding surrounding the photon detector produces gamma photons of 569.7 and 1063.6 keV, which peaks are registered in the same spectrum containing the 279

A. Tartari; G. Verri; A. Da Re; F. Mezzetti; C. Bonifazzi; L. Rapezzi

2002-01-01

264

Interference by neutron induced second order nuclear reaction in activation analysis of rare earths  

Microsoft Academic Search

In determining the trace impurities existing in high-purity rare earth samples by the neutron activation analysis, there are\\u000a much interference due to nuclides induced from neutron induced second order nuclear reaction. This paper presents the degree\\u000a of interference calculated over the ranges of irradiation time from 105 to 107 sec and of thermal-neutron flux from 1·1012 to 1·1015 n·cm?2·sec?1. According

M. Kubota

1977-01-01

265

Neutronic reactor  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

1983-01-01

266

Measurement of residual 152Eu activity induced by atomic bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and the contribution of environmental neutrons to this activity.  

PubMed

Residual 152Eu activities induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb were measured for nine mineral samples located up to 1,061 m in the slant range and one control sample at 2,850 m from the hypocenter. A chemical separation to prepare europium-enriched samples was performed for all samples, and gamma ray measurements were carried out with a low background well-type germanium detector. In this paper, the measured specific activities of 152Eu are compared with activation calculations based on the DS86 neutron fluence and the 93Rev one. The calculated-to-measured ratios are also compared with those of 60Co and 36Cl. The present results indicate that the measurements agree to the calculation within a factor of three as observed in the nuclear tests at Nevada. The activation level of environmental neutrons and the detection limit for 152Eu are also discussed. PMID:13678342

Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun; Ishikawa, Masayori; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Oka, Takamitsu; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Yamashita, Tomoaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji

2003-06-01

267

A Two-Dimensional Benchmark Experiment for Neutron Transport in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of providing standard data for checking two-dimensional neutron penetration calculations, fast neutron spectra as well as thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes were measured over a two-dimensional (R, Z) space in water shield using an activation method. Threshold reaction rates were converted to fast neutron scalar flux spectra with the aid of the SAND-II code. These results agree

Toshimasa MIURA; Akio YAMAJI; Kiyoshi TAKEUCHI

1977-01-01

268

Neutron Activation Cool-down of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) final operations and post-shutdown neutron activation measurements were made. Ionization chambers were used to follow TFTR activation during operations and after shutdown. Gamma-ray energy spectroscopy measurements were performed to characterize TFTR activation at accessible vessel-bays and on sample hardware removed from structures at various distances from the vessel. The results demonstrate long-lived activations from common, commercially available materials used in the fabrication and field engineering of TFTR. The measurements allow characterization of residual TFTR neutron activation, the projection of residual activation decay, and benchmarking of low activation issues simulations.

Ascione, G.; Kugel, H.W.; Kumar, A.; Tilson, Jr, C.

1998-06-10

269

Potassium-Argon Dating by Activation with Fast Neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a potassium-bearing mineral is irradiated by a neutron flux containing a significant fraction of fast neutrons, 270-year Ar  is produced by the K 3 (n, p) reaction, and this may be used as a basis for measuring the potassium-argon age of the mineral. WSnke and Konig [1959] described such a method in which counting techniques were used to

Craig Merrihue; Grenville Turner

1966-01-01

270

New thermal neutron prompt ?-ray activation analysis instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new thermal neutron prompt ?-ray activation analysis (PGAA) instrument was designed and built to replace the original PGAA system at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. By placing a sapphire filter in the neutron beam shutter assembly, the fast neutron fluence rate was reduced by a factor of 5 and low-energy (50-200 keV) ?-ray intensities were reduced by factors of 5-10. The thermal neutron fluence rate was reduced by only a factor of 1.13. A new external beam tube, sample chamber, beam stop, and support structure were built and a new detection system installed. The new beam tube is made of two cylindrical aluminum sections lined with a lithiated polymer. Both sections are kept under vacuum to reduce the number of neutrons scattered by air into the beam tube walls. The sample chamber is also fabricated from aluminum and lined with lithiated polymer, and may be evacuated to minimize the number of neutrons scattered and absorbed by air. The beam tube and sample chamber assembly is suspended from the aluminum support structure. The detection system consists of a 40% efficient (relative) germanium detector (resolution 2.0 at 1332.5 keV) and a bismuth germanate Compton suppressor. The detection system is shielded by lead, surrounded by borated and lithiated polyethylene, and placed on a table attached to the support structure. The new, more compact beam stop is welded to the support structure. Capture ?-ray photopeaks from H, B, C, N, Na, Al, Fe, Ge, I and Pb in the background spectrum were either of lower intensity or eliminated with the new PGAA instrument. The more efficient detection system, positioned closer to the sample, yielded element sensitivity increases of 5-50%. Limits of detection have been greatly reduced compared with those of the original instrument due to reduced Compton and scattered ?-ray backgrounds (especially in the low-energy region), increased sensitivities, and reduction of background ?-ray photopeak intensities.

Mackey, E. A.; Anderson, D. L.; Liposky, P. J.; Lindstrom, R. M.; Chen-Mayer, H.; Lamaze, G. P.

2004-11-01

271

Fast-Neutron Activation of Long-Lived Nuclides in Natural Pb  

E-print Network

We measured the production of the long-lived nuclides Bi-207, Pb-202, and Hg-194 in a sample of natural Pb due to high-energy neutron interactions using a neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The activated sample was counted by a HPGe detector to measure the amount of radioactive nuclides present. These nuclides are critical in understanding potential backgrounds in low background experiments utilizing large amounts of Pb shielding due to cosmogenic neutron interactions in the Pb while residing on the Earth's surface. By scaling the LANSCE neutron flux to a cosmic neutron flux, we measure the sea level cosmic ray production rates of 8.0 +/- 1.3 atoms/kg/day of Hg-194, 120 +/- 25 atoms/kg/day Pb-202, and 0.17 +/- 0.04 atoms/kg/day Bi-207.

Guiseppe, V E; Fields, N E; Hixon, D

2012-01-01

272

Fast-Neutron Activation of Long-Lived Nuclides in Natural Pb  

E-print Network

We measured the production of the long-lived nuclides Bi-207, Pb-202, and Hg-194 in a sample of natural Pb due to high-energy neutron interactions using a neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The activated sample was counted by a HPGe detector to measure the amount of radioactive nuclides present. These nuclides are critical in understanding potential backgrounds in low background experiments utilizing large amounts of Pb shielding due to cosmogenic neutron interactions in the Pb while residing on the Earth's surface. By scaling the LANSCE neutron flux to a cosmic neutron flux, we measure the sea level cosmic ray production rates of 8.0 +/- 1.3 atoms/kg/day of Hg-194, 120 +/- 25 atoms/kg/day Pb-202, and 0.17 +/- 0.04 atoms/kg/day Bi-207.

V. E. Guiseppe; S. R. Elliott; N. E. Fields; D. Hixon

2012-09-20

273

A neutron activation technique for manganese measurements in humans.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for humans, animals, and plants and is required for growth, development, and maintenance of health. Studies show that Mn metabolism is similar to that of iron, therefore, increased Mn levels in humans could interfere with the absorption of dietary iron leading to anemia. Also, excess exposure to Mn dust, leads to nervous system disorders similar to Parkinson's disease. Higher exposure to Mn is essentially related to industrial pollution. Thus, there is a benefit in developing a clean non-invasive technique for monitoring such increased levels of Mn in order to understand the risk of disease and development of appropriate treatments. To this end, the feasibility of Mn measurements with their minimum detection limits (MDL) has been reported earlier from the McMaster group. This work presents improvement to Mn assessment using an upgraded system and optimized times of irradiation and counting for induced gamma activity of Mn. The technique utilizes the high proton current Tandetron accelerator producing neutrons via the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at McMaster University and an array of nine NaI (Tl) detectors in a 4? geometry for delayed counting of gamma rays. The neutron irradiation of a set of phantoms was performed with protocols having different proton energy, current and time of irradiation. The improved MDLs estimated using the upgraded set up and constrained timings are reported as 0.67?gMn/gCa for 2.3MeV protons and 0.71?gMn/gCa for 2.0MeV protons. These are a factor of about 2.3 times better than previous measurements done at McMaster University using the in vivo set-up. Also, because of lower dose-equivalent and a relatively close MDL, the combination of: 2.0MeV; 300?A; 3min protocol is recommended as compared to 2.3MeV; 400?A; 45s protocol for further measurements of Mn in vivo. PMID:25169978

Bhatia, C; Byun, S H; Chettle, D R; Inskip, M J; Prestwich, W V

2014-08-12

274

Improved mesh based photon sampling techniques for neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

The design of fusion power systems requires analysis of neutron activation of large, complex volumes, and the resulting particles emitted from these volumes. Structured mesh-based discretization of these problems allows for improved modeling in these activation analysis problems. Finer discretization of these problems results in large computational costs, which drives the investigation of more efficient methods. Within an ad hoc subroutine of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, we implement sampling of voxels and photon energies for volumetric sources using the alias method. The alias method enables efficient sampling of a discrete probability distribution, and operates in 0(1) time, whereas the simpler direct discrete method requires 0(log(n)) time. By using the alias method, voxel sampling becomes a viable alternative to sampling space with the 0(1) approach of uniformly sampling the problem volume. Additionally, with voxel sampling it is straightforward to introduce biasing of volumetric sources, and we implement this biasing of voxels as an additional variance reduction technique that can be applied. We verify our implementation and compare the alias method, with and without biasing, to direct discrete sampling of voxels, and to uniform sampling. We study the behavior of source biasing in a second set of tests and find trends between improvements and source shape, material, and material density. Overall, however, the magnitude of improvements from source biasing appears to be limited. Future work will benefit from the implementation of efficient voxel sampling - particularly with conformal unstructured meshes where the uniform sampling approach cannot be applied. (authors)

Relson, E.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Biondo, E. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2013-07-01

275

Quantitative comparison between experimental and simulated gamma-ray spectra induced by 14 MeV tagged neutrons.  

PubMed

Fast neutron interrogation with the associated particle technique can be used to identify explosives in cargo containers (EURITRACK FP6 project) and unexploded ordnance on the seabed (UNCOSS FP7 project), by detecting gamma radiations induced by 14 MeV neutrons produced in the 2H(3H,?)n reaction. The origin of the gamma rays can be determined in 3D by the detection of the alpha particle, which provides the direction of the opposite neutron and its time-of-flight. Gamma spectroscopy provides the relative counts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are converted to chemical fractions to differentiate explosives from other organic substances. To this aim, Monte Carlo calculations are used to take into account neutron moderation and gamma attenuation in cargo materials or seawater. This paper presents an experimental verification that C, N, and O counts are correctly reproduced by numerical simulation. A quantitative comparison is also reported for silicon, iron, lead, and aluminium. PMID:21782459

Perot, B; El Kanawati, W; Carasco, C; Eleon, C; Valkovic, V; Sudac, D; Obhodas, J; Sannie, G

2012-07-01

276

Automation of a pneumatic system by controlling a microcomputer equipped with a custom add on board for neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated sample transfer system associated with a 3 × 592 GBq Am?Be neutron source has been constructed at the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (ANRTC) for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (CINAA). The pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an IBM PS\\/1 personal computer which is equipped with a custom add-on board

M. A. Çetiner; H. Demirel; A. Demirba?; H. Yücel; I. Çelenk

1997-01-01

277

Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

Robin P. Gardner

2006-04-11

278

Consilience: Radiocarbon, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, and Litigation in the Ancestral Caddo Region  

E-print Network

Through the creation and analysis of databases for radiocarbon, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and law, macro-level trends are exposed that form the framework of a broader research program aimed at advancing ideas of craft...

Selden, Robert Zachary

2013-08-13

279

Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.

1981-01-01

280

An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles  

SciTech Connect

Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential limitations.

Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goddard, Braden [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, EC-JRC-IPSC

2012-08-13

281

Active neutron dosemeters based on microdosimetric principles: research studies.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been studying a personal electronic neutron dosemeter and an ambient electronic neutron dosemeter based on experimental microdosimetric principles using low pressure proportional counters. The results obtained in 2000 and in 2001 with the cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter developed for use in radiation protection and filled with a low pressure tissue-equivalent gas (propane based) are presented here. PMID:12194330

Ménard, S; Chau, Q; Lahaye, T

2002-01-01

282

Evaluation of sodium activation distribution in the PMMA water phantom after fast neutron irradiation.  

PubMed

(24)Na produced by the neutron activation of stable sodium in the body is commonly used to assess neutron doses after criticality accidents. However, the (24)Na distribution is not uniform owing to the interaction with the human body. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the (24)Na distribution in a PMMA water phantom and 60 polyethylene vials. The vials were analyzed to evaluate the sodium activation distribution in the PMMA water phantom by employing a correction factor. PMID:23548694

Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyong; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Lee, Seung-Sook; Kim, Jong Kyung

2013-11-01

283

Preparation of neutron-activated xenon for liquid xenon detector calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preparation of neutron-activated xenon for the calibration of liquid xenon (LXe) detectors. Gamma rays from the decay of xenon metastable states, produced by fast neutron activation, were detected and their activities measured in a LXe scintillation detector. Following a 5-day activation of natural xenon gas with a 252Cf (4×10n/s) source, the activities of two gamma ray lines at 164 and 236 keV, from 131mXe and 129mXe metastable states, were measured at about 95 and 130 Bq/kg, respectively. We also observed three additional lines at 35, 100 and 275 keV, which decay away within a few days. No long-lifetime activity was observed after the neutron activation.

Ni, K.; Hasty, R.; Wongjirad, T. M.; Kastens, L.; Manzur, A.; McKinsey, D. N.

2007-11-01

284

Preparation of Neutron-activated Xenon for Liquid Xenon Detector Calibration  

E-print Network

We report the preparation of neutron-activated xenon for the calibration of liquid xenon (LXe) detectors. Gamma rays from the decay of xenon metastable states, produced by fast neutron activation, were detected and their activities measured in a LXe scintillation detector. Following a five-day activation of natural xenon gas with a Cf-252 (4 x 10^5 n/s) source, the activities of two gamma ray lines at 164 keV and 236 keV, from Xe-131m and Xe-129m metastable states, were measured at about 95 and 130 Bq/kg, respectively. We also observed three additional lines at 35 keV, 100 keV and 275 keV, which decay away within a few days. No long-lifetime activity was observed after the neutron activation.

Ni, K; Wongjirad, T M; Kastens, L; Manzur, A; McKinsey, D N

2007-01-01

285

Preparation of Neutron-activated Xenon for Liquid Xenon Detector Calibration  

E-print Network

We report the preparation of neutron-activated xenon for the calibration of liquid xenon (LXe) detectors. Gamma rays from the decay of xenon metastable states, produced by fast neutron activation, were detected and their activities measured in a LXe scintillation detector. Following a five-day activation of natural xenon gas with a Cf-252 (4 x 10^5 n/s) source, the activities of two gamma ray lines at 164 keV and 236 keV, from Xe-131m and Xe-129m metastable states, were measured at about 95 and 130 Bq/kg, respectively. We also observed three additional lines at 35 keV, 100 keV and 275 keV, which decay away within a few days. No long-lifetime activity was observed after the neutron activation.

K. Ni; R. Hasty; T. M. Wongjirad; L. Kastens; A. Manzur; D. N. McKinsey

2007-09-27

286

Determination of isotopic thorium in biological samples by combined alpha spectrometry and neutron activation analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Thorium is a naturally occurring element for whom all isotopes are radioactive . Many of these isotopes are alpha emitting radionuclides, some of which have limits for inhalation lower than plutonium in current regulations . Neutron activation analysis can provide for the low-level determination of 232Th but can not determine other isotopes of dosimetric importance . Biological and environmental samples often have large quantities of materials which activate strongly, limiting the capabilities of instrumental neutron activiation analysis . This paper will discuss the application of a combined technique using alpha spectrometry and radiochemical neutron activiation analysis for the determination of isotopic thorium .

Glover, S. E. (Samuel E.)

2003-01-01

287

A correlated study between effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energies for neutron beams with continuous spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two practically useful quantities have been introduced to characterize a continuous-energy-spectrum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in the field of quantitative neutron radiography. These quantities are the effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section as defined for a monochromatic energy. Four neutron beams have been used to measure ETM cross sections at effective energies of 29.8, 17.2, 9.8 meV, and at the In resonance energy of 1.46 eV. Results are studied as a function of estimated effective energy, where the effective energy was estimated by a beam quality indicator (BQI) which has been proposed recently. Validity of ETM cross sections as a function of the effective energy is discussed and correlated with recent nuclear data.

Kobayashi, Hisao

1999-11-01

288

Radiolabeling of intact dosage forms by neutron activation: effects on in vitro performance  

SciTech Connect

Compressed tablets containing various quantities of stable isotopes of Ba, Er, and Sm for use in neutron activation studies were evaluated for the effect of stable isotope incorporation on tablet hardness and disintegration times. At concentrations likely to be used in scintigraphic studies employing neutron activation as a radiolabeling method, no significant effect on in vitro parameters were observed. While the incorporation of stable isotopes influenced tablet hardness to a greater degree than disintegration time, irradiation of tablets in a neutron flux of 4.4 x 10(13) n/cm2 sec had a direct effect on tablet disintegration time. Thus, future neutron activation studies should focus on minimizing the amount of stable isotope to be incorporated with the formulation while using the shortest feasible irradiation time.

Parr, A.; Jay, M.

1987-12-01

289

Measurement of neutron spectra for determining dose equivalent rates at the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center  

E-print Network

Rates (May 1986) at the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center. Bruce Jerome Sensa, B. S. , University of Virginia Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gerald A. Schlapper As the use of neutron radiation sources expands, a reliable method... be capable of measuring neutron dose equivalents in the range of 300 mrem to 10 rem per quarter. Ten dosimeters exposed to the same dose equivalent in the range of 100 mrem to 3 rem from an unmoderated Cf source shall have an accuracy 252 within 50...

Sanza, Bruce Jerome

1986-01-01

290

Neutron induced background gamma activity in low-level Ge-spectroscopy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors were located in two different passive shields: one in pre-WW II iron and the second in commercial low background lead. Gamma lines emitted after neutron capture, as well as after inelastic scattering on the germanium crystal were detected and then analyzed. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes were calculated and their values were compared for the two different kinds of detector shield. Several materials having different neutron slowing-down properties were packed in Marinelli geometry, positioned on the lead shielded detector and measured for around 10 6 s. The main goal was to estimate a possible influence of the sample on the intensity of the neutron induced Ge gamma lines. On the iron-shielded detector a massive (3 in. thick) NaI Compton suppression system showed a measurable activity from neutron capture and inelastic scattering on sodium and iodine nuclei.

Jovan?evi?, N.; Krmar, M.; Mrda, D.; Slivka, J.; Bikit, I.

2010-01-01

291

Studies of neutron cross-sections important for spallation experiments using the activation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experiments devoted to studies of neutron cross-sections by activation method was carried out. The cross-sections of various threshold reactions were studied by means of different quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources with energies from 14 MeV up to 100 MeV. Threshold reactions in various materials are among other used to measure fast neutron fields produced during accelerator driven system studies. For this reason our measurements of neutron cross-sections are crucial. At present, neither experimental nor evaluated data above 30 MeV are available for neutron threshold reactions in Au, I and In published in this proceedings. We studied materials in the form of thin foils and compared our data with the calculations preformed using the deterministic code TALYS 1.4.

Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Suchopár, M.; Svoboda, O.; Wagner, V.

2014-09-01

292

Cross section and ?-ray spectra for U238(n,?) measured with the DANCE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Accurate knowledge of the U238(n,?) cross section is important for developing theoretical nuclear reaction models and for applications. However, capture cross sections are difficult to calculate accurately and often must be measured. Purpose: We seek to confirm previous measurements and test cross-section calculations with an emphasis on the unresolved resonance region from 1 to 500 keV. Method: Cross sections were measured from 10 eV to 500 keV using the DANCE detector array at the LANSCE spallation neutron source. The measurements used a thin target, 48 mg/cm2 of depleted uranium. Gamma cascade spectra were also measured to provide an additional constraint on calculations. The data are compared to cross-section calculations using the code CoH3 and cascade spectra calculations made using the code dicebox. Results: This new cross-section measurement confirms the previous data. The measured gamma-ray spectra suggest the need for additional low-lying dipole strength in the radiative strength function. New Hauser-Feshbach calculations including this strength accurately predict the capture cross section without renormalization. Conclusions: The present cross-section data confirm previous measurements. Including additional low-lying dipole strength in the radiative strength function may lead to more accurate cross-section calculations in nuclei where has not been measured.

Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Wu, C. Y.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krti?ka, M.

2014-03-01

293

Determination of (n,?) Cross Sections of 241Am by Cold Neutron Activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate cross section data of actinides are crucial for criticality calculations of GEN IV reactors and transmutation but also for analytical purposes such as nuclear waste characterization, decommissioning of nuclear installations and safeguard applications. Tabulated data are inconsistent and sometimes associated with large uncertainties. Neutron activation with external cold neutron beams from high flux reactors offers a chance for determination of accurate capture cross sections scalable to the whole 1/?{E}-region even for isotopes with low-lying resonances like 241Am. Preparation of 241Am samples for irradiation at the PGAA station of the FRM II in Garching has been optimized together with PTB in Braunschweig. Two samples were irradiated together with gold flux monitors to extract the thermal neutron capture cross section after appropriate corrections for attenuation of neutrons and photons in the sample. For one sample, the thermal ground state neutron capture cross section was measured as 663.0 ± 28.8 b. The thermal neutron capture cross section was calculated to 725.4 ± 34.4 b. For the other sample, a ground state neutron capture cross section of 649.9 ± 28.2 b was measured and a thermal neutron capture cross section of 711.1 ± 33.9 b was derived.

Genreith, C.; Rossbach, M.; Révay, Zs.; Kudejova, P.

2014-05-01

294

Using Electronic Neutron Generators in Active Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed at Idaho National Laboratory to study methodology and instrumentation for performing neutron active interrogation die-away analyses for the purpose of detecting shielded fissionable material. Here we report initial work using a portable DT electronic neutron generator with a He-3 fast neutron detector to detect shielded fissionable material including >2 kg quantities of enriched uranium and plutonium. Measurements have been taken of bare material as well as of material hidden within a large plywood cube. Results from this work have demonstrated the efficacy of the die-away neutron measurement technique for quickly detecting the presence of special nuclear material hidden within plywood shields by analyzing the time dependent neutron signals in-between neutron generator pulses. Using a DT electronic neutron generator operating at 300 Hz with a yield of approximately 0.36 x 10**8 neutrons per second, 2.2 kg of enriched uranium hidden within a 0.60 m x 0.60 m x 0.70 m volume of plywood was positively detected with a measurement signal 2-sigma above the passive background within 1 second. Similarly, for a 500 second measurement period a lower detection limit of approaching the gram level could be expected with the same simple set-up.

D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

2008-10-01

295

Energetic neutron and gamma-ray spectra under the earth radiation belts according to "SALYUT-7" [correction of "SALUTE-7"]-"KOSMOS-1686" orbital complex and "CORONAS-I" satellite data.  

PubMed

The spectra of neutrons >10 MeV and gamma-rays 1.5-100 MeV under the Earth Radiation Belts, restored from the data, obtained onboard orbital complex "SALYUT-7" [correction of "SALUTE-7"]-"KOSMOS-1686", are presented. The spectra shapes are similar to those for albedo neutrons and gamma-rays, but absolute values of their fluxes (0.2 cm-2 s-1 for neutrons, 0.8 cm-2 s-1 for gamma-rays at the equator and 1.2 cm-2 s-1, 1.9 cm-2 s-1, accordingly, at L=1.9) are several times as large. It is possibly explained by the fact that most of the detected particles were produced by the cosmic ray interactions with the orbital complex matter. Neutron and gamma-ray fluxes obtained from "CORONAS-1" data are near those for albedo particles. PMID:11542904

Bogomolov, A V; Dmitriev, A V; Myagkova, I N; Ryumin, S P; Smirnova, O N; Sobolevsky, I M

1998-01-01

296

Signs of antimetastatic activity of palladium complexes of methylenediphosphonic acid in IR spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used Fourier transform IR spectroscopy methods to study normal mouse lung tissue and also after subcutaneous transplantation of a B-16 melanoma tumor in the tissue. We also studied tissues with B-16 melanoma after they were treated with coordination compounds based on palladium complexes of methylenediphosphonic acid. The IR spectra of the lung tissues with metastases in the region of the C = O stretching vibrations are different from the IR spectra of normal tissue. We identified spectroscopic signs of the presence of metastases in the lung. We show that when a cancerous tumor is treated with a preparation of palladium complexes of methylenediphosphonic acid, the spectroscopic signs of the presence of metastases in the lung are missing. After treatment with the optimal dose of this drug, the IR spectrum of the lung tissue in which multiple metastases were present before treatment corresponds to the spectrum of normal tissue. We have determined the efficacy of the antitumor activity of coordination compounds based on palladium complexes of methylenediphosphonic acid.

Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Pekhnio, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Sharykina, N. I.

2012-07-01

297

Study on low activation decoupler material for MW-class spallation neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japan Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) has started its operation on May 30, 2008. The Ag-In-Cd (AIC) alloy was adopted as a decoupler material for two decoupled moderators. A high decoupling energy at 1 eV was for the first time achieved in MW-class spallation neutron sources due to the adoption of the AIC alloy. Although the AIC decoupler is superior in the neutronic performance, it has a demerit in high residual radioactivity due to production of Ag-110 m (half life: 250 days) and Ag-108 m (half life: 418 years). To overcome this demerit, we studied on possibilities of a low activation decoupler material with high decoupling energy as the AIC alloy, that is, Au-In-Cd (AuIC) alloy. Neutronic performance of this material was investigated by using neutronics calculations. As a result, it was found that the AuIC decoupler could provide neutron pulses with almost the same characteristics as those for the AIC decoupler even when the burn-up effects were considered. Excellent low activation property of the AuIC alloy to the AIC alloy was demonstrated by residual radioactivity calculations. On viewpoint of neutronics performance, it was concluded that the AuIC decoupler was available as the substitute of the AIC decoupler.

Harada, M.; Teshigawara, M.; Maekawa, F.; Futakawa, M.

2010-03-01

298

Development of the prototype pneumatic transfer system for ITER neutron activation system.  

PubMed

The neutron activation system (NAS) measures neutron fluence at the first wall and the total neutron flux from the ITER plasma, providing evaluation of the fusion power for all operational phases. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the key components of the NAS for the proper operation of the system, playing a role of transferring encapsulated samples between the capsule loading machine, irradiation stations, counting stations, and disposal bin. For the validation and the optimization of the design, a prototype of the PTS was developed and capsule transfer tests were performed with the developed system. PMID:23126830

Cheon, M S; Seon, C R; Pak, S; Lee, H G; Bertalot, L

2012-10-01

299

Active-Interrogation Measurements of Induced-Fission Neutrons from Low-Enriched Uranium  

SciTech Connect

Protection and control of nuclear fuels is paramount for nuclear security and safeguards; therefore, it is important to develop fast and robust controlling mechanisms to ensure the safety of nuclear fuels. Through both passive- and active-interrogation methods we can use fast-neutron detection to perform real-time measurements of fission neutrons for process monitoring. Active interrogation allows us to use different ranges of incident neutron energy to probe for different isotopes of uranium. With fast-neutron detectors, such as organic liquid scintillation detectors, we can detect the induced-fission neutrons and photons and work towards quantifying a sample’s mass and enrichment. Using MCNPX-PoliMi, a system was designed to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238. Measurements were then performed in the summer of 2010 at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. Fissions were induced with an associated particle D-T generator and an isotopic Am-Li source. The fission neutrons, as well as neutrons from (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) reactions, were measured with five 5” by 5” EJ-309 organic liquid scintillators. The D-T neutron generator was available as part of a measurement campaign in place by Padova University. The measurement and data-acquisition systems were developed at the University of Michigan utilizing a CAEN V1720 digitizer and pulse-shape discrimination algorithms to differentiate neutron and photon detections. Low-enriched uranium samples of varying mass and enrichment were interrogated. Acquired time-of-flight curves and cross-correlation curves are currently analyzed to draw relationships between detected neutrons and sample mass and enrichment. In the full paper, the promise of active-interrogation measurements and fast-neutron detection will be assessed through the example of this proof-of-concept measurement campaign. Additionally, MCNPX-PoliMi simulation results will be compared to the measured data to validate the MCNPX-PoliMi code when used for active-interrogation simulations.

J. L. Dolan; M. J. Marcath; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester; A. Tomanin; P. Peerani; G. Nebbia

2012-07-01

300

Determination of hydrogen in titanium alloys by cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

Cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (CNPGAA) has proven useful for the analysis of hydrogen in titanium alloys. The analysis is nondestructive, measures the entire sample, and the results are independent of the chemical form of hydrogen present. The authors have used the technique to measure H mass fractions as low as 50 mg/kg in titanium-alloy jet-engine compressor blades and to measure hydrogen in standards for neutron tomography.

Paul, R.L.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Greenberg, R.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Analytical Chemistry Div.; Privett, H.M. III [Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, FL (United States); Richards, W.J. [McClellan Air Force Base, CA (United States). Nuclear Section

1996-11-01

301

Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to plant medicines in Ghana: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some essential elements in eleven plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5.1011 n.s-1.cm-2. The plant medicines were: Sirappac powder-E, Tina-A powder, Blighia powder, Aphrodisiac powder, Ninga powder and

Y. Serfor-Armah; E. H. K. Akaho; B. J. B. Nyarko; A. W. K. Kyere; K. Oppon-Boachie

2003-01-01

302

Abundance of lanthanoids in rock salts determined by neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents of lanthanoids (Ln's) of rock salts have been measured by neutron activation analysis. Original salt samples were\\u000a treated in advance of neutron irradiation so that Ln's were enriched and amounts of interfering nuclides were reduced. The\\u000a contents of Ln's were at ppt-sub ppb levels and were comparable with or slightly lower than those of solar salts. The Ln abundance

M. Yui; Y. Kikawada; T. Oi; T. Honda; T. Nozaki

1998-01-01

303

Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra  

PubMed Central

The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG) signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions. PMID:23193379

Sezgin, Necmettin

2012-01-01

304

INTERMITTENCY AND MULTIFRACTALITY SPECTRA OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a study of intermittency and multifractality of magnetic structures in solar active regions (ARs). Line-of-sight magnetograms for 214 ARs of different flare productivity observed at the center of the solar disk from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized. Data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory operating in the high resolution mode, the Big Bear Solar Observatory digital magnetograph, and the Hinode SOT/SP instrument were used. Intermittency spectra were derived from high-order structure functions and flatness functions. The flatness function exponent is a measure of the degree of intermittency. We found that the flatness function exponent at scales below approximately 10 Mm is correlated with flare productivity (the correlation coefficient is -0.63). The Hinode data show that the intermittency regime is extended toward small scales (below 2 Mm) as compared to the MDI data. The spectra of multifractality, derived from the structure functions and flatness functions, are found to be broader for ARs of higher flare productivity as compared to those of low flare productivity. The magnetic structure of high-flaring ARs consists of a voluminous set of monofractals, and this set is much richer than that for low-flaring ARs. The results indicate the relevance of the multifractal organization of the photospheric magnetic fields to the flaring activity. The strong intermittency observed in complex and high-flaring ARs is a hint that we observe a photospheric imprint of enhanced sub-photospheric dynamics.

Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

2010-10-10

305

Determination of aluminium, silicon and magnesium in geological matrices by delayed neutron activation analysis based on k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

In this work, concentrations of silicon, aluminium and magnesium in geological matrices were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis based on k0-IAEA software. The optimum activation and delay times were found to be 5 min and 15-20 min respectively for the determination of Si via (29)Si (n,p) (29)Al reaction. The adopted irradiation scheme did not work for the determination of magnesium. Each sample was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux density of 5.0 × 10(11) ncm(-2)s(-1). Cadmium covered activation indicated that a permanent epithermal irradiation site for research reactors would be very useful for routine determination of silicon in environmental samples. PMID:23999324

Baidoo, I K; Dampare, S B; Opata, N S; Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Quagraine, R E

2013-12-01

306

Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing.  

PubMed

A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate 152Eu and 60Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. PMID:8083048

Iwatani, K; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Hiraoka, M; Hayakawa, N; Oka, T; Hasai, H

1994-10-01

307

Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: Indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing  

SciTech Connect

A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. 18 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Iwatani, Kazuo; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hiraoka, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Norihiko [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Oka, Takamitsu [Kure Women`s College, Hiroshima-ken (Japan)

1994-10-01

308

Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range.

Landoas, Olivier; Yu Glebov, Vladimir; Rossé, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Disdier, Laurent; Sangster, Thomas C.; Duffy, Tim; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc

2011-07-01

309

Galaxy and Stellar Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students learn that galaxies shine on the basis of their intergrated stellar population, therefore, adding together different stellar spectra should reproduce the spectra of a galaxy. This activity contains an applet which allows one to add spectra of up to four different stars to produce a resultant spectra. To reproduce qualitatively a spectra of a galaxy one can add together and F main sequence star and a K Giant. The spectra are normalized by V-band luminosity.

Department, University O.

2005-06-17

310

A search for iron emission lines in the Chandra X-ray spectra of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-print Network

While iron emission lines are well studied in black hole systems, both in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei, there has been less of a focus on these lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). However, recent observations with Suzaku and XMM-Newton have revealed broad asymmetric iron line profiles in 4 neutron star LMXBs, confirming an inner disk origin for these lines in neutron star systems. Here, we present a search for iron lines in 6 neutron star LMXBs. For each object we have simultaneous Chandra and RXTE observations at 2 separate epochs, allowing for both a high resolution spectrum, as well as broadband spectral coverage. Out of the six objects in the survey, we only find significant iron lines in two of the objects, GX 17+2 and GX 349+2. However, we cannot rule out that there are weak, broad lines present in the other sources. The equivalent width of the line in GX 17+2 is consistent between the 2 epochs, while in GX 349+2 the line equivalent width increases by a factor of ~3 between epochs as the source flux decreases by a factor of 1.3. This suggests that the disk is highly ionized, and the line is dominated by recombination emission. We find that there appears to be no specific locations in the long-term hardness-intensity diagrams where iron emission lines are formed, though more sources and further observations are required.

E. M. Cackett; J. M. Miller; J. Homan; M. van der Klis; W. H. G. Lewin; M. Mendez; J. Raymond; D. Steeghs; R. Wijnands

2008-09-18

311

Fission and activation of uranium by fusion-plasma neutrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion-fission hybrid reactors are discussed in terms of two main purposes: to breed fissile materials (Pu 233 and Th 233 from U 238 or Th 232) for use in low-reactivity breeders, and to produce tritium from lithium to refuel fusion plasma cores. Neutron flux generation is critical for both processes. Various methods for generating the flux are described, with attention to new geometries for multiple plasma focus arrays, e.g., hypocycloidal pinch and staged plasma focus devices. These methods are evaluated with reference to their applicability to D-D fusion reactors, which will ensure a virtually unlimited energy supply. Accurate observations of the neutron flux from such schemes are obtained by using different target materials in the plasma focus.

Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Mcfarland, D. R.

1978-01-01

312

Active Neutron and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for In Situ Planetary Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the development of an instrument capable of detailed in situ bulk geochemical analysis of the surface of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. This instrument technology uses a pulsed neutron generator to excite the solid materials of a planet and measures the resulting neutron and gamma-ray emission with its detector system. These time-resolved neutron and gamma-ray data provide detailed information about the bulk elemental composition, chemical context, and density distribution of the soil within 50 cm of the surface. While active neutron scattering and neutron-induced gamma-ray techniques have been used extensively for terrestrial nuclear well logging applications, our goal is to apply these techniques to surface instruments for use on any solid solar system body. As described, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center use a prototype neutron-induced gamma-ray instrument and the resulting data presented show the promise of this technique for becoming a versatile, robust, workhorse technology for planetary science, and exploration of any of the solid bodies in the solar system. The detection of neutrons at the surface also provides useful information about the material. This paper focuses on the data provided by the gamma-ray detector.

Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, A.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

2011-01-01

313

Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a "signature" of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min—compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives—but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly.

Kehayias, J. J.

2001-07-01

314

DIVERSE ACTIVE WELL NEUTRON COINCIDENCE COUNTER UTILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe use of the Aquila active well neutron coincidence counter for nuclear material assays of {sup 235}U in multiple analytical techniques at Savannah River Site (SRS), at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and at Argonne West National Laboratory (AWNL). The uses include as a portable passive neutron counter for field measurements searching for evidence of {sup 252}Cf deposits and storage; as a portable active neutron counter using an external activation source for field measurements searching for trace {sup 235}U deposits and holdup; for verification measurements of U-Al reactor fuel elements; for verification measurements of uranium metal; and for verification measurements of process waste of impure uranium in a challenging cement matrix. The wide variety of uses described demonstrate utility of the technique for neutron coincidence verification measurements over the dynamic ranges of 100 g-5000 g for U metal, 200 g-1300 g for U-Al, and 8 g-35 g for process waste. In addition to demonstrating use of the instrument in both the passive and active modes, we also demonstrate its use in both the fast and thermal neutron modes.

Dewberry, R; Saleem Salaymeh, S

2007-01-08

315

Device and software used to carry out Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the device and software used to carry out Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis (CNAA). The aim of this investigation is defining through this device the fluorite content present on different samples from fluorspar concentration plant through the DGNAA (Delayed Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) method. This device is made of americium-beryllium neutron source, NaI (2"×2") and BGO (2"×2") gamma rays detectors, multichannel and an automatic mechanism which moves the samples from activation and reading position. This mechanism is controlled by a software which allows moving the samples precisely and in a safe way (~ms), which it is very useful when the radioactive isotopes have to be detected with a half time less than 8s.

Castro-García, M. P.; Rey-Ronco, M. A.; Alonso-Sánchez, T.

2014-11-01

316

Toward fullerene-based radiopharmaceuticals: high-yield neutron activation of endohedral 165Ho metallofullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C 60 and endohedral 165Ho metallofullerenes were irradiated under various neutron flux conditions to maximize the activity of surviving 166Ho metallofullerenes. C 60 survived irradiation to a fairly high extent (>80%) at fluences of <10 18 n cm -2 (75.8% thermal), but fast-neutron damage (or equivalent oxidative decomposition) progressed rapidly at higher fluences. Under identical conditions the metallofullerenes were degraded more quickly and extensively than was C 60, and decomposition proceeded primarily by fast-neutron damage instead of anticipated (n, ?)-metal recoil. Irradiation under more thermal neutron flux conditions (96.2% and 99.8%) significantly improved metallofullerene survival (20-30%), and degradation was demonstrated to proceed through the metal-recoil pathway.

Thrash, Thomas P.; Cagle, Dawson W.; Alford, J. Michael; Wright, Kymbr; Ehrhardt, Gary J.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Wilson, Lon J.

1999-07-01

317

FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss Revisited and Stellar Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report for the FUSE Cycle 1 program A100: FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss revisited and Stellar Activity. Targets alpha TrA (K3 II) and gamma Cru (M3 III) were originally assigned 25 ksec each, to be observed in the medium aperture. Once the in-flight performance and telescope alignment problems were known, the observations were reprogrammed to optimized the scientific return of the program. Alpha TrA was scheduled for 25 ksec observations in both the medium and large apertures. The principle aim of this program was to measure the stellar FUV line and continuum emission, in order to estimate the photoionization radiation field and to determine the level of stellar activity through the fluxes in the collisionally excited high temperature diagnostics: C III 977Angstroms and O VI 1032,1038Angstrom doublet. The medium aperture observations were obtained successfully while the large aperture observations were thought by Johns Hopkins University (JHU)to be lost to satellite problems. There was insufficient signal-to- noise in the medium aperture short wavelength Sic channels to do quantitative science.

Harper, Graham M.

2002-01-01

318

Soft X-ray coronal spectra at low activity levels observed by RESIK  

E-print Network

The quiet-Sun X-ray emission is important for deducing coronal heating mechanisms, but it has not been studied in detail since the Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO) spacecraft era. Bragg crystal spectrometer X-ray observations have generally concentrated on flares and active regions. The high sensitivity of the RESIK (REntgenovsky Spectrometer s Izognutymi Kristalami) instrument on the CORONAS-F solar mission has enabled the X-ray emission from the quiet corona to be studied in a systematic way for the first time. Our aim is to deduce the physical conditions of the non-flaring corona from RESIK line intensities in several spectral ranges using both isothermal and multithermal assumptions. We selected and analyzed spectra in 312 quiet-Sun intervals in January and February 2003, sorting them into 5 groups according to activity level. For each group, the fluxes in selected spectral bands have been used to calculate values parameters for the best-fit that lead to a intensities characteristic of each group. We used...

Sylwester, B; Phillips, K J H

2010-01-01

319

Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).  

PubMed

The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. PMID:21992845

El-Taher, A

2012-01-01

320

Rare earth elements content in geological samples from eastern desert, Egypt, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Twenty representative geological samples (tonalite, granodiorite, adamellite, syenogranite, rapakivi syenogranite, alkali feldspar granite and monzogranite) were collected from G. Kattar area in Eastern Desert, Egypt, for analysis by instrumental neutron activation as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) and to find out the following: (1) what information could be obtained about the REEs and distribution patterns of REEs in geological samples under investigation, (2) to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of the INAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7x10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by an HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of a computerized multichannel analyzer. The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times, and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The results are found to be in good agreement with certified values. PMID:20236830

El-Taher, A

2010-09-01

321

An application of neutron activation analysis to small biological samples: simultaneous determination of thirty elements in rat brain regions.  

PubMed

Thirty elements in 7 rat brain regions were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons using 3 different sets of conditions, depending on the nuclear characteristics of the elements. Analysis of the resulting radionuclides was by gamma-ray spectrometry using a high resolution Ge(Li) detector and Nuclear Data 6600 multichannel analyzer, which was fully computerized to give quantitative results for the gamma-ray spectra. This paper demonstrates the use of INAA for small biological samples and to show its potential elements, 7 rat brain regions are listed. It is interesting to note that certain elements, e.g. fluorine and potassium showed high and low regional differences respectively, and hypothalamus and hippocampus had higher elemental concentrations than other brain regions. However, since this paper is essentially an analytical one, no attempt is made to assess these data, which are preliminary, and the possible functional role of these elements will be discussed elsewhere. PMID:6865471

Chan, A W; Minski, M J; Lai, J C

1983-04-01

322

Investigation of the neutron activation of endohedral rare earth metallofullerenes  

SciTech Connect

Endohedral lanthanide metallofullerenes and their water-soluble biocompatible derivatives have been synthesized. The effect that fast-neutron irradiation has on the stability and nuclear physical properties of endohedral metallofullerenes that are used as magnetocontrast materials ({sup 46}Sc, {sup 140}La, {sup 141}Nd, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 160}Tb, {sup 169}Yb, {sup 170}Tm (isomers I and III), and {sup 177}Lu) is studied. Our hypothesis, according to which carbon-shell relaxation is based on the fast nonradiative processes of an electron shake-off type, is confirmed.

Shilin, V. A., E-mail: shilin@pnpi.spb.ru; Lebedev, V. T.; Kolesnik, S. G.; Kozlov, V. S.; Grushko, Yu. S.; Sedov, V. P.; Kukorenko, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

323

Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

1982-08-01

324

Standardization of process parameters for a chemical reaction using neutron activation analysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical process to convert polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) into a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) has been standardized by measuring the relative concentrations of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen with the fast neutron activation analysis technique. For comparison PECH and GAP samples were also analysed by IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that, for standardization of the present chemical process, the fast neutron activation analysis technique is superior to IR spectroscopy. In this paper the techniques used to analyse the samples are described in detail but the information on the actual chemical process adopted is provided in brief.

Dokhale, P. A.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

1996-08-01

325

Active-interrogation measurements of fast neutrons from induced fission in low-enriched uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detection system was designed with MCNPX-PoliMi to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238 using active interrogation. Measurements were then performed with this system at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy on low-enriched uranium samples. Liquid scintillators measured induced fission neutrons to characterize the samples in terms of their uranium mass and enrichment. Results are presented to investigate and support the use of organic liquid scintillators with active interrogation techniques to characterize uranium containing materials.

Dolan, J. L.; Marcath, M. J.; Flaska, M.; Pozzi, S. A.; Chichester, D. L.; Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P.

2014-02-01

326

Active-Interrogation Measurements of Fast Neutrons from Induced Fission in Low-Enriched Uranium  

SciTech Connect

A detection system was designed with MCNPX-PoliMi to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238 using active interrogation. Measurements were then performed with this system at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy on low-enriched uranium samples. Liquid scintillators measured induced fission neutron to characterize the samples in terms of their uranium mass and enrichment. Results are presented to investigate and support the use of organic liquid scintillators with active interrogation techniques to characterize uranium containing materials.

J. L. Dolan; M. J. Marcath; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester; A. Tomanin; P. Peerani

2014-02-01

327

Analysis of active neutron multiplicity data for Y-12 skull oxide samples  

SciTech Connect

Previous work on active neutron multiplicity measurements and analyses is summarized. New active multiplicity measurements are described for samples of Y-12 skull oxide using an Active Well Coincidence Counter and MSR4 multiplicity electronics. Neutron multiplication values for the samples were determined from triples/doubles ratios. Neutron multiplication values were also obtained from Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNP code and the results compared with the experimental values. A calibration curve of AmLi source-sample coupling vs neutron multiplication was determined and used for active multiplicity assay of the skull oxides. The results are compared with those obtained from assay with the conventional calibration-curve technique, where the doubles rate is calibrated vs the {sup 235}U mass. The coupling-multiplication relationship determined for the skull oxides is compared with that determined earlier for pure high-enrichment uranium metal and pure uranium oxide. Conclusions are drawn about the application of active multiplicity techniques to uranium assay. Additional active multiplicity measurements and calculations are recommended.

Krick, M.S.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ceo, R.N.; May, P.K. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1996-09-01

328

Studies of neutron and proton nuclear activation in low-Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expected induced radioactivity of experimental material in low Earth orbit was studied for characteristics of activating particles such as cosmic rays, high energy Earth albedo neutrons, trapped protons, and secondary protons and neutrons. The activation cross sections for the production of long lived radioisotopes and other existing nuclear data appropriate to the study of these reactions were compiled. Computer codes which are required to calculate the expected activation of orbited materials were developed. The decreased computer code used to predict the activation of trapped protons of materials placed in the expected orbits of LDEF and Spacelab II. Techniques for unfolding the fluxes of activating particles from the measured activation of orbited materials are examined.

Laird, C. E.

1982-01-01

329

Application of on-line laboratory computer analysis to fast neutron activation oxygen determinations  

SciTech Connect

The development of an on-line laboratory computer analysis system designed for routine high volume oxygen determinations is discussed. The system is based on the detection of /sup 16/N photopeaks from the /sup 16/O(n,p) /sup 16/N reaction occurring during fast neutron irradiation. A system interface has been designed and constructed which is capable of controlling the Kaman 710 neutron generator, the sample transfer system, switching the BF/sub 3/ beam monitor detector or NaI(T1) detector outputs as required to a multichannel scaling MCA, and proper sequencing of the procedure. In addition, specific software has been developed for the control of the system during acquisition as well as evaluation of the MCS spectra generated.

James, W.D.; Akanni, M.S.

1983-04-01

330

First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

2014-03-01

331

Determination of fluorine in glasses by cyclic activation analysis using a californium-252 neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyclic activation analysis method with a 100 ?g252Cf source was developed for the determination of low concentrations of fluorine in glasses containing high concentrations\\u000a of oxygen. Factors influencing errors in the analysis were investigated quantitatively. The activation cross-section of19F(n, ?)16N for252Cf fission neutrons was determined. A brief description is given of the cyclic activation, analysis apparatus, and also the

H. Tominaga; T. Imahashi; S. Enomoto; N. Tachikawa; H. Maeda; K. Itakura

1979-01-01

332

Residual 152Eu and 60Co activities induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific activities of 152Eu:Eu in stone samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb were determined for 70 samples up to a 1,500-m slant range from the epicenter. The specific activities of 60Co:Co were also determined for six samples near the Hiroshima hypocenter. First, the 152Eu data were investigated to find out the directional dependence of neutron activation. Directional anisotropy was

Kiyoshi Shizuma; Kazuo Iwatani; Hiromi Hasai; Masaharu Hoshi; Takamitsu Oka; Hiroshige Morishima

1993-01-01

333

Effect of semiclassical molecular initial ground state configuration on the neutron spectra in the interactions of p+Al, Fe, and Zr at 1.2 GeV  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of the semiclassical molecular initial ground state configuration of the nucleus on the neutron spectra for p+Al, Fe, and Zr at 1.2 GeV by using an improved ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (ImUrQMD) model. Compared to the standard UrQMD version, it incorporates: (i) Pauli potential (ii) a medium modified NN{yields}N{delta} angular distribution, and (iii) a statistical multifragmentation decay model as an afterburner. It is shown that the slow evaporated, cascade, and quasielastic (inelastic) peaks of neutrons are all sensitive to different initialization procedures. Therefore, the implementation of a proper semiclassical ground state initialization in the ImUrQMD model is of importance for the description of all the neutron spectra in proton-induced reactions at intermediate energies ({approx_equal}1GeV)

Abdel-Waged, Khaled [Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Applied Science, Physics Department, Makkah Unit 126, P.O. Box 7047 (Saudi Arabia)

2005-04-01

334

A bismuth activation counter for high sensitivity pulsed 14 MeV neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a fast neutron bismuth activation counter that measures activation counts from pulsed 14-MeV neutron generators for incident neutron fluences between 30 and 300 neutrons/cm2 at 15.2 cm (6 in.). The activation counter consists of a large bismuth germanate (BGO) detector surrounded by a bismuth metal shield in front of and concentric with the cylindrical detector housing. The 14 MeV neutrons activate the 2.6-millisecond (ms) isomer in the shield and the detector by the reaction 209Bi (n,2n?) 208mBi. The use of millisecond isomers and activation counting times minimizes the background from other activated materials and the environment. In addition to activation, the bismuth metal shields against other outside radiation sources. We have tested the bismuth activation counter, simultaneously, with two data acquisition systems (DASs) and both give similar results. The two-dimensional (2D) DAS and three dimensional (3D) DAS both consist of pulse height analysis (PHA) systems that can be used to discriminate against gamma radiations below 300 keV photon energy, so that the detector can be used strictly as a counter. If the counting time is restricted to less than 25 ms after the neutron pulse, there are less than 10 counts of background for single pulse operation in all our operational environments tested so far. High-fluence neutron generator operations are restricted by large dead times and pulse height saturation. When we operate our 3D DAS PHA system in list mode acquisition (LIST), real-time corrections to dead time or live time can be made on the scale of 1 ms time windows or dwell times. The live time correction is consistent with nonparalyzable models for dead time of 1.0±0.2 ?s for our 3D DAS and 1.5±0.3 ?s for our 2D DAS dominated by our fixed time width analog to digital converters (ADCs). With the same solid angle, we have shown that the bismuth activation counter has a factor of 4 increase in sensitivity over our lead activation counter, because of higher counts and negligible backgrounds.

Burns, E. J. T.; Thacher, P. D.; Hassig, G. J.; Decker, R. D.; Romero, J. A.; Barrett, K. P.

2011-08-01

335

Analysis of Neutron Induced Gamma Activity in Lowbackground Ge - Spectroscopy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron interactions with materials of Ge-spectroscopy systems are one of the main sources of background radiation in low-level gamma spectroscopy measurements. Because of that detailed analysis of neutron induced gamma activity in low-background Ge-spectroscopy systems was done. Two HPGe detectors which were located in two different passive shields: one in pre-WW II made iron and the second in commercial low background lead were used in the experiment. Gamma lines emitted after neutron capture, as well as after inelastic scattering on the germanium crystal and shield materials (lead, iron, hydrogen, NaI) were detected and then analyzed. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes were calculated and their values were compared for the two different kinds of detector shield. The relative intensities of several gamma lines emitted after the inelastic scattering of neutrons (created by cosmic muons) in 56Fe were report. These relative intensities of detected gamma lines of 56Fe are compared with the results collected in the same iron shield by the use of the 252Cf neutrons.

Jovan?evi?, Nikola; Krmar, Midrag

336

Benchmarking the MCNP code for Monte Carlo modelling of an in vivo neutron activation analysis system.  

PubMed

The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP (version 4A) has been used to develop a personal computer-based model of the Swansea in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system. The model included specification of the neutron source (252Cf), collimators, reflectors and shielding. The MCNP model was 'benchmarked' against fast neutron and thermal neutron fluence data obtained experimentally from the IVNAA system. The Swansea system allows two irradiation geometries using 'short' and 'long' collimators, which provide alternative dose rates for IVNAA. The data presented here relate to the short collimator, although results of similar accuracy were obtained using the long collimator. The fast neutron fluence was measured in air at a series of depths inside the collimator. The measurements agreed with the MCNP simulation within the statistical uncertainty (5-10%) of the calculations. The thermal neutron fluence was measured and calculated inside the cuboidal water phantom. The depth of maximum thermal fluence was 3.2 cm (measured) and 3.0 cm (calculated). The width of the 50% thermal fluence level across the phantom at its mid-depth was found to be the same by both MCNP and experiment. This benchmarking exercise has given us a high degree of confidence in MCNP as a tool for the design of IVNAA systems. PMID:9606084

Natto, S A; Lewis, D G; Ryde, S J

1998-01-01

337

Determination of rare earths and thorium in apatites by thermal and epithermal neutron-activation analysis.  

PubMed

A procedure is described for the non-destructive determination of Na, Mn, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu and Th in apatites by thermal and epithermal neutron-activation of independent portions of the material. The method was applied to three apatites with different contents. The precision obtained was better than +/-5% for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy and +/-20% for Yb, Nd, Ho, Er and Lu for an apatite with a total rare-earth oxide content of the order of 1%. Determination of Ce, Tb and Yb could only be carried out with thermal neutron-activation analysis, while Gd, Ho and Er could only be determined after irradiation with epithermal neutrons. PMID:18961487

Brunfelt, A O; Roelandts, I

1974-06-01

338

Accurate and precise measurement of selenium by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

An accurate and precise measurement of selenium in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3149, a primary calibration standard for the quantitative determination of selenium, has been accomplished by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in order to resolve a question arising during the certification process of the standard. Each limiting factor of the uncertainty in the activation analysis, including the sample preparation, irradiation, and ?-ray spectrometry steps, has been carefully monitored to minimize the uncertainty in the determined mass fraction. Neutron and ?-ray self-shielding within the elemental selenium INAA standards contributed most significantly to the uncertainty of the measurement. An empirical model compensating for neutron self-shielding and reducing the self-shielding uncertainty was successfully applied to these selenium standards. The mass fraction of selenium in the new lot of SRM 3149 was determined with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.6%. PMID:21466194

Kim, In Jung; Watson, Russell P; Lindstrom, Richard M

2011-05-01

339

X-ray spectra and time variability of active galactic nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-ray spectra of broad line active galactic nuclei (AGN) of all types (Seyfert I's, NELG's, broadline radio galaxies) are well fit by a power law in the .5 to 100 keV band of man energy slope alpha = .68 + or - .15. There is, as yet, no strong evidence for time variability of this slope in a given object. The constraints that this places on simple models of the central energy source are discussed. BL Lac objects have quite different X-ray spectral properties and show pronounced X-ray spectral variability. On time scales longer than 12 hours most radio quiet AGN do not show strong, delta I/I .5, variability. The probability of variability of these AGN seems to be inversely related to their luminosity. However characteristics timescales for variability have not been measured for many objects. This general lack of variability may imply that most AGN are well below the Eddington limit. Radio bright AGN tend to be more variable than radio quiet AGN on long, tau approx 6 month, timescales.

Mushotzky, R. F.

1984-01-01

340

Studies on the synthesis, spectra, catalytic and antibacterial activities of binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes.  

PubMed

A new series of stable binuclear ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of the general formula [{RuX(CO)(EPh(3))(2)}(2)L] (where X=H or Cl; E=P or As and L=dibasic tetradentate diacetyl resorcinol (H(2)-DAR)) have been synthesised by reacting ruthenium(II) starting complexes [RuHX(CO)(EPh(3))(3)] (where X=H or Cl; E=P or As) and 4,6-diacetylresorcinol (H(2)-DAR) ligand in benzene medium. The structure of the new binuclear ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes was established using elemental analysis, spectra (FT-IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR), electrochemical and thermal studies. In these reactions, the 4,6-diacetylresorcinol (H(2)-DAR) ligand behaves as a binegative tetradentate chelating ligand coordinating through O,O atoms of both the carbonyl and phenolic C-O groups by replacing a molecule of PPh(3)/AsPh(3) and a hydride ion from the starting complexes. Further, all these complexes were also employed as new catalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols in the presence of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMO) as a more viable co-oxidant. The free ligand and their metal complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial activity against the growth of gram +ve and gram -ve bacterial cultures. PMID:20538510

Krishnamoorthy, P; Sathyadevi, P; Deepa, K; Dharmaraj, N

2010-09-15

341

A new active method for the measurement of slow-neutron fluence in modern radiotherapy treatment rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on neutron monitoring at clinical linac facilities during high-energy modality radiotherapy treatments. Active in-room measurement of neutron fluence is a complex problem due to the pulsed nature of the fluence and the presence of high photon background, and only passive methods have been considered reliable until now. In this paper we present a new active method to

F. Gómez; A. Iglesias; F. Sánchez Doblado

2010-01-01

342

SUPERNOVA NEUTRINO LIGHT CURVES AND SPECTRA FOR VARIOUS PROGENITOR STARS: FROM CORE COLLAPSE TO PROTO-NEUTRON STAR COOLING  

SciTech Connect

We present a new series of supernova neutrino light curves and spectra calculated by numerical simulations for a variety of progenitor stellar masses (13-50 M {sub Sun }) and metallicities (Z = 0.02 and 0.004), which would be useful for a broad range of supernova neutrino studies, e.g., simulations of future neutrino burst detection by underground detectors or theoretical predictions for the relic supernova neutrino background. To follow the evolution from the onset of collapse to 20 s after the core bounce, we combine the results of neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations for the early phase and quasi-static evolutionary calculations of neutrino diffusion for the late phase, with different values of shock revival time as a parameter that should depend on the still unknown explosion mechanism. We describe the calculation methods and basic results, including the dependence on progenitor models and the shock revival time. The neutrino data are publicly available electronically.

Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Suzuki, Hideyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke [Numazu Collage of Technology, 3600 Ooka, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan)] [Numazu Collage of Technology, 3600 Ooka, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan); Totani, Tomonori [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kita-shirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kita-shirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: nakazato@rs.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2013-03-01

343

Neutron activation measurements over an extremely wide dynamic range (invited) (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DT program at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) created requirements on 14 MeV neutron measurements to measure from ˜106 n/cm2 (for triton burnup and Ohmic tritium plasmas) to >1012 n/cm2 (characteristic of >10 MW DT plasmas) with an accuracy of 7% (one-sigma).1 To maintain an absolute calibration over this dynamic range with active neutron detectors required one to go from some absolute standard at one fluence level to a measurement at a much higher fluence. Maintaining accuracy requires an extremely linear set of measurements not systematically affected over this dynamic range. Neutron activation can provide such linearity when care is taken with a number of effects such as gamma-ray detection efficiency and sample contamination.2 Absolutely calibrated neutron yield measurements using dosimetric (well-known cross section) reactions with thin (low-mass) elemental foils will be described. This technique makes the detector comparison to an absolute standard of gamma-ray activity correspond to all neutron fluences by reducing the sample mass while keeping the activation detectors operating in a linear counting mode; that is, one always uses low count rates to minimize pileup effects. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is projected to have 1000 s burn durations at fluxes of few 1013 n/cm2 s, or more neutron fluence per second than entire TFTR discharges. Extrapolating neutron activation to these higher fluences will require yet more care. Some of the issues at such high fluences will be discussed.3 The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is projected to yield 10 MJ of fusion energy, or up to 1012 n/cm2 at the vacuum vessel wall, similar to TFTR DT conditions. However, it is expected that much interesting physics will be performed at yields far less than those from ignition, possibly covering an even greater dynamic range than needed on TFTR. Thin foil techniques do not have the sensitivity required at low fluences. Absolutely calibrated neutron yield measurements using associated particle calibrations of thick (large mass) foils on accelerators4 will be compared. Using both thin and thick foil approaches can cover the dynamic range required for NIF.

Barnes, Cris W.

1997-01-01

344

Neutron activation study of the composition of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elemental composition of samples of lunar regolith returned by Luna 16 from the Sea of Fertility was determined by a radio activation method using generator and reactor neutrons, and also by gamma spectrometry with scintillation and Ge(Li) detectors.

Surkov, Y. A.; Kirnozov, F. F.; Ivanov, I. N.; Kilesov, G. M.; Ryvkin, B. N.; Shpanov, A. P.

1974-01-01

345

Elemental analysis of human lung tissue and other selected samples utilizing neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 31 samples are analyzed by neutron activation analysis for magnesium, manganese, chromium, iron, cobalt, zinc, selenium, bromine, antimony, arsenic, tantalum, tellurium, mercury, nickel, copper, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, bismuth, iodine, uranium, gold, iridium, rubidium, sodium, potassium, cesium, chlorine, lanthanum, and scandium. Samples analyzed include coal miners' lungs, non-miners' lungs, coal dust, coal filters, rat lungs, tumorous and non-tumorous

Filby

1975-01-01

346

Neutron activation analysis for determination of trace elements in sediments in the Sea of Galilee, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of applying both thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis for simultaneous determinations of elemental composition in sediments, collected from the Sea of Galilee (Kineret Lake), Israel, during 1988–1993, was experimentally investigated. In the present work, the concentrations of 30 elements (Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cs, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd,

N. Lavi; E. Ne'eman; S. Brenner; V. Butenko

1996-01-01

347

Neutron activation analysis of fluid inclusions for copper, manganese, and zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Microgram quantities of copper, manganese, and zinc, corresponding to concentrations greater than 100 parts per million, were found in milligram quantities of primary inclusion fluid extracted from samples of quartz and fluorite from two types of ore deposits. The results indicate that neutron activation is a useful analytical method for studying the content of heavy metal in fluid inclusions.

Czamanske, G.K.; Roedder, E.; Burns, F.C.

1963-01-01

348

Minimum activation martensitic alloys for surface disposal after exposure to neutron flux  

DOEpatents

Steel alloys for long-term exposure to neutron flux have a martensitic microstructure and contain chromium, carbon, tungsten, vanadium and preferably titanium. Activation of the steel is held to within acceptable limits for eventual surface disposal by stringently controlling the impurity levels of Ni, Mo, Cu, N, Co, Nb, Al and Mn.

Lechtenberg, Thomas (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01

349

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in the service of other analyses: Determination of calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium concentration in bone samples which contain 0 to 37% calcium is readily measured rapidly by neutron activation analysis. Sample and data processing can be minimal and conditions can be adjusted according to sample type and precision desired. Such determinations have contributed important reference data in support of biomedical and archaeometric studies. Repeatability of measurements can be better than

G. E. Miller; T. A. Crofoot; M. C. Manea-Krichten; M. Nault

1992-01-01

350

Instrumental neutron activation analysis as a routine method for rock analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental neutron activation methods for the analysis of geological samples were developed. Special emphasis was placed on the improvement of sensitivity and accuracy in order to maximize the quality of the analyses. Furthermore, the procedures were automated as far as possible in order to minimize the cost of the analysis. A short review of the basic literature is given followed

R. J. Rosenberg

1977-01-01

351

Application of neutron activation analysis in the field of silicon technology for the modern electronic industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific application of neutron activation analysis in the research on the preparation of silicon integrated circuits is discussed. The high flux irradiation facility for large silicon wafers (up to 15 cm diameter) was used, the analytical procedure, and some typical results will be described.

M. L. Verheijke; H. J. J. Jaspers; J. M. G. Hanssen; M. J. J. Theunissen

1987-01-01

352

ANALYSIS OF PM10 IN KUALA TERENGGANU BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter (PM10) for air pollution monitoring. For the collection of air samples, the PM10 high volume sampler unit and Whatman 41 cellulose filter papers were employed. Samples were collected at 13 selected sampling sites covering areas in the city center, inner and outer city of

Norhayati Mohd Tahir; Poh Seng Chee; Suhaimi Hamzah; Khalik Hj Wood; Shamsiah Abd; Wee Boon Siong; Suhaimi Elias

353

Study of the material and techniques used by some nineteenth century American oil painters by means of neutron activation autoradiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron activation autoradiography and activation analysis were used to ; study techniques and material used by nineteenth century painters particularly ; Ralph A. Blakelock. These techniques can supply information on pigments as well ; as the way they are applied. (LK)

M. J. Cotter; P. Meyers; L. van Zelst; C. H. Olin; E. V. Sayre

1973-01-01

354

Neutron Spectrum Determination of the p(35 MeV)-Be Source Reaction by the Dosimetry Foils Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thick target neutron field of source reaction p + Be was investigated for a proton energy of 35 MeV. The spectral neutron flux at 0? for two target-to-sample distances was determined by using the dosimetry foils activation method. The present p(35)-Be white neutron spectra provide the suitable basis for irradiation experiments and integral tests of nuclear data.

Štefánik, M.; Bém, P.; Götz, M.; Katovský, K.; Majerle, M.; Novák, J.; Šime?ková, E.

2014-05-01

355

Development of a new electronic personal neutron dosemeter using a CMOS active pixel sensor.  

PubMed

A CMOS active pixel sensor, originally designed for the tracking of minimum ionising charged particles in high-energy physics, has been recently used for the detection of fast neutrons. Data were taken at the IRSN Cadarache facility with a (241)Am-Be ISO source and a polyethylene radiator. A high-intrinsic efficiency (1.2 x 10(-3)) has been obtained. It is in good agreement with both calculations and a MCNPX Monte Carlo simulation. This experiment paves the way for a fully electronic personal neutron dosemeter. PMID:17576655

Trocmé, M; Higueret, S; Husson, D; Nourreddine, A; Lê, T D

2007-01-01

356

Neutron field for activation experiments in horizontal channel of training reactor VR-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental channels of nuclear reactors often serve for nuclear data measurement and validation. The dosimetry-foils activation technique was employed to measure neutron field parameters in the horizontal radial channel of the training reactor VR-1, and to test the possibility of using the reactor for scientific purposes. The reaction rates, energy spectral indexes, and neutron spectrum at several irradiation positions of the experimental channel were determined. The experimental results show the feasibility of the radial channel for irradiating experiments and open new possibilities for data validation by using this nuclear facility.

Stefanik, Milan; Katovsky, Karel; Vins, Miroslav; Soltes, Jaroslav; Zavorka, Lukas

2014-11-01

357

A New Automated Sample Transfer System for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis  

PubMed Central

A fully automated and fast pneumatic transport system for short-time activation analysis was recently developed. It is suitable for small nuclear research reactors or laboratories that are using neutron generators and other neutron sources. It is equipped with a programmable logic controller, software package, and 12 devices to facilitate optimal analytical procedures. 550?ms were only necessary to transfer the irradiated capsule (diameter: 15?mm, length: 50?mm, weight: 4 gram) to the counting chamber at a distance of 20 meters using pressurized air (4 bars) as a transport gas. PMID:20369063

Ismail, S. S.

2010-01-01

358

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01

359

Neutron-activation analysis of vanadium in oils with californium-252  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given which have been obtained by the application of relatively small252Cf sources for the neutron-activation analysis of vanadium in oils. It could be shown that by optimization the geometrical\\u000a conditions for activation and counting with a 24 ?g252Cf source detection limits down to the order of 1 ppm vanadium are attainable; the absolute error, e.g., at 1.3 ppm

H. Meier; G. Zeitler; P. Menge

1977-01-01

360

Feasibility study: In vivo neutron activation for regional measurement of calcium using Californium 252  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using a collimated ²⁵²Cf neutron source to measure regional changes in skeletal calcium was tested because in vivo regional activation of diseased bone should offer advantages over the more widely reported total-body calcium measuring techniques. Regional activation allows examination of discrete regions where the greatest changes in calcium content occur. Additionally, a simpler radiation facility is required

Harlan J. Evans; A. D. LeBlanc; P. C. Johnson

1976-01-01

361

Impurities analysis of polycrystalline silicon substrates: Neutronic Activation Analysis (NAA) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we have determined the concentration of some impurities such as carbon, iron, copper, titanium, nickel of the flat product (polycrystalline silicon). These impurities generate a yield decrease in the photovoltaic components. The material (polycrystalline silicon) used in this work is manufactured by the Unit of Silicon Technology Development (UDTS Algiers, Algeria). The 80 kg ingot has been cutted into 16 briquettes in order to have plates (flat product) of 100 mm×100 mm dimensions. Each briquette is divided into three parts top (T), middle (M) and bottom (B). For this purpose, the following instrumental analysis techniques have been employed: neutronic analysis (neutronic activation analysis) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Masses of 80 mg are sampled and form of discs 18 mm in diameter, then exposed to a flux of neutron of 2.1012neutron cm-2 s-1 during 15 min. The energetic profile of incidental flux is constituted of fast neutrons (?R = 3.1012n.cm-2 s-1; E = 2 Mev), thermal neutrons (?TH = 1013n.cm-2 s-1; E = 0.025 ev) and epithermal neutrons (?epi = 7.1011 n cm-2 s-1; E>4.9 ev), irradiation time 15 mn, after 20 mn of decrement, acquisitions of 300 s are carried out. The results are expressed by disintegration per second which does not exceed the 9000 Bq, 500 Bq and 2600 Bq, respectively for copper, titanium and nickel. It is observed that the impurities concentrations in the medium are higher. The impurities in the bottom of the ingots originate from the crucible. The impurities in the top originate from impurities dissolved in the liquid silicon, which have segregated to the top layer of the ingot and after solidification diffuse. Silicon corresponds to a mixture of three isotopes 28Si, 29Si and 30Si. These elements clearly appear on the mass spectrum (SIMS). The presence of iron and the one of nickel has been noticed.

Lounis, A.; Lenouar, K.; Gritly, Y.; Abbad, B.; Azzaz, M.; Taïbi, K.

2010-01-01

362

Recent upgrade of the in vivo neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The in vivo neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory consists of a delayed- and a prompt-gamma neutron activation (DGNA and PGNA) system and an inelastic neutron scattering (INS) system. The total body contents of several basic elements, including potassium, calcium, chlorine, sodium, and phosphorus are measured at the DGNA system; total body carbon is measured at the INS system; and the nitrogen-tohydrogen ratio is measured at the PGNA system. Based on the elemental composition, body compartments, such as total body fat and total body protein can be computed with additional independently measured parameters, such as total body water, body size, and body weight. Information on elemental and compartmental body composition obtained through neutron activation analysis is useful, if not essential, for research on growth, malnutrition, aging diseases, such as osteoporosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in which the progression of the illness is closely related to changes in major body compartments, such as bone, adipose tissue, and muscle. The DGNA system has been modified and upgraded several times since it was first built. Recently, all three systems underwent major upgrades. This upgrading and some preliminary studies carried out with the modified facilities are reported here.

Ma, R.; Dilmanian, F.A..; Rarback, H.; Meron, M.; Kamen, Y.; Yasumura, S.; Weber, D.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Stamatelatos, I.E. [Ioannina Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics; Lidofsky, L.J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Nuclear Engineering; Pierson, R.N. Jr. [Saint Luke`s-Roosevelt Body Composition Unit, New York, NY (United States)

1993-10-01

363

Measurement of neutron ambient dose equivalent in carbon-ion radiotherapy with an active scanned delivery system.  

PubMed

In ion beam radiotherapy, secondary neutrons contribute to an undesired dose outside the target volume, and consequently the increase of secondary cancer risk is a growing concern. In this study, neutron ambient dose equivalents in carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) with an active beam delivery system were measured with a rem meter, WENDI-II, at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. When the same irradiation target was assumed, the measured neutron dose with an active beam was at most ?15 % of that with a passive beam. This percentage became smaller as larger distances from the iso-centre. Also, when using an active beam delivery system, the neutron dose per treatment dose in CIRT was comparable with that in proton radiotherapy. Finally, it was experimentally demonstrated that the use of an active scanned beam in CIRT can greatly reduce the secondary neutron dose. PMID:24126486

Yonai, S; Furukawa, T; Inaniwa, T

2014-10-01

364

Importance of neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis in relatively dry, low-porosity rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate the importance of variations in the neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis, capture gamma-ray measurements were made in relatively dry, low-porosity gabbro of the Duluth Complex. Although sections of over a meter of solid rock were encountered in the borehole, there was significant fracturing with interstitial water leading to a substantial variation of water with depth in the borehole. The linear-correlation coefficients calculated for the peak intensities of several elements compared to the chemical core analyses were generally poor throughout the depth investigated. The data suggest and arguments are given which indicate that the variation of the thermal-to-intermediate-to-fast neutron flux density as a function of borehole depth is a serious source of error and is a major cause of the changes observed in the capture gamma-ray peak intensities. These variations in neutron energy may also cause a shift in the observed capture gamma-ray energy.

Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Philbin, P.W.; Boynton, G.R.; Wager, R.E.

1977-01-01

365

Gamma/neutron analysis for SNM signatures at high-data rates(greater than 107 cps) for single-pulse active interrogation  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a high data gamma/neutron spectrometer suitable for active interrogation of special nuclear materials (SNM) activated by a single burst from an intense source. We have tested the system at Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Mercury pulsed-power facility at distances approaching 10 meters from a depleted uranium (DU) target. We have found that the gamma-ray field in the target room 'disappears' 10 milliseconds after the x-ray flash, and that gamma ray spectroscopy will then be dominated by isomeric states/beta decay of fission products. When a polyethylene moderator is added to the DU target, a time-dependent signature of the DU is produced by thermalized neutrons. We observe this signature in gamma-spectra measured consecutively in the 0.1-1.0 ms time range. These spectra contain the Compton edge line (2.2 MeV) from capture in hydrogen, and a continuous high energy gamma-spectrum from capture or fission in minority constituents of the DU.

Forman L.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.

2011-04-26

366

Prompt gamma activation analysis and time of flight neutron diffraction on ‘black boxes’ in the ‘Ancient Charm’ project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the ‘Ancient Charm’ project is combining neutron tomography, prompt gamma activation analysis, time of flight neutron\\u000a diffraction and neutron resonance transmission to generate elemental, and phase compositions of complex museum objects in\\u000a 3D. To develop a protocol for such investigations, complex test samples were constructed and then analyzed by each method.\\u000a The ‘black boxes’ are sealed iron

Zs. Kasztovszky; Z. Kis; T. Belgya; W. Kockelmann; S. Imberti; G. Festa; A. Filabozzi; C. Andreani; A. Kirfel; K. T. Biró; K. Dúzs; Zs. Hajnal; P. Kudejova; M. Tardocchi

2008-01-01

367

Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.  

PubMed

The metal L-edge (2p ? 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture. PMID:25273421

Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

2014-09-28

368

New models for carrying out cyclic neutron activation. Discussion of the theoretical response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies two specific procedures for analyzing mining samples through a neutron activation technique called DGNAA (Delayed Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis). This particular study is part of a broader line of research, whose overall objective is to find the optimal procedure for analyzing the fluorite content of samples taken from different parts of a fluorite concentration plant, using the DGNAA method [1-2]. The mining sample is fluorspar, which contains other minerals in addition to fluorite, such as silica, barite, iron oxides and silicates. The main contribution of the article is the development of a new method for determining the fluorite content in minerals and the increase of sensitivity in respect to the symmetrical method and single-cycle activation.

Castro-García, M. P.; Rey-Ronco, M. A.; Alonso-Sánchez, T.

2014-11-01

369

Recent activities for ?-decay half-lives and ?-delayed neutron emission of very neutron-rich isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Beta-delayed neutron (?n) emitters play an important, two-fold role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the 'rapid neutron-capture process' (r process). On one hand they lead to a detour of the material ?-decaying back to stability. On the other hand, the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. A large fraction of the isotopes inside the r-process reaction path are not yet experimentally accessible and are located in the (experimental) 'Terra Incognita'. With the next generation of fragmentation and ISOL facilities presently being built or already in operation, one of the main motivation of all projects is the investigation of these very neutron-rich isotopes. A short overview of one of the planned programs to measure ?n-emitters at the limits of the presently know isotopes, the BRIKEN campaign (Beta delayed neutron emission measurements at RIKEN) will be given. Presently, about 600 ?-delayed one-neutron emitters are accessible, but only for a third of them experimental data are available. Reaching more neutron-rich isotopes means also that multiple neutron-emission becomes the dominant decay mechanism. About 460 ?-delayed two-, three-or four-neutron emitters are identified up to now but for only 30 of them experimental data about the neutron branching ratios are available, most of them in the light mass region below A=30. The International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA) has identified the urgency and picked up this topic recently in a 'Coordinated Research Project' on a 'Reference Database for Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Data'. This project will review, compile, and evaluate the existing data for neutron-branching ratios and half-lives of ?-delayed neutron emitters and help to ensure a reliable database for the future discoveries of new isotopes and help to constrain astrophysical and theoretical models.

Dillmann, Iris [TRIUMF, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3, Canada and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Abriola, Daniel [Laboratorio Tandar, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, B1650KINA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

2014-05-02

370

Recent activities for ?-decay half-lives and ?-delayed neutron emission of very neutron-rich isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beta-delayed neutron (?n) emitters play an important, two-fold role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the "rapid neutron-capture process" (r process). On one hand they lead to a detour of the material ?-decaying back to stability. On the other hand, the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. A large fraction of the isotopes inside the r-process reaction path are not yet experimentally accessible and are located in the (experimental) "Terra Incognita". With the next generation of fragmentation and ISOL facilities presently being built or already in operation, one of the main motivation of all projects is the investigation of these very neutron-rich isotopes. A short overview of one of the planned programs to measure ?n-emitters at the limits of the presently know isotopes, the BRIKEN campaign (Beta delayed neutron emission measurements at RIKEN) will be given. Presently, about 600 ?-delayed one-neutron emitters are accessible, but only for a third of them experimental data are available. Reaching more neutron-rich isotopes means also that multiple neutron-emission becomes the dominant decay mechanism. About 460 ?-delayed two-, three-or four-neutron emitters are identified up to now but for only 30 of them experimental data about the neutron branching ratios are available, most of them in the light mass region below A=30. The International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA) has identified the urgency and picked up this topic recently in a "Coordinated Research Project" on a "Reference Database for Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Data". This project will review, compile, and evaluate the existing data for neutron-branching ratios and half-lives of ?-delayed neutron emitters and help to ensure a reliable database for the future discoveries of new isotopes and help to constrain astrophysical and theoretical models.

Dillmann, Iris; Abriola, Daniel; Singh, Balraj

2014-05-01

371

Neutron activation analysis of final molasses from Cuban sugar industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal and epithermal non-destructive activation analyses have been performed on samples of final molasses from 14 different sugar factories, covering the most important regions in Cuba. From the first measurement after irradiation at the Triga Mark reactor (VTT), the concentration of more than 15 elements is reported. The almost constant elemental composition shows that they can be used equally for

J. Griffith; R. J. Rosenberg; O. Díaz-Rizo; E. González

1996-01-01

372

Active Neutron and Gamma Ray Instrumentation for In Situ Planetary Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pulsed Neutron Generator-Gamma Ray And Neutron Detectors (PNG-GRAND) experiment is an innovative application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology so successfully used in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth. The objective of our active neutron-gamma ray technology program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) is to bring the PNG-GRAND instrument to the point where it can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Menus, asteroids, comets and the satellites of the outer planets. Gamma-Ray Spectrometers (GRS) have been incorporated into numerous orbital planetary science missions and, especially its the case of the Mars Odyssey GRS, have contributed detailed maps of the elemental composition over the entire surface of Mars. However, orbital gamma ray measurements have low spatial sensitivity (100's of km) due to their low surface emission rates from cosmic rays and subsequent need to be averaged over large surface areas. PNG-GRAND overcomes this impediment by incorporating a powerful neutron excitation source that permits high sensitivity surface and subsurface measurements of bulk elemental compositions. PNG-GRAND combines a pulsed neutron generator (PNG) with gamma ray and neutron detectors to produce a landed instrument to determine subsurface elemental composition without needing to drill into a planet's surface a great advantage in mission design. We are currently testing PNG-GRAND prototypes at a unique outdoor neutron instrumentation test facility recently constructed at NASA/GSFC that consists of a 2 m x 2 in x 1 m granite structure placed outdoors in an empty field. Because an independent trace elemental analysis has been performed on the material, this granite sample is a known standard with which to compare both Monte Carlo simulations and our experimentally measured elemental composition data. We will present data from operating PNG-GRAND in various experimental configurations on a known sample in a geometry that is identical to that on a planetary surface. We will also illustrate the use of gamma ray timing techniques to improve sensitivity and will compare the material composition results from our experiments to both an independent laboratory elemental composition analysis and MCNPX computer modeling results.

Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

2010-01-01

373

Analysis of infrared spectra of a stellar occultation by the active Centaur (2060) Chiron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chiron, the first known Centaur, orbits primarily between Saturn and Uranus. It was originally thought to be an asteroid, but has since exhibited cometary-like behavior [e.g., 1,2]. This behavior is unusual given Chiron's relatively large distance from the Sun and its nucleus being larger than that of other comets. Previous stellar occultation data suggested that Chiron is greater than approximately 180 km in diameter and detected narrow jets as well as a gravitationally-bound dust coma [3,4]. More recent measurements from Herschel place the size at 218 ± 20 km [5]. On 29 November 2011, Chiron occulted a fairly bright star (R=14.8) as seen from Hawai'i. We observed the event from the 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea and the 2-m Faulkes Telescope North at Haleakala (run by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network, LCOGT). Data were taken as visible wavelength images at the Faulkes, using an Andor iXon 888 camera, and at the IRTF, using the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System (MORIS [6]). Simultaneously, low-resolution, near-infrared, 0.9--2.4 micron spectra were taken using SpeX [7] on the IRTF. The MORIS lightcurve contains an occultation by Chiron's nucleus, with a chord corresponding to a minimum radius of 158 ± 14 km [8,9]. The Faulkes lightcurve, a station located 97 km to the north, contains deep, symmetric dips before and after the predicted midtime and no solid-body occultation. The extinction features are located roughly 300 km from Chiron's center, and are approximately 3 and 7 km in extent separated by 10--14 km [8,9]. The MORIS data were taken at ten times slower cadence (2 s) and show shallow dips at roughly the same distance from Chiron's center. These lightcurve features indicate optically thick material in a roughly circular distribution, suggesting the presence of a near-circular ring or shell of material. Here, we present an analysis of the IRTF SpeX data of the occultation. Although the cadence was relatively slow (at 9.6 s), we investigate the flux versus wavelength dependence of the data in order to characterize the dust coma and shell/ring particles. This work is placed in context with other active Centaurs, given the recent discovery of rings around (10199) Chariklo [10] and the dust/gas coma observed on 174P/Echeclus [e.g. 11].

Gulbis, A.; Emery, J.; Ruprecht, J.; Bosh, A.; Person, M.; Bianco, F.; Bus, S.; Zangari, A.

2014-07-01

374

Optimal conditions for identifying 80Br and 128I in health food Angelica keiskei using rapid epithermal neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an optimal rapid epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) technique, using a 1mm Cd filter in reactor neutron flux, to analyze 80Br and 128I in the roots, stems, and leaves of health food Angelica keiskei (AK). Various sample weights of lichen (IAEA-336) for each portion of AK, under various periods of irradiation and counting, were used to optimize

Chien-Yi Chen

2003-01-01

375

High-fidelity MCNP modeling of a D-T neutron generator for active interrogation of special nuclear material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast and robust methods for interrogation of special nuclear material (SNM) are of interest to many agencies and institutions in the United States. It is well known that passive interrogation methods are typically sufficient for plutonium identification because of a relatively high neutron production rate from 240Pu [1]. On the other hand, identification of shielded uranium requires active methods using neutron or photon sources [2]. Deuterium-deuterium (2.45 MeV) and deuterium-tritium (14.1 MeV) neutron-generator sources have been previously tested and proven to be relatively reliable instruments for active interrogation of nuclear materials [3,4]. In addition, the newest generators of this type are small enough for applications requiring portable interrogation systems. Active interrogation techniques using high-energy neutrons are being investigated as a method to detect hidden SNM in shielded containers [4,5]. Due to the thickness of some containers, penetrating radiation such as high-energy neutrons can provide a potential means of probing shielded SNM. In an effort to develop the capability to assess the signal seen from various forms of shielded nuclear materials, the University of Michigan Neutron Science Laboratory's D-T neutron generator and its shielding were accurately modeled in MCNP. The generator, while operating at nominal power, produces approximately 1×10 10 neutrons/s, a source intensity which requires a large amount of shielding to minimize the dose rates around the generator. For this reason, the existing shielding completely encompasses the generator and does not include beam ports. Therefore, several MCNP simulations were performed to estimate the yield of uncollided 14.1-MeV neutrons from the generator for active interrogation experiments. Beam port diameters of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm were modeled to assess the resulting neutron fluxes. The neutron flux outside the beam ports was estimated to be approximately 2×10 4 n/cm 2 s.

Katalenich, Jeff; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Hartman, Michael R.

2011-10-01

376

Irradiation and penetration tests of boron-doped low activation concrete using 2.45 and 14 MeV neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron penetration and the activation characteristics of the boron-doped low activation concrete were investigated for irradiation of 2.45 and 14 MeV neutrons. The shielding property of the 2 wt% boron-doped low activation concrete is superior to that of the 1 wt% boron for the thermal neutron, on the contrary to no clear difference for the fast neutron. The total

Atsuhiko Morioka; Satoshi Sato; Masaharu Kinno; Akira Sakasai; Junichi Hori; Kentaro Ochiai; Michinori Yamauchi; Takeo Nishitani; Atsushi Kaminaga; Kei Masaki; Shinji Sakurai; Takao Hayashi; Makoto Matsukawa; Hiroshi Tamai; Shinichi Ishida

2004-01-01

377

Rainbow-Like Spectra with a CD: An Active-Learning Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes how you can obtain rainbow-like spectra, by reflexive diffraction of white light on a CD. The paper also discusses how building a coherent qualitative explanation can be a challenging task that requires students to combine gained knowledge with observations and explorations.

Planinå¡ic, Gorazd; Corona, Adrian; Sliå¡ko, Josip

2008-09-03

378

Rainbow-Like Spectra with a CD: An Active-Learning Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rainbow-like spectra, produced by reflexive diffraction of white light on a CD, offer a spectacular visual effect as well as an excellent classroom opportunity for students to learn how physics works. In this paper we show that building a coherent qualitative explanation can be a challenging task that requires students to combine gained knowledge…

Planinsic, G.

2008-01-01

379

Real-time measurement of low-energy-range neutron spectra on board the space shuttle STS89 (S\\/MM8)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a real-time, Bonner Ball-type (neutron energy range is from thermal to 15 MeV) neutron spectral measurement system (Bonner Ball Neutron Detector (BBND)) for use on board the International Space Station (ISS). From measurements taken inside STS-89 (S\\/MM-8), we successfully distinguished neutrons from protons and other particles in a mixed radiation field; a task hitherto considered difficult. Although

H. Matsumoto; T. Goka; K. Koga; S. Iwai; T. Uehara; O. Sato; S. Takagi

2001-01-01

380

A neutron activation analysis procedure for the determination of uranium, thorium and potassium in geologic samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A neutron activation analysis procedure was developed for the determination of uranium, thorium and potassium in basic and ultrabasic rocks. The three elements are determined in the same 0.5-g sample following a 30-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 2??1012 n??cm-2??sec-1. Following radiochemical separation, the nuclides239U (T=23.5 m),233Th (T=22.2 m) and42K (T=12.36 h) are measured by ??-counting. A computer program is used to resolve the decay curves which are complex owing to contamination and the growth of daughter activities. The method was used to determine uranium, throium and potassium in the U. S. Geological Survey standard rocks DTS-1, PCC-1 and BCR-1. For 0.5-g samples the limits of detection for uranium, throium and potassium are 0.7, 1.0 and 10 ppb, respectively. ?? 1972 Akade??miai Kiado??.

Aruscavage, P. J.; Millard, H.T., Jr.

1972-01-01

381

Benchmark test of transport calculations of gold and nickel activation with implications for neutron kerma at Hiroshima.  

PubMed

A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a 252Cf fission neutron source to validate the use of the code for the energy spectrum analyses of Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons. Nuclear data libraries used in the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code calculation were ENDF/B-III, ENDF/B-IV, LASL-SUB, and ENDL-73. The neutron moderators used were granite (the main component of which is SiO2, with a small fraction of hydrogen), Newlight [polyethylene with 3.7% boron (natural)], ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), and water (H2O). Each moderator was 65 cm thick. The neutron detectors were gold and nickel foils, which were used to detect thermal and epithermal neutrons (4.9 eV) and fast neutrons (> 0.5 MeV), respectively. Measured activity data from neutron-irradiated gold and nickel foils in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which correspond to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For both gold and nickel detectors, the measured activities and the calculated values agreed within 10%. The slopes of the depth-yield relations in each moderator, except granite, were similar for neutrons detected by the gold and nickel foils. From the results of these studies, the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code was verified to be accurate enough for use with the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, chlorine, and cadmium, and for the incident 252Cf fission spectrum neutrons. PMID:1399639

Hoshi, M; Hiraoka, M; Hayakawa, N; Sawada, S; Munaka, M; Kuramoto, A; Oka, T; Iwatani, K; Shizuma, K; Hasai, H

1992-11-01

382

Neutron spectral distribution from a sealed-tube neutron generator by multiple-foil activation unfolding method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral distribution of 14 MeV neutrons from a KAMAN sealed-tube neutron generator has been determined using threshold-energy monitor reactions in combination with the SULSA unfolding code, in which no input 'guess spectrum' is required except measured reaction rates of threshold monitor reactions. Result indicates that value of mean neutron energy determined in the present study compares well with the value obtained using the Nb-Zr ratio method.

Jonah, S. A.; Ibikunle, K.

2003-04-01

383

[Results of measuring neutrons doses and energy spectra inside Russian segment of the International Space Station in experiment "Matryoshka-R" using bubble detectors during the ISS-24-34 missions].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of calculating the equivalent dose from and energy spectrum of neutrons in the right-hand crewquarters in module Zvezda of the ISS Russian segment. Dose measurements were made in the period between July, 2010 and November, 2012 (ISS Missions 24-34) by research equipment including the bubble dosimeter as part of experiment "Matryoshka-R". Neutron energy spectra in the crewquarters are in good agreement with what has been calculated for the ISS USOS and, earlier, for the MIR orbital station. The neutron dose rate has been found to amount to 196 +/- 23 microSv/d on Zvezda panel-443 (crewquarters) and 179 +/- 16 microSv/d on the "Shielding shutter" surface in the crewquarters. PMID:25089327

Khulapko, S V; Liagushin, V I; Arkhangel'ski?, V V; Shurshakov, V A; Smith, M; Ing, H; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I V

2014-01-01

384

On the determination of trace elements in cocoa and coffee by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

E-print Network

Ccmmittee: Dr. E. A. Schwelkert Three kinds o; cocoa samp'es (commercial cocoa, chemically treated cocoa, and untreatec, cocoa) and a total analyze'1 by activation sr'tn thermal reactor neutrons gamma ? ray spec . rometry . The ana' ysis o-. cccc- in... Analysis Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Peak Area Computation Peak Energy Determination Computation of Element Concentration EXPERINENTAL 8 14 17 19 20 21 Sampling Samples and Standards Preparation Counting System Irradiation Facility Data Ana...

Adanuvor, Prosper Kwasi

2012-06-07

385

Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Some Geological Samples of Different Origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumental Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used to investigate the distribution of six major elements and 34 trace elements in a set of eight igneous and metamorphic rocks collected from Carpathian and Macin Mountainsas well as unconsolidated sediments collected from anoxic zone of the Black Sea. All experimental data were interpreted within the Upper Continental Core and Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt model system that allowed getting more information concerning samples origin as well as the environmental peculiarities.

Duliu, O. G.; Cristache, C. I.; Oaie, G.; Ricman, C.; Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

2010-01-01

386

Neutron activation analysis for reference determination of the implantation dose of cobalt ions  

SciTech Connect

The authors prepared depth profilling reference materials by cobalt ion implantation at an ion energy of 300 keV into n-type silicon. The implanted Co dose was then determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) giving an analytical dynamic range of almost 5 decades and uncertainty of 1.5%. This form of analysis allows sources of error (beam spreading, misalignment) to be corrected. 70 refs., 3 tabs.

Garten, R.P.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Dortmund (Germany); Bubert, H. [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und angewandte Spektrokopie, Dortmund (Germany); Palmetshofer, L. [Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet, Linz (Australia)

1992-05-15

387

Trace element measurements in high purity synthetic Al2O3 via neutron activation.  

PubMed

We present results from our use of thermal and fast neutron activation for the determination of trace elements in Al2O3 fabricated via the heat exchanger method (HEM™). This material has applications in microwave oscillators and gravity-wave detection. Typical concentrations obtained from these measurements show the presence of Cr (5 ppb+20%), Ti (300 ppb±9.7%), Mo (1500 ppb±15%) and Sc (3 ppb±6.7%). Details of the experiments and interpretations are given. PMID:22154386

McGuire, Stephen C; Hand, Louis N

2012-07-01

388

Determination of trace elements in various organs of rats by thermal neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace element levels in various organs of normal rats have been determined by means of thermal neutron activation followed\\u000a by high-resolution gamma-spectroscopy. Abundances for 11 elements (Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sb, Se, Cr, Co, Cs and Sc) were evaluated\\u000a in the individual subjects. The present results were generally found within the ranges of the literature values, except for

T. Sato; T. Kato

1979-01-01

389

Survey of trace elements in coals and coal-related materials by neutron activation analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Utilizing primarily instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and other analytical methods as many as 61 elements were quantitatively surveyed in 170 U.S. whole coals, 70 washed coals, and 40 bench samples. Data on areal and vertical distributions in various regions were obtained along with extensive information on the mode of occurrence of various elements in the coal matrix itself. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

Ruch, R.R.; Cahill, R.A.; Frost, J.K.; Camp, L.R.; Gluskoter, H.J.

1977-01-01

390

Gamma-ray photopeak interferences found in the instrumental neutron activation analysis of silicate rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are tabulated to identify all major and minor gamma-ray interferences which may effect the area determinations of analytical\\u000a photopeaks for all principle isotopes (of half life greater than about one day) encountered during the routine instrumental\\u000a neutron activation analysis of silicate rocks. These photopeaks cover the energy range 60–1700 keV and are based on data abstracted\\u000a from ERDTMANN and

P. J. Potts

1983-01-01

391

Optimization of the Neutron Activation Detector Location Scheme for VVER-1000 Ex-Vessel Dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the Ukrainian VVER-1000 ex-vessel dosimetry and of comparisons of calculated to experimental specific activities are analyzed. It is shown that the fast neutron spectrum shapes at a VVER-1000 vessel outer surface as well as the calculated to experimental ratios are not constant and azimuthally dependent. Recommendations on fulfillment of VVER-1000 ex-vessel dosimetry are developed based on these facts.

Bukanov, V. N.; Diemokhin, V. L.; Vasylieva, O. G.; Pugach, A. M.

2009-08-01

392

Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Some Geological Samples of Different Origin  

SciTech Connect

Instrumental Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used to investigate the distribution of six major elements and 34 trace elements in a set of eight igneous and metamorphic rocks collected from Carpathian and Macin Mountainsas well as unconsolidated sediments collected from anoxic zone of the Black Sea. All experimental data were interpreted within the Upper Continental Core and Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt model system that allowed getting more information concerning samples origin as well as the environmental peculiarities.

Duliu, O. G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125, Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Cristache, C. I. [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia-Hulubei, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125, Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Oaie, G. [National Institute of Research and Development for Geology and Marine Geoecologylogy, 34 Dimitrie Onciul str., 024504 Bucharest (Romania); Ricman, C. [Geological Institute of Romania, 1 Caransebes Street, 012271 Bucharest (Romania); Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6, Joliot-Curie str. 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2010-01-21

393

Measurement and calculation of the fast-neutron and photon spectra from the core boundary to the biological shielding in the WWER-1000 reactor model.  

PubMed

The fast-neutron and photon space-energy distributions have been measured in an axially (1.25 m active height) and azimuthally (60 degree symmetry sector) shortened model of the WWER-1000 reactor assembled in the LR-0 experimental reactor. The space-energy distributions have been calculated with the stochastic code MCNP and the deterministic three-dimensional code TORT. Selected results are presented and discussed in the paper. This work has been done in the frame of the EU 5th FW project REDOS REDOS, Reactor Dosimetry: Accurate determination and benchmarking of radiation field parameters, relevant for reactor pressure vessel monitoring. EURATOM Programme, Call 2000/C 294/04). All geometry and material composition data of the model as well as the available experimental data were carefully checked and revised. PMID:16381689

Osmera, B; Cvachovec, F; Kyncl, J; Smutný, V

2005-01-01

394

Neutron crystallographic evidence of lipase-colipase complex activation by a micelle.  

PubMed Central

The concept of lipase interfacial activation stems from the finding that the catalytic activity of most lipases depends on the aggregation state of their substrates. It is thought that activation involves the unmasking and structuring of the enzyme's active site through conformational changes requiring the presence of oil-in-water droplets. Here, we present the neutron structure of the activated lipase-colipase-micelle complex as determined using the D2O/H2O contrast variation low resolution diffraction method. In the ternary complex, the disk-shaped micelle interacts extensively with the concave face of colipase and the distal tip of the C-terminal domain of lipase. Since the micelle- and substrate-binding sites concern different regions of the protein complex, we conclude that lipase activation is not interfacial but occurs in the aqueous phase and is mediated by colipase and a micelle. PMID:9312012

Hermoso, J; Pignol, D; Penel, S; Roth, M; Chapus, C; Fontecilla-Camps, J C

1997-01-01

395

Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons  

DOEpatents

Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction using {sup 14}N-MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second {sup 16}N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1--2 minutes. 15 figs.

Smith, D.L.; Ikeda, Yujiro; Uno, Yoshitomo

1996-11-05

396

Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons  

DOEpatents

Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the .sup.16 O(n,p).sup.16 N reaction using .sup.14 -MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the .sup.3 H(d,n).sup.4 He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second .sup.16 N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1-2 minutes.

Smith, Donald L. (Plainfield, IL); Ikeda, Yujiro (Ibaraki, JP); Uno, Yoshitomo (Ibaraki, JP)

1996-01-01

397

Methods and procedures for evaluation of neutron-induced activation cross sections  

SciTech Connect

One cannot expect measurements alone to supply all of the neutron-induced activation cross-section data required by the fission reactor, fusion reactor, and nuclear weapons development communities, given the wide ranges of incident neutron energies, the great variety of possible reaction types leading to activation, and targets both stable and unstable. Therefore, the evaluator must look to nuclear model calculations and systematics to aid in fulfilling these cross-section data needs. This review presents some of the recent developments and improvements in the prediction of neutron activation cross sections, with specific emphasis on the use of empirical and semiempirical methods. Since such systematics require much less nuclear informaion as input and much less computational time than do the multistep Hauser-Feshbach codes, they can often provide certain cross-section data at a sufficient level of accuracy within a minimum amount of time. The cross-section information that these systematics can and cannot provide and those cases in which they can be used most reliably are discussed.

Gardner, M.A.

1981-09-01

398

Use of spherical targets to minimize effects of neutron scattering by hydrogen in neutron capture prompt gamma-ray activation analysis.  

PubMed

For hydrogenous targets that are thinner than they are wide, element sensitivities (counts.s-1.mg-1) for determining concentrations of elements by neutron capture prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) are enhanced relative to sensitivities obtained from measurements on nonhydrogenous materials. These enhancements are caused mainly by elastic neutron scattering by H, which changes the average neutron fluence rate within the matrix. The magnitude of the effect depends on the macroscopic scattering and absorption cross sections and on the size, shape, and orientation of the target with respect to the neutron beam. Sensitivities increase linearly with H density for thin targets of constant size and shape and also vary with target shape. Theoretical work was shown that element sensitivities for hydrogenous targets in the form of spheres are least affected by neutron scattering. Methods were devised for creating solid spheres and for containing liquids in spherical shapes. Element sensitivities were determined for spheres and disks of several hydrogenous materials. For H, B, Cl, K, Br, and Cd, sensitivities for spheres were found to be less affected by neutron scattering. Exceptions were Sm and Gd sensitivities measured in liquids contained in quartz globes. PMID:1466451

Mackey, E A; Gordon, G E; Lindstrom, R M; Anderson, D L

1992-10-15

399

The Role of Neutron Activation Analysis in the Pathological Evaluation of Silver-Eluting Biomedical Devices in Biological Matrices  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research was to determine the viability of using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to quantify silver nanoparticle (AgNP) content in biological matrices in the context of pathology evaluations of silver...

Lancon, Trevor

2014-08-14

400

Testing rate-dependent corrections on timing mode EPIC-pn spectra of the accreting neutron star GX 13+1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the EPIC-pn instrument on board XMM-Newton is operated in Timing mode, high count rates (>100 counts s-1) of bright sources may affect the calibration of the energy scale, resulting in a modification of the real spectral shape. The corrections related to this effect are then strongly important in the study of the spectral properties. Tests of these calibrations are more suitable in sources which spectra are characterized by a large number of discrete features. Therefore, in this work, we carried out a spectral analysis of the accreting neutron star GX 13+1, which is a dipping source with several narrow absorption lines and a broad emission line in its spectrum. We tested two different correction approaches on an XMM-Newton EPIC-pn observation taken in Timing mode: the standard rate-dependent charge transfer inefficiency (RDCTI or epfast) and the new, rate-dependent pulse height amplitude (RDPHA) corrections. We found that, in general, the two corrections marginally affect the properties of the overall broad-band continuum, while hints of differences in the broad emission line spectral shape are seen. On the other hand, they are dramatically important for the centroid energy of the absorption lines. In particular, the RDPHA corrections provide a better estimate of the spectral properties of these features than the RDCTI corrections. Indeed the discrete features observed in the data, applying the former method, are physically more consistent with those already found in other Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of GX 13+1.

Pintore, F.; Sanna, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Guainazzi, M.; D'Aì, A.; Riggio, A.; Burderi, L.; Iaria, R.; Robba, N. R.

2014-12-01

401

New Measurements and Calculations to Characterize the Caliban Pulsed Reactor Cavity Neutron Spectrum by the Foil Activation Method  

SciTech Connect

Caliban is a cylindrical metallic core reactor mainly composed of uranium 235. It is operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Laboratory located at the French Atomic Energy Commission research center in Valduc. As with other fast burst reactors, Caliban is used extensively for determining the responses of electronic parts or other objects and materials to neutron-induced displacements. Therefore, Caliban's irradiation characteristics, and especially its central cavity neutron spectrum, have to be very accurately evaluated. The foil activation method has been used in the past by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Laboratory to evaluate the neutron spectrum of the different facilities it operated, and in particular to characterize the Caliban cavity spectrum. In order to strengthen and to improve our knowledge of the Caliban cavity neutron spectrum and to reduce the uncertainties associated with the available evaluations, new measurements have been performed on the reactor and interpreted by the foil activation method. A sensor set has been selected to sample adequately the studied spectrum. Experimental measured reaction rates have been compared to the results from UMG spectrum unfolding software and to values obtained with the activation code Fispact. Experimental and simulation results are overall in good agreement, although gaps exist for some sensors. UMG software has also been used to rebuild the Caliban cavity neutron spectrum from activation measurements. For this purpose, a default spectrum is needed, and one has been calculated with the Monte-Carlo transport code Tripoli 4 using the benchmarked Caliban description. (authors)

Jacquet, X.; Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Rousseau, G. [CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Barsu, C. [Pl. de la fontaine, 25410 Corcelles-Ferrieres (France)

2011-07-01

402

HST-COS Observations of AGNs. II. Extended Survey of Ultraviolet Composite Spectra from 159 Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionizing fluxes from quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are critical for interpreting their emission-line spectra and for photoionizing and heating the intergalactic medium. Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we directly measure the rest-frame ionizing continua and emission lines for 159 AGNs at redshifts 0.001 < z AGN < 1.476 and construct a composite spectrum from 475 to 1875 Å. We identify the underlying AGN continuum and strong extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission lines from ions of oxygen, neon, and nitrogen after masking out absorption lines from the H I Ly? forest, 7 Lyman-limit systems (N_H\\,{\\scriptsize I} \\ge 10^{17.2} cm-2) and 214 partial Lyman-limit systems (14.5 < log N_H\\,{\\scriptsize I}< 17.2). The 159 AGNs exhibit a wide range of FUV/EUV spectral shapes, F_{\

Stevans, Matthew L.; Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, Charles W.; Tilton, Evan M.

2014-10-01

403

Computer-aided discovery of biological activity spectra for anti-aging and anti-cancer olive oil oleuropeins  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with common conditions, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The type of multi-targeted pharmacological approach necessary to address a complex multifaceteddisease such as aging might take advantage of pleiotropic natural polyphenols affecting a wide variety of biological processes. We have recently postulated that the secoiridoids oleuropein aglycone (OA) and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA), two complex polyphenols present in health-promoting extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), might constitute anew family of plant-produced gerosuppressant agents. This paper describes an analysis of the biological activity spectra (BAS) of OA and DOA using PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) software. PASS can predict thousands of biological activities, as the BAS of a compound is an intrinsic property that is largely dependent on the compound's structure and reflects pharmacological effects, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action, and specific toxicities. Using Pharmaexpert, a tool that analyzes the PASS-predicted BAS of substances based on thousands of “mechanism-effect” and “effect-mechanism” relationships, we illuminate hypothesis-generating pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and targets that might underlie the anti-aging/anti-cancer activities of the gerosuppressant EVOO oleuropeins. PMID:25324469

Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Santangelo, Elvira; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Ariza, Xavier; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; García, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A.

2014-01-01

404

The development of a technique to measure bone aluminium content using neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

The accumulation and toxicity of aluminium in patients with chronic renal failure is a well recognized hazard, and there is a need for a non-invasive technique to assess Al tissue load in these patients. The technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis, using a thermal neutron beam from a reactor, has been employed by previous workers, who measured Al in the hand with a detection limit of 0.4 mg for a dose equivalent of 20 mSv. However, the application of this technique is restricted by the very limited availability of nuclear reactors. We report the modification of an existing 252Cf-based instrument and construction of a shielded, high-efficiency counting system for the in vivo measurement of Al in the hand. Phantoms containing tissue-equivalent solutions of Ca, P, Na and Cl with various Al loadings were used for validation of the technique. The Al/Ca ratio in the hands of seven patients with renal failure was measured using a cyclic activation technique to compensate for the relatively low neutron output of the 252Cf source, and a detection limit of approximately 2.2 mg Al was achieved for a dose equivalent of 36 mSv. The results were compared with the Al content of iliac crest bone biopsy specimens measured using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:8401272

Wyatt, R M; Ryde, S J; Morgan, W D; McNeil, E A; Hainsworth, I R; Williams, A J

1993-08-01

405

Neutron activation determination of iridium, gold, platinum, and silver in geologic samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Low-level methods for the determination of iridium and other noble metals have become increasingly important in recent years due to interest in locating abundance anomalies associated with the Cretaceous and Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Typical iridium anomalies are in the range of 1 to 100 ??g/kg (ppb). Thus methods with detection limits near 0.1 ??g/kg should be adequate to detect K-T boundary anomalies. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis methods continue to be required although instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques employing elaborate gamma-counters are under development. In the procedure developed in this study samples irradiated in the epithermal neutron facility of the U. S. Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (Denver, Colorado) are treated with a mini-fire assay technique. The iridium, gold, and silver are collected in a 1-gram metallic lead button. Primary contaminants at this stage are arsenic and antimony. These can be removed by heating the button with a mixture of sodium perioxide and sodium hydroxide. The resulting 0.2-gram lead bead is counted in a Compton suppression spectrometer. Carrier yields are determined by reirradiation of the lead beads. This procedure has been applied to the U.S.G.S. Standard Rock PCC-1 and samples from K-T boundary sites in the Western Interior of North America. ?? 1987 Akade??miai Kiado??.

Millard, H.T., Jr.

1987-01-01

406

Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials  

SciTech Connect

Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.

Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

2008-02-13

407

Determination of Long-Lived Neutron Activation Products in Reactor Shielding Concrete Samples  

SciTech Connect

The results of activation studies of TRIGA research reactor concrete shielding are given. Samples made of ordinary and barytes concrete were irradiated in the reactor to simulate neutron activation in the shielding concrete. Long-lived neutron-induced gamma-ray-emitting radioactive nuclides were measured in the samples with a high-purity germanium detector. The most active long-lived radioactive nuclides in the ordinary concrete samples were found to be {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu. In the barytes concrete samples, the most active long-lived radioactive nuclides were {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba, and {sup 152}Eu. Activation in the concrete was also calculated using the ORIGEN2 code and compared to experimental results. Simple radioactive nuclide generation and depletion calculation using one-group cross-section libraries provided together with the ORIGEN2 code did not give conservative results. Significant discrepancies were observed for some nuclides. For accurate long-lived radioactive nuclide generation in reactor shielding, material-specific cross-section libraries should be generated and verified by measurement.

Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz ['Jozef Stefan' Institute (Slovenia)

2002-10-15

408

Thermally Activated Post-glitch Response of the Neutron Star Inner Crust and Core. I. Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinning of superfluid vortices is predicted to prevail throughout much of a neutron star. Based on the idea of Alpar et al., I develop a description of the coupling between the solid and liquid components of a neutron star through thermally activated vortex slippage, and calculate the response to a spin glitch. The treatment begins with a derivation of the vortex velocity from the vorticity equations of motion. The activation energy for vortex slippage is obtained from a detailed study of the mechanics and energetics of vortex motion. I show that the "linear creep" regime introduced by Alpar et al. and invoked in fits to post-glitch response is not realized for physically reasonable parameters, a conclusion that strongly constrains the physics of a post-glitch response through thermal activation. Moreover, a regime of "superweak pinning," crucial to the theory of Alpar et al. and its extensions, is probably precluded by thermal fluctuations. The theory given here has a robust conclusion that can be tested by observations: for a glitch in the spin rate of magnitude ??, pinning introduces a delay in the post-glitch response time. The delay time is td = 7(t sd/104 yr)((??/?)/10-6) d, where t sd is the spin-down age; td is typically weeks for the Vela pulsar and months in older pulsars, and is independent of the details of vortex pinning. Post-glitch response through thermal activation cannot occur more quickly than this timescale. Quicker components of post-glitch response, as have been observed in some pulsars, notably, the Vela pulsar, cannot be due to thermally activated vortex motion but must represent a different process, such as drag on vortices in regions where there is no pinning. I also derive the mutual friction force for a pinned superfluid at finite temperature for use in other studies of neutron star hydrodynamics.

Link, Bennett

2014-07-01

409

Performance of an improved thermal neutron activation detector for buried bulk explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First generation thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensors, employing an isotopic source and NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors, were deployed by Canadian Forces in 2002 as confirmation sensors on multi-sensor landmine detection systems. The second generation TNA detector is being developed with a number of improvements aimed at increasing sensitivity and facilitating ease of operation. Among these are an electronic neutron generator to increase sensitivity for deeper and horizontally displaced explosives; LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, to improve time response and energy resolution; improved thermal and electronic stability; improved sensor head geometry to minimize spatial response nonuniformity; and more robust data processing. The sensor is described, with emphasis on the improvements. Experiments to characterize the performance of the second generation TNA in detecting buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) hidden in culverts are described. Performance results, including comparisons between the performance of the first and second generation systems are presented.

McFee, J. E.; Faust, A. A.; Andrews, H. R.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Mosquera, C. M.

2013-06-01

410

Activation cross sections for reactions induced by 14 MeV neutrons on natural tantalum  

SciTech Connect

Cross sections for (n,2n), (n,p), (n,n{sup '}{alpha}), (n,t), (n,d{sup '}), and (n,{alpha}) reactions have been measured on tantalum isotopes at the neutron energies of 13.5 to 14.7 MeV using the activation technique. Data are reported for the following reactions: {sup 181}Ta(n,2n){sup 180}Ta{sup g}, {sup 181}Ta(n,p){sup 181}Hf, {sup 181}Ta(n,n{sup '}{alpha}){sup 177}Lu{sup m}, {sup 181}Ta(n,t){sup 179}Hf{sup m2}, {sup 181}Ta(n,d{sup '}){sup 180}Hf{sup m}, and {sup 181}Ta(n,{alpha}){sup 178}Lu{sup m}. The neutron fluences were determined using the monitor reaction {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na. Results were discussed and compared with the previous works.

Luo Junhua [Department of Physics, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Tuo Fei [National Institute for Radiological Protection, China CDC, Beijing 100088 (China); Kong Xiangzhong [Department of Physics, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China)

2009-05-15

411

The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

2006-01-01

412

The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis.  

PubMed

Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. PMID:16737819

Oden, C P; Schweitzer, J S; McDowell, G M

2006-09-01

413

Residual Nuclide Production from Iron, Lead, and Uranium by Neutron-Induced Reactions up to 180 MeV  

SciTech Connect

Within the HINDAS project, activation experiments with quasi mono-energetic neutrons were performed at UCL and TSL. Cross sections for the production of residual radionuclides were derived from the measured activities by unfolding, based on the neutron spectra inside the target stacks and starting from 'guess' excitation functions. Exemplary results are presented and are compared with theoretical calculations using the TALYS code.

Michel, R.; Glasser, W. [Center for Radiation Protection and Radioecology, University Hannover (Germany); Herpers, U. [Dept. for Nuclear Chemistry, University of Cologne (Germany); Schuhmacher, H.; Brede, H.J.; Dangendorf, V.; Nolte, R. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Malmborg, P. [Svedberg Laboratory, University of Uppsala (Sweden); Prokofiev, A.V. [Department of Neutron Research, University of Uppsala (Sweden); Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Smirnov, A.N.; Rishkov, I. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kollar, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Meulders, J.P. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands)

2005-05-24

414

High-flux white neutron source based on p(35)-Be reactions for activation experiments at NPI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is based on the d(40)-Li neutron source reaction which produces the white neutron spectrum with mean energy of 14 MeV, energy range with high intensity of neutron beam up to 35 MeV, and weak tail up to 55 MeV. At the Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR in Rez near Prague, the source reaction of p+Be was investigated for proton energy of 35 MeV and beam current intensity of 9.2 ?A. The produced white spectrum with neutron flux up to 1011 cm-2 s-1 was determined by the dosimetry foils activation technique at two sample-to-target distances and validated against the Monte Carlo predictions. The neutron field of these high-flux p(35)-Be white neutron source represents the useful tool for experimental simulation of the spectrum of the IFMIF facility, validating the activation cross-section data in the energy range relevant to the IFMIF, studying the radiation hardness of electronics against the high-energy neutron fields, and various activation experiments.

Stefanik, Milan; Bem, Pavel; Gotz, Miloslav; Katovsky, Karel; Majerle, Mitja; Novak, Jan; Simeckova, Eva

2014-11-01

415

ASCA X-ray spectra of the active single stars Beta Ceti and pi(1) Ursae Majoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present X-ray spectra obtaiined by ASCA of two single, active stars, the G dwarf pi(1) UMa, and the G9/K0 giant Beta Cet. The spectra of both stars require the presence of at least two plasma components with different temperatures, 0.3-0.4 keV and approximately 0.7 keV, in order for acceptable fits to be obtained. The spectral resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the solid state imaging spectrometer (SIS) spectra allow us to formally constrain the coronal abundances of a number of elements. In Beta Cet, we find Mg to be overabundant, while other elements such as O, Ne, and N are underabundant, relative to the solar photospheric values. From the lower signal-to-noise ratio SIS spectrum of pi(1) UMa, we find evidence for underabundances of O, Ne, and Fe. These results are discussed in the context of the present understanding of elemental abundances in solar and stellar coronae.

Drake, S. A.; Singh, K. P.; White, N. E.; Simon, Theodore

1994-01-01

416

The Ultraviolet Spectra of Active Galaxies WIth Double-Peaked Balmer Emission Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the UV spectra of eight nearby AGNs with broad, double-peaked Balmer emission lines in their optical spectra. We find that the Mg II UV lines have similar widths and profiles as the optical Balmer lines but the higher-ionization UV lines as well as Ly? have single peaked and relatively "cuspy" profiles. We find that the Ly?/H? ratio in double-peaked emitters increases with Eddington ratio; it ranges from less than unity for the objects with the lowest Eddington ratios to a few for objects with Eddington ratios of order a few tenths. We quantify the profile shapes by means of the ratio of widths at half maximum and quarter maximum, which is a proxy for the kurtosis. We find that the kurtosis of the UV lines of double-peaked emitters is substantially lower than that of the same lines of ordinary quasars (i.e., the UV lines of double-peaked emitters are less "cuspy"). We interpret these observational results in the context of a picture where the broad-line region is an accretion disk and its associated wind. We suggest that the relative strengths and profiles shapes of double-peaked emitters correspond to a wind with a small optical depth and small emission measure, which is a consequence of a low Eddington ratio.

Eracleous, Michael; Lewis, Karen T.; Halpern, Jules P.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Livio, Mario; Wilson, Andrew S.

2015-01-01

417

A study of neutron radiation quality with a tissue-equivalent proportional counter for a low-energy accelerator-based in vivo neutron activation facility.  

PubMed

The accelerator-based in vivo neutron activation facility at McMaster University has been used successfully for the measurement of several minor and trace elements in human hand bones due to their importance to health. Most of these in vivo measurements have been conducted at a proton beam energy (E(p)) of 2.00 MeV to optimise the activation of the selected element of interest with an effective dose of the same order as that received in chest X rays. However, measurement of other elements at the same facility requires beam energies other than 2.00 MeV. The range of energy of neutrons produced at these proton beam energies comes under the region where tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are known to experience difficulty in assessing the quality factor and dose equivalent. In this study, the response of TEPCs was investigated to determine the quality factor of neutron fields generated via the (7)Li(p, n)(7)Be reaction as a function of E(p) in the range 1.884-2.56 MeV at the position of hand irradiation in the facility. An interesting trend has been observed in the quality factor based on ICRP 60, Q(ICRP60), such that the maximum value was observed at E(p)=1.884 MeV (E(n)=33±16 keV) and then continued to decline with increasing E(p) until achieving a minimum value at E(p)=2.0 MeV despite a continuous increase in the mean neutron energy with E(p). This observation is contrary to what has been observed with direct fast neutrons where the quality factor was found to increase continuously with an increase in E(p) (i.e. increasing E(n)). The series of measurements conducted with thermal and fast neutron fields demonstrate that the (14)N(n, p)(14)C produced 580 keV protons in the detector play an important role in the response of the counter under 2.0 MeV proton energy (E(n) ? 250 keV). In contrast to the lower response of TEPCs to low-energy neutrons, the quality factor is overestimated in the range 1-2 depending on beam energy <2.0 MeV. This study provides an insight to understanding the response of TEPCs in low-energy neutron fields where the neutrons are moderated using a polyethylene moderator. PMID:21183541

Aslam; Waker, A J

2011-02-01

418

Tracing footprints of environmental events in tree ring chemistry using neutron activation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to identify environmental effects on tree-ring chemistry. It is known that industrial pollution, volcanic eruptions, dust storms, acid rain and similar events can cause substantial changes in soil chemistry. Establishing whether a particular group of trees is sensitive to these changes in soil environment and registers them in the elemental chemistry of contemporary growth rings is the over-riding goal of any Dendrochemistry research. In this study, elemental concentrations were measured in tree-ring samples of absolutely dated eleven modern forest trees, grown in the Mediterranean region, Turkey, collected and dated by the Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology laboratory at Cornell University. Correlations between measured elemental concentrations in the tree-ring samples were analyzed using statistical tests to answer two questions. Does the current concentration of a particular element depend on any other element within the tree? And, are there any elements showing correlated abnormal concentration changes across the majority of the trees? Based on the detailed analysis results, the low mobility of sodium and bromine, positive correlations between calcium, zinc and manganese, positive correlations between trace elements lanthanum, samarium, antimony, and gold within tree-rings were recognized. Moreover, zinc, lanthanum, samarium and bromine showed strong, positive correlations among the trees and were identified as possible environmental signature elements. New Dendrochemistry information found in this study would be also useful in explaining tree physiology and elemental chemistry in Pinus nigra species grown in Turkey. Elemental concentrations in tree-ring samples were measured using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC). Through this study, advanced methodologies for methodological, computational and experimental NAA were developed to ensure an acceptable accuracy and certainty in the elemental concentration measurements in tree-ring samples. Two independent analysis methods of NAA were used; the well known k-zero method and a novel method developed in this study, called the Multi-isotope Iterative Westcott (MIW) method. The MIW method uses reaction rate probabilities for a group of isotopes, which can be calculated by a neutronic simulation or measured by experimentation, and determines the representative values for the neutron flux and neutron flux characterization parameters based on Westcott convention. Elemental concentration calculations for standard reference material and tree-ring samples were then performed using the MIW and k-zero analysis methods of the NAA and the results were cross verified. In the computational part of this study, a detailed burnup coupled neutronic simulation was developed to analyze real-time neutronic changes in a TRIGA Mark III reactor core, in this study, the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) core. To the best of the author`s knowledge, this is the first burnup coupled neutronic simulation with realistic time steps and full fuel temperature profile for a TRIGA reactor using Monte Carlo Utility for Reactor Evolutions (MURE) code and Monte Carlo Neutral-Particle Code (MCNP) coupling. High fidelity and flexibility in the simulation was aimed to replicate the real core operation through the day. This approach resulted in an enhanced accuracy in neutronic representation of the PSBR core with respect to previous neutronic simulation models for the PSBR core. An important contribution was made in the NAA experimentation practices employed in Dendrochemistry studies at the RSEC. Automated laboratory control and analysis software for NAA measurements in the RSEC Radionuclide Applications Laboratory was developed. Detailed laboratory procedures were written in this study comprising preparation, handling and measurements of tree-ring samples in the Radionuclide Applications Laboratory.

Sahin, Dagistan

419

Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10-20. The H count rates were roughly 1-3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E.; Paul, R.

2014-02-01

420

Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick  

SciTech Connect

The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., U. of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 (United States); Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20746 (United States); Paul, R. [Chemical Sciences Division, NIST, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States)

2014-02-18

421

Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

2003-08-01

422

A new active method for the measurement of slow-neutron fluence in modern radiotherapy treatment rooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on neutron monitoring at clinical linac facilities during high-energy modality radiotherapy treatments. Active in-room measurement of neutron fluence is a complex problem due to the pulsed nature of the fluence and the presence of high photon background, and only passive methods have been considered reliable until now. In this paper we present a new active method to perform real-time measurement of neutron production around a medical linac. The device readout is being investigated as an estimate of patient neutron dose exposure on each radiotherapy session. The new instrument was developed based on neutron interaction effects in microelectronic memory devices, in particular using neutron-sensitive SRAM devices. This paper is devoted to the description of the instrument and measurement techniques, presenting the results obtained together with their comparison and discussion. Measurements were performed in several standard clinical linac facilities, showing high reliability, being insensitive to the photon fluence and EM pulse present inside the radiotherapy room, and having detector readout statistical relative uncertainties of about 2% on measurement of neutron fluence produced by 1000 monitor units irradiation runs.

Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Sánchez Doblado, F.

2010-02-01

423

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility at ICN-Pitesti  

SciTech Connect

PGNAA is a very widely applicable technique for determining the presence and amount of many elements simultaneously in samples ranging in size from micrograms to many grams. PGNAA is characterized by its capability for nondestructive multi-elemental analysis and its ability to analyse elements that cannot be determined by INAA. By means of this PGNAA method we are able to increase the performance of INAA method. A facility has been developed at Institute for Nuclear Research-Pitesti so that the unique features of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis can be used to measure trace and major elements in samples. The facility is linked at the radial neutron beam tube at ACPR-TRIGA reactor. During the PGNAA-facility is in use the ACPR reactor will be operated in steady-state mode at 250 KW maximum power. The facility consists of a radial beam-port, external sample position with shielding, and induced prompt gamma-ray counting system.Thermal neutron flux with energy lower than cadmium cut-off at the sample position was measured using thin gold foil is: {phi}{sub scd} = 1.10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2}/s with a cadmium ratio of:80.The gamma-ray detection system consist of an HpGe detector of 16% efficiency (detector model GC1518) with 1.85 keV resolution capability. The HpGe is mounted with its axis at 90 deg. with respect to the incident neutron beam at distance about 200mm from the sample position. To establish the performance capabilities of the facility, irradiation of pure element or sample compound standards were performed to identify the gama-ray energies from each element and their count rates.

Barbos, D.; Paunoiu, C.; Mladin, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti-Mioveni, 115400 (Romania); Cosma, C. [University Babes-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca(Romania)

2008-08-14

424

Evaluation of homogeneity of a certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

The homogeneity of the marine reference material TORT-1, a spray-dried and acetone-extracted hepatopancreatic material from the lobster, was tested for 26 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on six analyses on each of six bottles of TORT-1, it was concluded that the between-bottle heterogeneity is no greater than the within-bottle heterogeneity. The analytical results for those elements for which values were provided by NRC agree with the NRC values within 95% confidence limits. 8 references, 6 tables.

Kratochvil, B.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

1986-01-01

425

Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

1984-01-01

426

Simultaneous determination of tantalum and hafnium in silicates by neutron activation analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A neutron activation procedure suitable for the routine determination of tantalum and hafnium in silicates is described. The irradiated sample is fused with sodium peroxide and leached, and the insoluble hydroxides are dissolved in dilute hydrofluoric acid-hydrochloric acid. After LaF3 and AgCl scavenges, tantalum and hafnium are separated by anion exchange. Tantalum is obtained radiochemically pure; 233Pa and 95Zr contaminants in the hafnium fraction are resolved by ??-ray spectrometry. The chemical yield of the procedure is detemined after counting by re-irradiation. Values for the 8 U.S. Geological Survey standard rocks are reported. ?? 1968.

Greenland, L.P.

1968-01-01

427

The 12B counter: an active dosemeter for high-energy neutrons.  

PubMed

High-energy accelerators can produce strong time-structured radiation fields. Such dose shots are generated at linear machines with low duty cycles as well as at circular machines when complete fills are instantaneously lost. The main dose component behind thick shielding is due to high-energy neutrons occurring at that time structure. Dosemeters based on Geiger-Mueller tubes or proportional counters fail here completely. The 12B counter, a novel dosemeter made of a plastic scintillator using carbon activation for event-like exposure, has been introduced. High-energy neutrons activate the carbon nuclei by three inelastic reactions. The decay patterns with half-lives between 20 ms and 20 min can be exploited depending on the time structure of the radiation field. The response of the 12B counter was measured along with some other dosemeters, both active and passive, in the radiation field behind the lateral concrete shielding of a 7.5 GeV proton transfer line. PMID:16604616

Leuschner, A

2005-01-01

428

Development of Active Magnetic Shielding for the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment at TRIUMF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active magnetic shielding has been proposed to provide low-frequency magnetic field stability in the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) experiment planned for TRIUMF. A prototype active magnetic shielding system was constructed and tested at the University of Winnipeg. The system is capable of providing RMS shielding factors > 1000 for magnetic field perturbation frequencies ? 20 mHz, and > 100 for frequencies ? 0.5 Hz, and can reduce magnetic field variations on the order of tens of muT to the level of tens of nT. The achievable shielding factor was limited by the field sampling rate limit of ~400 Hz, and by the background fi eld noise floor of the laboratory. This represents good progress towards the eventual system for nEDM experiments, where low-frequency field drifts on the order of 100 nT require active shielding to the order of 1 nT.

Lang, Michael Loren

429

Determination of 18 trace elements in petroleum and its derivatives by neutron activation with a small nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive neutron activation has been used to analyze 6 different samples of crude oil and heating oil, from Western\\u000a Canada and Venezuela. These samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons for 2, 30 and 240 min in the SLOWPOKE reactor and\\u000a the concentrations of 18 trace and minor elements (Al, As, Br, Cl, Co, Dy, Eu, Fe, I, La, Mn, Mo,

C. Bergerioux; L. Zikovsky

1978-01-01

430

A study of the elemental composition of diabases by instrumental neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the elemental composition was studied mainly for microelements in the diabases of the Pechenga suite subjected\\u000a to various changes. Investigations were conducted by a combination of instrumental neutron activation INAA and X-ray fluoresence\\u000a XRFA analyses. The INAA was conducted with sample weights of 20–100 mg exposed to irradiation in a nuclear reactor by a flux\\u000a of neutrons

A. V. Gurevich; Z. V. Vikhrova; V. Ya Vyropayev; V. I. Drynkin; D. I. Leipunskaya; I. Ya. Shirokova

1980-01-01

431

Applications of Neutron Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miscellaneous applications of low-voltage neutron generators providing 3 and 14 MeV neutrons via the D-D and D-T reactions, respectively, are reviewed. New experimental methods are reported, and emerging applications in the areas of prompt and delayed neutron activation analysis, fast neutron imaging and profiling, irradiation effects, fast neutron radiobiology, and shielding design are highlighted.

Csikai, J.; Dóczi, R.

432

A model of the cosmic ray induced atmospheric neutron environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to optimise the design of space instruments making use of detection materials with low atomic numbers, an understanding of the atmospheric neutron environment and its dependencies on time and position is needed. To produce a simple equation based model, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain the atmospheric neutron fluxes produced by charged galactic cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. Based on the simulation results the omnidirectional neutron environment was parametrized including dependencies on altitude, magnetic latitude and solar activity. The upward- and downward-moving component of the atmospheric neutron flux are considered separately. The energy spectra calculated using these equations were found to be in good agreement with data from a purpose built balloon-borne neutron detector, high altitude aircraft data and previously published simulation based spectra.

Kole, Merlin; Pearce, Mark; Muñoz Salinas, Maria

2015-03-01

433

Summary report for ITER task - D10: Update and implementation of neutron transport and activation codes and processed libraries  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this task is to provide the capabilities in the activation code RACC, to treat pulsed operation mod